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Sample records for epitaxial gan layer

  1. Interaction of GaN epitaxial layers with atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, M.; Giangregorio, M.M.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G.; Namkoong, G.; Doolittle, W.A.; Brown, A.S

    2004-08-15

    GaN surface passivation processes are still under development and among others hydrogen treatments are investigated. In this study, we use non-destructive optical and electrical probes such as spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and surface potential Kelvin probe microscopy (SP-KPM) in conjunction with non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the study of the different reactivity of Ga-polar and N-polar GaN epitaxial layers with atomic hydrogen. The GaN epitaxial layers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates, and GaN and AlN buffer layers are used to grow N-polar and Ga-polar films, respectively. The atomic hydrogen is produced by a remote rf (13.56 MHz) H{sub 2} plasma in order to rule out any ion bombardment of the GaN surface and make the interaction chemical. It is found that the interaction of GaN surfaces with atomic hydrogen depends on polarity, with N-polar GaN exhibiting greater reactivity. Furthermore, it is found that atomic hydrogen is effective in the passivation of grain boundaries and surface defects states.

  2. Interaction of GaN epitaxial layers with atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losurdo, M.; Giangregorio, M.M.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G.; Namkoong, G.; Doolittle, W.A.; Brown, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    GaN surface passivation processes are still under development and among others hydrogen treatments are investigated. In this study, we use non-destructive optical and electrical probes such as spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and surface potential Kelvin probe microscopy (SP-KPM) in conjunction with non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the study of the different reactivity of Ga-polar and N-polar GaN epitaxial layers with atomic hydrogen. The GaN epitaxial layers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates, and GaN and AlN buffer layers are used to grow N-polar and Ga-polar films, respectively. The atomic hydrogen is produced by a remote rf (13.56 MHz) H 2 plasma in order to rule out any ion bombardment of the GaN surface and make the interaction chemical. It is found that the interaction of GaN surfaces with atomic hydrogen depends on polarity, with N-polar GaN exhibiting greater reactivity. Furthermore, it is found that atomic hydrogen is effective in the passivation of grain boundaries and surface defects states

  3. Impact of GaN transition layers in the growth of GaN epitaxial layer on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Danmei; Zhao Degang; Jiang Desheng; Liu Zongshun; Zhu Jianjun; Chen Ping; Liu Wei; Li Xiang; Shi Ming

    2015-01-01

    A method for growing GaN epitaxial layer on Si (111) substrate is investigated. Due to the large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN, GaN grown directly above an AlN buffer layer on the Si substrate turns out to be of poor quality. In this study, a GaN transition layer is grown additionally on the AlN buffer before the GaN epitaxial growth. By changing the growth conditions of the GaN transition layer, we can control the growth and merging of islands and control the transfer time from 3D to 2D growth mode. With this method, the crystalline quality of the GaN epitaxial layer can be improved and the crack density is reduced. Here, we have investigated the impact of a transition layer on the crystalline quality and stress evolution of a GaN epitaxial layer with methods of X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and in situ reflectivity trace. With the increasing thickness of transition layer, the crack decreases and the crystalline quality is improved. But when the transition layer exceeds a critical thickness, the crystalline quality of the epilayer becomes lower and the crack density increases. (paper)

  4. GaN epitaxial layers grown on multilayer graphene by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-04-01

    In this study, GaN epitaxial layers were successfully deposited on a multilayer graphene (MLG) by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Highly crystalline orientations of the GaN films were confirmed through electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). An epitaxial relationship between GaN films and MLG is unambiguously established by transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The Raman spectra was used to analyze the internal stress of GaN films, and the spectrum shows residual tensile stress in the GaN films. Moreover, the results of the TEM analysis and Raman spectra indicate that the high quality of the MLG substrate is maintained even after the growth of the GaN film. This high-quality MLG makes it possible to easily remove epitaxial layers from the supporting substrate by micro-mechanical exfoliation technology. This work can aid in the development of transferable devices using GaN films.

  5. Understanding the Growth Mechanism of GaN Epitaxial Layers on Mechanically Exfoliated Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe; Jiang, Haiwei

    2018-04-27

    The growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial layers on mechanically exfoliated graphite is explained in detail based on classic nucleation theory. The number of defects on the graphite surface can be increased via O-plasma treatment, leading to increased nucleation density on the graphite surface. The addition of elemental Al can effectively improve the nucleation rate, which can promote the formation of dense nucleation layers and the lateral growth of GaN epitaxial layers. The surface morphologies of the nucleation layers, annealed layers and epitaxial layers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, where the evolution of the surface morphology coincided with a 3D-to-2D growth mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of GaN. Fast Fourier transform diffraction patterns showed that cubic phase (zinc-blend structure) GaN grains were obtained using conventional GaN nucleation layers, while the hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure) GaN films were formed using AlGaN nucleation layers. Our work opens new avenues for using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite as a substrate to fabricate transferable optoelectronic devices.

  6. Improvement of GaN epilayer by gradient layer method with molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yen-Liang; Lo, Ikai; Gau, Ming-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Sham, Meng-Wei; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Tsai, Jenn-Kai; Schuber, Ralf; Schaadt, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated a molecular beam epitaxy method to resolve the dilemma between structural and morphological quality in growth of the GaN epilayer. A gradient buffer layer was grown in such a way that the N/Ga ratio was gradually changed from nitrogen-rich to gallium-rich. The GaN epitaxial layer was then grown on the gradient buffer layer. In the X-ray diffraction analysis of GaN(002) rocking curves, we found that the full width at half-maximum was improved from 531.69″ to 59.43″ for the sample with a gradient buffer layer as compared to a purely gallium-rich grown sample. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the root-mean-square roughness of the surface was improved from 18.28 nm to 1.62 nm over an area of 5 × 5 μm 2 with respect to a purely nitrogen-rich grown sample. Raman scattering showed the presence of a slightly tilted plane in the gradient layer. Furthermore we showed that the gradient layer can also slash the strain force caused by either Ga-rich GaN epitaxial layer or AlN buffer layer. - Highlights: ► The samples were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. ► The GaN epilayer was grown on sapphire substrate. ► The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. ► The sample quality was improved by gradient buffer layer.

  7. Improvement of GaN epilayer by gradient layer method with molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Liang [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lo, Ikai, E-mail: ikailo@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Gau, Ming-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Ho; Sham, Meng-Wei; Pang, Wen-Yuan; Hsu, Yu-Chi [Department of Physics, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jenn-Kai [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Formosa University, Hu-Wei, Yun-Lin County 63208, Taiwan, ROC (China); Schuber, Ralf; Schaadt, Daniel [Institute of Applied Physics/DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    We demonstrated a molecular beam epitaxy method to resolve the dilemma between structural and morphological quality in growth of the GaN epilayer. A gradient buffer layer was grown in such a way that the N/Ga ratio was gradually changed from nitrogen-rich to gallium-rich. The GaN epitaxial layer was then grown on the gradient buffer layer. In the X-ray diffraction analysis of GaN(002) rocking curves, we found that the full width at half-maximum was improved from 531.69 Double-Prime to 59.43 Double-Prime for the sample with a gradient buffer layer as compared to a purely gallium-rich grown sample. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the root-mean-square roughness of the surface was improved from 18.28 nm to 1.62 nm over an area of 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 {mu}m{sup 2} with respect to a purely nitrogen-rich grown sample. Raman scattering showed the presence of a slightly tilted plane in the gradient layer. Furthermore we showed that the gradient layer can also slash the strain force caused by either Ga-rich GaN epitaxial layer or AlN buffer layer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GaN epilayer was grown on sapphire substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample quality was improved by gradient buffer layer.

  8. Fabrication of GaN epitaxial thin film on InGaZnO4 single-crystalline buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Tomomasa; Nomura, Kenji; Katase, Takayoshi; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial (0001) films of GaN were grown on (111) YSZ substrates using single-crystalline InGaZnO 4 (sc-IGZO) lattice-matched buffer layers by molecular beam epitaxy with a NH 3 source. The epitaxial relationships are (0001) GaN //(0001) IGZO //(111) YSZ in out-of-plane and [112-bar 0] GaN //[112-bar 0] IGZO //[11-bar 0] YSZ in in-plane. This is different from those reported for GaN on many oxide crystals; the in-plane orientation of GaN crystal lattice is rotated by 30 o with respect to those of oxide substrates except for ZnO. Although these GaN films showed relatively large tilting and twisting angles, which would be due to the reaction between GaN and IGZO, the GaN films grown on the sc-IGZO buffer layers exhibited stronger band-edge photoluminescence than GaN grown on a low-temperature GaN buffer layer.

  9. Infrared Reflectance Analysis of Epitaxial n-Type Doped GaN Layers Grown on Sapphire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsykaniuk, Bogdan I; Nikolenko, Andrii S; Strelchuk, Viktor V; Naseka, Viktor M; Mazur, Yuriy I; Ware, Morgan E; DeCuir, Eric A; Sadovyi, Bogdan; Weyher, Jan L; Jakiela, Rafal; Salamo, Gregory J; Belyaev, Alexander E

    2017-12-01

    Infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy is applied to study Si-doped multilayer n + /n 0 /n + -GaN structure grown on GaN buffer with GaN-template/sapphire substrate. Analysis of the investigated structure by photo-etching, SEM, and SIMS methods showed the existence of the additional layer with the drastic difference in Si and O doping levels and located between the epitaxial GaN buffer and template. Simulation of the experimental reflectivity spectra was performed in a wide frequency range. It is shown that the modeling of IR reflectance spectrum using 2 × 2 transfer matrix method and including into analysis the additional layer make it possible to obtain the best fitting of the experimental spectrum, which follows in the evaluation of GaN layer thicknesses which are in good agreement with the SEM and SIMS data. Spectral dependence of plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes for each GaN layer is obtained from the spectral dependence of dielectric of Si doping impurity, which is attributed to compensation effects by the acceptor states.

  10. Atomic layer epitaxy of ZnO for applications in molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN and InGaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewski, M.; Szczerbakow, A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Barski, A.; Goldys, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    We report the successful atomic layer epitaxy growth of thin ZnO films and their use for GaN and InGaN epitaxy. The properties of ZnO epilayers, obtained by four different procedures, are analysed, as well as of GaN and InGaN films grown on ZnO-coated Si and GaAs by MBE. (author)

  11. Epitaxial Single-Layer MoS2 on GaN with Enhanced Valley Helicity

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yi

    2017-12-19

    Engineering the substrate of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides can couple the quasiparticle interaction between the 2D material and substrate, providing an additional route to realize conceptual quantum phenomena and novel device functionalities, such as realization of a 12-time increased valley spitting in single-layer WSe2 through the interfacial magnetic exchange field from a ferromagnetic EuS substrate, and band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistors with a subthreshold swing below 60 mV dec−1 at room temperature based on bilayer n-MoS2 and heavily doped p-germanium, etc. Here, it is demonstrated that epitaxially grown single-layer MoS2 on a lattice-matched GaN substrate, possessing a type-I band alignment, exhibits strong substrate-induced interactions. The phonons in GaN quickly dissipate the energy of photogenerated carriers through electron–phonon interaction, resulting in a short exciton lifetime in the MoS2/GaN heterostructure. This interaction enables an enhanced valley helicity at room temperature (0.33 ± 0.05) observed in both steady-state and time-resolved circularly polarized photoluminescence measurements. The findings highlight the importance of substrate engineering for modulating the intrinsic valley carriers in ultrathin 2D materials and potentially open new paths for valleytronics and valley-optoelectronic device applications.

  12. Successful Fabrication of GaN Epitaxial Layer on Non-Catalytically grown Graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Won [Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Suk-Ho [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Sapphire is widely used as a substrate for the growth of GaN epitaxial layer (EPI), but has several drawbacks such as high cost, large lattice mismatch, non-flexibility, and so on. Here, we first employ graphene directly grown on Si or sapphire substrate as a platform for the growth and lift-off of GaN-light-emitting diode (LED) EPI, useful for not only recycling the substrate but also transferring the GaN-LED EPI to other flexible substrates. Sequential standard processes of nucleation/recrystallization of GaN seeds and deposition of undoped (u-) GaN/AlN buffer layer were done on graphene/substrate before the growth of GaN-LED EPI, accompanied by taping and lift-off of u-GaN/AlN or GaN-LED EPI. This approach can overcome the limitations by the catalytic growth and transfer of graphene, and make the oxygen-plasma treatment of graphene for the growth of GaN EPI unnecessary.

  13. Epitaxial Single-Layer MoS2 on GaN with Enhanced Valley Helicity

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yi; Xiao, Jun; Li, Jingzhen; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Kun; Fu, Lei; Li, Pan; Song, Zhigang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yilun; Zhao, Mervin; Lu, Jing; Tang, Ning; Ran, Guangzhao; Zhang, Xiang; Ye, Yu; Dai, Lun

    2017-01-01

    Engineering the substrate of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides can couple the quasiparticle interaction between the 2D material and substrate, providing an additional route to realize conceptual quantum phenomena and novel device functionalities, such as realization of a 12-time increased valley spitting in single-layer WSe2 through the interfacial magnetic exchange field from a ferromagnetic EuS substrate, and band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistors with a subthreshold swing below 60 mV dec−1 at room temperature based on bilayer n-MoS2 and heavily doped p-germanium, etc. Here, it is demonstrated that epitaxially grown single-layer MoS2 on a lattice-matched GaN substrate, possessing a type-I band alignment, exhibits strong substrate-induced interactions. The phonons in GaN quickly dissipate the energy of photogenerated carriers through electron–phonon interaction, resulting in a short exciton lifetime in the MoS2/GaN heterostructure. This interaction enables an enhanced valley helicity at room temperature (0.33 ± 0.05) observed in both steady-state and time-resolved circularly polarized photoluminescence measurements. The findings highlight the importance of substrate engineering for modulating the intrinsic valley carriers in ultrathin 2D materials and potentially open new paths for valleytronics and valley-optoelectronic device applications.

  14. Effect of the Ti-Nanolayer Thickness on the Self-Lift-off of Thick GaN Epitaxial Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugov, A. A.; Malahov, S. S.; Donskov, A. A.; Duhnovskii, M. P.; Knyazev, S. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Yugova, T. G.; Belogorokhov, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the type of substrate, sapphire substrate (c- and r-orientation) or GaN/Al_2O_3 template (c- and r-orientations), on the nitridation of an amorphous titanium nanolayer is shown. The effect of the titanium-nanolayer thickness on thick GaN epitaxial layer self-separation from the substrate is revealed. The titanium-nanolayer thickness at which thick GaN layer is reproducibly self-separated is within 20–40 nm.

  15. Ultralow threading dislocation density in GaN epilayer on near-strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer and its applications in hetero-epitaxial LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Ko, Chung-Ting; Yang, Jer-Ren; Lin, Ray-Ming; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-09-02

    High threading dislocation (TD) density in GaN-based devices is a long unresolved problem because of the large lattice mismatch between GaN and the substrate, which causes a major obstacle for the further improvement of next-generation high-efficiency solid-state lighting and high-power electronics. Here, we report InGaN/GaN LEDs with ultralow TD density and improved efficiency on a sapphire substrate, on which a near strain-free GaN compliant buffer layer was grown by remote plasma atomic layer deposition. This "compliant" buffer layer is capable of relaxing strain due to the absorption of misfit dislocations in a region within ~10 nm from the interface, leading to a high-quality overlying GaN epilayer with an unusual TD density as low as 2.2 × 10(5) cm(-2). In addition, this GaN compliant buffer layer exhibits excellent uniformity up to a 6" wafer, revealing a promising means to realize large-area GaN hetero-epitaxy for efficient LEDs and high-power transistors.

  16. Strain and crystalline defects in epitaxial GaN layers studied by high-resolution X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chierchia, Rosa

    2007-07-01

    This thesis treats strain and dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers. The mosaic structure of metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)-grown GaN layers was studied in dependence on the grain diameter utilizing high-resolution XRD. Different models for the defect structure were analyzed, the edge type TD densities were calculated under the assumption that the dislocations are not randomly distributed but localized at the grain boundaries. Moreover, in situ measurements have shown that the layers are under tension in the c-plane when a nucleation layer is used. The second part of this thesis treats a particular approach to reduce dislocations in MOVPE GaN layers, i.e. maskless pendeo epitaxial growth of MOVPE GAN layers. FE simulations assuming the strain to be completely induced during cooling of the structures after growth agree only partly with experimental data. The strain state of single layers and stripes of GaN grown on SiC was studied to exploit the evolution of the strain in the different phases of the PE growth. The biaxial compressive stress, due to the lattice mismatch between the GaN layer and the AlN nucleation layer is plastically relieved before overgrowth. Temperature dependent measurements show a linear reduction of the wing tilt with increasing temperature varying from sample to sample. Bent TDs have been observed in TEM images of maskless PE samples. Stress induced from the mismatch between the AlN buffer layer and the GaN also contributes to the remaining part of the wing tilt not relieved thermally. It has to be noted that the rest tilt value varies from sample to sample at the growth temperature. In fact some of the data indicate that the wing tilt decreases with increasing V/III ratio. In the last Chapter the application of X-ray techniques for the analysis of strain and composition in layers of inhomogeneous composition is explored. In the first part of the Chapter the strain state and the Al content of AlGaN buffer layers grown directly on (0001

  17. Buffer optimization for crack-free GaN epitaxial layers grown on Si(1 1 1) substrate by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Engin; Ozbay, Ekmel; Ozturk, Mustafa K; Ozcelik, Suleyman; Teke, Ali

    2008-01-01

    We report the growth of GaN films on the Si(1 1 1) substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour phase deposition (MOCVD). Different buffer layers were used to investigate their effects on the structural and optical properties of GaN layers. A series of GaN layers were grown on Si(1 1 1) with different buffer layers and buffer thicknesses and were characterized by Nomarski microscopy, atomic force microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. We first discuss the optimization of the LT-AlN/HT-AlN/Si(1 1 1) templates and then the optimization of the graded AlGaN intermediate layers. In order to prevent stress relaxation, step-graded AlGaN layers were introduced along with a crack-free GaN layer of thickness exceeding 2.6 μm. The XRD and PL measurements results confirmed that a wurtzite GaN was successfully grown. The resulting GaN film surfaces were flat, mirror-like and crack-free. The mosaic structure in the GaN layers was investigated. With a combination of Williamson-Hall measurements and the fitting of twist angles, it was found that the buffer thickness determines the lateral coherence length, vertical coherence length, as well as the tilt and twist of the mosaic blocks in GaN films. The PL spectra at 8 K show that a strong band edge photoluminescence of GaN on Si (1 1 1) emits light at an energy of 3.449 eV with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of approximately 16 meV. At room temperature, the peak position and FWHM of this emission become 3.390 eV and 58 meV, respectively. The origin of this peak was attributed to the neutral donor bound exciton. It was found that the optimized total thickness of the AlN and graded AlGaN layers played a very important role in the improvement of quality and in turn reduced the cracks during the growth of GaN/Si(1 1 1) epitaxial layers

  18. Fabrication of p-type porous GaN on silicon and epitaxial GaN

    OpenAIRE

    Bilousov, Oleksandr V.; Geaney, Hugh; Carvajal, Joan J.; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z.; Parbrook, Peter J.; Giguere, A.; Drouin, D.; Diaz, Francesc; Aguilo, Magdalena; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Porous GaN layers are grown on silicon from gold or platinum catalyst seed layers, and self-catalyzed on epitaxial GaN films on sapphire. Using a Mg-based precursor, we demonstrate p-type doping of the porous GaN. Electrical measurements for p-type GaN on Si show Ohmic and Schottky behavior from gold and platinum seeded GaN, respectively. Ohmicity is attributed to the formation of a Ga2Au intermetallic. Porous p-type GaN was also achieved on epitaxial n-GaN on sapphire, and transport measurem...

  19. Effect of the nand p-type Si(100) substrates with a SiC buffer layer on the growth mechanism and structure of epitaxial layers of semipolar AlN and GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessolov, V. N.; Grashchenko, A. S.; Konenkova, E. V.; Myasoedov, A. V.; Osipov, A. V.; Red'kov, A. V.; Rodin, S. N.; Rubets, V. P.; Kukushkin, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    A new effect of the n-and p-type doping of the Si(100) substrate with a SiC film on the growth mechanism and structure of AlN and GaN epitaxial layers has been revealed. It has been experimentally shown that the mechanism of AlN and GaN layer growth on the surface of a SiC layer synthesized by substituting atoms on n- and p-Si substrates is fundamentally different. It has been found that semipolar AlN and GaN layers on the SiC/Si(100) surface grow in the epitaxial and polycrystalline structures on p-Si and n-Si substrates, respectively. A new method for synthesizing epitaxial semipolar AlN and GaN layers by chloride-hydride epitaxy on silicon substrates has been proposed.

