WorldWideScience

Sample records for epithelial localization patterns

  1. Non-Eosinophilic Nasal Polyps Shows Increased Epithelial Proliferation and Localized Disease Pattern in the Early Stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Kim

    Full Text Available Non-eosinophilic nasal polyps (NPs show less inflammatory changes and are less commonly associated with lower airway inflammatory disorders such as asthma, compared with eosinophilic NPs. However, the development of non-eosinophilic NPs which is a predominant subtype in Asian population still remains unclear.A total of 81 patients (45 with non-eosinophilic NPs and 36 with eosinophilic NPs were enrolled. Clinical information and computed tomography (CT, endoscopic, and histological findings were investigated. Tissue samples were analyzed for total IgE levels and for mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, interferon (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23p19, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and periostin. Immunostaining assessment of Ki-67 as a proliferation marker was performed.We found that epithelial in-growing patterns such as pseudocysts were more frequently observed in histological and endoscopic evaluations of non-eosinophilic NPs, which was linked to increase epithelial staining of Ki-67, a proliferating marker. Eosinophilic NPs were characterized by high infiltration of inflammatory cells, compared with non-eosinophilic NPs. To investigate the developmental course of each subtype, CT was analyzed according to CT scores and subtypes. Non-eosinophilic NPs showed more localized pattern and maxillary sinus involvement, but lesser olfactory involvement in early stage whereas eosinophilic NPs were characterized by diffuse ethmoidal and olfactory involvement. In addition, high ethmoidal/maxillary (E/M CT scores, indicating ethmoidal dominant involvement, were one of surrogate markers for eosinophilic NP. E/M CT scores was positively correlated with levels of TH2 inflammatory markers, including IL-4, IL-5, periostin mRNA expression and total IgE levels in NPs, whereas levels of the TH1 cytokine, IFN- γ were inversely correlated. Moreover, if the combinatorial algorithm meet the three

  2. Patterning bacterial communities on epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dwidar

    Full Text Available Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions.

  3. Pattern Driven Stress Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Crosby, Alfred

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of patterns from isotropic initial states is a major driver of modern soft-matter research. This avenue of study is directed by the desire to understand the complex physics of the varied structures found in Nature, and by technological interest in functional materials that may be derived through biomimicry. In this work we show how a simple striped phase can respond with significant complexity to an appropriately chosen perturbation. In particular, we show how a buckled elastic plate transitions into a state of stress localization using a simple, self-assembled variation in surface topography. The collection of topographic boundaries act in concert to change the state from isotropic sinusoidal wrinkles, to sharp folds or creases separated by relatively flat regions. By varying the size of the imposed topographic pattern or the wavelength of the wrinkles, we construct a state diagram of the system. The localized state has implications for both biological systems, and for the control of non-linear pattern formation.

  4. α-Crystallin localizes to the leading edges of migrating lens epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddala, Rupalatha; Vasantha Rao, P.

    2005-01-01

    α-crystallin (αA and αB) is a major lens protein, which belongs to the small heat-shock family of proteins and binds to various cytoskeletal proteins including actin, vimentin and desmin. In this study, we investigated the cellular localization of αA and αB-crystallins in migrating epithelial cells isolated from porcine lens. Immunofluorescence localization and confocal imaging of αB-crystallin in confluent and in migrating subconfluent cell cultures revealed a distinct pattern of subcellular distribution. While αB-crystallin localization was predominantly cytoplasmic in confluent cultures, it was strongly localized to the leading edges of cell membrane or the lamellipodia in migrating cells. In accordance with this pattern, we found abundant levels of αB-crystallin in membrane fractions compared to cytosolic and nuclear fractions in migrating lens epithelial cells. αA-crystallin, which has 60% sequence identity to αB-crystallin, also exhibited a distribution profile localizing to the leading edge of the cell membrane in migrating lens epithelial cells. Localization of αB-crystallin to the lamellipodia appears to be dependent on phosphorylation of residue serine-59. An inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase (SB202190), but not the ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059, was found to diminish localization of αB-crystallin to the lamellipodia, and this effect was found to be associated with reduced levels of Serine-59 phosphorylated αB-crystallin in SB202190-treated migrating lens epithelial cells. αB-crystallin localization to the lamellipodia was also altered by the treatment with RGD (Arg-Ala-Asp) peptide, dominant negative N17 Rac1 GTPase, cytochalasin D and Src kinase inhibitor (PP2), but not by the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 or the myosin II inhibitor, blebbistatin. Additionally, in migrating lens epithelial cells, αB-crystallin exhibited a clear co-localization with the actin meshwork, β-catenin, WAVE-1, a promoter of actin nucleation, Abi-2, a component of WAVE

  5. Expression patterns of emmprin and monocarboxylate transporter-1 in ovarian epithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Miyoko; Hamasaki, Makoto; Koga, Kaori; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Mikiko; Kawarabayashi, Tatsuhiko; Miyamoto, Shingo; Nabeshima, Kazuki

    2012-10-01

    Emmprin is a transmembrane glycoprotein known as a matrix metalloproteinase inducer and is highly up-regulated in malignant cancer cells. The monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are responsible for H(+)-linked transport of monocarboxylates across the cell membrane. It was recently demonstrated that proper plasma membrane localization and activity of MCTs require the presence of emmprin as a chaperone and that MCT-1 also acts as chaperone for emmprin. The objectives of this study were to clarify emmprin and MCT-1 expression patterns in ovarian epithelial tumors and to elucidate the clinicopathological significance of co-localization of the two molecules. Immunohistochemical analysis of 205 epithelial tumors indicated that emmprin is always localized in cell membranes but its distribution differs according to tumor type: in lateral membranes in 89 % of adenomas, in lateral and basal membranes in 76 % of borderline tumors, and in membranes surrounding the entire cell in 98 % of carcinomas. Most carcinomas in situ also showed a lateral and basal expression pattern. In only 21 % of the carcinomas, the cells expressing membranous MCT-1 showed co-localized emmprin expression. Poor co-localization of the two molecules was more frequently found in serous carcinomas. However, the overall survival was not significantly different for the good and poor co-localization carcinoma groups. These findings indicate that the emmprin expression pattern might discriminate between invasive carcinomas and borderline tumors including carcinoma in situ. Moreover, there may be an as yet unidentified regulatory mechanism(s), for localization of MCT-1 and emmprin in cell membranes in vivo.

  6. Long-lived force patterns and deformation waves at repulsive epithelial boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Franco, Pilar; Brugués, Agustí; Marín-Llauradó, Ariadna; Conte, Vito; Solanas, Guiomar; Batlle, Eduard; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Sunyer, Raimon; Trepat, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    For an organism to develop and maintain homeostasis, cell types with distinct functions must often be separated by physical boundaries. The formation and maintenance of such boundaries are commonly attributed to mechanisms restricted to the cells lining the boundary. Here we show that, besides these local subcellular mechanisms, the formation and maintenance of tissue boundaries involves long-lived, long-ranged mechanical events. Following contact between two epithelial monolayers expressing, respectively, EphB2 and its ligand ephrinB1, both monolayers exhibit oscillatory patterns of traction forces and intercellular stresses that tend to pull cell-matrix adhesions away from the boundary. With time, monolayers jam, accompanied by the emergence of deformation waves that propagate away from the boundary. This phenomenon is not specific to EphB2/ephrinB1 repulsion but is also present during the formation of boundaries with an inert interface and during fusion of homotypic epithelial layers. Our findings thus unveil a global physical mechanism that sustains tissue separation independently of the biochemical and mechanical features of the local tissue boundary.

  7. Patterning pentacene surfaces by local oxidation nanolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losilla, N.S.; Martinez, J.; Bystrenova, E.; Greco, P.; Biscarini, F.; Garcia, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sequential and parallel local oxidation nanolithographies have been applied to pattern pentacene samples by creating a variety of nanostructures. The sequential local oxidation process is performed with an atomic force microscope and requires the application of a sequence of voltage pulses of 36 V for 1 ms. The parallel local oxidation process is performed by using a conductive and patterned stamp. Then, a voltage pulse is applied between the stamp and the pentacene surface. Patterns formed by arrays of parallel lines covering 1 mm 2 regions and with a periodicity of less than 1 μm have been generated in a few seconds. We also show that the patterns can be used as templates for the deposition of antibodies.

  8. Climatology of local flow patterns around Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Recently a method has been developed to classify local-scale flow patterns from the wind measurements at a dense network of stations. It was found that in the MISTRAL area around Basel a dozen characteristic flow patterns occur. However, as the dense network of stations ran only during one year, no reliable climatology can be inferred from these data, especially the annual cycle of the flow patterns is not well determined from a single year of observations. As there exist several routinely operated stations in and near the MISTRAL area, a method was searched to identify the local flow patterns from the observations at the few routine stations. A linear discriminant analysis turned out to be the best method. Based of data from 11 stations which were simultaneously operated during 1990-1995 a six-year climatology of the flow patterns could be obtained. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  9. Subcellular localization of YKL-40 in normal and malignant epithelial cells of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslind, A.; Balslev, E.; Kruse, H.

    2008-01-01

    . YKL-40 protein expression was redistributed in carcinoma versus normal glandular tissue of the breast. A reduced expression of YKL-40 in relation to intermediate filaments and desmosomes was found in tumor cells. Changes in YKL-40 expression suggest that the function of YKL-40 in cells of epithelial......YKL-40 is a new prognostic biomarker in cancer. The biological function is only poorly understood. This study aimed at determining the subcellular localization of YKL-40, using immunogold labeling, in normal epithelial cells and in malignant tumor cells of the breast by immunoelectron microscopy...

  10. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    Statistical density modification can make use of local patterns of density found in protein structures to improve crystallographic phases. A method for improving crystallographic phases is presented that is based on the preferential occurrence of certain local patterns of electron density in macromolecular electron-density maps. The method focuses on the relationship between the value of electron density at a point in the map and the pattern of density surrounding this point. Patterns of density that can be superimposed by rotation about the central point are considered equivalent. Standard templates are created from experimental or model electron-density maps by clustering and averaging local patterns of electron density. The clustering is based on correlation coefficients after rotation to maximize the correlation. Experimental or model maps are also used to create histograms relating the value of electron density at the central point to the correlation coefficient of the density surrounding this point with each member of the set of standard patterns. These histograms are then used to estimate the electron density at each point in a new experimental electron-density map using the pattern of electron density at points surrounding that point and the correlation coefficient of this density to each of the set of standard templates, again after rotation to maximize the correlation. The method is strengthened by excluding any information from the point in question from both the templates and the local pattern of density in the calculation. A function based on the origin of the Patterson function is used to remove information about the electron density at the point in question from nearby electron density. This allows an estimation of the electron density at each point in a map, using only information from other points in the process. The resulting estimates of electron density are shown to have errors that are nearly independent of the errors in the original map using

  11. Oesophageal epithelial cell proliferation and food consumption patterns following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burholt, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The murine data presented illustrate the influence of food consumption on the proliferative rate of the oesophageal epithelium during recovery from radiation damage. Refeeding at a time before the initiation of the normal hyperplastic response results in a decreased time interval between treatment and increased rates of cell proliferation, while reduced food consumption during the normal period of hyperproliferation results in reduced proliferative activity. The finding that recovery kinetics may be altered by changing food consumption patterns should be an important consideration in the analysis of antineoplastic agent-induced proliferative perturbations, as many treatments themselves produce reduced levels of food consumption. (UK)

  12. Patterns of Adherence of Helicobacter pylori Clinical Isolates to Epithelial Cells, and its Association with Disease and with Virulence Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Jiménez, Flor Elizabeth; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Cerezo, Silvia Giono; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    Adherence to the gastric epithelium is one of the most important steps of Helicobacter pylori to remain and cause disease. The aim of this study was to analyze whether H. pylori isolates from patients with different gastroduodenal diseases present differences in the pattern of adherence to gastric epithelial cells (AGS), in the ability to induce IL-8, and in the presence of virulence genes. We tested 75 H. pylori strains isolated from nonatrophic gastritis, gastric cancer, and duodenal ulcer patients. The adhesion pattern and IL-8 induction were determined in AGS cells, and invasion of AGS cells was studied using a gentamicin protection assay. The IL-8 levels induced were determined by ELISA. Helicobacter pylori strains presented diffuse adherence (DA) and localized (LA) adherence patterns, similar to those described for enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), were observed in AGS cells. A DA pattern was observed in 57% and LA in 43% of the strains, and DA was more frequent in isolates from patients with gastric cancer (p = 0.044). Strains with a LA pattern induced higher levels of IL-8 (p = 0.042) in AGS cells. The adherence pattern was not associated with neither invasiveness nor with the presence of virulence genes. Our study shows that H. pylori strains present adherence patterns to AGS cells resembling those observed in EPEC and that these patterns may be associated with disease and with activity on AGS cells. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Expression of Pattern Recognition Receptors in Epithelial Cells Around Clinically Healthy Implants and Healthy Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcaterra, Roberta; Di Girolamo, Michele; Mirisola, Concetta; Baggi, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    Gingival epithelial cells have a pivotal role in the recognition of microorganisms and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules and in the regulation of the immune response. The investigation of the behavior of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) like receptors (NLRs) around a healthy implant may help to address the first step of periimplantitis pathogenesis. To investigate by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expressions of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3 from gingival epithelial cells of the sulcus around healthy implants and around healthy teeth. Two types of implant-abutment systems with tube-in-tube interface were tested. After 6 months of implant restoration, gingival epithelial cells were obtained from the gingival sulcus around the implants and around the adjacent teeth of 10 patients. Our results did not reach statistical significance among the mRNA expressions of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3 in epithelial cells around the implant versus around natural teeth. This study shows that the implant-abutment systems tested did not induce an immune response by the surrounding epithelial cells at 6 months since their positioning, as well as in the adjacent clincally healthy teeth.

  14. Localized States in Physics: Solitons and Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Descalzi, Orazio; Residori, Stefania; Assanto, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Systems driven far from thermodynamic equilibrium can create dissipative structures through the spontaneous breaking of symmetries. A particularly fascinating feature of these pattern-forming systems is their tendency to produce spatially confined states. These localized wave packets can exist as propagating entities through space and/or time. Various examples of such systems will be dealt with in this book, including localized states in fluids, chemical reactions on surfaces, neural networks, optical systems, granular systems, population models, and Bose-Einstein condensates.This book should appeal to all physicists, mathematicians and electrical engineers interested in localization in far-from-equilibrium systems. The authors - all recognized experts in their fields - strive to achieve a balance between theoretical and experimental considerations thereby giving an overview of fascinating physical principles, their manifestations in diverse systems, and the novel technical applications on the horizon.

  15. Computer Vision Using Local Binary Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pietikainen, Matti; Zhao, Guoying; Ahonen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The recent emergence of Local Binary Patterns (LBP) has led to significant progress in applying texture methods to various computer vision problems and applications. The focus of this research has broadened from 2D textures to 3D textures and spatiotemporal (dynamic) textures. Also, where texture was once utilized for applications such as remote sensing, industrial inspection and biomedical image analysis, the introduction of LBP-based approaches have provided outstanding results in problems relating to face and activity analysis, with future scope for face and facial expression recognition, b

  16. High levels of xanthine oxidoreductase in rat endothelial, epithelial and connective tissue cells. A relation between localization and function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Bosch, K. S.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity was investigated in unfixed cryostat sections of various rat tissues by an enzyme histochemical method which specifically demonstrates both the dehydrogenase and oxidase forms of xanthine oxidoreductase. High activity was found in epithelial cells

  17. Local binary patterns new variants and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces Local Binary Patterns (LBP), arguably one of the most powerful texture descriptors, and LBP variants. This volume provides the latest reviews of the literature and a presentation of some of the best LBP variants by researchers at the forefront of textual analysis research and research on LBP descriptors and variants. The value of LBP variants is illustrated with reported experiments using many databases representing a diversity of computer vision applications in medicine, biometrics, and other areas. There is also a chapter that provides an excellent theoretical foundation for texture analysis and LBP in particular. A special section focuses on LBP and LBP variants in the area of face recognition, including thermal face recognition. This book will be of value to anyone already in the field as well as to those interested in learning more about this powerful family of texture descriptors.

  18. Epithelial and Mesenchymal Tumor Compartments Exhibit In Vivo Complementary Patterns of Vascular Perfusion and Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Galiè

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose transport and consumption are increased in tumors, and this is considered a diagnostic index of malignancy. However, there is recent evidence that carcinoma-associated stromal cells are capable of aerobic metabolism with low glucose consumption, at least partly because of their efficient vascular supply. In the present study, using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET, we mapped in vivo the vascular supply and glucose metabolism in syngeneic experimental models of carcinoma and mesenchymal tumor. We found that in both tumor histotypes, regions with high vascular perfusion exhibited a significantly lower FDG uptake. This reciprocity was more conspicuous in carcinomas than in mesenchymal tumors, and regions with a high-vascular/low-FDG uptake pattern roughly overlapped with a stromal capsule and intratumoral large connectival septa. Accordingly, mesenchymal tumors exhibited a higher vascular perfusion and a lower FDG uptake than carcinomas. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence of vascular/metabolic reciprocity between epithelial and mesenchymal histotypes in tumors, suggesting a new intriguing aspect of epithelial-stromal interaction. Our results suggests that FDG-PET-based clinical analysis can underestimate the malignity or tumor extension of carcinomas exhibiting any trait of “mesenchymalization” such as desmoplasia or epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  19. Demographic and histopathological patterns of neuro-epithelial brain tumors in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud S; Almsned, Fahad M; Hassen, Mohammed A; Atean, Ibrahim M; Alwbari, Ahmed M; Alharbi, Qasim K; Abdulkader, Marwah M; Almuhaish, Husam S

    2018-01-01

    To review the demographic and pathological pattern of neuro-epithelial brain tumors in a tertiary referral center in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and to compare the results of our study with other national and international studies. This is a retrospective chart-review study of all patients with neuro-epithelial brain tumors referred and treated in our center between January 2010 and January 2015. The age, gender, tumor location, and histopathology were recorded. The total number of cases was 149 including 96 adult cases and 53 pediatric cases. 58% of cases were male, and 42% were female. The age group distribution showed 2 peaks; one in the first 5 years of life and the second was in the age range from 26-45 years old. Glioblastoma multiforme was the most common pathological type (32%), followed by medulloblastoma (13.3%). This study showed similar results to a previous study conducted in the Eastern Province in terms of age and gender distribution, but pathologically, the tumors diagnosed in our study were generally of a higher grading. When comparing our results to other international studies in nearby countries (Jordan and Egypt), we found similarities in pathological patterns and age distribution. However, when comparing our results to a western country (USA), we found considerable differences in the age group distribution. Neuro-epithelial brain tumors in Saudi Arabia affect younger population according to our study compared to Western countries. These findings are similar to other studies from Middle Eastern countries. In addition, our study showed a significant increase in high grade gliomas in the Eastern Province compared to an old historical study. This increase should be interpreted cautiously due to possible selection errors, changes in pathological grading, and expertise.

  20. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  1. Gene expression patterns induced at different stages of rhinovirus infection in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Etemadi

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (HRV is the common virus that causes acute respiratory infection (ARI and is frequently associated with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs. We aimed to investigate whether HRV infection induces a specific gene expression pattern in airway epithelial cells. Alveolar epithelial cell monolayers were infected with HRV species B (HRV-B. RNA was extracted from both supernatants and infected monolayer cells at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post infection (hpi and transcriptional profile was analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip and the results were subsequently validated using quantitative Real-time PCR method. HRV-B infects alveolar epithelial cells which supports implication of the virus with LRTIs. In total 991 genes were found differentially expressed during the course of infection. Of these, 459 genes were up-regulated whereas 532 genes were down-regulated. Differential gene expression at 6 hpi (187 genes up-regulated vs. 156 down-regulated were significantly represented by gene ontologies related to the chemokines and inflammatory molecules indicating characteristic of viral infection. The 75 up-regulated genes surpassed the down-regulated genes (35 at 12 hpi and their enriched ontologies fell into discrete functional entities such as regulation of apoptosis, anti-apoptosis, and wound healing. At later time points of 24 and 48 hpi, predominated down-regulated genes were enriched for extracellular matrix proteins and airway remodeling events. Our data provides a comprehensive image of host response to HRV infection. The study suggests the underlying molecular regulatory networks genes which might be involved in pathogenicity of the HRV-B and potential targets for further validations and development of effective treatment.

  2. Common and distinctive localization patterns of Crumbs polarity complex proteins in the mammalian eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Song, Ji Yun; Karnam, Santi; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Jamie J H; Kim, Seonhee; Cho, Seo-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Crumbs polarity complex proteins are essential for cellular and tissue polarity, and for adhesion of epithelial cells. In epithelial tissues deletion of any of three core proteins disrupts localization of the other proteins, indicating structural and functional interdependence among core components. Despite previous studies of function and co-localization that illustrated the properties that these proteins share, it is not known whether an individual component of the complex plays a distinct role in a unique cellular and developmental context. In order to investigate this question, we primarily used confocal imaging to determine the expression and subcellular localization of the core Crumbs polarity complex proteins during ocular development. Here we show that in developing ocular tissues core Crumbs polarity complex proteins, Crb, Pals1 and Patj, generally appear in an overlapping pattern with some exceptions. All three core complex proteins localize to the apical junction of the retinal and lens epithelia. Pals1 is also localized in the Golgi of the retinal cells and Patj localizes to the nuclei of the apically located subset of progenitor cells. These findings suggest that core Crumbs polarity complex proteins exert common and independent functions depending on cellular context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human mammary epithelial cells exhibit a bimodal correlated random walk pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Alka A; Jeon, Junhwan; Weaver, Alissa M; Quaranta, Vito; Cummings, Peter T

    2010-03-10

    Organisms, at scales ranging from unicellular to mammals, have been known to exhibit foraging behavior described by random walks whose segments confirm to Lévy or exponential distributions. For the first time, we present evidence that single cells (mammary epithelial cells) that exist in multi-cellular organisms (humans) follow a bimodal correlated random walk (BCRW). Cellular tracks of MCF-10A pBabe, neuN and neuT random migration on 2-D plastic substrates, analyzed using bimodal analysis, were found to reveal the BCRW pattern. We find two types of exponentially distributed correlated flights (corresponding to what we refer to as the directional and re-orientation phases) each having its own correlation between move step-lengths within flights. The exponential distribution of flight lengths was confirmed using different analysis methods (logarithmic binning with normalization, survival frequency plots and maximum likelihood estimation). Because of the presence of non-uniform turn angle distribution of move step-lengths within a flight and two different types of flights, we propose that the epithelial random walk is a BCRW comprising of two alternating modes with varying degree of correlations, rather than a simple persistent random walk. A BCRW model rather than a simple persistent random walk correctly matches the super-diffusivity in the cell migration paths as indicated by simulations based on the BCRW model.

  4. Human mammary epithelial cells exhibit a bimodal correlated random walk pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka A Potdar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organisms, at scales ranging from unicellular to mammals, have been known to exhibit foraging behavior described by random walks whose segments confirm to Lévy or exponential distributions. For the first time, we present evidence that single cells (mammary epithelial cells that exist in multi-cellular organisms (humans follow a bimodal correlated random walk (BCRW.Cellular tracks of MCF-10A pBabe, neuN and neuT random migration on 2-D plastic substrates, analyzed using bimodal analysis, were found to reveal the BCRW pattern. We find two types of exponentially distributed correlated flights (corresponding to what we refer to as the directional and re-orientation phases each having its own correlation between move step-lengths within flights. The exponential distribution of flight lengths was confirmed using different analysis methods (logarithmic binning with normalization, survival frequency plots and maximum likelihood estimation.Because of the presence of non-uniform turn angle distribution of move step-lengths within a flight and two different types of flights, we propose that the epithelial random walk is a BCRW comprising of two alternating modes with varying degree of correlations, rather than a simple persistent random walk. A BCRW model rather than a simple persistent random walk correctly matches the super-diffusivity in the cell migration paths as indicated by simulations based on the BCRW model.

  5. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Affendi Rosdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP.

  6. Finger vein recognition using local line binary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP).

  7. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP). PMID:22247670

  8. Altered expression pattern of circular RNAs in primary and metastatic sites of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ikhlak; Karedath, Thasni; Andrews, Simeon S; Al-Azwani, Iman K; Mohamoud, Yasmin Ali; Querleu, Denis; Rafii, Arash; Malek, Joel A

    2016-06-14

    Recently, a class of endogenous species of RNA called circular RNA (circRNA) has been shown to regulate gene expression in mammals and their role in cellular function is just beginning to be understood. To investigate the role of circRNAs in ovarian cancer, we performed paired-end RNA sequencing of primary sites, peritoneal and lymph node metastases from three patients with stage IIIC ovarian cancer. We developed an in-house computational pipeline to identify and characterize the circRNA expression from paired-end RNA-Seq libraries. This pipeline revealed thousands of circular isoforms in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma (EOC). These circRNAs are enriched for potentially effective miRNA seed matches. A significantly larger number of circRNAs are differentially expressed between tumor sites than mRNAs. Circular and linear expression exhibits an inverse trend for many cancer related pathways and signaling pathways like NFkB, PI3k/AKT and TGF-β typically activated for mRNA in metastases are inhibited for circRNA expression. Further, circRNAs show a more robust expression pattern across patients than mRNA forms indicating their suitability as biomarkers in highly heterogeneous cancer transcriptomes. The consistency of circular RNA expression may offer new candidates for cancer treatment and prognosis.

  9. Common histological patterns in glomerular epithelial cells in secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppe, Christoph; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Ostendorf, Tammo; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Boor, Peter; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart; Moeller, Marcus J

    2015-11-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are involved in the development of sclerotic lesions in primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here, the role of PECs was explored in the more common secondary FSGS lesions in 68 patient biopsies, diagnosed with 11 different frequently or rarely encountered glomerular pathologies and additional secondary FSGS lesions. For each biopsy, one section was quadruple stained for PECs (ANXA3), podocytes (synaptopodin), PEC matrix (LKIV69), and Hoechst (nuclei), and a second was quadruple stained for activated PECs (CD44 and cytokeratin-19), PEC matrix, and nuclei. In all lesions, cellular adhesions (synechiae) between Bowman's capsule and the tuft were formed by cells expressing podocyte and/or PEC markers. Cells expressing PEC markers were detected in all FSGS lesions independent of the underlying glomerular disease and often stained positive for markers of activation. Small FSGS lesions, which were hardly identified on PAS sections previously, were detectable by immunofluorescent staining using PEC markers, potentially improving the diagnostic sensitivity to identify these lesions. Thus, similar patterns of cells expressing podocyte and/or PEC markers were found in the formation of secondary FSGS lesions independent of the underlying glomerular disease. Hence, our findings support the hypothesis that FSGS lesions follow a final cellular pathway to nephron loss that includes involvement of cells expressing PEC markers.

  10. HER/ErbB Receptor Interactions and Signaling Patterns in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi; Opresko, Lee K.; Shankaran, Harish; Chrisler, William B.; Wiley, H. S.; Resat, Haluk

    2009-10-31

    Knowledge about signaling pathways is typically compiled based on data gathered using different cell lines. This approach implicitly assumes that cell line dependence is not important, which can be misleading because different cell lines do not always respond to a particular stimulus in the same way. The lack of coherent data collected from closely related cellular systems can be detrimental to the efforts to understand the regulation of biological processes. In this study, we report the development of a library of human mammary epithelial (HME) cell lines which express endogenous levels of the cell surface receptor EGFR/HER1, and different levels of HER2 and HER3. Using our clone library, we have quantified the interactions among the HER1-3 receptors and systematically investigated the existing hypotheses about their interaction patterns. Contrary to earlier suggestions, we find that lateral interactions with HER2 do not lead to strong transactivation between EGFR and HER3. Our study identified HER2 as the dominant dimerization partner for both EGFR and HER3, and revealed that EGFR and HER3 activations are only weakly linked in HME cells. We have also quantified the time-dependent activation patterns of the downstream effectors Erk and Akt. We found that HER3 signaling makes the strongest contribution to Akt activation and that, stimulation of either EGFR or HER3 pathways activate Erk at significant levels. Our study shows that cell libraries formed from closely related clones can be a powerful resource for pursuing the quantitative investigations that are necessary for developing a systems level understanding of cell signaling.

  11. Localized magnetic fields in arbitrary directions using patterned nanomagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeil, Robert P G; Schneble, Jeff; Kataoka, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Control of the local magnetic fields desirable for spintronics and quantum information technology is not well developed. Existing methods produce either moderately small local fields or one held orientation. We present designs of patterned magnetic elements that produce remanent fields of 50 mT (...

  12. Simple and complex hyperplastic papillary proliferations of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of nine cases of apparently localized papillary lesions with fibrovascular stromal cores and epithelial metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, M B; Hart, W R

    2001-11-01

    therapeutic procedures. One patient was a recent case. Of the three patients with intact uteri and appreciable follow-up, all were alive and well at 14, 96, and 102 months, respectively. We conclude that these papillary proliferations are a form of hyperplasia that is closely associated with endometrial epithelial metaplasia. Polypectomy and/or curettage may be effective in removing them because they often are localized lesions. Although all of our patients had an uneventful outcome, the number of cases is small. Our findings question the validity of diagnosing endometrial lesions as well-differentiated carcinoma solely because of a complex papillary architectural pattern.

  13. Bilge dump detection from SAR imagery using local binary patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, LW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 2015: Remote Sensing: Understanding the Earth for a Safer World, Milan, Italy, 26-31 July 2015 Bilge dump detection from SAR imagery using local binary patterns yz L.W. Mdakane,yz W. Kleynhans,yz C.P. Schwegmann yDepartment of Electrical...

  14. Short local descriptors from 2D connected pattern spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosilj, Petra; Kijak, Ewa; Wilkinson, Michael H. F.; Lefèvre, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    We propose a local region descriptor based on connected pattern spectra, and combined with normalized central moments. The descriptors are calculated for MSER regions of the image, and their performance compared against SIFT. The MSER regions were chosen because they can be efficiently selected by

  15. Localization Using Magnetic Patterns for Autonomous Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Suk You

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method of localization using magnetic landmarks. With this method, it is possible to compensate the pose error (xe, ye, θe of a mobile robot correctly and localize its current position on a global coordinate system on the surface of a structured environment with magnetic landmarks. A set of four magnetic bars forms total six different patterns of landmarks and these patterns can be read by the mobile robot with magnetic hall sensors. A sequential motion strategy for a mobile robot is proposed to find the geometric center of magnetic landmarks by reading the nonlinear magnetic field. The mobile robot first moves into the center region of the landmark where it can read the magnetic pattern, after which tracking and global localization can be easily achieved by recognizing the patterns of neighboring landmarks. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the sequential motion strategy for estimating the center of the first encountered landmark as well as the performance of tracking and global localization of the proposed system.

  16. Coherent patterning of matter waves with subwavelength localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mompart, J.; Ahufinger, V.; Birkl, G.

    2009-01-01

    We propose the subwavelength localization via adiabatic passage (SLAP) technique to coherently achieve state-selective patterning of matter waves well beyond the diffraction limit. The SLAP technique consists in coupling two partially overlapping and spatially structured laser fields to three internal levels of the matter wave yielding state-selective localization at those positions where the adiabatic passage process does not occur. We show that by means of this technique matter wave localization down to the single nanometer scale can be achieved. We analyze in detail the potential implementation of the SLAP technique for nanolithography with an atomic beam of metastable Ne* and for coherent patterning of a two-component 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate.

  17. Common histological patterns in glomerular epithelial cells in secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppe, C.; Grone, H.J.; Ostendorf, T.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Boor, P.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are involved in the development of sclerotic lesions in primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here, the role of PECs was explored in the more common secondary FSGS lesions in 68 patient biopsies, diagnosed with 11 different frequently or rarely

  18. Face Liveness Detection Using Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Parveen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Face spoofing is considered to be one of the prominent threats to face recognition systems. However, in order to improve the security measures of such biometric systems against deliberate spoof attacks, liveness detection has received significant recent attention from researchers. For this purpose, analysis of facial skin texture properties becomes more popular because of its limited resource requirement and lower processing cost. The traditional method of skin analysis for liveness detection was to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP and its variants. LBP descriptors are effective, but they may exhibit certain limitations in near uniform patterns. Thus, in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Local Ternary Pattern (LTP as an alternative to LBP. In addition, we adopted Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP, which eliminates the manual threshold setting in LTP by using Weber’s law. The proposed method was tested rigorously on four facial spoof databases: three are public domain databases and the other is the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM face spoof database, which was compiled through this study. The results obtained from the proposed DLTP texture descriptor attained optimum accuracy and clearly outperformed the reported LBP and LTP texture descriptors.

  19. Carbon-ion radiotherapy for locally advanced primary or postoperative recurrent epithelial carcinoma of the lacrimal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Nobutaka; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Toyama, Shingo; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nakayama, Yuko; Mizota, Atsushi; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the applicability of carbon ion beams for the treatment of carcinoma of the lacrimal gland with regard to normal tissue morbidity and local tumor control. Methods and materials: Between April 2002 and January 2011, 21 patients with locally advanced primary epithelial carcinoma of the lacrimal gland were enrolled in a Phase I/II clinical trial of carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Acute radiation toxicity was the primary endpoint of this dose-escalation study and the late toxicity, local control, and overall survival were additionally evaluated as secondary endpoints. Of the 21 subjects enrolled, all patients were followed for more than 6 months and analyzed. Results: The radiation dose was increased from the initial dose of 48.0 Gy equivalents (GyE)/12 fractions at 10% increments up to 52.8 GyE. Of the 21 patients, five received a total dose of 48.0 GyE, and 16 received a total dose of 52.8 GyE. No patient developed grade 3 or higher skin toxicity. As late ocular/visual toxicity, three patients had grade 3 retinopathy and seven patients lost their vision. Among the 10 patients treated until May 2005, five patients had local recurrence, three of whom had marginal recurrence. Therefore, the margin for the CTV (clinical target volume) was set to a range according to the orbital exenteration since June 2005. After the application of the extended margin, no local recurrence has been observed. The three-year overall survival and local control rates were 82.2% and 79.0%, respectively. Conclusion: CIRT can be applied for primary epithelial carcinoma of the lacrimal gland, with a borderline acceptable morbidity and sufficient antitumor effect when an extended margin is adopted

  20. Compressed multi-block local binary pattern for object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianwen; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Both robustness and real-time are very important for the application of object tracking under a real environment. The focused trackers based on deep learning are difficult to satisfy with the real-time of tracking. Compressive sensing provided a technical support for real-time tracking. In this paper, an object can be tracked via a multi-block local binary pattern feature. The feature vector was extracted based on the multi-block local binary pattern feature, which was compressed via a sparse random Gaussian matrix as the measurement matrix. The experiments showed that the proposed tracker ran in real-time and outperformed the existed compressive trackers based on Haar-like feature on many challenging video sequences in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  1. Onset patterns in a simple model of localized parametric forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J; Tinao, I; Laverón-Simavilla, A; Rodríguez, J

    2013-10-01

    We investigate pattern selection at onset in a parametrically and inhomogeneously forced partial differential equation obtained by generalizing Mathieu's equation to include spatial interactions. No separation of scales is assumed. The proposed model is directly relevant to the case of parametrically forced surface waves, such as cross-waves, excited by the horizontal vibration of a fluid, where the forcing is localized to a finite region near the endwall or wavemaker. The availability of analytical solutions in the limit of piecewise constant forcing allows us investigate in detail the dependence of selected eigenfunctions on spatial detuning, forcing width, damping, boundary conditions, and container size. A wide range of onset patterns are located and described, many of which are rotated, modulated, or both, and deviate far from simple crosswise oriented standing waves. The linear selection mechanisms governing this multiplicity of potential onset patterns are discussed.

  2. Specific and Complete Local Integration of Patterns in Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Biehl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a first formal analysis of specific and complete local integration. Complete local integration was previously proposed as a criterion for detecting entities or wholes in distributed dynamical systems. Such entities in turn were conceived to form the basis of a theory of emergence of agents within dynamical systems. Here, we give a more thorough account of the underlying formal measures. The main contribution is the disintegration theorem which reveals a special role of completely locally integrated patterns (what we call ι-entities within the trajectories they occur in. Apart from proving this theorem we introduce the disintegration hierarchy and its refinement-free version as a way to structure the patterns in a trajectory. Furthermore, we construct the least upper bound and provide a candidate for the greatest lower bound of specific local integration. Finally, we calculate the ι -entities in small example systems as a first sanity check and find that ι -entities largely fulfil simple expectations.

  3. Immunohistochemical Localization of Fibrinogen C Domain Containing 1 on Epithelial and Mucosal Surfaces in Human Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Huth, Sebastian; Moeller, Jesper B; Schlosser, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Fibrinogen C domain containing 1 (FIBCD1) is a transmembrane receptor that binds chitin and other acetylated compounds with high affinity. FIBCD1 has previously been shown to be present in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we performed a detailed analysis...... high expression of FIBCD1 and also mesodermal-derived cells in the genitourinary system and ectodermal-derived epidermis and sebaceous glands cells expressed FIBCD1. In some columnar epithelial cells, for example, in the salivary gland and gall bladder, the FIBCD1 expression was clearly polarized...

  4. Glucose metabolite patterns as markers of functional differentiation in freshly isolated and cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the mammary gland of non-ruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lacation. By measuring the incorporation of glucose carbon from [U- 14 C]glucose into intermediary metabolitees and metabolic products in mammary epithelia cells from virgin, pregnant, and lacating mice, we domonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate are important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells isolated from pregnant mice and cultured on collagen gels have a pattern similar to that of their freshly isolated counter-parts. When isolated from lacating mice, the metabolite patterns of cells cultured on collagen gels are different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state

  5. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.facchinetti@hslu.ch; Sulzer, Sabine [Lucerne Competence Center for Energy Research, Lucerne University of Applied Science and Arts, Horw (Switzerland)

    2016-03-03

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  6. General Business Model Patterns for Local Energy Management Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Sulzer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The transition toward a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered, and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed, and compared. Through a market review, a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  7. Lipidomic approach to identify patterns in phospholipid profiles and define class differences in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, M Luísa; Cotrim, Zita; Macedo, Bárbara; Simões, Cláudia; Domingues, Pedro; Helguero, Luisa; Domingues, M Rosário

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Altered cellular functions of cancer cells lead to uncontrolled cellular growth and morphological changes. Cellular biomembranes are intimately involved in the regulation of cell signaling; however, they remain largely understudied. Phospholipids (PLs) are the main constituents of biological membranes and play important functional, structural and metabolic roles. The aim of this study was to establish if patterns in the PL profiles of mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells differ in relation to degree of differentiation and metastatic potential. For this purpose, PLs were analyzed using a lipidomic approach. In brief, PLs were extracted using Bligh and Dyer method, followed by a separation of PL classes by thin layer chromatography, and subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). Differences and similarities were found in the relative levels of PL content between mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells and between breast cancer cells with different levels of aggressiveness. When compared to the total PL content, phosphatidylcholine levels were reduced and lysophosphatydilcholines increased in the more aggressive cancer cells; while phosphatidylserine levels remained unchanged. MS analysis showed alterations in the classes of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylinositides. In particular, the phosphatidylinositides, which are signaling molecules that affect proliferation, survival, and migration, showed dramatic alterations in their profile, where an increase of phosphatdylinositides saturated fatty acids chains and a decrease in C20 fatty acids in cancer cells compared with mammary epithelial cells was observed. At present, information about PL changes in cancer progression is lacking. Therefore, these data will be useful as a starting point to define possible PLs with prospective as biomarkers and disclose metabolic pathways with potential

  8. Claudin-4 Undergoes Age-Dependent Change in Cellular Localization on Pig Jejunal Villous Epithelial Cells, Independent of Bacterial Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alex Pasternak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs. In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases.

  9. Applying local binary patterns in image clustering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhod, Nikolai N.; Elizarov, Alexey I.

    2017-11-01

    Due to the fact that the cloudiness plays a critical role in the Earth radiative balance, the study of the distribution of different types of clouds and their movements is relevant. The main sources of such information are artificial satellites that provide data in the form of images. The most commonly used method of solving tasks of processing and classification of images of clouds is based on the description of texture features. The use of a set of local binary patterns is proposed to describe the texture image.

  10. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Expression of cathepsins B, L, S, and D by gastric epithelial cells implicates them as antigen presenting cells in local immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, C; Ye, G; Espejo, R; Gunasena, S; Almanza, R; Leary, J; Crowe, S; Ernst, P; Reyes, V E

    2001-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is linked to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. During H. pylori infection, class II MHC expression by the gastric epithelium increases, as does the number of local CD4(+) T cells, which appear to be important in the associated pathogenesis. These observations suggested that the epithelium might present antigens to T cells. Thus, we sought to determine whether gastric epithelial cells process antigens to establish their function as local antigen presenting cells (APC). We examined a panel of gastric epithelial cell lines for expression of the antigen processing cathepsins B (CB), L (CL), S (CS), and D (CD). The mRNA for these enzymes were detected by RT-PCR and the enzymes in the gastric epithelial cells were identified by various independent methods. We corroborated the expression of CB and CD on gastric epithelial cells from human biopsy samples. The functions of these proteases were confirmed by assessing their ability to digest ovalbumin, a conventional dietary antigen, and proteins from H. pylori. In summary, multiple lines of evidence suggest gastric epithelial cells process antigens for presentation to CD4(+) T cells. To our knowledge, these are the first studies to document the antigen processing capacity of human gastric epithelial cells.

  12. Diagnosis of Tempromandibular Disorders Using Local Binary Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnegahdar, A A; Kolahi, S; Khojastepour, L; Tajeripour, F

    2018-03-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) might be manifested as structural changes in bone through modification, adaptation or direct destruction. We propose to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP) characteristics and histogram-oriented gradients on the recorded images as a diagnostic tool in TMD assessment. CBCT images of 66 patients (132 joints) with TMD and 66 normal cases (132 joints) were collected and 2 coronal cut prepared from each condyle, although images were limited to head of mandibular condyle. In order to extract features of images, first we use LBP and then histogram of oriented gradients. To reduce dimensionality, the linear algebra Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is applied to the feature vectors matrix of all images. For evaluation, we used K nearest neighbor (K-NN), Support Vector Machine, Naïve Bayesian and Random Forest classifiers. We used Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) to evaluate the hypothesis. K nearest neighbor classifier achieves a very good accuracy (0.9242), moreover, it has desirable sensitivity (0.9470) and specificity (0.9015) results, when other classifiers have lower accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. We proposed a fully automatic approach to detect TMD using image processing techniques based on local binary patterns and feature extraction. K-NN has been the best classifier for our experiments in detecting patients from healthy individuals, by 92.42% accuracy, 94.70% sensitivity and 90.15% specificity. The proposed method can help automatically diagnose TMD at its initial stages.

  13. Localizing value of pain distribution patterns in cervical spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyaratavej, Krishnapundha; Montriwiwatnchai, Peerapong; Siwanuwatn, Rungsak; Khaoroptham, Surachai

    2015-04-01

    Prospective observational study. To investigate the value of pain distribution in localizing appropriate surgical levels in patients with cervical spondylosis. Previous studies have investigated the value of pain drawings in its correlation with various features in degenerative spine diseases including surgical outcome, magnetic resonance imaging findings, discographic study, and psychogenic issues. However, there is no previous study on the value of pain drawings in identifying symptomatic levels for the surgery in cervical spondylosis. The study collected data from patients with cervical spondylosis who underwent surgical treatment between August 2009 and July 2012. Pain diagrams drawn separately by each patient and physician were collected. Pain distribution patterns among various levels of surgery were analyzed by the chi-square test. Agreement between different pairs of data, including pain diagrams drawn by each patient and physician, intra-examiner agreement on interpretation of pain diagrams, inter-examiner agreement on interpretation of pain diagrams, interpretation of pain diagram by examiners and actual surgery, was analyzed by Kappa statistics. The study group consisted of 19 men and 28 women with an average age of 55.2 years. Average duration of symptoms was 16.8 months. There was no difference in the pain distribution pattern at any level of surgery. The agreement between pain diagram drawn by each patient and physician was moderate. Intra-examiner agreement was moderate. There was slight agreement of inter-examiners, examiners versus actual surgery. Pain distribution pattern by itself has limited value in identifying surgical levels in patients with cervical spondylosis.

  14. Spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cells exhibit a distinct gene expression pattern from the breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qianqian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous immortalisation of cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs is an extremely rare event, and the molecular mechanism behind spontaneous immortalisation of MECs is unclear. Here, we report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME65Cs and the changes in gene expression associated with BME65Cs cells. Results BME65Cs cells maintain the general characteristics of normal mammary epithelial cells in morphology, karyotype and immunohistochemistry, and are accompanied by the activation of endogenous bTERT (bovine Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase and stabilisation of the telomere. Currently, BME65Cs cells have been passed for more than 220 generations, and these cells exhibit non-malignant transformation. The expression of multiple genes was investigated in BME65Cs cells, senescent BMECs (bovine MECs cells, early passage BMECs cells and MCF-7 cells (a human breast cancer cell line. In comparison with early passage BMECs cells, the expression of senescence-relevant apoptosis-related gene were significantly changed in BME65Cs cells. P16INK4a was downregulated, p53 was low expressed and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was reversed. Moreover, a slight upregulation of the oncogene c-Myc, along with an undetectable level of breast tumor-related gene Bag-1 and TRPS-1, was observed in BME65Cs cells while these genes are all highly expressed in MCF-7. In addition, DNMT1 is upregulated in BME65Cs. These results suggest that the inhibition of both senescence and mitochondrial apoptosis signalling pathways contribute to the immortality of BME65Cs cells. The expression of p53 and p16INK4a in BME65Cs was altered in the pattern of down-regulation but not "loss", suggesting that this spontaneous immortalization is possibly initiated by other mechanism rather than gene mutation of p53 or p16INK4a. Conclusions Spontaneously immortalised BME65Cs cells maintain many characteristics of normal BMEC cells and

  15. Expression patterns of tight junction components induced by CD24 in an oral epithelial cell-culture model correlated to affected periodontal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, P; Yu, H; Simonian, M; Hunter, N

    2014-04-01

    Previously we demonstrated uniformly strong expression of CD24 in the epithelial attachment to the tooth and in the migrating epithelium of the periodontitis lesion. Titers of serum antibodies autoreactive with CD24 peptide correlated with reduced severity of periodontal disease. Ligation of CD24 expressed by oral epithelial cells induced formation of tight junctions that limited paracellular diffusion. In this study, we aimed to reveal that the lack of uniform expression of tight junction components in the pocket epithelium of periodontitis lesions is likely to contribute to increased paracellular permeability to bacterial products. This is proposed as a potential driver of the immunopathology of periodontitis. An epithelial culture model with close correspondence for expression patterns for tight junction components in periodontal epithelia was used. Immunohistochemical staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to analyse patterns of expression of gingival epithelial tight junction components. The minimally inflamed gingival attachment was characterized by uniformly strong staining at cell contacts for the tight junction components zona occludens-1, zona occludens-2, occludin, junction adhesion molecule-A, claudin-4 and claudin-15. In contrast, the pocket epithelium of the periodontal lesion showed scattered, uneven staining for these components. This pattern correlated closely with that of unstimulated oral epithelial cells in culture. Following ligation of CD24 expressed by these cells, the pattern of tight junction component expression of the minimally inflamed gingival attachment developed rapidly. There was evidence for non-uniform and focal expression only of tight junction components in the pocket epithelium. In the cell-culture model, ligation of CD24 induced a tight junction expression profile equivalent to that observed for the minimally inflamed gingival attachment. Ligation of CD24 expressed by gingival epithelial cells by lectin

  16. In vitro adherence patterns of Shigella serogroups to bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells are similar to those of Escherichia coli O157

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Shigella species, which are human gastrointestinal pathogens, can adhere to cattle recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells using a recently standardized adherence assay, and to compare their adherence patterns to that of Escherichia coli O15...

  17. Face Recognition Using Local Quantized Patterns and Gabor Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khryashchev, V.; Priorov, A.; Stepanova, O.; Nikitin, A.

    2015-05-01

    The problem of face recognition in a natural or artificial environment has received a great deal of researchers' attention over the last few years. A lot of methods for accurate face recognition have been proposed. Nevertheless, these methods often fail to accurately recognize the person in difficult scenarios, e.g. low resolution, low contrast, pose variations, etc. We therefore propose an approach for accurate and robust face recognition by using local quantized patterns and Gabor filters. The estimation of the eye centers is used as a preprocessing stage. The evaluation of our algorithm on different samples from a standardized FERET database shows that our method is invariant to the general variations of lighting, expression, occlusion and aging. The proposed approach allows about 20% correct recognition accuracy increase compared with the known face recognition algorithms from the OpenCV library. The additional use of Gabor filters can significantly improve the robustness to changes in lighting conditions.

  18. Hyperspectral image classification based on local binary patterns and PCANet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huizhen; Gao, Feng; Dong, Junyu; Yang, Yang

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral image classification has been well acknowledged as one of the challenging tasks of hyperspectral data processing. In this paper, we propose a novel hyperspectral image classification framework based on local binary pattern (LBP) features and PCANet. In the proposed method, linear prediction error (LPE) is first employed to select a subset of informative bands, and LBP is utilized to extract texture features. Then, spectral and texture features are stacked into a high dimensional vectors. Next, the extracted features of a specified position are transformed to a 2-D image. The obtained images of all pixels are fed into PCANet for classification. Experimental results on real hyperspectral dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Liver X receptor ligand cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells and not in normal colon epithelial cells depends on LXRβ subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtaut, Flavie; Derangère, Valentin; Chevriaux, Angélique; Ladoire, Sylvain; Cotte, Alexia K; Arnould, Laurent; Boidot, Romain; Rialland, Mickaël; Ghiringhelli, François; Rébé, Cédric

    2015-09-29

    Increasing evidence indicates that Liver X Receptors (LXRs) have some anticancer properties. We recently demonstrated that LXR ligands induce colon cancer cell pyroptosis through an LXRβ-dependent pathway. In the present study, we showed that human colon cancer cell lines presented differential cytoplasmic localizations of LXRβ. This localization correlated with caspase-1 activation and cell death induction under treatment with LXR ligand. The association of LXRβ with the truncated form of RXRα (t-RXRα) was responsible for the sequestration of LXRβ in the cytoplasm in colon cancer cells. Moreover t-RXRα was not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells. These cells presented a predominantly nuclear localization of LXRβ and were resistant to LXR ligand cytotoxicity. Our results showed that predominant cytoplasmic localization of LXRβ, which occurs in colon cancer cells but not in normal colon epithelial cells, allowed LXR ligand-induced pyroptosis. This study strengthens the hypothesis that LXRβ could be a promising target in cancer therapy.

  20. Median Robust Extended Local Binary Pattern for Texture Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Lao, Songyang; Fieguth, Paul W; Guo, Yulan; Wang, Xiaogang; Pietikäinen, Matti

    2016-03-01

    Local binary patterns (LBP) are considered among the most computationally efficient high-performance texture features. However, the LBP method is very sensitive to image noise and is unable to capture macrostructure information. To best address these disadvantages, in this paper, we introduce a novel descriptor for texture classification, the median robust extended LBP (MRELBP). Different from the traditional LBP and many LBP variants, MRELBP compares regional image medians rather than raw image intensities. A multiscale LBP type descriptor is computed by efficiently comparing image medians over a novel sampling scheme, which can capture both microstructure and macrostructure texture information. A comprehensive evaluation on benchmark data sets reveals MRELBP's high performance-robust to gray scale variations, rotation changes and noise-but at a low computational cost. MRELBP produces the best classification scores of 99.82%, 99.38%, and 99.77% on three popular Outex test suites. More importantly, MRELBP is shown to be highly robust to image noise, including Gaussian noise, Gaussian blur, salt-and-pepper noise, and random pixel corruption.

  1. Epidemic spreading in localized environments with recurrent mobility patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell, Clara; Mucha, Peter J.

    2018-05-01

    The spreading of epidemics is very much determined by the structure of the contact network, which may be impacted by the mobility dynamics of the individuals themselves. In confined scenarios where a small, closed population spends most of its time in localized environments and has easily identifiable mobility patterns—such as workplaces, university campuses, or schools—it is of critical importance to identify the factors controlling the rate of disease spread. Here, we present a discrete-time, metapopulation-based model to describe the transmission of susceptible-infected-susceptible-like diseases that take place in confined scenarios where the mobilities of the individuals are not random but, rather, follow clear recurrent travel patterns. This model allows analytical determination of the onset of epidemics, as well as the ability to discern which contact structures are most suited to prevent the infection to spread. It thereby determines whether common prevention mechanisms, as isolation, are worth implementing in such a scenario and their expected impact.

  2. Localization of trefoil factor family peptide 3 (TFF3) in epithelial tissues originating from the three germ layers of developing mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Tolušić Levak, Maja; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2017-08-20

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are involved in the maintenance of epithelial integrity and epithelial restitution. Mature epithelial tissues originate from different embryonic germ layers. The objective of this research was to explore the presence and localization of TFF3 peptide in mouse embryonic epithelia and to examine if the occurrence of TFF3 peptide is germ layer-dependent. Mouse embryos (14-18 days old) were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was performed with affinity purified rabbit anti-TFF3 antibody, goat anti-rabbit biotinylated secondary antibody and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, followed by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. TFF3 peptide was present in the gastric and intestinal mucosa, respiratory mucosa in the upper and lower airways, pancreas, kidney tubules, epidermis, and oral cavity. The presence and localization of TFF3 peptide was associated with the embryonic stage and tissue differentiation. TFF3 peptide distribution specific to the germ layers was not observed. The role of TFF3 peptide in cell migration and differentiation, immune response, and apoptosis might be associated with specific embryonic epithelial cells. TFF3 peptide may also be considered as a marker for mucosal maturation.

  3. Localization of trefoil factor family peptide 3 (TFF3 in epithelial tissues originating from the three germ layers of developing mouse embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Bijelić

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trefoil factor family (TFF peptides are involved in the maintenance of epithelial integrity and epithelial restitution. Mature epithelial tissues originate from different embryonic germ layers. The objective of this research was to explore the presence and localization of TFF3 peptide in mouse embryonic epithelia and to examine if the occurrence of TFF3 peptide is germ layer-dependent. Mouse embryos (14-18 days old were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was performed with affinity purified rabbit anti-TFF3 antibody, goat anti-rabbit biotinylated secondary antibody and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, followed by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. TFF3 peptide was present in the gastric and intestinal mucosa, respiratory mucosa in the upper and lower airways, pancreas, kidney tubules, epidermis, and oral cavity. The presence and localization of TFF3 peptide was associated with the embryonic stage and tissue differentiation. TFF3 peptide distribution specific to the germ layers was not observed. The role of TFF3 peptide in cell migration and differentiation, immune response, and apoptosis might be associated with specific embryonic epithelial cells. TFF3 peptide may also be considered as a marker for mucosal maturation.

  4. Morphological and Functional Characterization of IL-12Rβ2 Chain on Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Implications for Local and Systemic Immunoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, Mari; Man, Angela; Gicheva, Nadhezda; Dumont, Antonio; Ivory, Kamal; Pacini, Alessandra; Morucci, Gabriele; Branca, Jacopo J V; Lucattelli, Monica; Santosuosso, Ugo; Narbad, Arjan; Gulisano, Massimo; Bertelli, Eugenio; Nicoletti, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Interaction between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and the underlying immune systems is critical for maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis and mounting appropriate immune responses. We have previously showed that the T helper type 1 (T H 1) cytokine IL-12 plays a key role in the delicate immunological balance in the gut and the lack of appropriate levels of IL-12 had important consequences for health and disease, particularly with regard to food allergy. Here, we sought to understand the role of IL-12 in the regulation of lymphoepithelial cross talk and how this interaction affects immune responses locally and systemically. Using a combination of microscopy and flow cytometry techniques we observed that freshly isolated IECs expressed an incomplete, yet functional IL-12 receptor (IL-12R) formed solely by the IL-12Rβ2 chain that albeit the lack of the complementary IL-12β1 chain responded to ex vivo challenge with IL-12. Furthermore, the expression of IL-12Rβ2 on IECs is strategically located at the interface between epithelial and immune cells of the lamina propria and using in vitro coculture models and primary intestinal organoids we showed that immune-derived signals were required for the expression of IL-12Rβ2 on IECs. The biological relevance of the IEC-associated IL-12Rβ2 was assessed in vivo in a mouse model of food allergy characterized by allergy-associated diminished intestinal levels of IL-12 and in chimeric mice that lack the IL-12Rβ2 chain on IECs. These experimental models enabled us to show that the antiallergic properties of orally delivered recombinant Lactococcus lactis secreting bioactive IL-12 (rLc-IL12) were reduced in mice lacking the IL-12β2 chain on IECs. Finally, we observed that the oral delivery of IL-12 was accompanied by the downregulation of the production of the IEC-derived proallergic cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). However, further analysis of intestinal levels of TSLP in IL-12Rβ2 -/- mice suggested

  5. Integrated approach to improving local CD uniformity in EUV patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Andrew; Hermans, Jan; Tran, Timothy; Viatkina, Katja; Liang, Chen-Wei; Ward, Brandon; Chuang, Steven; Yu, Jengyi; Harm, Greg; Vandereyken, Jelle; Rio, David; Kubis, Michael; Tan, Samantha; Dusa, Mircea; Singhal, Akhil; van Schravendijk, Bart; Dixit, Girish; Shamma, Nader

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is crucial to enabling technology scaling in pitch and critical dimension (CD). Currently, one of the key challenges of introducing EUV lithography to high volume manufacturing (HVM) is throughput, which requires high source power and high sensitivity chemically amplified photoresists. Important limiters of high sensitivity chemically amplified resists (CAR) are the effects of photon shot noise and resist blur on the number of photons received and of photoacids generated per feature, especially at the pitches required for 7 nm and 5 nm advanced technology nodes. These stochastic effects are reflected in via structures as hole-to-hole CD variation or local CD uniformity (LCDU). Here, we demonstrate a synergy of film stack deposition, EUV lithography, and plasma etch techniques to improve LCDU, which allows the use of high sensitivity resists required for the introduction of EUV HVM. Thus, to improve LCDU to a level required by 5 nm node and beyond, film stack deposition, EUV lithography, and plasma etch processes were combined and co-optimized to enhance LCDU reduction from synergies. Test wafers were created by depositing a pattern transfer stack on a substrate representative of a 5 nm node target layer. The pattern transfer stack consisted of an atomically smooth adhesion layer and two hardmasks and was deposited using the Lam VECTOR PECVD product family. These layers were designed to mitigate hole roughness, absorb out-of-band radiation, and provide additional outlets for etch to improve LCDU and control hole CD. These wafers were then exposed through an ASML NXE3350B EUV scanner using a variety of advanced positive tone EUV CAR. They were finally etched to the target substrate using Lam Flex dielectric etch and Kiyo conductor etch systems. Metrology methodologies to assess dimensional metrics as well as chip performance and defectivity were investigated to enable repeatable patterning process development. Illumination

  6. Novel nuclear localization and potential function of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/insulin receptor hybrid in corneal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chieh Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R and insulin receptor (INSR are highly homologous molecules, which can heterodimerize to form an IGF-1R/INSR hybrid (Hybrid-R. The presence and biological significance of the Hybrid-R in human corneal epithelium has not yet been established. In addition, while nuclear localization of IGF-1R was recently reported in cancer cells and human corneal epithelial cells, the function and profile of nuclear IGF-1R is unknown. In this study, we characterized the nuclear localization and function of the Hybrid-R and the role of IGF-1/IGF-1R and Hybrid-R signaling in the human corneal epithelium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: IGF-1-mediated signaling and cell growth were examined in a human telomerized corneal epithelial (hTCEpi cell line using co-immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and cell proliferation assays. The presence of Hybrid-R in hTCEpi and primary cultured human corneal epithelial cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence and reciprocal immunoprecipitation of whole cell lysates. We found that IGF-1 stimulated Akt and promoted cell growth through IGF-1R activation, which was independent of the Hybrid-R. The presence of Hybrid-R, but not IGF-1R/IGF-1R, was detected in nuclear extracts. Knockdown of INSR by small interfering RNA resulted in depletion of the INSR/INSR and preferential formation of Hybrid-R. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing assay with anti-IGF-1R or anti-INSR was subsequently performed to identify potential genomic targets responsible for critical homeostatic regulatory pathways. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to previous reports on nuclear localized IGF-1R, this is the first report identifying the nuclear localization of Hybrid-R in an epithelial cell line. The identification of a nuclear Hybrid-R and novel genomic targets suggests that IGF-1R traffics to the nucleus as an IGF-1R/INSR heterotetrameric complex to regulate corneal epithelial homeostatic

  7. Polarization of the epithelial layer and apical localization of integrins are required for engulfment of apoptotic cells in the Drosophila ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Meehan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient clearance of dead cells or debris by epithelial cells can lead to or exacerbate debilitating conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa, macular degeneration, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Despite the importance of engulfment by epithelial cells, little is known about the molecular changes that are required within these cells. The misregulation of integrins has previously been associated with disease states, suggesting that a better understanding of the regulation of receptor trafficking could be key to treating diseases caused by defects in phagocytosis. Here, we demonstrate that the integrin heterodimer αPS3/βPS becomes apically enriched and is required for engulfment by the epithelial follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary. We found that integrin heterodimer localization and function is largely directed by the α-subunit. Moreover, proper cell polarity promotes asymmetric integrin enrichment, suggesting that αPS3/βPS trafficking occurs in a polarized fashion. We show that several genes previously known for their roles in trafficking and cell migration are also required for engulfment. Moreover, as in mammals, the same α-integrin subunit is required by professional and non-professional phagocytes and migrating cells in Drosophila. Our findings suggest that migrating and engulfing cells use common machinery, and demonstrate a crucial role for integrin function and polarized trafficking of integrin subunits during engulfment. This study also establishes the epithelial follicle cells of the Drosophila ovary as a powerful model for understanding the molecular changes required for engulfment by a polarized epithelium.