  20. Nanoscale imaging of surface piezoresponse on GaN epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, T.; Calarco, R.; Meijers, R.; Lueth, H.

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces of GaN films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) with implemented piezoelectric force microscopy technique. A model of PFM based on the surface depletion region in GaN films is discussed. The local piezoelectric effect of the low frequency regime was found to be in phase with the applied voltage on large domains, corresponding to a Ga-face of the GaN layer. Low piezoresponse is obtained within the inter-domain regions. The use of frequencies near a resonance frequency enhances very much the resolution of piezo-imaging, but only for very low scanning speed the piezo-imaging can follow the local piezoelectric effect. An inversion of the PFM image contrast is obtained for frequencies higher than the resonance frequencies. The effect of a chemical surface treatment on the topography and the piezoresponse of the GaN films was also investigated. Textured surfaces with very small domains were observed after the chemical treatment. For this kind of surfaces, piezo-induced torsion rather than bending of the AFM cantilever dominates the contrast of the PFM images. A small memory effect was observed, and explained by surface charging and confinement of the piezoelectric effect within the carrier depletion region at the GaN surface

  1. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN layers on Sapphire, GaN and indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denker, Christian; Landgraf, Boris; Schuhmann, Henning; Malindretos, Joerg; Seibt, Michael; Rizzi, Angela [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Segura-Ruiz, Jaime; Gomez-Gomez, Maribel; Cantarero, Andres [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, Paterna (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Among the group-III nitrides semiconductors, InN is the one with the narrowest gap (0.67 eV), lowest effective electron mass and highest peak drift velocity. It is therefore a very interesting material for several applications, in particular semiconductor solar cells. Furthermore, the high electron affinity makes it suitable also as electrode material for organic solar cells. InN layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MOCVD GaN templates, on bare c-plane sapphire and on polycrystalline indium tin oxide. On all substrates the III-V ratio as well as the substrate temperature was varied. A RHEED analysis of InN growth on GaN showed a relatively sharp transition from N-rich and columnar growth to In-rich growth with droplet formation by increasing the In flux impinging on the surface. The InN layers on single crystalline substrates were characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, PL and Raman. The InN layers on ITO were mainly analyzed with respect to the surface morphology with SEM. HRTEM in cross section gives insight into the structure of the interface to the ITO substrate.

  2. Formation of definite GaN p-n junction by Mg-ion implantation to n--GaN epitaxial layers grown on a high-quality free-standing GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Takuya; Saijo, Yusuke; Kato, Shigeki; Mishima, Tomoyoshi; Nakamura, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    P-type conversion of n--GaN by Mg-ion implantation was successfully performed using high quality GaN epitaxial layers grown on free-standing low-dislocation-density GaN substrates. These samples showed low-temperature PL spectra quite similar to those observed from Mg-doped MOVPE-grown p-type GaN, consisting of Mg related donor-acceptor pair (DAP) and acceptor bound exciton (ABE) emission. P-n diodes fabricated by the Mg-ion implantation showed clear rectifying I-V characteristics and UV and blue light emissions were observed at forward biased conditions for the first time.

  3. Epitaxial Growth of MgxCa1-xO on GaN by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiabing; Zhou, Hong; Kim, Sang Bok; Alghamdi, Sami; Gong, Xian; Feng, Jun; Wang, Xinwei; Ye, Peide D; Gordon, Roy G

    2016-12-14

    We demonstrate for the first time that a single-crystalline epitaxial Mg x Ca 1-x O film can be deposited on gallium nitride (GaN) by atomic layer deposition (ALD). By adjusting the ratio between the amounts of Mg and Ca in the film, a lattice matched Mg x Ca 1-x O/GaN(0001) interface can be achieved with low interfacial defect density. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the lattice parameter of this ternary oxide nearly obeys Vegard's law. An atomically sharp interface from cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the high quality of the epitaxy. High-temperature capacitance-voltage characterization showed that the film with composition Mg 0.25 Ca 0.75 O has the lowest interfacial defect density. With this optimal oxide composition, a Mg 0.25 Ca 0.75 O/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility (MOS-HEMT) device was fabricated. An ultrahigh on/off ratio of 10 12 and a near ideal SS of 62 mV/dec were achieved with this device.

  4. Microstructures of GaN1-xPx layers grown on (0001) GaN substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Tae-Yeon; Bae, In-Tae; Choi, Chel-Jong; Noh, D. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Tu, C. W.

    1999-03-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have been performed to investigate microstructural behavior of gas source molecular beam epitaxial GaN1-xPx layers grown on (0001) GaN/sapphire at temperatures (Tg) in the range 500-760 °C. TEM, TED, and XRD results indicate that the samples grown at Tg⩽600 °C undergo phase separation resulting in a mixture of GaN-rich and GaP-rich GaNP with zinc-blende structure. However, the samples grown at Tg⩾730 °C are found to be binary zinc-blende GaN(P) single crystalline materials. As for the 500 °C layer, the two phases are randomly oriented and distributed, whereas the 600 °C layer consists of phases that are elongated and inclined by 60°-70° clockwise from the [0001]α-GaN direction. The samples grown at Tg⩾730 °C are found to consist of two types of microdomains, namely, GaN(P)I and GaN(P)II; the former having twin relation to the latter.

  5. Elimination of macrostep-induced current flow nonuniformity in vertical GaN PN diode using carbon-free drift layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Hayashi, Kentaro; Horikiri, Fumimasa; Narita, Yoshinobu; Konno, Taichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Mishima, Tomoyoshi

    2018-04-01

    In vertical GaN PN diodes (PNDs) grown entirely by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), large current nonuniformity was observed. This nonuniformity was induced by macrosteps on the GaN surface through modulation of carbon incorporation into the n-GaN crystal. It was eliminated in a hybrid PND consisting of a carbon-free n-GaN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and an MOCVD-regrown p-GaN layer. The hybrid PND showed a fairly low on-resistance (2 mΩ cm2) and high breakdown voltage (2 kV) even without a field plate electrode. These results clearly indicated the strong advantages of the HVPE-grown drift layer for improving power device performance, uniformity, and yield.

  6. Preparation of freestanding GaN wafer by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Li, Peng; Liang, Renrong; Xiao, Lei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    A freestanding GaN wafer was prepared on porous Si (111) substrate using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). To avoid undesirable effects of the porous surface on the crystallinity of the GaN, a GaN seed layer was first grown on the Si (111) bare wafer. A pattern with many apertures was fabricated in the GaN seed layer using lithography and etching processes. A porous layer was formed in the Si substrate immediately adjacent to the GaN seed layer by an anodic etching process. A 500-μm-thick GaN film was then grown on the patterned GaN seed layer using HVPE. The GaN film was separated from the Si substrate through the formation of cracks in the porous layer caused by thermal mismatch stress during the cooling stage of the HVPE. Finally, the GaN film was polished to obtain a freestanding GaN wafer.

  7. Electrical properties of cubic InN and GaN epitaxial layers as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.R.L.; Chitta, V.A.; Abramof, E.

    2000-01-01

    Carrier concentration and mobility were measured for intrinsic cubic InN and GaN, and for Si-doped cubic GaN as a function of temperature. Metallic n-type conductivity was found for the InN, while background p-type conductivity was observed for the intrinsic GaN layer. Doping the cubic GaN with Si two regimes were observed. For low Si-doping concentrations, the samples remain p-type. Increasing the Si-doping level, the background acceptors are compensated and the samples became highly degenerated n-type. From the carrier concentration dependence on temperature, the activation energy of the donor and acceptor levels was determined. Attempts were made to determine the scattering mechanisms responsible for the behavior of the mobility as a function of temperature

  8. m-plane GaN layers grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy with varying Ga/N flux ratios on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, R.; Horita, M.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2007-01-01

    A series of m-plane GaN layers with the Ga beam-equivalent pressure (BEP) as the only varied parameter was grown by rf-plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane 4H-SiC substrates using AlN buffer layers. The smoothest growth surfaces and most complete film coalescence were found for the highest Ga BEP corresponding to the Ga droplet accumulation regime. However, better structural quality as assessed by x-ray rocking curves was observed for growth at a lower Ga BEP value below the droplet limit. The variation of rocking curve widths for planes inclined with respect to the epilayer c axis followed a different trend with Ga BEP than those of reflections parallel to the c axis. The GaN layers were found to exhibit a large residual compressive strain along the a axis

  9. Optical and magnetic resonance studies of Mg-doped GaN homoepitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, E.R.; Murthy, M.; Freitas, J.A.; Storm, D.F.; Zhou, L.; Smith, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) at 24 GHz have been performed on a series of MBE-grown Mg-doped (10 17 -10 20 cm -3 ) GaN homoepitaxial layers. High-resolution PL at 5 K revealed intense bandedge emission with narrow linewidths (0.2-0.4 meV) attributed to annihilation of excitons bound to shallow Mg acceptors. In contrast to many previous reports for GaN heteroepitaxial layers doped with [Mg]>3x10 18 cm -3 , the only visible PL observed was strong shallow donor-shallow acceptor recombination with zero phonon line at 3.27 eV. Most notably, ODMR on this emission from a sample doped with [Mg] of 1x10 17 cm -3 revealed the first evidence for the highly anisotropic g-tensor (g parallel ∼2.19, g perpendicular ∼0) expected for Mg shallow acceptors in wurtzite GaN. This result is attributed to the much reduced dislocation densities (≤5x10 6 cm -3 ) and Mg impurity concentrations compared to those characteristic of the more conventional investigated Mg-doped GaN heteroepitaxial layers

  10. Electrothermal evaluation of thick GaN epitaxial layers and AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on large-area engineered substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis J.; Koehler, Andrew D.; Tadjer, Marko J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Nath, Anindya; Mahadik, Nadeemullah A.; Aktas, Ozgur; Odnoblyudov, Vladimir; Basceri, Cem; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J.

    2017-12-01

    AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) device layers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on commercial engineered QST™ substrates to demonstrate a path to scalable, cost-effective foundry processing while supporting the thick epitaxial layers required for power HEMT structures. HEMT structures on 150 mm Si substrates were also evaluated. The HEMTs on engineered substrates exhibited material quality, DC performance, and forward blocking performance superior to those of the HEMT on Si. GaN device layers up to 15 µm were demonstrated with a wafer bow of 1 µm, representing the thickest films grown on 150-mm-diameter substrates with low bow to date.

  11. Epitaxial GaN around ZnO nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fikry, Mohamed; Scholz, Ferdinand [Institut fuer Optoelektronik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Madel, Manfred; Tischer, Ingo; Thonke, Klaus [Institut fuer Quantenmaterie, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We report on an investigation of the epitaxial quality of GaN layers overgrown coaxially around ZnO nanopillars. In a first step, regularly arranged ZnO nanopillars were grown using pre-patterning by e-beam lithography or self-organized hexagonal polystyrene sphere masks. Alternatively, ZnO pillars were also successfully grown on top of GaN pyramids. In a second step, GaN layers were grown around the ZnO pillars by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy. At growth temperatures above 800 C, the ZnO pillars are dissolved by the hydrogen carrier gas leaving hollow GaN nanotubes. Characterization involved photoluminescence (PL), scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence. The fair quality of the deposited GaN layers is confirmed by a sharp low temperature PL peak at 3.48 eV attributed to the donor bound exciton emission. Further peaks at 3.42 eV and 3.29 eV show the possible existence of basal plane and prismatic stacking faults.

  12. Dependence of the Mg-related acceptor ionization energy with the acceptor concentration in p-type GaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochen, Stéphane; Brault, Julien; Chenot, Sébastien; Dussaigne, Amélie; Leroux, Mathieu; Damilano, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Hall effect and capacitance-voltage C(V) measurements were performed on p-type GaN:Mg layers grown on GaN templates by molecular beam epitaxy with a high range of Mg-doping concentrations. The free hole density and the effective dopant concentration N A −N D as a function of magnesium incorporation measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy clearly reveal both a magnesium doping efficiency up to 90% and a strong dependence of the acceptor ionization energy Ea with the acceptor concentration N A . These experimental observations highlight an isolated acceptor binding energy of 245±25 meV compatible, at high acceptor concentration, with the achievement of p-type GaN:Mg layers with a hole concentration at room temperature close to 10 19 cm −3

  13. Hall-effect measurements of metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy-grown p-type homoepitaxial GaN layers with various Mg concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Masahiro; Takashima, Shinya; Tanaka, Ryo; Matsuyama, Hideaki; Ueno, Katsunori; Edo, Masaharu; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Suda, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Mg-doped p-type gallium nitride (GaN) layers with doping concentrations in the range from 6.5 × 1016 cm-3 (lightly doped) to 3.8 × 1019 cm-3 (heavily doped) were investigated by Hall-effect measurement for the analysis of hole concentration and mobility. p-GaN was homoepitaxially grown on a GaN free-standing substrate by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The threading dislocation density of p-GaN was 4 × 106 cm-2 measured by cathodoluminescence mapping. Hall-effect measurements of p-GaN were carried out at a temperature in the range from 130 to 450 K. For the lightly doped p-GaN, the acceptor concentration of 7.0 × 1016 cm-3 and the donor concentration of 3.2 × 1016 cm-3 were obtained, where the compensation ratio was 46%. We also obtained the depth of the Mg acceptor level to be 220 meV. The hole mobilities of 86, 31, 14 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 200, 300, 400 K, respectively, were observed in the lightly doped p-GaN.

  14. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)_1/(GaN)_1_–_2_0 short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi; Itoi, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)_1/(GaN)_1_–_2_0 short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN)_1/(GaN)_4 SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ∼1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ∼1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  15. Mg doping of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieten, R R; Buchowicz, G; Dubon, O; Motsnyi, V; Zhang, L; Cheng, K; Leys, M; Degroote, S; Borghs, G

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic study on the influence of growth conditions on the incorporation and activation of Mg in GaN layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. We show that high quality p-type GaN layers can be obtained on GaN-on-silicon templates. The Mg incorporation and the electrical properties have been investigated as a function of growth temperature, Ga : N flux ratio and Mg : Ga flux ratio. It was found that the incorporation of Mg and the electrical properties are highly sensitive to the Ga : N flux ratio. The highest hole mobility and lowest resistivity were achieved for slightly Ga-rich conditions. In addition to an optimal Ga : N ratio, an optimum Mg : Ga flux ratio was also observed at around 1%. We observed a clear Mg flux window for p-type doping of GaN : 0.31% 17 cm -3 and a mobility of 15 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . Temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements indicate an acceptor depth in these samples of 100 meV for a hole concentration of 5.5 x 10 17 cm -3 . The corresponding Mg concentration is 5 x 10 19 cm -3 , indicating approximately 1% activation at room temperature. In addition to continuous growth of Mg-doped GaN layers we also investigated different modulated growth procedures. We show that a modulated growth procedure has only limited influence on Mg doping at a growth temperature of 800 deg. or higher. This result is thus in contrast to previously reported GaN : Mg doping at much lower growth temperatures of 500 deg. C.

  16. Characterization of GaN/AlGaN epitaxial layers grown

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers are grown by a metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) system. The crystalline quality of these epitaxially grown layers is studied by different characterization techniques. PL measurements indicate band edge emission peak at 363.8 nm and 312 nm for GaN and AlGaN layers ...

  17. Effect of growth temperature on defects in epitaxial GaN film grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kushvaha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of growth temperature on defect states of GaN epitaxial layers grown on 3.5 μm thick GaN epi-layer on sapphire (0001 substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The GaN samples grown at three different substrate temperatures at 730, 740 and 750 °C were characterized using atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The atomic force microscopy images of these samples show the presence of small surface and large hexagonal pits on the GaN film surfaces. The surface defect density of high temperature grown sample is smaller (4.0 × 108 cm−2 at 750 °C than that of the low temperature grown sample (1.1 × 109 cm−2 at 730 °C. A correlation between growth temperature and concentration of deep centre defect states from photoluminescence spectra is also presented. The GaN film grown at 750 °C exhibits the lowest defect concentration which confirms that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and affects the optical properties of the GaN epitaxial films.

  18. Spin injection in epitaxial MnGa(111)/GaN(0001) heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Christian; Malindretos, Joerg; Watschke, Lars; Zamani, Reza R.; Disterheft, David; Ulbrich, Rainer G.; Rizzi, Angela; Iza, Michael; Keller, Stacia; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2018-01-01

    Ferromagnetic MnGa(111) layers were grown on GaN(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy. MnGa/GaN Schottky diodes with a doping level of around n = 7 × 1018 cm-3 were fabricated to achieve single step tunneling across the metal/semiconductor junction. Below the GaN layer, a thin InGaN quantum well served as optical spin detector ("spin-LED"). For electron spin injection from MnGa into GaN and subsequent spin transport through a 45 nm (70 nm) thick GaN layer, we observe a circular polarization of 0.3% (0.2%) in the electroluminescence at 80 K. Interface mixing, spin polarization losses during electrical transport in the GaN layer, and spin relaxation in the InGaN quantum well are discussed in relation with the low value of the optically detected spin polarization.

  19. A new approach to epitaxially grow high-quality GaN films on Si substrates: the combination of MBE and PLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Weijia; Zhu, Yunnong; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-04-22

    High-quality GaN epitaxial films have been grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technologies. MBE is used to grow Al buffer layer at first, and then PLD is deployed to grow GaN epitaxial films on the Al buffer layer. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates are studied systematically. The as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN epitaxial films grown at 850 °C with ~30 nm-thick Al buffer layer on Si substrates show high crystalline quality with the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.45° and 0.61°, respectively; very flat GaN surface with the root-mean-square surface roughness of 2.5 nm; as well as the sharp and abrupt GaN/AlGaN/Al/Si hetero-interfaces. Furthermore, the corresponding growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial films grown on Si substrates with Al buffer layer by the combination of MBE and PLD is hence studied in depth. This work provides a novel and simple approach for the epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN epitaxial films on Si substrates.

  20. Optical and structural characterisation of epitaxial nanoporous GaN grown by CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Josué; Carvajal, Joan J; Martínez, Oscar; Jiménez, Juan; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z; Parbrook, Peter J; Diaz, Francesc; Aguiló, Magdalena

    2017-09-15

    In this paper we study the optical properties of nanoporous gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapour deposition on non-porous GaN substrates, using photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and resonant Raman scattering, and correlate them with the structural characteristic of these films. We pay special attention to the analysis of the residual strain of the layers and the influence of the porosity in the light extraction. The nanoporous GaN epitaxial layers are under tensile strain, although the strain is progressively reduced as the deposition time and the thickness of the porous layer increases, becoming nearly strain free for a thickness of 1.7 μm. The analysis of the experimental data point to the existence of vacancy complexes as the main source of the tensile strain.

  1. Characterization of low-frequency noise in molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaN epilayers deposited on double buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, W.K.; Ng, S.W.; Leung, B.H.; Surya, Charles

    2003-01-01

    We report the growth of high-mobility Si-doped GaN epilayers utilizing unique double buffer layer (DBL) structures, which consist of a thin buffer layer and a thick GaN intermediate-temperature buffer layer (ITBL). In this study, three types of DBL were investigated: (i) thin GaN low-temperature buffer layer/GaN ITBL (type I); (ii) nitridated Ga metal film/GaN ITBL (type II); and (iii) thin AlN high-temperature buffer layer/GaN ITBL (type III). Systematic measurements were conducted on the electron mobilities and the low-frequency noise over a wide range of temperatures. It is found that the electron mobilities of the GaN films are substantially improved with the use of DBLs, with the sample using type III DBL which exhibits the highest low-temperature mobility. Furthermore, the same sample also demonstrates the elimination of deep levels at 91 and 255 meV below the conduction band. This is believed to result from the relaxation of tensile stress during growth with the use of type III DBLs

  2. Fabrication of GaN with buried tungsten (W) structures using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) via LP-MOVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Hideto; Yamaguchi, Motoo; Haino, Masahiro

    2000-01-01

    A buried tungsten (W) mask structure with GaN is successfully obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technique via low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (LP-MOVPE). The selectivity of GaN growth on the window region vs. the mask region is good. An underlying GaN with a striped W metal mask is easily decomposed above 500 C by the W catalytic effect, by which radical hydrogen is reacted with GaN. It is difficult to bury the W mask because severe damage occurs in the GaN epilayer under the mask. It is found that an underlying AlGaN/GaN layer with a narrow W stripe mask width (mask/window - 2/2 microm) leads the ELO GaN layer to be free from damage, resulting in an excellent W-buried structure

  3. Influence of in-situ deposited SiNx interlayer on crystal quality of GaN epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Teng; Jia, Wei; Tong, Guangyun; Zhai, Guangmei; Li, Tianbao; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-05-01

    GaN epitaxial films with SiNx interlayers were prepared by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates. The influences of deposition times and locations of SiNx interlayers on crystal quality of GaN epitaxial films were studied. Under the optimal growth time of 120 s for the SiNx interlayer, the dislocation density of GaN film is reduced to 4.05 × 108 cm-2 proved by high resolution X-ray diffraction results. It is found that when the SiNx interlayer deposits on the GaN nucleation islands, the subsequent GaN film has the lowest dislocation density of only 2.89 × 108 cm-2. Moreover, a model is proposed to illustrate the morphological evolution and associated propagation processes of TDs in GaN epi-layers with SiNx interlayers for different deposition times and locations.

  4. Optical properties of metastable shallow acceptors in Mg-doped GaN layers grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Pozina, Galia; Hemmingsson, Carl; Bergman, Peder; Kawashima, T.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Usui, A.; Monemar, Bo

    2010-01-01

    GaN layers doped by Mg show a metastable behavior of the near-band-gap luminescence caused by electron irradiation or UV excitation. At low temperatures < 30 K the changes in luminescence are permanent. Heating to room temperature recovers the initial low temperature spectrum shape completely. Two acceptors are involved in the recombination process as confirmed by transient PL. In as-grown samples a possible candidate for the metastable acceptor is C-N, while after annealing a second m...

  5. Growth of c-plane ZnO on γ-LiAlO2 (1 0 0) substrate with a GaN buffer layer by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, T.; Lu, C.-Y.J.; Schuber, R.; Chang, L.; Schaadt, D.M.; Chou, M.M.C.; Ploog, K.H.; Chiang, C.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO epilayers were grown on LiAlO 2 (1 0 0) substrate with a GaN buffer layer by MBE. • A high Zn/O flux ratio is beneficial for reducing the density of screw dislocations. • Reciprocal space maps demonstrate that the misfit strain in ZnO has been relaxed. • No interfacial layer is formed at ZnO/GaN interface using a Zn pre-exposure strategy. - Abstract: C-plane ZnO epilayers were grown on LiAlO 2 (1 0 0) substrate with a GaN buffer layer by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Both the X-ray rocking curves and the transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that the ZnO epilayers exhibit a lower threading dislocation density (∼1 × 10 10 cm −2 ) as compared to those grown on LiAlO 2 substrate without the buffer layer. A high Zn/O flux ratio is beneficial for reducing the density of screw-type dislocations. Reciprocal space maps demonstrate that the misfit strain has been relaxed. No interfacial layer is formed at the ZnO/GaN interface by using a Zn pre-exposure strategy. The ZnO epilayers exhibit a strong near band edge emission at 3.28 eV at room temperature with a negligible green band emission

  6. Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN on a patterned GaN-on-silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjin; Hu, Fangren; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We report here the lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of GaN on a patterned GaN-on-silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth with radio frequency nitrogen plasma as a gas source. Two kinds of GaN nanostructures are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on a GaN substrate by fast atom beam etching. The epitaxial growth of GaN by MBE is performed on the prepared GaN template, and the selective growth of GaN takes place with the assistance of GaN nanostructures. The LEO of GaN produces novel GaN epitaxial structures which are dependent on the shape and the size of the processed GaN nanostructures. Periodic GaN hexagonal pyramids are generated inside the air holes, and GaN epitaxial strips with triangular section are formed in the grating region. This work provides a promising way for producing novel GaN-based devices by the LEO of GaN using the MBE technique

  7. Characteristics of Mg-doped and In-Mg co-doped p-type GaN epitaxial layers grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S J; Lee, Y S; Suh, E-K; Senthil Kumar, M; An, M H

    2010-01-01

    Mg-doped and In-Mg co-doped p-type GaN epilayers were grown using the metal organic chemical vapour deposition technique. The effect of In co-doping on the physical properties of p-GaN layer was examined by high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Hall effect, photoluminescence (PL) and persistent photoconductivity (PPC) at room temperature. An improved crystalline quality and a reduction in threading dislocation density are evidenced upon In doping in p-GaN from HRXRD and TEM images. Hole conductivity, mobility and carrier density also significantly improved by In co-doping. PL studies of the In-Mg co-doped sample revealed that the peak position is blue shifted to 3.2 eV from 2.95 eV of conventional p-GaN and the PL intensity is increased by about 25%. In addition, In co-doping significantly reduced the PPC effect in p-type GaN layers. The improved electrical and optical properties are believed to be associated with the active participation of isolated Mg impurities.

  8. Characterization of GaN/AlGaN epitaxial layers grown by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers are grown by a metalorganic chemical ... reported by introducing annealing of the GaN layer in nitrogen [5], Fe doping [6], .... [2] Y F Wu, S M Wood, R P Smith, S Sheppard, S T Allen, P Parikh and J Milligan,.

  9. GaN Bulk Growth and Epitaxy from Ca-Ga-N Solutions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR proposal addresses the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of gallium nitride (GaN) films using nitrogen-enriched metal solutions. Growth of GaN from solutions...

  10. Dislocations limited electronic transport in hydride vapour phase epitaxy grown GaN templates: A word of caution for the epitaxial growers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek, E-mail: cabhishek@rrcat.gov.in; Khamari, Shailesh K.; Kumar, R.; Dixit, V. K.; Oak, S. M.; Sharma, T. K., E-mail: tarun@rrcat.gov.in [Semiconductor Physics and Devices Laboratory, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2015-01-12

    GaN templates grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) and metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) techniques are compared through electronic transport measurements. Carrier concentration measured by Hall technique is about two orders larger than the values estimated by capacitance voltage method for HVPE templates. It is learnt that there exists a critical thickness of HVPE templates below which the transport properties of epitaxial layers grown on top of them are going to be severely limited by the density of charged dislocations lying at layer-substrate interface. On the contrary MOVPE grown templates are found to be free from such limitations.

  11. Epitaxial condition and polarity in GaN grown on a HfN-buffered Si(111) wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Armitage, R.; Shinkai, Satoko; Sasaki, Katsutaka; Kisielowski, C.; Weber, E. R.

    2005-05-01

    Single-crystal GaN thin films have been deposited epitaxially on a HfN-buffered Si(111) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy. The microstructural and compositional characteristics of the films were studied in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEMs). Cross-sectional TEM investigations have revealed the crystallographic orientation relationship in different GaN /HfN/Si layers. GaN film polarity is studied by conventional TEM and convergent beam electron diffraction simulations, and the results show that the GaN film has a Ga polarity with relatively high density of inversion domains. Based on our observations, growth mechanisms related to the structural properties are discussed.

  12. The influence of Fe doping on the surface topography of GaN epitaxial material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lei; Yin Haibo; Jiang Lijuan; Wang Quan; Feng Chun; Xiao Hongling; Wang Cuimei; Wang Xiaoliang; Gong Jiamin; Zhang Bo; Li Baiquan; Wang Zhanguo

    2015-01-01

    Fe doping is an effective method to obtain high resistivity GaN epitaxial material. But in some cases, Fe doping could result in serious deterioration of the GaN material surface topography, which will affect the electrical properties of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in HEMT device. In this paper, the influence of Fe doping on the surface topography of GaN epitaxial material is studied. The results of experiments indicate that the surface topography of Fe-doped GaN epitaxial material can be effectively improved and the resistivity could be increased after increasing the growth rate of GaN materials. The GaN material with good surface topography can be manufactured when the Fe doping concentration is 9 × 10 19 cm −3 . High resistivity GaN epitaxial material which is 1 × 10 9 Ω·cm is achieved. (paper)

  13. Highly c-axis oriented growth of GaN film on sapphire (0001 by laser molecular beam epitaxy using HVPE grown GaN bulk target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kushvaha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth temperature dependant surface morphology and crystalline properties of the epitaxial GaN layers grown on pre-nitridated sapphire (0001 substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE were investigated in the range of 500–750 °C. The grown GaN films were characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS. The x-ray rocking curve full width at a half maximum (FWHM value for (0002 reflection dramatically decreased from 1582 arc sec to 153 arc sec when the growth temperature was increased from 500 °C to 600 °C and the value further decreased with increase of growth temperature up to 720 °C. A highly c-axis oriented GaN epitaxial film was obtained at 720 °C with a (0002 plane rocking curve FWHM value as low as 102 arc sec. From AFM studies, it is observed that the GaN grain size also increased with increasing growth temperature and flat, large lateral grains of size 200-300 nm was obtained for the film grown at 720 °C. The micro-Raman spectroscopy studies also exhibited the high-quality wurtzite nature of GaN film grown on sapphire at 720 °C. The SIMS measurements revealed a non-traceable amount of background oxygen impurity in the grown GaN films. The results show that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystalline quality of the epitaxial GaN films on sapphire grown by LMBE.

  14. Atomic force microscopy studies of homoepitaxial GaN layers grown on GaN template by laser MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, B. S. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rajasthan Technical University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota 324010 (India); Singh, A.; Tyagi, P. K. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Tanwar, S. [Rajasthan Technical University, Rawatbhata Road, Kota 324010 (India); Kumar, M. Senthil; Kushvaha, S. S., E-mail: kushvahas@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-04-13

    We have grown homoepitaxial GaN films on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown 3.5 µm thick GaN on sapphire (0001) substrate (GaN template) using an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) laser assisted molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) system. The GaN films were grown by laser ablating a polycrystalline solid GaN target in the presence of active r.f. nitrogen plasma. The influence of laser repetition rates (10-30 Hz) on the surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN layers have been studied using atomic force microscopy. It was found that GaN layer grown at 10 Hz shows a smooth surface with uniform grain size compared to the rough surface with irregular shape grains obtained at 30 Hz. The variation of surface roughness of the homoepitaxial GaN layer with and without wet chemical etching has been also studied and it was observed that the roughness of the film decreased after wet etching due to the curved structure/rough surface.

  15. Photoluminescence studies of cubic phase GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001) silicon covered with SiC layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewski, M.; Ivanov, V.Yu.; Bergman, J.P.; Monemar, B.; Barski, A.; Langer, R.

    1997-01-01

    In this work we evaluate optical properties of cubic phase GaN epilayers grown on top of (001) silicon substrate prepared by new process. Prior to the growth Si substrate was annealed at 1300-1400 o C in propane. The so-prepared substrate is covered within a thin (∼ 4 nm) SiC wafer, which allowed a successful growth of good morphological quality cubic phase GaN epilayers. The present results confirm recent suggestion on smaller ionization energies of acceptors in cubic phase GaN epilayers. (author)

  16. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puybaret, Renaud; Jordan, Matthew B.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah; Patriarche, Gilles; Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Heer, Walt A. de; Berger, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5–8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.

  17. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puybaret, Renaud; Jordan, Matthew B.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah, E-mail: aougazza@georgiatech-metz.fr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); CNRS UMI 2958, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Patriarche, Gilles [CNRS, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef [CNRS UMI 2958, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Salvestrini, Jean-Paul [Université de Lorraine, CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, EA4423, 57070 Metz (France); Heer, Walt A. de [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Berger, Claire [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); CNRS, Institut Néel, BP166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-03-07

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5–8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.

  18. Effect of III/V ratio on the polarity of AlN and GaN layers grown in the metal rich growth regime on Si(111) by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Manvi; Dharmarasu, Nethaji; Radhakrishnan, K.; Pramana, Stevin Snellius

    2015-01-01

    Wet chemical etching, reflection high energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscope and convergent beam electron diffraction have been employed to study the polarities of AlN and the subsequently grown GaN as a function of metal flux in the metal rich growth regime. Both AlN and GaN exhibited metal polarity in the intermediate growth conditions. However, in the droplet growth regime, the polarity of AlN and GaN were N polar and Ga polar, respectively. It was observed that Ga polar GaN could be obtained on both Al and N polar AlN. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) heterostructure exhibiting hall mobility of 900 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and sheet carrier density of 1.2 × 10 13 cm -2 was demonstrated using N polar AlN which confirmed Ga polarity of GaN. Al metal flux was likely to play an important role in controlling the polarity of AlN and determining the polarity of the subsequent GaN grown on Si(111) by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). (author)

  19. Structural and morphological properties of GaN buffer layers grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy on SiC substrates for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrion, A. L.; Poblenz, C.; Wu, F.; Speck, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of growth conditions on the surface morphology and structural properties of ammonia molecular beam epitaxy GaN buffers layers on SiC substrates was investigated. The threading dislocation (TD) density was found to decrease with decreasing NH 3 :Ga flux ratio, which corresponded to an increase in surface roughness and reduction in residual compressive lattice mismatch stress. Furthermore, the dislocation density and compressive stress decreased for increasing buffer thickness. TD inclination was proposed to account for these observations. Optimized surface morphologies were realized at high NH 3 :Ga flux ratios and were characterized by monolayer-high steps, spiral hillocks, and pyramidal mounds, with rms roughness of ∼1.0 nm over 2x2 μm 2 atomic force microscopy images. Smooth surface morphologies were realized over a large range of growth temperatures and fluxes, and growth rates of up to 1 μm/h were achieved. TD densities in the buffers as low as 3x10 9 cm -2 were demonstrated. These buffers were highly insulating and were used in recently reported AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with power densities of >11 W/mm at 4 and 10 GHz

  20. Lattice-Symmetry-Driven Epitaxy of Hierarchical GaN Nanotripods

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping

    2017-01-18

    Lattice-symmetry-driven epitaxy of hierarchical GaN nanotripods is demonstrated. The nanotripods emerge on the top of hexagonal GaN nanowires, which are selectively grown on pillar-patterned GaN templates using molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that two kinds of lattice-symmetry, wurtzite (wz) and zinc-blende (zb), coexist in the GaN nanotripods. Periodical transformation between wz and zb drives the epitaxy of the hierarchical nanotripods with N-polarity. The zb-GaN is formed by the poor diffusion of adatoms, and it can be suppressed by improving the ability of the Ga adatoms to migrate as the growth temperature increased. This controllable epitaxy of hierarchical GaN nanotripods allows quantum dots to be located at the phase junctions of the nanotripods and nanowires, suggesting a new recipe for multichannel quantum devices.

  1. Growth of cubic GaN on a nitrided AlGaAs (001) substrate by using hydried vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. J.; Yang, M.; Ahn, H. S.; Kim, K. H.; Yi, J. Y.; Jang, K. S.; Chang, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, C. R.; Kim, S. W.

    2006-01-01

    GaN layers were grown on AlGaAs (001) substrates by using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Growth parameters such as the nitridation temperature of the AlGaAs substrate and the growth rate of the GaN layer were found to be critical determinants for the growth of cubic GaN layer. Nitridation of the AlGaAs surface was performed in a NH 3 atmosphere at a temperature range of 550 - 700 .deg. C. GaN layers were grown at different growth rates on the nitrided AlGaAs substrates. The surface morphologies and the chemical constituents of the nitrided AlGaAs layers were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the optical and the crystalline characterization of the GaN films, cathodoluminescence (CL) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out.

  2. Epitaxy of GaN on silicon-impact of symmetry and surface reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadgar, A; Schulze, F; Wienecke, M; Gadanecz, A; Blaesing, J; Veit, P; Hempel, T; Diez, A; Christen, J; Krost, A

    2007-01-01

    GaN-on-silicon is a low-cost alternative to growth on sapphire or SiC. Today epitaxial growth is usually performed on Si(111), which has a threefold symmetry. The growth of single crystalline GaN on Si(001), the material of the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) industry, is more difficult due to the fourfold symmetry of this Si surface leading to two differently aligned domains. We show that breaking the symmetry to achieve single crystalline growth can be performed, e.g. by off-oriented substrates to achieve single crystalline device quality GaN layers. Furthermore, an exotic Si orientation for GaN growth is Si(110), which we show is even better suited as compared to Si(111) for the growth of high quality GaN-on-silicon with a nearly threefold reduction in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the (1 1-bar 0 0)ω-scan. It is found that a twofold surface symmetry is in principal suitable for the growth of single crystalline GaN on Si

  3. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  4. Development of Epitaxial GaN Films for RF Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of this SBIR is to develop epitaxial GaN films with threading dislocation density less than 10^6 cm^-2. We propose an innovative approach...

  5. Polarized infrared reflectance study of free standing cubic GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.C.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, N.; Novikov, S.V.; Foxon, C.T.; Kent, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Optical properties of free standing cubic gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy system are investigated by a polarized infrared (IR) reflectance technique. A strong reststrahlen band, which reveals the bulk-like optical phonon frequencies, is observed. Meanwhile, continuous oscillation fringes, which indicate the sample consists of two homogeneous layers with different dielectric constants, are observed in the non-reststrahlen region. By obtaining the first derivative of polarized IR reflectance spectra measured at higher angles of incidence, extra phonon resonances are identified at the edges of the reststrahlen band. The observations are verified with the theoretical results simulated based on a multi-oscillator model. - Highlights: • First time experimental studies of IR optical phonons in bulk like, cubic GaN layer. • Detection of extra phonon modes of cubic GaN by polarized IR reflectance technique. • Revelation of IR multiphonon modes of cubic GaN by first derivative numerical method. • Observation of multiphonon modes requires very high angle of incidence. • Resonance splitting effect induced by third phonon mode is a qualitative indicator

  6. P-type doping of semipolar GaN(11 anti 22) by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, A.; Lahourcade, L. [Equipe Mixte CEA-CNRS, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M, Grenoble (France); Pernot, J. [Institut Neel, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); Valdueza-Felip, S. [Equipe Mixte CEA-CNRS, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M, Grenoble (France); Dept. Electronica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Ruterana, P. [CIMAP, UMR6252, CNRS-ENSICAEN-CEA-UCBN, Caen (France); Laufer, A.; Eickhoff, M. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Monroy, E.

    2010-07-15

    We report the effect of Mg doping on the growth kinetics of semipolar GaN(11-22) synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Mg tends to segregate on the surface, inhibiting the formation of the self-regulated Ga film which is used as a surfactant for the growth of undoped and Si-doped GaN(11-22). As a result, the growth widow is reduced for Mg doped layers, and we observe a certain deterioration of the surface morphology. In spite of this difficulties, homogenous Mg incorporation is achieved and layers display p -type conductivity for Mg atomic concentration higher than 7 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. Microscopy studies show no evidence of the pyramidal defects or polarity inversion domains found in Mg-doped GaN(0001). (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Strain-free GaN thick films grown on single crystalline ZnO buffer layer with in situ lift-off technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Minegishi, T.; Lee, W. H.; Goto, H.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Ha, J. S.; Goto, T.; Hanada, T.; Cho, M. W.; Yao, T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain-free freestanding GaN layers were prepared by in situ lift-off process using a ZnO buffer as a sacrificing layer. Thin Zn-polar ZnO layers were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates, which was followed by the growth of Ga-polar GaN layers both by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The MBE-grown GaN layer acted as a protecting layer against decomposition of the ZnO layer and as a seeding layer for GaN growth. The ZnO layer was completely in situ etched off during growth of thick GaN layers at low temperature by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Hence freestanding GaN layers were obtained for the consecutive growth of high-temperature GaN thick layers. The lattice constants of freestanding GaN agree with those of strain-free GaN bulk. Extensive microphotoluminescence study indicates that strain-free states extend throughout the high-temperature grown GaN layers

  8. Epitaxial growth of M-plane GaN on ZnO micro-rods by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Ting You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the GaN grown on ZnO micro-rods by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. From the analyses of GaN microstructure grown on non-polar M-plane ZnO surface ( 10 1 ̄ 0 by scanning transmission electron microscope, we found that the ZnGa2O4 compound was formed at the M-plane hetero-interface, which was confirmed by polarization-dependent photoluminescence. We demonstrated that the M-plane ZnO micro-rod surface can be used as an alternative substrate to grow high quality M-plane GaN epi-layers.