  8. Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP for Face Recognition in Parallel Computation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundavarapu Mallikarjuna Rao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  - The availability of multi-core technology resulted totally new computational era. Researchers are keen to explore available potential in state of art-machines for breaking the bearer imposed by serial computation. Face Recognition is one of the challenging applications on so ever computational environment. The main difficulty of traditional Face Recognition algorithms is lack of the scalability. In this paper Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP, a new scalable Face Recognition Algorithm suitable for parallel environment is proposed.  Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP is found to be simple and computational inexpensive compare to Local Binary Patterns (LBP. WLAPP is developed based on concept of LAPP. The experimentation is performed on FG-Net Aging Database with deliberately introduced 20% distortion and the results are encouraging. Keywords — Active pixels, Face Recognition, Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP, Pattern computing, parallel workers, template, weight computation.  

  9. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  10. Texture Classification in Lung CT Using Local Binary Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Shaker, Saher B.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    the k nearest neighbor classifier with histogram similarity as distance measure. The proposed method is evaluated on a set of 168 regions of interest comprising normal tissue and different emphysema patterns, and compared to a filter bank based on Gaussian derivatives. The joint LBP and intensity...

  11. CKM pattern from localized generations in extra dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matti, C.

    2006-01-01

    We revisit the issue of the quark masses and mixing angles in the framework of large extra dimension. We consider three identical standard model families resulting from higher-dimensional fields localized on different branes embedded in a large extra dimension. Furthermore we use a decaying profile in the bulk different form previous works. With the Higgs field also localized on a different brane, the hierarchy of masses between the families results from their different positions in the extra space. When the left-handed doublet and the right-handed singlets are localized with different couplings on the branes, we found a set of brane locations in one extra dimension which leads to the correct quark masses and mixing angles with the sufficient strength of CP-violation. We see that the decaying profile of the Higgs field plays a crucial role for producing the hierarchies in a rather natural way. (orig.)

  12. Automatic pattern localization across layout database and photolithography mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Philippe; Brault, Frederic; Beisser, Eric; Ache, Oliver; Röth, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Advanced process photolithography masks require more and more controls for registration versus design and critical dimension uniformity (CDU). The distribution of the measurement points should be distributed all over the whole mask and may be denser in areas critical to wafer overlay requirements. This means that some, if not many, of theses controls should be made inside the customer die and may use non-dedicated patterns. It is then mandatory to access the original layout database to select patterns for the metrology process. Finding hundreds of relevant patterns in a database containing billions of polygons may be possible, but in addition, it is mandatory to create the complete metrology job fast and reliable. Combining, on one hand, a software expertise in mask databases processing and, on the other hand, advanced skills in control and registration equipment, we have developed a Mask Dataprep Station able to select an appropriate number of measurement targets and their positions in a huge database and automatically create measurement jobs on the corresponding area on the mask for the registration metrology system. In addition, the required design clips are generated from the database in order to perform the rendering procedure on the metrology system. This new methodology has been validated on real production line for the most advanced process. This paper presents the main challenges that we have faced, as well as some results on the global performances.

  13. Localizing Value of Pain Distribution Patterns in Cervical Spondylosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bunyaratavej, Krishnapundha; Montriwiwatnchai, Peerapong; Siwanuwatn, Rungsak; Khaoroptham, Surachai

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study. Purpose To investigate the value of pain distribution in localizing appropriate surgical levels in patients with cervical spondylosis. Overview of Literature Previous studies have investigated the value of pain drawings in its correlation with various features in degenerative spine diseases including surgical outcome, magnetic resonance imaging findings, discographic study, and psychogenic issues. However, there is no previous study on the value o...

  14. Multipotent Basal Stem Cells, Maintained in Localized Proximal Niches, Support Directed Long-Ranging Epithelial Flows in Human Prostates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic mitochondrial DNA mutations serve as clonal marks providing access to the identity and lineage potential of stem cells within human tissues. By combining quantitative clonal mapping with 3D reconstruction of adult human prostates, we show that multipotent basal stem cells, confined to discrete niches in juxta-urethral ducts, generate bipotent basal progenitors in directed epithelial migration streams. Basal progenitors are then dispersed throughout the entire glandular network, dividing and differentiating to replenish the loss of apoptotic luminal cells. Rare lineage-restricted luminal stem cells, and their progeny, are confined to proximal ducts and provide only minor contribution to epithelial homeostasis. In situ cell capture from clonal maps identified delta homolog 1 (DLK1 enrichment of basal stem cells, which was validated in functional spheroid assays. This study establishes significant insights into niche organization and function of prostate stem and progenitor cells, with implications for disease.

  15. Illumination normalization based on simplified local binary patterns for a face verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Illumination normalization is a very important step in face recognition. In this paper we propose a simple implementation of Local Binary Patterns, which effectively reduces the variability caused by illumination changes. In combination with a likelihood ratio classifier, this illumination

  16. Localization of mammary tumors in vivo with 131I-labeled Fab fragments of antibodies against mouse mammary epithelial (MME) antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbanks, T.; Peterson, J.A.; Miller, S.; Kaufman, L.; Ortendahl, D.; Ceriani, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Fab fragments of antibodies against cell-type-specific surface antigens of mouse mammary epithelial cells (MME-antigens) were used to localize mammary tumors successfully. The radioiodine-labeled anti-MME (Fab) was injected into mice carrying simulated mammary metastases, and after 24 hours the amount of label per gram of excised tissue was several times greater in the tumor than in liver, brain, lung, or muscle. Kidney showed considerable accumulation of label but this appeared to be nonspecific. Kinetic studies revealed a rapid elimination of labeled Fab in the urine with only 1% of the injected dose remaining in the entire blood pool after 24 hours. Wit a high-purity germanium camera, mammary tumors were clearly located ty the 131 I-labeled anti-MME (Fab), and normalization to /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate distribution in the animal increased the specificity. The density of 131 I-label was fourfold greater over the mammary tumor than over comparable areas of the mouse. No accumulation of 131 I-anti-MME (Fab) was observed in nonmammary tumors nor in mammary tumors when labeled nonspecific Fab was used. An analogous system using an antihuman mammary epithelial antiserum is being developed for localization of breast metastases in humans

  17. Formation of periodic and localized patterns in an oscillating granular layer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranson, I.; Tsimring, L. S.; Materials Science Division; Bar Ilan Univ.; Univ. of California at San Diego

    1998-02-01

    A simple phenomenological model for pattern formation in a vertically vibrated layer of granular particles is proposed. This model exhibits a variety of stable cellular patterns including standing rolls and squares as well as localized excitations (oscillons and worms), similar to recent experimental observations (Umbanhowar et al., 1996). The model is an order parameter equation for the parametrically excited waves coupled to the mass conservation law. The structure and dynamics of the solutions resemble closely the properties of patterns observed in the experiments.

  18. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eyd, Ghaith J.; Shaik, Rizwana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total) had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region. PMID:23275844

  19. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana B. Shaik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region.

  20. Three-Dimensional Organotypic Co-Culture Model of Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Macrophages to Study "Salmonella Enterica" Colonization Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Mark; Yang, J; Barilla, J.; Crabbe, A.; Sarker, S. F.; Liu, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional/3-D organotypic models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by 2-D monolayers and respond to Salmonella in ways that reflect in vivo infections. To further enhance the physiological relevance of 3-D models to more closely approximate in vivo intestinal microenvironments during infection, we developed and validated a novel 3-D intestinal co-culture model containing multiple epithelial cell types and phagocytic macrophages, and applied to study enteric infection by different Salmonella pathovars.

  1. fMRI activation patterns in an analytic reasoning task: consistency with EEG source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bian; Vasanta, Kalyana C.; O'Boyle, Michael; Baker, Mary C.; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2010-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to model brain activation patterns associated with various perceptual and cognitive processes as reflected by the hemodynamic (BOLD) response. While many sensory and motor tasks are associated with relatively simple activation patterns in localized regions, higher-order cognitive tasks may produce activity in many different brain areas involving complex neural circuitry. We applied a recently proposed probabilistic independent component analysis technique (PICA) to determine the true dimensionality of the fMRI data and used EEG localization to identify the common activated patterns (mapped as Brodmann areas) associated with a complex cognitive task like analytic reasoning. Our preliminary study suggests that a hybrid GLM/PICA analysis may reveal additional regions of activation (beyond simple GLM) that are consistent with electroencephalography (EEG) source localization patterns.

  2. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, Rajkumar S., E-mail: renu-wadhwa@aist.go.jp; Wadhwa, Renu, E-mail: renu-wadhwa@aist.go.jp [Cell Proliferation Research Group and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST Central 4), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing and transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein.

  3. A bioinformatics prediction approach towards analyzing the glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA/MUC1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, Rajkumar S.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA or MUC1) is a heavily glycosylated, type I transmembrane glycoprotein commonly expressed by epithelial cells of duct organs. It has been shown to be aberrantly glycosylated in several diseases including cancer. Protein sequence based annotation and analysis of glycosylation profile of glycoproteins by robust computational and comprehensive algorithms provides possible insights to the mechanism(s) of anomalous glycosylation. In present report, by using a number of bioinformatics applications we studied EMA/MUC1 and explored its trans-membrane structural domain sequence that is widely subjected to glycosylation. Exploration of different extracellular motifs led to prediction of N and O-linked glycosylation target sites. Based on the putative O-linked target sites, glycosylated moieties and pathways were envisaged. Furthermore, Protein network analysis demonstrated physical interaction of EMA with a number of proteins and confirmed its functional involvement in cell growth and proliferation pathways. Gene Ontology analysis suggested an involvement of EMA in a number of functions including signal transduction, protein binding, processing and transport along with glycosylation. Thus, present study explored potential of bioinformatics prediction approach in analyzing glycosylation, co-expression and interaction patterns of EMA/MUC1 glycoprotein

  4. A novel approach for SEMG signal classification with adaptive local binary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğrul, Ömer Faruk; Kaya, Yılmaz; Tekin, Ramazan

    2016-07-01

    Feature extraction plays a major role in the pattern recognition process, and this paper presents a novel feature extraction approach, adaptive local binary pattern (aLBP). aLBP is built on the local binary pattern (LBP), which is an image processing method, and one-dimensional local binary pattern (1D-LBP). In LBP, each pixel is compared with its neighbors. Similarly, in 1D-LBP, each data in the raw is judged against its neighbors. 1D-LBP extracts feature based on local changes in the signal. Therefore, it has high a potential to be employed in medical purposes. Since, each action or abnormality, which is recorded in SEMG signals, has its own pattern, and via the 1D-LBP these (hidden) patterns may be detected. But, the positions of the neighbors in 1D-LBP are constant depending on the position of the data in the raw. Also, both LBP and 1D-LBP are very sensitive to noise. Therefore, its capacity in detecting hidden patterns is limited. To overcome these drawbacks, aLBP was proposed. In aLBP, the positions of the neighbors and their values can be assigned adaptively via the down-sampling and the smoothing coefficients. Therefore, the potential to detect (hidden) patterns, which may express an illness or an action, is really increased. To validate the proposed feature extraction approach, two different datasets were employed. Achieved accuracies by the proposed approach were higher than obtained results by employed popular feature extraction approaches and the reported results in the literature. Obtained accuracy results were brought out that the proposed method can be employed to investigate SEMG signals. In summary, this work attempts to develop an adaptive feature extraction scheme that can be utilized for extracting features from local changes in different categories of time-varying signals.

  5. Local breast cancer spatial patterning: a tool for community health resource allocation to address local disparities in breast cancer mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Brantley-Sieders

    Full Text Available Despite available demographic data on the factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality in large population datasets, local patterns are often overlooked. Such local information could provide a valuable metric by which regional community health resources can be allocated to reduce breast cancer mortality. We used national and statewide datasets to assess geographical distribution of breast cancer mortality rates and known risk factors influencing breast cancer mortality in middle Tennessee. Each county in middle Tennessee, and each ZIP code within metropolitan Davidson County, was scored for risk factor prevalence and assigned quartile scores that were used as a metric to identify geographic areas of need. While breast cancer mortality often correlated with age and incidence, geographic areas were identified in which breast cancer mortality rates did not correlate with age and incidence, but correlated with additional risk factors, such as mammography screening and socioeconomic status. Geographical variability in specific risk factors was evident, demonstrating the utility of this approach to identify local areas of risk. This method revealed local patterns in breast cancer mortality that might otherwise be overlooked in a more broadly based analysis. Our data suggest that understanding the geographic distribution of breast cancer mortality, and the distribution of risk factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality, will not only identify communities with the greatest need of support, but will identify the types of resources that would provide the most benefit to reduce breast cancer mortality in the community.

  6. OBJECT TRACKING WITH ROTATION-INVARIANT LARGEST DIFFERENCE INDEXED LOCAL TERNARY PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shajeena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ideal method for object tracking directly in the compressed domain in video sequences. An enhanced rotation-invariant image operator called Largest Difference Indexed Local Ternary Pattern (LDILTP has been proposed. The Local Ternary Pattern which worked very well in texture classification and face recognition is now extended for rotation invariant object tracking. Histogramming the LTP code makes the descriptor resistant to translation. The histogram intersection is used to find the similarity measure. This method is robust to noise and retain contrast details. The proposed scheme has been verified on various datasets and shows a commendable performance.

  7. Moving localized structures and spatial patterns in quadratic media with a saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlidi, M; Taki, M; Berre, M Le; Reyssayre, E; Tallet, A; Di Menza, L

    2004-01-01

    For near the first lasing threshold, we give a detailed derivation of a real order parameter equation for the degenerate optical parametric oscillator with a saturable absorber. For this regime, we study analytically the role of the quasi-homogeneous neutral mode in the pattern formation process. We show that this effect stabilized the hexagonal patterns below the lasing threshold. More importantly, we find numerically that when Turing and Hopf bifurcations interact, a stable moving asymmetric localized structure with a constant transverse velocity is generated. The formation of the moving localized structures is analysed for both the propagation and the mean field models. A quantitative confrontation of the two models is discussed

  8. Local control of globally competing patterns in coupled Swift-Hohenberg equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maximilian; Frenzel, Thomas; Niedermayer, Thomas; Reichelt, Sina; Mielke, Alexander; Bär, Markus

    2018-04-01

    We present analytical and numerical investigations of two anti-symmetrically coupled 1D Swift-Hohenberg equations (SHEs) with cubic nonlinearities. The SHE provides a generic formulation for pattern formation at a characteristic length scale. A linear stability analysis of the homogeneous state reveals a wave instability in addition to the usual Turing instability of uncoupled SHEs. We performed weakly nonlinear analysis in the vicinity of the codimension-two point of the Turing-wave instability, resulting in a set of coupled amplitude equations for the Turing pattern as well as left- and right-traveling waves. In particular, these complex Ginzburg-Landau-type equations predict two major things: there exists a parameter regime where multiple different patterns are stable with respect to each other and that the amplitudes of different patterns interact by local mutual suppression. In consequence, different patterns can coexist in distinct spatial regions, separated by localized interfaces. We identified specific mechanisms for controlling the position of these interfaces, which distinguish what kinds of patterns the interface connects and thus allow for global pattern selection. Extensive simulations of the original SHEs confirm our results.

  9. Locally measuring the adhesion of InP directly bonded on sub-100 nm patterned Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, K; Patriarche, G; Beaudoin, G; Itawi, A; Sagnes, I; Talneau, A; Bourhis, E Le; Troadec, D

    2016-01-01

    A nano-scale analogue to the double cantilever experiment that combines instrumented nano-indentation and atomic force microscopy is used to precisely and locally measure the adhesion of InP bonded on sub-100 nm patterned Si using oxide-free or oxide-mediated bonding. Surface-bonding energies of 0.548 and 0.628 J m"−"2, respectively, are reported. These energies correspond in turn to 51% and 57% of the surface bonding energy measured in unpatterned regions on the same samples, i.e. the proportion of unetched Si surface in the patterned areas. The results show that bonding on patterned surfaces can be as robust as on unpatterned surfaces, provided care is taken with the post-patterning surface preparation process and, therefore, open the path towards innovative designs that include patterns embedded in the Si guiding layer of hybrid III-V/Si photonic integrated circuits. (paper)

  10. Local Agenda 21. Settlement pattern and energy for transportation and heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orderud, Geir Inge

    1998-01-01

    This document deals with Local Agenda 21 (LA21) and the relationship between settlement pattern and the consumption of energy in transportation and heating of houses. Local Agenda 21 originates from the Earth Summit held in Rio in 1992 and draws up the strategies by which the local communities should participate in realizing the recommendations of the summit. So far much of the research around LA21 has examined how well the individual countries that ratified the Rio document have fulfilled the recommendations of Article 28 on local responsibility. From the point of view of research, however, the challenge is rather to investigate the conditions for realizing the broad participation of the people. From the administrative point of view, the important issue is the relationship between the representative channels and the direct participation of local people in the decision processes, as well as the delegation of decision-making authority from national to regional or local level. One recommendation in Agenda 21 is to emit less greenhouse gases. In this connection, a central issue is transportation, which is affected by the settlement pattern. A denser settlement within an urban area is supposed to reduce the transportation and the use of private cars. Thus the local development and area policy is a topic of current interest in the study of how LA21 works locally, especially so because sparsely built-up areas with single family houses are considered as the good way of living. Densely populated urban areas may conflict with the need for arable land and green space. LA 21 and the settlement pattern are both parts of a larger social environment and it is important know these relationships when local measures and actions are analysed. The possibility of a sustainable development must be assessed in relation to the fact that more power is gathered in the global flow of capital. 26 refs

  11. Distinct Patterns of Stromal and Tumor Expression of ROR1 and ROR2 in Histological Subtypes of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Henry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The ROR1 and ROR2 receptor tyrosine kinases have both been implicated in ovarian cancer progression and have been shown to drive migration and invasion. There is an increasing importance of the role of stroma in ovarian cancer metastasis; however, neither ROR1 nor ROR2 expression in tumor or stromal cells has been analyzed in the same clinical cohort. AIM: To determine ROR1 and ROR2 expression in ovarian cancer and surrounding microenvironment and examine associations with clinicopathological characteristics. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for ROR1 and ROR2 was used to assess receptor expression in a cohort of epithelial ovarian cancer patients (n = 178. Results were analyzed in relation to clinical and histopathological characteristics and survival. Matched patient sample case studies of normal, primary, and metastatic lesions were used to examine ROR expression in relation to ovarian cancer progression. RESULTS: ROR1 and ROR2 are abnormally expressed in malignant ovarian epithelium and stroma. Higher ROR2 tumor expression was found in early-stage, low-grade endometrioid carcinomas. ROR2 stromal expression was highest in the serous subtype. In matched patient case studies, metastatic samples had higher expression of ROR2 in the stroma, and a recurrent sample had the highest expression of ROR2 in both tumor and stroma. CONCLUSION: ROR1 and ROR2 are expressed in tumor-associated stroma in all histological subtypes of ovarian cancer and hold potential as therapeutic targets which may disrupt tumor and stroma interactions.

  12. Are adaptation costs necessary to build up a local adaptation pattern?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, S.; Blanchet, E.; Egas, M.; Olivieri, I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ecological specialization is pervasive in phytophagous arthropods. In such specialization mode, limits to host range are imposed by trade-offs preventing adaptation to several hosts. The occurrence of such trade-offs is inferred by a pattern of local adaptation, i.e., a negative

  13. Application of urban neighborhoods in understanding of local level electricity consumption patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, P. K.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Aggregated national or regional level electricity consumption data fail to capture the spatial variation in consumption, a function of location, climate, topography, and local economics. Spatial monitoring of electricity usage patterns helps to understand derivers of location specific consumption behavior and develop models to cater to the consumer needs, plan efficiency measures, identify settled areas lacking access, and allows for future planning through assessing requirements. Developed countries have started to deploy sensor systems such as smart meters to gather information on local level consumption patterns, but such infrastructure is virtually nonexistent in developing nations, resulting in serious dearth of reliable data for planners and policy makers. Remote sensing of artificial nighttime lights from human settlements have proven useful to study electricity consumptions from global to regional scales, however, local level studies remain scarce. Using the differences in spatial characteristics among different urban neighborhoods such as industrial, commercial and residential, observable through very high resolution day time satellite images (lights observations, which we use as a proxy for electricity consumption in the absence of ground level consumption data. The overall trends observed through this analysis provides useful explanations helping in understanding of broad electricity consumption patterns in urban areas lacking ground level observations. This study thus highlights possible application of remote sensing data driven methods in providing novel insights into local level socio-economic patterns that were hitherto undetected due to lack of ground data.

  14. Strain localization band width evolution by electronic speckle pattern interferometry strain rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Institut Charles Delaunay-LASMIS, Universite de technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)], E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel; Montay, Guillaume [Institut Charles Delaunay-LASMIS, Universite de technologie de Troyes, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, electronic speckle pattern interferometry strain rate measurements are used to quantify the width of the strain localization band, which occurs when a sheet specimen is submitted to tension. It is shown that the width of this band decreases with increasing strain. Just before fracture, this measured width is about five times wider than the shear band and the initial sheet thickness.

  15. THE ABERRANT PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION PATTERN OF THE ANTI - ANGIOGENIC TSP1 GENE IN EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CARCINOMA: AN INDIAN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The promoter hypermethylation patterns of Thrombospodin - 1 gene in 50 EOC patients were studied and the methylation pattern was correlated with various clinic pathological parameters. METHODS: The promoter hypermethylation pattern of the TSP - 1 gene was assessed using nested PCR and Methylation specific PCR. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: All the available data was statistically analyzed using the Chi square test or Fisher Exact Test on the SPSS software version 22.0 and a value <0.0 5 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Forty of the fifty ovarian carcinoma samples reported positive for methylation corresponding to a methylation frequency of 80%. A methylation frequency of 89.2%, 83.3% and 42.8% was observed in malignant , Low malignant potential (borderline and benign sample cohorts. CONCLUSION: From the results drawn from this study, it clearly shows that the anti angiogenic protein TSP - 1 is extensively hypermethylated in ovarian carcinoma and that it accumulates over t he progression of the disease from benign to malignant. As previous reports suggest that there is no evidence of mutation of this gene, promoter hypermethylation may be a crucial factor for the down regulation of the gene. Further by clubbing together the promoter hypermethylation pattern of TSP - 1 gene with hypermethylation patterns of other TSG may provide a better insight into the application of using methylation profiles of TSG as a biomarker in the detection of ovarian carcinoma.

  16. Localized conductive patterning via focused electron beam reduction of graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Kulkarni, Dhaval D.; Zackowski, Paul; Jang, Seung Soon; Tsukruk, Vladimir V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fedorov, Andrei G., E-mail: agf@gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    We report on a method for “direct-write” conductive patterning via reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of carbon. FEBID treatment of the intrinsically dielectric graphene oxide between two metal terminals opens up the conduction channel, thus enabling a unique capability for nanoscale conductive domain patterning in GO. An increase in FEBID electron dose results in a significant increase of the domain electrical conductivity with improving linearity of drain-source current vs. voltage dependence, indicative of a change of graphene oxide electronic properties from insulating to semiconducting. Density functional theory calculations suggest a possible mechanism underlying this experimentally observed phenomenon, as localized reduction of graphene oxide layers via interactions with highly reactive intermediates of electron-beam-assisted dissociation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. These findings establish an unusual route for using FEBID as nanoscale lithography and patterning technique for engineering carbon-based nanomaterials and devices with locally tailored electronic properties.

  17. Nanoscale observation of local bound charges of patterned protein arrays by scanning force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y J; Jo, W; Kim, S; Park, S; Kim, Y S

    2008-01-01

    A protein patterned surface using micro-contact printing methods has been investigated by scanning force microscopy. Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) was utilized for imaging the topography and detecting the electrical properties such as the local bound charge distribution of the patterned proteins. It was found that the patterned IgG proteins are arranged down to 1 μm, and the 90 deg. rotation of patterned anti-IgG proteins was successfully undertaken. Through the estimation of the effective areas, it was possible to determine the local bound charges of patterned proteins which have opposite electrostatic force behaviors. Moreover, we studied the binding probability between IgG and anti-IgG in a 1 μm 2 MIMIC system by topographic and electrostatic signals for applicable label-free detections. We showed that the patterned proteins can be used for immunoassay of proteins on the functional substrate, and that they can also be used for bioelectronics device application, indicating distinct advantages with regard to accuracy and a label-free detection

  18. Coupled local facilitation and global hydrologic inhibition drive landscape geometry in a patterned peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Kaplan, D. A.; Casey, S.; Cohen, M. J.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2015-05-01

    Self-organized landscape patterning can arise in response to multiple processes. Discriminating among alternative patterning mechanisms, particularly where experimental manipulations are untenable, requires process-based models. Previous modeling studies have attributed patterning in the Everglades (Florida, USA) to sediment redistribution and anisotropic soil hydraulic properties. In this work, we tested an alternate theory, the self-organizing-canal (SOC) hypothesis, by developing a cellular automata model that simulates pattern evolution via local positive feedbacks (i.e., facilitation) coupled with a global negative feedback based on hydrology. The model is forced by global hydroperiod that drives stochastic transitions between two patch types: ridge (higher elevation) and slough (lower elevation). We evaluated model performance using multiple criteria based on six statistical and geostatistical properties observed in reference portions of the Everglades landscape: patch density, patch anisotropy, semivariogram ranges, power-law scaling of ridge areas, perimeter area fractal dimension, and characteristic pattern wavelength. Model results showed strong statistical agreement with reference landscapes, but only when anisotropically acting local facilitation was coupled with hydrologic global feedback, for which several plausible mechanisms exist. Critically, the model correctly generated fractal landscapes that had no characteristic pattern wavelength, supporting the invocation of global rather than scale-specific negative feedbacks.

  19. Hotspot detection using image pattern recognition based on higher-order local auto-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shimon; Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Ogawa, Ryuji; Ichikawa, Hirotaka; Takahata, Kazuhiro; Miyairi, Masahiro; Kotani, Toshiya; Nojima, Shigeki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Kei; Saito, Tamaki; Mimotogi, Shoji; Inoue, Soichi; Nosato, Hirokazu; Sakanashi, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Takumi; Murakawa, Masahiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Eiichi; Otsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    Below 40nm design node, systematic variation due to lithography must be taken into consideration during the early stage of design. So far, litho-aware design using lithography simulation models has been widely applied to assure that designs are printed on silicon without any error. However, the lithography simulation approach is very time consuming, and under time-to-market pressure, repetitive redesign by this approach may result in the missing of the market window. This paper proposes a fast hotspot detection support method by flexible and intelligent vision system image pattern recognition based on Higher-Order Local Autocorrelation. Our method learns the geometrical properties of the given design data without any defects as normal patterns, and automatically detects the design patterns with hotspots from the test data as abnormal patterns. The Higher-Order Local Autocorrelation method can extract features from the graphic image of design pattern, and computational cost of the extraction is constant regardless of the number of design pattern polygons. This approach can reduce turnaround time (TAT) dramatically only on 1CPU, compared with the conventional simulation-based approach, and by distributed processing, this has proven to deliver linear scalability with each additional CPU.

  20. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hückesfeld

    Full Text Available Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands, the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ. Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system.

  1. Hidden pattern discovery on epileptic EEG with 1-D local binary patterns and epileptic seizures detection by grey relational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yılmaz

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to detect epilepsy seizures by using Electroencephalography (EEG), which is one of the most common methods for the diagnosis of epilepsy, based on 1-Dimension Local Binary Pattern (1D-LBP) and grey relational analysis (GRA) methods. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and validate a novel approach, which is a computer-based quantitative EEG analyzing method and based on grey systems, aimed to help decision-maker. In this study, 1D-LBP, which utilizes all data points, was employed for extracting features in raw EEG signals, Fisher score (FS) was employed to select the representative features, which can also be determined as hidden patterns. Additionally, GRA is performed to classify EEG signals through these Fisher scored features. The experimental results of the proposed approach, which was employed in a public dataset for validation, showed that it has a high accuracy in identifying epileptic EEG signals. For various combinations of epileptic EEG, such as A-E, B-E, C-E, D-E, and A-D clusters, 100, 96, 100, 99.00 and 100% were achieved, respectively. Also, this work presents an attempt to develop a new general-purpose hidden pattern determination scheme, which can be utilized for different categories of time-varying signals.

  2. mRNA expression pattern of selected candidate genes differs in bovine oviductal epithelial cells in vitro compared with the in vivo state and during cell culture passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh Mesgaran, Sadjad; Sharbati, Jutta; Einspanier, Ralf; Gabler, Christoph

    2016-08-15

    The mammalian oviduct provides the optimal environment for gamete maturation including sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of the early embryo. Various cell culture models for primary bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) were established to reveal such physiological events. The aim of this study was to evaluate 17 candidate mRNA expression patterns in oviductal epithelial cells (1) in transition from in vivo cells to in vitro cells; (2) during three consecutive cell culture passages; (3) affected by the impact of LOW or HIGH glucose content media; and (4) influenced by different phases of the estrous cycle in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the release of a metabolite and proteins from BOEC at two distinct cell culture passage numbers was estimated to monitor the functionality. BOEC from 8 animals were isolated and cultured for three consecutive passages. Total RNA was extracted from in vivo and in vitro samples and subjected to reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction to reveal mRNA expression of selected candidate genes. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), oviduct-specific glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and interleukin 8 (IL8) by BOEC was measured by EIA or ELISA after 24 h. Almost all candidate genes (prostaglandin synthases, enzymes of cellular metabolism and mucins) mRNA expression pattern differed compared in vivo with in vitro state. In addition, transcription of most candidate genes was influenced by the number of cell culture passages. Different glucose medium content did not affect mRNA expression of most candidate genes. The phase of the estrous cycle altered some candidate mRNA expression in BOEC in vitro at later passages. The release of PGE2 and OVGP1 between passages did not differ. However, BOEC in passage 3 released significantly higher amount of IL8 compared with cells in passage 0. This study supports the hypothesis that candidate mRNA expression in BOEC was influenced by transition from the in vivo situation

  3. Novel radiosensitizers for locally advanced epithelial tumors: inhibition of the PI3K/Akt survival pathway in tumor cells and in tumor-associated endothelial cells as a novel treatment strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesterer, Oliver; Tenzer, Angela; Zingg, Daniel; Hofstetter, Barbara; Vuong, Van; Pruschy, Martin; Bodis, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    In locally advanced epithelial malignancies, local control can be achieved with high doses of radiotherapy (RT). Concurrent chemoradiotherapy can improve tumor control in selected solid epithelial adult tumors; however, treatment-related toxicity is of major concern and the therapeutic window often small. Therefore, novel pharmacologic radiosensitizers with a tumor-specific molecular target and a broad therapeutic window are attractive. Because of clonal heterogeneity and the high mutation rate of these tumors, combined treatment with single molecular target radiosensitizers and RT are unlikely to improve sustained local tumor control substantially. Therefore, radiosensitizers modulating entire tumor cell survival pathways in epithelial tumors are of potential clinical use. We discuss the preclinical efficacy and the mechanism of three different, potential radiosensitizers targeting the PTEN/PI3K/Akt survival pathway. These compounds were initially thought to act as single-target agents against growth factor receptors (PKI 166 and PTK 787) or protein kinase C isoforms (PKC 412). We describe an additional target for these compounds. PKI 166 (an epidermal growth factor [EGF] receptor inhibitor) and PKC 412, target the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway mainly in tumor cells, and PTK 787 (a vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] receptor inhibitor) in endothelial cells. Even for these broader range molecular radiosensitizers, the benefit could be restricted to human epithelial tumor cell clones with a distinct molecular profile. Therefore, these potential radiosensitizers have to be carefully tested in specific model systems before introduction in early clinical trials

  4. Computational applications of the thermodynamic local potential: The case of pattern forming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, J.Z.

    1986-09-01

    Using the thermodynamic local potential Φ a single variational principle may be formulated for a broad class of pattern formation phenomena (this class contains patterns which are: macroscopic, possess steady states, are degenerate at least with respect to one parameter, approach the steady state via fluctuations in the coarsely grained (macroscopic) phase space and so have no memory of the initial conditions). When a steady state is reached Φ assumes its minimum value with respect to distribution function and a maximum with respect to the actually assumed values of free parameters. (author)

  5. Patterns of failure after involved field radiotherapy for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo-Jie; Li, Hong-Wei; He, Bin; Wang, Geng-Ming; Cai, Han-Fei; Duan, Shi-Miao; Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ya-Jun; Cui, Zhen; Jiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the patterns of failure and the treatment effects of involved-field irradiation (IFI) on patients treated with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to determine whether IFI is practicable in these patients. A total of 79 patients with locally advanced ESCC underwent three dimensional conformal (3D)CRT) or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using IFI or elective nodal irradiation (ENI) according to the target volume. The patterns of failure were defined as local/regional, in-field, out)of)field regional lymph node (LN) and distant failure. With a median follow)up of 32.0 months, failures were observed in 66 (83.6%) patients. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure (55.8 vs 52.8%) and in)field regional lymph node failure (25.6 vs 19.4%) showed no statistically significant difference between the IFI and the ENI group (p=0.526 and 0.215, respectively). Out)of)field nodal relapse rate of only 7.0% was seen in the IFI group. Three)year survival rates for the ENI and IFI group were 22.2 and 18.6%, respectively (p=0.240), and 3)year distant metastasis rates were 27.8 and 32.6%, respectively (p=0.180). The lung V10, V20, V30 and mean lung dose of the ENI group were greater than those of the IFI group, while the mean lung dose and V10 had statistically significant difference. The patterns of failure and survival rates in the IFI group were similar as in the ENI group; the regional recurrence and distant metastasis are the main cause of treatment failure. IFI is feasible for locally advanced ESCC. Further investigation is needed to increase local control and decrease distant metastasis in these patients.

  6. Extent and patterns of community collaboration in local health departments: An exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher John W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local public health departments (LHDs in the United States have been encouraged to collaborate with various other community organizations and individuals. Current research suggests that many forms of active partnering are ongoing, and there are numerous examples of LHD collaboration with a specific organization for a specific purpose or program. However, no existing research has attempted to characterize collaboration, for the defined purpose of setting community health status priorities, between a defined population of local officials and a defined group of alternative partnering organizations. The specific aims of this study were to 1 determine the range of collaborative involvement exhibited by a study population of local public health officials, and, 2 characterize the patterns of the selection of organizations/individuals involved with LHDs in the process of setting community health status priorities. Methods Local health department officials in North Carolina (n = 53 responded to an exploratory survey about their levels of involvement with eight types of possible collaborator organizations and individuals. Descriptive statistics and the stochastic clustering technique of Self-Organizing Maps (SOM were used to characterize their collaboration. Results Local health officials vary extensively in their level of collaboration with external collaborators. While the range of total involvement varies, the patterns of involvement for this specific function are relatively uniform. That is, regardless of the total level of involvement (low, medium or high, officials maintain similar hierarchical preference rankings with Community Advisory Boards and Local Boards of Health most involved and Experts and Elected Officials least involved. Conclusion The extent and patterns of collaboration among LHDs with other community stakeholders for a specific function can be described and ultimately related to outcome measures of LHD performance.

  7. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Kriste M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G [UCSB

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  8. Kernel Learning of Histogram of Local Gabor Phase Patterns for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineng Zhong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new face recognition method, named kernel learning of histogram of local Gabor phase pattern (K-HLGPP, which is based on Daugman’s method for iris recognition and the local XOR pattern (LXP operator. Unlike traditional Gabor usage exploiting the magnitude part in face recognition, we encode the Gabor phase information for face classification by the quadrant bit coding (QBC method. Two schemes are proposed for face recognition. One is based on the nearest-neighbor classifier with chi-square as the similarity measurement, and the other makes kernel discriminant analysis for HLGPP (K-HLGPP using histogram intersection and Gaussian-weighted chi-square kernels. The comparative experiments show that K-HLGPP achieves a higher recognition rate than other well-known face recognition systems on the large-scale standard FERET, FERET200, and CAS-PEAL-R1 databases.

  9. Local failure patterns for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia-xin; Huang, Shao-min; Jiang, Xin-hua; Ouyang, Bin; Han, Fei; Liu, Shuai; Wen, Bi-xiu; Lu, Tai-xiang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the clinical feature and the local failure patterns after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Between March 2007 and July 2009, 710 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The magnetic resonance imagings obtained at recurrence were registered with the original planning computed tomography for dosimetry analysis. With a median follow-up of 38 months, 34 patients have developed local recurrence (32 cases valid). The incidence of invasion to nasopharynx, parapharyngeal space and the retropharyngeal space by the primary tumors was 100%, 75.0% and 62.5%, respectively, but 78.1%, 34.4% and 21.9% at recurrence, respectively. The rate of invasion to ethmoid sinus was 3.1% by the primary tumors but 28.1% at recurrence (p = 0.005). The topographic analysis of the local failure patterns showed 'central' in 16 patients; 'marginal' in 9; and 'outside' in 7. The median volumes of primary gross tumor were 45.84 cm 3 in the central failure group, 29.44 cm 3 in the marginal failure group, and 21.52 cm 3 in the outside failure group, respectively (p = 0.012), and the median volumes of primary clinical target1 were 87.28 cm 3 , 61.90 cm 3 and 58.74 cm 3 in the three groups, respectively (p = 0.033). In patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy, the recurrent tumors had their unique characteristic and regularity of invasion to adjacent structures. 'Central' failure was the major local failure pattern. The volumes of primary gross tumor and clinical target1 were significantly correlated with recurrent patterns. Employ more aggressive approaches to tumor cells which will be insensitive to radiotherapy may be an effective way to reduce the central failure

  10. Facial expression recognition based on improved local ternary pattern and stacked auto-encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Qiu, Weigen

    2017-08-01

    In order to enhance the robustness of facial expression recognition, we propose a method of facial expression recognition based on improved Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) combined with Stacked Auto-Encoder (SAE). This method uses the improved LTP extraction feature, and then uses the improved depth belief network as the detector and classifier to extract the LTP feature. The combination of LTP and improved deep belief network is realized in facial expression recognition. The recognition rate on CK+ databases has improved significantly.

  11. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns in a local male infertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K L; Tsu, James H L; Tam, P C; Yiu, M K

    2015-02-01

    To review disease spectrum and treatment patterns in a local male infertility clinic. Case series. Male infertility clinic in a teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Patients who were seen as new cases in a local male infertility clinic between January 2008 and December 2012. Infertility assessment and counselling on treatment options. Disease spectrum and treatment patterns. A total of 387 new patients were assessed in the male infertility clinic. The mean age of the patients and their female partners was 37.2 and 32.1 years, respectively. The median duration of infertility was 3 years. Among the patients, 36.2% had azoospermia, 8.0% had congenital absence of vas deferens, and 48.3% of patients had other abnormalities in semen parameters. The commonest causes of male infertility were unknown (idiopathic), clinically significant varicoceles, congenital absence of vas deferens, mumps after puberty, and erectile or ejaculatory dysfunction. Overall, 66.1% of patients chose assisted reproductive treatment and 12.4% of patients preferred surgical correction of reversible male infertility conditions. Altogether 36.7% of patients required either surgical sperm retrieval or correction of male infertility conditions. The present study provided important local data on the disease spectrum and treatment patterns in a male infertility clinic. The incidences of azoospermia and congenital absence of vas deferens were much higher than those reported in the contemporary literature. A significant proportion of patients required either surgical sperm retrieval or correction of reversible male infertility conditions.

  12. Tax-Exempt Hospitals' Investments in Community Health and Local Public Health Spending: Patterns and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether tax-exempt hospitals' investments in community health are associated with patterns of governmental public health spending focusing specifically on the relationship between hospitals' community benefit expenditures and the spending patterns of local health departments (LHDs). We combined data on tax-exempt hospitals' community benefit spending with data on spending by the corresponding LHD that served the county in which a hospital was located. Data were available for 2 years, 2009 and 2013. Generalized linear regressions were estimated with indicators of hospital community benefit spending as the dependent variable and LHD spending as the key independent variable. Hospital community benefit spending was unrelated to how much local public health agencies spent, per capita, on public health in their communities. Patterns of local public health spending do not appear to impact the investments of tax-exempt hospitals in community health activities. Opportunities may, however, exist for a more active engagement between the public and private sector to ensure that the expenditures of all stakeholders involved in community health improvement efforts complement one another. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Optimal dietary patterns designed from local foods to achieve maternal nutritional goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jofrey; Kassim, Neema; Rose, Jerman W; Agaba, Morris

    2018-04-04

    Achieving nutritional requirements for pregnant and lactating mothers in rural households while maintaining the intake of local and culture-specific foods can be a difficult task. Deploying a linear goal programming approach can effectively generate optimal dietary patterns that incorporate local and culturally acceptable diets. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a realistic and affordable diet that achieves nutritional goals for rural pregnant and lactating women can be formulated from locally available foods in Tanzania. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess dietary intakes of 150 pregnant and lactating women using a weighed dietary record (WDR), 24 h dietary recalls and a 7-days food record. A market survey was also carried out to estimate the cost per 100 g of edible portion of foods that are frequently consumed in the study population. Dietary survey and market data were then used to define linear programming (LP) model parameters for diet optimisation. All LP analyses were done using linear program solver to generate optimal dietary patterns. Our findings showed that optimal dietary patterns designed from locally available foods would improve dietary adequacy for 15 and 19 selected nutrients in pregnant and lactating women, respectively, but inadequacies remained for iron, zinc, folate, pantothenic acid, and vitamin E, indicating that these are problem nutrients (nutrients that did not achieve 100% of their RNIs in optimised diets) in the study population. These findings suggest that optimal use of local foods can improve dietary adequacy for rural pregnant and lactating women aged 19-50 years. However, additional cost-effective interventions are needed to ensure adequate intakes for the identified problem nutrients.

  14. AFM imaging and analysis of local mechanical properties for detection of surface pattern of functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, Petr, E-mail: petr.knotek@upce.cz [University of Pardubice, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry of IMC ASCR and University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Chanova, Eliska; Rypacek, Frantisek [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovskeho sq. 2, 162 06 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-05-01

    In this work we evaluate the applicability of different atomic force microscopy (AFM) modes, such as Phase Shift Imaging, Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy (AFAM) and Force Spectroscopy, for mapping of the distribution pattern of low-molecular-weight biomimetic groups on polymer biomaterial surfaces. Patterns with either random or clustered spatial distribution of bioactive peptide group derived from fibronectin were prepared by surface deposition of functional block copolymer nano-colloids and grafted with RGDS peptide containing the sequence of amino acids arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–serine (conventionally labeled as RGDS) and carrying biotin as a tag. The biotin-tagged peptides were labeled with 40 nm streptavidin-modified Au nanospheres. The peptide molecules were localized through the detection of bound Au nanospheres by AFM, and thus, the surface distribution of peptides was revealed. AFM techniques capable of monitoring local mechanical properties of the surface were proved to be the most efficient for identification of Au nano-markers. The efficiency was successfully demonstrated on two different patterns, i.e. random and clustered distribution of RGDS peptides on structured surface of the polymer biomaterial. Highlights: ► Bioactive peptides for cell adhesion on PLA-b-PEO biomimetic surface were visualized. ► The biotin-tagged RGDS peptides were labeled with streptavidin-Au nanospheres. ► The RGDS pattern was detected using different atomic force microscopy (AFM) modes. ► Phase Shift Image was proved to be suitable method for studying peptide distribution.

  15. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains form Biofilm on Abiotic Surfaces Regardless of Their Adherence Pattern on Cultured Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert F. Culler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of biofilm formation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces. Ninety-one aEPEC strains, isolated from feces of children with diarrhea, were analyzed by the crystal violet (CV assay on an abiotic surface after 24 h of incubation. aEPEC strains representing each HEp-2 cell type of adherence were analyzed after 24 h and 6, 12, and 18 days of incubation at 37°C on abiotic and cell surfaces by CFU/cm2 counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces occurred in 55 (60.4% of the aEPEC strains. There was no significant difference in biofilm biomass formation on an abiotic versus prefixed cell surface. The biofilms could be visualized by CLSM at various developmental stages. aEPEC strains are able to form biofilm on an abiotic surface with no association with their adherence pattern on HEp-2 cells with the exception of the strains expressing UND (undetermined adherence. This study revealed the capacity of adhesion and biofilm formation by aEPEC strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces, possibly playing a role in pathogenesis, mainly in cases of persistent diarrhea.

  16. Patterns of local-regional failure after primary intensity modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Fangfang; Ying, Hongmei; Du, Chengrun; Huang, Shuang; Zhou, Junjun; Chen, Junchao; Sun, Lining; Chen, Xiaohui; Hu, Chaosu

    2014-01-01

    To analyze patterns of local-regional failure after primary intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 370 non-metastatic NPC patients consecutively treated with IMRT (with or without chemotherapy) were analyzed. Radiotherapy was administered using a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique at the total prescribed dose of 66-70.4Gy (2.0-2.2Gy per fraction). The location and extent of local-regional failures were transferred to the pretreatment planning computed tomography (CT) for dosimetric analysis. The dose of radiation received by V recur (volume of recurrence) was calculated and analyzed with dose-volume histogram (DVH). Failures were classified as: 'in field' if 95% of V recur was within the 95% isodose, 'marginal' if 20% to 95% of V recur was within the 95% isodose, or 'outside' if less than 20% of V recur was inside the 95% isodose. With a median follow up of 26 months, 25 local-regional failures were found in 18 patients. The 1- and 2-year actuarial local-regional control rates for all patients were 99.7% and 95.5% respectively. Among the 22 local–regional failures with available diagnostic images, 16 (64%) occurred within the 95% isodose lines and were considered in-field failures; 3 (12%) were marginal and 3 (12%) were outside-field failures. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy provides excellent local-regional control for NPC. In-field failures are the main patterns for local-regional recurrence. Reducing the coverage of critical adjacent tissues in CTV purposefully for potential subclinical diseases was worth of study. Great attention in all IMRT steps is necessary to reduce potential causes of marginal failures. More studies about radioresistance are needed to reduce in-field failures

  17. Latent class analysis of comorbidity patterns among women with generalized and localized vulvodynia: preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen RHN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruby HN Nguyen,1 Christin Veasley,2 Derek Smolenski1,3 1Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 2National Vulvodynia Association, Silver Spring, MD, 3National Center for Telehealth and Technology, Defense Centers of Excellence, Department of Defense, Tacoma, WA, USA Background: The pattern and extent of clustering of comorbid pain conditions with vulvodynia is largely unknown. However, elucidating such patterns may improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in these common causes of chronic pain. We sought to describe the pattern of comorbid pain clustering in a population-based sample of women with diagnosed vulvodynia. Methods: A total of 1457 women with diagnosed vulvodynia self-reported their type of vulvar pain as localized, generalized, or both. Respondents were also surveyed about the presence of comorbid pain conditions, including temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders, interstitial cystitis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, endometriosis, and chronic headache. Age-adjusted latent class analysis modeled extant patterns of comorbidity by vulvar pain type, and a multigroup model was used to test for the equality of comorbidity patterns using a comparison of prevalence. A two-class model (no/single comorbidity versus multiple comorbidities had the best fit in individual and multigroup models. Results: For the no/single comorbidity class, the posterior probability prevalence of item endorsement ranged from 0.9% to 24.4%, indicating a low probability of presence. Conversely, the multiple comorbidity class showed that at least two comorbid conditions were likely to be endorsed by at least 50% of women in that class, and irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia were the most common comorbidities regardless of type of vulvar pain. Prevalence of the multiple comorbidity class differed by type of vulvar pain: both

  18. Macroecological factors shape local-scale spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tingting; Abades, Sebastián; Teng, Shuqing; Huang, Zheng Y X; Reino, Luís; Chen, Bin J W; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Chi; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-11-15

    Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images. We used spatial point pattern analysis to show that settlement spatial patterns are characterized by over-dispersion at fine spatial scales (0.05-1.4 km), consistent with territory segregation, and clumping at coarser spatial scales beyond the over-dispersion signals, indicating territorial clustering. Statistical modelling shows that, at macroscales, potential evapotranspiration and topographic heterogeneity have negative effects on territory size, but positive effects on territorial clustering. These relationships are in line with predictions from territory theory for hunter-gatherers as well as for many animal species. Our results help to disentangle the complex interactions between intrinsic spatial processes in agriculturalist societies and external forcing by macroecological factors. While one may speculate that humans can escape ecological constraints because of unique abilities for environmental modification and globalized resource transportation, our work highlights that universal macroecological principles still shape the geography of current human agricultural societies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Image Features Based on Characteristic Curves and Local Binary Patterns for Automated HER2 Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Mukundan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents novel feature descriptors and classification algorithms for the automated scoring of HER2 in Whole Slide Images (WSI of breast cancer histology slides. Since a large amount of processing is involved in analyzing WSI images, the primary design goal has been to keep the computational complexity to the minimum possible level and to use simple, yet robust feature descriptors that can provide accurate classification of the slides. We propose two types of feature descriptors that encode important information about staining patterns and the percentage of staining present in ImmunoHistoChemistry (IHC-stained slides. The first descriptor is called a characteristic curve, which is a smooth non-increasing curve that represents the variation of percentage of staining with saturation levels. The second new descriptor introduced in this paper is a local binary pattern (LBP feature curve, which is also a non-increasing smooth curve that represents the local texture of the staining patterns. Both descriptors show excellent interclass variance and intraclass correlation and are suitable for the design of automatic HER2 classification algorithms. This paper gives the detailed theoretical aspects of the feature descriptors and also provides experimental results and a comparative analysis.

  20. Compare local pocket and global protein structure models by small structure patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2015-09-09

    Researchers proposed several criteria to assess the quality of predicted protein structures because it is one of the essential tasks in the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) competitions. Popular criteria include root mean squared deviation (RMSD), MaxSub score, TM-score, GDT-TS and GDT-HA scores. All these criteria require calculation of rigid transformations to superimpose the the predicted protein structure to the native protein structure. Yet, how to obtain the rigid transformations is unknown or with high time complexity, and, hence, heuristic algorithms were proposed. In this work, we carefully design various small structure patterns, including the ones specifically tuned for local pockets. Such structure patterns are biologically meaningful, and address the issue of relying on a sufficient number of backbone residue fragments for existing methods. We sample the rigid transformations from these small structure patterns; and the optimal superpositions yield by these small structures are refined and reported. As a result, among 11; 669 pairs of predicted and native local protein pocket models from the CASP10 dataset, the GDT-TS scores calculated by our method are significantly higher than those calculated by LGA. Moreover, our program is computationally much more efficient. Source codes and executables are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/prosta/

  1. Worldwide patterns of fish biodiversity in estuaries: Effect of global vs. local factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Vasconcelos, Rita P.; França, Susana; Henriques, Sofia; Costa, Maria José; Cabral, Henrique

    2015-03-01

    The main ecological patterns and the functioning of estuarine ecosystems are difficult to evaluate due to natural and human induced complexity and variability. Broad geographical approaches appear particularly useful. This study tested, at a worldwide scale, the influence of global and local variables in fish species richness in estuaries, aiming to determine the latitudinal pattern of species richness, and patterns which could be driven by local features such as estuary area, estuary mouth width, river flow and intertidal area. Seventy one estuarine systems were considered with data obtained from the literature and geographical information system. Correlation tests and generalized linear models (GLM) were used in data analyses. Species richness varied from 23 to 153 fish species. GLM results showed that estuary area was the most important factor explaining species richness, followed by latitude and mouth width. Species richness increased towards the equator, and higher values were found in larger estuaries and with a wide mouth. All these trends showed a high variability. A larger estuary area probably reflects a higher diversity of habitats and/or productivity, which are key features for estuarine ecosystem functioning and biota. The mouth width effect is particularly notorious for marine and diadromous fish species, enhancing connectivity between marine and freshwater realms. The effects of river flow and intertidal area on the fish species richness appear to be less evident. These two factors may have a marked influence in the trophic structure of fish assemblages.

  2. Methods for simultaneously identifying coherent local clusters with smooth global patterns in gene expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun-Shien

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical clustering tree (HCT with a dendrogram 1 and the singular value decomposition (SVD with a dimension-reduced representative map 2 are popular methods for two-way sorting the gene-by-array matrix map employed in gene expression profiling. While HCT dendrograms tend to optimize local coherent clustering patterns, SVD leading eigenvectors usually identify better global grouping and transitional structures. Results This study proposes a flipping mechanism for a conventional agglomerative HCT using a rank-two ellipse (R2E, an improved SVD algorithm for sorting purpose seriation by Chen 3 as an external reference. While HCTs always produce permutations with good local behaviour, the rank-two ellipse seriation gives the best global grouping patterns and smooth transitional trends. The resulting algorithm automatically integrates the desirable properties of each method so that users have access to a clustering and visualization environment for gene expression profiles that preserves coherent local clusters and identifies global grouping trends. Conclusion We demonstrate, through four examples, that the proposed method not only possesses better numerical and statistical properties, it also provides more meaningful biomedical insights than other sorting algorithms. We suggest that sorted proximity matrices for genes and arrays, in addition to the gene-by-array expression matrix, can greatly aid in the search for comprehensive understanding of gene expression structures. Software for the proposed methods can be obtained at http://gap.stat.sinica.edu.tw/Software/GAP.

  3. Spatially Localized Chemical Patterns around an A + B → Oscillator Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budroni, M A; Lemaigre, L; Escala, D M; Muñuzuri, A P; De Wit, A

    2016-02-18

    When two gels, each loaded with a different set of reactants A and B of an oscillatory reaction, are brought into contact, reaction-diffusion patterns such as waves or Turing patterns can develop in the reactive contact zone. The initial condition which separates the reactants at the beginning leads to a localization in space of the different dynamical regimes accessible to the chemical oscillator. We study here both numerically and experimentally the composite traveling structures resulting from the interaction between chemical fronts and localized waves in the case in which the reactants of such an A + B → oscillator system are those of the canonical Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillating reaction. A transition between different dynamics is obtained by varying the initial concentration of the organic substrate of the BZ reactants, which is one of the parameters controlling the local excitability. We show that the dynamical regime (excitable or oscillatory) characterizing the BZ oscillator in the initial contact area is the key feature which determines the spatiotemporal evolution of the system. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  4. Optimization of the kernel functions in a probabilistic neural network analyzing the local pattern distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleske, I; Castellanos, J

    2002-05-01

    This article proposes a procedure for the automatic determination of the elements of the covariance matrix of the gaussian kernel function of probabilistic neural networks. Two matrices, a rotation matrix and a matrix of variances, can be calculated by analyzing the local environment of each training pattern. The combination of them will form the covariance matrix of each training pattern. This automation has two advantages: First, it will free the neural network designer from indicating the complete covariance matrix, and second, it will result in a network with better generalization ability than the original model. A variation of the famous two-spiral problem and real-world examples from the UCI Machine Learning Repository will show a classification rate not only better than the original probabilistic neural network but also that this model can outperform other well-known classification techniques.

  5. Permissive and instructive anterior patterning rely on mRNA localization in the wasp embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Ava E; Yucel, Gozde; Small, Stephen; Desplan, Claude

    2007-03-30

    The long-germ mode of embryogenesis, in which segments arise simultaneously along the anteriorposterior axis, has evolved several times in different lineages of the holometabolous, or fully metamorphosing, insects. Drosophila's long-germ fate map is established largely by the activity of the dipteran-specific Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen gradient, which operates both instructively and permissively to accomplish anterior patterning. By contrast, all nondipteran long-germ insects must achieve anterior patterning independently of bcd. We show that bcd's permissive function is mimicked in the wasp by a maternal repression system in which anterior localization of the wasp ortholog of giant represses anterior expression of the trunk gap genes so that head and thorax can properly form.

  6. Regular and irregular patterns of self-localized excitation in arrays of coupled phase oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfrum, Matthias; Omel' chenko, Oleh E. [Weierstrass Institute, Mohrenstrasse 39, Berlin 10117 (Germany); Sieber, Jan [College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, North Park Road, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    We study a system of phase oscillators with nonlocal coupling in a ring that supports self-organized patterns of coherence and incoherence, called chimera states. Introducing a global feedback loop, connecting the phase lag to the order parameter, we can observe chimera states also for systems with a small number of oscillators. Numerical simulations show a huge variety of regular and irregular patterns composed of localized phase slipping events of single oscillators. Using methods of classical finite dimensional chaos and bifurcation theory, we can identify the emergence of chaotic chimera states as a result of transitions to chaos via period doubling cascades, torus breakup, and intermittency. We can explain the observed phenomena by a mechanism of self-modulated excitability in a discrete excitable medium.

  7. Comparison of Modeling Grassland Degradation with and without Considering Localized Spatial Associations in Vegetation Changing Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassland ecosystems worldwide are confronted with degradation. It is of great importance to understand long-term trajectory patterns of grassland vegetation by advanced analytical models. This study proposes a new approach called a binary logistic regression model with neighborhood interactions, or BLR-NIs, which is based on binary logistic regression (BLR, but fully considers the spatio-temporally localized spatial associations or characterization of neighborhood interactions (NIs in the patterns of grassland vegetation. The BLR-NIs model was applied to a modeled vegetation degradation of grasslands in the Xilin river basin, Inner Mongolia, China. Residual trend analysis on the normalized difference vegetation index (RESTREND-NDVI, which excluded the climatic impact on vegetation dynamics, was adopted as a preprocessing step to derive three human-induced trajectory patterns (vegetation degradation, vegetation recovery, and no significant change in vegetation during two consecutive periods, T1 (2000–2008 and T2 (2007–2015. Human activities, including livestock grazing intensity and transportation accessibility measured by road network density, were included as explanatory variables for vegetation degradation, which was defined for locations if vegetation recovery or no significant change in vegetation in T1 and vegetation degradation in T2 were observed. Our work compared the results of BLR-NIs and the traditional BLR model that did not consider NIs. The study showed that: (1 both grazing intensity and road density had a positive correlation to vegetation degradation based on the traditional BLR model; (2 only road density was found to positively correlate to vegetation degradation by the BLR-NIs model; NIs appeared to be critical factors to predict vegetation degradation; and (3 including NIs in the BLR model improved the model performance substantially. The study provided evidence for the importance of including localized spatial

  8. Radiosurgery for brain metastases: relationship of dose and pattern of enhancement to local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiau, C.-Y.; Sneed, Penny K.; Shu, H.-K.G.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; McDermott, Michael W.; Chang, Susan; Nowak, Peter; Petti, Paula L.; Smith, Vernon; Verhey, Lynn J.; Ho, Maria; Park, Elaine; Wara, William M.; Gutin, Philip H.; Larson, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to analyze dose, initial pattern of enhancement, and other factors associated with freedom from progression (FFP) of brain metastases after radiosurgery (RS). Methods and Materials: All brain metastases treated with gamma-knife RS at the University of California, San Francisco, from 1991 to 1994 were reviewed. Evaluable lesions were those with follow-up magnetic resonance or computed tomographic imaging. Actuarial FFP was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, measuring FFP from the date of RS to the first imaging study showing tumor progression. Controlled lesions were censored at the time of the last imaging study. Multivariate analyses were performed using a stepwise Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Of 261 lesions treated in 119 patients, 219 lesions in 100 patients were evaluable. Major histologies included adenocarcinoma (86 lesions), melanoma (77), renal cell carcinoma (21), and carcinoma not otherwise specified (17). The median prescribed RS dose was 18.5 Gy (range, 10-22) and the median tumor volume was 1.3 ml (range, 0.02-30.9). The initial pattern of contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 68% of lesions, heterogeneous in 12%, and ring-enhancing in 19%. The actuarial FFP was 82% at 6 months and 77% at 1 year for all lesions, and 93 and 90%, respectively, for 145 lesions receiving ≥ 18 Gy. Multivariate analysis showed that longer FFP was significantly associated with higher prescribed RS dose, a homogeneous pattern of contrast enhancement, and a longer interval between primary diagnosis and RS. Adjusted for these factors, adenocarcinomas had longer FFP than melanomas. No significant differences in FFP were noted among lesions undergoing RS for recurrence after prior radiotherapy (119 lesions), RS alone as initial treatment (45), or RS boost (55). Conclusion: A minimum prescribed radiosurgical dose ≥ 18 Gy yields excellent local control of brain metastases. The influence of pattern of enhancement on local control, a

  9. Lung Nodule Image Classification Based on Local Difference Pattern and Combined Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Keming; Deng, Zhuofu

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel lung nodule classification method for low-dose CT images. The method includes two stages. First, Local Difference Pattern (LDP) is proposed to encode the feature representation, which is extracted by comparing intensity difference along circular regions centered at the lung nodule. Then, the single-center classifier is trained based on LDP. Due to the diversity of feature distribution for different class, the training images are further clustered into multiple cores and the multicenter classifier is constructed. The two classifiers are combined to make the final decision. Experimental results on public dataset show the superior performance of LDP and the combined classifier.