  9. Photoluminescence investigation of thick GaN films grown on Si substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.; Ahn, H. S.; Chang, J. H.; Yi, S. N.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    The optical properties of thick GaN films grown by hydried vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) using a low-temperature intermediate GaN buffer layer grown on a (111) Si substrate with a ZnO thin film were investigated by using photoluminescence (PL) measurement at 300 K and 77 K. The strong donor bound exciton (DBE) at 357 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 meV was observed at 77 K. The value of 15 meV is extremely narrow for GaN grown on Si substrate by HVPE. An impurity-related peak was also observed at 367 nm. The origin of impurity was investigated using Auger spectroscopy.

  10. Evidence for moving of threading dislocations during the VPE growth in GaN thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwano, Noriyuki [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Amano, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Akasaki, Isamu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation was performed in detail to analyze the morphology of threading dislocations (TDs) in GaN thin layers with various thicknesses. The GaN layers were overgrown on an Al{sub 0.28}Ga{sub 0.72}N layer by the metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) method. In a GaN layer about 50 nm in thickness, TDs running up in the AlGaN layer pass into the GaN layer and most of them reach the top surface without bending. In thicker GaN layers, on the other hand, many of TDs form a hairpin-configuration on or above the interface of GaN and AlGaN to be annihilated. This difference in morphology of TDs indicates that the TDs have moved down inside the GaN layer. Since the formation of hairpins is attributed to a stress-relief, there should be an extra half-plane between the paired TDs. Therefore, the movement of TDs should be of ''climb motion''. Another example of possible TD movement inside a GaN layer is also described. It is emphasized that the possibility of TD-movements inside the thin film crystal during the growth should be taken into account in analysis of thin-layer growth through the behavior of TDs (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Selectively Enhanced UV-A Photoresponsivity of a GaN MSM UV Photodetector with a Step-Graded AlxGa1-xN Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Ju; Won, Chul-Ho; Lee, Jung-Hee; Hahm, Sung-Ho; Park, Hongsik

    2017-07-21

    The UV-to-visible rejection ratio is one of the important figure of merits of GaN-based UV photodetectors. For cost-effectiveness and large-scale fabrication of GaN devices, we tried to grow a GaN epitaxial layer on silicon substrate with complicated buffer layers for a stress-release. It is known that the structure of the buffer layers affects the performance of devices fabricated on the GaN epitaxial layers. In this study, we show that the design of a buffer layer structure can make effect on the UV-to-visible rejection ratio of GaN UV photodetectors. The GaN photodetector fabricated on GaN-on-silicon substrate with a step-graded Al x Ga -x N buffer layer has a highly-selective photoresponse at 365-nm wavelength. The UV-to-visible rejection ratio of the GaN UV photodetector with the step-graded Al x Ga 1-x N buffer layer was an order-of-magnitude higher than that of a photodetector with a conventional GaN/AlN multi buffer layer. The maximum photoresponsivity was as high as 5 × 10 - ² A/W. This result implies that the design of buffer layer is important for photoresponse characteristics of GaN UV photodetectors as well as the crystal quality of the GaN epitaxial layers.

  12. High-quality GaN epitaxially grown on Si substrate with serpentine channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tiantian; Zong, Hua; Jiang, Shengxiang; Yang, Yue; Liao, Hui; Xie, Yahong; Wang, Wenjie; Li, Junze; Tang, Jun; Hu, Xiaodong

    2018-06-01

    A novel serpentine-channeled mask was introduced to Si substrate for low-dislocation GaN epitaxial growth and the fully coalesced GaN film on the masked Si substrate was achieved for the first time. Compared with the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) growth method, this innovative mask only requires one-step epitaxial growth of GaN which has only one high-dislocation region per mask opening. This new growth method can effectively reduce dislocation density, thus improving the quality of GaN significantly. High-quality GaN with low dislocation density ∼2.4 × 107 cm-2 was obtained, which accounted for about eighty percent of the GaN film in area. This innovative technique is promising for the growth of high-quality GaN templates and the subsequent fabrication of high-performance GaN-based devices like transistors, laser diodes (LDs), and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on Si substrate.

  13. Void Shapes Controlled by Using Interruption-Free Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of GaN Films on Patterned SiO2 AlN/Sapphire Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-An Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GaN epitaxial layers with embedded air voids grown on patterned SiO2 AlN/sapphire templates were proposed. Using interruption-free epitaxial lateral overgrowth technology, we realized uninterrupted growth and controlled the shape of embedded air voids. These layers showed improved crystal quality using X-ray diffraction and measurement of etching pits density. Compared with conventional undoped-GaN film, the full width at half-maximum of the GaN (0 0 2 and (1 0 2 peaks decreased from 485 arcsec to 376 arcsec and from 600 arcsec to 322 arcsec, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the coalesced GaN growth led to bending threading dislocation. We also proposed a growth model based on results of scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  15. The structure of InAlGaN layers grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy: effects of threading dislocations and inversion domains from the GaN template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ammar, H; Minj, A; Chauvat, M-P; Gamarra, P; Lacam, C; Morales, M; Ruterana, P

    2017-12-01

    Defects in quaternary InAlGaN barriers and their effects on crystalline quality and surface morphology have been studied. In addition to growth conditions, the quality of the GaN template may play an important role in the formation of defects in the barrier. Therefore, this work is focused on effects caused by threading dislocations (TDs) and inversion domains (IDs) originating from the underlying GaN. The effects are observed on the crystalline quality of the barrier and characteristic surface morphologies. Each type of TDs is shown to affect the surface morphology in a different way. Depending on the size of the corresponding hillock for a given pinhole, it was possible to determine the dislocation type. It is pointed out that the smallest pinholes are not connected to TDs whereas the large ones terminate either mixed type or edge type TDs. At sufficiently large layer thickness, the IDs originating from the GaN template lead to the formation of concentric trenches at the layer surface, and this is related to the change in growth kinetics on top and at the immediate surroundings of the ID. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Real time ellipsometry for monitoring plasma-assisted epitaxial growth of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM UdR Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Losurdo, Maria [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM UdR Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: maria.losurdo@ba.imip.cnr.it; Giangregorio, Maria M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM UdR Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Capezzuto, Pio [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM UdR Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Brown, April S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Kim, Tong-Ho [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Choi, Soojeong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States)

    2006-10-31

    GaN is grown on Si-face 4H-SiC(0 0 0 1) substrates using remote plasma-assisted methods including metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (RP-MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry is used for monitoring all the steps of substrate pre-treatments and the heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on SiC. Our characterization emphasis is on understanding the nucleation mechanism and the GaN growth mode, which depend on the SiC surface preparation.

  17. Effect of growth temperature on the epitaxial growth of ZnO on GaN by ALD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkijärvi, Suvi; Sintonen, Sakari; Tuomisto, Filip; Bosund, Markus; Suihkonen, Sami; Lipsanen, Harri

    2014-07-01

    We report on the epitaxial growth of ZnO on GaN template by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Diethylzinc (DEZn) and water vapour (H2O) were used as precursors. The structure and the quality of the grown ZnO layers were studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurements and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The ZnO films were confirmed epitaxial, and the film quality was found to improve with increasing deposition temperature in the vicinity of the threshold temperature of two dimensional growth. We conclude that high quality ZnO thin films can be grown by ALD. Interestingly only separate Zn-vacancies were observed in the films, although ZnO thin films typically contain fairly high density of surface pits and vacancy clusters.

  18. Effect of H, O intentionally doping on photoelectric properties in MOVPE-growth GaN layers

    KAUST Repository

    Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-10-24

    GaN crystal growth requires higher purity of materials. Some contaminants in NH3 gas could be the causal factor of defects in GaN crystals. These atoms act as donor or acceptor. In order to clearly demonstrate the effect of gaseous impurities such as H2O on the properties of undoped-GaN layer, high purity NH3 (N70) was used as NH3 source. The concentration of H2O in NH3 was varied at 32, 49, 75, 142, 266, 489, and 899 ppb, respectively. Under the same recipe, we deposited undoped-GaN epitaxial layer with purifier, and H2O-doped GaN series layers. As similar to the results of CO and CO2-doped GaN series, the increase tendency of carrier density changing with increasing H2O concentration. The FWHMs of XRC around (0002) remain stable, witnessing that the crystal quality of GaN layer remain good. LT (15K) PL of undoped-GaN and H2O-doped GaN were measured, the D0X emission peak intensity of all H2O-doped GaN are decreased drastically compared with undoped-GaN. H2O impurity was doped into GaN layer, which not only effects electrical properties and but also effects the radiative emission and furthermore effects PL intensity, its mechanism is discussed.

  19. Lattice-Symmetry-Driven Epitaxy of Hierarchical GaN Nanotripods

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping; Wang, Xinqiang; Wang, Tao; Tan, Chih Shan; Sheng, Bowen; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Li, Mo; Rong, Xin; Zheng, Xiantong; Chen, Zhaoying; Yang, Xuelin; Xu, Fujun; Qin, Zhixin; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Xixiang; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    -resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that two kinds of lattice-symmetry, wurtzite (wz) and zinc-blende (zb), coexist in the GaN nanotripods. Periodical transformation between wz and zb drives the epitaxy of the hierarchical nanotripods with N

  20. Electrical, optical, and structural properties of GaN films prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.Y.; Smirnov, N.B.; Yakimov, E.B.; Usikov, A.S.; Helava, H.; Shcherbachev, K.D.; Govorkov, A.V.; Makarov, Yu N.; Lee, In-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • GaN films are prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). • Residual donors and deep traps show a minimum density versus growth temperature. • This minimum is located close to the HVPE growth temperature of 950 °C. • Good crystalline GaN with residual donor density < 10 16 cm −3 can be grown at 950 °C. - Abstract: Two sets of undoped GaN films with the thickness of 10–20 μm were prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and characterized by capacitance–voltage (C–V) profiling, microcathodoluminescence (MCL) spectra measurements, MCL imaging, electron beam induced current (EBIC) imaging, EBIC dependence on accelerating voltage, deep levels transient spectroscopy, high resolution X-ray diffraction measurements. The difference in growth conditions was mainly related to the lower (850 °C, group 1) or higher (950 °C, group 2) growth temperature. Both groups of samples showed similar crystalline quality with the dislocation density close to 10 8 cm −2 , but very different electrical and optical properties. In group 1 samples the residual donors concentration was ∼10 17 cm −3 or higher, the MCL spectra were dominated by the band-edge luminescence, and the diffusion length of charge carriers was close to 0.1 μm. Group 2 samples had a 2–4.5 μm thick highly resistive layer on top, for which MCL spectra were determined by green, yellow and red defect bands, and the diffusion length was 1.5 times higher than in group 1. We also present brief results of growth at the “standard” HVPE growth temperature of 1050 °C that show the presence of a minimum in the net donor concentration and deep traps density as a function of the growth temperature. Possible reasons for the observed results are discussed in terms of the electrical compensation of residual donors by deep traps

  1. Growth of GaN layers using Ga2O vapor obtained from Ga and H2O vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tomoaki; Taniyama, Yuuki; Takatsu, Hiroaki; Juta, Masami; Kitamoto, Akira; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Isemura, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we performed growth of GaN layers using Ga 2 O vapor synthesized from Ga and H 2 O vapor. In this process, we employed H 2 O vapor instead of HCl gas in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) to synthesize Ga source gas. In the synthesis reaction of Ga 2 O, a Ga 2 O 3 whisker formed and covered Ga, which impeded the synthesis reaction of Ga 2 O. The formation of the Ga 2 O 3 whisker was suppressed in H 2 ambient at high temperatures. Then, we adopted this process to supply a group III precursor and obtained an epitaxial layer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement revealed that the epitaxial layer was single-crystalline GaN. Growth rate increased linearly with Ga 2 O partial pressure and reached 104 µm/h. (author)

  2. Effect of annealing on metastable shallow acceptors in Mg-doped GaN layers grown on GaN substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pozina, Galia; Hemmingsson, Carl; Paskov, Plamen P.; Bergman, Peder; Monemar, Bo; Kawashima, T.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Usui, A.

    2008-01-01

    Mg-doped GaN layers grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on GaN substrates produced by the halide vapor phase technique demonstrate metastability of the near-band-gap photoluminescence (PL). The acceptor bound exciton (ABE) line possibly related to the C acceptor vanishes in as-grown samples within a few minutes under UV laser illumination. Annealing activates the more stable Mg acceptors and passivates C acceptors. Consequently, only the ABE line related to Mg is dominant in PL spectra...

  3. N-polar GaN epitaxy and high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Man Hoi; Keller, Stacia; Dasgupta, Nidhi Sansaptak; Denninghoff, Daniel J; Kolluri, Seshadri; Brown, David F; Lu, Jing; Fichtenbaum, Nicholas A; Ahmadi, Elaheh; DenBaars, Steven P; Speck, James S; Mishra, Umesh K; Singisetti, Uttam; Chini, Alessandro; Rajan, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress of N-polar (0001-bar) GaN high frequency electronics that aims at addressing the device scaling challenges faced by GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for radio-frequency and mixed-signal applications. Device quality (Al, In, Ga)N materials for N-polar heterostructures are developed using molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The principles of polarization engineering for designing N-polar HEMT structures will be outlined. The performance, scaling behavior and challenges of microwave power devices as well as highly-scaled depletion- and enhancement-mode devices employing advanced technologies including self-aligned processes, n+ (In,Ga)N ohmic contact regrowth and high aspect ratio T-gates will be discussed. Recent research results on integrating N-polar GaN with Si for prospective novel applications will also be summarized. (invited review)

  4. High-electron-mobility GaN grown on free-standing GaN templates by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Erin C. H., E-mail: erinkyle@umail.ucsb.edu; Kaun, Stephen W.; Burke, Peter G.; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wu, Yuh-Renn [Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-21

    The dependence of electron mobility on growth conditions and threading dislocation density (TDD) was studied for n{sup −}-GaN layers grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. Electron mobility was found to strongly depend on TDD, growth temperature, and Si-doping concentration. Temperature-dependent Hall data were fit to established transport and charge-balance equations. Dislocation scattering was analyzed over a wide range of TDDs (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} to ∼2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}) on GaN films grown under similar conditions. A correlation between TDD and fitted acceptor states was observed, corresponding to an acceptor state for almost every c lattice translation along each threading dislocation. Optimized GaN growth on free-standing GaN templates with a low TDD (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}) resulted in electron mobilities of 1265 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 296 K and 3327 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 113 K.

  5. Improvement of optical quality of semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN on m-plane sapphire by in-situ epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavarian, Morteza; Izyumskaya, Natalia; Müller, Marcus; Metzner, Sebastian; Veit, Peter; Can, Nuri; Das, Saikat; Özgür, Ümit; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Morkoç, Hadis; Avrutin, Vitaliy

    2016-04-01

    Among the major obstacles for development of non-polar and semipolar GaN structures on foreign substrates are stacking faults which deteriorate the structural and optical quality of the material. In this work, an in-situ SiNx nano-network has been employed to achieve high quality heteroepitaxial semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN on m-plane sapphire with reduced stacking fault density. This approach involves in-situ deposition of a porous SiNx interlayer on GaN that serves as a nano-mask for the subsequent growth, which starts in the nanometer-sized pores (window regions) and then progresses laterally as well, as in the case of conventional epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO). The inserted SiNx nano-mask effectively prevents the propagation of defects, such as dislocations and stacking faults, in the growth direction and thus reduces their density in the overgrown layers. The resulting semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN layers exhibit relatively smooth surface morphology and improved optical properties (PL intensity enhanced by a factor of 5 and carrier lifetimes by 35% to 85% compared to the reference semipolar (11 2 ¯ 2 ) GaN layer) which approach to those of the c-plane in-situ nano-ELO GaN reference and, therefore, holds promise for light emitting and detecting devices.

  6. Ion blocking and channeling studies of heteroepitaxial GaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flagmeyer, R.; Ehrlich, C.; Geist, V.; Otto, G.

    1978-01-01

    Ion channeling and blocking in backscattering measurements were used for the characterization of thin epitaxial GaN layers, which have varied lattice imperfections involved by different growth conditions. In particular, the following characteristics were examined: (1) the thickness and the uniformity of the layers, (2) the depth dependence of the crystalline imperfection, (3) the dislocation density, (4) the spread in the orientation distribution of tilted crystallites, and (5) some other types of imperfections, such as stacking faults, double positioning, twins and bending of the layer

  7. Island dynamics and anisotropy during vapor phase epitaxy of m-plane GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, Edith [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; University of Fribourg, Department of Physics and Fribourg Center for Nanomaterials, Chemin du Musée 3, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland; Xu, Dongwei [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Highland, M. J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Stephenson, G. B. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Zapol, P. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Fuoss, P. H. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Munkholm, A. [Munkholm Consulting, Mountain View, California 94043, USA; Thompson, Carol [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA

    2017-12-04

    Using in situ grazing-incidence x-ray scattering, we have measured the diffuse scattering from islands that form during layer-by-layer growth of GaN by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on the (1010) m-plane surface. The diffuse scattering is extended in the (0001) in-plane direction in reciprocal space, indicating a strong anisotropy with islands elongated along [1210] and closely spaced along [0001]. This is confirmed by atomic force microscopy of a quenched sample. Islands were characterized as a function of growth rate F and temperature. The island spacing along [0001] observed during the growth of the first monolayer obeys a power-law dependence on growth rate F-n, with an exponent n = 0:25 + 0.02. The results are in agreement with recent kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, indicating that elongated islands result from the dominant anisotropy in step edge energy and not from surface diffusion anisotropy. The observed power-law exponent can be explained using a simple steady-state model, which gives n = 1/4.

  8. Integration and electrical properties of epitaxial LiNbO{sub 3} ferroelectric film on n-type GaN semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Lanzhong, E-mail: hao_lanzhong@live.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Faculty of Science, China University of Petroleum, Tsingtao, Shandong 266555 (China); Zhu Jun, E-mail: junzhu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu Yunjie [Faculty of Science, China University of Petroleum, Tsingtao, Shandong 266555 (China); Wang Shuili; Zeng Huizhong; Liao Xiuwei; Liu Yingying; Lei Huawei; Zhang Ying; Zhang Wanli; Li Yanrong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2012-01-31

    LiNbO{sub 3} (LNO) films were epitaxially grown on n-type GaN templates using pulsed laser deposition technique. The microstructures and electrical properties of the LNO/GaN heterostructure were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The LNO films had two variants of grains rotated 60 Degree-Sign in-plane to each other. The epitaxial relationship of the respective variants could be built as [10-10]LNO//[1-210]GaN and [1-100]LNO//[11-20]GaN via 30 Degree-Sign in-plane rotation of the LNO film relative to the GaN layer. Interface analysis of the heterostructure demonstrated that two different epitaxial growth mechanisms vertical heteroepitaxy and lateral homoepitaxy, should happen at the interface of LNO/GaN. Counterclockwise C-V windows induced by the ferroelectric polarizations of LNO film could be observed clearly. The size of the window increased with increasing the sweep bias and a large window of 5.8 V was achieved at {+-} 15 V. By solving Poisson and drift-diffusion equations, the physical mechanisms of the C-V characteristics were demonstrated.