  10. Lung Nodule Image Classification Based on Local Difference Pattern and Combined Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel lung nodule classification method for low-dose CT images. The method includes two stages. First, Local Difference Pattern (LDP is proposed to encode the feature representation, which is extracted by comparing intensity difference along circular regions centered at the lung nodule. Then, the single-center classifier is trained based on LDP. Due to the diversity of feature distribution for different class, the training images are further clustered into multiple cores and the multicenter classifier is constructed. The two classifiers are combined to make the final decision. Experimental results on public dataset show the superior performance of LDP and the combined classifier.

  11. CNNs flag recognition preprocessing scheme based on gray scale stretching and local binary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Qu, Zhiyi; Hao, Kun

    2017-07-01

    Flag is a rather special recognition target in image recognition because of its non-rigid features with the location, scale and rotation characteristics. The location change can be handled well by the depth learning algorithm Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), but the scale and rotation changes are quite a challenge for CNNs. Since it has good rotation and gray scale invariance, the local binary pattern (LBP) is combined with grayscale stretching and CNNs to make LBP and grayscale stretching as CNNs pretreatment, which can not only significantly improve the efficiency of flag recognition, but can also evaluate the recognition effect through ROC, accuracy, MSE and quality factor.

  12. Laser patterning: A new approach to measure local magneto-transport properties in multifilamentary superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Valdes, C.F.; Perez-Penichet, C.; Noda, C.; Arronte, M.; Batista-Leyva, A.J.; Haugen, O.; Johansen, T.H.; Han, Z.; Altshuler, E.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of inter- and intra-filament characteristics in superconducting composites such as BSCCO-Ag tapes is of great importance for material evaluation towards applications. Most attempts to separate the two contributions have relied on indirect methods based on magnetic measurements such as SQUID or magneto-optic imaging techniques. Here we show that laser patterning of superconducting BSCCO-Ag tapes constitutes a simple approach to measure local transport properties in a direct way, even able to separate inter- and intra-filament contributions to the overall transport behavior of the sample

  13. The Apical Localization of Na+, K+-ATPase in Cultured Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Depends on Expression of the β2 Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato-Álvarez, Jorge A; Roldán, María L; López-Murillo, Teresa Del Carmen; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Shoshani, Liora

    2016-01-01

    Na + , K + -ATPase, or the Na + pump, is a key component in the maintenance of the epithelial phenotype. In most epithelia, the pump is located in the basolateral domain. Studies from our laboratory have shown that the β 1 subunit of Na + , K + -ATPase plays an important role in this mechanism because homotypic β 1 -β 1 interactions between neighboring cells stabilize the pump in the lateral membrane. However, in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the Na + pump is located in the apical domain. The mechanism of polarization in this epithelium is unclear. We hypothesized that the apical polarization of the pump in RPE cells depends on the expression of its β 2 subunit. ARPE-19 cells cultured for up to 8 weeks on inserts did not polarize, and Na + , K + -ATPase was expressed in the basolateral membrane. In the presence of insulin, transferrin and selenic acid (ITS), ARPE-19 cells cultured for 4 weeks acquired an RPE phenotype, and the Na + pump was visible in the apical domain. Under these conditions, Western blot analysis was employed to detect the β 2 isoform and immunofluorescence analysis revealed an apparent apical distribution of the β 2 subunit. qPCR results showed a time-dependent increase in the level of β 2 isoform mRNA, suggesting regulation at the transcriptional level. Moreover, silencing the expression of the β 2 isoform in ARPE-19 cells resulted in a decrease in the apical localization of the pump, as assessed by the mislocalization of the α 2 subunit in that domain. Our results demonstrate that the apical polarization of Na + , K + -ATPase in RPE cells depends on the expression of the β 2 subunit.

  14. Various oscillation patterns in phase models with locally attractive and globally repulsive couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Shima, Shin-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    We investigate a phase model that includes both locally attractive and globally repulsive coupling in one dimension. This model exhibits nontrivial spatiotemporal patterns that have not been observed in systems that contain only local or global coupling. Depending on the relative strengths of the local and global coupling and on the form of global coupling, the system can show a spatially uniform state (in-phase synchronization), a monotonically increasing state (traveling wave), and three types of oscillations of relative phase difference. One of the oscillations of relative phase difference has the characteristic of being locally unstable but globally attractive. That is, any small perturbation to the periodic orbit in phase space destroys its periodic motion, but after a long time the system returns to the original periodic orbit. This behavior is closely related to the emergence of saddle two-cluster states for global coupling only, which are connected to each other by attractive heteroclinic orbits. The mechanism of occurrence of this type of oscillation is discussed.

  15. A new similarity index for nonlinear signal analysis based on local extrema patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknazar, Hamid; Motie Nasrabadi, Ali; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Bagher

    2018-02-01

    Common similarity measures of time domain signals such as cross-correlation and Symbolic Aggregate approximation (SAX) are not appropriate for nonlinear signal analysis. This is because of the high sensitivity of nonlinear systems to initial points. Therefore, a similarity measure for nonlinear signal analysis must be invariant to initial points and quantify the similarity by considering the main dynamics of signals. The statistical behavior of local extrema (SBLE) method was previously proposed to address this problem. The SBLE similarity index uses quantized amplitudes of local extrema to quantify the dynamical similarity of signals by considering patterns of sequential local extrema. By adding time information of local extrema as well as fuzzifying quantized values, this work proposes a new similarity index for nonlinear and long-term signal analysis, which extends the SBLE method. These new features provide more information about signals and reduce noise sensitivity by fuzzifying them. A number of practical tests were performed to demonstrate the ability of the method in nonlinear signal clustering and classification on synthetic data. In addition, epileptic seizure detection based on electroencephalography (EEG) signal processing was done by the proposed similarity to feature the potentials of the method as a real-world application tool.

  16. Patterns of genetic diversity of local pig populations in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Cristina da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the genetic diversity and structure of 12 genetic groups (GG of locally adapted and specialized pigs in the state of Pernambuco using 22 microsatellite markers. Nine locally adapted breeds (Baé, Caruncho, Canastra, Canastrão, Mamelado, Moura, Nilo, Piau and UDB (Undefined Breed and 3 specialized breeds (Duroc, Landrace and Large White, totaling 190 animals, were analyzed. The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA showed that 3.2% of the total variation was due to differences between genetic groups, and 3.6% to differences between local and commercial pigs. One hundred and ninety eight alleles were identified and apart from the Large White breed, all GG presented Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium deviations for some loci. The total and effective allele means were lower for Duroc (3.65 and 3.01 and higher for UDB (8.89 and 4.53 and Canastra (8.61 and 4.58. Using Nei's standard genetic distance and the UPGMA method, it was possible to observe that the Landrace breed was grouped with the local genetic groups Canastra, Moura, Canastrão, Baé and Caruncho. Due to the complex admixture pattern, the genetic variability of the 12 genetic groups can be analyzed by distributing the individuals into two populations as demonstrated by a Bayesian analysis, corroborating the results from AMOVA, which revealed a low level of genetic differentiation between the inferred populations.

  17. LOCAL LINE BINARY PATTERN FOR FEATURE EXTRACTION ON PALM VEIN RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanti Yusmah Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, palm vein recognition has been studied to overcome problems in conventional systems in biometrics technology (finger print, face, and iris. Those problems in biometrics includes convenience and performance. However, due to the clarity of the palm vein image, the veins could not be segmented properly. To overcome this problem, we propose a palm vein recognition system using Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP method that can extract robust features from the palm vein images that has unclear veins. LLBP is an advanced method of Local Binary Pattern (LBP, a texture descriptor based on the gray level comparison of a neighborhood of pixels. There are four major steps in this paper, Region of Interest (ROI detection, image preprocessing, features extraction using LLBP method, and matching using Fuzzy k-NN classifier. The proposed method was applied on the CASIA Multi-Spectral Image Database. Experimental results showed that the proposed method using LLBP has a good performance with recognition accuracy of 97.3%. In the future, experiments will be conducted to observe which parameter that could affect processing time and recognition accuracy of LLBP is needed

  18. Passive Forensics for Region Duplication Image Forgery Based on Harris Feature Points and Local Binary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the demand for identifying the authenticity of an image is much increased since advanced image editing software packages are widely used. Region duplication forgery is one of the most common and immediate tampering attacks which are frequently used. Several methods to expose this forgery have been developed to detect and locate the tampered region, while most methods do fail when the duplicated region undergoes rotation or flipping before being pasted. In this paper, an efficient method based on Harris feature points and local binary patterns is proposed. First, the image is filtered with a pixelwise adaptive Wiener method, and then dense Harris feature points are employed in order to obtain a sufficient number of feature points with approximately uniform distribution. Feature vectors for a circle patch around each feature point are extracted using local binary pattern operators, and the similar Harris points are matched based on their representation feature vectors using the BBF algorithm. Finally, RANSAC algorithm is employed to eliminate the possible erroneous matches. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively detect region duplication forgery, even when an image was distorted by rotation, flipping, blurring, AWGN, JPEG compression, and their mixed operations, especially resistant to the forgery with the flat area of little visual structures.

  19. Uniform Local Binary Pattern for Fingerprint Liveness Detection in the Gaussian Pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint recognition schemas are widely used in our daily life, such as Door Security, Identification, and Phone Verification. However, the existing problem is that fingerprint recognition systems are easily tricked by fake fingerprints for collaboration. Therefore, designing a fingerprint liveness detection module in fingerprint recognition systems is necessary. To solve the above problem and discriminate true fingerprint from fake ones, a novel software-based liveness detection approach using uniform local binary pattern (ULBP in spatial pyramid is applied to recognize fingerprint liveness in this paper. Firstly, preprocessing operation for each fingerprint is necessary. Then, to solve image rotation and scale invariance, three-layer spatial pyramids of fingerprints are introduced in this paper. Next, texture information for three layers spatial pyramids is described by using uniform local binary pattern to extract features of given fingerprints. The accuracy of our proposed method has been compared with several state-of-the-art methods in fingerprint liveness detection. Experiments based on standard databases, taken from Liveness Detection Competition 2013 composed of four different fingerprint sensors, have been carried out. Finally, classifier model based on extracted features is trained using SVM classifier. Experimental results present that our proposed method can achieve high recognition accuracy compared with other methods.

  20. Locally advanced prostate cancer: a population-based study of treatment patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, William T; Elkin, Elena B; Yee, David S; Feifer, Andrew; Ehdaie, Behfar; Jacks, Lindsay M; Atoria, Coral L; Zelefsky, Michael J; Scher, Howard I; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2012-05-01

    Study Type--Therapy (practice patterns). Level of Evidence 2b. What's known on the subject? And what does the study add? The treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer varies widely even though there is level one evidence supporting the use of multimodality therapy as compared with monotherapy. This study defines treatment patterns of locally advanced prostate cancer within the United States and identifies predicators of who receives multimodality therapy rather than monotherapy. • To identify treatment patterns and predictors of receiving multimodality therapy in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer (LAPC). • The cohort comprised patients ≥66 years with clinical stage T3 or T4 non-metastatic prostate cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2005 identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry records linked with Medicare claims. • Treatments were classified as radical prostatectomy (RP), radiation therapy (RT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) received within 6 and 24 months of diagnosis. • We assessed trends over time and used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of multimodality treatment. • Within the first 6 months of diagnosis, 1060 of 3095 patients (34%) were treated with a combination of RT and ADT, 1486 (48%) received monotherapy (RT alone, ADT alone or RP alone), and 461 (15%) received no active treatment. • The proportion of patients who received RP increased, exceeding 10% in 2005. • Use of combined RT and ADT and use of ADT alone fluctuated throughout the study period. • In all 6% of patients received RT alone in 2005. • Multimodality therapy was less common in patients who were older, African American, unmarried, who lived in the south, and who had co-morbidities or stage T4 disease. • Treatment of LAPC varies widely, and treatment patterns shifted during the study period. • The slightly increased use of multimodality therapy since 2003 is encouraging, but

  1. Discovering local patterns of co - evolution: computational aspects and biological examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuller Tamir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-evolution is the process in which two (or more sets of orthologs exhibit a similar or correlative pattern of evolution. Co-evolution is a powerful way to learn about the functional interdependencies between sets of genes and cellular functions and to predict physical interactions. More generally, it can be used for answering fundamental questions about the evolution of biological systems. Orthologs that exhibit a strong signal of co-evolution in a certain part of the evolutionary tree may show a mild signal of co-evolution in other branches of the tree. The major reasons for this phenomenon are noise in the biological input, genes that gain or lose functions, and the fact that some measures of co-evolution relate to rare events such as positive selection. Previous publications in the field dealt with the problem of finding sets of genes that co-evolved along an entire underlying phylogenetic tree, without considering the fact that often co-evolution is local. Results In this work, we describe a new set of biological problems that are related to finding patterns of local co-evolution. We discuss their computational complexity and design algorithms for solving them. These algorithms outperform other bi-clustering methods as they are designed specifically for solving the set of problems mentioned above. We use our approach to trace the co-evolution of fungal, eukaryotic, and mammalian genes at high resolution across the different parts of the corresponding phylogenetic trees. Specifically, we discover regions in the fungi tree that are enriched with positive evolution. We show that metabolic genes exhibit a remarkable level of co-evolution and different patterns of co-evolution in various biological datasets. In addition, we find that protein complexes that are related to gene expression exhibit non-homogenous levels of co-evolution across different parts of the fungi evolutionary line. In the case of mammalian evolution

  2. Localized electric field induced transition and miniaturization of two-phase flow patterns inside microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhinav; Tiwari, Vijeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mandal, Tapas Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    Strategic application of external electrostatic field on a pressure-driven two-phase flow inside a microchannel can transform the stratified or slug flow patterns into droplets. The localized electrohydrodynamic stress at the interface of the immiscible liquids can engender a liquid-dielectrophoretic deformation, which disrupts the balance of the viscous, capillary, and inertial forces of a pressure-driven flow to engender such flow morphologies. Interestingly, the size, shape, and frequency of the droplets can be tuned by varying the field intensity, location of the electric field, surface properties of the channel or fluids, viscosity ratio of the fluids, and the flow ratio of the phases. Higher field intensity with lower interfacial tension is found to facilitate the oil droplet formation with a higher throughput inside the hydrophilic microchannels. The method is successful in breaking down the regular pressure-driven flow patterns even when the fluid inlets are exchanged in the microchannel. The simulations identify the conditions to develop interesting flow morphologies, such as (i) an array of miniaturized spherical or hemispherical or elongated oil drops in continuous water phase, (ii) "oil-in-water" microemulsion with varying size and shape of oil droplets. The results reported can be of significance in improving the efficiency of multiphase microreactors where the flow patterns composed of droplets are preferred because of the availability of higher interfacial area for reactions or heat and mass exchange. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Digoxin: use pattern in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pähkla, R; Irs, A; Oselin, K; Rootslane, L

    1999-10-01

    In comparison with neighbouring Scandinavian countries, the use of digoxin in Estonia is high. The present study was carried out to determine the use pattern of digoxin in Estonia and bioavailability of the local market leader preparation in comparison with Lanoxin. Drug use data were evaluated from the annual reports of wholesale companies. For the bioequivalence study, a single-blind cross-over randomised two-way single-dose comparative bioavailability study was performed using 14 healthy volunteers. Digoxin concentrations in serum samples and urine were measured by chemiluminescent competitive immunoassay. The use of digoxin in Estonia has increased by 35% during the period 1994-97. The steady market leader was the local generic drug. No statistically significant differences were found in any pharmacokinetic parameter between the generic preparation and Lanoxin. All parameters showed considerable variability. The total amount of drug excreted was the parameter with lowest inter- individual variation. The present study indicates that the generic digoxin preparation studied is bioequivalent to Lanoxin. The increasing use of digoxin in Estonia is not caused by low bioavailability of the local market leader but by therapeutic traditions.

  4. Knee cartilage segmentation using active shape models and local binary patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Germán.; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Segmentation of knee cartilage has been useful for opportune diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). This paper presents a semiautomatic segmentation technique based on Active Shape Models (ASM) combined with Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and its approaches to describe the surrounding texture of femoral cartilage. The proposed technique is tested on a 16-image database of different patients and it is validated through Leave- One-Out method. We compare different segmentation techniques: ASM-LBP, ASM-medianLBP, and ASM proposed by Cootes. The ASM-LBP approaches are tested with different ratios to decide which of them describes the cartilage texture better. The results show that ASM-medianLBP has better performance than ASM-LBP and ASM. Furthermore, we add a routine which improves the robustness versus two principal problems: oversegmentation and initialization.

  5. Analysis of local concentration in stomach fold pattern by using abdominal X-ray CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeto; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Mekada, Yoshito; Mori, Kensaku; Nawano, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a method for analysis of stomach folds pattern in abdominal X-ray CT images. Many stomach cancers have local concentration of folds at cancer lesions. Therefore, in stomach diagnosis, it is very important to evaluate quantitatively such fold concentration. In this paper, a method for calculation of concentration index for line figure on a curved surface is proposed first. Then, using this method a processing procedure for detection of stomach cancer from an abdominal X-ray CT image is developed. In the experiment using practical X-ray CT images, it is shown that by the proposed procedure, higher values of concentration index are obtained at cancer area. (author)

  6. Generalized method for sorting Shack-Hartmann spot patterns using local similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Daniel G.; Greivenkamp, John E.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity and dynamic range of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is enhanced when the spots produced by the lenslet array are allowed to shift more than one lenslet radius from their on-axis positions. However, this presents the problem of accurately and robustly associating the spots with their respective subapertures. This paper describes a method for sorting spots that takes advantage of the local spot position distortions to unwrap the spot pattern. The described algorithm is both simple and robust and also applicable to any lenslet array geometry that can be described as a two-dimensional lattice, including hexagonal arrays, which are shown here to be more efficient than square arrays

  7. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelorget, Bruno; Francois, Manuel; Vial-Edwards, Cristian; Montay, Guillaume; Daniel, Laurent; Lu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force (ε t ≅ 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements

  8. Strain rate measurement by Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: A new look at the strain localization onset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelorget, Bruno [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bruno.guelorget@utt.fr; Francois, Manuel [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Vial-Edwards, Cristian [Departemento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 6904411 Santiago (Chile); Montay, Guillaume [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Daniel, Laurent [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Lu, Jian [Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), Laboratoire des Systemes Mecaniques et d' ingenierie Simultanee (LASMIS, CNRS FRE 2719), 12 rue Marie Curie, B.P. 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)

    2006-01-15

    In-plane Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry has been successfully used during tensile testing of semi-hard copper sheets in order to measure the strain rate. On one hand, heterogeneity in strain rate field has been found before the maximum of the tensile force ({epsilon} {sup t} {approx_equal} 19.4 and 25.4%, respectively). Thus, a localization phenomenon occurs before the classic Considere's criterion (dF = 0) for the diffuse neck initiation. On the other hand, strain rate measurement before fracture shows the moment where one of the two slip band systems becomes predominant, then strain concentrates in a small area, the shear band. Uncertainty evaluation has been carried out, which shows a very good accuracy of the total strain and the strain rate measurements.

  9. Video-based depression detection using local Curvelet binary patterns in pairwise orthogonal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampouchidou, Anastasia; Marias, Kostas; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Simos, Panagiotis; Fan Yang; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2016-08-01

    Depression is an increasingly prevalent mood disorder. This is the reason why the field of computer-based depression assessment has been gaining the attention of the research community during the past couple of years. The present work proposes two algorithms for depression detection, one Frame-based and the second Video-based, both employing Curvelet transform and Local Binary Patterns. The main advantage of these methods is that they have significantly lower computational requirements, as the extracted features are of very low dimensionality. This is achieved by modifying the previously proposed algorithm which considers Three-Orthogonal-Planes, to only Pairwise-Orthogonal-Planes. Performance of the algorithms was tested on the benchmark dataset provided by the Audio/Visual Emotion Challenge 2014, with the person-specific system achieving 97.6% classification accuracy, and the person-independed one yielding promising preliminary results of 74.5% accuracy. The paper concludes with open issues, proposed solutions, and future plans.

  10. Vision-Based Bicycle Detection Using Multiscale Block Local Binary Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle traffic has heavy proportion among all travel modes in some developing countries, which is crucial for urban traffic control and management as well as facility design. This paper proposes a real-time multiple bicycle detection algorithm based on video. At first, an effective feature called multiscale block local binary pattern (MBLBP is extracted for representing the moving object, which is a well-classified feature to distinguish between bicycles and nonbicycles; then, a cascaded bicycle classifier trained by AdaBoost algorithm is proposed, which has a good computation efficiency. Finally, the method is tested with video sequence captured from the real-world traffic scenario. The bicycles in the test scenario are successfully detected.

  11. Analysis of fracture patterns and local stress field variations in fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Hagen; Drews, Michael; Fremgen, Dominik; Wellmann, J. Florian

    2010-05-01

    independently estimated regional stress tensor is put as a boundary condition into the BE Model. The computed BE model allows to recognize local 3D stress tensor perturbations caused by the larger faults that act as mechanical inhomogeneities. The geometry of the fracture network from field work together with the local stress tensors derived from the 3D BE models allows examining normal and shear stresses on single fractures in different domains of the investigated area. This in turn is used to evaluate, which of the fractures might preferably act as fluid conduits by describing the dilation potential of single fractures. The combination of an improved understanding of the fracture network along with local stress tensors variations from mechanical models will provide a sound evaluation of fluid pathways in fractured reservoirs. In future applications the accurate investigation of large discontinuity pattern in outcrops might be used for a better mathematical definition of fracture networks which could be implemented into numerical simulations of fluid flow.

  12. Local hysteresis loops measurements on irradiated FeSiB patterned dots by magnetic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coïsson, M., E-mail: m.coisson@inrim.it [INRIM, Electromagnetism Division, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Barrera, G. [INRIM, Electromagnetism Division, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica, via P. Giuria 9, 10125 Torino (Italy); Celegato, F.; Enrico, E.; Olivetti, E.S.; Tiberto, P.; Vinai, F. [INRIM, Electromagnetism Division, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) has been exploited to develop a technique capable of investigating the field-dependent magnetisation reversal processes in patterned systems, allowing the full reconstruction of a local hysteresis loop. Fe–Si–B dots with a lateral size of 6μm and a thickness of 250 nm have been prepared by sputtering and optical lithography. In the as-prepared state, the dots are characterised by a dense stripe domain configuration, clearly visible at the MFM. Subsequently, the dots have been thinned by means of exposition to a focussed ion beam, consisting of Ga{sup +} ions having an energy of 30 keV. The local hysteresis loops have been measured by means of the MFM-derived technique. The progressive thinning of the dots results in the disappearance of the perpendicular anisotropy responsible for the dense stripe domain configuration, with the dominance of the shape anisotropy for thickness values below ≈70nm. The results are consistent with the spin reorientation transition effect studied on similar systems in the form of continuous thin films.

  13. Automatic boiling water reactor control rod pattern design using particle swarm optimization algorithm and local search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-Der, E-mail: jdwang@iner.gov.tw [Nuclear Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chaung [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Engineering and System Science, 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The PSO algorithm was adopted to automatically design a BWR CRP. ► The local search procedure was added to improve the result of PSO algorithm. ► The results show that the obtained CRP is the same good as that in the previous work. -- Abstract: This study developed a method for the automatic design of a boiling water reactor (BWR) control rod pattern (CRP) using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The PSO algorithm is more random compared to the rank-based ant system (RAS) that was used to solve the same BWR CRP design problem in the previous work. In addition, the local search procedure was used to make improvements after PSO, by adding the single control rod (CR) effect. The design goal was to obtain the CRP so that the thermal limits and shutdown margin would satisfy the design requirement and the cycle length, which is implicitly controlled by the axial power distribution, would be acceptable. The results showed that the same acceptable CRP found in the previous work could be obtained.

  14. Local hysteresis loops measurements on irradiated FeSiB patterned dots by magnetic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coïsson, M.; Barrera, G.; Celegato, F.; Enrico, E.; Olivetti, E.S.; Tiberto, P.; Vinai, F.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) has been exploited to develop a technique capable of investigating the field-dependent magnetisation reversal processes in patterned systems, allowing the full reconstruction of a local hysteresis loop. Fe–Si–B dots with a lateral size of 6μm and a thickness of 250 nm have been prepared by sputtering and optical lithography. In the as-prepared state, the dots are characterised by a dense stripe domain configuration, clearly visible at the MFM. Subsequently, the dots have been thinned by means of exposition to a focussed ion beam, consisting of Ga + ions having an energy of 30 keV. The local hysteresis loops have been measured by means of the MFM-derived technique. The progressive thinning of the dots results in the disappearance of the perpendicular anisotropy responsible for the dense stripe domain configuration, with the dominance of the shape anisotropy for thickness values below ≈70nm. The results are consistent with the spin reorientation transition effect studied on similar systems in the form of continuous thin films

  15. Estimating local scaling properties for the classification of interstitial lung disease patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Markus B.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Leinsinger, Gerda; Ray, Lawrence A.; Wismueller, Axel

    2011-03-01

    Local scaling properties of texture regions were compared in their ability to classify morphological patterns known as 'honeycombing' that are considered indicative for the presence of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. For 14 patients with known occurrence of honeycombing, a stack of 70 axial, lung kernel reconstructed images were acquired from HRCT chest exams. 241 regions of interest of both healthy and pathological (89) lung tissue were identified by an experienced radiologist. Texture features were extracted using six properties calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), Minkowski Dimensions (MDs), and the estimation of local scaling properties with Scaling Index Method (SIM). A k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a Multilayer Radial Basis Functions Network (RBFN) were optimized in a 10-fold cross-validation for each texture vector, and the classification accuracy was calculated on independent test sets as a quantitative measure of automated tissue characterization. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two accuracy distributions including the Bonferroni correction. The best classification results were obtained by the set of SIM features, which performed significantly better than all the standard GLCM and MD features (p < 0.005) for both classifiers with the highest accuracy (94.1%, 93.7%; for the k-NN and RBFN classifier, respectively). The best standard texture features were the GLCM features 'homogeneity' (91.8%, 87.2%) and 'absolute value' (90.2%, 88.5%). The results indicate that advanced texture features using local scaling properties can provide superior classification performance in computer-assisted diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases when compared to standard texture analysis methods.

  16. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Jacob O; Obembe, Olawole O

    2013-11-25

    All parts of Moringa oleifera are medicinally valuable with overlapping uses in treating myriads of ailments and diseases including body pains and weakness, fever, asthma, cough, blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, wound, and skin infection. Moringa also has robust ability to challenge terminal diseases such as HIV/AIDs infections, chronic anemia, cancer, malaria and hemorrhage. The present study was to obtain ethnobotanical information on the use and local knowledge variation, geographical distribution, and to collect different landraces of Moringa oleifera from the different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria, for further studies. Ethnobotanical data were collected through face to face interviews, semi structured questionnaires and discussions with selected people who had knowledge about the plant. The fidelity level (FL %) and use value for different use categories of Moringa oleifera and its parts were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was evaluated by comparing the mean use value among ethnic, gender and age groups using sample T test. Garmi GPS was used to determine the locations (latitude and longitude) and height in different areas to assess the geographical spread of the species. Seven (7) categories of use (Food, medicine, fodder, fencing, firewood, gum and coagulant) were recorded for Moringa oleifera. Food and medicinal uses showed highest fidelity level while the leaves and the seeds were the plant parts most utilized for the same purposes. There were significant differences among the ethnic, gender and age groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value. The geographical distribution pattern shows that the Moringa oleifera is well distributed in all ecological zones of Nigeria, well adapted to the varied climatic conditions and gaining unprecedented awareness among the people. Though considered an introduced species, Moringa oleifera has found wide acceptance, recognition and usefulness among the various ethnicities in the

  17. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  18. Stochastic characterization of regional circulation patterns for climate model diagnosis and estimation of local precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorita, E.; Hughes, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Two statistical approaches for linking large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and daily local rainfall are described and applied to several GCM (general circulation model) climate simulations. The ultimate objective is to simulate local precipitation associated with alternative climates. The index stations are located near the West and East North American coasts. The first method is based on CART analysis (Classification and Regression trees). It finds the classification of observed daily SLR (sea level pressure) fields in weather types that are most strongly associated with the presence/absence of rainfall in a set of index stations. The best results were obtained for winter rainfall for the West Coast, where a set of physically reasonable weather types could be identified, whereas for the East Coast the rainfall process seemed to be spatially less coherent. The GCM simulations were validated against observations in terms of probability of occurrence and survival time of these weather states. Some discrepancies werefound but there was no systematic bias, indicating that this behavior depends on the particular dynamics of each model. This classification method was then used for the generation of daily rainfall time series from the daily SLP fields from historical observation and from the GCM simulations. Whereas the mean rainfall and probability distributions were rather well replicated, the simulated dry periods were in all cases shorter than in the rainfall observations. The second rainfall generator is based on the analog method and uses information on the evolution of the SLP field in several previous days. It was found to perform reasonably well, although some downward bias in the simulated rainfall persistence was still present. Rainfall changes in a 2xCO 2 climate were investigated by applying both methods to the output of a greenhouse-gas experiment. The simulated precipitation changes were small. (orig.)

  19. Using pattern recognition to automatically localize reflection hyperbolas in data from ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Christian; Schmalzl, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used for the localization of supply lines, land mines, pipes and many other buried objects. These objects can be recognized in the recorded data as reflection hyperbolas with a typical shape depending on depth and material of the object and the surrounding material. To obtain the parameters, the shape of the hyperbola has to be fitted. In the last years several methods were developed to automate this task during post-processing. In this paper we show another approach for the automated localization of reflection hyperbolas in GPR data by solving a pattern recognition problem in grayscale images. In contrast to other methods our detection program is also able to immediately mark potential objects in real-time. For this task we use a version of the Viola-Jones learning algorithm, which is part of the open source library "OpenCV". This algorithm was initially developed for face recognition, but can be adapted to any other simple shape. In our program it is used to narrow down the location of reflection hyperbolas to certain areas in the GPR data. In order to extract the exact location and the velocity of the hyperbolas we apply a simple Hough Transform for hyperbolas. Because the Viola-Jones Algorithm reduces the input for the computational expensive Hough Transform dramatically the detection system can also be implemented on normal field computers, so on-site application is possible. The developed detection system shows promising results and detection rates in unprocessed radargrams. In order to improve the detection results and apply the program to noisy radar images more data of different GPR systems as input for the learning algorithm is necessary.

  20. Assessment of local variability by high-throughput e-beam metrology for prediction of patterning defect probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuming; Hunsche, Stefan; Anunciado, Roy; Corradi, Antonio; Tien, Hung Yu; Tang, Peng; Wei, Junwei; Wang, Yongjun; Fang, Wei; Wong, Patrick; van Oosten, Anton; van Ingen Schenau, Koen; Slachter, Bram

    2018-03-01

    We present an experimental study of pattern variability and defectivity, based on a large data set with more than 112 million SEM measurements from an HMI high-throughput e-beam tool. The test case is a 10nm node SRAM via array patterned with a DUV immersion LELE process, where we see a variation in mean size and litho sensitivities between different unique via patterns that leads to a seemingly qualitative differences in defectivity. The large available data volume enables further analysis to reliably distinguish global and local CDU variations, including a breakdown into local systematics and stochastics. A closer inspection of the tail end of the distributions and estimation of defect probabilities concludes that there is a common defect mechanism and defect threshold despite the observed differences of specific pattern characteristics. We expect that the analysis methodology can be applied for defect probability modeling as well as general process qualification in the future.

  1. Patterns of Failure and Local Control After Intraoperative Electron Boost Radiotherapy to the Presacral Space in Combination with Total Mesorectal Excision in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Falk; Treiber, Martina; Oertel, Susanne; Dinkel, Julien; Timke, Carmen; Funk, Angela; Garcia-Huttenlocher, Helena; Bischof, Marc; Weitz, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang; Hensley, Frank W.; Buchler, Markus W.; Debus, Juergen; Krempien, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control and patterns of failure in patients treated with intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) after total mesorectal excision (TME), to appraise the effectiveness of intraoperative target definition. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the outcome of 243 patients with rectal cancer treated with IOERT (median dose, 10 Gy) after TME. Eighty-eight patients received neoadjuvant and 122 patients adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (median dose, 41.4 Gy), and in 88% simultaneous chemotherapy was applied. Median follow-up was 59 months. Results: Local failure was observed in 17 patients (7%), resulting in a 5-year local control rate of 92%. Only complete resection and absence of nodal involvement correlated positively with local control. Considering IOERT fields, seven infield recurrences were seen in the presacral space, resulting in a 5-year local control rate of 97%. The remaining local relapses were located as follows: retrovesical/retroprostatic (5), anastomotic site (2), promontorium (1), ileocecal (1), and perineal (1). Conclusion: Intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy as part of a multimodal treatment approach including TME is a highly effective regimen to prevent local failure. The presacral space remains the site of highest risk for local failure, but IOERT can decrease the percentage of relapses in this area

  2. AUTOMATIC LUNG NODULE SEGMENTATION USING AUTOSEED REGION GROWING WITH MORPHOLOGICAL MASKING (ARGMM AND FEATURE EX-TRACTION THROUGH COMPLETE LOCAL BINARY PATTERN AND MICROSCOPIC INFORMATION PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An efficient Autoseed Region Growing with Morphological Masking(ARGMM is imple-mented in this paper on the Lung CT Slice to segment the 'Lung Nodules',which may be the potential indicator for the Lung Cancer. The segmentation of lung nodules car-ried out in this paper through Multi-Thresholding, ARGMM and Level Set Evolution. ARGMM takes twice the time compared to Level Set, but still the number of suspected segmented nodules are doubled, which make sure that no potential cancerous nodules go unnoticed at the earlier stages of diagnosis. It is very important not to panic the patient by finding the presence of nodules from Lung CT scan. Only 40 percent of nod-ules can be cancerous. Hence, in this paper an efficient Shape and Texture analysis is computed to quantitatively describe the segmented lung nodules. The Frequency spectrum of the lung nodules is developed and its frequency domain features are com-puted. The Complete Local binary pattern of lung nodules is computed in this paper by constructing the combine histogram of Sign and Magnitude Local Binary Patterns. Lo-cal Configuration Pattern is also determined in this work for lung nodules to numeri-cally model the microscopic information of nodules pattern.

  3. Spatial patterns of coral survivorship: impacts of adult proximity versus other drivers of localized mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Gibbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Species-specific enemies may promote prey coexistence through negative distance- and density-dependent survival of juveniles near conspecific adults. We tested this mechanism by transplanting juvenile-sized fragments of the brooding corals Pocillopora damicornis and Seriatopora hystrix 3, 12, 24 and 182 cm up- and down-current of conspecific adults and monitoring their survival and condition over time. We also characterized the spatial distribution of P. damicornis and S. hystrix within replicate plots on three Fijian reef flats and measured the distribution of small colonies within 2 m of larger colonies of each species. Juvenile-sized transplants exhibited no differences in survivorship as a function of distance from adult P. damicornis or S. hystrix. Additionally, both P. damicornis and S. hystrix were aggregated rather than overdispersed on natural reefs. However, a pattern of juveniles being aggregated near adults while larger (and probably older colonies were not suggests that greater mortality near large adults could occur over longer periods of time or that size-dependent mortality was occurring. While we found minimal evidence of greater mortality of small colonies near adult conspecifics in our transplant experiments, we did document hot-spots of species-specific corallivory. We detected spatially localized and temporally persistent predation on P. damicornis by the territorial triggerfish Balistapus undulatus. This patchy predation did not occur for S. hystrix. This variable selective regime in an otherwise more uniform environment could be one mechanism maintaining diversity of corals on Indo-Pacific reefs.

  4. Classifying Dementia Using Local Binary Patterns from Different Regions in Magnetic Resonance Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Oppedal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is an evolving challenge in society, and no disease-modifying treatment exists. Diagnosis can be demanding and MR imaging may aid as a noninvasive method to increase prediction accuracy. We explored the use of 2D local binary pattern (LBP extracted from FLAIR and T1 MR images of the brain combined with a Random Forest classifier in an attempt to discern patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD, Lewy body dementia (LBD, and normal controls (NC. Analysis was conducted in areas with white matter lesions (WML and all of white matter (WM. Results from 10-fold nested cross validation are reported as mean accuracy, precision, and recall with standard deviation in brackets. The best result we achieved was in the two-class problem NC versus AD + LBD with total accuracy of 0.98 (0.04. In the three-class problem AD versus LBD versus NC and the two-class problem AD versus LBD, we achieved 0.87 (0.08 and 0.74 (0.16, respectively. The performance using 3DT1 images was notably better than when using FLAIR images. The results from the WM region gave similar results as in the WML region. Our study demonstrates that LBP texture analysis in brain MR images can be successfully used for computer based dementia diagnosis.

  5. Automatic classification of prostate stromal tissue in histological images using Haralick descriptors and Local Binary Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D L L; Batista, V R; Duarte, Y A S; Nascimento, M Z; Neves, L A; Godoy, M F; Jacomini, R S; Arruda, P F F; Neto, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we presente a classification system that uses a combination of texture features from stromal regions: Haralick features and Local Binary Patterns (LBP) in wavelet domain. The system has five steps for classification of the tissues. First, the stromal regions were detected and extracted using segmentation techniques based on thresholding and RGB colour space. Second, the Wavelet decomposition was applied in the extracted regions to obtain the Wavelet coefficients. Third, the Haralick and LBP features were extracted from the coefficients. Fourth, relevant features were selected using the ANOVA statistical method. The classication (fifth step) was performed with Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks. The system was tested in 105 prostate images, which were divided into three groups of 35 images: normal, hyperplastic and cancerous. The system performance was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve and resulted in 0.98 for normal versus cancer, 0.95 for hyperplasia versus cancer and 0.96 for normal versus hyperplasia. Our results suggest that texture features can be used as discriminators for stromal tissues prostate images. Furthermore, the system was effective to classify prostate images, specially the hyperplastic class which is the most difficult type in diagnosis and prognosis

  6. Energy availabilities for state and local development: projected energy patterns for 1980 and 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, D. P.; Rice, P. L.; Pai, V. P.

    1978-06-01

    This report presents projections of the supply, demand, and net imports of seven fuel types and four final consuming sectors for BEAs, states, census regions, and the nation for 1980 and 1985. The data are formatted to present regional energy availability from primary extraction, as well as from regional transformation processes. As constructed, the tables depict energy balances between availability and use for each of the specific fuels. The objective of the program is to provide a consistent base of historic and projected energy information within a standard format. Such a framework should aid regional policymakers in their consideration of regional growth issues that may be influenced by the regional energy system. This basic data must be supplemented by region-specific information which only the local policy analyst can bring to bear in his assessment of the energy conditions which characterize each region. The energy data, coupled with specific knowledge of projected economic growth and employment patterns, can assist EDA in developing its grant-in-aid investment strategy.

  7. Texture Based Quality Analysis of Simulated Synthetic Ultrasound Images Using Local Binary Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Singh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Speckle noise reduction is an important area of research in the field of ultrasound image processing. Several algorithms for speckle noise characterization and analysis have been recently proposed in the area. Synthetic ultrasound images can play a key role in noise evaluation methods as they can be used to generate a variety of speckle noise models under different interpolation and sampling schemes, and can also provide valuable ground truth data for estimating the accuracy of the chosen methods. However, not much work has been done in the area of modeling synthetic ultrasound images, and in simulating speckle noise generation to get images that are as close as possible to real ultrasound images. An important aspect of simulated synthetic ultrasound images is the requirement for extensive quality assessment for ensuring that they have the texture characteristics and gray-tone features of real images. This paper presents texture feature analysis of synthetic ultrasound images using local binary patterns (LBP and demonstrates the usefulness of a set of LBP features for image quality assessment. Experimental results presented in the paper clearly show how these features could provide an accurate quality metric that correlates very well with subjective evaluations performed by clinical experts.

  8. Neoadjuvant versus definitive chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer. Outcomes and patterns of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefner, Matthias Felix; Lang, Kristin; Koerber, Stefan Alexander; Debus, Juergen [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Verma, Vivek [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Omaha, NE (United States); Uhlmann, Lorenz [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Medical Biometry and Informatics (IMBI), Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Hospital Kempten, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kempten (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Randomized trials examining neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection (nCRT-S) and definitive CRT (dCRT) for esophageal cancer (EC) patients are hampered by use of nonstandard treatment paradigms. Outcomes of nCRT-S versus dCRT in a more common patient population are lacking. We investigated local control and survival, evaluated clinical factors associated with endpoints, and assessed patterns of failure between these cohorts. We retrospectively analyzed 130 patients with locally advanced EC receiving either dCRT or nCRT-S at our institution from 2000-2012. Inclusion criteria were curatively treated nonmetastatic EC, Karnofsky performance status ≥70%, and receipt of concomitant CRT. Patients were excluded if receiving <41 Gy neoadjuvantly or <50 Gy definitively. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate local recurrence (LR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling addressed factors associated with outcomes. Patterns of failure were enumerated as local, regional, or distant. Mean follow-up was 34.2 months. The 3-year LR was 10.8% in the nCRT-S group and 21.5% in the dCRT group (p = 0.266). Median PFS were 15.6 and 14.9 months, respectively (p = 0.549). Median OS were 20.6 and 25.9 months, respectively (p = 0.81). On univariate and multivariate analysis, none of the investigated factors was associated with outcomes, although node-positive disease showed a trend for worse OS and PFS. Most common failures in both groups were distant (dCRT 31.2% vs. nCRT-S 21.6%) followed by local in-field recurrences (dCRT 26.9% vs. nCRT-S 10.8%). In this institutional analysis, no significant differences regarding outcomes and patterns of failure were observed between nCRT-S and dCRT. (orig.) [German] Randomisierte Studien, welche die neoadjuvante Radiochemotherapie (CRT) einschliesslich konsekutiver Operation (nCRT-S) mit der definitiven Radiochemotherapie (dCRT) fuer

  9. Different localization patterns of anthocyanin species in the pericarp of black rice revealed by imaging mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Yoshimura

    Full Text Available Black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica contains high levels of anthocyanins in the pericarp and is considered an effective health-promoting food. Several studies have identified the molecular species of anthocyanins in black rice, but information about the localization of each anthocyanin species is limited because methodologies for investigating the localization such as determining specific antibodies to anthocyanin, have not yet been developed Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS is a suitable tool for investigating the localization of metabolites. In this study, we identified 7 species of anthocyanin monoglycosides and 2 species of anthocyanin diglycosides in crude extracts from black rice by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS analysis. We also analyzed black rice sections by MALDI-IMS and found 2 additional species of anthocyanin pentosides and revealed different localization patterns of anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties. Anthocyanin species composed of a pentose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-pentoside and petunidin-3-O-pentoside were localized in the entire pericarp, whereas anthocyanin species composed of a hexose moiety (cyanidin-3-O-hexoside and peonidin-3-O-hexoside were focally localized in the dorsal pericarp. These results indicate that anthocyanin species composed of different sugar moieties exhibit different localization patterns in the pericarp of black rice. This is the first detailed investigation into the localization of molecular species of anthocyanins by MALDI-IMS.

  10. Local behavioral rules sustain the cell allocation pattern in the combs of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montovan, Kathryn J; Karst, Nathaniel; Jones, Laura E; Seeley, Thomas D

    2013-11-07

    In the beeswax combs of honey bees, the cells of brood, pollen, and honey have a consistent spatial pattern that is sustained throughout the life of a colony. This spatial pattern is believed to emerge from simple behavioral rules that specify how the queen moves, where foragers deposit honey/pollen and how honey/pollen is consumed from cells. Prior work has shown that a set of such rules can explain the formation of the allocation pattern starting from an empty comb. We show that these rules cannot maintain the pattern once the brood start to vacate their cells, and we propose new, biologically realistic rules that better sustain the observed allocation pattern. We analyze the three resulting models by performing hundreds of simulation runs over many gestational periods and a wide range of parameter values. We develop new metrics for pattern assessment and employ them in analyzing pattern retention over each simulation run. Applied to our simulation results, these metrics show alteration of an accepted model for honey/pollen consumption based on local information can stabilize the cell allocation pattern over time. We also show that adding global information, by biasing the queen's movements towards the center of the comb, expands the parameter regime over which pattern retention occurs. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between Spatio-Temporal Travel Patterns Derived from Smart-Card Data and Local Environmental Characteristics of Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the incorporation of an automated fare-collection system into the management of public transportation, not only can the quality of transportation services be improved but also that of the data collected from users when coupled with smart-card technology. The data collected from smart cards provide opportunities for researchers to analyze big data sets and draw meaningful information out of them. This study aims to identify the relationship between travel patterns derived from smart-card data and urban characteristics. Using seven-day transit smart-card data from the public-transportation system in Seoul, the capital city of the Republic of Korea, we investigated the temporal and spatial boarding and alighting patterns of the users. The major travel patterns, classified into five clusters, were identified by utilizing the K-Spectral Centroid clustering method. We found that the temporal pattern of urban mobility reflects daily activities in the urban area and that the spatial pattern of the five clusters classified by travel patterns was closely related to urban structure and urban function; that is, local environmental characteristics extracted from land-use and census data. This study confirmed that the travel patterns at the citywide level can be used to understand the dynamics of the urban population and the urban spatial structure. We believe that this study will provide valuable information about general patterns, which represent the possibility of finding travel patterns from individuals and urban spatial traits.

  12. Salvage radiotherapy for macroscopic local recurrences after radical prostatectomy. A national survey on patterns of practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dal Pra, Alan [Bern University Hospital, Inselspital Bern, Department of Radiation Oncology, Bern (Switzerland); Panje, Cedric; Glatzer, Markus; Putora, Paul Martin [Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Zilli, Thomas [Hospitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneve (Switzerland); Arnold, Winfried [Luzerner Kantonsspital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Luzerner (Switzerland); Brouwer, Kathrin [Stadtspital Triemli, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Garcia, Helena [Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gomez, Silvia [Kantonsspital Aarau, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aarau (Switzerland); Herrera, Fernanda [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kaouthar, Khanfir [Hopital du Valais, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sion (Switzerland); Papachristofilou, Alexandros [Universitaetsspital Basel, Department of Radiation Oncology, Basel (Switzerland); Pesce, Gianfranco [EOC Bellinzona, Department of Radiation Oncology, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Reuter, Christiane [Kantonsspital Muensterlingen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muensterlingen (Switzerland); Vees, Hansjoerg [Klinik Hirslanden, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Zwahlen, Daniel Rudolf [Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Department of Radiation Oncology, Chur (Switzerland); Engeler, Daniel [Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Department of Urology, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2018-01-15

    Although salvage radiotherapy (SRT) for PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy provides better oncological outcomes when delivered early, in the absence of detectable disease many patients are treated for macroscopic locally recurrent tumors. Due to limited data from prospective studies, we hypothesized an important variability in the SRT management of these patients. Our aim was to investigate current practice patterns of SRT for local macroscopic recurrence after radical prostatectomy. A total of 14 Swiss radiation oncology centers were asked to complete a survey on treatment specifications for macroscopic locally recurrent disease including information on pretherapeutic diagnostic procedures, dose prescription, radiation delivery techniques and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Treatment recommendations on ADT were analyzed using the objective consensus methodology. The majority of centers recommended pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis and choline positron emission tomography (PET). The median prescribed dose to the prostate bed was 66 Gy (range 65-72 Gy) with a boost to the macroscopic lesion used by 79% of the centers with a median total dose of 72 Gy (range 70-80 Gy). Intensity-modulated rotational techniques were used by all centers and daily cone beam computed tomography (CT) was recommended by 43%. The use of concomitant ADT for any macroscopic recurrence was recommended by 43% of the centers while the remaining centers recommended it only for high-risk disease, which was not consistently defined. We observed a high variability of treatment paradigms when SRT is indicated for macroscopic local recurrences after prostatectomy. These data reflect the need for more standardized approaches and ultimately further research in this field. (orig.) [German] Obwohl die Evidenz fuer eine fruehzeitige Salvage-Radiotherapie (SRT) bei einem PSA-Rezidiv nach radikaler Prostatektomie spricht, werden viele Patienten erst bei einem

  13. Local-scale analysis of temperature patterns over Poland during heatwave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżewska, Agnieszka; Dyer, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Heatwaves are predicted to increase in frequency, duration, and severity in the future, including over Central Europe where populations are sensitive to extreme temperature. This paper studies six recent major heatwave events over Poland from 2006 through 2015 using regional-scale simulations (10-km grid spacing, hourly frequency) from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to define local-scale 2-m temperature patterns. For this purpose, a heatwave is defined as at least three consecutive days with maximum 2-m air temperature exceeding 30 °C. The WRF simulations were validated using maximum daily 2-m temperature observations from 12 meteorological stations in select Polish cities, which were selected to have even spatial coverage across the study area. Synoptic analysis of the six study events shows that the inflow of tropical air masses from the south is the primary driver of heatwave onset and maintenance, the highest temperatures (and most vulnerable areas) occur over arable land and artificial surfaces in central and western Poland, while coastal areas in the north, mountain areas in the south, and forested and mosaic areas of smaller fields and pastures of the northwest, northeast, and southeast are less affected by prolonged periods of elevated temperatures. In general, regional differences in 2-m temperature between the hottest and coolest areas is about 2-4 °C. Large urban areas like Warsaw, or the large complex of artificial areas in the conurbation of Silesian cities, are also generally warmer than surrounding areas by roughly 2-4 °C, and even up to 6 °C, especially during the night. Additionally, hot air from the south of Poland flows through a low-lying area between two mountain ranges (Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains)—the so-called Moravian Gate—hitting densely populated urban areas (Silesian cities) and Cracow. These patterns occur only during high-pressure synoptic conditions with low cloudiness and wind and without any active fronts

  14. Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran S. Chaudhry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of only a finite number of tobacco toxins have been studied. Here, we describe exposure of cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells to low concentrations of tobacco carcinogens: nickel sulphate, benzo(bfluoranthene, N-nitrosodiethylamine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK. After a 24-hour exposure, EGFR was expressed in cell membrane and cytoplasm, BCL-2 was expressed only in the irregular nuclei of large atypical cells, MKI67 was expressed in nuclei with no staining in larger cells, cytoplasmic BIRC5 with stronger nuclear staining was seen in large atypical cells, and nuclear TP53 was strongly expressed in all cells. After only a 24-hour exposure, cells exhibited atypical nuclear and cytoplasmic features. After a 48-hour exposure, EGFR staining was localized to the nucleus, BCL-2 was slightly decreased in intensity, BIRC5 was localized to the cytoplasm, and TP53 staining was increased in small and large cells. BCL2L1 was expressed in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells at 24- and 48-hour exposures. We illustrate that short-termexposure of a bronchial epithelial cell line to smoking-equivalent concentrations of tobacco carcinogens alters the expression of key proliferation regulatory genes, EGFR, BCL-2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, TP53, and MKI67, similar to that reported in biopsy specimens of pulmonary epithelium described to be preneoplastic lesions.

  15. Basolateral BMP signaling in polarized epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Saitoh

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate various biological processes, mostly mediated by cells of mesenchymal origin. However, the roles of BMPs in epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that, in polarized epithelial cells, BMP signals are transmitted from BMP receptor complexes exclusively localized at the basolateral surface of the cell membrane. In addition, basolateral stimulation with BMP increased expression of components of tight junctions and enhanced the transepithelial resistance (TER, counteracting reduction of TER by treatment with TGF-β or an anti-tumor drug. We conclude that BMPs maintain epithelial polarity via intracellular signaling from basolaterally localized BMP receptors.

  16. Impact of deforestation on local precipitation patterns over the Da River basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Spartà, Daniele; Castelletti, Andrea; Boschetti, Mirco

    2014-05-01

    Change in land cover, e.g. from forest to bare soil, might severely impact the hydrological cycle at the river basin scale by altering the balance between rainfall and evaporation, ultimately affecting streamflow dynamics. These changes generally occur over decades, but they might be much more rapid in developing countries, where economic growth and growing population may cause abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystem. Detecting, analysing and modelling these changes is an essential step to design mitigation strategies and adaptation plans, balancing economic development and ecosystem protection. In this work we investigate the impact of land cover changes on the water cycle in the Da River basin, Vietnam. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate the interlink between deforestation and precipitation. The case study is particularly interesting because Vietnam is one of the world fastest growing economies and natural resources have been considerably exploited to support after-war development. Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world, second to only Nigeria (FAO 2005), with associated problems like abrupt change in run-off, erosion, sediment transport and flash floods. We performed land cover evaluation by combining literature information and Remote Sensing techniques, using Landsat images. We then analysed time series of precipitation observed on the period 1960-2011 in several stations located in the catchment area. We used multiple trend detection techniques, both state-of-the-art (e.g., Linear regression and Mann-Kendall) and novel trend detection techniques (Moving Average on Shifting Horizon), to investigate trends in seasonal pattern of precipitation. Results suggest that deforestation may induce a negative trend in the precipitation volume. The effect is mainly recognizable at the beginning and at the end of the monsoon season, when the local mechanisms of precipitation formation prevail over the large scale

  17. Measurement of local flow pattern in boiling R12 simulating PWR conditions with multiple optical probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.

    1998-01-01

    For a comprehensive approach of boiling crisis phenomenon in order to get more reliable predictions of critical heat flux in PWR core, a flow pattern study is under progress at CEA GRENOBLE (in a joint program with Electricite de France: EdF). The first aim is to get experimental results on flow structure in the range of thermal hydraulic parameters involved in the core of a PWR (pressure up to 16 MPa, heat flux about 1 MW/m 2 , mass velocity up to 5000 kg/s/m 2 . As critical heat flux is a local phenomenon and is the result of the flow development, the data has to be measured from the beginning of boiling until boiling crisis, and from the bulk flow until the boundary layer close to the heating walls. Therefore, these results will be useful in modeling not only boiling crisis phenomenon but also condensation in subcooled boiling, coalescence, splitting up, mass and energy transfers at interfaces, and so on. In a first step, the test section is a vertical tube 19.2 mm internal diameter with an axial uniform heat flux over a 3.5m length. The study is performed on the DEBORA loop with Freon 12 as coolant fluid. We assume that basic boiling phenomena (and the knowledge we get about them) only depend on the fluid properties by means of dimensionless parameters but not on the fluid itself. In a first part, we briefly recall that interfacial detection is the most important parameter of a flow pattern study. Therefore, the use of probes able to measure the Phase Indicator Function (P.I.F.) is necessary. A first study of flow conditions shows that the flow pattern is essentially a bubbly one with vapor particles of low diameter (about 300 clm) and high velocity (up to 7 m/s). These criteria induce that a multiple optical probe is the most appropriate tool provided we improve the technology. We detail the way to obtain probes able to detect small particles at high velocity. Each fiber is stretched to get a tip of 10 Clm with the cladding kept on 50 μm length which defines

  18. Observations of Local Positive Low Cloud Feedback Patterns and Their Role in Internal Variability and Climate Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tianle; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Platnick, Steven E.; Meyer, Kerry

    2018-05-01

    Modeling studies have shown that cloud feedbacks are sensitive to the spatial pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, while cloud feedbacks themselves strongly influence the magnitude of SST anomalies. Observational counterparts to such patterned interactions are still needed. Here we show that distinct large-scale patterns of SST and low-cloud cover (LCC) emerge naturally from objective analyses of observations and demonstrate their close coupling in a positive local SST-LCC feedback loop that may be important for both internal variability and climate change. The two patterns that explain the maximum amount of covariance between SST and LCC correspond to the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, leading modes of multidecadal internal variability. Spatial patterns and time series of SST and LCC anomalies associated with both modes point to a strong positive local SST-LCC feedback. In many current climate models, our analyses suggest that SST-LCC feedback strength is too weak compared to observations. Modeled local SST-LCC feedback strength affects simulated internal variability so that stronger feedback produces more intense and more realistic patterns of internal variability. To the extent that the physics of the local positive SST-LCC feedback inferred from observed climate variability applies to future greenhouse warming, we anticipate significant amount of delayed warming because of SST-LCC feedback when anthropogenic SST warming eventually overwhelm the effects of internal variability that may mute anthropogenic warming over parts of the ocean. We postulate that many climate models may be underestimating both future warming and the magnitude of modeled internal variability because of their weak SST-LCC feedback.

  19. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries from human prostate epithelial and stromal cells reveal distinct pattern of microRNAs primarily predicted to target growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Zheng, Yun; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Ebron, Jey Sabith; Sikand, Kavleen; Gupta, Sanjay; Sunker, Ramanjulu; Shukla, Girish C

    2016-02-28

    Complex epithelial and stromal cell interactions are required during the development and progression of prostate cancer. Regulatory small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the spatiotemporal regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) and regulation of translation affecting a large number of genes involved in prostate carcinogenesis. In this study, through deep-sequencing of size fractionated small RNA libraries we profiled the miRNAs of prostate epithelial (PrEC) and stromal (PrSC) cells. Over 50 million reads were obtained for PrEC in which 860,468 were unique sequences. Similarly, nearly 76 million reads for PrSC were obtained in which over 1 million were unique reads. Expression of many miRNAs of broadly conserved and poorly conserved miRNA families were identified. Sixteen highly expressed miRNAs with significant change in expression in PrSC than PrEC were further analyzed in silico. ConsensusPathDB showed the target genes of these miRNAs were significantly involved in adherence junction, cell adhesion, EGRF, TGF-β and androgen signaling. Let-7 family of tumor-suppressor miRNAs expression was highly pervasive in both, PrEC and PrSC cells. In addition, we have also identified several miRNAs that are unique to PrEC or PrSC cells and their predicted putative targets are a group of transcription factors. This study provides perspective on the miRNA expression in PrEC and PrSC, and reveals a global trend in miRNA interactome. We conclude that the most abundant miRNAs are potential regulators of development and differentiation of the prostate gland by targeting a set of growth factors. Additionally, high level expression of the most members of let-7 family miRNAs suggests their role in the fine tuning of the growth and proliferation of prostate epithelial and stromal cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Epithelial hyperplasia in human polycystic kidney diseases. Its role in pathogenesis and risk of neoplasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, J.; Evan, A. P.; Gardner, K. D.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of tubular epithelial hyperplasia in polycystic kidney diseases has become apparent during the last decade. Micropapillary hyperplasia occurs in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, in localized cystic disease, and in acquired cystic disease. Neoplastic or severely dysplastic epithelial hyperplasia occurs in von Hippel-Lindau disease. A histopathologically distinctive epithelial hyperplasia occurs in tuberous sclerosis. In each of these conditions, epithelial hyperplas...

  1. Patterns of Care for Elderly Patients With Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Jesus E; Choi, Jehee; St John, Maie; Abemayor, Elliot; TenNapel, Mindi; Chen, Allen M

    2017-07-15

    To compare patterns of care for elderly patients aged ≥70 years with locally advanced head and neck cancer versus those of younger patients treated for the same disease. The medical records of 421 consecutive patients over the age of 50 years treated at a single institution between April 2011 and June 2016 for stage III/IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were reviewed. The primary treatment approach was compared using a t test statistic among 3 age cohorts: 50 to 59 years (118 patients); 60 to 69 years (152 patients); and 70 years and older (151 patients). Logistical regression was used to determine variables that influenced the likelihood of receiving surgery versus nonsurgical treatment, as well as radiation alone versus chemoradiation. There was no difference in sex, T stage, N stage, Karnofsky performance status, or the number of chronic comorbid conditions among the 3 age cohorts (P>.05 for all). A greater proportion of elderly patients aged ≥70 years were treated by radiation alone compared with those aged 50 to 59 and 60 to 69 years (44% vs 16% and 24%, P=.01). Increasing age was associated with a greater likelihood of receiving primary nonsurgical versus surgical treatment (odds ratio 1.023, 95% confidence interval 1.004-1.042) and radiation alone compared with chemoradiation (odds ratio 1.054; 95% confidence interval 1.034-1.075). Ten chemotherapy regimens were used concurrently with radiation for patients aged ≥70 years, including carboplatin/paclitaxel (19%), carboplatin/cetuximab (19%), cisplatin (17%), and cetuximab (17%). Despite similar performance status and comorbidity burden compared with their younger counterparts, patients aged ≥70 years were more commonly treated with less-aggressive strategies, including radiation alone. The variability of concurrent chemotherapy regimens used further suggests that the standard of care remains to be defined for this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A new texture descriptor based on local micro-pattern for detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Moraes, Diego R.; Reche, Gustavo A.; Borges, Lucas R.; Catani, Juliana H.; de Barros, Nestor; Melo, Carlos F. E.; Gonzaga, Adilson; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new local micro-pattern texture descriptor for the detection of Architectural Distortion (AD) in digital mammography images. AD is a subtle contraction of breast parenchyma that may represent an early sign of breast cancer. Due to its subtlety and variability, AD is more difficult to detect compared to microcalcifications and masses, and is commonly found in retrospective evaluations of false-negative mammograms. Several computer-based systems have been proposed for automatic detection of AD, but their performance are still unsatisfactory. The proposed descriptor, Local Mapped Pattern (LMP), is a generalization of the Local Binary Pattern (LBP), which is considered one of the most powerful feature descriptor for texture classification in digital images. Compared to LBP, the LMP descriptor captures more effectively the minor differences between the local image pixels. Moreover, LMP is a parametric model which can be optimized for the desired application. In our work, the LMP performance was compared to the LBP and four Haralick's texture descriptors for the classification of 400 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from clinical mammograms. ROIs were selected and divided into four classes: AD, normal tissue, microcalcifications and masses. Feature vectors were used as input to a multilayer perceptron neural network, with a single hidden layer. Results showed that LMP is a good descriptor to distinguish AD from other anomalies in digital mammography. LMP performance was slightly better than the LBP and comparable to Haralick's descriptors (mean classification accuracy = 83%).

  3. Dynein and EFF-1 control dendrite morphology by regulating the localization pattern of SAX-7 in epidermal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ting; Liang, Xing; Wang, Xiang-Ming; Shen, Kang

    2017-12-01

    Our previous work showed that the cell adhesion molecule SAX-7 forms an elaborate pattern in Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal cells, which instructs PVD dendrite branching. However, the molecular mechanism forming the SAX-7 pattern in the epidermis is not fully understood. Here, we report that the dynein light intermediate chain DLI-1 and the fusogen EFF-1 are required in epidermal cells to pattern SAX-7. While previous reports suggest that these two molecules act cell-autonomously in the PVD, our results show that the disorganized PVD dendritic arbors in these mutants are due to the abnormal SAX-7 localization patterns in epidermal cells. Three lines of evidence support this notion. First, the epidermal SAX-7 pattern was severely affected in dli-1 and eff-1 mutants. Second, the abnormal SAX-7 pattern was predictive of the ectopic PVD dendrites. Third, expression of DLI-1 or EFF-1 in the epidermis rescued both the SAX-7 pattern and the disorganized PVD dendrite phenotypes, whereas expression of these molecules in the PVD did not. We also show that DLI-1 functions cell-autonomously in the PVD to promote distal branch formation. These results demonstrate the unexpected roles of DLI-1 and EFF-1 in the epidermis in the control of PVD dendrite morphogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Rickettsia ‘In’ and ‘Out’: Two Different Localization Patterns of a Bacterial Symbiont in the Same Insect Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi-Fluger, Ayelet; Inbar, Moshe; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Mouton, Laurence; Hunter, Martha S.; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular symbionts of arthropods have diverse influences on their hosts, and their functions generally appear to be associated with their localization within the host. The effect of localization pattern on the role of a particular symbiont cannot normally be tested since the localization pattern within hosts is generally invariant. However, in Israel, the secondary symbiont Rickettsia is unusual in that it presents two distinct localization patterns throughout development and adulthood in its whitefly host, Bemisia tabaci (B biotype). In the “scattered” pattern, Rickettsia is localized throughout the whitefly hemocoel, excluding the bacteriocytes, where the obligate symbiont Portiera aleyrodidarum and some other secondary symbionts are housed. In the “confined” pattern, Rickettsia is restricted to the bacteriocytes. We examined the effects of these patterns on Rickettsia densities, association with other symbionts (Portiera and Hamiltonella defensa inside the bacteriocytes) and on the potential for horizontal transmission to the parasitoid wasp, Eretmocerus mundus, while the wasp larvae are developing within the whitefly nymph. Sequences of four Rickettsia genes were found to be identical for both localization patterns, suggesting that they are closely related strains. However, real-time PCR analysis showed very different dynamics for the two localization types. On the first day post-adult emergence, Rickettsia densities were 21 times higher in the “confined” pattern vs. “scattered” pattern whiteflies. During adulthood, Rickettsia increased in density in the “scattered” pattern whiteflies until it reached the “confined” pattern Rickettsia density on day 21. No correlation between Rickettsia densities and Hamiltonella or Portiera densities were found for either localization pattern. Using FISH technique, we found Rickettsia in the gut of the parasitoid wasps only when they developed on whiteflies with the “scattered” pattern. The

  5. Defect Localization Capabilities of a Global Detection Scheme: Spatial Pattern Recognition Using Full-field Vibration Test Data in Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, A. F.; Prabhu, M.; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a conceptually simple approach, based on the notion of defect energy in material space has been developed and extensively studied (from the theoretical and computational standpoints). The present study focuses on its evaluation from the viewpoint of damage localization capabilities in case of two-dimensional plates; i.e., spatial pattern recognition on surfaces. To this end, two different experimental modal test results are utilized; i.e., (1) conventional modal testing using (white noise) excitation and accelerometer-type sensors and (2) pattern recognition using Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), a full field method capable of analyzing the mechanical vibration of complex structures. Unlike the conventional modal testing technique (using contacting accelerometers), these emerging ESPI technologies operate in a non-contacting mode, can be used even under hazardous conditions with minimal or no presence of noise and can simultaneously provide measurements for both translations and rotations. Results obtained have clearly demonstrated the robustness and versatility of the global NDE scheme developed. The vectorial character of the indices used, which enabled the extraction of distinct patterns for localizing damages proved very useful. In the context of the targeted pattern recognition paradigm, two algorithms were developed for the interrogation of test measurements; i.e., intensity contour maps for the damaged index, and the associated defect energy vector field plots.

  6. Active Vertex Model for cell-resolution description of epithelial tissue mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Daniel L; Henkes, Silke; Weijer, Cornelis J; Sknepnek, Rastko

    2017-06-01

    We introduce an Active Vertex Model (AVM) for cell-resolution studies of the mechanics of confluent epithelial tissues consisting of tens of thousands of cells, with a level of detail inaccessible to similar methods. The AVM combines the Vertex Model for confluent epithelial tissues with active matter dynamics. This introduces a natural description of the cell motion and accounts for motion patterns observed on multiple scales. Furthermore, cell contacts are generated dynamically from positions of cell centres. This not only enables efficient numerical implementation, but provides a natural description of the T1 transition events responsible for local tissue rearrangements. The AVM also includes cell alignment, cell-specific mechanical properties, cell growth, division and apoptosis. In addition, the AVM introduces a flexible, dynamically changing boundary of the epithelial sheet allowing for studies of phenomena such as the fingering instability or wound healing. We illustrate these capabilities with a number of case studies.

  7. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Patterns of Failure and Predictors of Local Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Megan E.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Kozak, Margaret M.; Maxim, Peter G.; Murphy, James D.; Hsu, Annie; Loo, Billy W.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have evaluated the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity (OC). We report clinical outcomes and failure patterns for these patients. Methods and Materials: Between October 2002 and June 2009, 37 patients with newly diagnosed SCC of the OC underwent postoperative (30) or definitive (7) IMRT. Twenty-five patients (66%) received systemic therapy. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 10-87 months). The median interval from surgery to RT was 5.9 weeks (range, 2.1-10.7 weeks). Results: Thirteen patients experienced local-regional failure at a median of 8.1 months (range, 2.4-31.9 months), and 2 additional patients experienced local recurrence between surgery and RT. Seven local failures occurred in-field (one with simultaneous nodal and distant disease) and two at the margin. Four regional failures occurred, two in-field and two out-of-field, one with synchronous metastases. Six patients experienced distant failure. The 3-year actuarial estimates of local control, local-regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival were 67%, 53%, 81%, and 60% among postoperative patients, respectively, and 60%, 60%, 71%, and 57% among definitive patients. Four patients developed Grade ≥2 chronic toxicity. Increased surgery to RT interval predicted for decreased LRC (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Local-regional control for SCC of the OC treated with IMRT with or without surgery remains unsatisfactory. Definitive and postoperative IMRT have favorable toxicity profiles. A surgery-to-RT interval of <6 weeks improves local-regional control. The predominant failure pattern was local, suggesting that both improvements in target delineation and radiosensitization and/or dose escalation are needed.

  8. Multi-resolution analysis using integrated microscopic configuration with local patterns for benign-malignant mass classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabidas, Rinku; Midya, Abhishek; Chakraborty, Jayasree; Sadhu, Anup; Arif, Wasim

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, Curvelet based local attributes, Curvelet-Local configuration pattern (C-LCP), is introduced for the characterization of mammographic masses as benign or malignant. Amid different anomalies such as micro- calcification, bilateral asymmetry, architectural distortion, and masses, the reason for targeting the mass lesions is due to their variation in shape, size, and margin which makes the diagnosis a challenging task. Being efficient in classification, multi-resolution property of the Curvelet transform is exploited and local information is extracted from the coefficients of each subband using Local configuration pattern (LCP). The microscopic measures in concatenation with the local textural information provide more discriminating capability than individual. The measures embody the magnitude information along with the pixel-wise relationships among the neighboring pixels. The performance analysis is conducted with 200 mammograms of the DDSM database containing 100 mass cases of each benign and malignant. The optimal set of features is acquired via stepwise logistic regression method and the classification is carried out with Fisher linear discriminant analysis. The best area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and accuracy of 0.95 and 87.55% are achieved with the proposed method, which is further compared with some of the state-of-the-art competing methods.

  9. Being young and urban: changing patterns of youth involvement in local environmental action in Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses youth engagement in local environmental action in a peripheral settlement in Lima, Peru. Urban local environmental action is analysed in terms of the so-called "brown agenda", covering issues as the provision of drinking water and sanitation, waste collection, the paving of

  10. Classification and risk assessment of individuals with familial polyposis, Gardner's syndrome, and familial non-polyposis colon cancer from [3H]thymidine labeling patterns in colonic epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, M.; Blattner, W.A.; Gardner, E.J.; Burt, R.W.; Lynch, H.; Deschner, E.; Winawer, S.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis has been developed to assist the binary classification and risk assessment of members of familial colon cancer kindreds. The analysis is based on the microautoradiographic observation of [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled epithelial cells in colonic mucosa of the kindred members. From biopsies of colonic mucosa which are labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine in vitro, the degree of similarity of each subject's cell-labeling pattern measured over entire crypts was automatically compared to the labeling patterns of high-risk and low-risk reference populations. Each individual was then presumptively classified and assigned to one of the reference populations, and a degree of risk for the classification was provided. In carrying out the analysis, a linear score was calculated for each individual relative to each of the reference populations, and the classification was based on the polarity of the score difference; the degree of risk was then quantitated from the magnitude of the score difference. When the method was applied to kindreds having either familial polyposis or familial non-polyposis colon cancer, it effectively segregated individuals affected with disease from others at low risk, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 71 to 92%. Further application of the method to asymptomatic family members believed to be at 50% risk on the basis of pedigree evaluation revealed a biomodal distribution to nearly zero or full risk. The accuracy and simplicity of this approach and its capability of revealing early stages of abnormal colonic epithelial cell development indicate potential for preclinical screening of subjects at risk in cancer-prone kindreds and for assisting the analysis of modes of inheritance

  11. Uterine Artery Embolization Combined with Local Methotrexate and Systemic Methotrexate for Treatment of Cesarean Scar Pregnancy with Different Ultrasonographic Pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Fan; Wang Yu; Chen Wei; Li Jiaping; Zhan Zhongping; Ye Yujin; Zhu, Yunxiao; Huang Jia; Xu Hanshi; Yang Xiuyan; Liang Liuqin; Yang Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of systemic methotrexate (MTX) with uterine artery embolization (UAE) combined with local MTX for the treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) with different ultrasonographic pattern, and to indicate the preferable therapy in CSP patients. Methods: The results of 21 CSP cases were reviewed. All subjects were initially administrated with systemic MTX (50 mg/m 2 body surface area). UAE combined with local MTX was added to the patients who had failed systemic MTX. The transvaginal ultrasonography data were retrospectively assessed, and two different ultrasonographic patterns were found: surface implantation and deep implantation of amniotic sac. The management and its effectiveness for patients with the two ultrasonographic patterns were studied retrospectively. Ultrasound scan and serum β-hCG were monitored during follow-up. Data were analyzed with the Student’s t test. Results: Nine patients were successfully treated with systemic MTX. The remaining 12 cases were successfully treated with additional UAE combined with local MTX. According to the classification by Vial et al. of CSP on ultrasonography, most surface implanted CSPs (8/11, 72.7%) could be successfully treated with systemic MTX, whereas most deeply implanted CSPs (9/10, 90%) had failed systemic MTX but still could be successfully treated with additional UAE combined with local MTX. All patients recovered without severe side effects. Most patients with a future desire for reproduction achieved subsequent pregnancy. Conclusions: For CSP patients suitable for nonsurgical treatment, UAE combined with local MTX would be the superior option compared with systemic MTX in the cases with deep implantation of amniotic sac.

  12. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  13. ICT and the location of call centres: regional and local patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, Frank; Rietveld, Piet; Beekman, Michiel

    2004-01-01

    One of the sectors that gained most of the boost in ICT developments is the call centres sector. The focus in this paper is on spatial diffusion patterns of call centres in the Netherlands. The number of call centres has increased rapidly in the last decade and it seems that impacts of call

  14. The status of intercellular junctions in established lens epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Alpana; Craig, Jamie E; Sharma, Shiwani

    2012-01-01

    Cataract is the major cause of vision-related disability worldwide. Mutations in the crystallin genes are the most common known cause of inherited congenital cataract. Mutations in the genes associated with intercellular contacts, such as Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS) and Ephrin type A receptor-2 (EPHA2), are other recognized causes of congenital cataract. The EPHA2 gene has been also associated with age-related cataract, suggesting that intercellular junctions are important in not only lens development, but also in maintaining lens transparency. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression and localization of the key cell junction and cytoskeletal proteins, and of NHS and EPHA2, in established lens epithelial cell lines to determine their suitability as model epithelial systems for the functional investigation of genes involved in intercellular contacts and implicated in cataract. The expression and subcellular localization of occludin and zona occludens protein-1 (ZO-1), which are associated with tight junctions; E-cadherin, which is associated with adherence junctions; and the cytoskeletal actin were analyzed in monolayers of a human lens epithelial cell line (SRA 01/04) and a mouse lens epithelial cell line (αTN4). In addition, the expression and subcellular localization of the NHS and EPHA2 proteins were analyzed in these cell lines. Protein or mRNA expression was respectively determined by western blotting or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and localization was determined by immunofluorescence labeling. Human SRA 01/04 and mouse αTN4 lens epithelial cells expressed either the proteins of interest or their encoding mRNA. Occludin, ZO-1, and NHS proteins localized to the cellular periphery, whereas E-cadherin, actin, and EPHA2 localized in the cytoplasm in these cell lines. The human SRA 01/04 and mouse αTN4 lens epithelial cells express the key junctional proteins. The localization patterns of these proteins suggest that

  15. Re-visioning local biologies: HIV-2 and the pattern of differential valuation in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of HIV-2, a distinctly West African variant of HIV, is often portrayed as the result of a straightforward, if serendipitous, error. This article reframes the history of how HIV-2 came to be a knowable scientific identity. Relying on narratives from an African laboratory and clinic, it suggests that the rise and fall of HIV-2 as a viable research entity is indicative of a differential visibility and valuation of both human bodies and viruses. Understanding how HIV-2 emerged as a local biology reveals the complex set of relations that contemporary African scientists face in navigating local moral economies and the mercurial politics of the contemporary global health industry.

  16. Differential gene expression pattern in human mammary epithelial cells induced by realistic organochlorine mixtures described in healthy women and in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Javier; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D; Valerón, Pilar F

    2016-03-30

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been associated with breast cancer development and progression, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well known. In this work, we evaluated the effects exerted on normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) by the OC mixtures most frequently detected in healthy women (H-mixture) and in women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC-mixture), as identified in a previous case-control study developed in Spain. Cytotoxicity and gene expression profile of human kinases (n=68) and non-kinases (n=26) were tested at concentrations similar to those described in the serum of those cases and controls. Although both mixtures caused a down-regulation of genes involved in the ATP binding process, our results clearly indicate that both mixtures may exert a very different effect on the gene expression profile of HMEC. Thus, while BC-mixture up-regulated the expression of oncogenes associated to breast cancer (GFRA1 and BHLHB8), the H-mixture down-regulated the expression of tumor suppressor genes (EPHA4 and EPHB2). Our results indicate that the composition of the OC mixture could play a role in the initiation processes of breast cancer. In addition, the present results suggest that subtle changes in the composition and levels of pollutants involved in environmentally relevant mixtures might induce very different biological effects, which explain, at least partially, why some mixtures seem to be more carcinogenic than others. Nonetheless, our findings confirm that environmentally relevant pollutants may modulate the expression of genes closely related to carcinogenic processes in the breast, reinforcing the role exerted by environment in the regulation of genes involved in breast carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunoregulation by airway epithelial cells (AECs against respiratory virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan YAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract is primary contact site of the body and environment, and it is ventilated by 10-20 thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbes, which contain the disease-causing pathogens. Airway epithelial cells (AECs are known to have innate sensor functions, which are similar to the "professional" immune cells, such as alveolar macrophage and sub- or intra-epithelial dendritic cells (DCs. Thus AECs are able to detect invading microbial danger including different types of respiratory viruses, and mount a potent host response, for example, activating type Ⅰ interferon signaling pathway genes. To avoid chronic inflammation and maintain the immunological homeostasis, the pulmonary system has developed intrinsic mechanisms to control local immune responses. Most recently, the role of AECs in control of local immunity has gained much attention, as 1 AECs express the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, such as Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid inducible gene Ⅰ (RIG-I-like receptor, and so on, thus AECs are equipped to participate in innate detection of microbial encounter; 2 To keep immunological homeostasis in the respiratory tract, AECs behave not only as innate immune sensors but also as immune modulators in parallel, through modulating the sensitivity of innate immune sensing of both AECs per se and sub- or intra-epithelial immune cells; 3 Loss of modularity capacity of AECs might be involved in the development of chronic airway diseases. In present review, how the AECs act will be intensively discussed in response to respiratory viruses and modulate the local immunity through cis- and trans-factors (direct and indirect factors, as well as the consequence of impairment of this control of local immunity, in the development and exacerbation of airway diseases, such as acute and chronic rhinosinusitis. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.10.02

  18. Lowe Syndrome protein OCRL1 supports maturation of polarized epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G Grieve

    Full Text Available Mutations in the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase OCRL1 cause Lowe Syndrome, leading to cataracts, mental retardation and renal failure. We noted that cell types affected in Lowe Syndrome are highly polarized, and therefore we studied OCRL1 in epithelial cells as they mature from isolated individual cells into polarized sheets and cysts with extensive communication between neighbouring cells. We show that a proportion of OCRL1 targets intercellular junctions at the early stages of their formation, co-localizing both with adherens junctional components and with tight junctional components. Correlating with this distribution, OCRL1 forms complexes with junctional components α-catenin and zonula occludens (ZO-1/2/3. Depletion of OCRL1 in epithelial cells growing as a sheet inhibits maturation; cells remain flat, fail to polarize apical markers and also show reduced proliferation. The effect on shape is reverted by re-expressed OCRL1 and requires the 5'-phosphatase domain, indicating that down-regulation of 5-phosphorylated inositides is necessary for epithelial development. The effect of OCRL1 in epithelial maturation is seen more strongly in 3-dimensional cultures, where epithelial cells lacking OCRL1 not only fail to form a central lumen, but also do not have the correct intracellular distribution of ZO-1, suggesting that OCRL1 functions early in the maturation of intercellular junctions when cells grow as cysts. A role of OCRL1 in junctions of polarized cells may explain the pattern of organs affected in Lowe Syndrome.

  19. Potential contribution of natural enemies to patterns of local adaptation in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crémieux, L.; Bischoff, A.; Šmilauerová, M.; Lawson, C.S.; Mortimer, S. R.; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Edwards, A.R.; Brook, A.J.; Tscheulin, T.; Macel, M.; Lepš, Jan; Müller-Schärer, H.; Steinger, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 2 (2008), s. 524-533 ISSN 0028-646X Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK-2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : local adaptation * plant-parasite interaction * pathogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.178, year: 2008

  20. Vaginal epithelial cell-derived S100 alarmins induced by Candida albicans via pattern recognition receptor interactions are sufficient but not necessary for the acute neutrophil response during experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Palmer, Glen E; Eberle, Karen E; Peters, Brian M; Vogl, Thomas; McKenzie, Andrew N; Fidel, Paul L

    2014-02-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects women worldwide. Animal and clinical studies suggest that the immunopathogenic inflammatory condition of VVC is initiated by S100 alarmins in response to C. albicans, which stimulate polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration to the vagina. The purpose of this study was to extend previous in vitro data and determine the requirement for the alarmin S100A8 in the PMN response and to evaluate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate the response. For the former, PMN migration was evaluated in vitro or in vivo in the presence or absence of S100 alarmins initiated by several approaches. For the latter, vaginal epithelial cells were evaluated for PRR expression and C. albicans-induced S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs, followed by evaluation of the PMN response in inoculated PRR-deficient mice. Results revealed that, consistent with previously reported in vitro data, eukaryote-derived S100A8, but not prokaryote-derived recombinant S100A8, induced significant PMN chemotaxis in vivo. Conversely, a lack of biologically active S100A8 alarmin, achieved by antibody neutralization or by using S100A9(-/-) mice, had no effect on the PMN response in vivo. In PRR analyses, whereas Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and SIGNR1-deficient vaginal epithelial cells showed a dramatic reduction in C. albicans-induced S100A8/S100A9 mRNAs in vitro, inoculated mice deficient in these PRRs showed PMN migration similar to that in wild-type controls. These results suggest that S100A8 alarmin is sufficient, but not necessary, to induce PMN migration during VVC and that the vaginal PMN response to C. albicans involves PRRs in addition to SIGNR1 and TLR4, or other induction pathways.

  1. Local resistance patterns to antimicrobials in internal medicine: a focused report from the REGIMEN (REGistro Infezioni in MEdicina INterna) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cei, Marco; Pardelli, Riccardo; Sani, Spartaco; Mumoli, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    The treatment for infections in hospitalized patients can be summarized in the timely start of empirical therapy, followed by adjustment on the basis of isolates and microbial susceptibilities. Initial therapy may be based on international guidelines. However, to know local frequencies of bacterial and fungal strains together with patterns of drug resistance should be a better approach to therapy. REGIMEN is a retrospective observational study of all consecutive recorded bacterial and fungal isolates, collected between October 2009 and August 2011 from patients admitted in a 53-bedded ward of internal medicine of a non-teaching Italian hospital. We investigated type of samples and of microorganisms, patterns of susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics, and in-hospital mortality. A total of 504 samples were examined (244 from urine, 189 from blood and 71 from skin and various exudates). Participants were old (mean age, 83 years), and so overall mortality was high (20 %). There were high frequencies of drug resistance; only 27.9 % of urinary gram-negatives and 52.6 % of blood gram-negatives were susceptible to levofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles compatible with the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases were present in 64.2 % of gram-negative strains, and 10.1 % were also resistant to carbapenems. ESKAPE organisms account for a third of all bacterial infections. Local patterns of drug resistance should influence empirical antibiotic therapy for patients admitted in internal medicine wards, where mortality is high.

  2. Predictors and Patterns of Local, Regional, and Distant Failure in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Uccella, Stefano; Donato, Violante Di; Casarin, Jvan; Naro, Edoardo Di; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    To identify factors predicting for recurrence in vulvar cancer patients undergoing surgical treatment. We retrospectively evaluated data of consecutive patients with squamous cell vulvar cancer treated between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2013. Basic descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis were used to design predicting models influencing outcomes. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the Cox model. The study included 101 patients affected by vulvar cancer: 64 (63%) stage I, 12 (12%) stage II, 20 (20%) stage III, and 5 (5%) stage IV. After a mean (SD) follow-up of 37.6 (22.1) months, 21 (21%) recurrences occurred. Local, regional, and distant failures were recorded in 14 (14%), 6 (6%), and 3 (3%) patients, respectively. Five-year DFS and OS were 77% and 82%, respectively. At multivariate analysis only stromal invasion >2 mm (hazard ratio: 4.9 [95% confidence interval, 1.17-21.1]; P=0.04) and extracapsular lymph node involvement (hazard ratio: 9.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-69.5); P=0.03) correlated with worse DFS, although no factor independently correlated with OS. Looking at factors influencing local and regional failure, we observed that stromal invasion >2 mm was the only factor predicting for local recurrence, whereas lymph node extracapsular involvement predicted for regional recurrence. Stromal invasion >2 mm and lymph node extracapsular spread are the most important factors predicting for local and regional failure, respectively. Studies evaluating the effectiveness of adjuvant treatment in high-risk patients are warranted.

  3. Expression Pattern and Localization Dynamics of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor RIC8 during Mouse Oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merly Saare

    Full Text Available Targeting of G proteins to the cell cortex and their activation is one of the triggers of both asymmetric and symmetric cell division. Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (RIC8, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, activates a certain subgroup of G protein α-subunits in a receptor independent manner. RIC8 controls the asymmetric cell division in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, and symmetric cell division in cultured mammalian cells, where it regulates the mitotic spindle orientation. Although intensely studied in mitosis, the function of RIC8 in mammalian meiosis has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that the expression and subcellular localization of RIC8 changes profoundly during mouse oogenesis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that RIC8 expression is dependent on oocyte growth and cell cycle phase. During oocyte growth, RIC8 is abundantly present in cytoplasm of oocytes at primordial, primary and secondary preantral follicle stages. Later, upon oocyte maturation RIC8 also populates the germinal vesicle, its localization becomes cell cycle dependent, and it associates with chromatin and the meiotic spindle. After fertilization, RIC8 protein converges to the pronuclei and is also detectable at high levels in the nucleolus precursor bodies of both maternal and paternal pronucleus. During first cleavage of zygote RIC8 localizes in the mitotic spindle and cell cortex of forming blastomeres. In addition, we demonstrate that RIC8 co-localizes with its interaction partners Gαi1/2:GDP and LGN in meiotic/mitotic spindle, cell cortex and polar bodies of maturing oocytes and zygotes. Downregulation of Ric8 by siRNA leads to interferred translocation of Gαi1/2 to cortical region of maturing oocytes and reduction of its levels. RIC8 is also expressed at high level in female reproductive organs e.g. oviduct. Therefore we suggest a regulatory function for RIC8 in mammalian gametogenesis and fertility.

  4. Pattern of local recurrence after conservative surgery and whole-breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Gary M.; Anderson, Penny R.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Eisenberg, Debra F.; Nicolaou, Nicos

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Most recurrences in the breast after conservative surgery and whole-breast irradiation have been reported to occur within the same quadrant as the initial primary tumor. We analyzed the long-term risk of recurrence by area of the breast after whole-breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: In all, 1,990 women with Stage 0-II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery and whole-breast irradiation from 1970-1998. Stage was ductal carcinoma in situ in 237, T1 in 1273, and T2 in 480 patients. Of 120 local recurrences, 71 were classified as true local (confined to the original quadrant) and 49 as elsewhere (involving outside the original quadrant). Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to calculate 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year rates of recurrence (95% confidence intervals in parentheses). The median follow-up is 80 months. Results: There was no apparent difference in the 15-year rate of true local vs. elsewhere recurrence, but the time to recurrence was different. The rate of true local recurrence was 2%, 5%, and 7% (5-9%) at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. The recurrences elsewhere in the breast were rare at 5 (1%) and 10 (2%) years, but increased to 6 (3-9%) at 15 years. This 15-year rate of elsewhere recurrence was half the rate of contralateral breast cancers of 13% (10-16%). Conclusions: Recurrence elsewhere in the breast is rare for the first 10 years, but by 15 years is nearly equal to true local recurrence even after whole-breast irradiation. The 15-year rate of elsewhere recurrence was half the rate of contralateral breast cancers. This may indicate a therapeutic effect of whole-breast radiation for other areas of the breast. Very long follow-up will be needed for partial breast irradiation with or without tamoxifen to show that the risk of elsewhere recurrence is not significantly different than after whole-breast irradiation

  5. Morphometry, Microstructure, and Wear Pattern of Neornithischian Dinosaur Teeth From the Upper Cretaceous Iharkút Locality (Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virág, Attila; Ősi, Attila

    2017-08-01

    Teeth of iguanodontian ornithopods and ceratopsians could be remarkably similar, thus the referral of isolated dental material to particular neornithischian clades can be highly problematic. These groups are represented by the rhabdodontid Mochlodon vorosi and the basal coronosaurian Ajkaceratops kozmai in the Upper Cretaceous Csehbánya Formation at Iharkút (western Hungary). Whereas teeth of Mochlodon are common elements at the locality, no dental material belonging to Ajkaceratops was identified until now. Here we used mathematical statistical approaches, as well as tooth wear and dental microstructure analysis in order to decide whether the teeth previously referred to Mochlodon can be treated as a homogenous sample, or some remains belong rather to Ajkaceratops. According to our results, there was a striking morphological and structural convergence between the teeth of both taxa. However, the wear study revealed the existence of two different patterns within the sample. One is characterized by straight and parallel microstriations that suggest orthal movements during the jaw closure. This pattern was associated with Mochlodon. The other pattern appeared only on a few teeth, and it can be differentiated by its distinctive curved microstriations that indicate circumpalinal chewing. Because curved striations have never been described in ornithopods, but are found in several neoceratopsians, this pattern was associated here with Ajkaceratops. Here we present the first teeth that can provisionally be referred to the latter genus. We believe that the methodology discussed in this article will facilitate distinguishing ceratopsian and ornithopod teeth in other localities as well. Anat Rec, 300:1439-1463, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Local community detection as pattern restoration by attractor dynamics of recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Densely connected parts in networks are referred to as "communities". Community structure is a hallmark of a variety of real-world networks. Individual communities in networks form functional modules of complex systems described by networks. Therefore, finding communities in networks is essential to approaching and understanding complex systems described by networks. In fact, network science has made a great deal of effort to develop effective and efficient methods for detecting communities in networks. Here we put forward a type of community detection, which has been little examined so far but will be practically useful. Suppose that we are given a set of source nodes that includes some (but not all) of "true" members of a particular community; suppose also that the set includes some nodes that are not the members of this community (i.e., "false" members of the community). We propose to detect the community from this "imperfect" and "inaccurate" set of source nodes using attractor dynamics of recurrent neural networks. Community detection by the proposed method can be viewed as restoration of the original pattern from a deteriorated pattern, which is analogous to cue-triggered recall of short-term memory in the brain. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method using synthetic networks and real social networks for which correct communities are known. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-Locus versus Multilocus Patterns of Local Adaptation to Climate in Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus, Pinaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om P Rajora

    Full Text Available Natural plant populations are often adapted to their local climate and environmental conditions, and populations of forest trees offer some of the best examples of this pattern. However, little empirical work has focused on the relative contribution of single-locus versus multilocus effects to the genetic architecture of local adaptation in plants/forest trees. Here, we employ eastern white pine (Pinus strobus to test the hypothesis that it is the inter-genic effects that primarily drive climate-induced local adaptation. The genetic structure of 29 range-wide natural populations of eastern white pine was determined in relation to local climatic factors using both a reference set of SSR markers, and SNPs located in candidate genes putatively involved in adaptive response to climate. Comparisons were made between marker sets using standard single-locus outlier analysis, single-locus and multilocus environment association analyses and a novel implementation of Population Graphs. Magnitudes of population structure were similar between the two marker sets. Outlier loci consistent with diversifying selection were rare for both SNPs and SSRs. However, genetic distances based on the multilocus among population covariances (cGD were significantly more correlated to climate, even after correcting for spatial effects, for SNPs as compared to SSRs. Coalescent simulations confirmed that the differences in mutation rates between SSRs and SNPs did not affect the topologies of the Population Graphs, and hence values of cGD and their correlations with associated climate variables. We conclude that the multilocus covariances among populations primarily reflect adaptation to local climate and environment in eastern white pine. This result highlights the complexity of the genetic architecture of adaptive traits, as well as the need to consider multilocus effects in studies of local adaptation.

  8. Local deposition patterns of inhaled radon progeny in human bronchial airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heistracher, T.; Hofmann, W.; Balashazy, I.

    1996-01-01

    The local distribution of radon decay products deposited within bronchial bifurcations, particularly the formation of hot spots, may be more relevant for the determination of cellular doses in bronchial tissue than the commonly computed deposition efficiency, which is conceptually equivalent to the assumption of a uniform nuclide distribution. It is well known that the initial states of lung cancer in humans preferably occur in upper airways close to the cardinal location. In this study we use a recently developed geometric approach of a physiologically realistic bifurcation to demonstrate the site sensitivity of radon progeny deposition for two particle sizes, which are representative of the unattached and attached fraction of radon progeny

  9. Global and local approaches to population analysis: Bonding patterns in superheavy element compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleynichenko, Alexander; Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Romanov, Stepan; Skripnikov, Leonid V.; Titov, Anatoly V.

    2018-03-01

    Relativistic effective atomic configurations of superheavy elements Cn, Nh and Fl and their lighter homologues (Hg, Tl and Pb) in their simple compounds with fluorine and oxygen are determined using the analysis of local properties of molecular Kohn-Sham density matrices in the vicinity of heavy nuclei. The difference in populations of atomic spinors with the same orbital angular momentum and different total angular momenta is demonstrated to be essential for understanding the peculiarities of chemical bonding in superheavy element compounds. The results are fully compatible with those obtained by the relativistic iterative version of conventional projection analysis of global density matrices.

  10. Patterns of failure following bone marrow transplantation for metastatic breast cancer: the role of consolidative local therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Amit B.; Hartsell, William F.; Ghalie, Richard; Kaizer, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the patterns of failure and the role of local therapy in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for metastatic or recurrent breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 1986 and November 1991, 46 patients with hormone unresponsive metastatic or recurrent breast cancer underwent high dose chemotherapy (HDC) with hematopoietic stem cell support. The most commonly used preparative regimen consisted of thiotepa (750 mg/m 2 ), cisplatin (150 mg/m 2 ), and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) followed by autologous BMT. Consolidative surgery or irradiation was considered in patients whose cancer responded to BMT and had localized sites of disease. Results: Six patients (13%) died of BMT-related complications. Of the remaining 40 patients, 22 were candidates for consolidative therapy, and 18 of those patients received consolidative irradiation (17 patients) or surgery (1 patient) to one or more sites. At median follow-up of 27 months (range, 20-78), 12 of 18 (67%) patients have continuous local control at the 22 consolidated sites (1 of 4 controlled at chest wall sites, 7 of 8 at regional nodal sites, 7 of 7 at localized bone sites, and 1 of 3 at lung/mediastinal sites). Toxicity of consolidative irradiation was mainly limited to myelosuppression in 6 of 17 patients. Two patients did not complete the consolidative local therapy, one because of hematologic toxicity and one because of rapid systemic tumor progression during treatment. Conclusion: In patients with localized areas of extravisceral metastases, consolidative irradiation is feasible with acceptable hematologic toxicity. Consolidative irradiation can result in continuous local control, especially in isolated bone metastases and in regional nodal sites; however, the advantage is less clear in patients undergoing consolidative irradiation for chest wall failures. Because distant visceral metastases still remain a major site of failure after this HDC

  11. Aberrant patterns of local and long-range functional connectivity densities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Guangdong; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Qu, Hongru; Cheng, Langlang; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-07-18

    Schizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, and both the connection strength and connection number are disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. The functional connectivity density (FCD) can reflect alterations in the connection number. Alterations in the global FCD (gFCD) in schizophrenia were previously demonstrated; however, alterations in two other indices of the pathological characteristics of the brain, local FCD (lFCD) and long-range FCD (lrFCD), have not been revealed. To investigate lFCD and lrFCD alterations in patients with schizophrenia, 95 patients and 93 matched healthy controls were examined using structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. lFCD and lrFCD were measured using FCD mapping, and differences were identified using a two-sample t-test in a voxel-wise manner, with age and gender considered to increase variability. Multiple comparisons were performed using a false discovery rate method with a corrected threshold of Pschizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, particularly affecting the local functional connectivity network, and support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with a widespread cortical functional connectivity/activity deficit, with hyper- and/or hypo-connectivity/activity coexisting in some cortical or subcortical regions.

  12. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  13. Quantitative analysis of pulmonary emphysema using local binary patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Shaker, S.B.; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    .2% classification accuracy was achieved on a set of 168 manually annotated ROIs, comprising the three classes: normal tissue, centrilobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema. The measured emphysema severity was in good agreement with a pulmonary function test (PFT) achieving correlation coefficients of up to |r......We aim at improving quantitative measures of emphysema in computed tomography (CT) images of the lungs. Current standard measures, such as the relative area of emphysema (RA), rely on a single intensity threshold on individual pixels, thus ignoring any interrelations between pixels. Texture...... analysis allows for a much richer representation that also takes the local structure around pixels into account. This paper presents a texture classification-based system for emphysema quantification in CT images. Measures of emphysema severity are obtained by fusing pixel posterior probabilities output...

  14. Adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process of the pancreas: MDCT patterns of local invasion and clinical features at presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Thornton, Amie E.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Jeffrey, R.B. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-05-15

    To compare the multidetector CT (MDCT) patterns of local invasion and clinical findings at presentation in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process of the pancreas to patients with adenocarcinomas in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. We evaluated the two cohorts for common duct and pancreatic duct dilatation, mesenteric vascular encasement, root of mesentery invasion, perineural invasion and duodenal invasion. In addition, we compared the clinical findings at presentation in both groups. Common duct (P < 0.001) and pancreatic duct dilatation (P = 0.001) were significantly less common in uncinate process adenocarcinomas than in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. Clinical findings of jaundice (P = 0.01) and pruritis (P = 0.004) were significantly more common in patients with lesions in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. Superior mesenteric artery encasement (P = 0.02) and perineural invasion (P = 0.001) were significantly more common with uncinate process adenocarcinomas. Owing to its unique anatomic location, adenocarcinomas within the uncinate process of the pancreas have significantly different patterns of both local invasion and clinical presentation compared to patients with carcinomas in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. (orig.)

  15. α-Catenin localization and sarcomere self-organization on N-cadherin adhesive patterns are myocyte contractility driven.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Chopra

    Full Text Available The N-cadherin (N-cad complex plays a crucial role in cardiac cell structure and function. Cadherins are adhesion proteins linking adjacent cardiac cells and, like integrin adhesions, are sensitive to force transmission. Forces through these adhesions are capable of eliciting structural and functional changes in myocytes. Compared to integrins, the mechanisms of force transduction through cadherins are less explored. α-catenin is a major component of the cadherin-catenin complex, thought to provide a link to the cell actin cytoskeleton. Using N-cad micropatterned substrates in an adhesion constrainment model, the results from this study show that α-catenin localizes to regions of highest internal stress in myocytes. This localization suggests that α-catenin acts as an adaptor protein associated with the cadherin mechanosensory apparatus, which is distinct from mechanosensing through integrins. Myosin inhibition in cells bound by integrins to fibronectin-coated patterns disrupts myofibiril organization, whereas on N-cad coated patterns, myosin inhibition leads to better organized myofibrils. This result indicates that the two adhesion systems provide independent mechanisms for regulating myocyte structural organization.

  16. Adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process of the pancreas: MDCT patterns of local invasion and clinical features at presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla-Thornton, Amie E.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the multidetector CT (MDCT) patterns of local invasion and clinical findings at presentation in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process of the pancreas to patients with adenocarcinomas in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. We evaluated the two cohorts for common duct and pancreatic duct dilatation, mesenteric vascular encasement, root of mesentery invasion, perineural invasion and duodenal invasion. In addition, we compared the clinical findings at presentation in both groups. Common duct (P < 0.001) and pancreatic duct dilatation (P = 0.001) were significantly less common in uncinate process adenocarcinomas than in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. Clinical findings of jaundice (P = 0.01) and pruritis (P = 0.004) were significantly more common in patients with lesions in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. Superior mesenteric artery encasement (P = 0.02) and perineural invasion (P = 0.001) were significantly more common with uncinate process adenocarcinomas. Owing to its unique anatomic location, adenocarcinomas within the uncinate process of the pancreas have significantly different patterns of both local invasion and clinical presentation compared to patients with carcinomas in the non-uncinate head of the pancreas. (orig.)

  17. Local processes and regional patterns - Interpreting a multi-decadal altimetry record of Greenland Ice Sheet changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, A. F.; Babonis, G. S.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; van der Veen, C. J.; Khan, S. A.; Porter, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a new, comprehensive reconstruction of Greenland Ice Sheet elevation changes, generated using the Surface Elevation And Change detection (SERAC) approach. 35-year long elevation-change time series (1980-2015) were obtained at more than 150,000 locations from observations acquired by NASA's airborne and spaceborne laser altimeters (ATM, LVIS, ICESat), PROMICE laser altimetry data (2007-2011) and a DEM covering the ice sheet margin derived from stereo aerial photographs (1970s-80s). After removing the effect of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) and the elastic crustal response to changes in ice loading, the time series were partitioned into changes due to surface processes and ice dynamics and then converted into mass change histories. Using gridded products, we examined ice sheet elevation, and mass change patterns, and compared them with other estimates at different scales from individual outlet glaciers through large drainage basins, on to the entire ice sheet. Both the SERAC time series and the grids derived from these time series revealed significant spatial and temporal variations of dynamic mass loss and widespread intermittent thinning, indicating the complexity of ice sheet response to climate forcing. To investigate the regional and local controls of ice dynamics, we examined thickness change time series near outlet glacier grounding lines. Changes on most outlet glaciers were consistent with one or more episodes of dynamic thinning that propagates upstream from the glacier terminus. The spatial pattern of the onset, duration, and termination of these dynamic thinning events suggest a regional control, such as warming ocean and air temperatures. However, the intricate spatiotemporal pattern of dynamic thickness change suggests that, regardless of the forcing responsible for initial glacier acceleration and thinning, the response of individual glaciers is modulated by local conditions. We use statistical methods, such as principal

  18. Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power

  19. Efficient Spatio-Temporal Local Binary Patterns for Spontaneous Facial Micro-Expression Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yandan; See, John; Phan, Raphael C.-W.; Oh, Yee-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Micro-expression recognition is still in the preliminary stage, owing much to the numerous difficulties faced in the development of datasets. Since micro-expression is an important affective clue for clinical diagnosis and deceit analysis, much effort has gone into the creation of these datasets for research purposes. There are currently two publicly available spontaneous micro-expression datasets—SMIC and CASME II, both with baseline results released using the widely used dynamic texture descriptor LBP-TOP for feature extraction. Although LBP-TOP is popular and widely used, it is still not compact enough. In this paper, we draw further inspiration from the concept of LBP-TOP that considers three orthogonal planes by proposing two efficient approaches for feature extraction. The compact robust form described by the proposed LBP-Six Intersection Points (SIP) and a super-compact LBP-Three Mean Orthogonal Planes (MOP) not only preserves the essential patterns, but also reduces the redundancy that affects the discriminality of the encoded features. Through a comprehensive set of experiments, we demonstrate the strengths of our approaches in terms of recognition accuracy and efficiency. PMID:25993498

  20. The role of local sea surface temperature pattern changes in shaping climate change in the North Atlantic sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Ralf; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Bader, Jürgen; Greatbatch, Richard J.

    2018-03-01

    Beside its global effects, climate change is manifested in many regionally pronounced features mainly resulting from changes in the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. Here we investigate the influence of the North Atlantic SST on shaping the winter-time response to global warming. Our results are based on a long-term climate projection with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) to investigate the influence of North Atlantic sea surface temperature pattern changes on shaping the atmospheric climate change signal. In sensitivity experiments with the model's atmospheric component we decompose the response into components controlled by the local SST structure and components controlled by global/remote changes. MPI-ESM simulates a global warming response in SST similar to other climate models: there is a warming minimum—or "warming hole"—in the subpolar North Atlantic, and the sharp SST gradients associated with the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic Current shift northward by a few a degrees. Over the warming hole, global warming causes a relatively weak increase in rainfall. Beyond this, our experiments show more localized effects, likely resulting from future SST gradient changes in the North Atlantic. This includes a significant precipitation decrease to the south of the Gulf Stream despite increased underlying SSTs. Since this region is characterised by a strong band of precipitation in the current climate, this is contrary to the usual case that wet regions become wetter and dry regions become drier in a warmer climate. A moisture budget analysis identifies a complex interplay of various processes in the region of modified SST gradients: reduced surface winds cause a decrease in evaporation; and thermodynamic, modified atmospheric eddy transports, and coastal processes cause a change in the moisture convergence. The changes in the the North Atlantic storm track are mainly controlled by the non-regional changes in the forcing. The impact of

  1. [Distribution patterns of canopy and understory tree species at local scale in a Tierra Firme forest, the Colombian Amazonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Silva, Juan Sebastian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque

    2014-03-01

    The effect of environmental variation on the structure of tree communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant species is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to tree species abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the species distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 species and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of tree species at a local scale on Tierra Firme

  2. Consistent pattern of local adaptation during an experimental heat wave in a pipefish-trematode host-parasite system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne H Landis

    Full Text Available Extreme climate events such as heat waves are expected to increase in frequency under global change. As one indirect effect, they can alter magnitude and direction of species interactions, for example those between hosts and parasites. We simulated a summer heat wave to investigate how a changing environment affects the interaction between the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle as a host and its digenean trematode parasite (Cryptocotyle lingua. In a fully reciprocal laboratory infection experiment, pipefish from three different coastal locations were exposed to sympatric and allopatric trematode cercariae. In order to examine whether an extreme climatic event disrupts patterns of locally adapted host-parasite combinations we measured the parasite's transmission success as well as the host's adaptive and innate immune defence under control and heat wave conditions. Independent of temperature, sympatric cercariae were always more successful than allopatric ones, indicating that parasites are locally adapted to their hosts. Hosts suffered from heat stress as suggested by fewer cells of the adaptive immune system (lymphocytes compared to the same groups that were kept at 18°C. However, the proportion of the innate immune cells (monocytes was higher in the 18°C water. Contrary to our expectations, no interaction between host immune defence, parasite infectivity and temperature stress were found, nor did the pattern of local adaptation change due to increased water temperature. Thus, in this host-parasite interaction, the sympatric parasite keeps ahead of the coevolutionary dynamics across sites, even under increasing temperatures as expected under marine global warming.

  3. Localization and Developmental Expression Patterns of CSPG in the RCS Rat Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Feng Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigate changes in chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG distribution in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS rat retinae. Could CSPGs distribution act as a physical barrier to transplanted cell migration in degenerating retinae? Methods: CSPG expression was examined in RCS and Long-Evans rat retinae from birth to postnatal day 150 (PND150 using immunofluorescence and western-blots. Results: Both groups showed a rapid rise in CSPG expression on PND14, which peaked on PND21 before declining to lower levels by PND35. CSPG expression had risen again by PND90 and remained elevated for the duration of the study (PND150. However, from PND21, CSPG expression was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05, n = 5 in Long-Evans rat retinae. CSPG-positive cells were localized in the ganglion cell layer (GCL and the photoreceptor outer segment debris zone (DZ; CSPG expression in the DZ was the main contributor to the higher expression in older animals for both groups. Conclusions: Increased expression of CSPGs in the DZ may act as a physical barrier following retinal cellular transplantation. CSPGs in the GCL is probably related to dendritic changes. CSPG accumulation in the older retinae suggests that aging influences the microenvironment in the retina, which may affect the efficacy of cell transplantation.

  4. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: implications for resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Göthe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  5. Staying in the Global City: Patterns of Luxury Hotel Localization in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hidalgo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chile, for a long time a backwater of international tourism, is about to turn itself into a top–end destination, with the capital Santiago taking a leading role. In recent decades, international chains have constructed numerous luxury hotels aimed at the requirements of international city and business tourists. The continuing bicentric orientation of the city (core city and ‘modern town’, which has withstood all fragmentation processes, has led to a polycentric distribution of luxury hotels, with the largest, most expensive and most luxurious hotels situated in the ‘modern town’. The airport, the innovation centers and business parks, as well as the city center, have also seen investment. When compared with models of hotel localization in cities, it is evident that Santiago has overcome the traditional model of city tourism under the influence of globalization trends. Today the needs of global travelers, both city and business tourists, transport links and the surroundings of the hotels play an important role. This is reflected in the pricing structure and the distribution of luxury hotels across the city.

  6. Drinking pattern and its relation to hemoglobin concentration in local brew consumers from the Kathmandu Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the hemoglobin concentration in alcohol consumers (home made brew-Chang) and compare it with non- alcohohcs healthy subjects. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined in 2053 alcoholic consumers (males: 1056; females: 997) and was compared with 1 027 (males: 623; females: 404) healthy non-alcoholic con-trol subjects. The Hb concentration in alcoholic male and female were 13.42 ± 2.14 g/dL and 12.19 ± 1.55 g/dL compared with control showing 14.43 ± 1.07 g/dL and 12.73 ± 1.41 g/dL in males and females respectively. The differences in Hb concentration between alcoholic and non- alcoholic consumers were highly significant in both genders with a P value of 0. 000 674 in males and 0.004 732 in females. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification test (AUDIT) scores was advocated to alcoholic consum-ers to test the severity of drunkenness and disorders related to it. A total of 887 males and 663 females crossed the cut-off limits of ≥8 AUDIT scores showing the addiction towards drinking habits of local brew.

  7. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: Implications for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Emma; Sandin, Leonard; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  8. Urban shrinkage in Germany and the USA: a comparison of transformation patterns and local strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Thorsten; Pallagst, Karina M

    2012-01-01

    Many American and European cities have to deal with demographic and economic trajectories leading to urban shrinkage. According to official data, 13% of urban regions in the US and 54% of those in the EU have lost population in recent years. However, the extent and spatial distribution of declining populations differ significantly between Europe and the US. In Germany, the situation is driven by falling birth rates and the effects of German reunification. In the US, shrinkage is basically related to long-term industrial transformation. But the challenges of shrinking cities seldom appeared on the agendas of politicians and urban planners until recently. This article provides a critical overview of the development paths and local strategies of four shrinking cities: Schwedt and Dresden in eastern Germany; Youngstown and Pittsburgh in the US. A typology of urban growth and shrinkage, from economic and demographic perspectives, enables four types of city to be differentiated and the differences between the US and eastern Germany to be discussed. The article suggests that a new transatlantic debate on policy and planning strategies for restructuring shrinking cities is needed to overcome the dominant growth orientation that in most cases intensifies the negative consequences of shrinkage.

  9. Local binary pattern variants-based adaptive texture features analysis for posed and nonposed facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Maryam; Bhatti, Naeem; Javed, Sajid; Jung, Soon Ki

    2017-09-01

    Facial expression recognition (FER) is an important task for various computer vision applications. The task becomes challenging when it requires the detection and encoding of macro- and micropatterns of facial expressions. We present a two-stage texture feature extraction framework based on the local binary pattern (LBP) variants and evaluate its significance in recognizing posed and nonposed facial expressions. We focus on the parametric limitations of the LBP variants and investigate their effects for optimal FER. The size of the local neighborhood is an important parameter of the LBP technique for its extraction in images. To make the LBP adaptive, we exploit the granulometric information of the facial images to find the local neighborhood size for the extraction of center-symmetric LBP (CS-LBP) features. Our two-stage texture representations consist of an LBP variant and the adaptive CS-LBP features. Among the presented two-stage texture feature extractions, the binarized statistical image features and adaptive CS-LBP features were found showing high FER rates. Evaluation of the adaptive texture features shows competitive and higher performance than the nonadaptive features and other state-of-the-art approaches, respectively.

  10. Spitzenkorper, exocyst, and polarisome components in Candida albicans hyphae show different patterns of localization and have distinct dynamic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura A; Sudbery, Peter E

    2010-10-01

    During the extreme polarized growth of fungal hyphae, secretory vesicles are thought to accumulate in a subapical region called the Spitzenkörper. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can grow in a budding yeast or hyphal form. When it grows as hyphae, Mlc1 accumulates in a subapical spot suggestive of a Spitzenkörper-like structure, while the polarisome components Spa2 and Bud6 localize to a surface crescent. Here we show that the vesicle-associated protein Sec4 also localizes to a spot, confirming that secretory vesicles accumulate in the putative C. albicans Spitzenkörper. In contrast, exocyst components localize to a surface crescent. Using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) experiments and cytochalasin A to disrupt actin cables, we showed that Spitzenkörper-located proteins are highly dynamic. In contrast, exocyst and polarisome components are stably located at the cell surface. It is thought that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exocyst components are transported to the cell surface on secretory vesicles along actin cables. If each vesicle carried its own complement of exocyst components, then it would be expected that exocyst components would be as dynamic as Sec4 and would have the same pattern of localization. This is not what we observe in C. albicans. We propose a model in which a stream of vesicles arrives at the tip and accumulates in the Spitzenkörper before onward delivery to the plasma membrane mediated by exocyst and polarisome components that are more stable residents of the cell surface.

  11. Msx and dlx homeogene expression in epithelial odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhin-Poncet, Blandine; Ghoul-Mazgar, Sonia; Hotton, Dominique; Capron, Frédérique; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Goubin, Gérard; Berdal, Ariane

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial odontogenic tumors are rare jaw pathologies that raise clinical diagnosis and prognosis dilemmas notably between ameloblastomas and clear cell odontogenic carcinomas (CCOCs). In line with previous studies, the molecular determinants of tooth development-amelogenin, Msx1, Msx2, Dlx2, Dlx3, Bmp2, and Bmp4-were analyzed by RT-PCR, ISH, and immunolabeling in 12 recurrent ameloblastomas and in one case of CCOC. Although Msx1 expression imitates normal cell differentiation in these tumors, other genes showed a distinct pattern depending on the type of tumor and the tissue involved. In benign ameloblastomas, ISH localized Dlx3 transcripts and inconstantly detected Msx2 transcripts in epithelial cells. In the CCOC, ISH established a lack of both Dlx3 and Msx2 transcripts but allowed identification of the antisense transcript of Msx1, which imitates the same scheme of distribution between mesenchyme and epithelium as in the cup stage of tooth development. Furthermore, while exploring the expression pattern of signal molecules by RT-PCR, Bmp2 was shown to be completely inactivated in the CCOC and irregularly noticeable in ameloblastomas. Bmp4 was always expressed in all the tumors. Based on the established roles of Msx and Dlx transcription factors in dental cell fates, these data suggest that their altered expression is a proposed trail to explain the genesis and/or the progression of odontogenic tumors.

  12. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics. (paper)

  13. Experimentally observed evolution between dynamic patterns and intrinsic localized modes in a driven nonlinear electrical cyclic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shige, S.; Miyasaka, K.; Shi, W.; Soga, Y.; Sato, M.; Sievers, A. J.

    2018-02-01

    Locked intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) and large amplitude lattice spatial modes (LSMs) have been experimentally measured for a driven 1-D nonlinear cyclic electric transmission line, where the nonlinear element is a saturable capacitor. Depending on the number of cells and electrical lattice damping an LSM of fixed shape can be tuned across the modal spectrum. Interestingly, by tuning the driver frequency away from this spectrum the LSM can be continuously converted into ILMs and vice versa. The differences in pattern formation between simulations and experimental findings are due to a low concentration of impurities. Through this novel nonlinear excitation and switching channel in cyclic lattices either energy balanced or unbalanced LSMs and ILMs may occur. Because of the general nature of these dynamical results for nonintegrable lattices applications are to be expected. The ultimate stability of driven aero machinery containing nonlinear periodic structures may be one example.

  14. Using Fractal and Local Binary Pattern Features for Classification of ECOG Motor Imagery Tasks Obtained from the Right Brain Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fangzhou; Zhou, Weidong; Zhen, Yilin; Yuan, Qi; Wu, Qi

    2016-09-01

    The feature extraction and classification of brain signal is very significant in brain-computer interface (BCI). In this study, we describe an algorithm for motor imagery (MI) classification of electrocorticogram (ECoG)-based BCI. The proposed approach employs multi-resolution fractal measures and local binary pattern (LBP) operators to form a combined feature for characterizing an ECoG epoch recording from the right hemisphere of the brain. A classifier is trained by using the gradient boosting in conjunction with ordinary least squares (OLS) method. The fractal intercept, lacunarity and LBP features are extracted to classify imagined movements of either the left small finger or the tongue. Experimental results on dataset I of BCI competition III demonstrate the superior performance of our method. The cross-validation accuracy and accuracy is 90.6% and 95%, respectively. Furthermore, the low computational burden of this method makes it a promising candidate for real-time BCI systems.

  15. Facial Expression Recognition from Video Sequences Based on Spatial-Temporal Motion Local Binary Pattern and Gabor Multiorientation Fusion Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes novel framework for facial expressions analysis using dynamic and static information in video sequences. First, based on incremental formulation, discriminative deformable face alignment method is adapted to locate facial points to correct in-plane head rotation and break up facial region from background. Then, spatial-temporal motion local binary pattern (LBP feature is extracted and integrated with Gabor multiorientation fusion histogram to give descriptors, which reflect static and dynamic texture information of facial expressions. Finally, a one-versus-one strategy based multiclass support vector machine (SVM classifier is applied to classify facial expressions. Experiments on Cohn-Kanade (CK + facial expression dataset illustrate that integrated framework outperforms methods using single descriptors. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods on CK+, MMI, and Oulu-CASIA VIS datasets, our proposed framework performs better.

  16. Crossroads of Wnt and Hippo in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernascone, Ilenia; Martin-Belmonte, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial tissues undergo constant growth and differentiation during embryonic development and to replace damaged tissue in adult organs. These processes are governed by different signaling pathways that ultimately control the expression of genes associated with cell proliferation, patterning, and death. One essential pathway is Wnt, which controls tubulogenesis in several epithelial organs. Recently, Wnt has been closely linked to other signaling pathways, such as Hippo, that orchestrate proliferation and apoptosis to control organ size. There is evidence that epithelial cell junctions may sequester the transcription factors that act downstream of these signaling pathways, which would represent an important aspect of their functional regulation and their influence on cell behavior. Here, we review the transcriptional control exerted by the Wnt and Hippo signaling pathways during epithelial growth, patterning, and differentiation and recent advances in understanding of the regulation and crosstalk of these pathways in epithelial tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental analysis of considering the sound pressure distribution pattern at the ear canal entrance as an unrevealed head-related localization clue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xin; QI Na; MENG Zihou

    2018-01-01

    By analyzing the differences between binaural recording and real listening,it was deduced that there were some unrevealed auditory localization clues,and the sound pressure distribution pattern at the entrance of ear canal was probably a clue.It was proved through the listening test that the unrevealed auditory localization clues really exist with the reduction to absurdity.And the effective frequency bands of the unrevealed localization clues were induced and summed.The result of finite element based simulations showed that the pressure distribution at the entrance of ear canal was non-uniform,and the pattern was related to the direction of sound source.And it was proved that the sound pressure distribution pattern at the entrance of the ear canal carried the sound source direction information and could be used as an unrevealed localization cluc.The frequency bands in which the sound pressure distribution patterns had significant differences between front and back sound source directions were roughly matched with the effective frequency bands of unrevealed localization clues obtained from the listening tests.To some extent,it supports the hypothesis that the sound pressure distribution pattern could be a kind of unrevealed auditory localization clues.

  18. Radical External Beam Radiotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer in Japan: Changing Trends in the Patterns of Care Process Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Sasaki, Tomonari [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Kyushu Center, Fukuoka (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Araya, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To delineate changing trends in radical external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials: Data from 841 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT in the Japanese Patterns of Care Study (PCS) from 1996 to 2005 were analyzed. Results: Significant increases in the proportions of patients with stage T1 to T2 disease and decrease in prostate-specific antigen values were observed. Also, there were significant increases in the percentages of patients treated with radiotherapy by their own choice. Median radiation doses were 65.0 Gy and 68.4 Gy from 1996 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2001, respectively, increasing to 70 Gy from 2003 to 2005. Moreover, conformal therapy was more frequently used from 2003 to 2005 (84.9%) than from 1996 to 1998 (49.1%) and from 1999 to 2001 (50.2%). On the other hand, the percentage of patients receiving hormone therapy from 2003 to 2005 (81.1%) was almost the same as that from 1996 to 1998 (86.3%) and from 1999 to 2001 (89.7%). Compared with the PCS in the United States, patient characteristics and patterns of treatments from 2003 to 2005 have become more similar to those in the United States than those from 1996 to 1998 and those from 1999 to 2001. Conclusions: This study indicates a trend toward increasing numbers of patients with early-stage disease and increasing proportions of patients treated with higher radiation doses with advanced equipment among Japanese prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT during 1996 to 2005 survey periods. Patterns of care for prostate cancer in Japan are becoming more similar to those in the United States.