  9. Selectively Enhanced UV-A Photoresponsivity of a GaN MSM UV Photodetector with a Step-Graded AlxGa1−xN Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ju Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The UV-to-visible rejection ratio is one of the important figure of merits of GaN-based UV photodetectors. For cost-effectiveness and large-scale fabrication of GaN devices, we tried to grow a GaN epitaxial layer on silicon substrate with complicated buffer layers for a stress-release. It is known that the structure of the buffer layers affects the performance of devices fabricated on the GaN epitaxial layers. In this study, we show that the design of a buffer layer structure can make effect on the UV-to-visible rejection ratio of GaN UV photodetectors. The GaN photodetector fabricated on GaN-on-silicon substrate with a step-graded AlxGa−xN buffer layer has a highly-selective photoresponse at 365-nm wavelength. The UV-to-visible rejection ratio of the GaN UV photodetector with the step-graded AlxGa1−xN buffer layer was an order-of-magnitude higher than that of a photodetector with a conventional GaN/AlN multi buffer layer. The maximum photoresponsivity was as high as 5 × 10−2 A/W. This result implies that the design of buffer layer is important for photoresponse characteristics of GaN UV photodetectors as well as the crystal quality of the GaN epitaxial layers.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of trimethylgallium decomposition during GaN metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Kazuki; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Chokawa, Kenta; Araidai, Masaaki; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed the decomposition of Ga(CH3)3 (TMG) during the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of GaN on the basis of first-principles calculations and thermodynamic analysis. We performed activation energy calculations of TMG decomposition and determined the main reaction processes of TMG during GaN MOVPE. We found that TMG reacts with the H2 carrier gas and that (CH3)2GaH is generated after the desorption of the methyl group. Next, (CH3)2GaH decomposes into (CH3)GaH2 and this decomposes into GaH3. Finally, GaH3 becomes GaH. In the MOVPE growth of GaN, TMG decomposes into GaH by the successive desorption of its methyl groups. The results presented here concur with recent high-resolution mass spectroscopy results.

  11. Epitaxial GaN films by hyperthermal ion-beam nitridation of Ga droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, J. W.; Ivanov, T.; Neumann, L.; Hoeche, Th.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    Epitaxial GaN film formation on bare 6H-SiC(0001) substrates via the process of transformation of Ga droplets into a thin GaN film by applying hyperthermal nitrogen ions is investigated. Pre-deposited Ga atoms in well defined amounts form large droplets on the substrate surface which are subsequently nitridated at a substrate temperature of 630 Degree-Sign C by a low-energy nitrogen ion beam from a constricted glow-discharge ion source. The Ga deposition and ion-beam nitridation process steps are monitored in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. Ex situ characterization by x-ray diffraction and reflectivity techniques, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and electron microscopy shows that the thickness of the resulting GaN films depends on the various amounts of pre-deposited gallium. The films are epitaxial to the substrate, exhibit a mosaic like, smooth surface topography and consist of coalesced large domains of low defect density. Possible transport mechanisms of reactive nitrogen species during hyperthermal nitridation are discussed and the formation of GaN films by an ion-beam assisted process is explained.

  12. Addition of Sb as a surfactant for the growth of nonpolar a-plane GaN by using mixed-source hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, Jin Eun; Jo, Dong Wan; Yun, Wy Il; Han, Young Hun; Jeon, Hun Soo; Lee, Gang Suok; Jung, Se Gyo; Bae, Seon Min; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Sb as a surfactant on the morphology and on the structural and the optical characteristics of a-plane GaN grown on r-plane sapphire by using mixed-source hydride vapor phase epitaxy was investigated. The a-plane GaN:Sb layers were grown at various temperatures ranging from 1000 .deg. C to 1100 .deg. C, and the reactor pressure was maintained at 1 atm. The atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence(PL) results indicated that the surface morphologies and the structural and the optical characteristics of a-plane GaN were markedly improved, compared to the a-plane GaN layers grown without Sb, by using Sb as a surfactant. The addition of Sb was found to alter epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) facet formation. The Sb was not detected from the a-plane-GaN epilayers within the detection limit of the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, suggesting that Sb act as a surfactant during the growth of a-plane GaN by using mixed-source HVPE method.

  13. Improvement of electrical property of Si-doped GaN grown on r-plane sapphire by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, K.; Furuzuki, T.; Ohkawa, K.

    2006-01-01

    Electrical property of Si-doped GaN layers grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by atmospheric metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy was investigated. The electron mobility was drastically improved when GaN was grown by means of optimized combinations of growth temperature and low-temperature GaN buffer thickness. The highest room-temperature mobility of 220cm 2 /Vs was recorded at the carrier density of 1.1x10 18 cm -3 . Temperature dependence of electrical property revealed that the peak mobility of 234cm 2 /Vs was obtained at 249K. From the slope of carrier density as a function of inverse temperature, the activation energy of Si-donors was evaluated to be 11meV

  14. Mg doping of GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Meng; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Guo Wei; Banerjee, Animesh

    2010-01-01

    Acceptor doping of GaN with Mg during plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, under N-rich conditions and a relatively high growth temperature of 740 deg. C, was investigated. The p-doping level steadily increases with increasing Mg flux. The highest doping level achieved, determined from Hall measurements, is 2.1x10 18 cm -3 . The corresponding doping efficiency and hole mobility are ∼4.9% and 3.7 cm 2 /V s at room temperature. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements confirm good crystalline and optical quality of the Mg-doped layers. An InGaN/GaN quantum dot light emitting diode (λ peak =529 nm) with p-GaN contact layers grown under N-rich condition exhibits a low series resistance of 9.8 Ω.

  15. Ion Beam Assisted Deposition of Thin Epitaxial GaN Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, Bernd; Lotnyk, Andriy; Neumann, Lena; Poppitz, David; Gerlach, Jürgen W

    2017-06-23

    The assistance of thin film deposition with low-energy ion bombardment influences their final properties significantly. Especially, the application of so-called hyperthermal ions (energy GaN thin films on (0001)-oriented 6H-SiC substrates at 700 °C. The films are studied in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction, ex situ by X-ray diffraction, scanning tunnelling microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the film growth mode can be controlled by varying the ion to atom ratio, where 2D films are characterized by a smooth topography, a high crystalline quality, low biaxial stress, and low defect density. Typical structural defects in the GaN thin films were identified as basal plane stacking faults, low-angle grain boundaries forming between w-GaN and z-GaN and twin boundaries. The misfit strain between the GaN thin films and substrates is relieved by the generation of edge dislocations in the first and second monolayers of GaN thin films and of misfit interfacial dislocations. It can be demonstrated that the low-energy nitrogen ion assisted molecular beam epitaxy is a technique to produce thin GaN films of high crystalline quality.

  16. Stress engineering in GaN structures grown on Si(111) substrates by SiN masking layer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl; Wośko, Mateusz; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan; Paszkiewicz, Regina [The Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wrocaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Drzik, Milan [International Laser Center, Ilkovicova 3, 841-04 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia)

    2015-07-15

    GaN layers without and with an in-situ SiN mask were grown by using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy for three different approaches used in GaN on silicon(111) growth, and the physical and optical properties of the GaN layers were studied. For each approach applied, GaN layers of 1.4 μm total thickness were grown, using silan SiH{sub 4} as Si source in order to grow Si{sub x}N{sub x} masking layer. The optical micrographs, scanning electron microscope images, and atomic force microscope images of the grown samples revealed cracks for samples without SiN mask, and micropits, which were characteristic for the samples grown with SiN mask. In situ reflectance signal traces were studied showing a decrease of layer coalescence time and higher degree of 3D growth mode for samples with SiN masking layer. Stress measurements were conducted by two methods—by recording micro-Raman spectra and ex-situ curvature radius measurement—additionally PLs spectra were obtained revealing blueshift of PL peak positions with increasing stress. The authors have shown that a SiN mask significantly improves physical and optical properties of GaN multilayer systems reducing stress in comparison to samples grown applying the same approaches but without SiN masking layer.

  17. Photoenhanced atomic layer epitaxy. Hikari reiki genshiso epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashita, M.; Kawakyu, Y. (Toshiba corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    The growth temperature range was greatly expanded of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) expected as the growth process of ultra-thin stacks. Ga layers and As layers were formed one after the other on a GaAs substrate in the atmosphere of trimethylgallium (TMG) or AsH{sub 2} supplied alternately, by KrF excimer laser irradiation normal to the substrate. As a result, the growth temperature range was 460-540{degree}C nearly 10 times that of 500 {plus minus} several degrees centigrade in conventional thermal growth method. Based on the experimental result where light absorption of source molecules adsorbed on a substrate surface was larger than that under gaseous phase condition, new adsorbed layer enhancement model was proposed to explain above irradiation effect verifying it by experiments. As this photoenhancement technique is applied to other materials, possible fabrication of new crystal structures as a super lattice with ultra-thin stacks of single atomic layers is expected because of a larger freedom in material combination for hetero-ALE. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry investigation of homoepitaxial GaN grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tong-Ho; Choi, Soojeong; Wu, Pae; Brown, April [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Losurdo, Maria; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM UdR Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Moto, Akihiro [Innovation Core SEI, Inc., 3235 Kifer Road, Santa Clara, CA 95051 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on GaN template substrates (GaN on sapphire) is investigated with in-situ multi-channel spectroscopic ellipsometry. Growth is performed under various Ga/N flux ratios at growth temperatures in the range 710-780 C. The thermal roughening of the GaN template caused by decomposition of the surface is investigated through the temporal variation of the GaN pseudodielectric function over the temperature range of 650 C to 850 C. The structural, morphological, and optical properties are also discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Reduction of buffer layer conduction near plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy grown GaN/AlN interfaces by beryllium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.F.; Katzer, D.S.; Binari, S.C.; Glaser, E.R.; Shanabrook, B.V.; Roussos, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Beryllium doping of epitaxial GaN layers is used to reduce leakage currents through interfacial or buffer conducting layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on SiC. Capacitance-voltage measurements of Schottky barrier test structures and dc pinch-off characteristics of unintentionally doped GaN high-electron-mobility transistors indicate that these leakage currents are localized near the GaN/AlN interface of our AlGaN/GaN/AlN device structures. Insertion of a 2000 Aa Be:GaN layer at the interface reduces these currents by three orders of magnitude

  20. High growth rate GaN on 200 mm silicon by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy for high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M.; Baines, Y.; Bavard, A.; Bouveyron, R.

    2018-02-01

    It is increasingly important to reduce the cycle time of epitaxial growth, in order to reduce the costs of device fabrication, especially for GaN based structures which typically have growth cycles of several hours. We have performed a comprehensive study using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) investigating the effects of changing GaN growth rates from 0.9 to 14.5 μm/h. Although there is no significant effect on the strain incorporated in the layers, we have seen changes in the surface morphology which can be related to the change in dislocation behaviour and surface diffusion effects. At the small scale, as seen by AFM, increased dislocation density for higher growth rates leads to increased pinning of growth terraces, resulting in more closely spaced terraces. At a larger scale of hundreds of μm observed by optical profiling, we have related the formation of grains to the rate of surface diffusion of adatoms using a random walk model, implying diffusion distances from 30 μm for the highest growth rates up to 100 μm for the lowest. The increased growth rate also increases the intrinsic carbon incorporation which can increase the breakdown voltage of GaN films. Despite an increased threading dislocation density, these very high growth rates of 14.5 μm/hr by MOVPE have been shown to be appealing for reducing epitaxial growth cycle times and therefore costs in High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) structures.

  1. Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, Shawn D.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Namkoong, Gon; Look, David C.; Clafin, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The metal modulated epitaxy (MME) growth technique is reported as a reliable approach to obtain reproducible large hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire substrates. An extremely Ga-rich flux was used, and modulated with the Mg source according to the MME growth technique. The shutter modulation approach of the MME technique allows optimal Mg surface coverage to build between MME cycles and Mg to incorporate at efficient levels in GaN films. The maximum sustained concentration of Mg obtained in GaN films using the MME technique was above 7x10 20 cm -3 , leading to a hole concentration as high as 4.5x10 18 cm -3 at room temperature, with a mobility of 1.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and a resistivity of 1.3 Ω cm. At 580 K, the corresponding values were 2.6x10 19 cm -3 , 1.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , and 0.21 Ω cm, respectively. Even under strong white light, the sample remained p-type with little change in the electrical parameters

  2. Reproducible increased Mg incorporation and large hole concentration in GaN using metal modulated epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Shawn D.; Namkoong, Gon; Look, David C.; Clafin, Bruce; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2008-07-01

    The metal modulated epitaxy (MME) growth technique is reported as a reliable approach to obtain reproducible large hole concentrations in Mg-doped GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on c-plane sapphire substrates. An extremely Ga-rich flux was used, and modulated with the Mg source according to the MME growth technique. The shutter modulation approach of the MME technique allows optimal Mg surface coverage to build between MME cycles and Mg to incorporate at efficient levels in GaN films. The maximum sustained concentration of Mg obtained in GaN films using the MME technique was above 7×1020cm-3, leading to a hole concentration as high as 4.5×1018cm-3 at room temperature, with a mobility of 1.1cm2V-1s-1 and a resistivity of 1.3Ωcm. At 580K, the corresponding values were 2.6×1019cm-3, 1.2cm2V-1s-1, and 0.21Ωcm, respectively. Even under strong white light, the sample remained p-type with little change in the electrical parameters.

  3. Morphology of self-catalyzed GaN nanowires and chronology of their formation by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galopin, E; Largeau, L; Patriarche, G; Travers, L; Glas, F; Harmand, J C

    2011-01-01

    GaN nanowires are synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. The strong impact of the cell orientation relative to the substrate on the nanowire morphology is shown. To study the kinetics of growth, thin AlN markers are introduced periodically during NW growth. These markers are observed in single nanowires by transmission electron microscopy, giving access to the chronology of the nanowire formation and to the time evolution of the nanowire morphology. A long delay precedes the beginning of nanowire formation. Then, their elongation proceeds at a constant rate. Later, shells develop on the side-wall facets by ascending growth of layer bunches which first agglomerate at the nanowire foot.

  4. Selenium implantation in epitaxial gallium arsenide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, T.; Tokunaga, K.; Taka, S.; Yuge, Y.; Kohzu, H.

    1981-01-01

    Selenium implantation at room temperature in S-doped epitaxial GaAs layers as a means of the formation of n + layers has been investigated. Doping profiles for Se-implanted layers have been examined by a C-V technique and/or a differential Hall effect method. It has been shown that n + layers with a maximum carrier concentration of approx. equal to1.5 x 10 18 cm -3 can be formed by implantation followed by a 15 min annealing at 950 0 C. Contact resistance of ohmic electrodes is reduced by use of the Se-implanted n + layers, resulting in the improvement on GaAs FET performance. Measured minimum noise figure of the Se-implanted GaAs FETs is 0.74 dB at 4 GHz. (orig.)

  5. High-Quality GaN Epilayers Achieved by Facet-Controlled Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth on Sputtered AlN/PSS Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenguang; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Kang; He, Longfei; Wu, Hualong; Liu, Ningyang; Zhang, Shan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhitao

    2017-12-13

    It is widely believed that the lack of high-quality GaN wafers severely hinders the progress in GaN-based devices, especially for defect-sensitive devices. Here, low-cost AlN buffer layers were sputtered on cone-shaped patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) to obtain high-quality GaN epilayers. Without any mask or regrowth, facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth was realized by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The uniform coating of the sputtered AlN buffer layer and the optimized multiple modulation guaranteed high growth selectivity and uniformity of the GaN epilayer. As a result, an extremely smooth surface was achieved with an average roughness of 0.17 nm over 3 × 3 μm 2 . It was found that the sputtered AlN buffer layer could significantly suppress dislocations on the cones. Moreover, the optimized three-dimensional growth process could effectively promote dislocation bending. Therefore, the threading dislocation density (TDD) of the GaN epilayer was reduced to 4.6 × 10 7 cm -2 , which is about an order of magnitude lower than the case of two-step GaN on the PSS. In addition, contamination and crack in the light-emitting diode fabricated on the obtained GaN were also effectively suppressed by using the sputtered AlN buffer layer. All of these advantages led to a high output power of 116 mW at 500 mA with an emission wavelength of 375 nm. This simple, yet effective growth technique is believed to have great application prospects in high-performance TDD-sensitive optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  6. Growth modes of InN (000-1) on GaN buffer layers on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bing; Kitajima, Takeshi; Chen Dongxue; Leone, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, using atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we study the surface morphologies of epitaxial InN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with intervening GaN buffer layers on sapphire substrates. On smooth GaN buffer layers, nucleation and evolution of three-dimensional InN islands at various coverages and growth temperatures are investigated. The shapes of the InN islands are observed to be predominantly mesalike with large flat (000-1) tops, which suggests a possible role of indium as a surfactant. Rough GaN buffer layers composed of dense small GaN islands are found to significantly improve uniform InN wetting of the substrates, on which atomically smooth InN films are obtained that show the characteristics of step-flow growth. Scanning tunneling microscopy imaging reveals the defect-mediated surface morphology of smooth InN films, including surface terminations of screw dislocations and a high density of shallow surface pits with depths less than 0.3 nm. The mechanisms of the three-dimensional island size and shape evolution and formation of defects on smooth surfaces are considered

  7. Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruch, Alexander W.; Xiong, Chi; Leung, Benjamin; Poot, Menno; Han, Jung; Tang, Hong X., E-mail: hong.tang@yale.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate broadband, low loss optical waveguiding in single crystalline GaN grown epitaxially on c-plane sapphire wafers through a buffered metal-organic chemical vapor phase deposition process. High Q optical microring resonators are realized in near infrared, infrared, and near visible regimes with intrinsic quality factors exceeding 50 000 at all the wavelengths we studied. TEM analysis of etched waveguide reveals growth and etch-induced defects. Reduction of these defects through improved material and device processing could lead to even lower optical losses and enable a wideband photonic platform based on GaN-on-sapphire material system.

  8. Luminescence and Morphological Properties of GaN Layers Grown on SiC/Si(111) Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Ristic, J.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dpto. Ing. Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Serre, C.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R. [EME - Electronic Materials and Engineering, Department of Electronics, Universidad de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Koegler, R.; Skorupa, W. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., 01314 Dresden (Germany); Trampert, A.; Ploog, K.H. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-08-16

    This article describes the fabrication of SiC thin films on top of Si(111) substrates by means of a multiple C-ion implantation and the subsequent growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of GaN layers. The stoichiometry of the top SiC layer is controlled by reactive ion etching. Photoluminescence spectra reveal that all GaN layers are under biaxial tensile strain of thermal origin. The photoluminescence efficiency clearly depends on the stoichiometry of the initial SiC layer and on whether AlN buffer layers are used or not. GaN layers grown directly on bare non-stoichiometric SiC layers exhibit the best photoluminescence efficiency but also a high degree of mosaicity, as measured by X-ray diffraction techniques. The nucleation process involved in the initial stages of the growth leads to the formation of large dislocation-free grains with a high PL efficiency and with a higher tensile strain character. Despite the lack of a perfect monocrystalline SiC substrate lattice, high quality GaN microcrystals are obtained. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Growth and structural investigations of epitaxial hexagonal YMnO3 thin films deposited on wurtzite GaN(001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.R.; Chang, Kai-Chieh; Mohammad, Feroz A.; Porter, Lisa M.; Salvador, Paul A.; DiMaio, Jeffrey; Davis, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    Epitaxial hexagonal YMnO 3 (h-YMnO 3 ) films having sharp (00l) X-ray diffraction peaks were grown above 700 deg. C in 5 mTorr O 2 via pulsed laser deposition both on as-received wurtzite GaN/AlN/6H-SiC(001) (w-GaN) substrates as well as on w-GaN surfaces that were etched in 50% HF solution. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an interfacial layer between film and the unetched substrate; this layer was absent in those samples wherein an etched substrate was used. However, the substrate treatment did not affect the epitaxial arrangement between the h-YMnO 3 film and w-GaN substrate. The epitaxial relationships of the h-YMnO 3 films with the w-GaN(001) substrate was determined via X-ray diffraction to be (001) YMnO 3 -parallel (001) GaN : [11-bar0] YMnO 3 -parallel [110] GaN ; in other words, the basal planes of the film and the substrate are aligned parallel to one another, as are the most densely packed directions in planes of the film and the substrate. Interestingly, this arrangement has a larger lattice mismatch than if the principal axes of the unit cells were aligned

  10. Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 (001) films on multilayer buffered GaN (0002) by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, W B; Jing, J; Shuai, Y; Zhu, J; Zhang, W L; Zhou, S; Gemming, S; Du, N; Schmidt, H

    2013-01-01

    SrTiO 3 films were grown on CeO 2 /YSZ/TiO 2 multilayer buffered GaN/Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates with and without the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) bridge layer by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The deposition process of the buffer layers was in situ monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The crystallographical orientation of the heterostructure was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD). With the introduction of the YBCO (001) layer, the STO (001) film was epitaxially grown on the GaN substrate. There were three sets of inplane domains separated from each other by 30° in both STO and YBCO buffer layers. The epitaxial relationship was STO (002)[110]∥YBCO(001)[110]∥CeO 2 (002)[010]∥YSZ (002)[010]∥GaN(0001)[1 1 -2 0] according to XRD results. By comparing the orientation of STO grown on GaN with and without the YBCO top buffer layer, the surface chemical bonding was found to be a very important factor in determining the orientation relationship of STO.