  19. Different synaptic stimulation patterns influence the local androgenic and estrogenic neurosteroid availability triggering hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Michela; Tozzi, Alessandro; Calabresi, Paolo; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; Grassi, Silvarosa

    2017-02-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were used to investigate the role of the local synthesis of 17β-estradiol (E2) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on synaptic long-term effects induced in the hippocampal CA1 region of male rat slices. Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP), induced by different stimulation patterns, were examined under the block of the DHT synthesis by finasteride (FIN), and the E2 synthesis by letrozole (LET). We used low frequency stimulation (LFS) for LTD, high frequency stimulation (HFS) for LTP, and intermediate patterns differing in duration or frequency. We found that FIN reverted the LFS-LTD into LTP and enhanced LTP induced by intermediate and HFSs. These effects were abolished by exogenous DHT at concentration higher than the basal one, suggesting a stimulus dependent increase in DHT availability. No effect on the synaptic responses was observed giving DHT alone. Moreover, we found that the inhibition of E2 synthesis influenced the HFS-LTP by reducing its amplitude, and the exogenous E2 either enhanced HFS-LTP or reverted the LFS-LTD into LTP. The equivalence of the E2 concentration for rescuing the full HFS-LTP under LET and reverting the LFS-LTD into LTP suggests an enhancement of the endogenous E2 availability that is specifically driven by the HFS. No effect of FIN or LET was observed on the responses to stimuli that did not induce either LTD or LTP. This study provides evidence that the E2 and DHT availability combined with specific stimulation patterns is determinant for the sign and amplitude of the long-term effects. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Consensus and differences in primary radiotherapy for localized and locally advanced prostate cancer in Switzerland. A survey on patterns of practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panje, Cedric M. [Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland); Dal Pra, Alan [Inselspital Bern, Department of Radiation Oncology, Bern (Switzerland); Zilli, Thomas [Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva (Switzerland); Zwahlen, Daniel R. [Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Department of Radiation Oncology, Chur (Switzerland); Papachristofilou, Alexandros [Universitaetsspital Basel, Department of Radiation Oncology, Basel (Switzerland); Herrera, Fernanda G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Matzinger, Oscar [Hopital Riviera-Chablais, Department of Radiation Oncology, Vevey (Switzerland); Plasswilm, Ludwig; Putora, Paul Martin [Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT), with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), is an established treatment option for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Despite high-level evidence from several randomized trials, risk group stratification and treatment recommendations vary due to contradictory or inconclusive data, particularly with regard to EBRT dose prescription and ADT duration. Our aim was to investigate current patterns of practice in primary EBRT for prostate cancer in Switzerland. Treatment recommendations on EBRT and ADT for localized and locally advanced prostate cancer were collected from 23 Swiss radiation oncology centers. Written recommendations were converted into center-specific decision trees, and analyzed for consensus and differences using a dedicated software tool. Additionally, specific radiotherapy planning and delivery techniques from the participating centers were assessed. The most commonly prescribed radiation dose was 78 Gy (range 70-80 Gy) across all risk groups. ADT was recommended for intermediate-risk patients for 6 months in over 80 % of the centers, and for high-risk patients for 2 or 3 years in over 90 % of centers. For recommendations on combined EBRT and ADT treatment, consensus levels did not exceed 39 % in any clinical scenario. Arc-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is implemented for routine prostate cancer radiotherapy by 96 % of the centers. Among Swiss radiation oncology centers, considerable ranges of radiotherapy dose and ADT duration are routinely offered for localized and locally advanced prostate cancer. In the vast majority of cases, doses and durations are within the range of those described in current evidence-based guidelines. (orig.) [German] Die Radiotherapie (RT) ist als Monotherapie oder in Kombination mit einer Androgendeprivationstherapie (ADT) eine etablierte Behandlungsoption fuer das lokalisierte und lokal fortgeschrittene Prostatakarzinom. Trotz der guten Evidenzlage durch zahlreiche

  1. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ice Mass Variations and the Local Climatic Factors in the Riparian Zone of Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, P.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2016-12-01

    Californian icefields are natural basins of fresh water. They provide irrigation water to the farms in the central valley. We analyzed the ice mass loss rates, air temperature and land surface temperature (LST) in Sacramento and San Joaquin basins in California. The digital elevation models from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to calculate ice mass loss rate between the years 2002 and 2015. Additionally, Landsat TIR data were used to extract the land surface temperature. Data from local weather stations were analyzed to understand the spatiotemporal trends in air temperature. The results showed an overall mass recession of -0.8 ± 0.7 m w.e.a-1. We also noticed an about 60% loss in areal extent of the glaciers in the study basins between 2000 and 2015. Local climatic factors, along with the global climate patterns might have influenced the negative trends in the ice mass loss. Overall, there was an increase in the air temperature by 0.07± 0.02 °C in the central valley between 2000 and 2015. Furthermore, LST increased by 0.34 ± 0.4 °C and 0.55± 0.1 °C in the Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. Our preliminary results show the decrease in area and mass of ice mass in the basins, and changing agricultural practices in the valley.

  2. Submandibular gland-sparing radiation therapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: patterns of failure and xerostomia outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Liao, Jay J; Garden, Adam S; Laramore, George E; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2014-01-01

    Saliva from submandibular glands (SMG) is necessary to minimize xerostomia. It is unclear whether SMG can be safely spared in patients undergoing bilateral neck radiotherapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer without increasing the risk of marginal recurrence. We evaluated the outcomes of contralateral submandibular gland (cSMG) sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). All patients with stage III/IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with bilateral neck IMRT from 2006–2012 at our institution were included. Appropriately selected patients with favorable primary tumor characteristics and no definite contralateral neck disease were treated with cSMG-sparing IMRT. Patterns of failure and xerostomia outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. 114 patients were treated. 89% had stage IV disease and 89% received definitive radiation therapy. 76 patients (67%) received cSMG sparing IMRT. With a median follow-up of 30 months, there were 10 local, 9 regional, and 10 distant recurrences. 2-year overall survival was 86% and 2-year loco-regional control was 87%. In cSMG spared patients, the mean cSMG dose was 30.7 Gy. Late grade 2+ xerostomia was significantly reduced in the cSMG spared group compared to those without SMG sparing (6 months: 23% vs. 72%, 12 months: 6% vs. 41%, 24 months: 3% vs. 36%, all p < 0.0007). There were no peri-SMG marginal recurrences in the cSMG-spared cohort. cSMG sparing IMRT did not increase marginal failures in this series of locally advanced oropharyngeal SCC patients. Xerostomia was significantly reduced in cSMG spared patients

  3. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Silverman, Emily D.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) winter off the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. Yet, despite their seasonal proximity to urbanized areas in this region, there is limited information on patterns of wintering sea duck habitat use. It is difficult to gather information on sea ducks because of the relative inaccessibility of their offshore locations, their high degree of mobility, and their aggregated distributions. To characterize environmental conditions that affect wintering distributions, as well as their geographic ranges, we analyzed count data on five species of sea ducks (black scoters Melanitta nigra americana, surf scoters M. perspicillata, white-winged scoters M. fusca, common eiders Somateria mollissima, and long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that were collected during the Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey for ten years starting in the early 1990s. We modeled count data for each species within ten-nautical-mile linear survey segments using a zero-inflated negative binomial model that included four local-scale habitat covariates (sea surface temperature, mean bottom depth, maximum bottom slope, and a variable to indicate if the segment was in a bay or not), one broad-scale covariate (the North Atlantic Oscillation), and a temporal correlation component. Our results indicate that species distributions have strong latitudinal gradients and consistency in local habitat use. The North Atlantic Oscillation was the only environmental covariate that had a significant (but variable) effect on the expected count for all five species, suggesting that broad-scale climatic conditions may be directly or indirectly important to the distributions of wintering sea ducks. Our results provide critical information on species-habitat associations, elucidate the complicated relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation, sea surface temperature, and local sea duck abundances, and should be useful in assessing the impacts of climate

  4. Amino acid and nucleotide recurrence in aligned sequences: synonymous substitution patterns in association with global and local base compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, M; Nishizawa, K

    2000-10-01

    The tendency for repetitiveness of nucleotides in DNA sequences has been reported for a variety of organisms. We show that the tendency for repetitive use of amino acids is widespread and is observed even for segments conserved between human and Drosophila melanogaster at the level of >50% amino acid identity. This indicates that repetitiveness influences not only the weakly constrained segments but also those sequence segments conserved among phyla. Not only glutamine (Q) but also many of the 20 amino acids show a comparable level of repetitiveness. Repetitiveness in bases at codon position 3 is stronger for human than for D.melanogaster, whereas local repetitiveness in intron sequences is similar between the two organisms. While genes for immune system-specific proteins, but not ancient human genes (i.e. human homologs of Escherichia coli genes), have repetitiveness at codon bases 1 and 2, repetitiveness at codon base 3 for these groups is similar, suggesting that the human genome has at least two mechanisms generating local repetitiveness. Neither amino acid nor nucleotide repetitiveness is observed beyond the exon boundary, denying the possibility that such repetitiveness could mainly stem from natural selection on mRNA or protein sequences. Analyses of mammalian sequence alignments show that while the 'between gene' GC content heterogeneity, which is linked to 'isochores', is a principal factor associated with the bias in substitution patterns in human, 'within gene' heterogeneity in nucleotide composition is also associated with such bias on a more local scale. The relationship amongst the various types of repetitiveness is discussed.

  5. Identification of {sup 192}Ir seeds in localization images using a novel statistical pattern recognition approach and a priori information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, William F; Chaney, Edward L; Coggins, James M

    1995-07-01

    Purpose / Objective: Manual labeling of individual {sup 192}Ir seeds in localization images for dosimetry of multi-strand low-dose-rate (LDR) implants is labor intensive, tedious and prone to error. The objective of this investigation is to develop computer-based methods that analyze digitized localization images, improve dosimetric efficiency, and reduce labeling errors. Materials and Methods: {sup 192}Ir localization films were digitized with a scanned-laser system and analyzed using Multiscale, Geometric, Statistical Pattern Recognition (MGSPR), a technique that recognizes and classifies pixels in gray-scale images based on their surrounding, neighborhood geometry. To 'teach' MGSPR how to recognize specific objects, a Gaussian-based mathematical filter set is applied to training images containing user-labeled examples of the desired objects. The filters capture a broad range of descriptive geometric information at multiple spatial scales. Principled mathematical analysis is used to determine the linear combination of filters from a large base set that yields the best discrimination between object types. Thus the sensitivity of the filters can be 'tuned' to detect specific objects such as{sup 192} Ir seeds. For a given pixel, the output of the filter is a multi-component feature vector that uniquely describes the pixel's geometric characteristics. Pixels with similar geometric attributes have feature vectors that naturally 'cluster', or group, in the multidimensional space called 'feature space'. After statistically quantifying the training-set clusters in feature space, pixels found in new images are automatically labeled by correlation with the nearest cluster, e.g., the cluster representing {sup 192}Ir seeds. One of the greatest challenges in statistical pattern recognition is to determine which filters result in the best labeling. Good discrimination is achieved when clusters are compact and well isolated from one another in feature space. The filters used in

  6. Identification of 192Ir seeds in localization images using a novel statistical pattern recognition approach and a priori information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, William F.; Chaney, Edward L.; Coggins, James M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose / Objective: Manual labeling of individual 192 Ir seeds in localization images for dosimetry of multi-strand low-dose-rate (LDR) implants is labor intensive, tedious and prone to error. The objective of this investigation is to develop computer-based methods that analyze digitized localization images, improve dosimetric efficiency, and reduce labeling errors. Materials and Methods: 192 Ir localization films were digitized with a scanned-laser system and analyzed using Multiscale, Geometric, Statistical Pattern Recognition (MGSPR), a technique that recognizes and classifies pixels in gray-scale images based on their surrounding, neighborhood geometry. To 'teach' MGSPR how to recognize specific objects, a Gaussian-based mathematical filter set is applied to training images containing user-labeled examples of the desired objects. The filters capture a broad range of descriptive geometric information at multiple spatial scales. Principled mathematical analysis is used to determine the linear combination of filters from a large base set that yields the best discrimination between object types. Thus the sensitivity of the filters can be 'tuned' to detect specific objects such as 192 Ir seeds. For a given pixel, the output of the filter is a multi-component feature vector that uniquely describes the pixel's geometric characteristics. Pixels with similar geometric attributes have feature vectors that naturally 'cluster', or group, in the multidimensional space called 'feature space'. After statistically quantifying the training-set clusters in feature space, pixels found in new images are automatically labeled by correlation with the nearest cluster, e.g., the cluster representing 192 Ir seeds. One of the greatest challenges in statistical pattern recognition is to determine which filters result in the best labeling. Good discrimination is achieved when clusters are compact and well isolated from one another in feature space. The filters used in this study are

  7. Myeloid-Epithelial-Reproductive Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Milk Fat Globule Epidermal Growth Factor 8 Coordinately Improve Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction via Local Delivery of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howangyin, Kiave-Yune; Zlatanova, Ivana; Pinto, Cristina; Ngkelo, Anta; Cochain, Clément; Rouanet, Marie; Vilar, José; Lemitre, Mathilde; Stockmann, Christian; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Mallat, Ziad; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    In infarcted heart, improper clearance of dying cells by activated neighboring phagocytes may precipitate the transition to heart failure. We analyzed the coordinated role of 2 major mediators of efferocytosis, the myeloid-epithelial-reproductive protein tyrosine kinase (Mertk) and the milk fat globule epidermal growth factor (Mfge8), in directing cardiac remodeling by skewing the inflammatory response after myocardial infarction. We generated double-deficient mice for Mertk and Mfge8 (Mertk(-/-)/Mfge8(-/-)) and challenged them with acute coronary ligature. Compared with wild-type, Mertk-deficient (Mertk(-/-)), or Mfge8-deficient (Mfge8(-/-)) animals, Mertk(-/-)/Mfge8(-/-) mice displayed greater alteration in cardiac function and remodeling. Mertk and Mfge8 were expressed mainly by cardiac Ly6C(High and Low) monocytes and macrophages. In parallel, Mertk(-/-)/Mfge8(-/-) bone marrow chimeras manifested increased accumulation of apoptotic cells, enhanced fibrotic area, and larger infarct size, as well as reduced angiogenesis. We found that the abrogation of efferocytosis affected neither the ability of circulating monocytes to infiltrate cardiac tissue nor the number of resident Ly6C(High) and Ly6C(How) monocytes/macrophages populating the infarcted milieu. In contrast, combined Mertk and Mfge8 deficiency in Ly6C(High)/Ly6C(Low) monocytes/macrophages either obtained from in vitro differentiation of bone marrow cells or isolated from infarcted hearts altered their capacity of efferocytosis and subsequently blunted vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) release. Using LysMCre(+)/VEGFA(fl/fl) mice, we further identified an important role for myeloid-derived VEGFA in improving cardiac function and angiogenesis. After myocardial infarction, Mertk- and Mfge8-expressing monocyte/macrophages synergistically engage the clearance of injured cardiomyocytes, favoring the secretion of VEGFA to locally repair the dysfunctional heart. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Fibro-epithelial hyperplasia mimicking mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K; Singh, B D; Dubey, A; Avinash, A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chronic local irritation have been seen commonly in the form of fibroma or mucocele in children. We report a ten year old girl with the chief complaint of swelling in the lower right region of labial mucosa which was diagnosed clinically as mucocele and histologically as fibro-epithelial hyperplasia. Surgical excision was done under local anesthesia with no post-operative complication.

  9. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensimon-Brito Anabela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans or ossify (osteichthyans. Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio, even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. Results To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Osteocalcin (Oc. Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine. Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and

  10. Distinct patterns of notochord mineralization in zebrafish coincide with the localization of Osteocalcin isoform 1 during early vertebral centra formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensimon-Brito, Anabela; Cardeira, João; Cancela, Maria Leonor; Huysseune, Ann; Witten, Paul Eckhard

    2012-10-09

    In chondrichthyans, basal osteichthyans and tetrapods, vertebral bodies have cartilaginous anlagen that subsequently mineralize (chondrichthyans) or ossify (osteichthyans). Chondrocytes that form the vertebral centra derive from somites. In teleost fish, vertebral centrum formation starts in the absence of cartilage, through direct mineralization of the notochord sheath. In a second step, the notochord is surrounded by somite-derived intramembranous bone. In several small teleost species, including zebrafish (Danio rerio), even haemal and neural arches form directly as intramembranous bone and only modified caudalmost arches remain cartilaginous. This study compares initial patterns of mineralization in different regions of the vertebral column in zebrafish. We ask if the absence or presence of cartilaginous arches influences the pattern of notochord sheath mineralization. To reveal which cells are involved in mineralization of the notochord sheath we identify proliferating cells, we trace mineralization on the histological level and we analyze cell ultrastructure by TEM. Moreover, we localize proteins and genes that are typically expressed by skeletogenic cells such as Collagen type II, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Osteocalcin (Oc). Mineralization of abdominal and caudal vertebrae starts with a complete ring within the notochord sheath and prior to the formation of the bony arches. In contrast, notochord mineralization of caudal fin centra starts with a broad ventral mineral deposition, associated with the bases of the modified cartilaginous arches. Similar, arch-related, patterns of mineralization occur in teleosts that maintain cartilaginous arches throughout the spine.Throughout the entire vertebral column, we were able to co-localize ALP-positive signal with chordacentrum mineralization sites, as well as Collagen II and Oc protein accumulation in the mineralizing notochord sheath. In the caudal fin region, ALP and Oc signals were clearly produced both by the

  11. Ontology Design Patterns: Bridging the Gap Between Local Semantic Use Cases and Large-Scale, Long-Term Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Adam; Arko, Robert; Krisnadhi, Adila; Hitzler, Pascal; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Chandler, Cyndy; Narock, Tom; Cheatham, Michelle; Schildhauer, Mark; Jones, Matt; Raymond, Lisa; Mickle, Audrey; Finin, Tim; Fils, Doug; Carbotte, Suzanne; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    Integrating datasets for new use cases is one of the common drivers for adopting semantic web technologies. Even though linked data principles enables this type of activity over time, the task of reconciling new ontological commitments for newer use cases can be daunting. This situation was faced by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) as it sought to integrate its existing linked data with other data repositories to address newer scientific use cases as a partner in the GeoLink Project. To achieve a successful integration with other GeoLink partners, BCO-DMO's metadata would need to be described using the new ontologies developed by the GeoLink partners - a situation that could impact semantic inferencing, pre-existing software and external users of BCO-DMO's linked data. This presentation describes the process of how GeoLink is bridging the gap between local, pre-existing ontologies to achieve scientific metadata integration for all its partners through the use of ontology design patterns. GeoLink, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, brings together experts from the geosciences, computer science, and library science in an effort to improve discovery and reuse of data and knowledge. Its participating repositories include content from field expeditions, laboratory analyses, journal publications, conference presentations, theses/reports, and funding awards that span scientific studies from marine geology to marine ecology and biogeochemistry to paleoclimatology. GeoLink's outcomes include a set of reusable ontology design patterns (ODPs) that describe core geoscience concepts, a network of Linked Data published by participating repositories using those ODPs, and tools to facilitate discovery of related content in multiple repositories.

  12. Verification Image of The Veins on The Back Palm with Modified Local Line Binary Pattern (MLLBP) and Histogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prijono, Agus; Darmawan Hangkawidjaja, Aan; Ratnadewi; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari

    2018-01-01

    The verification to person who is used today as a fingerprint, signature, personal identification number (PIN) in the bank system, identity cards, attendance, easily copied and forged. This causes the system not secure and is vulnerable to unauthorized persons to access the system. In this research will be implemented verification system using the image of the blood vessels in the back of the palms as recognition more difficult to imitate because it is located inside the human body so it is safer to use. The blood vessels located at the back of the human hand is unique, even humans twins have a different image of the blood vessels. Besides the image of the blood vessels do not depend on a person’s age, so it can be used for long term, except in the case of an accident, or disease. Because of the unique vein pattern recognition can be used in a person. In this paper, we used a modification method to perform the introduction of a person based on the image of the blood vessel that is using Modified Local Line Binary Pattern (MLLBP). The process of matching blood vessel image feature extraction using Hamming Distance. Test case of verification is done by calculating the percentage of acceptance of the same person. Rejection error occurs if a person was not matched by the system with the data itself. The 10 person with 15 image compared to 5 image vein for each person is resulted 80,67% successful Another test case of the verification is done by verified two image from different person that is forgery, and the verification will be true if the system can rejection the image forgery. The ten different person is not verified and the result is obtained 94%.

  13. Elastic strain relaxation in interfacial dislocation patterns: II. From long- and short-range interactions to local reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattré, A.

    2017-08-01

    The long- and short-range interactions as well as planar reactions between two infinitely periodic sets of crossing dislocations are investigated using anisotropic elasticity theory in face- (fcc) and body- (bcc) centered cubic materials. Two preliminary cases are proposed to examine the substantial changes in the elastic stress states and the corresponding strain energies due to a slight rearrangement in the internal dislocation geometries and characters. In general, significant differences and discrepancies resulting from the considered cubic crystal structure and the approximation of isotropic elasticity are exhibited. In a third scenario, special attention is paid to connecting specific internal dislocation structures from the previous cases with non-equilibrium configurations predicted by the quantized Frank-Bilby equation for the (111) fcc and (110) bcc twist grain boundaries. The present solutions lead to the formation of energetically favorable dislocation junctions with non-randomly strain-relaxed configurations of lower energy. In particular, the local dislocation interactions and reactions form equilibrium hexagonal-shaped patterns with planar three-fold dislocation nodes without producing spurious far-field stresses.Numerical application results are presented from a selection of cubic metals including aluminum, copper, tantalum, and niobium. In contrast to the fcc materials, asymmetric dislocation nodes occur in the anisotropic bcc cases, within which the minimum-energy paths for predicting the fully strain-relaxed dislocation patterns depend on the Zener anisotropic factor with respect to unity. The associated changes in the dislocation structures as well as the removal of the elastic strain energy upon relaxations are quantified and also discussed.

  14. Temporal expression and localization patterns of variant surface antigens in clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates during erythrocyte schizogony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bachmann

    Full Text Available Avoidance of antibody-mediated immune recognition allows parasites to establish chronic infections and enhances opportunities for transmission. The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum possesses a number of multi-copy gene families, including var, rif, stevor and pfmc-2tm, which encode variant antigens believed to be expressed on the surfaces of infected erythrocytes. However, most studies of these antigens are based on in vitro analyses of culture-adapted isolates, most commonly the laboratory strain 3D7, and thus may not be representative of the unique challenges encountered by P. falciparum in the human host. To investigate the expression of the var, rif-A, rif-B, stevor and pfmc-2tm family genes under conditions that mimic more closely the natural course of infection, ex vivo clinical P. falciparum isolates were analyzed using a novel quantitative real-time PCR approach. Expression patterns in the clinical isolates at various time points during the first intraerythrocytic developmental cycle in vitro were compared to those of strain 3D7. In the clinical isolates, in contrast to strain 3D7, there was a peak of expression of the multi-copy gene families rif-A, stevor and pfmc-2tm at the young ring stage, in addition to the already known expression peak in trophozoites. Furthermore, most of the variant surface antigen families were overexpressed in the clinical isolates relative to 3D7, with the exception of the pfmc-2tm family, expression of which was higher in 3D7 parasites. Immunofluorescence analyses performed in parallel revealed two stage-dependent localization patterns of RIFIN, STEVOR and PfMC-2TM. Proteins were exported into the infected erythrocyte at the young trophozoite stage, whereas they remained inside the parasite membrane during schizont stage and were subsequently observed in different compartments in the merozoite. These results reveal a complex pattern of expression of P. falciparum multi-copy gene families during

  15. HIV gp120 binds to mannose receptor on vaginal epithelial cells and induces production of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sashaina E Fanibunda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During sexual transmission of HIV in women, the virus breaches the multi-layered CD4 negative stratified squamous epithelial barrier of the vagina, to infect the sub-epithelial CD4 positive immune cells. However the mechanisms by which HIV gains entry into the sub-epithelial zone is hitherto unknown. We have previously reported human mannose receptor (hMR as a CD4 independent receptor playing a role in HIV transmission on human spermatozoa. The current study was undertaken to investigate the expression of hMR in vaginal epithelial cells, its HIV gp120 binding potential, affinity constants and the induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs downstream of HIV gp120 binding to hMR. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human vaginal epithelial cells and the immortalized vaginal epithelial cell line Vk2/E6E7 were used in this study. hMR mRNA and protein were expressed in vaginal epithelial cells and cell line, with a molecular weight of 155 kDa. HIV gp120 bound to vaginal proteins with high affinity, (Kd = 1.2±0.2 nM for vaginal cells, 1.4±0.2 nM for cell line and the hMR antagonist mannan dose dependently inhibited this binding. Both HIV gp120 binding and hMR exhibited identical patterns of localization in the epithelial cells by immunofluorescence. HIV gp120 bound to immunopurified hMR and affinity constants were 2.9±0.4 nM and 3.2±0.6 nM for vaginal cells and Vk2/E6E7 cell line respectively. HIV gp120 induced an increase in MMP-9 mRNA expression and activity by zymography, which could be inhibited by an anti-hMR antibody. CONCLUSION: hMR expressed by vaginal epithelial cells has high affinity for HIV gp120 and this binding induces production of MMPs. We propose that the induction of MMPs in response to HIV gp120 may lead to degradation of tight junction proteins and the extracellular matrix proteins in the vaginal epithelium and basement membrane, leading to weakening of the epithelial barrier; thereby facilitating transport of HIV across the

  16. Expression of nestin, mesothelin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricevic, Josko; Forempoher, Gea; Ostojic, Ljerka; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Andjelinovic, Simun; Vukojevic, Katarina; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2011-11-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of appearance of nestin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and mesothelin proteins was immunohistochemically determined in the cells of normal developing and adult human meninges and meningiomas. Human meninges developed as two mesenchymal condensations in the head region. The simple squamous epithelium on the surface of leptomeninges developed during mesenchymal to epithelial transformation. Nestin appeared for the first time in week 7, EMA in week 8, while mesothelin appeared in week 22 of development. In the late fetal period and after birth, nestin expression decreased, whereas expression of EMA and mesothelin increased. EMA appeared in all surface epithelial cells and nodules, while mesothelin was found only in some of them. In adult meninges, all three proteins were predominantly localized in the surface epithelium and meningeal nodules. In meningothelial meningiomas (WHO grade I), EMA was detected in all tumor cells except in the endothelial cells, mesothelin characterized nests of tumor cells, while nestin was found predominantly in the walls of blood vessels. The distribution pattern of those proteins in normal meningeal and tumor cells indicates that nestin might characterize immature cells, while EMA and mesothelin appeared in maturing epithelial cells. Neoplastic transformation of these specific cell lineages contributes to the cell population in meningiomas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial Dynamics of the Blue Crab Spawning Stock in the Gulf of Mexico: Local Processes Driving Regional Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, M. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Female blue crabs undertake a critical spawning migration seaward, migrating from low-salinity mating habitat to high-salinity waters of the lower estuaries and coastal ocean, where larval survival is highest. This migration occurs primarily through ebb tide transport, driven by an endogenous circatidal rhythm in vertical swimming that is modulated by behavioral responses to environmental cues. Blue crabs are typically considered an estuarine species and fisheries are managed on a state-by-state basis. Yet recent evidence from state and regional fishery independent survey programs suggests that the spawning migration can take females substantial distances offshore (>150 km), and that offshore waters are important spawning grounds for female blue crabs in the Gulf of Mexico. This is especially true in areas where freshwater inflow is high, resulting in low estuarine and coastal salinities. In low-salinity, high-inflow areas (e.g., Louisiana), spawning occurs further offshore while in high-salinity, low-inflow areas (e.g., South Texas), spawning takes place primarily within the estuary. Regional patterns in spawning locations both inshore and offshore are driven by interactions between behavioral mechanisms and local oceanographic conditions during the spawning migration. These environmentally driven differences in spawning locations have implications for larval survival and population connectivity, and emphasize the need for interjurisdictional assessment and management of the blue crab spawning stock.

  18. Online Surface Defect Identification of Cold Rolled Strips Based on Local Binary Pattern and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of cold-rolled strip, the strip surface may suffer from various defects which need to be detected and identified using an online inspection system. The system is equipped with high-speed and high-resolution cameras to acquire images from the moving strip surface. Features are then extracted from the images and are used as inputs of a pre-trained classifier to identify the type of defect. New types of defect often appear in production. At this point the pre-trained classifier needs to be quickly retrained and deployed in seconds to meet the requirement of the online identification of all defects in the environment of a continuous production line. Therefore, the method for extracting the image features and the training for the classification model should be automated and fast enough, normally within seconds. This paper presents our findings in investigating the computational and classification performance of various feature extraction methods and classification models for the strip surface defect identification. The methods include Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT, Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF and Local Binary Patterns (LBP. The classifiers we have assessed include Back Propagation (BP neural network, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM. By comparing various combinations of different feature extraction and classification methods, our experiments show that the hybrid method of LBP for feature extraction and ELM for defect classification results in less training and identification time with higher classification accuracy, which satisfied online real-time identification.

  19. A novel algorithm to detect glaucoma risk using texton and local configuration pattern features extracted from fundus images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Bhat, Shreya; Koh, Joel E W; Bhandary, Sulatha V; Adeli, Hojjat

    2017-09-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy defined by characteristic damage to the optic nerve and accompanying visual field deficits. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent irreversible vision loss and ultimate blindness. Current techniques for computer-aided analysis of the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) are expensive and require keen interpretation by trained specialists. Hence, an automated system is highly desirable for a cost-effective and accurate screening for the diagnosis of glaucoma. This paper presents a new methodology and a computerized diagnostic system. Adaptive histogram equalization is used to convert color images to grayscale images followed by convolution of these images with Leung-Malik (LM), Schmid (S), and maximum response (MR4 and MR8) filter banks. The basic microstructures in typical images are called textons. The convolution process produces textons. Local configuration pattern (LCP) features are extracted from these textons. The significant features are selected using a sequential floating forward search (SFFS) method and ranked using the statistical t-test. Finally, various classifiers are used for classification of images into normal and glaucomatous classes. A high classification accuracy of 95.8% is achieved using six features obtained from the LM filter bank and the k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classifier. A glaucoma integrative index (GRI) is also formulated to obtain a reliable and effective system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender classification from face images by using local binary pattern and gray-level co-occurrence matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbaş, Betül; Arslan, Ahmet

    2018-04-01

    Gender is an important step for human computer interactive processes and identification. Human face image is one of the important sources to determine gender. In the present study, gender classification is performed automatically from facial images. In order to classify gender, we propose a combination of features that have been extracted face, eye and lip regions by using a hybrid method of Local Binary Pattern and Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix. The features have been extracted from automatically obtained face, eye and lip regions. All of the extracted features have been combined and given as input parameters to classification methods (Support Vector Machine, Artificial Neural Networks, Naive Bayes and k-Nearest Neighbor methods) for gender classification. The Nottingham Scan face database that consists of the frontal face images of 100 people (50 male and 50 female) is used for this purpose. As the result of the experimental studies, the highest success rate has been achieved as 98% by using Support Vector Machine. The experimental results illustrate the efficacy of our proposed method.

  1. Copy-move forgery detection through stationary wavelets and local binary pattern variance for forensic analysis in digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Toqeer; Irtaza, Aun; Mehmood, Zahid; Tariq Mahmood, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    The most common image tampering often for malicious purposes is to copy a region of the same image and paste to hide some other region. As both regions usually have same texture properties, therefore, this artifact is invisible for the viewers, and credibility of the image becomes questionable in proof centered applications. Hence, means are required to validate the integrity of the image and identify the tampered regions. Therefore, this study presents an efficient way of copy-move forgery detection (CMFD) through local binary pattern variance (LBPV) over the low approximation components of the stationary wavelets. CMFD technique presented in this paper is applied over the circular regions to address the possible post processing operations in a better way. The proposed technique is evaluated on CoMoFoD and Kodak lossless true color image (KLTCI) datasets in the presence of translation, flipping, blurring, rotation, scaling, color reduction, brightness change and multiple forged regions in an image. The evaluation reveals the prominence of the proposed technique compared to state of the arts. Consequently, the proposed technique can reliably be applied to detect the modified regions and the benefits can be obtained in journalism, law enforcement, judiciary, and other proof critical domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mammogram classification scheme using 2D-discrete wavelet and local binary pattern for detection of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi Putra, Januar

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new mammogram classification scheme to classify the breast tissues as normal or abnormal. Feature matrix is generated using Local Binary Pattern to all the detailed coefficients from 2D-DWT of the region of interest (ROI) of a mammogram. Feature selection is done by selecting the relevant features that affect the classification. Feature selection is used to reduce the dimensionality of data and features that are not relevant, in this paper the F-test and Ttest will be performed to the results of the feature extraction dataset to reduce and select the relevant feature. The best features are used in a Neural Network classifier for classification. In this research we use MIAS and DDSM database. In addition to the suggested scheme, the competent schemes are also simulated for comparative analysis. It is observed that the proposed scheme has a better say with respect to accuracy, specificity and sensitivity. Based on experiments, the performance of the proposed scheme can produce high accuracy that is 92.71%, while the lowest accuracy obtained is 77.08%.

  3. Pattern recognition in spaces of probability distributions for the analysis of edge-localized modes in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Aqsa

    2016-07-07

    In this doctoral work, pattern recognition techniques are developed and applied to data from tokamak plasmas, in order to contribute to a systematic analysis of edge-localized modes (ELMs). We employ probabilistic models for a quantitative data description geared towards an enhanced systematization of ELM phenomenology. Hence, we start from the point of view that the fundamental object resulting from the observation of a system is a probability distribution, with every single measurement providing a sample from this distribution. In exploring the patterns emerging from the various ELM regimes and relations, we need methods that can handle the intrinsic probabilistic nature of the data. The original contributions of this work are twofold. First, several novel pattern recognition methods in non-Euclidean spaces of probability distribution functions (PDFs) are developed and validated. The second main contribution lies in the application of these and other techniques to a systematic analysis of ELMs in tokamak plasmas. In regard to the methodological aims of the work, we employ the framework of information geometry to develop pattern visualization and classification methods in spaces of probability distributions. In information geometry, a family of probability distributions is considered as a Riemannian manifold. Every point on the manifold represents a single PDF and the distribution parameters provide local coordinates on the manifold. The Fisher information plays the role of a Riemannian metric tensor, enabling calculation of geodesic curves on the surface. The length of such curves yields the geodesic distance (GD) on probabilistic manifolds, which is a natural similarity (distance) measure between PDFs. Equipped with a suitable distance measure, we extrapolate several distance-based pattern recognition methods to the manifold setting. This includes k-nearest neighbor (kNN) and conformal predictor (CP) methods for classification, as well as multidimensional

  4. Pattern recognition in spaces of probability distributions for the analysis of edge-localized modes in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, Aqsa

    2016-01-01

    In this doctoral work, pattern recognition techniques are developed and applied to data from tokamak plasmas, in order to contribute to a systematic analysis of edge-localized modes (ELMs). We employ probabilistic models for a quantitative data description geared towards an enhanced systematization of ELM phenomenology. Hence, we start from the point of view that the fundamental object resulting from the observation of a system is a probability distribution, with every single measurement providing a sample from this distribution. In exploring the patterns emerging from the various ELM regimes and relations, we need methods that can handle the intrinsic probabilistic nature of the data. The original contributions of this work are twofold. First, several novel pattern recognition methods in non-Euclidean spaces of probability distribution functions (PDFs) are developed and validated. The second main contribution lies in the application of these and other techniques to a systematic analysis of ELMs in tokamak plasmas. In regard to the methodological aims of the work, we employ the framework of information geometry to develop pattern visualization and classification methods in spaces of probability distributions. In information geometry, a family of probability distributions is considered as a Riemannian manifold. Every point on the manifold represents a single PDF and the distribution parameters provide local coordinates on the manifold. The Fisher information plays the role of a Riemannian metric tensor, enabling calculation of geodesic curves on the surface. The length of such curves yields the geodesic distance (GD) on probabilistic manifolds, which is a natural similarity (distance) measure between PDFs. Equipped with a suitable distance measure, we extrapolate several distance-based pattern recognition methods to the manifold setting. This includes k-nearest neighbor (kNN) and conformal predictor (CP) methods for classification, as well as multidimensional

  5. Local Agenda 21. Settlement pattern and energy for transportation and heating; Lokal agenda 21. Bebyggelsesmoenster og energi til transport og oppvarming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orderud, Geir Inge

    1998-09-01

    This document deals with Local Agenda 21 (LA21) and the relationship between settlement pattern and the consumption of energy in transportation and heating of houses. Local Agenda 21 originates from the Earth Summit held in Rio in 1992 and draws up the strategies by which the local communities should participate in realizing the recommendations of the summit. So far much of the research around LA21 has examined how well the individual countries that ratified the Rio document have fulfilled the recommendations of Article 28 on local responsibility. From the point of view of research, however, the challenge is rather to investigate the conditions for realizing the broad participation of the people. From the administrative point of view, the important issue is the relationship between the representative channels and the direct participation of local people in the decision processes, as well as the delegation of decision-making authority from national to regional or local level. One recommendation in Agenda 21 is to emit less greenhouse gases. In this connection, a central issue is transportation, which is affected by the settlement pattern. A denser settlement within an urban area is supposed to reduce the transportation and the use of private cars. Thus the local development and area policy is a topic of current interest in the study of how LA21 works locally, especially so because sparsely built-up areas with single family houses are considered as the good way of living. Densely populated urban areas may conflict with the need for arable land and green space. LA 21 and the settlement pattern are both parts of a larger social environment and it is important know these relationships when local measures and actions are analysed. The possibility of a sustainable development must be assessed in relation to the fact that more power is gathered in the global flow of capital. 26 refs.

  6. Bullous pemphigoid antigen localization suggests an intracellular association with hemidesmosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Weaver, A C; Couchman, J R

    1985-01-01

    immunofluorescent staining for BPA is linear at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) of skin and many other epithelial tissues. At higher magnification however, we observed a punctate staining pattern for BPA which was regular in appearance and suggested localization of BPA to discrete structures at the BMZ. Subsequent...... intracellularly both in vivo and in vitro. We suggest that BPA is not normally a lamina lucida component, but that it may form part of a linkage between the cytoskeleton and the basement membrane....

  7. The innate pattern recognition molecule Ficolin-1 is secreted by monocytes/macrophages and is circulating in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, Christian; Rørvig, Sara; Munthe-Fog, Lea

    2008-01-01

    Ficolin-1 (M-Ficolin) is a pattern recognition molecule of the complement system that is expressed by myeloid cells and type II alveolar epithelial cells. Ficolin-1 has been shown to localize in the secretory granules of these cells and attached to cell surfaces, but whether Ficolin-1 exists...

  8. Application of Remote-Sensing Observations for Detecting Patterns of Localization of Cu-Ni Mineralization of the Norilsk Ore Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovsky, G. A.; Ishmukhametova, V. T.; Shemyakina, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    The methods of a complex analysis of materials of space, gravimetric, and magnetometric surveys were developed on the basis of a study of reference fields of the Norilsk ore region (Imangda, etc.) for detection patterns of the localization of Cu-Ni (with PGMs) mineralization in intrusive complexes of the northwestern frame of the Siberian Platform.

  9. Arsenic compromises conducting airway epithelial barrier properties in primary mouse and immortalized human cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Sherwood

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a lung toxicant that can lead to respiratory illness through inhalation and ingestion, although the most common exposure is through contaminated drinking water. Lung effects reported from arsenic exposure include lung cancer and obstructive lung disease, as well as reductions in lung function and immune response. As part of their role in innate immune function, airway epithelial cells provide a barrier that protects underlying tissue from inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants frequently found in inspired air. We evaluated the effects of a five-day exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic {<4μM [~300 μg/L (ppb] as NaAsO2} on airway epithelial barrier function and structure. In a primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE cell model we found that both micromolar (3.9 μM and submicromolar (0.8 μM arsenic concentrations reduced transepithelial resistance, a measure of barrier function. Immunofluorescent staining of arsenic-treated MTE cells showed altered patterns of localization of the transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin (Cl Cl-1, Cl-4, Cl-7 and occludin at cell-cell contacts when compared with untreated controls. To better quantify arsenic-induced changes in tight junction transmembrane proteins we conducted arsenic exposure experiments with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-. We found that arsenic exposure significantly increased the protein expression of Cl-4 and occludin as well as the mRNA levels of Cl-4 and Cl-7 in these cells. Additionally, arsenic exposure resulted in altered phosphorylation of occludin. In summary, exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can alter both the function and structure of airway epithelial barrier constituents. These changes likely contribute to the observed arsenic-induced loss in basic innate immune defense and increased infection in the airway.

  10. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  11. Surgical management of anterior chamber epithelial cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Julia A; Stark, Walter J; Azab, Amr; Thomsen, Robert W; Gottsch, John D

    2003-03-01

    To review management strategies for treatment of anterior chamber epithelial cysts. Retrospective review of consecutive interventional case series. Charts of patients treated for epithelial ingrowth over a 10-year period by a single surgeon were reviewed. Cases of anterior chamber epithelial cysts were identified and recorded, including details of ocular history, preoperative and postoperative acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular examination, type of surgical intervention, and details of further procedures performed. Seven eyes with epithelial cysts were identified. Patient age ranged from 1.5 to 53 years at presentation. Four patients were children. In four eyes, cysts were secondary to trauma, one case was presumably congenital, one case developed after corneal perforation in an eye with Terrien's marginal degeneration, and one case developed after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Three eyes were treated with vitrectomy, en bloc resection of the cyst and associated tissue, fluid-air exchange and cryotherapy. The last four eyes were treated with a new conservative strategy of cyst aspiration (three cases) or local excision (one keratin "pearl" cyst), and endolaser photocoagulation of the collapsed cyst wall/base. All epithelial tissue was successfully eradicated by clinical criteria; one case required repeat excision (follow-up, 9 to 78 months, mean 45). Two eyes required later surgery for elevated IOP, two for cataract extraction and one for repeat PK. Final visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to hand motions, depending on associated ocular damage. Best-corrected visual results were obtained in the more conservatively managed eyes. Anterior chamber epithelial cysts can be managed conservatively in selected cases with good results. This strategy may be particularly useful in children's eyes, where preservation of the lens, iris, and other structures may facilitate amblyopia management. Copyright 2003 by Elsevier Science Inc.

  12. Normal morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and progression of epithelial tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chao; Jamal, Leen; Janes, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into various tissue architectures that largely maintain their structure throughout the life of an organism. For decades, the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues has fascinated scientists at the interface of cell, developmental, and molecular biology. Systems biology offers ways to combine knowledge from these disciplines by building integrative models that are quantitative and predictive. Can such models be useful for gaining a deeper understanding of epithelial morphogenesis? Here, we take inventory of some recurring themes in epithelial morphogenesis that systems approaches could strive to capture. Predictive understanding of morphogenesis at the systems level would prove especially valuable for diseases such as cancer, where epithelial tissue architecture is profoundly disrupted. PMID:21898857

  13. Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Bangalore Nagarajachar; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumaraswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Pandey, Bhavna; Jyothi, Bellur MadhavaRao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes TTAGGG telomeric DNA sequences and almost universally provides the molecular basis for unlimited proliferative potential. The telomeres become shorter with each cycle of replication and reach a critical limit; most cells die or enter stage of replicative senescence. Telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for all the cells that exhibit limitless replicative potential. It has been postulated that reactivation of telomerase expression is necessary for the continuous proliferation of neoplastic cells to attain immortality. Use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a useful, reliable method of localizing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein in tissue sections which permits cellular localization. Although there exists a lot of information on telomerase in oral cancer, little is known about their expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and their progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to normal oral mucosa. This study addresses this lacuna. Aims: To compare the expression of hTERT protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC with normal oral mucosa by Immunohistochemical method. Subjects and Methods: In this preliminary study, IHC was used to detect the expression of hTERT protein in OSCC (n = 20), oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 21) and normal oral mucosa (n = 10). The tissue localization of immunostain, cellular localization of immunostain, nature of stain, intensity of stain, percentage of cells stained with hTERT protein were studied. A total number of 100 cells were counted in each slide. Statistical Analysis: All the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. The tissue localization, cellular localization of cytoplasmic/nuclear/both of hTERT stain, staining intensity was compared across the groups using Pearson's Chi-square test. The mean percentage of cells stained for oral epithelial dysplasia, OSCC and normal oral mucosa were

  14. Exploring spatial patterns in the associations between local AIDS incidence and socioeconomic and demographic variables in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flavio F; Waller, Lance A

    2016-05-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), universally provided in Brazil since 1996, resulted in a reduction in overall morbidity and mortality due to AIDS or AIDS-related complications, but in some municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, AIDS incidence remains high. Public health surveillance remains an invaluable tool for understanding current AIDS epidemiologic patterns and local socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with increased incidence. Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) explores spatial varying impacts of these factors across the study area focusing attention on local variations in ecological associations. The set of sociodemographic variables under consideration revealed significant associations with local AIDS incidence and these associations varied geographically across the study area. We find the effects of predictors on AIDS incidence are not constant across the state, contrary to assumptions in the global models. We observe and quantify different local factors driving AIDS incidence in different parts of the state. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction of KLF4 in basal keratinocytes blocks the proliferation-differentiation switch and initiates squamous epithelial dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K Wade; Liu, Zhaoli; Nail, Clinton D; Li, Xingnan; Fitzgerald, Thomas J; Bailey, Sarah K; Frost, Andra R; Louro, Iuri D; Townes, Tim M; Paterson, Andrew J; Kudlow, Jeffrey E; Lobo-Ruppert, Susan M; Ruppert, J Michael

    2005-02-24

    KLF4/GKLF normally functions in differentiating epithelial cells, but also acts as a transforming oncogene in vitro. To examine the role of this zinc finger protein in skin, we expressed the wild-type human allele from inducible and constitutive promoters. When induced in basal keratinocytes, KLF4 rapidly abolished the distinctive properties of basal and parabasal epithelial cells. KLF4 caused a transitory apoptotic response and the skin progressed through phases of hyperplasia and dysplasia. By 6 weeks, lesions exhibited nuclear KLF4 and other morphologic and molecular similarities to squamous cell carcinoma in situ. p53 determined the patch size sufficient to establish lesions, as induction in a mosaic pattern produced skin lesions only when p53 was deficient. Compared with p53 wild-type animals, p53 hemizygous animals had early onset of lesions and a pronounced fibrovascular response that included outgrowth of subcutaneous sarcoma. A KLF4-estrogen receptor fusion protein showed tamoxifen-dependent nuclear localization and conditional transformation in vitro. The results suggest that KLF4 can function in the nucleus to induce squamous epithelial dysplasia, and indicate roles for p53 and epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in these early neoplastic lesions.

  16. Epileptic patterns of local cerebral metabolism and perfusion in man determined by emission computed tomography of 18FDG and 13NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Engel, J. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Selin, C.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen patients with partial epilepsy had EEG monitoring concurrent with cerebral emission computed tomography (ECT) after 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) and 13 N-ammonia were given intravenously as indicators of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. In 12 of 15 patients who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal 18 FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20% to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization. These hypometabolic zones appeared normal on x-ray computed tomography in all but three patients and were unchanged on scans repeated on different days. In 5 of 6 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy, the interictal 18 FDG scan correctly detected the pathologically confirmed lesion as a hypometabolic zone, and removal of the lesion site resulted in marked clinical improvement. In contrast, the ictal 18 FDG scan patterns clearly showed foci of increased (82% to 130%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated temporally and anatomically with ictal EEG spike foci and were within the zones of interictal hypometabolism (3 studies in 2 patients). 13 NH 3 distributions paralleled 18 FDG increases and decreases in abnormal zones, but 13 NH 3 differences were of lesser magnitude. When the relationship of 13 NH 3 uptake to local blood flow found in dog brain was applied as a correction to the patients' 13 NH 3 scan data, local alterations in perfusion and glucose utilization were usually matched, both in the interictal and ictal states

  17. Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Caitlin; Alexander, Sherene; Prabhu, Neeta

    2017-01-15

    Multifocal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease associated with human papilloma virus types 13 and 32. Diagnosis is based on clinical and histopathological findings, and most lesions are asymptomatic and regress spontaneously with time. The purpose of this paper is to describe a five-year-old girl who presented with multiple intraoral lesions on the buccal mucosa and tongue, which regressed spontaneously in 15 months.

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat lung alveolar epithelial cells. An ultrastructural enzyme-cytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matsubara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway in carbohydrate metabolism, and it plays an important role in cell proliferation and antioxidant regulation within cells in various organs. Although marked cell proliferation and oxidant/antioxidant metabolism occur in lung alveolar epithelial cells, definite data has been lacking as to whether cytochemically detectable G6PD is present in alveolar epithelial cells. The distribution pattern of G6PD within these cells, if it is present, is also unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the subcellular localization of G6PD in alveolar cells in the rat lung using a newly- developed enzyme-cytochemistry (copper-ferrocyanide method. Type I cells and stromal endothelia and fibroblasts showed no activities. Electron-dense precipitates indicating G6PD activity were clearly visible in the cytoplasm and on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of type II alveolar epithelial cells. The cytochemical controls ensured specific detection of enzyme activity. This enzyme may play a role in airway defense by delivering substances for cell proliferation and antioxidant forces, thus maintaining the airway architecture.

  19. Effects of local and large-scale climate patterns on estuarine resident fishes: The example of Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitrai, Daniel; Martinho, Filipe; Dolbeth, Marina; Rito, João; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale and local climate patterns are known to influence several aspects of the life cycle of marine fish. In this paper, we used a 9-year database (2003-2011) to analyse the populations of two estuarine resident fishes, Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus, in order to determine their relationships with varying environmental stressors operating over local and large scales. This study was performed in the Mondego estuary, Portugal. Firstly, the variations in abundance, growth, population structure and secondary production were evaluated. These species appeared in high densities in the beginning of the study period, with subsequent occasional high annual density peaks, while their secondary production was lower in dry years. The relationships between yearly fish abundance and the environmental variables were evaluated separately for both species using Spearman correlation analysis, considering the yearly abundance peaks for the whole population, juveniles and adults. Among the local climate patterns, precipitation, river runoff, salinity and temperature were used in the analyses, and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and sea surface temperature (SST) were tested as large-scale factors. For P. microps, precipitation and NAO were the significant factors explaining abundance of the whole population, the adults and the juveniles as well. Regarding P. minutus, for the whole population, juveniles and adults river runoff was the significant predictor. The results for both species suggest a differential influence of climate patterns on the various life cycle stages, confirming also the importance of estuarine resident fishes as indicators of changes in local and large-scale climate patterns, related to global climate change.

  20. Maskless localized patterning of biomolecules on carbon nanotube microarray functionalized by ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet using biotin-avidin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzairi, Tomy; Okada, Mitsuru; Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri; Poespawati, Nji Raden; Iwata, Futoshi; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-07-01

    Ultrafine plasma jet is a promising technology with great potential for nano- or micro-scale surface modification. In this letter, we demonstrated the use of ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) for patterning bio-immobilization on vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) microarray platform without a physical mask. The biotin-avidin system was utilized to demonstrate localized biomolecule patterning on the biosensor devices. Using ±7.5 kV square-wave pulses, the optimum condition of plasma jet with He/NH3 gas mixture and 2.5 s treatment period has been obtained to functionalize CNTs. The functionalized CNTs were covalently linked to biotin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and avidin-(fluorescein isothiocyanate) FITC, sequentially. BSA was necessary as a blocking agent to protect the untreated CNTs from avidin adsorption. The localized patterning results have been evaluated from avidin-FITC fluorescence signals analyzed using a fluorescence microscope. The patterning of biomolecules on the CNT microarray platform using ultrafine APPJ provides a means for potential application of microarray biosensors based on CNTs.

  1. Expression-robust 3D face recognition via weighted sparse representation of multi-scale and multi-component local normal patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2014-06-01

    In the theory of differential geometry, surface normal, as a first order surface differential quantity, determines the orientation of a surface at each point and contains informative local surface shape information. To fully exploit this kind of information for 3D face recognition (FR), this paper proposes a novel highly discriminative facial shape descriptor, namely multi-scale and multi-component local normal patterns (MSMC-LNP). Given a normalized facial range image, three components of normal vectors are first estimated, leading to three normal component images. Then, each normal component image is encoded locally to local normal patterns (LNP) on different scales. To utilize spatial information of facial shape, each normal component image is divided into several patches, and their LNP histograms are computed and concatenated according to the facial configuration. Finally, each original facial surface is represented by a set of LNP histograms including both global and local cues. Moreover, to make the proposed solution robust to the variations of facial expressions, we propose to learn the weight of each local patch on a given encoding scale and normal component image. Based on the learned weights and the weighted LNP histograms, we formulate a weighted sparse representation-based classifier (W-SRC). In contrast to the overwhelming majority of 3D FR approaches which were only benchmarked on the FRGC v2.0 database, we carried out extensive experiments on the FRGC v2.0, Bosphorus, BU-3DFE and 3D-TEC databases, thus including 3D face data captured in different scenarios through various sensors and depicting in particular different challenges with respect to facial expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed approach consistently achieves competitive rank-one recognition rates on these databases despite their heterogeneous nature, and thereby demonstrates its effectiveness and its generalizability. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Malaria in rural Burkina Faso: local illness concepts, patterns of traditional treatment and influence on health-seeking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouyaté Bocar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on health care seeking behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa for children suffering from malaria is quite extensive. This literature, however, is predominately quantitative and, inevitably, fails to explore how the local concepts of illness may affect people's choices. Understanding local concepts of illness and their influence on health care-seeking behaviour can complement existing knowledge and lead to the development of more effective malaria control interventions. Methods In a rural area of Burkina Faso, four local concepts of illness resembling the biomedical picture of malaria were described according to symptoms, aetiology, and treatment. Data were collected through eight focus group discussions, 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants, and through the analysis of 100 verbal autopsy questionnaires of children under-five diagnosed with malaria. Results Sumaya, dusukun yelema, kono, and djoliban were identified as the four main local illness concepts resembling respectively uncomplicated malaria, respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, and severe anaemia. The local disease categorization was found to affect both treatment and provider choice. While sumaya is usually treated by a mix of traditional and modern methods, dusukun yelema and kono are preferably treated by traditional healers, and djoliban is preferably treated in modern health facilities. Besides the conceptualization of illness, poverty was found to be another important influencing factor of health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusion The findings complement previous evidence on health care-seeking behaviour, by showing how local concepts of illness strongly influence treatment and choice of provider. Local concepts of illness need to be considered when developing specific malaria control programmes.

  3. Polarity in Mammalian Epithelial Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roignot, Julie; Peng, Xiao; Mostov, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarity is fundamental for the architecture and function of epithelial tissues. Epithelial polarization requires the intervention of several fundamental cell processes, whose integration in space and time is only starting to be elucidated. To understand what governs the building of epithelial tissues during development, it is essential to consider the polarization process in the context of the whole tissue. To this end, the development of three-dimensional organotypic cell culture model...

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of locally-acquired dengue transmission in northern Queensland, Australia, 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992-1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993-2012. Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ(2) = 15.17, d.f.  = 1, pQueensland. Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, pQueensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  6. Analyzing Local Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Police Calls-for-Service Using Bayesian Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Luan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates spatio-temporal patterns of police calls-for-service in the Region of Waterloo, Canada, at a fine spatial and temporal resolution. Modeling was implemented via Bayesian Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA. Temporal patterns for two-hour time periods, spatial patterns at the small-area scale, and space-time interaction (i.e., unusual departures from overall spatial and temporal patterns were estimated. Temporally, calls-for-service were found to be lowest in the early morning (02:00–03:59 and highest in the evening (20:00–21:59, while high levels of calls-for-service were spatially located in central business areas and in areas characterized by major roadways, universities, and shopping centres. Space-time interaction was observed to be geographically dispersed during daytime hours but concentrated in central business areas during evening hours. Interpreted through the routine activity theory, results are discussed with respect to law enforcement resource demand and allocation, and the advantages of modeling spatio-temporal datasets with Bayesian INLA methods are highlighted.

  7. Breast Feeding Pattern and the Health of Children in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odu, Bimbola Kemi; Dotun, Owoeye Olajumoke

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the different patterns of feeding infants and their corresponding effects on children's health. There are anti-effective properties present in human milk which help children to fight against many childhood diseases. The long-term effect of breast milk like intelligence, socialization and personality development of children…

  8. Mapping Patterns of Local Recurrence After Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A New Approach to Adjuvant Radiation Field Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dholakia, Avani S.; Kumar, Rachit [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Raman, Siva P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Moore, Joseph A.; Ellsworth, Susannah; McNutt, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Laheru, Daniel A.; Jaffee, Elizabeth [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Cameron, John L. [Department of Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tran, Phuoc T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hobbs, Robert F. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wolfgang, Christopher L. [Department of Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To generate a map of local recurrences after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and to model an adjuvant radiation therapy planning treatment volume (PTV) that encompasses a majority of local recurrences. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with resectable PDA undergoing PD and 1 or more computed tomography (CT) scans more than 60 days after PD at our institution were reviewed. Patients were divided into 3 groups: no adjuvant treatment (NA), chemotherapy alone (CTA), or chemoradiation (CRT). Cross-sectional scans were centrally reviewed, and local recurrences were plotted to scale with respect to the celiac axis (CA), superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and renal veins on 1 CT scan of a template post-PD patient. An adjuvant clinical treatment volume comprising 90% of local failures based on standard expansions of the CA and SMA was created and simulated on 3 post-PD CT scans to assess the feasibility of this planning approach. Results: Of the 202 patients in the study, 40 (20%), 34 (17%), and 128 (63%) received NA, CTA, and CRT adjuvant therapy, respectively. The rate of margin-positive resections was greater in CRT patients than in CTA patients (28% vs 9%, P=.023). Local recurrence occurred in 90 of the 202 patients overall (45%) and in 19 (48%), 22 (65%), and 49 (38%) in the NA, CTA, and CRT groups, respectively. Ninety percent of recurrences were within a 3.0-cm right-lateral, 2.0-cm left-lateral, 1.5-cm anterior, 1.0-cm posterior, 1.0-cm superior, and 2.0-cm inferior expansion of the combined CA and SMA contours. Three simulated radiation treatment plans using these expansions with adjustments to avoid nearby structures were created to demonstrate the use of this treatment volume. Conclusions: Modified PTVs targeting high-risk areas may improve local control while minimizing toxicities, allowing dose escalation with intensity-modulated or stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  9. Mapping Patterns of Local Recurrence After Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A New Approach to Adjuvant Radiation Field Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dholakia, Avani S.; Kumar, Rachit; Raman, Siva P.; Moore, Joseph A.; Ellsworth, Susannah; McNutt, Todd; Laheru, Daniel A.; Jaffee, Elizabeth; Cameron, John L.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Hobbs, Robert F.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To generate a map of local recurrences after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and to model an adjuvant radiation therapy planning treatment volume (PTV) that encompasses a majority of local recurrences. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with resectable PDA undergoing PD and 1 or more computed tomography (CT) scans more than 60 days after PD at our institution were reviewed. Patients were divided into 3 groups: no adjuvant treatment (NA), chemotherapy alone (CTA), or chemoradiation (CRT). Cross-sectional scans were centrally reviewed, and local recurrences were plotted to scale with respect to the celiac axis (CA), superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and renal veins on 1 CT scan of a template post-PD patient. An adjuvant clinical treatment volume comprising 90% of local failures based on standard expansions of the CA and SMA was created and simulated on 3 post-PD CT scans to assess the feasibility of this planning approach. Results: Of the 202 patients in the study, 40 (20%), 34 (17%), and 128 (63%) received NA, CTA, and CRT adjuvant therapy, respectively. The rate of margin-positive resections was greater in CRT patients than in CTA patients (28% vs 9%, P=.023). Local recurrence occurred in 90 of the 202 patients overall (45%) and in 19 (48%), 22 (65%), and 49 (38%) in the NA, CTA, and CRT groups, respectively. Ninety percent of recurrences were within a 3.0-cm right-lateral, 2.0-cm left-lateral, 1.5-cm anterior, 1.0-cm posterior, 1.0-cm superior, and 2.0-cm inferior expansion of the combined CA and SMA contours. Three simulated radiation treatment plans using these expansions with adjustments to avoid nearby structures were created to demonstrate the use of this treatment volume. Conclusions: Modified PTVs targeting high-risk areas may improve local control while minimizing toxicities, allowing dose escalation with intensity-modulated or stereotactic body radiation therapy

  10. Human corneal epithelial subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Chris Bath

    2013-01-01

    Corneal epithelium is being regenerated throughout life by limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) believed to be located in histologically defined stem cell niches in corneal limbus. Defective or dysfunctional LESCs result in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) causing pain and decreased visual acuity...... subpopulations in human corneal epithelium using a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing for global transcriptomic profiling. We compared dissociation cultures, using either expansion on γ-irradiated NIH/3T3 feeder cells in serum-rich medium or expansion directly on plastic in serum...

  11. Local pharmacological effects of tungstate on the color-pattern determination of butterfly wings: a possible relationship between the eyespot and parafocal element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Bidur; Otaki, Joji M

    2009-11-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns can be changed by the application of a temperature shock or pharmacological agents such as tungstate, producing a distinctive type of elemental modification called the TS (temperature shock) type. Heterochronic uncoupling between the signaling and reception steps during the color-pattern determination process has been proposed as a mechanism for TS-type changes. As an extension of this hypothesis, both the parafocal element (PFE) and the eyespot in the same wing compartment are considered to be determined by morphogenic signal(s) emitted from the same eyespot focus. However, these models need to be examined with additional experimental data. Furthermore, there is controversy as to whether the action of tungstate on wing color patterns is direct or Indirect. Using a species of nymphalid butterfly (Junonia orithya), we have devised a simple method for the local application of pharmacological agents directly on developing wings of pupae. Local tungstate application resulted in reduced eyespots and circular dislocated PFEs in the eyespot-less compartments only on the treated wing, demonstrating that tungstate directly induces color-pattern changes on wings. We further examined the eyespot-PFE relationship in normal and cold-shocked Individuals, showing that an eyespot can be superimposed on a PFE and vice versa, probably depending on the timing of their fate determination. Taken together, we propose a two-morphogen model for the normal color-pattern determination, in which the morphogenic signals for the eyespot and PFE are different from each other despite their Identical origin. This two-morphogen model is compatible with the heterochronic uncoupling model for TS-type changes.

  12. Characteristics and Dietary Patterns of Adolescents Who Value Eating Locally Grown, Organic, Nongenetically Engineered, and Nonprocessed Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Stat, Peter Hannan M.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, nongenetically engineered, and/or nonprocessed food and whether they are more likely than their peers to meet Healthy People 2010 dietary objectives. Design: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study in Minnesota (Project EAT:…

  13. Effects of early focal brain injury on memory for visuospatial patterns: selective deficits of global-local processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Joan; Stern, Catherine; Appelbaum, Mark; Nass, Ruth; Trauner, Doris; Hesselink, John

    2008-01-01

    Selective deficits in visuospatial processing are present early in development among children with perinatal focal brain lesions (PL). Children with right hemisphere PL (RPL) are impaired in configural processing, while children with left hemisphere PL (LPL) are impaired in featural processing. Deficits associated with LPL are less pervasive than those observed with RPL, but this difference may reflect the structure of the tasks used for assessment. Many of the tasks used to date may place greater demands on configural processing, thus highlighting this deficit in the RPL group. This study employed a task designed to place comparable demands on configural and featural processing, providing the opportunity to obtain within-task evidence of differential deficit. Sixty-two 5- to 14-year-old children (19 RPL, 19 LPL, and 24 matched controls) reproduced from memory a series of hierarchical forms (large forms composed of small forms). Global- and local-level reproduction accuracy was scored. Controls were equally accurate on global- and local-level reproduction. Children with RPL were selectively impaired on global accuracy, and children with LPL on local accuracy, thus documenting a double dissociation in global-local processing.

  14. The Recidivism Patterns of Previously Deported Aliens Released from a Local Jail: Are They High-Risk Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Laura J.; Suttorp, Marika J.

    2010-01-01

    Previously deported aliens are a group about which numerous claims are made but very few facts are known. Using data on male deportable aliens released from a local jail, the study sought to test the ubiquitous claim that they pose a high risk of recidivism. Using multiple measures of recidivism and propensity score weighting to account for…

  15. Rural wood consumption patterns of local and immigrant households with differentiated access to resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Charlotte Filt; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; He, Jun; Neergaard, Andreas de

    2015-01-01

    In Xishuangbanna, China, rubber production has spread rapidly, resulting in extensive land use changes and an increasing influx of migrant workers who have come to find work on the plantations. These migrant workers have limited access to subsidies and the local collective forest due to the household registration system in China called hukou. To assess how these policy-based restrictions on access affect wood consumption and local communities, a case study was conducted in Manlin village, Xishuangbanna, undertaking a household and weight survey with local and immigrant households. The results show no significant difference in firewood consumption between the subpopulations, despite predominantly more local than immigrant households have access to subsidised alternative energy sources. On the other hand, limited access to the collective forest is found to influence the choice of housing materials and living standards in immigrant households as they cannot access timber or afford brick houses. This paper highlights rural issues connected to the hukou system and suggests that rural energy and resource policies should take the growing population of immigrant workers into consideration in future to expand the reach of the polices to the de facto and not only de jure rural population and thus optimise policy efficiency. - Highlights: • The hukou system directly affects rural wood access and consumption. • Immigrant households have little or no access to timber. • Registration status does not have a significant effect on firewood consumption. • Excluding immigrant households will limit policy outreach and efficiency

  16. Epileptic patterns of local cerebral metabolism and perfusion in man determined by emission computed tomography of /sup 18/FDG and /sup 13/NH/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Engel, J. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Selin, C.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen patients with partial epilepsy had EEG monitoring concurrent with cerebral emission computed tomography (ECT) after /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG) and /sup 13/N-ammonia were given intravenously as indicators of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. In 12 of 15 patients who had unilateral or focal electrical abnormalities, interictal /sup 18/FDG scan patterns clearly showed localized regions of decreased (20% to 50%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated anatomically with the eventual EEG localization. These hypometabolic zones appeared normal on x-ray computed tomography in all but three patients and were unchanged on scans repeated on different days. In 5 of 6 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy, the interictal /sup 18/FDG scan correctly detected the pathologically confirmed lesion as a hypometabolic zone, and removal of the lesion site resulted in marked clinical improvement. In contrast, the ictal /sup 18/FDG scan patterns clearly showed foci of increased (82% to 130%) LCMR/sub glc/, which correlated temporally and anatomically with ictal EEG spike foci and were within the zones of interictal hypometabolism (3 studies in 2 patients). /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ distributions paralleled /sup 18/FDG increases and decreases in abnormal zones, but /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ differences were of lesser magnitude. When the relationship of /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ uptake to local blood flow found in dog brain was applied as a correction to the patients' /sup 13/NH/sub 3/ scan data, local alterations in perfusion and glucose utilization were usually matched, both in the interictal and ictal states.

  17. Transcriptional networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Venkov

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT changes polarized epithelial cells into migratory phenotypes associated with loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal rearrangements. This form of plasticity is seen in mesodermal development, fibroblast formation, and cancer metastasis.Here we identify prominent transcriptional networks active during three time points of this transitional process, as epithelial cells become fibroblasts. DNA microarray in cultured epithelia undergoing EMT, validated in vivo, were used to detect various patterns of gene expression. In particular, the promoter sequences of differentially expressed genes and their transcription factors were analyzed to identify potential binding sites and partners. The four most frequent cis-regulatory elements (CREs in up-regulated genes were SRY, FTS-1, Evi-1, and GC-Box, and RNA inhibition of the four transcription factors, Atf2, Klf10, Sox11, and SP1, most frequently binding these CREs, establish their importance in the initiation and propagation of EMT. Oligonucleotides that block the most frequent CREs restrain EMT at early and intermediate stages through apoptosis of the cells.Our results identify new transcriptional interactions with high frequency CREs that modulate the stability of cellular plasticity, and may serve as targets for modulating these transitional states in fibroblasts.

  18. The world of epithelial sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hisao

    2017-06-01

    An epithelium is a layer of closely connected cells covering the body or lining a body cavity. In this review, several fundamental questions are addressed regarding the epithelium. (i) While an epithelium functions as barrier against the external environment, how is barrier function maintained during its construction? (ii) What determines the apical and basal sides of epithelial layer? (iii) Is there any relationship between the apical side of the epithelium and the apical membrane of an epithelial cell? (iv) Why are hepatocytes (liver cells) called epithelial, even though they differ completely from column-like shape of typical epithelial cells? Keeping these questions in mind, multiple shapes of epithelia were considered, extracting a few of their elemental processes, and constructing a virtual world of epithelia by combining them. Epithelial cells were also classified into several types based on the number of apical domains of each cell. In addition, an intracellular organelle was introduced within epithelial cells, the vacuolar apical compartment (VAC), which is produced within epithelial cells surrounded by external cell matrix (ECM). The VAC interacts with areas of cell-cell contact of the cell surface membrane and is converted to apical membrane. The properties of VACs enable us to answer the initial questions posed above. Finally, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of epithelial morphogenesis are discussed. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  19. Primitive Endoderm Differentiation: From Specification to Epithelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassalert, Cécilia; Valverde-Estrella, Lorena; Chazaud, Claire

    2018-01-01

    At the time of implantation, the mouse blastocyst has developed three cell lineages: the epiblast (Epi), the primitive endoderm (PrE), and the trophectoderm (TE). The PrE and TE are extraembryonic tissues but their interactions with the Epi are critical to sustain embryonic growth, as well as to pattern the embryo. We review here the cellular and molecular events that lead to the production of PrE and Epi lineages and discuss the different hypotheses that are proposed for the induction of these cell types. In the second part, we report the current knowledge about the epithelialization of the PrE. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Splenic epithelial cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, M.; Jalali, U.

    2011-01-01

    Cysts of spleen are rare entities. Congenital splenic cysts are even more uncommon comprising of only 10% of benign non-parasitic cysts. We report a case of 22 years old female who presented with history of 2 years abdominal pain and gradual distension. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) both were suggestive of splenic cyst. Laboratory tests show thrombocytopenia with platelets count of 97000 per cubic millimeter and anemia with hemoglobin 8.7 gram per deciliter. Serological tests were negative for parasitic infection. Splenectomy was done and the weight of the spleen was found to be 1.5 kilogram. Histopathological findings are consistent with splenic epithelial cyst. The aetiology, diagnostic modalities and treatment options are discussed in the case report. (author)

  1. Adhesive properties of Enterobacter sakazakii to human epithelial and brain microvascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospischil Andreas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with sporadic cases and outbreaks causing meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis especially in neonates. However, up to now little is known about the mechanisms of pathogenicity in E. sakazakii. A necessary state in the successful colonization, establishment and ultimately production of disease by microbial pathogens is the ability to adhere to host surfaces such as mucous membranes, gastric and intestinal epithelial or endothelial tissue. This study examined for the first time the adherence ability of 50 E. sakazakii strains to the two epithelial cell lines HEp-2 and Caco-2, as well as the brain microvascular endothelial cell line HBMEC. Furthermore, the effects of bacterial culture conditions on the adherence behaviour were investigated. An attempt was made to characterize the factors involved in adherence. Results Two distinctive adherence patterns, a diffuse adhesion and the formation of localized clusters of bacteria on the cell surface could be distinguished on all three cell lines. In some strains, a mixture of both patterns was observed. Adherence was maximal during late exponential phase, and increased with higher MOI. The adhesion capacity of E. sakazakii to HBMEC cells was affected by the addition of blood to the bacteria growth medium. Mannose, hemagglutination, trypsin digestion experiments and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the adhesion of E. sakazakii to the epithelial and endothelial cells is mainly non-fimbrial based. Conclusion Adherence experiments show heterogeneity within different E. sakazakii strains. In agreement with studies on E. cloacae, we found no relationship between the adhesive capacities in E. sakazakii and the eventual production of specific fimbriae. Further studies will have to be carried out in order to determine the adhesin(s involved in the interaction of E. sakazakii with cells and to

  2. Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Rundi; Chen, Ruilin; Cao, Yu; Wang, Yuan; Song, Kang; Zhang, Ya; Yang, Junchao

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the formation of fibrous foci, currently has no satisfactory treatment. Emodin is a component of Chinese herb that has been reported to be medicament on pancreatic fibrosis and liver fibrosis. However, its role in pulmonary fibrosis has not been established yet. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Emodin plays an inhibitory role in TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cell, and Emodin exerts its effect through the Notch signaling pathway. Emodin inhibits the proliferation of Rat alveolar type II epithelial cells RLE-6TN in a concentration-dependent manner; reduces the expression of Collagen I, α-SMA and Vimentin, promotes the expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, Emodin could regulate the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors and reduce the Notch-1 nucleus translocation. Knockdown of Notch-1 enhances the inhibitory effect of Emodin on TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells. In conclusion, the data of the present study suggests that Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway and shows the potential to be effective in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. - Highlights: • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. • Emodin regulates the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors. • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 nucleus translocation and activation.

  3. Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Rundi; Chen, Ruilin; Cao, Yu [Department of Respiration, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, NO. 56, Youdian Road, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310006 (China); Wang, Yuan [Department of Pulmonary Function, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, NO. 56, Youdian Road, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310006 (China); Song, Kang [Department of Respiration, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, NO. 56, Youdian Road, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310006 (China); Zhang, Ya [Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, No. 548, Binwen Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310006 (China); Yang, Junchao, E-mail: yangjunchaozj@zcmu.edu.cn [Department of Respiration, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University, NO. 56, Youdian Road, Shangcheng District, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310006 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the formation of fibrous foci, currently has no satisfactory treatment. Emodin is a component of Chinese herb that has been reported to be medicament on pancreatic fibrosis and liver fibrosis. However, its role in pulmonary fibrosis has not been established yet. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Emodin plays an inhibitory role in TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cell, and Emodin exerts its effect through the Notch signaling pathway. Emodin inhibits the proliferation of Rat alveolar type II epithelial cells RLE-6TN in a concentration-dependent manner; reduces the expression of Collagen I, α-SMA and Vimentin, promotes the expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, Emodin could regulate the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors and reduce the Notch-1 nucleus translocation. Knockdown of Notch-1 enhances the inhibitory effect of Emodin on TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells. In conclusion, the data of the present study suggests that Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway and shows the potential to be effective in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. - Highlights: • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. • Emodin regulates the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors. • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 nucleus translocation and activation.

  4. Reproductive pattern of local sheep in Egypt with special reference to the effects of breed, season and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakha, A.M.; Essawy, S.A.; El Azab, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of season on ovulation has been monitored in two local breeds of Egyptian ewes - the Barki (desert type), and the Rahmani (fat tailed Nile valley breed), by sequentially measuring cyclic changes in plasma progesterone concentration throughout a period of one year in the absence of any possible ram effect. The modal length of the ovulatory cycle was 17-18 days for both breeds, with the progesterone concentration peaking around day 11. No effect of season on progesterone concentration was apparent for the Barki breed but in the Rahmani, progesterone values were lower (P < 0.05) during the summer than during the autumn months. While the Barki have a restricted breeding season from June to November, the Rahmani have only a short period of anovulation within April. Thirty-three per cent of the Rahmani breed were identified as having cycled throughout the year. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  5. Automated characterisation of ultrasound images of ovarian tumours: the diagnostic accuracy of a support vector machine and image processing with a local binary pattern operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazendar, S; Sayasneh, A; Al-Assam, H; Du, H; Kaijser, J; Ferrara, L; Timmerman, D; Jassim, S; Bourne, T

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative characterisation of ovarian masses into benign or malignant is of paramount importance to optimise patient management. In this study, we developed and validated a computerised model to characterise ovarian masses as benign or malignant. Transvaginal 2D B mode static ultrasound images of 187 ovarian masses with known histological diagnosis were included. Images were first pre-processed and enhanced, and Local Binary Pattern Histograms were then extracted from 2 × 2 blocks of each image. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) was trained using stratified cross validation with randomised sampling. The process was repeated 15 times and in each round 100 images were randomly selected. The SVM classified the original non-treated static images as benign or malignant masses with an average accuracy of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.59-0.65). This performance significantly improved to an average accuracy of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.75-0.79) when images were pre-processed, enhanced and treated with a Local Binary Pattern operator (mean difference 0.15: 95% 0.11-0.19, p images of ovarian masses into benign and malignant categories. The accuracy improves if texture related LBP features extracted from the images are considered.

  6. Regulation of Epithelial Sodium Transport via Epithelial Na+ Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunaka, Yoshinori; Niisato, Naomi; Taruno, Akiyuki; Ohta, Mariko; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Nishio, Kyosuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Nakahari, Takashi; Kubota, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Renal epithelial Na+ transport plays an important role in homeostasis of our body fluid content and blood pressure. Further, the Na+ transport in alveolar epithelial cells essentially controls the amount of alveolar fluid that should be kept at an appropriate level for normal gas exchange. The epithelial Na+ transport is generally mediated through two steps: (1) the entry step of Na+ via epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) at the apical membrane and (2) the extrusion step of Na+ via the Na+, K+-ATPase at the basolateral membrane. In general, the Na+ entry via ENaC is the rate-limiting step. Therefore, the regulation of ENaC plays an essential role in control of blood pressure and normal gas exchange. In this paper, we discuss two major factors in ENaC regulation: (1) activity of individual ENaC and (2) number of ENaC located at the apical membrane. PMID:22028593

  7. Patterns of Local-Regional Management Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer: Results From ACOSOG Z1071 (Alliance)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@cinj.rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); McCall, Linda M. [Alliance Statistics and Data Center, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ballman, Karla V. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York (United States); McLaughlin, Sarah [Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ollila, David W. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hunt, Kelly K. [Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Boughey, Judy C. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 was a prospective trial evaluating the false negative rate of sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients with initial node-positive disease. Radiation therapy (RT) decisions were made at the discretion of treating physicians, providing an opportunity to evaluate variability in practice patterns following NAC. Methods and Materials: Of 756 patients enrolled from July 2009 to June 2011, 685 met all eligibility requirements. Surgical approach, RT, and radiation field design were analyzed based on presenting clinical and pathologic factors. Results: Of 401 node-positive patients, mastectomy was performed in 148 (36.9%), mastectomy with immediate reconstruction in 107 (26.7%), and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 146 patients (36.4%). Of the 284 pathologically node-negative patients, mastectomy was performed in 84 (29.6%), mastectomy with immediate reconstruction in 69 (24.3%), and BCS in 131 patients (46.1%). Bilateral mastectomy rates were higher in women undergoing reconstruction than in those without (66.5% vs 32.2%, respectively, P<.0001). Use of internal mammary RT was low (7.8%-11.2%) and did not differ between surgical approaches. Supraclavicular RT rate ranged from 46.6% to 52.2% and did not differ between surgical approaches but was omitted in 193 or 408 node-positive patients (47.3%). Rate of axillary RT was more frequent in patients who remained node-positive (P=.002). However, 22% of patients who converted to node-negative still received axillary RT. Post-mastectomy RT was more frequently omitted after reconstruction than mastectomy (23.9% vs 12.1%, respectively, P=.002) and was omitted in 19 of 107 patients (17.8%) with residual node-positive disease in the reconstruction group. Conclusions: Most clinically node-positive patients treated with NAC undergoing mastectomy receive RT. RT is less common in patients undergoing reconstruction. There

  8. Co-localization patterns of neurotensin receptor 1 and tyrosine hydroxylase in brain regions involved in motivation and social behavior in male European starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merullo, Devin P; Spool, Jeremy A; Zhao, Changjiu; Riters, Lauren V

    2018-04-01

    Animals communicate in distinct social contexts to convey information specific to those contexts, such as sexual or agonistic motivation. In seasonally-breeding male songbirds, seasonal changes in day length and increases in testosterone stimulate sexually-motivated song directed at females for courtship and reproduction. Dopamine and testosterone may act in the same brain regions to stimulate sexually-motivated singing. The neuropeptide neurotensin, acting at the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1), can strongly influence dopamine transmission. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the degree to which seasonal changes in physiology modify interactions between neurotensin and dopamine to adjust context-appropriate communication. Male European starlings were examined in physiological conditions that stimulate season-typical forms of communication: late summer/early fall non-breeding condition (low testosterone; birds sing infrequently), late fall non-breeding condition (low testosterone; birds produce non-sexually motivated song), and spring breeding condition (high testosterone; males produce sexually-motivated song). Double fluorescent immunolabeling was performed to detect co-localization patterns between tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis) and NTR1 in brain regions implicated in motivation and song production (the ventral tegmental area, medial preoptic nucleus, periaqueductal gray, and lateral septum). Co-localization between TH and NTR1 was present in the ventral tegmental area for all physiological conditions, and the number of co-localized cells did not differ across conditions. Immunolabeling for TH and NTR1 was also present in the other examined regions, although no co-localization was seen. These results support the hypothesis that interactions between NTR1 and dopamine in the ventral tegmental area may modulate vocalizations, but suggest that testosterone- or photoperiod-induced changes in NTR1/TH co-localization

  9. [Stimulation of skin wound contraction and epithelialization by soluble collage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikiants, A G; Kut'kova, O N

    1992-04-01

    It is found that local applications of the unguent with soluble collagen, but not solution of the collagen, stimulate healing of erosions and full-thickness excision wounds in the rat skin. Not all the stages of healing were stimulated, but only two of them--contraction and epithelialization.

  10. Carotenoids co-localize with hydroxyapatite, cholesterol, and other lipids in calcified stenotic aortic valves. Ex vivo Raman maps compared to histological patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bonetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike its application for atherosclerotic plaque analysis, Raman microspectroscopy was sporadically used to check the sole nature of bioapatite deposits in stenotic aortic valves, neglecting the involvement of accumulated lipids/lipoproteins in the calcific process. Here, Raman microspectroscopy was employed for examination of stenotic aortic valve leaflets to add information on nature and distribution of accumulated lipids and their correlation with mineralization in the light of its potential precocious diagnostic use. Cryosections from surgically explanted stenotic aortic valves (n=4 were studied matching Raman maps against specific histological patterns. Raman maps revealed the presence of phospholipids/triglycerides and cholesterol, which showed spatial overlapping with one another and Raman-identified hydroxyapatite. Moreover, the Raman patterns correlated with those displayed by both von-Kossa-calcium- and Nile-blue-stained serial cryosections. Raman analysis also provided the first identification of carotenoids, which co-localized with the identified lipid moieties. Additional fit concerned the distribution of collagen and elastin. The good correlation of Raman maps with high-affinity staining patterns proved that Raman microspectroscopy is a reliable tool in evaluating calcification degree, alteration/displacement of extracellular matrix components, and accumulation rate of different lipid forms in calcified heart valves. In addition, the novel identification of carotenoids supports the concept that valve stenosis is an atherosclerosis-like valve lesion, consistently with their previous Raman microspectroscopical identification inside atherosclerotic plaques.

  11. Carotenoids co-localize with hydroxyapatite, cholesterol, and other lipids in calcified stenotic aortic valves. Ex vivo Raman maps compared to histological patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, A; Bonifacio, A; Della Mora, A; Livi, U; Marchini, M; Ortolani, F

    2015-04-20

    Unlike its application for atherosclerotic plaque analysis, Raman microspectroscopy was sporadically used to check the sole nature of bioapatite deposits in stenotic aortic valves, neglecting the involvement of accumulated lipids/lipoproteins in the calcific process. Here, Raman microspectroscopy was employed for examination of stenotic aortic valve leaflets to add information on nature and distribution of accumulated lipids and their correlation with mineralization in the light of its potential precocious diagnostic use. Cryosections from surgically explanted stenotic aortic valves (n=4) were studied matching Raman maps against specific histological patterns. Raman maps revealed the presence of phospholipids/triglycerides and cholesterol, which showed spatial overlapping with one another and Raman-identified hydroxyapatite. Moreover, the Raman patterns correlated with those displayed by both von-Kossa-calcium- and Nile-blue-stained serial cryosections. Raman analysis also provided the first identification of carotenoids, which co-localized with the identified lipid moieties. Additional fit concerned the distribution of collagen and elastin. The good correlation of Raman maps with high-affinity staining patterns proved that Raman microspectroscopy is a reliable tool in evaluating calcification degree, alteration/displacement of extracellular matrix components, and accumulation rate of different lipid forms in calcified heart valves. In addition, the novel identification of carotenoids supports the concept that valve stenosis is an atherosclerosis-like valve lesion, consistently with their previous Raman microspectroscopical identification inside atherosclerotic plaques.

  12. Sub-micron magnetic patterns and local variations of adhesion force induced in non-ferromagnetic amorphous steel by femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Feng, Yuping [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E08193 (Spain); Nieto, Daniel [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Applied Physics Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); García-Lecina, Eva [Unidad de Superficies Metálicas, IK4-CIDETEC, E20009 Donostia-San Sebastián Gipuzkoa (Spain); Mcdaniel, Clare [National Centre for Laser Applications, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Díaz-Marcos, Jordi [Unitat de Tècniques Nanomètriques, Centres Científics i Tecnològics, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Flores-Arias, María Teresa [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Applied Physics Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); O’Connor, Gerard M. [National Centre for Laser Applications, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Baró, Maria Dolors [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E08193 (Spain); Pellicer, Eva, E-mail: eva.pellicer@uab.cat [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, E08193 (Spain); and others

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Formation of ripples after femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation (FSPLI) of metallic glass was studied. • Magnetic patterning at the surface of non-ferromagnetic amorphous steel was induced by FSPLI. • The origin of the generated ferromagnetism is the laser-induced devitrification. - Abstract: Periodic ripple and nanoripple patterns are formed at the surface of amorphous steel after femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation (FSPLI). Formation of such ripples is accompanied with the emergence of a surface ferromagnetic behavior which is not initially present in the non-irradiated amorphous steel. The occurrence of ferromagnetic properties is associated with the laser-induced devitrification of the glassy structure to form ferromagnetic (α-Fe and Fe{sub 3}C) and ferrimagnetic [(Fe,Mn){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}] phases located in the ripples. The generation of magnetic structures by FSPLI turns out to be one of the fastest ways to induce magnetic patterning without the need of any shadow mask. Furthermore, local variations of the adhesion force, wettability and nanomechanical properties are also observed and compared to those of the as-cast amorphous alloy. These effects are of interest for applications (e.g., biological, magnetic recording, etc.) where both ferromagnetism and tribological/adhesion properties act synergistically to optimize material performance.

  13. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of epithelial sodium channel in human alveolar epithelial cells by lipoxin A4 through AhR-cAMP-dependent pathway. Bi-Huan Cheng1,2, Li-Wei Pan2, Sheng-Rong Zhang3, Bin-Yu Ying2, Ben-Ji. Wang2, Guo-Liang Lin2 and Shi-Fang Ding1*. 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong ...

  14. Interaction, coalescence, and collapse of localized patterns in a quasi-one-dimensional system of interacting particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessup, Tommy; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel

    2017-01-01

    We study the path toward equilibrium of pairs of solitary wave envelopes (bubbles) that modulate a regular zigzag pattern in an annular channel. We evidence that bubble pairs are metastable states, which spontaneously evolve toward a stable single bubble. We exhibit the concept of topological frustration of a bubble pair. A configuration is frustrated when the particles between the two bubbles are not organized in a modulated staggered row. For a nonfrustrated (NF) bubble pair configuration, the bubbles interaction is attractive, whereas it is repulsive for a frustrated (F) configuration. We describe a model of interacting solitary wave that provides all qualitative characteristics of the interaction force: It is attractive for NF systems and repulsive for F systems and decreases exponentially with the bubbles distance. Moreover, for NF systems, the bubbles come closer and eventually merge as a single bubble, in a coalescence process. We also evidence a collapse process, in which one bubble shrinks in favor of the other one, overcoming an energetic barrier in phase space. This process is relevant for both NF systems and F systems. In NF systems, the coalescence prevails at low temperature, whereas thermally activated jumps make the collapse prevail at high temperature. In F systems, the path toward equilibrium involves a collapse process regardless of the temperature.

  15. Unraveling the complex local-scale flows influencing ozone patterns in the southern Great Lakes of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Levy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the complexity of various processes influencing summertime ozone levels in the southern Great Lakes region of North America. Results from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology (BAQS-Met field campaign in the summer of 2007 are examined with respect to land-lake differences and local meteorology using a large array of ground-based measurements, aircraft data, and simulation results from a high resolution (2.5 km regional air-quality model, AURAMS.

    Analyses of average ozone mixing ratio from the entire BAQS-Met intensive campaign period support previous findings that ozone levels are higher over the southern Great Lakes than over the adjacent land. However, there is great heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of surface ozone over the lakes, particularly over Lake Erie during the day, with higher levels located over the southwestern end of the lake. Model results suggest that some of these increased ozone levels are due to local emission sources in large nearby urban centers. While an ozone reservoir layer is predicted by the AURAMS model over Lake Erie at night, the land-lake differences in ozone mixing ratios are most pronounced during the night in a shallow inversion layer of about 200 m above the surface. After sunrise, these differences have a limited effect on the total mass of ozone over the lakes and land during the day, though they do cause elevated ozone levels in the lake-breeze air in some locations.

    The model also predicts a mean vertical circulation during the day with an updraft over Detroit-Windsor and downdraft over Lake St. Clair, which transports ozone up to 1500 m above ground and results in high ozone over the lake.

    Oscillations in ground-level ozone mixing ratios were observed on several nights and at several ground monitoring sites, with amplitudes of up to 40 ppbv and time periods of 15–40 min. Several possible mechanisms for these oscillations are discussed, but a

  16. High-grain diets altered rumen fermentation and epithelial bacterial community and resulted in rumen epithelial injuries of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyang; Ye, Huimin; Liu, Junhua; Mao, Shengyong

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of high-grain diets on the rumen fermentation, epithelial bacterial community, morphology of rumen epithelium, and local inflammation of goats during high-grain feeding. Twelve 8-month-old goats were randomly assigned to two different diets, a hay diet or a high-grain diet (65% grain, HG). At the end of 7 weeks of treatment, samples of rumen content and rumen epithelium were collected. Rumen pH was lower (P rumen epithelial bacterial community, with an increase in the proportion of genus Prevotella and a decrease in the relative abundance of the genera Shuttleworthia and Fibrobacteres. PICRUSt analysis suggested that the HG-fed group had a higher (P rumen epithelial injury and upregulated (P rumen pH, LPS level, and rumen epithelial bacteria abundance. In conclusion, our results indicated that the alterations in the rumen environment and epithelial bacterial community which were induced by HG feeding may result in the damage and local inflammation in the rumen epithelium, warranting further study of rumen microbial-host interactions in the HG feeding model.

  17. Tissue distribution, subcellular localization and endocrine disruption patterns induced by Cr and Mn in the crab Ucides cordatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Jose Dias; Ramos da Silva, Miguel; Bastos da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Araujo de Lima, Silene Maria; Malm, Olaf; Allodi, Silvana

    2005-01-01

    The essential trace elements Cr and Mn are toxic at high concentrations and information about low concentration is insufficient in the literature. In polluted mangroves, the crab Ucides cordatus can represent a useful tool to assess information on the potential impact of trace elements like Cr and Mn on the environment, since this species is comestible and thus, commercially negotiated. Therefore, U. cordatus crabs were exposed in vivo to different concentrations of Cr and Mn solved in seawater and had their tissue distribution and subcellular deposits evaluated. The gill, hepatopancreas and muscle concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and the results showed that Cr and Mn presented the highest values in the gills rather than in the hepatopancreas and muscular tissue. Electron microscopy and analytical X-ray microanalysis revealed Cr precipitates on the gill surface, co-localized with epiphyte bacteria. In addition, since Cr and Mn did not equally accumulate in most of the tissues studied, glycemic rate of animals, which received injections of extracts of eyestalks of the contaminated crabs, were measured in order to evaluate whether the studied concentrations of Cr and Mn could produce any metabolic alteration. The results indicated that extracts of the eyestalks of crabs submitted to Cr and Mn salts and injected into normal crabs markedly influenced crustacean hyperglycemic hormone synthesis and/or release. The results are discussed with respect to sensitivity of the employed methods and the possible significance of the concentrations of Cr and Mn in the organisms

  18. Local gradient Gabor pattern (LGGP) with applications in face recognition, cross-spectral matching, and soft biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cunjian; Ross, Arun

    2013-05-01

    Researchers in face recognition have been using Gabor filters for image representation due to their robustness to complex variations in expression and illumination. Numerous methods have been proposed to model the output of filter responses by employing either local or global descriptors. In this work, we propose a novel but simple approach for encoding Gradient information on Gabor-transformed images to represent the face, which can be used for identity, gender and ethnicity assessment. Extensive experiments on the standard face benchmark FERET (Visible versus Visible), as well as the heterogeneous face dataset HFB (Near-infrared versus Visible), suggest that the matching performance due to the proposed descriptor is comparable against state-of-the-art descriptor-based approaches in face recognition applications. Furthermore, the same feature set is used in the framework of a Collaborative Representation Classification (CRC) scheme for deducing soft biometric traits such as gender and ethnicity from face images in the AR, Morph and CAS-PEAL databases.

  19. Accuracy of the Electrocardiogram in Localizing the Accessory Pathway in Patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There are currently several electrocardiographic algorithms to locate the accessory pathway (AP in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome. Objective: To compare the ability of electrocardiographic algorithms in identifying the location of the AP in patients with WPW pattern referred for ablation. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional, retrospective study with 111 patients with WPW syndrome referred for AP ablation. The electrocardiogram (ECG obtained prior to the ablation was analyzed by an experienced observer who consecutively applied seven algorithms to identify non-invasively the AP. We then compared the location estimated with this assessment with that obtained in the electrophysiological study and calculated the agreement rates. Results: Among the APs, 59 (53.15% were distributed around the mitral annulus and the remaining 52 (46.85% were located around the tricuspid annulus. The overall absolute accuracy of the algorithms evaluated varied between 27% and 47%, increasing to between 40% and 76% when we included adjacent locations. The absolute agreement rate by AP location was 2.00-52.20% for septal APs (n = 51, increasing to 5.90-90.20% when considering adjacent locations; 7.70-69.20% for right APs (n = 13, increasing to 42.90-100% when considering adjacent locations; and 21.70-54.50% for left APs (n = 47, increasing to 50-87% when considering adjacent locations. Conclusion: The agreement rates observed for the analyzed scores indicated a low discriminative ability of the ECG in locating the AP in patients with WPW.

  20. Anal canal carcinoma: Early-stage tumors ≤10 mm (T1 or Tis): Therapeutic options and original pattern of local failure after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortholan, Cecile; Ramaioli, Alain; Peiffert, Didier; Lusinchi, Antoine; Romestaing, Pascale; Chauveinc, Laurent; Touboul, Emmanuel; Peignaux, Karine; Bruna, Antoine; La Roche, Guy de; Lagrange, Jean-Leon; Alzieu, Christian; Gerard, Jean Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical history, management, and pattern of recurrence of very early-stage anal canal cancer in a French retrospective survey. Methods: The study group consisted of 69 patients with Stage Tis and T1 anal canal carcinoma ≤1 cm treated between 1990 and 2000 (12 were in situ, 57 invasive, 66 Stage N0, and 3 Stage N1). The median patient age was 67 years (range, 27-83 years). Of the 69 patients, 66 received radiotherapy (RT) and 3 with in situ disease were treated by local excision alone without RT. Twenty-six patients underwent local excision before RT (12 with negative and 14 with positive surgical margins). Of the 66 patients who underwent RT, 8 underwent brachytherapy alone (median dose, 55 Gy), 38 underwent external beam RT (median dose, 45 Gy) plus a brachytherapy boost (median boost dose, 20 Gy), and 20 underwent external beam RT alone (median dose, 55 Gy). Results: Of the 69 patients, 68 had initial local control. Of the 66 patients treated by RT, 6 developed local recurrence at a median interval of 50 months (range, 13-78 months). Four patients developed local failure outside the initial tumor bed. Of the 3 patients with Tis treated by excision alone, 1 developed local recurrence. No relation was found among prior excision, dose, and local failure. The 5-year overall survival, colostomy-free survival, and disease-free survival rate was 94%, 85%, and 89%, respectively. The rate of late complications (Grade 1-3) was 28% and was 14% for those who received doses <60 Gy and 37% for those who received doses of ≥60 Gy (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Most recurrences occurred after a long disease-free interval after treatment and often outside the initial tumor site. These small anal cancers could be treated by RT using a small volume and moderate dose (40-50 Gy for subclinical lesions and 50-60 Gy for T1)

  1. Oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnakulasuriya, S; Reibel, J; Bouquot, J

    2008-01-01

    At a workshop coordinated by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer and Precancer in the United Kingdom issues related to potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity were discussed by an expert group. The consensus views of the Working Group are presented in a series of papers....... In this report, we review the oral epithelial dysplasia classification systems. The three classification schemes [oral epithelial dysplasia scoring system, squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and Ljubljana classification] were presented and the Working Group recommended epithelial dysplasia grading for routine...... use. Although most oral pathologists possibly recognize and accept the criteria for grading epithelial dysplasia, firstly based on architectural features and then of cytology, there is great variability in their interpretation of the presence, degree and significance of the individual criteria...

  2. Regional Analysis of Long-term Local and Synoptic Effects on Wind Velocity and Energy Patterns in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, R.; Koracin, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Investments in renewable energy are justified in both environmental and economic terms. Climate change risks call for mitigation strategies aimed to reduce pollutant emissions, while the energy supply is facing high uncertainty by the current or future global economic and political contexts. Wind energy is playing a strategic role in the efforts of any country for sustainable development and energy supply security. Wind energy is a weather and climate-dependent resource, having a natural spatio-temporal variability at time scales ranging from fraction of seconds to seasons and years, while at spatial scales is strongly affected by the topography and vegetation. Main objective of the study is to investigate spatio-temporal characteristics of the wind velocity in the Southwest U.S., that are relevant to wind energy assessment, analysis, development, operation, and grid integration, by using long-term multiple meteorological tower observations. Wind velocity data and other meteorological parameters from five towers, located near Tonopah, Nevada, operated between 2003 to 2008, and from three towers are located in Carson Valley, Nevada, operated between 2006 and 2014 were used in this study. Multi-annual wind speed data collected did not show significant increase trends with increasing elevation; the differences are mainly governed by the topographic complexity, including local atmospheric circulations. Auto- and cross-correlations show a strong coherence between the wind speed and direction with slowly decreasing amplitude of the multi-day periodicity with increasing lag periods. Besides pronounced diurnal periodicity at all locations, detrended fluctuation analysis also showed significant seasonal and annual periodicities, and long-memory persistence with similar characteristics. In spite of significant differences in mean wind speeds among the towers, due to location specifics, the relatively high auto- and cross-correlation coefficients among the towers indicate

  3. Sustainability and collapse in a coevolutionary model of local resource stocks and behavioral patterns on a social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    When investigating the causes and consequences of global change, the collective behavior of human beings is considered as having a considerable impact on natural systems. In our work, we propose a conceptual coevolutionary model simulating the dynamics of local renewable resources in interaction with simplistic societal agents exploiting those resources. The society is represented by a social network on which social traits may be transmitted between agents. These traits themselves induce a certain rate of exploitation of the resource, leading either to its depletion or sustainable existence. Traits are exchanged probabilistically according to their instantaneous individual payoff, and hence this process depends on the status of the natural resource. At the same time agents may adaptively restructure their set of acquaintances. Connections with agents having a different trait may be broken while new connections with agents of the same trait are established. We investigate which choices of social parameters, like the frequency of social interaction, rationality and rate of social network adaptation, cause the system to end in a sustainable state and, hence, what can be done to avoid a collapse of the entire system. The importance and influence of the social network structure is analyzed by the variation of link-densities in the underlying network topology and shows significant influence on the expected outcome of the model. For a static network with no adaptation we find a robust phase transition between the two different regimes, sustainable and non-sustainable, which co-exist in parameter space. High connectivity within the social network, e.g., high link-densities, in combination with a fast rate of social learning lead to a likely collapse of the entire co-evolutionary system, whereas slow learning and small network connectivity very likely result in the sustainable existence of the natural resources. Collapse may be avoided by an intelligent rewiring, e

  4. Unique mitochondrial localization of arginase 1 and 2 in hepatocytes of air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus and their differential expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bodhisattwa; Koner, Debaprasad; Lal, Priyanka; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2017-07-30

    Arginase (ARG) catalyzes the final step of ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) leading to a conversion of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. Several isoforms of ARG have been reported in vertebrates, out of which the two predominant isoforms are the cytosolic ARG1 and the mitochondrial ARG2. The air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) is frequently being challenged by different environmental insults such as hyper-ammonia, dehydration and osmotic stresses in their natural habitats throughout the year. The present study investigated the active presence of ARG1 and ARG2 isoforms in hepatocytes along with unique localization of both the isoforms inside the mitochondria, and also their specific expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress (5mM NH 4 Cl) in isolated hepatocytes of walking catfish. Initially, full length sequences of both arg1 and arg2 genes were obtained by RACE-PCR. Studies on molecular characterization demonstrated the presence of all the conserved amino acids required for stability and activity of binuclear metal center in both the isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of ARG isoforms showed a differentiation of the ARG1 and ARG2 into two distinct clusters with their respective isoforms from other species. Most interestingly, both the isoforms of ARG in hepatocytes were found to be localized inside the mitochondria as evidenced by the presence of mitochondrial target peptide (mTP) in N-terminal of the derived amino acid sequences, and exclusive localization of ARG activity in the mitochondrial fraction. This was additionally confirmed by Western blot analysis of ARGs in mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions, and by immunocytochemical analysis in isolated hepatocytes. Although the possible reasons associated with the presence of both the isoforms of ARGs inside the mitochondria is not clearly understood, perhaps this mitochondrial localization of ARG is functionally advantageous in this catfish for the synthesis of N

  5. Known from a handful of specimens: analyzing the worldwide patterns of occurrence and conservation of rodents and shrews recorded only from the type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, conservation research has not focused on Rodentia and Soricomorpha, and many species are known from a handful of specimens and the type locality only (few and type locality species (FETP.  Here we studied the patterns of occurrence of FETP rodents and soricomorphs in relation to geographical area and vegetation zones and report some conservation considerations.  Overall, 91 species of Rodentia and 19 species of Soricomorpha were selected.  There was a positive correlation between number of species per genus and number of FETP species in each genus.  The majority of FETP rodents occur in the Neotropical, Afrotropical and Oriental regions, and soricomorphs in the Afrotropical and Oriental regions. Higher numbers of FETP rodent species occurred in Argentina and Indonesia.  There was a positive relationship between species richness of rodents per country and number of FETP species.  In terms of habitat type, FETP species of rodents and soricomorphs showed similar patterns, with most species being found in rainforest.  The great majority of selected species of both groups were Data Deficient (DD, with Critically Endangered (CR accounting for 16.5% of Rodentia and 5.3% of Soricomorpha.  Overall, IUCN threatened species mostly occur in the Neotropical region, followed by the Afrotropical region.  It is urged that IUCN authorities should promptly revise all FETP species and their precautionary CR status, at least when a reasonable timespan (i.e., >25 years has passed since the last records. 

  6. The Patterns of Care Survey of radiation therapy in localized prostate cancer: Similarities between the practice nationally and in minority-rich areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietman, Anthony; Moughan, Jennifer; Owen, Jean; Hanks, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Over the last two decades, the chance for the cure of localized prostate cancer by radiation has been improved by the widespread use of PSA for early detection and by a number of technical advances in treatment delivery. This study was designed to determine whether the stage of presentation and the quality of radiation treatment delivered are comparable between Caucasian and minority patients nationally and within minority-rich areas. Methods and Materials: A random survey conducted for the Patterns of Care Study in Radiation Oncology of 80 facilities treating patients with radiation in the USA. Of these, 67 comprise the 'National Survey' and 13 a 'Minority-Rich' survey (>40% of treated patients are minorities). Nine hundred twenty-six men with localized prostate cancer were treated in 1994. Five hundred ninety-five were in the national and 331 in the minority-rich survey. The main outcome measures were the clinical features of Caucasian and minority men at presentation and technical characteristics of the treatment delivered to them. Results: African-American men presented with more advanced disease (higher-presenting PSA and T-stage) than Caucasians in both the national and the minority-rich surveys. Hispanics also presented with later disease and could be grouped with African-American men rather than Caucasians. Overall the stage and PSA at presentation was earlier than seen in the previous Patterns of Care Study survey of 1989. The quality of treatment delivered has improved since 1989, with no distinction seen between those facilities sampled nationally and those within minority-rich areas. Conclusion: African-American and Hispanic men with prostate cancer present for therapy at a later stage than Caucasian men, but when they do, the treatment received is of comparable quality

  7. Characterization of Personal Privacy Devices (PPD) radiation pattern impact on the ground and airborne segments of the local area augmentation system (LAAS) at GPS L1 frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Abualkair M. Khair

    Personal Privacy Devices (PPDs) are radio-frequency transmitters that intentionally transmit in a frequency band used by other devices for the intent purpose of denying service to those devices. These devices have shown the potential to interfere with the ground and air sub-systems of the Local Area Augmentation Systems (LAAS), a GPS-based navigation aids at commercial airports. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is concerned by the potential impact of these devices to GPS navigation aids at airports and has commenced an activity to determine the severity of this threat. In support of this situation, the research in this dissertation has been conducted under (FAA) Cooperative Agreement 2011-G-012, to investigate the impact of these devices on the LAAS. In order to investigate the impact of PPDs Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) on the ground and air sub-systems of the LAAS, the work presented in phase one of this research is intended to characterize the vehicle's impact on the PPD's Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP). A study was conceived in this research to characterize PPD performance by examining the on-vehicle radiation patterns as a function of vehicle type, jammer type, jammer location inside a vehicle and jammer orientation at each location. Phase two was to characterize the GPS Radiation Pattern on Multipath Limiting Antenna. MLA has to meet stringent requirements for acceptable signal detection and multipath rejection. The ARL-2100 is the most recent MLA antenna proposed to be used in the LAAS ground segment. The ground-based antenna's radiation pattern was modeled. This was achieved via (HFSS) a commercial-off the shelf CAD-based modeling code with a full-wave electromagnetic software simulation package that uses the Finite Element Analysis. Phase three of this work has been conducted to study the characteristics of the GPS Radiation Pattern on Commercial Aircraft. The airborne GPS antenna was modeled and the resulting radiation pattern on

  8. Interaction of HSP20 with a viral RdRp changes its sub-cellular localization and distribution pattern in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xiang, Cong-Ying; Yang, Jian; Chen, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Heng-Mu

    2015-09-11

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) perform a fundamental role in protecting cells against a wide array of stresses but their biological function during viral infection remains unknown. Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes a severe disease of rice in Eastern Asia. OsHSP20 and its homologue (NbHSP20) were used as baits in yeast two-hybrid (YTH) assays to screen an RSV cDNA library and were found to interact with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RSV. Interactions were confirmed by pull-down and BiFC assays. Further analysis showed that the N-terminus (residues 1-296) of the RdRp was crucial for the interaction between the HSP20s and viral RdRp and responsible for the alteration of the sub-cellular localization and distribution pattern of HSP20s in protoplasts of rice and epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana. This is the first report that a plant virus or a viral protein alters the expression pattern or sub-cellular distribution of sHSPs.

  9. Circulating and intraprostatic sex steroid hormonal profiles in relation to male pattern baldness and chest hair density among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cindy Ke; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Hafi, Muhannad; Veneroso, Carmela C; Lynch, Barlow; Falk, Roni T; Niwa, Shelley; Emanuel, Eric; Gao, Yu-Tang; Hemstreet, George P; Zolfghari, Ladan; Carroll, Peter R; Manyak, Michael J; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Levine, Paul H; Hsing, Ann W; Cook, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    Prospective cohort studies of circulating sex steroid hormones and prostate cancer risk have not provided a consistent association, despite evidence from animal and clinical studies. However, studies using male pattern baldness as a proxy of early-life or cumulative androgen exposure have reported significant associations with aggressive and fatal prostate cancer risk. Given that androgens underlie the development of patterned hair loss and chest hair, we assessed whether these two dermatological characteristics were associated with circulating and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroid hormones among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. We included 248 prostate cancer patients from the NCI Prostate Tissue Study, who answered surveys and provided a pre-treatment blood sample as well as fresh frozen adjacent normal prostate tissue. Male pattern baldness and chest hair density were assessed by trained nurses before surgery. General linear models estimated geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of each hormone variable by dermatological phenotype with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were performed by Gleason score (balding status with serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and a weak association with elevated intraprostatic testosterone. Conversely, neither circulating nor intraprostatic sex hormones were statistically significantly associated with chest hair density. Age-adjusted correlation between binary balding status and three-level chest hair density was weak (r = 0.05). There was little evidence to suggest that Gleason score or race modified these associations. This study provides evidence that balding status assessed at a mean age of 60 years may serve as a clinical marker for circulating sex hormone concentrations. The weak-to-null associations between balding status and intraprostatic sex hormones reaffirm differences in organ

  10. Traction forces exerted by epithelial cell sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, A; Anon, E; Ghibaudo, M; Di Meglio, J-M; Hersen, P; Ladoux, B; Du Roure, O; Silberzan, P; Buguin, A

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the adhesion and migration of individual cells have been well described in terms of physical forces, the mechanics of multicellular assemblies is still poorly understood. Here, we study the behavior of epithelial cells cultured on microfabricated substrates designed to measure cell-to-substrate interactions. These substrates are covered by a dense array of flexible micropillars whose deflection enables us to measure traction forces. They are obtained by lithography and soft replica molding. The pillar deflection is measured by video microscopy and images are analyzed with home-made multiple particle tracking software. First, we have characterized the temporal and spatial distributions of traction forces of cellular assemblies of various sizes. The mechanical force balance within epithelial cell sheets shows that the forces exerted by neighboring cells strongly depend on their relative position in the monolayer: the largest deformations are always localized at the edge of the islands of cells in the active areas of cell protrusions. The average traction stress rapidly decreases from its maximum value at the edge but remains much larger than the inherent noise due to the force resolution of our pillar tracking software, indicating an important mechanical activity inside epithelial cell islands. Moreover, these traction forces vary linearly with the rigidity of the substrate over about two decades, suggesting that cells exert a given amount of deformation rather than a force. Finally, we engineer micropatterned substrates supporting pillars with anisotropic stiffness. On such substrates cellular growth is aligned with respect to the stiffest direction in correlation with the magnitude of the applied traction forces.

  11. Determinants of emergency response willingness in the local public health workforce by jurisdictional and scenario patterns: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Daniel J; Thompson, Carol B; Errett, Nicole A; Semon, Natalie L; Anderson, Marilyn K; Ferrell, Justin L; Freiheit, Jennifer M; Hudson, Robert; Koch, Michelle M; McKee, Mary; Mejia-Echeverry, Alvaro; Spitzer, James; Balicer, Ran D; Links, Jonathan M

    2012-03-07

    The all-hazards willingness to respond (WTR) of local public health personnel is critical to emergency preparedness. This study applied a threat-and efficacy-centered framework to characterize these workers' scenario and jurisdictional response willingness patterns toward a range of naturally-occurring and terrorism-related emergency scenarios. Eight geographically diverse local health department (LHD) clusters (four urban and four rural) across the U.S. were recruited and administered an online survey about response willingness and related attitudes/beliefs toward four different public health emergency scenarios between April 2009 and June 2010 (66% response rate). Responses were dichotomized and analyzed using generalized linear multilevel mixed model analyses that also account for within-cluster and within-LHD correlations. Comparisons of rural to urban LHD workers showed statistically significant odds ratios (ORs) for WTR context across scenarios ranging from 1.5 to 2.4. When employees over 40 years old were compared to their younger counterparts, the ORs of WTR ranged from 1.27 to 1.58, and when females were compared to males, the ORs of WTR ranged from 0.57 to 0.61. Across the eight clusters, the percentage of workers indicating they would be unwilling to respond regardless of severity ranged from 14-28% for a weather event; 9-27% for pandemic influenza; 30-56% for a radiological 'dirty' bomb event; and 22-48% for an inhalational anthrax bioterrorism event. Efficacy was consistently identified as an important independent predictor of WTR. Response willingness deficits in the local public health workforce pose a threat to all-hazards response capacity and health security. Local public health agencies and their stakeholders may incorporate key findings, including identified scenario-based willingness gaps and the importance of efficacy, as targets of preparedness curriculum development efforts and policies for enhancing response willingness. Reasons for an

  12. Factors associated with initial treatment and survival for clinically localized prostate cancer: results from the CDC-NPCR Patterns of Care Study (PoC1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schymura, Maria J; Kahn, Amy R; German, Robert R; Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Cress, Rosemary D; Finch, Jack L; Fulton, John P; Shen, Tiefu; Stuckart, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Despite the large number of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, there is as yet no consensus concerning appropriate treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe the initial treatment patterns for localized prostate cancer in a population-based sample and to determine the clinical and patient characteristics associated with initial treatment and overall survival. The analysis included 3,300 patients from seven states, diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer in 1997. We examined the association of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with four treatment options: radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and watchful waiting. Diagnostic and treatment information was abstracted from medical records. Socioeconomic measures were derived from the 2000 Census based on the patient's residence at time of diagnosis. Vital status through December 31, 2002, was obtained from medical records and linkages to state vital statistics files and the National Death Index. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards models identified factors associated with initial treatment and overall survival, respectively. Patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received the following treatments: radical prostatectomy (39.7%), radiation therapy (31.4%), hormone therapy (10.3%), or watchful waiting (18.6%). After multivariable adjustment, the following variables were associated with conservative treatment (hormone therapy or watchful waiting): older age, black race, being unmarried, having public insurance, having non-screen detected cancer, having normal digital rectal exam results, PSA values above 20, low Gleason score (2-4), comorbidity, and state of residence. Among patients receiving definitive treatment (radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy), older age, being unmarried, PSA values above 10, unknown Gleason score, state of residence, as well as black race in patients under 60 years of age, were

  13. Factors associated with initial treatment and survival for clinically localized prostate cancer: results from the CDC-NPCR Patterns of Care Study (PoC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton John P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the large number of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer, there is as yet no consensus concerning appropriate treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe the initial treatment patterns for localized prostate cancer in a population-based sample and to determine the clinical and patient characteristics associated with initial treatment and overall survival. Methods The analysis included 3,300 patients from seven states, diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer in 1997. We examined the association of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with four treatment options: radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and watchful waiting. Diagnostic and treatment information was abstracted from medical records. Socioeconomic measures were derived from the 2000 Census based on the patient's residence at time of diagnosis. Vital status through December 31, 2002, was obtained from medical records and linkages to state vital statistics files and the National Death Index. Multiple logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards models identified factors associated with initial treatment and overall survival, respectively. Results Patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received the following treatments: radical prostatectomy (39.7%, radiation therapy (31.4%, hormone therapy (10.3%, or watchful waiting (18.6%. After multivariable adjustment, the following variables were associated with conservative treatment (hormone therapy or watchful waiting: older age, black race, being unmarried, having public insurance, having non-screen detected cancer, having normal digital rectal exam results, PSA values above 20, low Gleason score (2-4, comorbidity, and state of residence. Among patients receiving definitive treatment (radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy, older age, being unmarried, PSA values above 10, unknown Gleason score, state of residence, as well as black

  14. Determinants of emergency response willingness in the local public health workforce by jurisdictional and scenario patterns: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Daniel J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The all-hazards willingness to respond (WTR of local public health personnel is critical to emergency preparedness. This study applied a threat-and efficacy-centered framework to characterize these workers' scenario and jurisdictional response willingness patterns toward a range of naturally-occurring and terrorism-related emergency scenarios. Methods Eight geographically diverse local health department (LHD clusters (four urban and four rural across the U.S. were recruited and administered an online survey about response willingness and related attitudes/beliefs toward four different public health emergency scenarios between April 2009 and June 2010 (66% response rate. Responses were dichotomized and analyzed using generalized linear multilevel mixed model analyses that also account for within-cluster and within-LHD correlations. Results Comparisons of rural to urban LHD workers showed statistically significant odds ratios (ORs for WTR context across scenarios ranging from 1.5 to 2.4. When employees over 40 years old were compared to their younger counterparts, the ORs of WTR ranged from 1.27 to 1.58, and when females were compared to males, the ORs of WTR ranged from 0.57 to 0.61. Across the eight clusters, the percentage of workers indicating they would be unwilling to respond regardless of severity ranged from 14-28% for a weather event; 9-27% for pandemic influenza; 30-56% for a radiological 'dirty' bomb event; and 22-48% for an inhalational anthrax bioterrorism event. Efficacy was consistently identified as an important independent predictor of WTR. Conclusions Response willingness deficits in the local public health workforce pose a threat to all-hazards response capacity and health security. Local public health agencies and their stakeholders may incorporate key findings, including identified scenario-based willingness gaps and the importance of efficacy, as targets of preparedness curriculum development efforts and

  15. Functional effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR3, 7, 9, RIG-I and MDA-5 stimulation in nasal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Tengroth

    Full Text Available The human nasal epithelium is an important physical barrier, and a part of the innate immune defense that protect against pathogens. The epithelial cells recognize microbial components by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, and thereby trigger an immune response. Even though TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, RIG-I and MDA-5 are all known to respond to viral stimulation, their potential role in chronic airway inflammation triggered by local cytokine release remains to be established.mRNA and corresponding protein expression of TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, RIG-I and MDA-5 were analyzed in nasal biopsies and various upper airway epithelial cell lines using real-time reverse transcription PCR, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Ligand induced, cytokine release, was evaluated with ELISA.Nasal biopsies were found to express TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, RIG-I and MDA-5, with the most abundant expression in the surface epithelium. These receptors were verified in primary human nasal epithelial cell (HNEC as well as in the airway epithelial cell lines Detroit-562 and FaDu. Poly(I:C (TLR3 and R-837 (TLR7 stimulation increased secretion of IL-6 and GM-CSF from the nasal mucosa and the epithelial cell lines. CpG (TLR9 stimulation caused release of IL-8 in the nasal mucosa and in FaDu. Poly(I:C/LyoVec (RIG-I/MDA-5 stimulation activated the secretion of IFN-β in the nasal mucosa. A corresponding release was also detected from HNEC and Detroit-562.The nasal epithelium has the ability to recognize viral intrusion through TLR and RLR receptors, and the subsequent response might have a role in exacerbation of inflammatory diseases like allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis.

  16. Localization patterns of the ganglioside GM1 in human sperm are indicative of male fertility and independent of traditional semen measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Cristina; Neri, Queenie V; Simpson, Alana J; Moody, Melissa A; Ostermeier, G Charles; Seaman, Eric K; Paniza, Theodore; Rosenwaks, Zev; Palermo, Gianpiero D; Travis, Alexander J

    2017-05-01

    Semen analysis lacks a functional component and best identifies extreme cases of infertility. The ganglioside G M1 is known to have functional roles during capacitation and acrosome exocytosis. Here, we assessed whether G M1 localization patterns (Cap-Score™) correspond with male fertility in different settings: Study 1 involved couples pursuing assisted reproduction in a tertiary care fertility clinic, while Study 2 involved men with known fertility versus those questioning their fertility at a local urology center. In Study 1, we examined various thresholds versus clinical history for 42 patients; 13 had Cap-Scores ≥39.5%, with 12 of these (92.3%) achieving clinical pregnancy by natural conception or ≤3 intrauterine insemination cycles. Of the 29 patients scoring fertile men (Cohort 1, pregnant partner or recent father) and compared to 122 men seeking fertility assessment (Cohort 2). Cap-Score values were normally distributed in Cohort 1, with 13.2% having Cap-Scores more than one standard deviation below the mean (35.3 ± 7.7%). Significantly, more men in Cohort 2 had Cap-Scores greater than one standard deviation below the normal mean (33.6%; p = 0.001). Minimal/no relationship was found between Cap-Score and sperm concentration, morphology, or motility. Together, these data demonstrate that Cap-Score provides novel, clinically relevant insights into sperm function and male fertility that complement traditional semen analysis. Furthermore, the data provide normal reference ranges for fertile men that can help clinicians counsel couples toward the most appropriate fertility treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Reproduction and Development Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  17. Transcriptomic response of goat mammary epithelial cells to Mycoplasma agalactiae challenge – a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogorevc, Jernej; Mihevc, Sonja Prpar; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is one of the main aetiological agents of intramammary infections in small ruminants, causing contagious agalactia. To better understand the underlying disease patterns a primary goat mammary epithelial cell (pgMEC) culture was established from the mammary tissue......, steroid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, apoptosis signalling, transcription regulation, and cell cycle regulation. Based on the results we suggest that mammary epithelial cells in vivo contribute to the immune system by the induced expression of cytokines and other chemotactic agents, activation...