  11. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy growth of GaN, InGaN, ScN, and ScAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD); hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE); gallium nitride (GaN); indium gallium nitride (InGaN); scandium nitride (ScN); scandium aluminum nitride (ScAlN); semiconductors; thin films; nanowires; III nitrides; crystal growth - We studied the HVPE growth of different III

  12. Cathodoluminescence of GaN diped with Zn in the process of epitaxial growth and by the method of ionic implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, I.Sh.; Gippius, A.A.; Kuznetsov, A.V.; Petrov, M.N.; Sletov, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The cathodoluminescence (CL) method was used to investigate the epitaxial GaN layers doped with Zn both in the process of growth and by the method of ionic implantation for the purpose of clarifying the effect of doping technique on impurity luminescence. It was shown that (2-3)x10 18 cm -3 concentration is optimal with respect to intensity of impurity ''blue'' luminescence for gallium nitride doped with Zn. The intensity of GaN ''blue'' luminescence during Zn ionic implantation is several times lower as compared with doping in the process of growth. This is related to incomplete optical activation of impurity atoms in the process of postimplantation thermal annealing. Increase of zinc concentration above optimal during ionic implantation intensifies crystal lattice disordering, which is supported by intensification of 1.7 eV cathodoluminescence band in spectra conditioned by defects

  13. Step-flow anisotropy of the m-plane GaN (1100) grown under nitrogen-rich conditions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, Marta; Siekacz, Marcin; Skierbiszewski, Czeslaw; Turski, Henryk; Krysko, Marcin; DziePcielewski, Igor; Grzegory, Izabella; Smalc-Koziorowska, Julita

    2011-01-01

    The homoepitaxial growth of m-plane (1100) GaN was investigated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under nitrogen-rich conditions. The surface morphologies as a function of sample miscut were studied, providing evidence for a strong growth anisotropy that is a consequence of the anisotropy of Ga adatom diffusion barriers on the m-plane surface recently calculated ab initio[Lymperakis and Neugebauer, Phys. Rev. B 79, 241308(R) (2009)]. We found that substrate miscut toward [0001] implies a step flow toward while substrate miscut toward [0001] causes formation of atomic steps either perpendicular or parallel to the [0001] direction, under N-rich conditions at 730 deg C. We describe the growth conditions for achieving atomically flat m-plane GaN layers with parallel atomic steps.

  14. Dry etching of MgCaO gate dielectric and passivation layers on GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlad, M.; Voss, L.; Gila, B.P.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.

    2006-01-01

    MgCaO films grown by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and capped with Sc 2 O 3 are promising candidates as surface passivation layers and gate dielectrics on GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal-oxide semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs), respectively. Two different plasma chemistries were examined for etching these thin films on GaN. Inductively coupled plasmas of CH 4 /H 2 /Ar produced etch rates only in the range 20-70 A/min, comparable to the Ar sputter rates under the same conditions. Similarly slow MgCaO etch rates (∼100 A/min) were obtained with Cl 2 /Ar discharges under the same conditions, but GaN showed rates almost an order of magnitude higher. The MgCaO removal rates are limited by the low volatilities of the respective etch products. The CH 4 /H 2 /Ar plasma chemistry produced a selectivity of around 2 for etching the MgCaO with respect to GaN

  15. Optical characterization of epitaxial semiconductor layers

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosive development in the growth of expitaxial layers and structures with atomic-scale dimensions. This progress has created new demands for the characterization of those stuctures. Various methods have been refined and new ones developed with the main emphasis on non-destructive in-situ characterization. Among those, methods which rely on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter are particularly valuable. In this book standard methods such as far-infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, Raman scattering, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction are presented, as well as new advanced techniques which provide the potential for better in-situ characterization of epitaxial structures (such as reflection anistropy spectroscopy, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, second-harmonic generation, and others). This volume is intended for researchers working at universities or in industry, as well as for graduate students who are interested in the characterization of ...

  16. Initial stages of the ion-beam assisted epitaxial GaN film growth on 6H-SiC(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.; Gerlach, J.W.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-thin gallium nitride (GaN) films were deposited using the ion-beam assisted molecular-beam epitaxy technique. The influence of the nitrogen ion to gallium atom flux ratio (I/A ratio) during the early stages of GaN nucleation and thin film growth directly, without a buffer layer on super-polished 6H-SiC(0001) substrates was studied. The deposition process was performed at a constant substrate temperature of 700 °C by evaporation of Ga and irradiation with hyperthermal nitrogen ions from a constricted glow-discharge ion source. The hyperthermal nitrogen ion flux was kept constant and the kinetic energy of the ions did not exceed 25 eV. The selection of different I/A ratios in the range from 0.8 to 3.2 was done by varying the Ga deposition rate between 5 × 10 13 and 2 × 10 14 at. cm −2 s −1 . The crystalline surface structure during the GaN growth was monitored in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The surface topography of the films as well as the morphology of separated GaN islands on the substrate surface was examined after film growth using a scanning tunneling microscope without interruption of ultra-high vacuum. The results show, that the I/A ratio has a major impact on the properties of the resulting ultra-thin GaN films. The growth mode, the surface roughness, the degree of GaN coverage of the substrate and the polytype mixture depend notably on the I/A ratio. - Highlights: ► Ultra-thin epitaxial GaN films prepared by hyperthermal ion-beam assisted deposition. ► Surface structure and topography studied during and after initial growth stages. ► Growth mode dependent on nitrogen ion to gallium atom flux ratio. ► Change from three-dimensional to two-dimensional growth for Ga-rich growth conditions.

  17. Investigation of GaN LED with Be-implanted Mg-doped GaN layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.-W.; Kao, C.C.; Chu, J.T.; Kuo, H.C.; Wang, S.C.; Yu, C.C.; Lin, C.F.

    2004-01-01

    We report the electrical and optical characteristics of GaN light emitting diode (LED) with beryllium (Be) implanted Mg-doped GaN layer. The p-type layer of Be-implanted GaN LED showed a higher hole carrier concentration of 2.3 x 10 18 cm -3 and low specific contact resistance value of 2.0 x 10 -4 Ωcm 2 than as-grown p-GaN LED samples without Be-implantation. The Be-implanted GaN LEDs with InGaN/GaN MQW show slightly lower light output (about 10%) than the as-grown GaN LEDs, caused by the high RTA temperature annealing process

  18. Investigation of different mechanisms of GaN growth induced on AlN and GaN nucleation layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasco, V.; Campa, A.; Tarantini, I.; Passaseo, A.; Gonzalez-Posada, F.; Munoz, E.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Lorenz, K.; Franco, N.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of GaN growth on AlN and GaN nucleation layers is compared through morphological and structural analyses, including ion beam analysis. By using AlN nucleation layer grown at high temperature, improved crystalline quality is exhibited by 300 nm thin GaN epilayers. GaN (002) x-ray rocking curve as narrow as 168 arc sec and atomic-step surface morphology characterize such a thin GaN film on AlN. Defects are strongly confined into the first 50 nm of growth, whereas a fast laterally coherent growth is observed when increasing thickness, as an effect of high temperature AlN surface morphology and Ga adatom dynamics over this template

  19. GaN microrod sidewall epitaxial lateral overgrowth on a close-packed microrod template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jincheng; Xiao, Ming; Zhang, Jinfeng; Hao, Yue

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate a GaN growth method using microrod sidewall epitaxial lateral overgrowth (MSELO) on a close-packed microrod template by a nonlithographic technique. The density and distribution of threading dislocations were determined by the density and distribution of microrods and the nucleation model. MSELO exhibited two different nucleation models determined by the direction and degree of substrate misorientation and the sidewall curvature: one-sidewall and three-sidewall nucleation, predicting the dislocation density values. As a result, the threading dislocation density was markedly decreased from 2 × 109 to 5 × 107 cm‑2 with a small coalescence thickness of ∼2 µm for the close-packed 3000 nm microrod sample.

  20. Interface relaxation and band gap shift in epitaxial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Zhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well known that the interface relaxation plays the crucial role for the electronic properties in semiconductor epitaxial layers, there is lack of a clear definition of relationship between interfacial bond-energy variation and interface bond-nature-factor (IBNF in epitaxial layers before and after relaxation. Here we establish an analytical method to shed light on the relationship between the IBNF and the bond-energy change, as well as the relation with band offset in epitaxial layers from the perspective of atomic-bond-relaxation consideration and continuum mechanics. The theoretical predictions are consistent with the available evidences, which provide an atomistic understanding on underlying mechanism of interface effect in epitaxial nanostructures. Thus, it will be helpful for opening up to tailor physical-chemical properties of the epitaxial nanostructures to the desired specifications.

  1. Metal modulation epitaxy growth for extremely high hole concentrations above 1019 cm-3 in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Gon; Trybus, Elaissa; Lee, Kyung Keun; Moseley, Michael; Doolittle, W. Alan; Look, David C.

    2008-10-01

    The free hole carriers in GaN have been limited to concentrations in the low 1018cm-3 range due to the deep activation energy, lower solubility, and compensation from defects, therefore, limiting doping efficiency to about 1%. Herein, we report an enhanced doping efficiency up to ˜10% in GaN by a periodic doping, metal modulation epitaxy growth technique. The hole concentrations grown by periodically modulating Ga atoms and Mg dopants were over ˜1.5×1019cm-3.

  2. Metal modulation epitaxy growth for extremely high hole concentrations above 1019 cm-3 in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Trybus, Elaissa; Lee, Kyung Keun; Moseley, Michael; Doolittle, W. Alan; Look, David C.

    2008-01-01

    The free hole carriers in GaN have been limited to concentrations in the low 10 18 cm -3 range due to the deep activation energy, lower solubility, and compensation from defects, therefore, limiting doping efficiency to about 1%. Herein, we report an enhanced doping efficiency up to ∼10% in GaN by a periodic doping, metal modulation epitaxy growth technique. The hole concentrations grown by periodically modulating Ga atoms and Mg dopants were over ∼1.5x10 19 cm -3

  3. Characteristics of threading dislocations in ZnO grown on facet-controlled epitaxial overgrown GaN templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H L; Chua, S J; Chow, S Y; Pan, H; Zhu, Y W; Feng, Y P; Wang, L S; Zang, K Y; Liu, W; Tripathy, S

    2007-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the authors have investigated the behavior of threading dislocations in ZnO selectively grown on a facet-controlled epitaxial overgrown GaN template. In this case, the ZnO is grown by a vapor transport method. The TEM study in the overgrown regions shows that all the pure-edge type dislocations in ZnO are parallel toward the mask area and vertical propagation of dislocation to the ZnO surface is minimized. Using such a selective growth technique on a faceted semi-polar GaN surface, a reduction of threading dislocation density in ZnO could be achieved

  4. Microstructure of laterally overgrown GaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Cherns, David

    2001-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy study of plan-view and cross-section samples of epitaxial laterally overgrown (ELOG) GaN samples is described. Two types of dislocation with the same type of Burgers vector but different line direction have been observed. It is shown that threading edge dislocations bend to form dislocation segments in the c plane as a result of shear stresses developed in the wing material along the stripe direction. It is shown that migration of these dislocations involves both glide and climb. Propagation of threading parts over the wing area is an indication of high density of point defects present in the wing areas on the ELOG samples. This finding might shed light on the optical properties of such samples. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  5. Homoepitaxial growth of a-plane GaN layers by reaction between Ga2O vapor and NH3 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tomoaki; Taniyama, Yuuki; Takatsu, Hiroaki; Juta, Masami; Kitamoto, Akira; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Isemura, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Growth of high-quality a-plane GaN layers was performed by reaction between Ga 2 O vapor and NH 3 gas at a high temperature. Smooth a-plane GaN epitaxial layers were obtained on a-plane GaN seed substrates sliced from thick c-plane GaN crystals. Growth rate increased with increasing Ga 2 O partial pressure. An a-plane GaN layer with a growth rate of 48 μm/h was obtained. The X-ray rocking curve (XRC) measurement showed that the full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) of GaN(112-bar0) with the incident beam parallel and perpendicular to the [0001] direction were 29–43 and 29–42 arcsec, respectively. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurement revealed that oxygen concentration decreased at a high temperature. These results suggest that growth of a-GaN layers using Ga 2 O vapor and NH 3 gas at a high temperature enables the generation of high-quality crystals. (author)

  6. Ultrathin silicon oxynitride layer on GaN for dangling-bond-free GaN/insulator interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kengo; Yayama, Tomoe; Miyazaki, Takehide; Taoka, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-01-23

    Despite the scientific and technological importance of removing interface dangling bonds, even an ideal model of a dangling-bond-free interface between GaN and an insulator has not been known. The formation of an atomically thin ordered buffer layer between crystalline GaN and amorphous SiO 2 would be a key to synthesize a dangling-bond-free GaN/SiO 2 interface. Here, we predict that a silicon oxynitride (Si 4 O 5 N 3 ) layer can epitaxially grow on a GaN(0001) surface without creating dangling bonds at the interface. Our ab initio calculations show that the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure is more stable than silicon-oxide-terminated GaN(0001) surfaces. The electronic properties of the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure can be tuned by modifying the chemical components near the interface. We also propose a possible approach to experimentally synthesize the GaN/Si 4 O 5 N 3 structure.

  7. Highly resistive C-doped hydride vapor phase epitaxy-GaN grown on ammonothermally crystallized GaN seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwinska, Malgorzata; Piotrzkowski, Ryszard; Litwin-Staszewska, Elzbieta; Sochacki, Tomasz; Amilusik, Mikolaj; Fijalkowski, Michal; Lucznik, Boleslaw; Bockowski, Michal

    2017-01-01

    GaN crystals were grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and doped with C. The seeds were high-structural-quality ammonothermally crystallized GaN. The grown crystals were highly resistive at 296 K and of high structural quality. High-temperature Hall effect measurements revealed p-type conductivity and a deep acceptor level in the material with an activation energy of 1 eV. This is in good agreement with density functional theory calculations based on hybrid functionals as presented by the Van de Walle group. They obtained an ionization energy of 0.9 eV when C was substituted for N in GaN and acted as a deep acceptor.

  8. Optical and field emission properties of layer-structure GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhen [Science School, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); School of automation and Information Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Li, Enling, E-mail: Lienling@xaut.edu.cn [Science School, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Shi, Wei; Ma, Deming [Science School, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The layer-structure GaN nanowires with hexagonal-shaped cross-sections are produced via a process based on the CVD method. • The diameter of the layer-structure GaN nanowire gradually decreases from ∼500 nm to ∼200 nm along the wire axis. • The layer-structure GaN nanowire film possesses good field emission property. - Abstract: A layer-structure gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires, grown on Pt-coated n-type Si (1 1 1) substrate, have been synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The results show: (1) SEM indicates that the geometry structure is layer-structure. HRTEM indicates that GaN nanowire’s preferential growth direction is along [0 0 1] direction. (2) The room temperature PL emission spectrum of the layer-structure GaN nanowires has a peak at 375 nm, which proves that GaN nanowires have potential application in light-emitting nano-devices. (3) Field-emission measurements show that the layer-structure GaN nanowires film has a low turn-on field of 4.39 V/μm (at room temperature), which is sufficient for electron emission devices, field emission displays and vacuum nano-electronic devices. The growth mechanism for GaN nanowires has also been discussed briefly.

  9. Structural and optical studies of GaN pn-junction with AlN buffer layer grown on Si (111) by RF plasma enhanced MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusoff, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Hassan, Zainuriah; Woei, Chin Che; Hassan, Haslan Abu; Abdullah, Mat Johar [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia and Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia); Department of Applied Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 13500 Permatang Pauh, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    GaN pn-junction grown on silicon substrates have been the focus in a number of recent reports and further effort is still necessary to improve its crystalline quality for practical applications. GaN has the high n-type background carrier concentration resulting from native defects commonly thought to be nitrogen vacancies. In this work, we present the growth of pn-junction of GaN on Si (111) substrate using RF plasma-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Both of the layers show uniformity with an average thickness of 0.709 {mu}m and 0.095 {mu}m for GaN and AlN layers, respectively. The XRD spectra indicate that no sign of cubic phase of GaN are found, so it is confirmed that the sample possessed hexagonal structure. It was found that all the allowed Raman optical phonon modes of GaN, i.e. the E2 (low), E1 (high) and A1 (LO) are clearly visible.

  10. Polarity control of GaN epitaxial films grown on LiGaO2(001) substrates and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulin; Wang, Wenliang; Li, Xiaochan; Li, Yuan; Huang, Liegen; Li, Guoqiang

    2017-08-16

    The polarity of GaN epitaxial films grown on LiGaO 2 (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition has been well controlled. It is experimentally proved that the GaN epitaxial films grown on nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates reveal Ga-polarity, while the GaN epitaxial films grown on non-nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates show N-polarity. The growth mechanisms for these two cases are systematically studied by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Theoretical calculation presents that the adsorption of a Ga atom preferentially occurs at the center of three N atoms stacked on the nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates, which leads to the formation of Ga-polarity GaN. Whereas the adsorption of a Ga atom preferentially deposits at the top of a N atom stacked on the non-nitrided LiGaO 2 (001) substrates, which results in the formation of N-polarity GaN. This work of controlling the polarity of GaN epitaxial films is of paramount importance for the fabrication of group-III nitride devices for various applications.

  11. Structural and optical inhomogeneities of Fe doped GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malguth, E.; Hoffmann, A.; Phillips, M. R.

    2008-12-01

    We present the results of cathodoluminescence experiments on a set of Fe doped GaN samples with Fe concentrations of 5×1017, 1×1018, 1×1019, and 2×1020 cm-3. These specimens were grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy with different concentrations of Fe. The introduction of Fe is found to promote the formation of structurally inhomogeneous regions of increased donor concentration. We detect a tendency of these regions to form hexagonal pits at the surface. The locally increased carrier concentration leads to enhanced emission from the band edge and the internal T41(G)-A61(S) transition of Fe3+. In these areas, the luminescence forms a finely structured highly symmetric pattern, which is attributed to defect migration along strain-field lines. Fe doping is found to quench the yellow defect luminescence band and to enhance the blue luminescence band due to the lowering of the Fermi level and the formation of point defects, respectively.

  12. Formation of helical dislocations in ammonothermal GaN substrate by heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horibuchi, Kayo; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kimoto, Yasuji; Nishikawa, Koichi; Kachi, Tetsu

    2016-01-01

    GaN substrate produced by the basic ammonothermal method and an epitaxial layer on the substrate was evaluated using synchrotron radiation x-ray topography and transmission electron microscopy. We revealed that the threading dislocations present in the GaN substrate are deformed into helical dislocations and the generation of the voids by heat treatment in the substrate for the first observation in the GaN crystal. These phenomena are formed by the interactions between the dislocations and vacancies. The helical dislocation was formed in the substrate region, and not in the epitaxial layer region. Furthermore, the evaluation of the influence of the dislocations on the leakage current of Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on the epitaxial layer is discussed. The dislocations did not affect the leakage current characteristics of the epitaxial layer. Our results suggest that the deformation of dislocations in the GaN substrate does not adversely affect the epitaxial layer. (paper)

  13. Growth of high purity semiconductor epitaxial layers by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    semiconductor materials in high purity form by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique. Various possible sources of impurities in such ... reference to the growth of GaAs layers. The technique of growing very high purity layers ... the inner walls of the gas lines and (e) the containers for storing, handling and cleaning of the mate-.

  14. Growth and properties of epitaxial iron oxide layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, F.C; Fujii, T; Hibma, T; Zhang, G.L.; Smulders, P.J M

    1996-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of iron oxides have been grown on a MgO(001) substrate by evaporating natural Fe or Fe-57 from Knudsen cells in the presence of a NO2 flow directed to the substrate. The resulting layers have been investigated in situ with LEED, RHEED, AES and XPS and ex situ with GEMS and ion beam

  15. Growth kinetics and mass transport mechanisms of GaN columns by selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Hartmann, Jana; Mandl, Martin; Sadat Mohajerani, Matin; Wehmann, Hergo-H.; Strassburg, Martin; Waag, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional GaN columns recently have attracted a lot of attention as the potential basis for core-shell light emitting diodes for future solid state lighting. In this study, the fundamental insights into growth kinetics and mass transport mechanisms of N-polar GaN columns during selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned SiOx/sapphire templates are systematically investigated using various pitch of apertures, growth time, and silane flow. Species impingement fluxes on the top surface of columns Jtop and on their sidewall Jsw, as well as, the diffusion flux from the substrate Jsub contribute to the growth of the GaN columns. The vertical and lateral growth rates devoted by Jtop, Jsw and Jsub are estimated quantitatively. The diffusion length of species on the SiOx mask surface λsub as well as on the sidewall surfaces of the 3D columns λsw are determined. The influences of silane on the growth kinetics are discussed. A growth model is developed for this selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy processing.