  18. Image-Guided Analyses Reveal that Non-CD4 Splenocytes Contribute to CD4+ T Cell–Mediated Inflammation Leading to Islet Destruction by Altering Their Local Function and Not Systemic Trafficking Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Heon Lee

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment of CD4+ T cells into islets is a critical component of islet inflammation (insulitis leading to type 1 diabetes; therefore, determining if conditions used to treat diabetes change their trafficking patterns is relevant to the outcome. Cotransfer of CD4+BDC2.5 (BDC cells with non-CD4 splenocytes obtained from newly diabetic NOD mice, but not when they are transferred alone, induces accelerated diabetes. It is unclear whether these splenocytes affect diabetes development by altering the systemic and/or local trafficking and proliferation patterns of BDC cells in target and nontarget tissues. To address these questions, we developed an animal model to visualize BDC cell trafficking and proliferation using whole-body in vivo bioluminescence imaging and used the images to direct tissue sampling for further analyses of the cell distribution within tissues. The whole-body, or macroscopic, trafficking patterns were not dramatically altered in both groups of recipient mice. However, the local patterns of cell distribution were distinct, which led to invasive insulitis only in cotransferred mice with an increased number of islet-infiltrating CD11b+ and CD11c+ cells. Taken together, the non-CD4 splenocytes act locally by promoting invasive insulitis without altering the systemic trafficking patterns or proliferation of BDC cells and thus contributing to diabetes by altering the localization within the tissue.

  19. Local ecological knowledge of fishers about the life cycle and temporal patterns in the migration of mullet (Mugil liza in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannieli Firme Herbst

    Full Text Available This research investigates local ecological knowledge of fishers in communities along a latitudinal gradient in the coast of the Santa Catarina State, regarding the life cycle of mullets Mugil liza (migration, feeding, and reproductive behavior. Our sampling encompassed eight Santa Catarina coastal cities (nine artisanal fishing sites and engaged 45 key informants (28- 86 years of age through semi-structured interviews from August/2011 to March/2012. This fish species feeds and grows in lagoon and estuarine systems, migrating to the sea for reproduction, and spawning. Fishers acknowledged the Patos Lagoon and the Plata River as the main source of mullet schools. Migration occurs from South to North and the routes vary according to climatic and oceanographic conditions (e.g., low temperatures, south winds, rainfall, currents, salinity. These conditions influence the abundance of mullets (and therefore fisheries success, their migration and stops in locations such as beaches, rocky shores, and islands. According to fishers, mullet spawning occurs throughout the coast of the Santa Catarina State and they feed in lagoons and riverine systems but also out at sea during migration. In conclusion, fishers possess a detailed knowledge about mullet life cycle and they identify intra and interannual variations in migration routes, a pattern that should be considered in managing the fishery.

  20. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jung Ar; Chung, Jin Sil; Cho, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Young Do

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H 2 O 2 treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells

  1. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Ar [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Sil [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang-Ho [Department of Pathology, Pochon CHA University, College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Jung, E-mail: khj57@yuhs.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Do, E-mail: ydy1130@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

  2. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts protect against epithelial cell barrier disruption induced by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I M; Baker, A; Arneborg, N; Jespersen, L

    2015-11-01

    The human gastrointestinal epithelium makes up the largest barrier separating the body from the external environment. Whereas invasive pathogens cause epithelial barrier disruption, probiotic micro-organisms modulate tight junction regulation and improve epithelial barrier function. In addition, probiotic strains may be able to reduce epithelial barrier disruption caused by pathogenic species. The aim of this study was to explore non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. Benchmarking against established probiotic strains, we evaluated the ability of four nonpathogenic yeast species to modulate transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) across a monolayer of differentiated human colonocytes (Caco-2 cells). Further, we assessed yeast modulation of a Salmonella Typhimurium-induced epithelial cell barrier function insult. Our findings demonstrate distinct patterns of non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function. While the established probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii increased TER across a Caco-2 monolayer by 30%, Kluyveromyces marxianus exhibited significantly stronger properties of TER enhancement (50% TER increase). In addition, our data demonstrate significant yeast-mediated modulation of Salmonella-induced epithelial cell barrier disruption and identify K. marxianus and Metschnikowia gruessii as two non-Saccharomyces yeasts capable of protecting human epithelial cells from pathogen invasion. This study demonstrates distinct patterns of non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. Further, our data demonstrate significant yeast-mediated modulation of Salmonella Typhimurium-induced epithelial cell barrier disruption and identify Kluyveromyces marxianus and Metschnikowia gruessii as two non-Saccharomyces yeasts capable of protecting human epithelial cells from pathogen invasion. This study is the first to demonstrate significant non-Saccharomyces yeast

  3. CXCL9 Regulates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, Sarah L; Walsh, Sinead M; Fabre, Aurélie; Reviriego, Carlota; Worrell, Julie C; Counihan, Ian P; Lumsden, Robert V; Cramton-Barnes, Jennifer; Belperio, John A; Donnelly, Seamas C; Boylan, Denise; Marchal-Sommé, Joëlle; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2015-09-15

    Epithelial to mesenchymal cell transition (EMT), whereby fully differentiated epithelial cells transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). CXCR3 and its ligands are recognized to play a protective role in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the presence and extent of EMT and CXCR3 expression in human IPF surgical lung biopsies and assessed whether CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL9 modulate EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. Coexpression of the epithelial marker thyroid transcription factor-1 and the mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin and CXCR3 expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining of IPF surgical lung biopsies. Epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells treated with TGF-β1 and CXCL9, with Smad2, Smad3, and Smad7 expression and cellular localization examined by Western blotting. We found that significantly more cells were undergoing EMT in fibrotic versus normal areas of lung in IPF surgical lung biopsy samples. CXCR3 was expressed by type II pneumocytes and fibroblasts in fibrotic areas in close proximity to cells undergoing EMT. In vitro, CXCL9 abrogated TGF-β1-induced EMT. A decrease in TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 occurred with CXCL9 treatment. This was associated with increased shuttling of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it inhibits Smad phosphorylation. This suggests a role for EMT in the pathogenesis of IPF and provides a novel mechanism for the inhibitory effects of CXCL9 on TGF-β1-induced EMT. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Inhalation exposure to ethylene induces eosinophilic rhinitis and nasal epithelial remodeling in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, Christina; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Krieger, Shannon M; Pottenger, Lynn H; Harkema, Jack R

    2015-11-05

    This study investigated the time- and concentration-dependent effects of inhaled ethylene on eosinophilic rhinitis and nasal epithelial remodeling in Fisher 344 rats exposed to 0, 10, 50, 300, or 10,000 ppm ethylene, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 4 weeks. Morphometric quantitation of eosinophilic inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia (MCM) and nasal mucosal gene expression were evaluated at anatomic sites previously shown to undergo ethylene-induced epithelial remodeling. Serum levels of total IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were measured to determine if ethylene exposure increased the expression of Th2-associated (IgE and IgG1) relative to Th1-associated (IgG2a) antibody isotypes. Rats exposed to 0 or 10,000 ppm for 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 days were analyzed to assess the temporal pattern of ethylene-induced alterations in nasal epithelial cell proliferation, morphology and gene expression. Rats exposed to 0, 10, 50, 300, and 10,000 ppm ethylene for 20 days were analyzed to assess concentration-dependent effects on lesion development. Additional rats exposed 4 weeks to 0, 300, or 10,000 ppm ethylene were held for 13 weeks post-exposure to examine the persistence of ethylene-induced mucosal alterations. The data indicate that cell death and reparative cell proliferation were not a part of the pathogenesis of ethylene-induced nasal lesions. Enhanced gene expression of Th2 cytokines (e.g., IL-5, IL-13) and chitinase (YM1/2) in the nasal mucosa was much greater than that of Th1 cytokines (e.g., IFNγ) after ethylene exposure. A significant increase in MCM was measured after 5 days of exposure to 10,000 ppm ethylene and after 20 days of exposure 10 ppm ethylene. Ethylene-induced MCM was reversible after cessation of exposure. No increase in total serum IgE, IgG1 or IgG2a was measured in any ethylene-exposed group. These data do not support involvement of an immune-mediated allergic mechanism in the pathogenesis of ethylene-induced nasal lesions in rats. Repeated

  5. MUC-1-ESA+ progenitor cells in normal benign and malignant human breast epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xinquan; Li, Huixiang; Xu, Kejia; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    The existence of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells has been demonstrated in MUC-1-/ ESA+ subpopulations of breast epithelial cells. However, knowledge about the expression and localization in benign and malignant breast lesions is unknown. Using a double-staining immunohistochemistry method, we investigated MUC-1-/ESA+ cells in 10 normal breast tissues, 49 cases with fibrocystic disease, 40 fibroadenomas, 36 invasive ductal carcinomas and the breast cancer ce...

  6. Patterns of local-regional recurrence following parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Laura A.; Anzai, Yoshimi; Marsh, Lon; Martel, Mary K.; Paulino, Augusto; Ship, Jonathan A.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the patterns of local-regional recurrence in patients with head and neck cancer treated with parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Fifty-eight patients with head and neck cancer were treated with bilateral neck radiation (RT) using conformal or segmental IMRT techniques, while sparing a substantial portion of one parotid gland. The targets for CT-based RT planning included the gross tumor volume (GTV) (primary tumor and lymph node metastases) and the clinical target volume (CTV) (postoperative tumor bed, expansions of the GTVs and lymph node groups at risk of subclinical disease). Lymph node targets at risk of subclinical disease included the bilateral jugulodigastric and lower jugular lymph nodes, bilateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes at risk, and high jugular nodes at the base of skull in the side of the neck at highest risk (containing clinical neck metastases and/or ipsilateral to the primary tumor). The CTVs were expanded by 5 mm to yield planning target volumes (PTVs). Planning goals included coverage of all PTVs (with a minimum of 95% of the prescribed dose) and sparing of a substantial portion of the parotid gland in the side of the neck at less risk. The median RT doses to the gross tumor, the operative bed, and the subclinical disease PTVs were 70.4 Gy, 61.2 Gy, and 50.4 Gy respectively. All recurrences were defined on CT scans obtained at the time of recurrence, transferred to the pretreatment CT dataset used for RT planning, and analyzed using dose-volume histograms. The recurrences were classified as 1) 'in-field', in which 95% or more of the recurrence volume (V recur ) was within the 95% isodose; 2) 'marginal', in which 20% to 95% of V recur was within the 95% isodose; or 3) 'outside', in which less than 20% of V recur was within the 95% isodose. Results: With a median follow-up of 27 months (range 6 to 60 months), 10 regional recurrences, 5 local recurrences

  7. Patterns of local-regional recurrence following parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, L A; Anzai, Y; Marsh, L; Martel, M K; Paulino, A; Ship, J A; Eisbruch, A

    2000-03-15

    To analyze the patterns of local-regional recurrence in patients with head and neck cancer treated with parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Fifty-eight patients with head and neck cancer were treated with bilateral neck radiation (RT) using conformal or segmental IMRT techniques, while sparing a substantial portion of one parotid gland. The targets for CT-based RT planning included the gross tumor volume (GTV) (primary tumor and lymph node metastases) and the clinical target volume (CTV) (postoperative tumor bed, expansions of the GTVs and lymph node groups at risk of subclinical disease). Lymph node targets at risk of subclinical disease included the bilateral jugulodigastric and lower jugular lymph nodes, bilateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes at risk, and high jugular nodes at the base of skull in the side of the neck at highest risk (containing clinical neck metastases and/or ipsilateral to the primary tumor). The CTVs were expanded by 5 mm to yield planning target volumes (PTVs). Planning goals included coverage of all PTVs (with a minimum of 95% of the prescribed dose) and sparing of a substantial portion of the parotid gland in the side of the neck at less risk. The median RT doses to the gross tumor, the operative bed, and the subclinical disease PTVs were 70.4 Gy, 61.2 Gy, and 50.4 Gy respectively. All recurrences were defined on CT scans obtained at the time of recurrence, transferred to the pretreatment CT dataset used for RT planning, and analyzed using dose-volume histograms. The recurrences were classified as 1) "in-field," in which 95% or more of the recurrence volume (V(recur)) was within the 95% isodose; 2) "marginal," in which 20% to 95% of V(recur) was within the 95% isodose; or 3) "outside," in which less than 20% of V(recur) was within the 95% isodose. With a median follow-up of 27 months (range 6 to 60 months), 10 regional recurrences, 5 local recurrences (including one noninvasive recurrence) and 1

  8. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  9. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  10. Metabolic cooperativity between epithelial cells and adipocytes of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, J.C.; Emerman, J.T.; Bissell, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    We have demonstrated that glycogen and lipid synthesis in adipocytes is modulated by the lactational state and that this modulation in mammary adipocytes requires the presence of the adjacent epithelial cells. Glycogen and lipid synthesis from [ 14 C]glucose was measured in mammary fat pads cleared of epithelium, in abdominal fat pads, and in adipocytes from both sources and from intact mammary gland of mature virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice. Accumulation of glycogen, the activity of glycogen synthase, and the lipogenic rate in abdominal and mammary adipocytes remained high during pregnancy but decreased to insignificant levels by early lactation. The depressant effects of lactation were observed solely in those mammary adipocytes isolated from intact glands. The presence of mammary epithelial cells was also required to effect the stimulated lipogenesis in mammary adipocytes during pregnancy. We conclude that the metabolic activity of adipocytes is modulated both during pregnancy and lactation to channel nutrients to the mammary epithelial cell. The fact that the changes occur in mammary adipocytes only when epithelial cells are present indicates that local as well as systemic factors are operating in these modulations

  11. Health related quality of life patterns in patients treated with interstitial prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer--data from CaPSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Tracy M; Sadetsky, Natalia; Pasta, David J; Grossfeld, Gary D; Kane, Christopher J; Mehta, Shilpa S; Carroll, Peter R; Lubeck, Deborah P

    2003-11-01

    We measured the impact brachytherapy monotherapy (BMT) has on general and disease specific health related quality of life (HRQOL) compared to patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). We studied 419 men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer who enrolled in CaPSURE (Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urological Research Endeavor) data base whose primary treatment was brachytherapy monotherapy (92) or radical prostatectomy (327). The validated RAND 36-Item Health Survey and the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index were used to measure HRQOL before treatment and at 6-month intervals during the first 2 years after treatment. Patients treated with BMT or RP did not differ greatly in general HRQOL after treatment. Both treatment groups showed early functional impairment in most general domains with scores returning to or approaching baseline in most domains 18 to 24 months after treatment. Patients treated with BMT had significantly higher urinary function scores at 0 to 6 months after treatment (84.5, SD 18.7) than patients treated with RP (63.3, SD 26.6). Urinary bother scores at 0 to 6 months after treatment were not significantly different between patients treated with BMT (67.7, SD 31.2) and those treated with RP (67.4, SD 29.1). Both treatment groups had decreases in sexual function that did not return to pretreatment levels. Overall BMT and RP are well tolerated procedures that cause mild changes in general HRQOL. Disease specific HRQOL patterns are different in patients treated with BMT or RP. Baseline and serial HRQOL measurements after treatment can provide valuable information regarding expected quality of life outcome after treatment for localized prostate cancer.

  12. Pattern and determinants of obesity among adolescent females in private and public schools in the Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer Olubanji; Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike Iyanuoluwa; Adekanle, Daniel Adebode; Adeomi, Adeleye A

    2011-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise at an alarming rate worldwide to such an extent that it has been described as a global epidemic. Our study aims to investigate the pattern and determinants of obesity among adolescent females in private and public schools in the Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Using the multistage sampling technique, 520 pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 257 girls from private schools and 263 girls from public schools. Most of the respondents from private schools (65.2%) had good knowledge about obesity and related matters while most of those from public schools (65.9%) had poor knowledge. The dietary practice of the majority of the girls from private schools (60.2%) was unhealthy while most of the girls from public schools (68.7%) had healthy dietary practices. Most of the respondents from private schools (64.2%) lived sedentary lifestyles while most from public schools (64.0%) lived active lifestyles. Using the BMI, the majority of the girls from private schools were underweight (52%), 10 (4.0%) were overweight and 3 (1.2%) were obese. For public schools, the majority (55.4%) fell within the normal group, 6 (2.3%) were overweight and none was obese. The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity was higher among the girls in private schools than among girls attending public schools. We concluded that awareness should be created to promote a healthy balance of food, drink and physical activity within and outside the school.

  13. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  14. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population.Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels.The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  15. Epithelial cells as active player in fibrosis: findings from an in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Moll

    Full Text Available Kidney fibrosis, a scarring of the tubulo-interstitial space, is due to activation of interstitial myofibroblasts recruited locally or systemically with consecutive extracellular matrix deposition. Newly published clinical studies correlating acute kidney injury (AKI to chronic kidney disease (CKD challenge this pathological concept putting tubular epithelial cells into the spotlight. In this work we investigated the role of epithelial cells in fibrosis using a simple controlled in vitro system. An epithelial/mesenchymal 3D cell culture model composed of human proximal renal tubular cells and fibroblasts was challenged with toxic doses of Cisplatin, thus injuring epithelial cells. RT-PCR for classical fibrotic markers was performed on fibroblasts to assess their modulation toward an activated myofibroblast phenotype in presence or absence of that stimulus. Epithelial cell lesion triggered a phenotypical modulation of fibroblasts toward activated myofibroblasts as assessed by main fibrotic marker analysis. Uninjured 3D cell culture as well as fibroblasts alone treated with toxic stimulus in the absence of epithelial cells were used as control. Our results, with the caveats due to the limited, but highly controllable and reproducible in vitro approach, suggest that epithelial cells can control and regulate fibroblast phenotype. Therefore they emerge as relevant target cells for the development of new preventive anti-fibrotic therapeutic approaches.

  16. Altered expression of epithelial cell surface glycoconjugates and intermediate filaments at the margins of mucosal wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Grøn, B.; Mandel, U.

    1998-01-01

    Alterations in cell to cell adhesion are necessary to enable the type of cell movements that are associated with epithelial wound healing and malignant invasion. Several studies of transformed cells have related epithelial cell movement to changes in the cell surface expression of the carbohydrate......-T antigen. The changes induced by wounding in the expression of collagen IV, laminin gamma2-chain (laminin-5), and laminin alpha5-chain were similar to those found in skin wounds and served to define the region of epithelial movement. This region was found to show a marked increase in staining for both...... epithelium, a pattern of expression similar to K16, which was also strongly upregulated in both the outgrowth and the adjacent nonwounded epithelium. These findings provide further support for an influence of such carbohydrate structures on the migratory behavior of epithelial cells....

  17. Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations of wolffian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistal, Manuel; González-Peramato, Pilar; Serrano, Alvaro; Vega-Perez, Maria; De Miguel, Maria P; Regadera, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations (BEPs) are rare. Only 10 cases were found in a series of 431 paratesticular cysts and were classified as follows: cystadenoma, 5; papilloma, 2; and hamartoma, 3. Four cystadenomas showed multiple papillae lined by CD10+ epithelial cells with hyperchromatic nuclei. The remaining lesion showed areas with a microcystic, glandular, cribriform pattern, with small, benign glands without atypia. Urothelial papilloma presented BEPs with cytokeratin (CK) 7+ and CD10+ and CK20- umbrella-like cells. The mural papilloma was lined by proliferative cylindrical cells exhibiting strong CK7 and CD10 expression. The 3 Wolffian hamartomas were characterized by strongly CD10+ epithelium surrounded by smooth muscle cells. The consistent CD10 expression in BEPs of paratesticular cysts suggests a Wolffian origin. The differential diagnosis of paratesticular cysts with BEP vs metastatic prostatic and primary borderline or malignant tumors is discussed.

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis perturbs the junctional complex in epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a protist parasite of the urogenital tract in humans, is the causative agent of trichomonosis,which in recent years have been associated with the cervical cancer development. In the present study we analyzed the modifications at the junctional complex level of Caco-2 cells after interaction with two isolates of T. vaginalis and the influence of the iron concentration present in the parasite's culture medium on the interaction effects. Our results show that T. vaginalis adheres to the epithelial cell causing alterations in the junctional complex, such as: (a) a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance; (b) alteration in the pattern of junctional complex proteins distribution as obseryed for E-cadherin, occludin and ZO-1; and (c) enlargement of the spaces between epithelial cells. These effects were dependent on (a) the degree of the parasite virulence isolate, (b) the iron concentration in the culture medium, and (c) the expression of adhesin proteins on the parasite surface.

  19. Malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langezaal, O.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    By means of the present clinico-pathologic study the author has attempted, through analysis of the evolution in a group of 101 patients suffering from malignant epithelial tumors of the parotis, to obtain insight into the clinical and pathologic factors governing the prognosis. Furthermore it was tried to assess the value of the different modes of therapy, including radiotherapy. Starting from certain types of tumors defined according to the WHO classification of tumors of the salivary glands, chapter 2 presents the reports in the literature on the pathology, clinical description and prognosis of the individual types of tumors. The initial treatment of the tumors is analysed with the use of a number of factors discussed in chapter 3. The significance of tumor-associated factors ascertained by the clinician and the pathologist as well as of patient-associated factors is correlated with the tumor-free period; the treatment-associated factors are correlated with the period of time between therapy and the advent of a local recurrence. The tumor-free period, instead of the survival time, was chosen as a criterion because the survival time depends not only on the prognostic factors but also on collateral circumstances, such as different diseases and the effect of the treatment instituted for the local recurrence. (Auth.)

  20. Calcium as a signal integrator in developing epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodskiy, Pavel A; Zartman, Jeremiah J

    2018-05-16

    Decoding how tissue properties emerge across multiple spatial and temporal scales from the integration of local signals is a grand challenge in quantitative biology. For example, the collective behavior of epithelial cells is critical for shaping developing embryos. Understanding how epithelial cells interpret a diverse range of local signals to coordinate tissue-level processes requires a systems-level understanding of development. Integration of multiple signaling pathways that specify cell signaling information requires second messengers such as calcium ions. Increasingly, specific roles have been uncovered for calcium signaling throughout development. Calcium signaling regulates many processes including division, migration, death, and differentiation. However, the pleiotropic and ubiquitous nature of calcium signaling implies that many additional functions remain to be discovered. Here we review a selection of recent studies to highlight important insights into how multiple signals are transduced by calcium transients in developing epithelial tissues. Quantitative imaging and computational modeling have provided important insights into how calcium signaling integration occurs. Reverse-engineering the conserved features of signal integration mediated by calcium signaling will enable novel approaches in regenerative medicine and synthetic control of morphogenesis.

  1. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Corneal Epithelial Remodeling and Its Effect on Corneal Asphericity after Transepithelial Photorefractive Keratectomy for Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the changes in epithelial thickness profile following transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (T-PRK for myopia and to investigate the effect of epithelial remodeling on corneal asphericity. Methods. Forty-four patients (44 right eyes who underwent T-PRK were retrospectively evaluated. Epithelial thickness was measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at different corneal zones (central, 2 mm; paracentral, 2–5 mm; and mid-peripheral, 5-6 mm preoperatively and at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. The correlation between the changes in corneal epithelial thickness (ΔCET and postoperative Q-value changes (ΔQ was analyzed 6 months postoperatively. Results. Epithelial thickness at 6 months showed a negative meniscus-like lenticular pattern with less central thickening, which increased progressively toward the mid-periphery (3.69±4.2, 5.19±3.8, and 6.23±3.9 μm at the center, paracenter, and mid-periphery, resp., P<0.01. A significant positive relationship was observed between epithelial thickening and ΔQ 6 months postoperatively (r=0.438, 0.580, and 0.504, resp., P<0.01. Conclusions. Significant epithelial thickening was observed after T-PRK and showed a lenticular change with more thickening mid-peripherally, resulting in increased oblateness postoperatively. Epithelial remodeling may modify the epithelial thickness profile after surface ablation refractive surgery for myopia.

  3. Forces and dynamics in epithelial domes of controlled size and shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Ibars, Ernest; Casares, Laura; Gomez-Gonzalez, Manuel; Uroz, Marina; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    Mechanobiology of epithelia plays a central role in morphogenesis, wound healing, and tumor progression. Its current understanding relies on mechanical measurements on flat epithelial layers. However, most epithelia in vivo exhibit a curved 3D shape enclosing a pressurized lumen. Using soft micropatterned substrates we produce massive parallel arrays of epithelial domes with controlled size and basal shape. We measure epithelial traction, tension, and luminal pressure in epithelial domes. The local stress tensor on the freestanding epithelial membrane is then mapped by combining measured luminal pressure and local curvature. We show that tension and cell shape are highly anisotropic and vary along the meridional position of the domes. Finally, we establish constitutive relations between shape, tension, and pressure during perturbations of the contractile machinery, osmotic shocks, and spontaneous fluctuations of dome volume. Our findings contradict a description of the epithelium as a fluid capillary surface. Cells in the dome are unable to relax into a uniform and isotropic tensional state through sub- and supra-cellular rearrangements. Mapping epithelial shape, tension, and pressure will enable quantitative studies of mechanobiology in 3D epithelia of controlled size and shape.

  4. Inhibition of airway epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis by kaempferol in endotoxin-induced epithelial cells and ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ju-Hyun; Cho, In-Hee; Shin, Daekeun; Han, Seon-Young; Park, Sin-Hye; Kang, Young-Hee

    2014-03-01

    Chronic airway remodeling is characterized by structural changes within the airway wall, including smooth muscle hypertrophy, submucosal fibrosis and epithelial shedding. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental mechanism of organ fibrosis, which can be induced by TGF-β. In the in vitro study, we investigated whether 1-20 μM kaempferol inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bronchial EMT in BEAS-2B cells. The in vivo study explored demoting effects of 10-20 mg/kg kaempferol on airway fibrosis in BALB/c mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). LPS induced airway epithelial TGF-β1 signaling that promoted EMT with concurrent loss of E-cadherin and induction of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Nontoxic kaempferol significantly inhibited TGF-β-induced EMT process through reversing E-cadherin expression and retarding the induction of N-cadherin and α-SMA. Consistently, OVA inhalation resulted in a striking loss of epithelial morphology by displaying myofibroblast appearance, which led to bronchial fibrosis with submucosal accumulation of collagen fibers. Oral administration of kaempferol suppressed collagen deposition, epithelial excrescency and goblet hyperplasia observed in the lung of OVA-challenged mice. The specific inhibition of TGF-β entailed epithelial protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) as with 20 μM kaempferol. The epithelial PAR-1 inhibition by SCH-79797 restored E-cadherin induction and deterred α-SMA induction, indicating that epithelial PAR-1 localization was responsible for resulting in airway EMT. These results demonstrate that dietary kaempferol alleviated fibrotic airway remodeling via bronchial EMT by modulating PAR1 activation. Therefore, kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent targeting asthmatic airway constriction.

  5. Modeling and inferring cleavage patterns in proliferating epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit B Patel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cleavage plane orientation is one of the key mechanisms driving epithelial morphogenesis. Still, many aspects of the relationship between local cleavage patterns and tissue-level properties remain poorly understood. Here we develop a topological model that simulates the dynamics of a 2D proliferating epithelium from generation to generation, enabling the exploration of a wide variety of biologically plausible cleavage patterns. We investigate a spectrum of models that incorporate the spatial impact of neighboring cells and the temporal influence of parent cells on the choice of cleavage plane. Our findings show that cleavage patterns generate "signature" equilibrium distributions of polygonal cell shapes. These signatures enable the inference of local cleavage parameters such as neighbor impact, maternal influence, and division symmetry from global observations of the distribution of cell shape. Applying these insights to the proliferating epithelia of five diverse organisms, we find that strong division symmetry and moderate neighbor/maternal influence are required to reproduce the predominance of hexagonal cells and low variability in cell shape seen empirically. Furthermore, we present two distinct cleavage pattern models, one stochastic and one deterministic, that can reproduce the empirical distribution of cell shapes. Although the proliferating epithelia of the five diverse organisms show a highly conserved cell shape distribution, there are multiple plausible cleavage patterns that can generate this distribution, and experimental evidence suggests that indeed plants and fruitflies use distinct division mechanisms.

  6. The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Factor SNAIL Paradoxically Enhances Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli J. Unternaehrer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs entails a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET. While attempting to dissect the mechanism of MET during reprogramming, we observed that knockdown (KD of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT factor SNAI1 (SNAIL paradoxically reduced, while overexpression enhanced, reprogramming efficiency in human cells and in mouse cells, depending on strain. We observed nuclear localization of SNAI1 at an early stage of fibroblast reprogramming and using mouse fibroblasts expressing a knockin SNAI1-YFP reporter found cells expressing SNAI1 reprogrammed at higher efficiency. We further demonstrated that SNAI1 binds the let-7 promoter, which may play a role in reduced expression of let-7 microRNAs, enforced expression of which, early in the reprogramming process, compromises efficiency. Our data reveal an unexpected role for the EMT factor SNAI1 in reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency.

  7. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and estrogen receptor α mediated epithelial dedifferentiation mark the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rui; Shi, Jiandang; Liu, Haitao; Shi, Xiaoyu; Du, Xiaoling; Klocker, Helmut; Lee, Chung; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Ju

    2014-06-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported involved in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disorders and associated with stemness characteristics. Recent studies demonstrated that human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) development involves accumulation of mesenchymal-like cells derived from the prostatic epithelium. However, the inductive factors of EMT in the adult prostate and the cause-and-effect relationship between EMT and stemness characteristics are not yet resolved. EMT expression patterns were immunohistochemically identified in the human epithelia of normal/BPH prostate tissue and in a rat BPH model induced by estrogen/androgen (E2/T, ratio 1:100) alone or in the presence of the ER antagonist raloxifene. Gene expression profiles were analyzed in micro-dissected prostatic epithelia of rat stimulated by E2/T for 3 days. Two main morphological features both accompanied with EMT were observed in the epithelia of human BPH. Luminal cells undergoing EMT dedifferentiated from a cytokeratin (CK) CK18(+) /CK8(+) /CK19(+) to a CK18(-) /CK8(+) /CK19(-) phenotype and CK14 expression increased in basal epithelial cells. ERα expression was closely related to these dedifferentiated cells and the expression of EMT markers. A similar pattern of EMT events was observed in the E2/T induced rat model of BPH in comparison to the prostates of untreated rats, which could be prevented by raloxifene. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype switching is an important mechanism in the etiology of BPH. ERα mediated enhanced estrogenic effect is a crucial inductive factor of epithelial dedifferentiation giving rise to activation of an EMT program in prostate epithelium. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The role of L-type amino acid transporters in the uptake of glyphosate across mammalian epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaqiang; Li, Gao; Wang, Zhuoyi; Si, Luqin; He, Sijie; Cai, Jialing; Huang, Jiangeng; Donovan, Maureen D

    2016-02-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide due to its broad spectrum of activity and reported low toxicity to humans. Glyphosate has an amino acid-like structure that is highly polar and shows low bioavailability following oral ingestion and low systemic toxicity following intravenous exposures. Spray applications of glyphosate in agricultural or residential settings can result in topical or inhalation exposures to the herbicide. Limited systemic exposure to glyphosate occurs following skin contact, and pulmonary exposure has also been reported to be low. The results of nasal inhalation exposures, however, have not been evaluated. To investigate the mechanisms of glyphosate absorption across epithelial tissues, the permeation of glyphosate across Caco-2 cells, a gastrointestinal epithelium model, was compared with permeation across nasal respiratory and olfactory tissues excised from cows. Saturable glyphosate uptake was seen in all three tissues, indicating the activity of epithelial transporters. The uptake was shown to be ATP and Na(+) independent, and glyphosate permeability could be significantly reduced by the inclusion of competitive amino acids or specific LAT1/LAT2 transporter inhibitors. The pattern of inhibition of glyphosate permeability across Caco-2 and nasal mucosal tissues suggests that LAT1/2 play major roles in the transport of this amino-acid-like herbicide. Enhanced uptake into the epithelial cells at barrier mucosae, including the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, may result in more significant local and systemic effects than predicted from glyphosate's passive permeability, and enhanced uptake by the olfactory mucosa may result in further CNS disposition, potentially increasing the risk for brain-related toxicities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts protect against epithelial cell barrier disruption induced by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ida Mosbech; Baker, A; Arneborg, Nils

    2015-01-01

    distinct patterns of non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function. While the established probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii increased TER across a Caco-2 monolayer by 30%, Kluyveromyces marxianus exhibited significantly stronger properties of TER enhancement (50% TER increase....... In addition, probiotic strains may be able to reduce epithelial barrier disruption caused by pathogenic species. The aim of this study was to explore non-Saccharomyces yeast modulation of epithelial cell barrier function in vitro. Benchmarking against established probiotic strains, we evaluated the ability......). In addition, our data demonstrate significant yeast-mediated modulation of Salmonella-induced epithelial cell barrier disruption and identify K. marxianus and Metschnikowia gruessii as two non-Saccharomyces yeasts capable of protecting human epithelial cells from pathogen invasion. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT...

  10. Tumorigenicity and Validity of Fluorescence Labelled Mesenchymal and Epithelial Human Oral Cancer Cell Lines in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xin Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenicity and metastatic activity can be visually monitored in cancer cells that were labelled with stable fluorescence. The aim was to establish and validate local and distant spread of subcutaneously previously injected fluorescence transduced human tongue cancer cell lines of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype in nude mice. A total of 32 four-week-old male athymic Balb/c nude mice were randomly allocated into 4 groups (n=8. A single dose of 0.3 mL PBS containing 1 × 107 of four different cancer cell-lines (UM1, UM1-GFP, UM2, and UM2-RFP was injected subcutaneously into the right side of their posterolateral back. Validity assessment of the labelled cancer cells’ tumorigenicity was assessed by physical examination, imaging, and histology four weeks after the injection. The tumor take rate of cancer cells was similar in animals injected with either parental or transduced cancer cells. Transduced cancer cells in mice were easily detectable in vivo and after cryosection using fluorescent imaging. UM1 cells showed increased tumor take rate and mean tumor volume, presenting with disorganized histopathological patterns. Fluorescence labelled epithelial and mesenchymal human tongue cancer cell lines do not change in tumorigenicity or cell phenotype after injection in vivo.

  11. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Tubular localization and expressional dynamics of aquaporins in the kidney of seawater-challenged Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Morten Buch; Madsen, Steffen S

    2015-01-01

    Most vertebrate nephrons possess an inherited ability to secrete fluid in normal or pathophysiological states. We hypothesized that renal aquaporin expression and localization are functionally regulated in response to seawater and during smoltification in Atlantic salmon and thus reflect a shift...... in renal function from filtration towards secretion. We localized aquaporins (Aqp) in Atlantic salmon renal tubular segments by immunohistochemistry and monitored their expressional dynamics using RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Three aquaporins: Aqpa1aa, Aqp1ab and Aqp8b and two aquaglyceroporins Aqp3a and Aqp......10b were localized in the kidney of salmon. The staining for all aquaporins was most abundant in the proximal kidney tubules and there was no clear effect of salinity or developmental stage on localization pattern. Aqp1aa and Aqp3a were abundant apically but extended throughout the epithelial cells...

  13. Seed bank dynamics of blowout penstemon in relation to local patterns of sand movement on the Ferris Dunes, south-central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassie L. Tilini; Susan E. Meyer; Phil S. Allen

    2017-01-01

    Plants restricted to active sand dunes possess traits that enable both survival in a harsh environment and local migration in response to a shifting habitat mosaic. We examined seed bank dynamics of Penstemon haydenii S. Watson (blowout penstemon) in relation to local sand movement. We measured within-year sand movement along a 400 m transect and examined plant density...

  14. Engineering epithelial-stromal interactions in vitro for toxicology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells drives the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs during development and promotes normal mature adult epithelial tissue function. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) have been examined using mammalian models, ex vivo t...

  15. Epithelial Cells in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/epithelialcellsinurine.html Epithelial Cells in Urine To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Epithelial Cells in Urine Test? Epithelial cells are a type ...

  16. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats causes oxidant stress and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Barbara A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of HIV-1 transgene expression in rats on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Alveolar epithelial barrier function was assessed by determining lung liquid clearance in vivo and alveolar epithelial monolayer permeability in vitro. Oxidant stress in the alveolar space was determined by measuring the glutathione redox couple by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression and membrane localization of key tight junction proteins were assessed. Finally, the direct effects of the HIV-related proteins gp120 and Tat on alveolar epithelial barrier formation and tight junction protein expression were determined. Results HIV-1 transgene expression caused oxidant stress within the alveolar space and impaired epithelial barrier function even though there was no evidence of overt inflammation within the airways. The expression and membrane localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin were decreased in alveolar epithelial cells from HIV-1 transgenic rats. Further, treating alveolar epithelial monolayers from wild type rats in vitro with recombinant gp120 or Tat for 24 hours reproduced many of the effects on zonula occludens-1 and occludin expression and membrane localization. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-related proteins cause oxidant stress and alter the expression of critical tight junction proteins in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in barrier dysfunction.

  17. A dynamic cellular vertex model of growing epithelial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Zhen; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2017-04-01

    Intercellular interactions play a significant role in a wide range of biological functions and processes at both the cellular and tissue scales, for example, embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cancer invasion. In this paper, a dynamic cellular vertex model is presented to study the morphomechanics of a growing epithelial monolayer. The regulating role of stresses in soft tissue growth is revealed. It is found that the cells originating from the same parent cell in the monolayer can orchestrate into clustering patterns as the tissue grows. Collective cell migration exhibits a feature of spatial correlation across multiple cells. Dynamic intercellular interactions can engender a variety of distinct tissue behaviors in a social context. Uniform cell proliferation may render high and heterogeneous residual compressive stresses, while stress-regulated proliferation can effectively release the stresses, reducing the stress heterogeneity in the tissue. The results highlight the critical role of mechanical factors in the growth and morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and help understand the development and invasion of epithelial tumors.

  18. Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) may contribute to the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which leads to visual impairment. Andrographolide has been shown to have therapeutic potential against various cancers. However, its effect on human LECs is still unknown.

  19. Expression-robust 3D face recognition via weighted sparse representation of multi-scale and multi-component local normal patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin; Huang, Di; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Chen, Liming; Wang, Yunhong

    2014-01-01

    In the theory of differential geometry, surface normal, as a first order surface differential quantity, determines the orientation of a surface at each point and contains informative local surface shape information. To fully exploit this kind

  20. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Interleukin-6 Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Acquisition of Epithelial Stem-Like Cell Properties in Ameloblastoma Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Zhang, Qunzhou; Shanti, Rabie M; Shi, Shihong; Chang, Ting-Han; Carrasco, Lee; Alawi, Faizan; Le, Anh D

    2017-09-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biological process associated with cancer stem-like or cancer-initiating cell formation, contributes to the invasiveness, metastasis, drug resistance, and recurrence of the malignant tumors; it remains to be determined whether similar processes contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of ameloblastoma (AM), a benign but locally invasive odontogenic neoplasm. Here, we demonstrated that EMT- and stem cell-related genes were expressed in the epithelial islands of the most common histologic variant subtype, the follicular AM. Our results revealed elevated interleukin (IL)-6 signals that were differentially expressed in the stromal compartment of the follicular AM. To explore the stromal effect on tumor pathogenesis, we isolated and characterized both mesenchymal stromal cells (AM-MSCs) and epithelial cells (AM-EpiCs) from follicular AM and demonstrated that, in in vitro culture, AM-MSCs secreted a significantly higher level of IL-6 as compared to the counterpart AM-EpiCs. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that exogenous and AM-MSC-derived IL-6 induced the expression of EMT- and stem cell-related genes in AM-EpiCs, whereas such effects were significantly abrogated either by a specific inhibitor of STAT3 or ERK1/2, or by knockdown of Slug gene expression. These findings suggest that AM-MSC-derived IL-6 promotes tumor-stem like cell formation by inducing EMT process in AM-EpiCs through STAT3 and ERK1/2-mediated signaling pathways, implying a role in the etiology and progression of the benign but locally invasive neoplasm. Stem Cells 2017;35:2083-2094. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  1. Expression profiling and functional analysis of Toll-like receptors in primary healthy human nasal epithelial cells shows no correlation and a refractory LPS response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, J.; Röschmann, K. I. L.; Reinartz, S. M.; Luiten, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; de Jong, E. C.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Innate immune recognition via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on barrier cells like epithelial cells has been shown to influence the regulation of local immune responses. Here we determine expression level variations and functionality of TLRs in nasal epithelial cells from healthy donors.

  2. Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine Jean Reeder

    The alveolar epithelium consists of two cell phenotypes, elongated alveolar type I cells (AT1) and rounded alveolar type II cells (ATII), and exists in a complex three-dimensional environment as a polarized cell layer attached to a thin basement membrane and enclosing a roughly spherical lumen. Closely surrounding the alveolar cysts are capillary endothelial cells as well as interstitial pulmonary fibroblasts. Many factors are thought to influence alveolar epithelial cell differentiation during lung development and wound repair, including physical and biochemical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM), and paracrine signals from the surrounding mesenchyme. In particular, disrupted signaling between the alveolar epithelium and local fibroblasts has been implicated in the progression of several pulmonary diseases. However, given the complexity of alveolar tissue architecture and the multitude of signaling pathways involved, designing appropriate experimental platforms for this biological system has been difficult. In order to isolate key factors regulating cellular behavior, the researcher ideally should have control over biophysical properties of the ECM, as well as the ability to organize multiple cell types within the scaffold. This thesis aimed to develop a 3D synthetic hydrogel platform to control alveolar epithelial cyst formation, which could then be used to explore how extracellular cues influence cell behavior in a tissue-relevant cellular arrangement. To accomplish this, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel network containing enzymatically-degradable crosslinks and bioadhesive pendant peptides was employed as a base material for encapsulating primary alveolar epithelial cells. First, an array of microwells of various cross-sectional shapes was photopatterned into a PEG gel containing photo-labile crosslinks, and primary ATII cells were seeded into the wells to examine the role of geometric confinement on differentiation and multicellular arrangement

  3. Identification of six new susceptibility loci for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbaecker, K.B.; Ramus, S.J.; Tyrer, J.; Lee, A.; Shen, H.C.; Beesley, J.; Lawrenson, K.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Lee, J.M.; Spindler, T.J.; Lin, Y.G.; Pejovic, T.; Bean, Y.; Li, Q.; Coetzee, S.; Hazelett, D.; Miron, A.; Southey, M.; Terry, M.B.; Goldgar, D.E.; Buys, S.S.; Janavicius, R.; Dorfling, C.M.; Rensburg, E.J. van; Neuhausen, S.L.; Ding, Y.C.; Hansen, T.V.; Jonson, L.; Gerdes, A.M.; Ejlertsen, B.; Barrowdale, D.; Dennis, J.; Benitez, J.; Osorio, A.; Garcia, M.J.; Komenaka, I.; Weitzel, J.N.; Ganschow, P.; Peterlongo, P.; Bernard, L.; Viel, A.; Bonanni, B.; Peissel, B.; Manoukian, S.; Radice, P.; Papi, L.; Ottini, L.; Fostira, F.; Konstantopoulou, I.; Garber, J.; Frost, D.; Perkins, J.; Platte, R.; Ellis, S.; Embrace, .; Godwin, A.K.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Meindl, A.; Engel, C.; Sutter, C.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Damiola, F.; Mazoyer, S.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Claes, K.; Leeneer, K. De; Kirk, J.; Rodriguez, G.C.; Piedmonte, M.; O'Malley, D.M.; Hoya, M. de la; Caldes, T.; Aittomaki, K.; Nevanlinna, H.; Collee, J.M.; Rookus, M.A.; Oosterwijk, J.C; Tihomirova, L.; Tung, N.; Hamann, U.; Isaccs, C.; Tischkowitz, M.; Imyanitov, E.N.; Caligo, M.A.; Campbell, I.G.; Hogervorst, F.B.; Olah, E.; Diez, O.; Blanco, I.; Brunet, J.; Lazaro, C.; Pujana, M.A.; Jakubowska, A.; Gronwald, J.; Lubinski, J.; Sukiennicki, G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Altena, A.M. van; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, B.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Kets, M.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility alleles. The pattern of association at these loci is consistent in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers who are at high risk of EOC. After imputation to 1000 Genomes Project data, we assessed

  4. Identification of six new susceptibility loci for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); S.J. Ramus (Susan); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); A. Lee (Andrew); H.C. Shen (Howard C.); J. Beesley (Jonathan); K. Lawrenson (Kate); L. McGuffog (Lesley); S. Healey (Sue); J.M. Lee (Janet M.); T.J. Spindler (Tassja J.); Y.G. Lin (Yvonne G.); T. Pejovic (Tanja); Y. Bean (Yukie); Q. Li (Qiyuan); S. Coetzee (Simon); D. Hazelett (Dennis); A. Miron (Alexander); M.C. Southey (Melissa); M.B. Terry (Mary Beth); D. Goldgar (David); S.S. Buys (Saundra); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); L. Jønson (Lars); A.-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); J. Dennis (Joe); J. Benítez (Javier); A. Osorio (Ana); M.J. Garcia (Maria Jose); I. Komenaka (Ian); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); P. Ganschow (Pamela); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); L. Bernard (Loris); A. Viel (Alessandra); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); B. Peissel (Bernard); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); P. Radice (Paolo); L. Papi (Laura); L. Ottini (Laura); F. Fostira (Florentia); I. Konstantopoulou (I.); J. Garber (Judy); D. Frost (Debra); J. Perkins (Jo); R. Platte (Radka); S.D. Ellis (Steve); A.K. Godwin (Andrew K.); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); A. Meindl (Alfons); C. Engel (Christoph); C. Sutter (Christian); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); F. Damiola (Francesca); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); K. De Leeneer (Kim); J. Kirk (Judy); G. Rodriguez (Gustavo); M. Piedmonte (Marion); D.M. O'Malley (David M.); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); T. Caldes (Trinidad); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); J.M. Collée (Margriet); M.A. Rookus (Matti); J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); L. Tihomirova (Laima); N. Tung (Nadine); U. Hamann (Ute); C. Isaccs (Claudine); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); M.A. Caligo (Maria); I. Campbell (Ian); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); E. Olah; O. Díez (Orland); I. Blanco (Ignacio); J. Brunet (Joan); C. Lazaro (Conxi); M.A. Pujana (Miguel); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Gronwald (Jacek); J. Lubinski (Jan); G. Sukiennicki (Grzegorz); R.B. Barkardottir (Rosa); M. Plante (Marie); J. Simard (Jacques); P. Soucy (Penny); M. Montagna (Marco); S. Tognazzo (Silvia); P.J. Teixeira; V.S. Pankratz (Shane); X. Wang (Xianshu); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); C. Szabo (Csilla); N. Kauff (Noah); J. Vijai (Joseph); C.A. Aghajanian (Carol A.); G. Pfeiler (Georg); A. Berger (Andreas); C.F. Singer (Christian); M.-K. Tea; C. Phelan (Catherine); M.H. Greene (Mark H.); P.L. Mai (Phuong); G. Rennert (Gad); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); G. Glendon (Gord); A.E. Toland (Amanda); U.B. Jensen (Uffe Birk); T.A. Kruse (Torben); M. Thomassen (Mads); A. Bojesen (Anders); J. Zidan (Jamal); E. Friedman (Eitan); Y. Laitman (Yael); M. Soller (Maria); A. Liljegren (Annelie); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); Z. Einbeigi (Zakaria); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (Marie); O.I. Olopade (Olufunmilayo I.); R.L. Nussbaum (Robert L.); T.R. Rebbeck (Timothy R.); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.H. Lu (Karen); B.Y. Karlan (Beth Y.); C. Walsh (Christine); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); R. Hein (Rebecca); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); P.A. Fasching (Peter); D. Lambrechts (Diether); E. Van Nieuwenhuysen (Els); I. Vergote (Ignace); S. Lambrechts (Sandrina); E. Dicks (Ed); J.A. Doherty (Jennifer A.); K.G. Wicklund (Kristine G.); M.A. Rossing (Mary Anne); A. Rudolph (Anja); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); U. Eilber (Ursula); K.B. Moysich (Kirsten B.); K. Odunsi (Kunle); L. Sucheston (Lara); S. Lele (Shashi); L. Wilkens (Lynne); M.T. Goodman (Marc); P.J. Thompson (Pamela J.); Y.B. Shvetsov (Yurii B.); I.B. Runnebaum (Ingo); M. Dürst (Matthias); P. Hillemanns (Peter); T. Dörk (Thilo); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); A. Leminen (Arto); L.M. Pelttari (Liisa); R. Butzow (Ralf); F. Modugno (Francesmary); J.L. Kelley (Joseph L.); R. Edwards (Robert); R.B. Ness (Roberta); A. Du Bois (Andreas); P.U. Heitz; I. Schwaab (Ira); P. Harter (Philipp); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); N. Hosono (Naoya); S. Orsulic (Sandra); A. Jensen (Allan); M. Kjaer (Michael); E. Høgdall (Estrid); H.N. Hasmad (Hanis Nazihah); M.A. Noor Azmi (Mat Adenan); S.-H. Teo (Soo-Hwang); Y.L. Woo (Yin Ling); B.L. Fridley (Brooke); E.L. Goode (Ellen); J.M. Cunningham (Julie); R.A. Vierkant (Robert); F. Bruinsma (Fiona); G.G. Giles (Graham G.); D. Liang (Dong); M.A.T. Hildebrandt (Michelle A.T.); X. Wu (Xifeng); D.A. Levine (Douglas); M. Bisogna (Maria); A. Berchuck (Andrew); E. Iversen (Erik); J.M. Schildkraut (Joellen); P. Concannon (Patrick); R.P. Weber (Rachel Palmieri); D.W. Cramer (Daniel); K.L. Terry (Kathryn); E.M. Poole (Elizabeth); S. Tworoger (Shelley); E.V. Bandera (Elisa); I. Orlow (Irene); S.H. Olson (Sara); C. Krakstad (Camilla); H.B. Salvesen (Helga); I.L. Tangen (Ingvild L.); L. Bjorge (Line); A.M. van Altena (Anne); K.K.H. Aben (Katja); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); L.F. Massuger (Leon); M. Kellar (Melissa); A. Brooks-Wilson (Angela); L.E. Kelemen (Linda); L.S. Cook (Linda S.); N.D. Le (Nhu D.); C. Cybulski (Cezary); H. Yang (Hannah); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); L.A. Brinton (Louise); N. Wentzensen (N.); C.K. Høgdall (Claus); L. Lundvall (Lene); L. Nedergaard (Lotte); H. Baker (Helen); H. Song (Honglin); D. Eccles (Diana); I. McNeish (Ian); J. Paul (James); K. Carty (Karen); N. Siddiqui (Nadeem); R. Glasspool (Rosalind); A.S. Whittemore (Alice S.); J.H. Rothstein (Joseph H.); W.P. McGuire; W. Sieh (Weiva); B.-T. Ji (Bu-Tian); W. Zheng (Wei); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); Y. Gao; B. Rosen (Barry); H. Risch (Harvey); J. McLaughlin (John); S.A. Narod (Steven A.); A.N.A. Monteiro (Alvaro N.); A. Chen (Ann); H.-Y. Lin (Hui-Yi); J. Permuth-Wey (Jenny); T.F. Sellers; Y.-Y. Tsai (Ya-Yu); Z. Chen (Zhihua); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); A. Gentry-Maharaj (Aleksandra); U. Menon (Usha); P. harrington (Patricia); A.W. Lee (Alice W.); A.H. Wu (Anna H.); C.L. Pearce (Celeste); G. Coetzee (Gerry); M.C. Pike (Malcolm C.); A. Dansonka-Mieszkowska (Agnieszka); A. Timorek (Agnieszka); I.K. Rzepecka (Iwona); J. Kupryjanczyk (Jolanta); M. Freedman (Matthew); H. Noushmehr (Houtan); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); K. Offit (Kenneth); F.J. Couch (Fergus); S.A. Gayther (Simon); P.P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul P.D.P.); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis C.); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility alleles. The pattern of association at these loci is consistent in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers who are at high risk of EOC. After imputation to 1000 Genomes Project data, we

  5. Metabolic cleavage of cell-penetrating peptides in contact with epithelial models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tréhin, Rachel; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the metabolic degradation kinetics and cleavage patterns of some selected CPP (cell-penetrating peptides) after incubation with confluent epithelial models. Synthesis of N-terminal CF [5(6)-carboxyfluorescein]-labelled CPP, namely hCT (human calcitonin)-derived sequences, Tat(47-57) a...

  6. Epithelial progenitor cell lines as models of normal breast morphogenesis and neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René

    2003-01-01

    The majority of human breast carcinomas exhibit luminal characteristics and as such, are most probably derived from progenitor cells within the luminal epithelial compartment. This has been subdivided recently into at least three luminal subtypes based on gene expression patterns. The value of kn...

  7. Role of contact inhibition of locomotion and junctional mechanics in epithelial collective responses to injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Luke; Lopez, Hender; Schouwenaar, Irin-Maya; Yap, Alpha S.; Lobaskin, Vladimir; Gomez, Guillermo A.

    2018-03-01

    Epithelial tissues form physically integrated barriers against the external environment protecting organs from infection and invasion. Within each tissue, epithelial cells respond to different challenges that can potentially compromise tissue integrity. In particular, cells collectively respond to injuries by reorganizing their cell-cell junctions and migrating directionally towards the sites of damage. Notwithstanding, the mechanisms that drive collective responses in epithelial aggregates remain poorly understood. In this work, we develop a minimal mechanistic model that is able to capture the essential features of epithelial collective responses to injuries. We show that a model that integrates the mechanics of cells at the cell-cell and cell-substrate interfaces as well as contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) correctly predicts two key properties of epithelial response to injury as: (1) local relaxation of the tissue and (2) collective reorganization involving the extension of cryptic lamellipodia that extend, on average, up to 3 cell diameters from the site of injury and morphometric changes in the basal regions. Our model also suggests that active responses (like the actomyosin purse string and softening of cell-cell junctions) are needed to drive morphometric changes in the apical region. Therefore, our results highlight the importance of the crosstalk between junctional biomechanics, cell substrate adhesion, and CIL, as well as active responses, in guiding the collective rearrangements that are required to preserve the epithelial barrier in response to injury.

  8. Human amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffold in the repair of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-gang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate. We hypothesized that amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffolds would be conducive to the repair of spinal cord injury. To test this, we isolated and cultured amniotic epithelial cells, and constructed complexes of these cells and silk fibroin scaffolds. Implantation of the cell-scaffold complex into a rat model of spinal cord injury resulted in a smaller glial scar in the damaged cord tissue than in model rats that received a blank scaffold, or amniotic epithelial cells alone. In addition to a milder local immunological reaction, the rats showed less inflammatory cell infiltration at the transplant site, milder host-versus-graft reaction, and a marked improvement in motor function. These findings confirm that the transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells combined with silk fibroin scaffold can promote the repair of spinal cord injury. Silk fibroin scaffold can provide a good nerve regeneration microenvironment for amniotic epithelial cells.

  9. The expression of Egfl7 in human normal tissues and epithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun; Yang, Lian-Yue; Wu, Fan; Tao, Yi-Ming; Liu, Lin-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fan; He, Ya-Ning; Tang, Li-Li; Chen, Guo-Dong; Guo, Lei

    2013-04-23

    To investigate the expression of Egfl7 in normal adult human tissues and human epithelial tumors.
 RT-PCR and Western blot were employed to detect Egfl7 expression in normal adult human tissues and 10 human epithelial tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, malignant glioma, ovarian cancer and renal cancer. Immunohistochemistry and cytoimmunofluorescence were subsequently used to determine the localization of Egfl7 in human epithelial tumor tissues and cell lines. ELISA was also carried out to examine the serum Egfl7 levels in cancer patients. In addition, correlations between Egfl7 expression and clinicopathological features as well as prognosis of HCC and breast cancer were also analyzed on the basis of immunohistochemistry results.
 Egfl7 was differentially expressed in 19 adult human normal tissues and was overexpressed in all 10 human epithelial tumor tissues. The serum Egfl7 level was also significantly elevated in cancer patients. The increased Egfl7 expression in HCC correlated with vein invasion, absence of capsule formation, multiple tumor nodes and poor prognosis. Similarly, upregulation of Egfl7 in breast cancer correlated strongly with TNM stage, lymphatic metastasis, estrogen receptor positivity, Her2 positivity and poor prognosis. 
 Egfl7 is significantly upregulated in human epithelial tumor tissues, suggesting Egfl7 to be a potential biomarker for human epithelial tumors, especially HCC and breast cancer.

  10. Characterization of kidney epithelial cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat JMDunigan, D D; Wright, S D

    2001-06-01

    The West-Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a herbivorous marine mammal found in the coastal waters of Florida. Because of their endangered status, animal experimentation is not allowed. Therefore, a cell line was developed and characterized from tissue collected during necropsies of the manatees. A primary cell culture was established by isolating single cells from kidney tissue using both enzymatic and mechanical techniques. Primary manatee kidney (MK) cells were subcultured for characterization. These cells were morphologically similar to the cell lines of epithelial origin. An immunocytochemistry assay was used to localize the cytokeratin filaments common to cells of epithelial origin. At second passage, epithelial-like cells had an average population-doubling time of 48 h, had an optimum seeding density of 5 x 10(3) cells/cm2, and readily attached to plastic culture plates with a high level of seeding efficiency. Although the epithelial-like cells had a rapid growth rate during the first three passages, the cloning potential was low. These cells did not form colonies in agar medium, were serum dependent, had a limited life span of approximately nine passages, and possessed cell-contact inhibition. These data suggest that the cells were finite (noncontinuous growth), did not possess transformed properties, and were of epithelial origin. These cells are now referred to as MK epithelial cells.

  11. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose/Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Patterns of Failure After Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Bodner, William R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Halmos, Balazs; Cheng, Haiying; Perez-Soler, Roman [Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Keller, Steven M. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Background: We previously reported that pretreatment positron emission tomography (PET) identifies lesions at high risk for progression after concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we validate those findings and generate tumor control probability (TCP) models. Methods: We identified patients treated with definitive, concurrent CRT for locally advanced NSCLC who underwent staging {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose/PET/computed tomography. Visible hypermetabolic lesions (primary tumors and lymph nodes) were delineated on each patient's pretreatment PET scan. Posttreatment imaging was reviewed to identify locations of disease progression. Competing risks analyses were performed to examine metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and radiation therapy dose as predictors of local disease progression. TCP modeling was performed to describe the likelihood of local disease control as a function of lesion size. Results: Eighty-nine patients with 259 hypermetabolic lesions (83 primary tumors and 176 regional lymph nodes) met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-eight patients were included in our previous report, and the remaining 61 constituted our validation cohort. The median follow-up time was 22.7 months for living patients. In 20 patients, the first site of progression was a primary tumor or lymph node treated with radiation therapy. The median time to progression for those patients was 11.5 months. Data from our validation cohort confirmed that lesion MTV predicts local progression, with a 30-month cumulative incidence rate of 23% for lesions above 25 cc compared with 4% for lesions below 25 cc (P=.008). We found no evidence that radiation therapy dose was associated with local progression risk. TCP modeling yielded predicted 30-month local control rates of 98% for a 1-cc lesion, 94% for a 10-cc lesion, and 74% for a 50-cc lesion. Conclusion: Pretreatment FDG-PET identifies lesions at risk for progression after CRT for

  12. Oral epithelial cell reaction after exposure to Invisalign plastic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaraj, Thyagaseely; Simet, Samantha; Beatty, Mark; Premaraj, Sundaralingam

    2014-01-01

    Invisalign plastic aligners (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif) are used to correct malocclusions. The aligners wrap around the teeth and are in contact with gingival epithelium during treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cellular responses of oral epithelium exposed to Invisalign plastic in vitro. Oral epithelial cells were exposed to eluate obtained by soaking Invisalign plastic in either saline solution or artificial saliva for 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Cells grown in media containing saline solution or saliva served as controls. Morphologic changes were assessed by light microscopy. The 3-[4, 5-dimethythiazol- 2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell viability and membrane integrity, respectively. Cellular adhesion and micromotion of epithelial cells were measured in real time by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Cells exposed to saline-solution eluate appeared rounded, were lifted from the culture plates, and demonstrated significantly increased metabolic inactivity or cell death (P <0.05). Saliva eluates did not induce significant changes in cell viability compared with untreated cells. Flow cytometry and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing showed that cells treated with saline-solution eluate exhibited compromised membrane integrity, and reduced cell-to-cell contact and mobility when compared with saliva-eluate treatment. Exposure to Invisalign plastic caused changes in viability, membrane permeability, and adhesion of epithelial cells in a saline-solution environment. Microleakage and hapten formation secondary to compromised epithelial integrity might lead to isocyanate allergy, which could be systemic or localized to gingiva. However, these results suggest that saliva might offer protection. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Patterns of metastatic progression after definitive radiation therapy for early-stage and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Garrett L; Tang, Chad; Hess, Kenneth R; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel R

    2017-06-01

    Current preclinical models of metastatic disease (particularly oligometastases) suggest that metastases appear in a hierarchical order. We attempted to identify systematic patterns of metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after radiation therapy (XRT). We analyzed 1074 patients treated from 12/21/1998 through 8/20/2012 with ≥60 Gy definitive radiation for initially non-metastatic NSCLC. Location and time of metastases were recorded. Regional nodal failure was noted, as was subsequent distal failure. For further analysis, we considered only the five most common sites of metastasis (bone, brain, liver, adrenal, and lung). Metastatic progression over time was defined and patterns elucidated with Chi square tests. Histologic findings were analyzed with Wilcoxon rank sum tests. A significant multistep linear progression was not apparent. Having a first metastasis in lung or bone was associated with respective 16% (median 2.4 months) and 15% likelihoods (median 7.9 months) of secondary brain metastasis. Initial metastasis in the brain led to metastasis in another organ 29.3% of the time, most often in the lung, bone, and liver (medians 3.6, 7.9, and 3.1 months). Adenocarcinoma was more likely than squamous to metastasize to the brain (18 vs. 9%) and any of the five major sites (41 vs. 27%). We did not appreciate dominant patterns suggesting a multi-step hierarchical order of metastasis. Rather, our findings suggest that certain subgroups may develop different patterns of spread depending on a variety of factors.