  16. Atomic layer deposition of GaN at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgit, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Alevli, Mustafa; Biyikli, Necmi [UNAM - Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-01-15

    The authors report on the self-limiting growth of GaN thin films at low temperatures. Films were deposited on Si substrates by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMG) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the group-III and -V precursors, respectively. GaN deposition rate saturated at 185 deg. C for NH{sub 3} doses starting from 90 s. Atomic layer deposition temperature window was observed from 185 to {approx}385 deg. C. Deposition rate, which is constant at {approx}0.51 A/cycle within the temperature range of 250 - 350 deg. C, increased slightly as the temperature decreased to 185 deg. C. In the bulk film, concentrations of Ga, N, and O were constant at {approx}36.6, {approx}43.9, and {approx}19.5 at. %, respectively. C was detected only at the surface and no C impurities were found in the bulk film. High oxygen concentration in films was attributed to the oxygen impurities present in group-V precursor. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed a microstructure consisting of small crystallites dispersed in an amorphous matrix.

  17. A DFT study on NEA GaN photocathode with an ultrathin n-type Si-doped GaN cap layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Kong, Yike; Diao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Due to the drawbacks of conventional negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathodes activated by Cs or Cs/O, a new-type NEA GaN photocathodes with heterojunction surface dispense with Cs activation are proposed. This structure can be obtained through the coverage of an ultrathin n-type Si-doped GaN cap layer on the p-type Mg-doped GaN emission layer. The influences of the cap layer on the photocathode are calculated using DFT. This study indicates that the n-type cap layer can promote the photoemission characteristics of GaN photocathode and demonstrates the probability of the preparation of a NEA GaN photocathode with an n-type cap layer.

  18. Optical properties of C-doped bulk GaN wafers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromov, S.; Hemmingsson, C.; Monemar, B.; Hultman, L.; Pozina, G.

    2014-01-01

    Freestanding bulk C-doped GaN wafers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy are studied by optical spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Significant changes of the near band gap (NBG) emission as well as an enhancement of yellow luminescence have been found with increasing C doping from 5 × 10 16 cm −3 to 6 × 10 17 cm −3 . Cathodoluminescence mapping reveals hexagonal domain structures (pits) with high oxygen concentrations formed during the growth. NBG emission within the pits even at high C concentration is dominated by a rather broad line at ∼3.47 eV typical for n-type GaN. In the area without pits, quenching of the donor bound exciton (DBE) spectrum at moderate C doping levels of 1–2 × 10 17 cm −3 is observed along with the appearance of two acceptor bound exciton lines typical for Mg-doped GaN. The DBE ionization due to local electric fields in compensated GaN may explain the transformation of the NBG emission

  19. Backward diodes using heavily Mg-doped GaN growth by ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hironori; Martin, Denis; Malinverni, Marco; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    We grew heavily Mg-doped GaN using ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy. The use of low growth temperature (740 °C) allows decreasing the incorporation of donor-like defects (p-type doping compensation. As a result, a net acceptor concentration of 7 × 1019 cm-3 was achieved, and the hole concentration measured by Hall effect was as high as 2 × 1019 cm-3 at room temperature. Using such a high Mg doping level, we fabricated GaN backward diodes without polarization-assisted tunneling. The backward diodes exhibited a tunneling-current density of 225 A/cm2 at a reverse bias of -1 V at room temperature.

  20. Nucleation of single GaN nanorods with diameters smaller than 35 nm by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Araki, Tsutomu; Palisaitis, Justinas; Persson, Per O. Å.; Olof Holtz, Per; Birch, Jens; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Nanishi, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Nucleation mechanism of catalyst-free GaN nanorod grown on Si(111) is investigated by the fabrication of uniform and narrow (<35 nm) nanorods without a pre-defined mask by molecular beam epitaxy. Direct evidences show that the nucleation of GaN nanorods stems from the sidewall of the underlying islands down to the Si(111) substrate, different from commonly reported ones on top of the island directly. Accordingly, the growth and density control of the nanorods is exploited by a “narrow-pass” approach that only narrow nanorod can be grown. The optimal size of surrounding non-nucleation area around single nanorod is estimated as 88 nm

  1. Nucleation of single GaN nanorods with diameters smaller than 35 nm by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yen-Ting [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Araki, Tsutomu [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 525-8577 Shiga (Japan); Palisaitis, Justinas; Persson, Per O. Å.; Olof Holtz, Per; Birch, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Chen, Li-Chyong [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuei-Hsien [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Nanishi, Yasushi [Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 525-8577 Shiga (Japan)

    2013-11-11

    Nucleation mechanism of catalyst-free GaN nanorod grown on Si(111) is investigated by the fabrication of uniform and narrow (<35 nm) nanorods without a pre-defined mask by molecular beam epitaxy. Direct evidences show that the nucleation of GaN nanorods stems from the sidewall of the underlying islands down to the Si(111) substrate, different from commonly reported ones on top of the island directly. Accordingly, the growth and density control of the nanorods is exploited by a “narrow-pass” approach that only narrow nanorod can be grown. The optimal size of surrounding non-nucleation area around single nanorod is estimated as 88 nm.

  2. Characterization of as-grown and heavily irradiated GaN epitaxial structures by photoconductivity and photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubas, E.; Jurs e-dot nas, S.; Tomasiunas, R.; Vaitkus, J.; Zukauskas, A.; Blue, A.; Rahman, M.; Smith, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of radiation defects on photoconductivity transients and photoluminescence (PL) spectra have been examined in semi-insulating GaN epitaxial layers grown on bulk n-GaN/sapphire substrates. Defects induced by 10-keV X-ray irradiation with a dose of 600Mrad and 100-keV neutrons with fluences of 5x10 14 and 10 16 cm -2 have been revealed through contact photoconductivity and microwave absorption transients. The amplitude of the initial photoconductivity decay is significantly reduced by the radiation defect density. A simultaneous decrease with radiation-induced defect density is also observed in the steady-state PL intensity of yellow, blue and ultraviolet bands peaked at 2.18, 2.85, and 3.42eV, respectively. The decrease of the PL intensity is accompanied by an increase of asymptotic decay lifetime, which is due to excess carrier multi-trapping. The decay can be described by the stretched exponential approximation exp[-(t/τ) α ] with different values of α in as-grown material (α∼0.7) and irradiated samples (α∼0.3). The value of the fracton dimension d s of the disordered structure, evaluated as d s =2α/(1-α), changes from 4.7 to 0.86 for as-grown and irradiated material, respectively, implying percolative carrier motion on an infinite cluster of dislocations net in the as-grown material and cluster fragmentation into finite fractons after irradiation

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a liquid Eu precursor (EuCp{sup pm}{sub 2}) allowing for valence control of Eu ions doped into GaN by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Brandon, E-mail: bmitchell@wcupa.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, PA, 19383 (United States); Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Koizumi, Atsushi; Nunokawa, Takumi; Wakamatsu, Ryuta; Lee, Dong-gun; Saitoh, Yasuhisa; Timmerman, Dolf [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Kuboshima, Yoshinori; Mogi, Takayuki; Higashi, Shintaro; Kikukawa, Kaoru [Kojundo Chemical Laboratory Co., Ltd., 5-1-28 Chiyoda, Sakado, Saitama, 350-0284 (Japan); Ofuchi, Hironori; Honma, Tetsuo [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, 679-5198 (Japan); Fujiwara, Yasufumi, E-mail: fujiwara@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    A liquid Eu precursor, bis(normal-propyl-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl)europium has been synthesized. This precursor exists as a liquid at temperatures higher than 49 °C, has a moderately high vapor pressure, contains no oxygen in its molecular structure, and can be distilled to high purity. These properties make it ideal for doping using a chemical vapor or atomic layer deposition method, and provide a degree of control previously unavailable. As a precursor the Eu exists in the divalent valance state, however, once doped into GaN by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy, the room-temperature photoluminescence of the Eu-doped GaN exhibited the typical red emission due to the intra-4f shell transition of trivalent Eu. After variation of the growth temperature, it was found that divalent Eu could be stabilized in the GaN matrix. By tuning the Fermi level through donor doping, the ratio of Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} could be controlled. The change in valence state of the Eu ions was confirmed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure. - Highlights: • A liquid Eu precursor was synthesized and its properties were characterized. • Precursor has a low melting point and a moderately high vapor pressure. • Does not contain oxygen in its molecular structure. • Eu can changed its valance state when incorporated into GaN. • Valence state of Eu in GaN can be controlled by donor doping.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a liquid Eu precursor (EuCppm2) allowing for valence control of Eu ions doped into GaN by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Brandon; Koizumi, Atsushi; Nunokawa, Takumi; Wakamatsu, Ryuta; Lee, Dong-gun; Saitoh, Yasuhisa; Timmerman, Dolf; Kuboshima, Yoshinori; Mogi, Takayuki; Higashi, Shintaro; Kikukawa, Kaoru; Ofuchi, Hironori; Honma, Tetsuo; Fujiwara, Yasufumi

    2017-01-01

    A liquid Eu precursor, bis(normal-propyl-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl)europium has been synthesized. This precursor exists as a liquid at temperatures higher than 49 °C, has a moderately high vapor pressure, contains no oxygen in its molecular structure, and can be distilled to high purity. These properties make it ideal for doping using a chemical vapor or atomic layer deposition method, and provide a degree of control previously unavailable. As a precursor the Eu exists in the divalent valance state, however, once doped into GaN by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy, the room-temperature photoluminescence of the Eu-doped GaN exhibited the typical red emission due to the intra-4f shell transition of trivalent Eu. After variation of the growth temperature, it was found that divalent Eu could be stabilized in the GaN matrix. By tuning the Fermi level through donor doping, the ratio of Eu 2+ to Eu 3+ could be controlled. The change in valence state of the Eu ions was confirmed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure. - Highlights: • A liquid Eu precursor was synthesized and its properties were characterized. • Precursor has a low melting point and a moderately high vapor pressure. • Does not contain oxygen in its molecular structure. • Eu can changed its valance state when incorporated into GaN. • Valence state of Eu in GaN can be controlled by donor doping.

  5. Spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Mn doped GaN epitaxial films grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidyasagar, R.; Lin, Y.-T.; Tu, L.-W.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We report here that micro-Raman scattering spectrum for Mn doped GaN thin film has displayed a new peak manifested at 578 cm −1 , by which it is attributed to interior LVM originated by the incorporation of Mn ions in place of Ga sites. Mn doped GaN thin film also showed the typical negative magnetoresistance up to ∼50 K, revealing that the film showed magnetic ordering of spins below 50 K. Display Omitted Highlights: ► GaN and Mn doped GaN single phase wurtzite structures grown by PAMBE. ► The phase purity of the epilayers investigated by HRXRD, HRSEM and EDX. ► The red shift in near band edge emission has been observed using micro-PL. ► A new peak related LVM at 578 cm −1 in micro-Raman scattering measurements confirmed Mn doped into GaN. ► Negative-magnetoresistance investigations have showed that the film has T c −1 , which is attributed to the vacancy-related local vibrational mode of Mn occupying the Ga site. Temperature dependent negative magnetoresistance measurements provide a direct evidence of magnetic ordering below 50 K for the Mn doped GaN thin film.

  6. GaN Schottky diodes with single-crystal aluminum barriers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, H. Y.; Yang, W. C.; Lee, P. Y.; Lin, C. W.; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Hsieh, K. C.; Cheng, K. Y., E-mail: kycheng@ee.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hsu, C.-H. [Division of Scientific Research, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-22

    GaN-based Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) with single-crystal Al barriers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are fabricated. Examined using in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffractions, ex-situ high-resolution x-ray diffractions, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, it is determined that epitaxial Al grows with its [111] axis coincident with the [0001] axis of the GaN substrate without rotation. In fabricated SBDs, a 0.2 V barrier height enhancement and 2 orders of magnitude reduction in leakage current are observed in single crystal Al/GaN SBDs compared to conventional thermal deposited Al/GaN SBDs. The strain induced piezoelectric field is determined to be the major source of the observed device performance enhancements.

  7. ''Cube-on-hexagon'' orientation relationship for Fe on GaN(0001): The missing link in bcc/hcp epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Cunxu; Brandt, Oliver; Laehnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Jenichen, Bernd; Schoenherr, Hans-Peter; Erwin, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, the epitaxy of body-centered-cubic Fe on hexagonal GaN. For growth on the Ga-polar GaN(0001) surface we find the well-known Pitsch-Schrader orientation relationship between Fe and GaN. On the N-polar GaN(0001) surface we observe coexistence between the familiar Burgers orientation and a new orientation in which the Fe(001) plane is parallel to GaN(0001). This 'cube-on-hexagon' orientation constitutes the high-symmetry link required for constructing a symmetry diagram for bcc/hcp systems in which all orientation relationships are connected by simple rotations.

  8. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-08-31

    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures.

  9. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al x Ga 1−x N, In x Al 1−x N and In x Ga 1−x N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures

  10. Self-organization of dislocation-free, high-density, vertically aligned GaN nanocolumns involving InGaN quantum wells on graphene/SiO2 covered with a thin AlN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiroaki; Konno, Yuta; Kishino, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated the self-organization of high-density GaN nanocolumns on multilayer graphene (MLG)/SiO 2 covered with a thin AlN buffer layer by RF-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. MLG/SiO 2 substrates were prepared by the transfer of CVD graphene onto thermally oxidized SiO 2 /Si [100] substrates. Employing the MLG with an AlN buffer layer enabled the self-organization of high-density and vertically aligned nanocolumns. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that no threading dislocations, stacking faults, or twinning defects were included in the self-organized nanocolumns. The photoluminescence (PL) peak intensities of the self-organized GaN nanocolumns were 2.0–2.6 times higher than those of a GaN substrate grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Moreover, no yellow luminescence or ZB-phase GaN emission was observed from the nanocolumns. An InGaN/GaN MQW and p-type GaN were integrated into GaN nanocolumns grown on MLG, displaying a single-peak PL emission at a wavelength of 533 nm. Thus, high-density nitride p–i–n nanocolumns were fabricated on SiO 2 /Si using the transferred MLG interlayer, indicating the possibility of developing visible nanocolumn LEDs on graphene/SiO 2 . (paper)

  11. Seed layer technique for high quality epitaxial manganite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Graziosi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an innovative approach to the simultaneous control of growth mode and magnetotransport properties of manganite thin films, based on an easy-to-implement film/substrate interface engineering. The deposition of a manganite seed layer and the optimization of the substrate temperature allows a persistent bi-dimensional epitaxy and robust ferromagnetic properties at the same time. Structural measurements confirm that in such interface-engineered films, the optimal properties are related to improved epitaxy. A new growth scenario is envisaged, compatible with a shift from heteroepitaxy towards pseudo-homoepitaxy. Relevant growth parameters such as formation energy, roughening temperature, strain profile and chemical states are derived.

  12. Selective-area growth of GaN nanowires on SiO{sub 2}-masked Si (111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, J. E.; Doundoulakis, G. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology–Hellas, N. Plastira 100, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Lymperakis, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Eftychis, S.; Georgakilas, A., E-mail: alexandr@physics.uoc.gr [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Adikimenakis, A.; Tsagaraki, K.; Androulidaki, M.; Konstantinidis, G. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology–Hellas, N. Plastira 100, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Olziersky, A.; Dimitrakis, P.; Ioannou-Sougleridis, V.; Normand, P. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarchou Grigoriou and Neapoleos 27, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Koukoula, T.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-06-14

    We analyze a method to selectively grow straight, vertical gallium nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at sites specified by a silicon oxide mask, which is thermally grown on silicon (111) substrates and patterned by electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching. The investigated method requires only one single molecular beam epitaxy MBE growth process, i.e., the SiO{sub 2} mask is formed on silicon instead of on a previously grown GaN or AlN buffer layer. We present a systematic and analytical study involving various mask patterns, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, as well as numerical simulations, to evaluate how the dimensions (window diameter and spacing) of the mask affect the distribution of the nanowires, their morphology, and alignment, as well as their photonic properties. Capabilities and limitations for this method of selective-area growth of nanowires have been identified. A window diameter less than 50 nm and a window spacing larger than 500 nm can provide single nanowire nucleation in nearly all mask windows. The results are consistent with a Ga diffusion length on the silicon dioxide surface in the order of approximately 1 μm.

  13. Structural characteristics of single crystalline GaN films grown on (111) diamond with AlN buffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécz, Béla; Tóth, Lajos; Barna, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    Hexagonal GaN films with the [0001] direction parallel to the surface normal were grown on (111) oriented single crystalline diamond substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Pre-treatments of the diamond surface with the nitrogen plasma beam, prior the nucleation of a thin AlN layer......, eliminated the inversion domains and reduced the density of threading dislocations in the GaN epilayers. The films have an in-plane epitaxial relationship [1010]GaN//[110]diamond. Thus GaN (0001) thin films of single epitaxial relationship and of single polarity were realised on diamond with AlN buffer....

  14. Growth and optical characteristics of Tm-doped AlGaN layer grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, J.; Fuji, R.; Tatebayashi, J.; Timmerman, D.; Lesage, A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the growth and optical properties of Tm-doped AlGaN layers by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The morphological and optical properties of Tm-doped GaN (GaN:Tm) and Tm-doped AlGaN (AlGaN:Tm) were investigated by Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) characterization. Nomarski images reveal an increase of surface roughness upon doping Tm into both GaN and AlGaN layers. The PL characterization of GaN:Tm shows emission in the near-infrared range originating from intra-4f shell transitions of Tm3+ ions. In contrast, AlGaN:Tm also exhibits blue light emission from Tm3+ ions. In that case, the wider band gap of the AlGaN host allows energy transfer to higher states of the Tm3+ ions. With time-resolved PL measurements, we could distinguish three types of luminescent sites of Tm3+ in the AlGaN:Tm layer, having different decay times. Our results confirm that Tm ions can be doped into GaN and AlGaN by OMVPE, and show potential for the fabrication of novel high-color-purity blue light emitting diodes.

  15. Characteristics of the epitaxy of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth using a nitrided titanium buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Chen-Yu; Li, Zhen-Yu; Chang, Jenq-Yang; Chi, Gou-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a buffer layer of nitrided titanium (Ti) achieved through the nitridation of a Ti metal layer on a sapphire substrate was used for the epitaxial growth of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) achieved by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The effect of in-situ Ti metal nitridation on the performance of these InGaN-based LEDs was then investigated. It was very clear that the use of the nitrided Ti buffer layer (NTBL) induced the formation of a nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth layer during the epitaxial growth. When evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, this epi-layer exhibited large in-plane compressive stress releasing with a Raman shift value of 567.9 cm -1 . Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results indicated that the InGaN-based LEDs with an NTBL have improved crystal quality, with a low threading dislocations density being yielded via the strain relaxation in the InGaN-based LEDs. Based on the results mentioned above, the electroluminescence results indicate that the light performance of InGaN-based LEDs with an NTBL can be enhanced by 45% and 42% at 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively. These results suggest that the strain relaxation and quality improvement in the GaN epilayer could be responsible for the enhancement of emission power. - Highlights: • The crystal-quality of InGaN-based LEDs with NTBL by NELOG was improved. • The InGaN-based LEDs with NTBL have strain releases by NELOG. • The optical properties of InGaN-based LEDs were shown by CL and EL measurements

  16. Comparative study of polar and semipolar (112¯2) InGaN layers grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Duc V.; Zubialevich, V. Z.; Oehler, F.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Alam, S. N.; Parbrook, P. J.; Caliebe, M.; Scholtz, F.