  14. Differential expression of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β in normal human tissues: can pS9GSK3β be an epithelial marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojung; Ro, Jae Y

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and phosphorylated GSK3β at Ser9 (pS9GSK3β) are crucial in cellular proliferation and metabolism. GSK3β and pS9GSK3β are deregulated in many diseases including tumors. Data on altered expression of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β are mainly limited to tumor tissues, thus the expression of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β in normal human tissue has been largely unknown. Thus, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β in human fetal and adult tissues, and also compared the expression pattern of GSK3β and pS9GSK3β with that of the CK7 and CK20. We found GSK3β expression in neurons of brain, myenteric plexus in gastrointestinal tract, squamous epithelium of skin, and mammary gland. The expression of pS9GSK3β was restricted to the epithelial cells of breast and pancreaticobiliary duct, distal nephron of kidney, gastrointestinal tract, fallopian tube, epididymis, secretory cell of prostatic gland, and umbrella cell of urinary tract. The staining pattern of pS9GSK3β and CK7 was overlapped in most organs except for gastrointestinal tract where CK7 was negative and CK20 was positive. Our results show that the expression of GSK3β may be associated with differentiation of ectodermal derived tissues and pS9GSK3β with that of epithelial cells of endodermal derived tissues in human. In addition, the expression of pS9GSK3β in the selective epithelial cells may indicate its association with secretory or barrier function of specific cells and may serve as another immunohistochemical marker for epithelial cells.

  15. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Dana; Créton, Robbert; Zwaan, Gideon; Bruijn, Wim; Dohmen, M.René

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs of Lymnaea it was found only in the vegetal hemisphere, whereas in Bithynia eggs it was localized...

  16. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zivkovic (Dana); R. Créton (Robbert); G. Zwaan (Gideon); W.C. de Bruijn (Wim); M.R. Dohmen (M.René)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity

  17. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to generate an apical membrane domain that serves as a protective barrier for the epithelial sheet....

  18. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    , deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis.......After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related...

  19. Targeting of SNAP-23 and SNAP-25 in polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, SH; Roche, PA; Anderson, HA; van Ijzendoorn, SCD; Zhang, M; Mostov, KE; Weimbs, T

    1998-01-01

    SNAP-23 is the ubiquitously expressed homologue of the neuronal SNAP-25, which functions in synaptic vesicle fusion, We have investigated the subcellular localization of SNAP-23 in polarized epithelial cells, In hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells and in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the

  20. Fusion of intestinal epithelial cells with bone marrow derived cells is dispensable for tissue homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Joan H.; Rodermond, Hans M.; Zimberlin, Cheryl D.; Lascano, Valeria; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Richel, Dick J.; Medema, Jan Paul; Vermeulen, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine is characterized by an immense cellular turn-over ascertaining an extensive regenerative capacity. Multiple reports suggest that besides the local intestinal stem cell pool, circulating cells of bone marrow origin (BMDCs) contribute to this process by fusing

  1. Diffuse optical microscopy for quantification of depth-dependent epithelial backscattering in the cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Lam, Sylvia; Carraro, Anita; Korbelik, Jagoda; Miller, Dianne M.; McAlpine, Jessica N.; Lee, Marette; Kienle, Alwin; MacAulay, Calum

    2016-06-01

    A fiber optic imaging approach is presented using structured illumination for quantification of almost pure epithelial backscattering. We employ multiple spatially modulated projection patterns and camera-based reflectance capture to image depth-dependent epithelial scattering. The potential diagnostic value of our approach is investigated on cervical ex vivo tissue specimens. Our study indicates a strong backscattering increase in the upper part of the cervical epithelium caused by dysplastic microstructural changes. Quantization of relative depth-dependent backscattering is confirmed as a potentially useful diagnostic feature for detection of precancerous lesions in cervical squamous epithelium.

  2. Patterns of serum PCDD/Fs affected by vegetarian regime, consumption of locally produced food, and resident places of residents living near incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hsiu-Ling; Lee Chang-Ching; Su Hue-Jen; Liao Pao-Chi [Inst. of Basic Medical Science, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Previous reports have been estimated that more than 90% of serum PCDD/Fs can be accounted for by the consumption of various food groups. Nouwen et al. suggested residents living near incinerators with the elevated dioxin exposure while they ate locally produced food compared to the general population from other areas. PCDD/Fs usually abound in fatty meats and marine foods, and consumption of which is the major pathway of human expose to PCDD/Fs. However, no distinct association was shown between vegetarian regime of human and their corresponding serum PCDD/Fs concentration. In addition, the resident region is associated to their corresponding dietary consumption and ambient exposure of PCDD/Fs, especially for subjects consumed the local foods with special dioxin-like contamination. The current study, therefore, was set to examine how dietary habits, including vegetarian regime and consumption of local food original for residents living near the incinerators are associated to serum PCDD/F concentrations. In addition, the further aim is to assess the influence on the serum PCDD/Fs levels resulting from subjects living in the alternative resident regions, even all of them exposed to PCDD/Fs emission from incinerators.

  3. Local deforestation patterns and their driving forces of tropical dry forest in two municipalities in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico (1985-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Galicia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The tropical dry forest is an ecosystem that is undergoing rapid changes. Although global driving forces behind these changes have been addressed at a local scale, spatio-temporal dynamics are still largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to identify the causes governing the dynamics of changes in land use and land cover in the tropical dry forest in two municipalities in Southern México. Satellite imagery and air photographs were used in a GIS context to produce maps of land use and land cover for 1985, 1995 and 2006. A number of statistical methods (Markov chains, general lineal models and regression tree analysis were applied to identify the proximate and the underlying causes of deforestation, agriculture being the most important one. When agriculture is mainly for self consumption, topographic factors determine its location. Increasing job opportunities in the tourism sector has resulted in the abandonment of agricultural land; consequently, the forest has recovered. Different studies have examined the dynamics of local deforestation and its driving forces in México; however, this study considered both spatial and temporal elements in order to identify the most important underlying driving forces of deforestation and its dynamics at local scale, and also compared two neighboring municipalities.

  4. Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-27

    Apr 27, 2015 ... by inhibition of MAPK signalling pathway in lens epithelial cells. FORUM KAYASTHA ... 1Iladevi Cataract and IOL Research Centre, Gurukul road, Memnagar, Ahmedabad 380 052, India ...... sition and the stem cell phenotype.

  5. Thymic epithelial cells. I. Expression of strong suppressive (veto) activity in mouse thymic epithelial cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Ropke, C

    1990-01-01

    We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level. It is conclu......We show that thymic epithelial cells grown under serum-free conditions in a chemically defined culture medium can act as veto cells in vitro. The veto activity of thymic epithelial cells results in inactivation of specific alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell precursors at the clonal level...

  6. Cytomatrix synthesis in MDCK epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.J.; Low, R.B.; Woodcock-Mitchell, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed information regarding the synthesis rates of individual protein components is important in understanding the assembly and dynamics of the cytoskeletal matrix of eukaryotic cells. As an approach to this topic, the dual isotope technique of Clark and Zak, was employed to measure fractional synthesis rates (FSRs) in growing and quiescent cultures of MDCK epithelial cells. Cell protein was labeled to equilibrium with [14C]leucine over several days and then pulse-labeled for 4 hours with [3H]leucine. FSRs (as percent per hour) were calculated from the 3H/14C ratio of cell extracts or individual proteins separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the 3H/14C ratio of free leucine in the medium. Synthesis of total cell protein rose from approximately 1.4%/hour in quiescent cells to 3.5%/hour in the growing cultures. The latter rate was sufficient to account for the rate of protein accumulation and a low level of turnover in the growing cultures. The FSR of the buffered-Triton soluble extract was higher and the cytoskeletal FSR significantly lower than that for total protein in quiescent monolayers. This difference, however, was not observed in growing cultures. A distinct pattern of differences was seen in the FSRs of individual cytoskeletal proteins in the quiescent cultures. Vimentin synthesis was significantly lower than that of the keratins and the keratin FSRs were not obviously matched in pairwise fashion. Unexpectedly, the FSRs of alpha- and beta-tubulin diverged in quiescent cells with alpha-tubulin turnover exceeding beta-tubulin. Likewise, components of the microfilament lattice showed unequal fractional synthesis rates, myosin and alpha-actinin being faster than actin. In addition, the FSR for globular actin exceeded that of the cytoskeletal associated form

  7. Quantitative co-localization and pattern analysis of endo-lysosomal cargo in subcellular image cytometry and validation on synthetic image sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Frederik W.; Wüstner, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    /LYSs. Analysis of endocytic trafficking relies heavily on quantitative fluorescence microscopy, but evaluation of the huge image data sets is challenging and demands computer-assisted statistical tools. Here, we describe how to use SpatTrack (www.sdu.dk/bmb/spattrack), an imaging toolbox, which we developed...... such synthetic vesicle patterns as “ground truth” for validation of two-channel analysis tools in SpatTrack, revealing their high reliability. An improved version of SpatTrack for microscopy-based quantification of cargo transport through the endo-lysosomal system accompanies this protocol....

  8. Epithelial Markers aSMA, Krt14, and Krt19 Unveil Elements of Murine Lacrimal Gland Morphogenesis and Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuony, Alison; Michon, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    As an element of the lacrimal apparatus, the lacrimal gland (LG) produces the aqueous part of the tear film, which protects the eye surface. Therefore, a defective LG can lead to serious eyesight impairment. Up to now, little is known about LG morphogenesis and subsequent maturation. In this study, we delineated elements of the cellular and molecular events involved in LG formation by using three epithelial markers, namely aSMA, Krt14, and Krt19. While aSMA marked a restricted epithelial population of the terminal end buds (TEBs) in the forming LG, Krt14 was found in the whole embryonic LG epithelial basal cell layer. Interestingly, Krt19 specifically labeled the presumptive ductal domain and subsequently, the luminal cell layer. By combining these markers, the Fucci reporter mouse strain and genetic fate mapping of the Krt14 + population, we demonstrated that LG epithelium expansion is fuelled by a patterned cell proliferation, and to a lesser extent by epithelial reorganization and possible mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. We pointed out that this epithelial reorganization, which is associated with apoptosis, regulated the lumen formation. Finally, we showed that the inhibition of Notch signaling prevented the ductal identity from setting, and led to a LG covered by ectopic TEBs. Taken together our results bring a deeper understanding on LG morphogenesis, epithelial domain identity, and organ expansion.

  9. Lectins as endocytic ligands: an assessment of lectin binding and uptake to rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaddoumi, Mohamed; Lee, Vincent H L

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the binding and uptake pattern of three plant lectins in rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells (RCECs) with respect to their potential for enhancing cellular macromolecular uptake. Three fluorescein-labeled plant lectins (Lycoperison esculentum, TL; Solanum tuberosum, STL; and Ulex europaeus 1, UEA-1) were screened with respect to time-, concentration-, and temperature-dependent binding and uptake. Chitin (30 mg/ml) and L-alpha-fucose (10 mM) were used as inhibitory sugars to correct for nonspecific binding of TL or STL and UEA-1, respectively. Confocal microscopy was used to confirm internalization of STL. The binding and uptake of all three lectins in RCECs was time-dependent (reaching a plateau at 1-2 h period) and saturable at 1-h period. The rank order of affinity constants (km) was STL>TL>UEA-1 with values of 0.39>0.48>4.81 microM, respectively. However, maximal, specific binding/uptake potential was in the order UEA-1>STL>TL with values of 53.7, 52.3, and 15.0 nM/mg of cell protein, respectively. Lectins showed temperature dependence in their uptake, with STL exhibiting the highest endocytic capacity. Internalized STL was visualized by confocal microscopy to be localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Based on favorable binding and uptake characteristics, potato lectin appears to be a useful candidate for further investigation as an ocular drug delivery system.

  10. Effect of ionising radiation exposure on structure and permeability of epithelial junctions in rat ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrum, F.; Dublineau, I.; Grison, S.; Strup, C.; Griffiths, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of the digestive tract to ionising radiation results in both morphological and functional alterations of the small intestine. However little is known about the effect of irradiation on the junctions playing a major role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate, in rat ileum, the effect of radiation exposure on the permeability of the epithelial barrier in parallel with the localization of certain inter- and intra-cellular proteins of tight and adherent junctions

  11. DNA repair in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Lechner, J.F.; Grafstrom, R.C.; Harris, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the response of human cell types (bronchial epithelial cells and fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts) to various DNA damaging agents. Repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSB) induced by 5 krads of X-ray was similar for all cell types; approximately 90% of the DNA SSB were rejoined within one hour. During excision repair of DNA damage from u.v.-radiation, the frequencies of DNA SSB as estimated by the alkaline elution technique, were similar in all cell types. Repair replication as measured by BND cellulose chromatography was also similar in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after u.v.-irradiation. Similar levels of SSB were also observed in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after exposure to chemical carcinogens: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE); or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Significant repair replication of BPDE-induced DNA damage was detected in both bronchial epithelial and fibroblastic cells, although the level in fibroblasts was approximately 40% of that in epithelial cells. The pulmonary carcinogen asbestos did not damage DNA. DNA-protein crosslinks induced by formaldehyde were rapidly removed in bronchial cells. Further, epithelial and fibroblastic cells, which were incubated with formaldehyde and the polymerase inhibitor combination of cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea, accumulated DNA SSB at approximately equal frequencies. These results should provide a useful background for further investigations of the response of human bronchial cells to various DNA damaging agents

  12. Regulation of Epithelial Morphogenesis by the G-Protein Coupled Receptor Mist and its Ligand Fog*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Alyssa J.; Peters, Kimberly A.; Peifer, Mark; Rogers, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis is essential for shaping organs and tissues and for establishment of the three embryonic germ layers during gastrulation. Studies of gastrulation in Drosophila have provided insight into how epithelial morphogenesis is governed by developmental patterning mechanisms. We developed an assay to recapitulate morphogenetic shape changes in individual cultured cells, and used RNAi-based screening to identify Mist, a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that transduces signals from the secreted ligand Folded gastrulation (Fog) in cultured cells. Mist functioned in Fog-dependent embryonic morphogenesis, and the transcription factor Snail regulated expression of mist in zygotes. Our data revealed how a cell fate transcriptional program acts through a ligand-GPCR pair to stimulate epithelial morphogenetic shape changes. PMID:24222713

  13. Quantifying stretching and rearrangement in epithelial sheet migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Rachel M; Nordstrom, Kerstin N; Losert, Wolfgang; Kelley, Douglas H; Ouellette, Nicholas T

    2013-01-01

    Although understanding the collective migration of cells, such as that seen in epithelial sheets, is essential for understanding diseases such as metastatic cancer, this motion is not yet as well characterized as individual cell migration. Here we adapt quantitative metrics used to characterize the flow and deformation of soft matter to contrast different types of motion within a migrating sheet of cells. Using a finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) analysis, we find that—in spite of large fluctuations—the flow field of an epithelial cell sheet is not chaotic. Stretching of a sheet of cells (i.e. positive FTLE) is localized at the leading edge of migration and increases when the cells are more highly stimulated. By decomposing the motion of the cells into affine and non-affine components using the metric D m in 2 , we quantify local plastic rearrangements and describe the motion of a group of cells in a novel way. We find an increase in plastic rearrangements with increasing cell densities, whereas inanimate systems tend to exhibit less non-affine rearrangements with increasing density. (paper)

  14. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs ofLymnaea stagnalis andBithynia tentaculata (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Danica; Créton, Robbert; Zwaan, Gideon; de Bruijn, Willem C; Dohmen, M René

    1990-11-01

    During extrusion of the first polar body in eggs ofLymnaea stagnalis andBithynia tentaculata a localized Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs ofLymnaea it was found only in the vegetal hemisphere, whereas inBithynia eggs it was localized both in the vegetal hemisphere and at the animal pole. This pattern of enzyme activity corresponds to the polar pattern of transcellular ionic currents measured with the vibrating probe, which we showed to be partially carried or regulated by calcium [Zivkovic and Dohmen (1989) Biol Bull (Woods Hole) 176 (Suppl):103-109]. The characteristics of the ATPase were studied using a variety of approaches such as ion and substrate depletions and substitutions, addition of specific inhibitors of ATPase activity, treatment with EDTA/EGTA and electron energy-loss spectrometry. The results indicate that, inLymnaea, there are at least two enzymatic entities. The first one is a Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase localized along the membrane and in the cortex of the vegetal hemisphere. The second one is a Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase (calcium pump of the plasma membrane) localized in a small region of the membrane at the vegetal pole. We speculate that in the eggs ofLymnaea andBithynia a functional relationship exists between the plasma-membrane-associated ATPase activity and the transcellular ionic currents measured in the same region.

  15. Temporal patterning of the potential induced by localized corrosion of iron passivity in acid media. Growth and breakdown of the oxide film described in terms of a point defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazou, Dimitra; Pavlidou, Maria; Pagitsas, Michael

    2009-10-21

    This work analyses the nature of temporal patterning of the anodic potential induced by chlorides during polarization of iron under current-controlled conditions in acid solutions. It is shown that potential oscillations emerged as a result of the local chloride attack of a thin oxide layer, which covers the iron surface in its passive state. The mechanism by which both the local oxide breakdown and the subsequent localized active dissolution (pitting) occur is explained by considering a point defect model (PDM) developed to describe the oxide growth and breakdown. According to the PDM, chlorides occupy oxygen vacancies resulting in the inhibition of oxide growth and autocatalytic generation of cation vacancies that destabilize the oxide layer. Simultaneous transformation of the outer surface of the inner oxide layer to non-adherent ferrous chloride or oxo-chloride species leads to a further thinning of the oxide layer and its lifting-on from the iron surface. The process repeats again yielding sustained oscillations of the anodic potential. Analysis of the oscillatory response obtained under current-controlled conditions as a function of either the current or the time allows the suggestion of a set of alternate diagnostic criteria, which might be used to characterize localized corrosion of iron in acid solutions.

  16. Uterine inactivation of muscle segment homeobox (Msx) genes alters epithelial cell junction proteins during embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Park, Craig B; Deng, Wenbo; Potter, S Steven; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2016-04-01

    Embryo implantation requires that the uterus differentiate into the receptive state. Failure to attain uterine receptivity will impede blastocyst attachment and result in a compromised pregnancy. The molecular mechanism by which the uterus transitions from the prereceptive to the receptive stage is complex, involving an intricate interplay of various molecules. We recently found that mice with uterine deletion ofMsxgenes (Msx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)) are infertile because of implantation failure associated with heightened apicobasal polarity of luminal epithelial cells during the receptive period. However, information on Msx's roles in regulating epithelial polarity remains limited. To gain further insight, we analyzed cell-type-specific gene expression by RNA sequencing of separated luminal epithelial and stromal cells by laser capture microdissection fromMsx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)and floxed mouse uteri on d 4 of pseudopregnancy. We found that claudin-1, a tight junction protein, and small proline-rich (Sprr2) protein, a major component of cornified envelopes in keratinized epidermis, were substantially up-regulated inMsx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)uterine epithelia. These factors also exhibited unique epithelial expression patterns at the implantation chamber (crypt) inMsx1(f/f)/Msx2(f/f)females; the patterns were lost inMsx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)epithelia on d 5, suggesting important roles during implantation. The results suggest thatMsxgenes play important roles during uterine receptivity including modulation of epithelial junctional activity.-Sun, X., Park, C. B., Deng, W., Potter, S. S., Dey, S. K. Uterine inactivation of muscle segment homeobox (Msx) genes alters epithelial cell junction proteins during embryo implantation. © FASEB.

  17. Bacterial Signaling at the Intestinal Epithelial Interface in Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia I. Coleman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract provides a compartmentalized interface with an enormous repertoire of immune and metabolic activities, where the multicellular structure of the mucosa has acquired mechanisms to sense luminal factors, such as nutrients, microbes, and a variety of host-derived and microbial metabolites. The GI tract is colonized by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms, which have developed a highly coevolved relationship with the host’s cellular and immune system. Intestinal epithelial pattern recognition receptors (PRRs substantially contribute to tissue homeostasis and immune surveillance. The role of bacteria-derived signals in intestinal epithelial homeostasis and repair has been addressed in mouse models deficient in PRRs and signaling adaptors. While critical for host physiology and the fortification of barrier function, the intestinal microbiota poses a considerable health challenge. Accumulating evidence indicates that dysbiosis is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous GI tract diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and colorectal cancer (CRC. Aberrant signal integration at the epithelial cell level contributes to such diseases. An increased understanding of bacterial-specific structure recognition and signaling mechanisms at the intestinal epithelial interface is of great importance in the translation to future treatment strategies. In this review, we summarize the growing understanding of the regulation and function of the intestinal epithelial barrier, and discuss microbial signaling in the dynamic host–microbe mutualism in both health and disease.

  18. Differential growth factor induction and modulation of human gastric epithelial regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetreault, Marie-Pier; Chailler, Pierre; Rivard, Nathalie; Menard, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    While several autocrine/paracrine growth factors (GFs) can all stimulate epithelial regeneration in experimentally wounded primary gastric cultures, clinical relevance for their non-redundant cooperative actions in human gastric ulcer healing is suggested by the sequential pattern of GF gene induction in vivo. Using new HGE cell lines able to form a coherent monolayer with tight junctions as well as using primary human gastric epithelial cultures, we show that EGF, TGFα, HGF and IGFs accelerate epithelial restitution upon wounding, independently of the TGFβ pathway (as opposed to intestinal cells). However, they differently modulate cell behavior: TGFα exerts strong effects (even more than EGF) on cytoplasmic spreading and non-oriented protruding activity of bordering cells whereas HGF preferentially coordinates single lamella formation, cell elongation and migration into the wound. IGF-I and IGF-II rather induce the alignment of bordering cells and maintain a compact monolayer front. The number of mitotic cells maximally increases with EGF, followed by TGFα and IGF-I,-II. The current study demonstrates that GFs differentially regulate the regeneration of human gastric epithelial cells through specific modulation of cell shape adaptation, migration and proliferation, further stressing that a coordination of GF activities would be necessary for the normal progression of post-wounding epithelial repair

  19. Bio-synthesis of gold nanoparticles by human epithelial cells, in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larios-Rodriguez, E; Rangel-Ayon, C; Herrera-Urbina, R; Castillo, S J; Zavala, G

    2011-01-01

    Healthy epithelial cells, in vivo, have the ability to synthesize gold nanoparticles when aqueous tetrachloroauric acid is made to react with human skin. Neither a reducing agent nor a protecting chemical is needed for this bio-synthesis method. The first indication of gold nanoparticle formation is the staining of the skin, which turns deep purple. Stereoscopic optical micrographs of human skin tissue in contact with aqueous tetrachloroauric acid clearly show the staining of the epithelial cells. The UV-Vis spectrum of these epithelial cells shows an absorption band with a maximum at 553 nm. This absorption peak is within the wavelength region where the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of aqueous colloidal gold exhibits a maximum. Transmission electron micrographs show that gold nanoparticles synthesized by epithelial cells have sizes between 1 and 100 nm. The electron diffraction pattern of these nanoparticles reveals a crystalline structure whose interplanar distances correspond to fcc metallic gold. Transmission electron micrographs of ultra-thin (70 nm thick) slices of epithelial cells clearly and undoubtedly demonstrate that gold nanoparticles are inside the cell. According to high resolution transmission electron micrographs of intracellular single gold nanoparticles, they have the shape of a polyhedron.

  20. Bio-synthesis of gold nanoparticles by human epithelial cells, in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larios-Rodriguez, E; Rangel-Ayon, C; Herrera-Urbina, R [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Metalurgia, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Luis Encinas S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora, C.P. 83000 (Mexico); Castillo, S J [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Luis Encinas S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora, C.P. 83000 (Mexico); Zavala, G, E-mail: elarios@polimeros.uson.mx [Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-09-02

    Healthy epithelial cells, in vivo, have the ability to synthesize gold nanoparticles when aqueous tetrachloroauric acid is made to react with human skin. Neither a reducing agent nor a protecting chemical is needed for this bio-synthesis method. The first indication of gold nanoparticle formation is the staining of the skin, which turns deep purple. Stereoscopic optical micrographs of human skin tissue in contact with aqueous tetrachloroauric acid clearly show the staining of the epithelial cells. The UV-Vis spectrum of these epithelial cells shows an absorption band with a maximum at 553 nm. This absorption peak is within the wavelength region where the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of aqueous colloidal gold exhibits a maximum. Transmission electron micrographs show that gold nanoparticles synthesized by epithelial cells have sizes between 1 and 100 nm. The electron diffraction pattern of these nanoparticles reveals a crystalline structure whose interplanar distances correspond to fcc metallic gold. Transmission electron micrographs of ultra-thin (70 nm thick) slices of epithelial cells clearly and undoubtedly demonstrate that gold nanoparticles are inside the cell. According to high resolution transmission electron micrographs of intracellular single gold nanoparticles, they have the shape of a polyhedron.

  1. FIBCD1 Modulation of the Epithelial Immune Response Elicited by Chitin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammond, Mark; Schlosser, Anders; Bak-Thomsen, Theresa Helene

    2010-01-01

    of NF-jB signalling and downstream synthesis of mucosal epithelial-derived cytokines, TSLP and IL-33, which shapes the local accumulation and activation of Th2 responses. Results: Initial experiments have focused on the establishment of stable FIBCD1 overexpression in HEK293, HCT-116 and A549 epithelial......Background: FIBCD1 is a type II transmembrane protein located on the brush border of intestinal epithelial cells. FIBCD1 binds specifically to acetylated compounds such as chitin through the C-terminal fibrinogen-related domain. Chitin is a highly acetylated homopolymeric b-1,4-N...... or the model ligand acetylated BSA, at different time intervals anddoses and using a luciferase reporter system detection of NFjB activation will be performed and cytokine expression will be quantified via qRT-PCR. Perspectives: Improved understanding of epithelialimmune and inflammatory modulation in response...

  2. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips (≤12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 μm thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with [ 3 H]arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 μCi/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36±4% (mean ± SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0±1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 μM calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE 2 , PGF 2 α, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE 2 and PGF 2 α standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium

  3. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoc Tan Dao

    Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  4. Patterns of Local Recurrence and Dose Fractionation of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in 462 Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity and Trunk Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jebsen, Nina L., E-mail: nina.louise.jebsen@helse-bergen.no [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engellau, Jacob [Department of Oncology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Engström, Katarina [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bauer, Henrik C. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Monge, Odd R. [Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Muren, Ludvig P. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Eide, Geir E. [Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Trovik, Clement S. [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Bruland, Øyvind S. [Department of Oncology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of dose fractionation of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) on local recurrence (LR) and the relation of LR to radiation fields. Methods and Materials: LR rates were analyzed in 462 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma who underwent surgical excision and adjuvant RT at five Scandinavian sarcoma centers from 1998 to 2009. Medical records were reviewed for dose fractionation parameters and to determine the location of the LR relative to the radiation portals. Results: Fifty-five of 462 patients developed a LR (11.9%). Negative prognostic factors included intralesional surgical margin (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.08-20.0), high malignancy grade (HR: 5.82, 95% CI: 1.31-25.8), age at diagnosis (HR per 10 years: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.03-1.56), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor histological subtype (HR: 6.66, 95% CI: 2.56-17.3). RT dose was tailored to margin status. No correlation between RT dose and LR rate was found in multiple Cox regression analysis. The majority (65%) of LRs occurred within the primary RT volume. Conclusions: No significant dose–response effect of adjuvant RT was demonstrated. Interestingly, patients given 45-Gy accelerated RT (1.8 Gy twice daily/2.5 weeks) had the best local outcome. A total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions seemed adequate following wide margin surgery. The risk of LR was associated with histopathologic subtype, which should be included in the treatment algorithm of adjuvant RT in soft tissue sarcoma.

  5. Patterns of Local Recurrence and Dose Fractionation of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in 462 Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity and Trunk Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebsen, Nina L.; Engellau, Jacob; Engström, Katarina; Bauer, Henrik C.; Monge, Odd R.; Muren, Ludvig P.; Eide, Geir E.; Trovik, Clement S.; Bruland, Øyvind S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of dose fractionation of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) on local recurrence (LR) and the relation of LR to radiation fields. Methods and Materials: LR rates were analyzed in 462 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma who underwent surgical excision and adjuvant RT at five Scandinavian sarcoma centers from 1998 to 2009. Medical records were reviewed for dose fractionation parameters and to determine the location of the LR relative to the radiation portals. Results: Fifty-five of 462 patients developed a LR (11.9%). Negative prognostic factors included intralesional surgical margin (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.08-20.0), high malignancy grade (HR: 5.82, 95% CI: 1.31-25.8), age at diagnosis (HR per 10 years: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.03-1.56), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor histological subtype (HR: 6.66, 95% CI: 2.56-17.3). RT dose was tailored to margin status. No correlation between RT dose and LR rate was found in multiple Cox regression analysis. The majority (65%) of LRs occurred within the primary RT volume. Conclusions: No significant dose–response effect of adjuvant RT was demonstrated. Interestingly, patients given 45-Gy accelerated RT (1.8 Gy twice daily/2.5 weeks) had the best local outcome. A total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions seemed adequate following wide margin surgery. The risk of LR was associated with histopathologic subtype, which should be included in the treatment algorithm of adjuvant RT in soft tissue sarcoma

  6. Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi* and morphology cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Kracalik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared a local clustering and a cluster morphology statistic using anthrax outbreaks in large (cattle and small (sheep and goats domestic ruminants across Kazakhstan. The Getis-Ord (Gi* statistic and a multidirectional optimal ecotope algorithm (AMOEBA were compared using 1st, 2nd and 3rd order Rook contiguity matrices. Multivariate statistical tests were used to evaluate the environmental signatures between clusters and non-clusters from the AMOEBA and Gi* tests. A logistic regression was used to define a risk surface for anthrax outbreaks and to compare agreement between clustering methodologies. Tests revealed differences in the spatial distribution of clusters as well as the total number of clusters in large ruminants for AMOEBA (n = 149 and for small ruminants (n = 9. In contrast, Gi* revealed fewer large ruminant clusters (n = 122 and more small ruminant clusters (n = 61. Significant environmental differences were found between groups using the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann- Whitney U tests. Logistic regression was used to model the presence/absence of anthrax outbreaks and define a risk surface for large ruminants to compare with cluster analyses. The model predicted 32.2% of the landscape as high risk. Approximately 75% of AMOEBA clusters corresponded to predicted high risk, compared with ~64% of Gi* clusters. In general, AMOEBA predicted more irregularly shaped clusters of outbreaks in both livestock groups, while Gi* tended to predict larger, circular clusters. Here we provide an evaluation of both tests and a discussion of the use of each to detect environmental conditions associated with anthrax outbreak clusters in domestic livestock. These findings illustrate important differences in spatial statistical methods for defining local clusters and highlight the importance of selecting appropriate levels of data aggregation.

  7. In vivo antibody-mediated modulation of aminopeptidase A in mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, S; Dijkman, H B; van Son, J P; Wetzels, J F; Assmann, K J

    1999-07-01

    Aminopeptidase A (APA) is one of the many renal hydrolases. In mouse kidney, APA is predominantly expressed on the brush borders and sparsely on the basolateral membranes of proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, when large amounts of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against APA were injected into mice, we observed strong binding of the MAbs to the basolateral membranes, whereas the MAbs bound only transiently to the brush borders of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. In parallel, APA itself disappeared from the brush borders by both endocytosis and shedding, whereas it was increasingly expressed on the basolateral sides. Using ultrastructural immunohistology, we found no evidence for transcellular transport of endocytosed APA to the basolateral side of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The absence of transcellular transport was confirmed by experiments in which we used a low dose of the MAbs. Such a low dose did not result in binding of the MAbs to the brush borders and had no effect on the presence of APA in the brush borders of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. In these experiments we still could observe binding of the MAbs to the basolateral membranes in parallel with the local appearance of APA. In addition, treatment of mice with chlorpromazine, a calmodulin antagonist that interferes with cytoskeletal function, largely inhibited the MAb-induced modulation of APA. Our studies suggest that injection of MAbs to APA specifically interrupts the normal intracellular traffic of this enzyme in proximal tubular epithelial cells. This intracellular transport is dependent on the action of cytoskeletal proteins.

  8. Moderate plasma activated media suppresses proliferation and migration of MDCK epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohades, Soheila; Laroussi, Mounir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat

    2017-01-01

    Low-temperature plasma has been shown to have diverse biomedical uses, including its applications in cancer and wound healing. One recent approach in treating mammalian cells with plasma is through the use of plasma activated media (PAM), which is produced by exposing cell culture media to plasma. While the adverse effects of PAM treatment on cancerous epithelial cell lines have been recently studied, much less is known about the interaction of PAM with normal epithelial cells. In this paper, non-cancerous canine kidney MDCK (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney) epithelial cells were treated by PAM and time-lapse microscopy was used to directly monitor their proliferation and random migration upon treatment. While longer durations of PAM treatment led to cell death, we found that moderate levels of PAM treatment inhibited proliferation in these epithelial cells. We also found that PAM treatment reduced random cell migration within epithelial islands. Immunofluorescence staining showed that while there were no major changes in the actin/adhesion apparatus, there was a significant change in the nuclear localization of proliferation marker Ki-67, consistent with our time-lapse results. (paper)

  9. Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Features of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Preetha

    2016-02-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors. The four most common subtypes are serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinoma. Less common are transitional cell tumors, including transitional cell carcinoma and malignant Brenner tumor. While in the past these subtypes were grouped together and designated as epithelial ovarian tumors, these tumor types are now known to be separate entities with distinct clinical and biologic behaviors. From a therapeutic standpoint, current regimens employ standard chemotherapy based on stage and grade rather than histotype. However, this landscape may change in the era of personalized therapy, given that most subtypes (with the exception of high-grade serous carcinoma) are relatively resistant to chemotherapy. It is now well-accepted that high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas represent distinct entities rather than a spectrum of the same tumor type. While they are similar in that patients present with advanced-stage disease, their histologic and molecular features are entirely different. High-grade serous carcinoma is associated with TP53 mutations, whereas low-grade serous carcinomas are associated with BRAF and KRAS mutations. Endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas typically present as early-stage disease and are frequently associated with endometriosis. Mucinous carcinomas typically present as large unilateral masses and often show areas of mucinous cystadenoma and mucinous borderline tumor. It must be emphasized that primary mucinous carcinomas are uncommon tumors, and metastasis from other sites such as the appendix, colon, stomach, and pancreaticobiliary tract must always be considered in the differential diagnosis. Lastly, transitional cell tumors of the ovary, specifically malignant Brenner tumors, are quite uncommon. High-grade serous carcinoma often has a transitional cell pattern, and adequate sampling in most cases shows more typical areas of serous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical

  10. Glycosylation of Candida albicans cell wall proteins is critical for induction of innate immune responses and apoptosis of epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Wagener

    Full Text Available C. albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen of humans, causing local and superficial mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Given that the key structure mediating host-C. albicans interactions is the fungal cell wall, we aimed to identify features of the cell wall inducing epithelial responses and be associated with fungal pathogenesis. We demonstrate here the importance of cell wall protein glycosylation in epithelial immune activation with a predominant role for the highly branched N-glycosylation residues. Moreover, these glycan moieties induce growth arrest and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Using an in vitro model of oral candidosis we demonstrate, that apoptosis induction by C. albicans wild-type occurs in early stage of infection and strongly depends on intact cell wall protein glycosylation. These novel findings demonstrate that glycosylation of the C. albicans cell wall proteins appears essential for modulation of epithelial immunity and apoptosis induction, both of which may promote fungal pathogenesis in vivo.

  11. Rapid localized deactivation of self-assembled monolayers by propagation-controlled laser-induced plasma and its application to self-patterning of electronics and biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongsu; Kwon, Seung-Gab; Back, Seunghyun; Kang, Bongchul

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel laser-induced surface treatment process to rapidly control the spatial wettabilities of various functional solutions with submicron to micron resolutions. Ultrathin hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) that little absorb typical laser lights due to short penetration depth were selectively deactivated by instantaneous interaction with laser-induced metallic plasmas. The spatial region of the deactivated SAM, which corresponds to process resolution, is adjustable by controlling the spatial propagation of the plasma. This method leads to the parallel formation of hydrophilic functional solutions on glass substrates with a minimum resolution on the submicron scale. To show its feasibility in device engineering fields, this method was applied to the cost-effective fabrication of electronics and biosensors. Rapid self-patterning of electronic and biological functional solutions (silver nanoparticle solution and streptavidin protein solution) was successfully realized by selective deactivation of two different SAMs (tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrichlorosilane (FOTS) for electronics and the hetero-hybrid SAM (octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)/2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl] trichlorosilane (PEG)) for biosensors). As a result, this method can be exploited for the rapid and low-cost fabrication of various thin film devices such as electronics, biosensors, energy, displays, and photonics.

  12. Adaptation of a pattern-scaling approach for assessment of local (village/valley) scale water resources and related vulnerabilities in the Upper Indus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Kilsby, Chris G.; Fowler, Hayley J.; Archer, David R.

    2010-05-01

    sites for medium-scale infrastructure projects. These catchments are placed in their context within the hydrological regime classification using the spatial data and (remote sensing) observations as well as river gauging measurements. The study assesses the degree of similarity with the larger basins of the same hydrological regime. This assessment focuses on the measured response to observed climate variable anomalies. The smallest scale considered is comprised of a number of case studies at the ungauged village/valley scale. These examples are based on the delineation of areas to which specific communities (villages) have customary (riparian) water rights. These examples were suggested by non-governmental organisations working on grassroots economic development initiatives and small-scale infrastructure projects in the region. The direct observations available for these subcatchments are limited to spatial data (elevation, snow parameters). The challenge at this level is to accurately extrapolate areal values (precipitation, temperature, runoff) from point observations at the basin scale. The study assesses both the degree of similarity in the distribution of spatial parameters to the larger gauged basins and the interannual variability (spatial heterogeneity) of remotely-sensed snow cover and snow-water-equivalent at this subcatchment scale. Based upon the characterisation of spatial and interannual variability at these three spatial scales, the challenges facing local water resource managers and infrastructure operators are enumerated. Local vulnerabilities include, but are not limited to, varying thresholds in irrigation water requirements based on crop-type, minimum base flows for micro-hydropower generation during winter (high load) months and relatively small but growing demand for domestic water usage. In conclusion the study posits potential strategies for managing interannual variability and potential emerging trends. Suggested strategies are guided by the

  13. Intracellular Position of Centrioles and the Direction of Homeostatic Epithelial Cell Movements in the Mouse Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Erika; Zhao, Jin; Merriam, John C; Nagasaki, Takayuki

    2017-02-01

    Corneal epithelial cells exhibit continuous centripetal movements at a rate of about 30 µm per day, but neither the driving force nor the mechanism that determines the direction of movements is known. To facilitate the investigation of homeostatic cell movement, we examined if the intracellular position of a centriole can be used as a directional marker of epithelial cell movements in the mouse cornea. A direction of cell movements was estimated in fixed specimens from a pattern of underlying subepithelial nerve fibers. Intracellular position of centrioles was determined by gamma-tubulin immunohistology and plotted in a narrow strip along the entire diameter of a cornea from limbus to limbus. When we determined the position of centrioles in the peripheral cornea where cell movements proceed generally along a radial path, about 55% of basal epithelial cells contained a centriole in the front half of a cell. However, in the central cornea where cells exhibit a spiral pattern of movements, centrioles were distributed randomly. These results suggest that centrioles tend to be positioned toward the direction of movement in corneal basal epithelial cells when they are moving centripetally at a steady rate.

  14. Culture of primary ciliary dyskinesia epithelial cells at air-liquid interface can alter ciliary phenotype but remains a robust and informative diagnostic aid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Hirst

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD requires the analysis of ciliary function and ultrastructure. Diagnosis can be complicated by secondary effects on cilia such as damage during sampling, local inflammation or recent infection. To differentiate primary from secondary abnormalities, re-analysis of cilia following culture and re-differentiation of epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface (ALI aids the diagnosis of PCD. However changes in ciliary beat pattern of cilia following epithelial cell culture has previously been described, which has brought the robustness of this method into question. This is the first systematic study to evaluate ALI culture as an aid to diagnosis of PCD in the light of these concerns.We retrospectively studied changes associated with ALI-culture in 158 subjects referred for diagnostic testing at two PCD centres. Ciliated nasal epithelium (PCD n = 54; non-PCD n  111 was analysed by high-speed digital video microscopy and transmission electron microscopy before and after culture.Ciliary function was abnormal before and after culture in all subjects with PCD; 21 PCD subjects had a combination of static and uncoordinated twitching cilia, which became completely static following culture, a further 9 demonstrated a decreased ciliary beat frequency after culture. In subjects without PCD, secondary ciliary dyskinesia was reduced.The change to ciliary phenotype in PCD samples following cell culture does not affect the diagnosis, and in certain cases can assist the ability to identify PCD cilia.

  15. Post-chemoradiation intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy boost in resected locally advanced rectal cancer: Long-term results focused on topographic pattern of locoregional relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Claudio V.; Calvo, Felipe A.; Serrano, Javier; Valle, Emilio del; Rodriguez, Marcos; Muñoz-Calero, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) have a dismal prognosis. We investigated outcomes and risk factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT), surgery and IOERT. Methods: A total of 335 patients with LARC [⩾cT3 93% and/or cN+ 69%) were studied. In multivariate analyses, risk factors for LRR, IFLR and OFLR were assessed. Results: Median follow-up was 72.6 months (range, 4–205). In multivariate analysis distal margin distance ⩽10 mm [HR 2.46, p = 0.03], R1 resection [HR 5.06, p = 0.02], tumor regression grade 1–2 [HR 2.63, p = 0.05] and tumor grade 3 [HR 7.79, p < 0.001] were associated with an increased risk of LRR. A risk model was generated to determine a prognostic index for individual patients with LARC. Conclusions: Overall results after multimodality treatment of LARC are promising. Classification of risk factors for LRR has contributed to propose a prognostic index that could allow us to guide risk-adapted tailored treatment

  16. Royal jelly-like protein localization reveals differences in hypopharyngeal glands buildup and conserved expression pattern in brains of bumblebees and honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Albert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly proteins (MRJPs of the honeybee bear several open questions. One of them is their expression in tissues other than the hypopharyngeal glands (HGs, the site of royal jelly production. The sole MRJP-like gene of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris (BtRJPL, represents a pre-diversification stage of the MRJP gene evolution in bees. Here we investigate the expression of BtRJPL in the HGs and the brain of bumblebees. Comparison of the HGs of bumblebees and honeybees revealed striking differences in their morphology with respect to sex- and caste-specific appearance, number of cells per acinus, and filamentous actin (F-actin rings. At the cellular level, we found a temporary F-actin-covered meshwork in the secretory cells, which suggests a role for actin in the biogenesis of the end apparatus in HGs. Using immunohistochemical localization, we show that BtRJPL is expressed in the bumblebee brain, predominantly in the Kenyon cells of the mushroom bodies, the site of sensory integration in insects, and in the optic lobes. Our data suggest that a dual gland-brain function preceded the multiplication of MRJPs in the honeybee lineage. In the course of the honeybee evolution, HGs dramatically changed their morphology in order to serve a food-producing function.

  17. Influence of regular reporting on local Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. sensitivity to antibiotics on consumption of antibiotics and resistance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Z M; Folic, M M; Jankovic, S M

    2017-10-01

    Regular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is an important component of multifaceted interventions directed at the problem with resistance of bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was to analyse antimicrobial consumption and resistance among isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. causing HAIs, before and after the introduction of mandatory reporting of resistance patterns to prescribers. A retrospective observational study was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015, at an interdisciplinary ICU of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Serbia. The intervention consisted of continuous resistance monitoring of all bacterial isolates from ICU patients and biannual reporting of results per isolate to prescribers across the hospital. Both utilization of antibiotics and density of resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were followed within the ICU. Resistance densities of P. aeruginosa to all tested antimicrobials were lower in 2015, in comparison with 2011. Although isolates of Acinetobacter spp. had lower resistance density in 2015 than in 2011 to the majority of investigated antibiotics, a statistically significant decrease was noted only for piperacillin/tazobactam. Statistically significant decreasing trends of consumption were recorded for third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, whereas for the piperacillin/tazobactam, ampicillin/sulbactam and carbapenems, utilization trends were decreasing, but without statistical significance. In the same period, increasing trends of consumption were observed for tigecycline and colistin. Regular monitoring of resistance of bacterial isolates in ICUs and reporting of summary results to prescribers may lead to a significant decrease in utilization of some antibiotics and slow restoration of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. susceptibility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Human glomerular epithelial cell proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.J.; Jenner, L.; Mason, R.M.; Davies, M.

    1990-01-01

    Proteoglycans synthesized by cultures of human glomerular epithelial cells have been isolated and characterized. Three types of heparan sulfate were detected. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan I (HSPG-I; Kav 6B 0.04) was found in the cell layer and medium and accounted for 12% of the total proteoglycans synthesized. HSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.25) accounted for 18% of the proteoglycans and was located in the medium and cell layer. A third population (9% of the proteoglycan population), heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG; Kav 6B 0.4-0.8), had properties consistent with single glycosaminoglycan chains or their fragments and was found only in the cell layer. HSPG-I and HSPG-II from the cell layer had hydrophobic properties; they were released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. HS-GAG lacked these properties, consisted of low-molecular-mass heparan sulfate oligosaccharides, and were intracellular. HSPG-I and -II released to the medium lacked hydrophobic properties. The cells also produced three distinct types of chondroitin sulfates. The major species, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan I (CSPG-I) eluted in the excluded volume of a Sepharose CL-6B column, accounted for 30% of the proteoglycans detected, and was found in both the cell layer and medium. Cell layer CSPG-I bound to octyl-Sepharose. It was released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. CSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.1-0.23) accounted for 10% of the total 35S-labeled macromolecules and was found predominantly in the culture medium. A small amount of CS-GAG (Kav 6B 0.25-0.6) is present in the cell extract and like HS-GAG is intracellular. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that HSPG-I and -II and CSPG-I and -II are lost from the cell layer either by direct release into the medium or by internalization where they are metabolized to single glycosaminoglycan chains and subsequently to inorganic sulfate

  19. Epithelial Cell Inflammasomes in Intestinal Immunity and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C. Lei-Leston

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRR, such as NOD-like receptors (NLRs, sense conserved microbial signatures, and host danger signals leading to the coordination of appropriate immune responses. Upon activation, a subset of NLR initiate the assembly of a multimeric protein complex known as the inflammasome, which processes pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediates a specialized form of cell death known as pyroptosis. The identification of inflammasome-associated genes as inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility genes implicates a role for the inflammasome in intestinal inflammation. Despite the fact that the functional importance of inflammasomes within immune cells has been well established, the contribution of inflammasome expression in non-hematopoietic cells remains comparatively understudied. Given that intestinal epithelial cells (IEC act as a barrier between the host and the intestinal microbiota, inflammasome expression by these cells is likely important for intestinal immune homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the inflammasome plays a key role in shaping epithelial responses at the host–lumen interface with many inflammasome components highly expressed by IEC. Recent studies have exposed functional roles of IEC inflammasomes in mucosal immune defense, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. In this review, we present the main features of the predominant inflammasomes and their effector mechanisms contributing to intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. We also discuss existing controversies in the field and open questions related to their implications in disease. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of intestinal inflammasome signaling could hold therapeutic potential for clinical translation.

  20. microRNA Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izar, Benjamin; Mannala, Gopala Krishna; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Chakraborty, Trinad; Hain, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs represent a family of very small non-coding RNAs that control several physiologic and pathologic processes, including host immune response and cancer by antagonizing a number of target mRNAs. There is limited knowledge about cell expression and the regulatory role of microRNAs following bacterial infections. We investigated whether infection with a Gram-positive bacterium leads to altered expression of microRNAs involved in the host cell response in epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were infected with Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e, a mutant strain (ΔinlAB or Δhly) or incubated with purified listeriolysin (LLO). Total RNA was isolated and microRNA and target gene expression was compared to the expression in non-infected cells using microRNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. We identified and validated five microRNAs (miR- 146b, miR-16, let-7a1, miR-145 and miR-155) that were significantly deregulated following listerial infection. We show that expression patterns of particular microRNAs strongly depend on pathogen localization and the presence of bacterial effector proteins. Strikingly, miR-155 which was shown to have an important role in inflammatory responses during infection was induced by wild-type bacteria, by LLO-deficient bacteria and following incubation with purified LLO. It was downregulated following ΔinlAB infection indicating a new potent role for internalins in listerial pathogenicity and miRNA regulation. Concurrently, we observed differences in target transcript expression of the investigated miRNAs. We provide first evidence that L. monocytogenes infection leads to deregulation of a set of microRNAs with important roles in host response. Distinct microRNA expression depends on both LLO and pathogen localization. PMID:22312311

  1. Testing Local Independence between Two Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, Denis; Brix, Anders; Chadæuf, Joël

    2001-01-01

    Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush......Independence test, Inhomogeneous point processes, Local test, Monte Carlo, Nonstationary, Rotations, Spatial pattern, Tiger bush...

  2. Studying cytokinesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D; Bellaïche, Y

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial tissue cohesiveness is ensured through cell-cell junctions that maintain both adhesion and mechanical coupling between neighboring cells. During development, epithelial tissues undergo intensive cell proliferation. Cell division, and particularly cytokinesis, is coupled to the formation of new adhesive contacts, thereby preserving tissue integrity and propagating cell polarity. Remarkably, the geometry of the new interfaces is determined by the combined action of the dividing cell and its neighbors. To further understand the interplay between the dividing cell and its neighbors, as well as the role of cell division for tissue morphogenesis, it is important to analyze cytokinesis in vivo. Here we present methods to perform live imaging of cell division in Drosophila epithelial tissues and discuss some aspects of image processing and analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Phototherapeutic LASEK for a persistent epithelial defect and a recurrent epithelial erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondur, Ahmet; Bilgihan, Kamil; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2005-01-01

    To present two patients, one with persistent epithelial defect and one with recurrent epithelial erosion, unresponsive to conventional therapy treated with phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) with the laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) technique (phototherapeutic LASEK). The epithelial flap was created following 18% ethanol application for 20 seconds. A 10-microm deep ablation was performed in the central 7.0-mm zone. A contact lens was placed and the patient examined daily until epithelial closure. Upon epithelial closure, the contact lens was removed. A mild topical steroid and artificial tears were applied for 2 weeks. The epithelium healed in 4 days in both patients. Patients reported only mild pain until epithelial closure. The manifest refraction and uncorrected visual acuity remained unchanged in both eyes. No haze was noted. The first patient has remained asymptomatic without any recurrence for 12 months, and the second for 9 months. Phototherapeutic LASEK provides a therapeutic option for refractory recurrent erosions and persistent epithelial defects, with the additional benefit of being less painful and less risky for haze development than conventional PTK.

  4. Patterns of Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify knowledge construction patterns in a local learning community. Observation, documents, and semistructured interviews were employed to collect data. Twenty learners were interviewed. Data were analyzed inductively using the constant comparative method. Five major patterns--radiation, circulation,…

  5. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in a Clinical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pasquier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor growth and metastatic dissemination rely on cellular plasticity. Among the different phenotypes acquired by cancer cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT has been extensively illustrated. Indeed, this transition allows an epithelial polarized cell to acquire a more mesenchymal phenotype with increased mobility and invasiveness. The role of EMT is quite clear during developmental stage. In the neoplastic context in many tumors EMT has been associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype including local invasion and distant metastasis. EMT allows the cell to invade surrounding tissues and survive in the general circulation and through a stem cell phenotype grown in the host organ. The molecular pathways underlying EMT have also been clearly defined and their description is beyond the scope of this review. Here we will summarize and analyze the attempts made to block EMT in the therapeutic context. Indeed, till today, most of the studies are made in animal models. Few clinical trials are ongoing with no obvious benefits of EMT inhibitors yet. We point out the limitations of EMT targeting such tumor heterogeneity or the dynamics of EMT during disease progression.

  6. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  7. Management of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozbahani, Mehdi; Hammersmith, Kristin M

    2018-04-24

    To review recent advancements in the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) epithelial keratitis. Trifluridine eye drop, acyclovir (ACV) ointment, ganciclovir gel, and oral ACV are still the main therapeutic agents. Cryopreserved amniotic membrane has been recently used as an adjuvant treatment. Resistance to ACV has become a concerning issue. The animal models of HSV vaccine are able to reduce HSV keratitis. New antivirals are under development. Current cases of HSV epithelial keratitis are manageable with available medications, but new advancements are required to decrease disease burden in the future. HSV vaccine can be revolutionary.

  8. Segmentation and Quantitative Analysis of Epithelial Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigouy, Benoit; Umetsu, Daiki; Eaton, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia are tissues that regulate exchanges with the environment. They are very dynamic and can acquire virtually any shape; at the cellular level, they are composed of cells tightly connected by junctions. Most often epithelia are amenable to live imaging; however, the large number of cells composing an epithelium and the absence of informatics tools dedicated to epithelial analysis largely prevented tissue scale studies. Here we present Tissue Analyzer, a free tool that can be used to segment and analyze epithelial cells and monitor tissue dynamics.

  9. Tertiary Gleason pattern in radical prostatectomy specimens is associated with worse outcomes than the next higher Gleason score group in localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Mehmet; D'Andrea, David; Moschini, Marco; Foerster, Beat; Abufaraj, Mohammad; Mathieu, Romain; Briganti, Alberto; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Roupret, Morgan; Seitz, Christian; Czech, Anna Katarzyna; Susani, Martin; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2018-04-01

    To assess the predictive value of TGP on biochemical recurrence (BCR) and its association with clinicopathological outcomes in a large, multicenter cohort of patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). Records of 6,041 patients who were treated with RP between 2000 and 2011 for clinically nonmetastatic PCa were, retrospectively, analyzed from prospectively collected datasets. BCR-free survival rates were assessed using univariable and multivariable cox-regression analyses. Median patient age was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 57-66) with a median preoperative prostrate specific antigen of 6ng/ml (IQR: 4-9). Overall, 28% of patients had Gleason score (GS) 6, 0.3% GS 6 + TGP, 33% GS 7 (3 + 4), 0.2% GS 7 (3 + 4) + TGP, 22% GS 7 (4 + 3), 0.2% GS 7 (4 + 3) + TGP, 0.1% GS 8 and 0.4% GS 9 or 10. Median follow-up was 45 months (IQR: 31-57). Harboring a TGP was associated with higher rates of positive surgical margins, lymphovascular invasion, extraprostatic extension, and seminal vesicle invasion than their counterparts within the same GS group as well as in the next higher GS group (all P ≤ 0.05). At 5 years post-RP, BCR estimates were 5% for patients with GS 6, 13% for patients with GS 6 + TGP, 6% for patients with GS 7 (3 + 4), 22% for patients with GS 7 (3 + 4) + TGP, 16% for patients with GS 7 (4 + 3), 41% for patients with GS 7 (4 + 3) + TGP, 38% for patients with GS 8 (4 + 4) and 46% for patients with GS 9 or 10. Patients harboring a TGP had higher BCR rates than the patients in the next higher GS group: GS 6 + TGP vs. GS 7 (3 + 4), HR = 1.6, P = 0.02 and GS 7 (3 + 4)+TGP vs. GS 7 (4 + 3), HR = 1.4, P = 0.03. Patients with a TGP in the GS 7 (4 + 3) group had comparable BCR rates as patients with GS = 8 (P = 0.4) and GS 9 to 10 (P = 0.2). On multivariable analysis that adjusted for the effects of preoperative prostrate specific antigen, nodal involvement, positive surgical margin, extraprostatic disease (pT3a

  10. Local Worlds of Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Kerstin; Hollertz, Katarina; Garsten, Christina

    2017-01-01

    arrangements and the role of private services and actors in service delivery differed significantly too, ranging from strictly market-based forms of governance to classical public administration. The article moreover shows how the different activation approaches were reflected in the radically different usages...... from local politics, established local traditions, patterns of networking and modes of collaborating, as the notion of ‘local words of activation’ intends to capture....

  11. SDF-1 in Mammary Fibroblasts of Bovine with Mastitis Induces EMT and Inflammatory Response of Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guiliang; Ma, Mengru; Yang, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblasts constitute the majority of the stromal cells within bovine mammary gland, yet the functional contributions of these cells to mastitis and fibrosis and the mechanism are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that inflammation-associated fibroblasts (INFs) extracted from bovine mammary glands with clinical mastitis had different expression pattern regarding to several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, chemokines and cytokines compared to normal fibroblasts (NFs) from dairy cows during lactation. The INFs induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inflammatory responses of mammary epithelial cells in a vitro co-culture model. These functional contributions of INFs to normal epithelial cells were mediated through their ability to secrete stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). SDF-1 was highly secreted/expressed by INFs, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -treated NFs, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) -treated NFs, as well as mastitic tissue compared to their counterparts. Exogenous SDF-1 promoted EMT on epithelial cells through activating NF-κB pathway, induced inflammation response and inhibited proliferation of epithelial cells. In addition, SDF-1 was able to induce mastitis and slight fibrosis of mouse mammary gland, which was attenuated by a specific inhibitor of the receptor of SDF-1. Our findings indicate that stromal fibroblasts within mammary glands with mastitis contribute to EMT and inflammatory responses of epithelial cells through the secretion of SDF-1, which could result in the inflammation spread and fibrosis within mammary gland.

  12. Pattern Laser Annealing by a Pulsed Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Yoshio; Hoh, Koichiro; Murakami, Koichi; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Tarui, Yasuo

    1981-10-01

    Preliminary experiments with contact-type pattern laser annealing were made for local polycrystallization of a-Si, local evaporation of a-Si and local formation of Ni-Si alloy. These experiments showed that the mask patterns can be replicated as annealed regions with a resolution of a few microns on substrates. To overcome shortcomings due to the contact type pattern annealing, a projection type reduction pattern laser annealing system is proposed for resistless low temperature pattern forming processes.

  13. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Egawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted.

  14. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Griffin, Heather; Doorbar, John

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted. PMID:26193301

  15. Transcriptomic response of goat mammary epithelial cells to Mycoplasma agalactiae challenge – a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogorevc, Jernej; Mihevc, Sonja Prpar; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma) is one of the main aetiological agents of intramammary infections in small ruminants, causing contagious agalactia. To better understand the underlying disease patterns a primary goat mammary epithelial cell (pgMEC) culture was established from the mammary tissue and ch....... Additionally, the results represent comprehensive goat mammary transcriptome information and demonstrate the applicability of the comparative genomics approach for annotation of goat data, using transcriptome information of a closely related species (Bos taurus) as a reference....

  16. A hybrid computational model to explore the topological characteristics of epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valverde, Ismael; García-Aznar, José Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Epithelial tissues show a particular topology where cells resemble a polygon-like shape, but some biological processes can alter this tissue topology. During cell proliferation, mitotic cell dilation deforms the tissue and modifies the tissue topology. Additionally, cells are reorganized in the epithelial layer and these rearrangements also alter the polygon distribution. We present here a computer-based hybrid framework focused on the simulation of epithelial layer dynamics that combines discrete and continuum numerical models. In this framework, we consider topological and mechanical aspects of the epithelial tissue. Individual cells in the tissue are simulated by an off-lattice agent-based model, which keeps the information of each cell. In addition, we model the cell-cell interaction forces and the cell cycle. Otherwise, we simulate the passive mechanical behaviour of the cell monolayer using a material that approximates the mechanical properties of the cell. This continuum approach is solved by the finite element method, which uses a dynamic mesh generated by the triangulation of cell polygons. Forces generated by cell-cell interaction in the agent-based model are also applied on the finite element mesh. Cell movement in the agent-based model is driven by the displacements obtained from the deformed finite element mesh of the continuum mechanical approach. We successfully compare the results of our simulations with some experiments about the topology of proliferating epithelial tissues in Drosophila. Our framework is able to model the emergent behaviour of the cell monolayer that is due to local cell-cell interactions, which have a direct influence on the dynamics of the epithelial tissue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Estrogen action in the mouse uterus: differential nuclear localization of estradiol in uterine cell types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korach, K.S.; Lamb, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies of labeled steroid uptake in mouse uterine tissue indicated that labeled estradiol was predominantly sequestered in the nuclei of stromal and