    2014-01-01

    InGaN layers were grown simultaneously on (112 ¯ 2) GaN and (0001) GaN templates by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. At higher growth temperature (≥750 °C), the indium content ( ¯ 2) and (0001) InGaN layers was similar. However, for temperatures less than 750 °C, the indium content of the (112 ¯ 2) InGaN layers (15%–26%) were generally lower than those with (0001) orientation (15%–32%). The compositional deviation was attributed to the different strain relaxations between the (112 ¯ 2) and (0001) InGaN layers. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements of the (112 ¯ 2) InGaN layers showed an emission wavelength that shifts gradually from 380 nm to 580 nm with decreasing growth temperature (or increasing indium composition). The peak emission wavelength of the (112 ¯ 2) InGaN layers with an indium content of more than 10% blue-shifted a constant value of ≈(50–60) nm when using higher excitation power densities. This blue-shift was attributed to band filling effects in the layers.

  17. Synthesis of Si epitaxial layers from technical silicon by liquid-phase epitaxy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov, Sh.I.; Saidov, A.S.; Sapaev, B.; Horvat, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: For today silicon is one of the most suitable materials because it is investigated, cheap and several its parameters are even just as good as those of connections A III B V . Disintegration of the USSR has led to the must difficult position of the industry of silicon instrument manufacture because of all industry of semiconductor silicon manufacture had generally concentrated in Ukraine. The importance of semiconductor silicon is rather great, because of, in opinion of expects, the nearest decade this material will dominate over not only on microelectronics but also in the majority of basic researches. Research of obtain of semiconductor silicon, power electronics and solar conversion, is topical interest of the science. In the work research of technological conditions of obtain and measurement of parameters of epitaxial layers obtained from technical silicon + stannum is resulted. Growth of silicon epitaxial layer with suitable parameters on thickness, cleanliness uniformity and structural perfection depends on the correct choice of condition of the growth and temperature. It is shown that in this case the growth occurring without preliminary clearing of materials (mix materials and substrates) at crystallization of epitaxial layer from technical silicon is accompanied by clearing of silicon film from majority of impurities order-of-magnitude. As starting raw material technical silicon of mark Kr.3 has been taken. By means of X-ray microanalyzer 'Jeol' JSM 5910 LV - Japan the quantitative analysis from the different points has been and from the different sides and from different points has been carried out. After corresponding chemical and mechanical processing the quantitative analysis of layer on chip has been carried out. Results of the quantitative analysis are shown. More effective clearing occurs that of the impurity atoms such as Al, P, Ca, Ti and Fe. The obtained material (epitaxial layer) has the parameters: specific resistance ρ∼0.1-4.0

  18. Zero lattice mismatch and twin-free single crystalline ScN buffer layers for GaN growth on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupina, L.; Zoellner, M. H.; Dietrich, B.; Capellini, G. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt, Oder (Germany); Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M. [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Thapa, S. B.; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P. [SILTRONIC AG, Hanns-Seidel-Platz 4, 81737 München (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt, Oder (Germany); BTU Cottbus, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2015-11-16

    We report the growth of thin ScN layers deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) substrates. Using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, we find that ScN films grown at 600 °C are single crystalline, twin-free with rock-salt crystal structure, and exhibit a direct optical band gap of 2.2 eV. A high degree of crystalline perfection and a very good lattice matching between ScN and GaN (misfit < 0.1%) makes the ScN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer system a very promising template for the growth of high quality GaN layers on silicon.

  19. Possibility of the use of intermediate carbidsiliconoxide nanolayers on polydiamond substrates for gallium nitride layers epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averichkin, P. A., E-mail: P-Yugov@mail.ru; Donskov, A. A. [State Research and Design Institute of Rare-Metal Industry Giredmet AO (Russian Federation); Dukhnovsky, M. P. [R & D Enterprise Istok (Russian Federation); Knyazev, S. N. [State Research and Design Institute of Rare-Metal Industry Giredmet AO (Russian Federation); Kozlova, Yu. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Yugova, T. G.; Belogorokhov, I. A. [State Research and Design Institute of Rare-Metal Industry Giredmet AO (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    The results of using carbidsiliconoxide (a-C:SiO1{sub .5}) films with a thickness of 30–60 nm, produced by the pyrolysis annealing of oligomethylsilseskvioksana (CH{sub 3}–SiO{sub 1.5}){sub n} with cyclolinear (staircased) molecular structure, as intermediate films in the hydride vapor phase epitaxy of gallium nitride on polycrystalline CVD-diamond substrates are presented. In the pyrolysis annealing of (CH{sub 3}–SiO{sub 1.5}){sub n} films in an atmosphere of nitrogen at a temperature of 1060°C, methyl radicals are carbonized to yield carbon atoms chemically bound to silicon. In turn, these atoms form a SiC monolayer on the surface of a-C:SiO{sub 1.5} films via covalent bonding with silicon. It is shown that GaN islands grow on such an intermediate layer on CVD-polydiamond substrates in the process of hydride vapor phase epitaxy in a vertical reactor from the GaCl–NH{sub 3}–N{sub 2} gas mixture.

  20. Growth and characterization of semi-insulating carbon-doped/undoped GaN multiple-layer buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Won, Chul-Ho; Kang, Hee-Sung; Kim, Young-Jo; Kang, In Man; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Yong Tae

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a new semi-insulating GaN buffer layer, which consists of multiple carbon-doped and undoped GaN layer. The buffer layer showed sufficiently good semi-insulating characteristics, attributed to the depletion effect between the carbon-doped GaN and the undoped GaN layers, even though the thickness of the carbon-doped GaN layer in the periodic structure was designed to be very thin to minimize the total carbon incorporation into the buffer layer. The AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure grown on the proposed buffer exhibited much better electrical and structural properties than that grown on the conventional thick carbon-doped semi-insulating GaN buffer layer, confirmed by Hall measurement, x-ray diffraction, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The fabricated device also showed excellent buffer breakdown characteristics. (paper)

  1. Equilibrium stability of strained epitaxial layers on a rigid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, E.; Kosterlitz, J.M.; Ying, S.C.

    1987-07-01

    A simple theory of the equilibrium stability of an strained epitaxial layer on a rigid substrate is presented. We generalise the Frankvan der Merwe model of a single layer and consider N layers of adsorbate on a substrate. Continuum elasticity theory is used to describe each layer, but the coupling between layers is treated ina discrete fashion. Our method interpolates between a few layers and the thick film limit of standard dislocation theory, and in this limit the standard results are obtained. In addition, we developed a variational approach which agrees well with our exact calculations. The advantage of our method over previous ores is that it allows to perform stability analyses of arbitrary superlattice configurations. (author) [pt

  2. Energy Assisted Epitaxy of GaN Using a Low Flux Nitrogen Atom Source

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    .... The grant was successful in all three areas. As detailed in this report, we have performed high quality research on fundamental issues of growth in GaN, a strategic material, in addition to training many students...

  3. MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon-Hun; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jong Hack; Kim, Nam Hyuk; Kim, Min Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hyunseok [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon, 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    100 nm InN layer was grown on sapphire c-plane using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Low temperature (LT) GaN layer was grown on InN layer to protect InN layer from direct exposure to hydrogen flow during high temperature (HT) GaN growth and/or abrupt decomposition. Subsequently, thick HT GaN layer (2.5 {mu}m thick) was grown at 1000 {sup o}C on LT GaN/InN/sapphire template. Microstructure of epilayer-substrate interface was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the high angle annular dark field TEM image, the growth of columnar structured LT GaN and HT GaN with good crystallinity was observed. Though thickness of InN interlayer is assumed to be about 100 nm based on growth rate, it was not clearly shown in TEM image due to the InN decomposition. The lattice parameters of GaN layers were measured by XRD measurement, which shows that InN interlayer reduces the compressive strain in GaN layer. The relaxation of compressive strain in GaN layer was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. As shown in the PL spectra, red shift of GaN band edge peak was observed, which indicates the reduction of compressive strain in GaN epilayer.

  4. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth - a tool for dislocation blockade in multilayer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zytkiewicz, Z.R.

    1998-01-01

    Results on epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaAs layers are reported. The methods of controlling the growth anisotropy, the effect of substrate defects filtration in epitaxial lateral overgrowth procedure and influence of the mask on properties of epitaxial lateral overgrowth layers will be discussed. The case od GaAs epitaxial lateral overgrowth layers grown by liquid phase epitaxy on heavily dislocated GaAs substrates was chosen as an example to illustrate the processes discussed. The similarities between our results and those reported recently for GaN layers grown laterally by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy will be underlined. (author)

  5. Systematic study on dynamic atomic layer epitaxy of InN on/in +c-GaN matrix and fabrication of fine-structure InN/GaN quantum wells: Role of high growth temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akihiko; Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Hwang, Eun-Sook; Imai, Daichi; Itoi, Takaomi

    2016-12-01

    The growth kinetics and properties of nominally 1-ML (monolayer)-thick InN wells on/in +c-GaN matrix fabricated using dynamic atomic layer epitaxy (D-ALEp) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were systematically studied, with particular attention given to the effects of growth temperature. Attention was also given to how and where the ˜1-ML-thick InN layers were frozen or embedded on/in the +c-GaN matrix. The D-ALEp of InN on GaN was a two-stage process; in the 1st stage, an "In+N" bilayer/monolayer was formed on the GaN surface, while in the 2nd, this was capped by a GaN barrier layer. Each process was monitored in-situ using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The target growth temperature was above 620 °C and much higher than the upper critical epitaxy temperature of InN (˜500 °C). The "In+N" bilayer/monolayer tended to be an incommensurate phase, and the growth of InN layers was possible only when they were capped with a GaN layer. The InN layers could be coherently inserted into the GaN matrix under self-organizing and self-limiting epitaxy modes. The growth temperature was the most dominant growth parameter on both the growth process and the structure of the InN layers. Reflecting the inherent growth behavior of D-ALEp grown InN on/in +c-GaN at high growth temperature, the embedded InN layers in the GaN matrix were basically not full-ML in coverage, and the thickness of sheet-island-like InN layers was essentially either 1-ML or 2-ML. It was found that these InN layers tended to be frozen at the step edges on the GaN and around screw-type threading dislocations. The InN wells formed type-I band line-up heterostructures with GaN barriers, with exciton localization energies of about 300 and 500 meV at 15 K for the 1-ML and 2-ML InN wells, respectively.

  6. Carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane for high electron mobility transistor applications: Growth and device results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Nilsson, D.; Danielsson, Ö.; Pedersen, H.; Janzén, E.; Forsberg, U. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping 58183 (Sweden); Bergsten, J.; Rorsman, N. [Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg 41296 (Sweden)

    2015-12-28

    The creation of a semi insulating (SI) buffer layer in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) devices is crucial for preventing a current path beneath the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). In this investigation, we evaluate the use of a gaseous carbon gas precursor, propane, for creating a SI GaN buffer layer in a HEMT structure. The carbon doped profile, using propane gas, is a two stepped profile with a high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) epitaxial layer closest to the substrate and a lower doped layer (3 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −3}) closest to the 2DEG channel. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurement shows a uniform incorporation versus depth, and no memory effect from carbon doping can be seen. The high carbon doping (1.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}) does not influence the surface morphology, and a roughness root-mean-square value of 0.43 nm is obtained from Atomic Force Microscopy. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements show very sharp peaks and no structural degradation can be seen related to the heavy carbon doped layer. HEMTs are fabricated and show an extremely low drain induced barrier lowering value of 0.1 mV/V, demonstrating an excellent buffer isolation. The carbon doped GaN buffer layer using propane gas is compared to samples using carbon from the trimethylgallium molecule, showing equally low leakage currents, demonstrating the capability of growing highly resistive buffer layers using a gaseous carbon source.

  7. Growth and coalescence control of inclined c-axis polar and semipolar GaN multilayer structures grown on Si(111), Si(112), and Si(115) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl; Wośko, Mateusz; Paszkiewicz, Bartłomiej; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan; Paszkiewicz, Regina [The Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Sankowska, Iwona [The Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    Herein, silicon substrates in alternative orientations from the commonly used Si(111) were used to enable the growth of polar and semipolar GaN-based structures by the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy method. Specifically, Si(112) and Si(115) substrates were used for the epitaxial growth of nitride multilayer structures, while the same layer schemes were also deposited on Si(111) for comparison purposes. Multiple approaches were studied to examine the influence of the seed layers and the growth process conditions upon the final properties of the GaN/Si(11x) templates. Scanning electron microscope images were acquired to examine the topography of the deposited samples. It was observed that the substrate orientation and the process conditions allow control to produce an isolated GaN block growth or a coalesced layer growth, resulting in inclined c-axis GaN structures under various forms. The angles of the GaN c-axis inclination were determined by x-ray diffraction measurements and compared with the results obtained from the analysis of the atomic force microscope (AFM) images. The AFM image analysis method to determine the structure tilt was found to be a viable method to estimate the c-axis inclination angles of the isolated blocks and the not-fully coalesced layers. The quality of the grown samples was characterized by the photoluminescence method conducted at a wide range of temperatures from 77 to 297 K, and was correlated with the sample degree of coalescence. Using the free-excitation peak positions plotted as a function of temperature, analytical Bose-Einstein model parameters were fitted to obtain further information about the grown structures.

  8. Improved crystal quality of a-plane GaN with high- temperature 3-dimensional GaN buffer layers deposited by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hyun; Moon, Dae Young; Kim, Bum Ho; Kim, Dong Uk; Chang, Ho Jun; Jeon, Heon Su; Yoon, Eui Joon; Joo, Ki Su; You, Duck Jae; Nanishi, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire substrates suffers from high density defects and rough surfaces. To obtain pit-free a-plane GaN by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, we intentionally grew high-temperature (HT) 3-dimensional (3D) GaN buffer layers on a GaN nucleation layer. The effects of the HT 3D GaN buffer layers on crystal quality and the surface morphology of a-plane GaN were studied. The insertion of a 3D GaN buffer layer with an optimum thickness was found to be an effective method to obtain pit-free a-plane GaN with improved crystalline quality on r-plane sapphire substrates. An a-plane GaN light emitting diode (LED) at an emission wavelength around 480 nm with negligible peak shift was successfully fabricated.

  9. The role of inversion domain boundaries in fabricating crack-free GaN films on sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong Nam, E-mail: ynahn81@gmail.com; Lee, Sung Hoon, E-mail: sunghoon.lee@corning.com; Lim, Sung Keun, E-mail: sk96.lim@samsung.com; Woo, Kwang Je, E-mail: kwangje.woo@corning.com; Kim, Hyunbin, E-mail: hyunbin.kim@corning.com

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Atomistic simulations of inversion domain boundary (IDB) in GaN were performed. • The existence of IDBs in GaN films leads to the reduction of the film stiffness. • A sudden reduction of IDB density induces a strong tensile stress within the films. • The density of IDB in GaN film can be controlled by adjusting GaCl/NH{sub 3} flow ratio. • A microstructure of GaN buffer layer for minimization of stress was proposed. - Abstract: Inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) are frequently found in GaN films grown on sapphire substrates. However, the lack of atomic-level understandings about the effects of the IDBs on the properties of GaN films has hindered to utilize the IDBs for the stress release that minimizes the crack-formation in GaN films. This study performed atomistic computational analyses to fundamentally understand the roles of the IDBs in the development of the stresses in the GaN films. A sudden reduction of the IDB density induces a strong intrinsic stress in the GaN films, possibly leading to the mud-cracking of the films. A gradual decrease in the IDB density was achieved by slowly reducing the GaCl flux during the growth process of GaN buffer layer on sapphire substrates, and allowed us to experimentally demonstrate the successful fabrication of 4-in. crack-free GaN films. This approach may contribute to the fabrication of larger crack-free GaN films.

  10. The role of inversion domain boundaries in fabricating crack-free GaN films on sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yong Nam; Lee, Sung Hoon; Lim, Sung Keun; Woo, Kwang Je; Kim, Hyunbin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Atomistic simulations of inversion domain boundary (IDB) in GaN were performed. • The existence of IDBs in GaN films leads to the reduction of the film stiffness. • A sudden reduction of IDB density induces a strong tensile stress within the films. • The density of IDB in GaN film can be controlled by adjusting GaCl/NH 3 flow ratio. • A microstructure of GaN buffer layer for minimization of stress was proposed. - Abstract: Inversion domain boundaries (IDBs) are frequently found in GaN films grown on sapphire substrates. However, the lack of atomic-level understandings about the effects of the IDBs on the properties of GaN films has hindered to utilize the IDBs for the stress release that minimizes the crack-formation in GaN films. This study performed atomistic computational analyses to fundamentally understand the roles of the IDBs in the development of the stresses in the GaN films. A sudden reduction of the IDB density induces a strong intrinsic stress in the GaN films, possibly leading to the mud-cracking of the films. A gradual decrease in the IDB density was achieved by slowly reducing the GaCl flux during the growth process of GaN buffer layer on sapphire substrates, and allowed us to experimentally demonstrate the successful fabrication of 4-in. crack-free GaN films. This approach may contribute to the fabrication of larger crack-free GaN films

  11. Improved InGaN/GaN quantum wells on treated GaN template with a Ga-rich GaN interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhilai; Shen, Xiyang; Wu, Zhengyuan; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Treated GaN template was achieved by in situ droplet epitaxy of a Ga-rich GaN interlayer on the conventional GaN template. InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) were grown on the conventional and treated GaN templates under the same growth conditions and then comprehensively characterized. The indium homogeneity in the InGaN layers and the interface sharpness between InGaN and GaN layers of the InGaN/GaN QWs on the treated GaN template were significantly improved. The emission intensity from the InGaN/GaN QWs on the treated GaN template was enhanced by 20% than that on the conventional GaN template, which was attributed to the strain reduction and the improvement in crystalline quality. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Investigation of AlN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on vicinal Si(111) as templates for GaN quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benaissa, M.; Vennegues, P.; Tottereau, O.; Nguyen, L.; Semond, F.

    2006-01-01

    The use of AlN epitaxial films deposited on vicinal Si(111) as templates for the growth of GaN quantum dots is investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. It is found that the substrate vicinality induces both a slight tilt of the AlN (0001) direction with respect to the [111] direction and a step bunching mechanism. As a consequence, a dislocation dragging behavior is observed giving rise to dislocation-free areas well suited for the nucleation of GaN quantum dots

  13. Improved radiation tolerance of MAPS using a depleted epitaxial layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorokhov, A., E-mail: Andrei.Dorokhov@IReS.in2p3.f [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Bertolone, G.; Baudot, J.; Brogna, A.S.; Colledani, C.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Deveaux, M. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Senckenberganlage 31, 60325 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Doziere, G.; Dulinski, W. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Fontaine, J.-C. [Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies (GRPHE), Universite de Haute Alsace, 61, rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse (France); Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Koziel, M.; Morel, F.; Santos, C.; Specht, M.; Valin, I. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-12-11

    Tracking performance of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) developed at IPHC (Turchetta, et al., 2001) have been extensively studied (Winter, et al., 2001; Gornushkin, et al., 2002) . Numerous sensor prototypes, called MIMOSA, were fabricated and tested since 1999 in order to optimise the charge collection efficiency and power dissipation, to minimise the noise and to increase the readout speed. The radiation tolerance was also investigated. The highest fluence tolerable for a 10{mu}m pitch device was found to be {approx}10{sup 13}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, while it was only 2x10{sup 12}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} for a 20{mu}m pitch device. The purpose of this paper is to show that the tolerance to non-ionising radiation may be extended up to O(10{sup 14}) n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. This goal relies on a fabrication process featuring a 15{mu}m thin, high resistivity ({approx}1k{Omega}cm) epitaxial layer. A sensor prototype (MIMOSA-25) was fabricated in this process to explore its detection performance. The depletion depth of the epitaxial layer at standard CMOS voltages (<5V) is similar to the layer thickness. Measurements with m.i.p.s show that the charge collected in the seed pixel is at least twice larger for the depleted epitaxial layer than for the undepleted one, translating into a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of {approx}50. Tests after irradiation have shown that this excellent performance is maintained up to the highest fluence considered (3x10{sup 13}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}), making evidence of a significant extension of the radiation tolerance limits of MAPS.

  14. Growth and characterization of InAlN layers nearly lattice-matched to GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, J.M.; Morales, F.M.; Lozano, J.G.; Garcia, R.; Lim, T.; Kirste, L.; Aidam, R.; Ambacher, O.

    2011-01-01

    A set of InxAl1-xN films lattice-matched (LM) to GaN/sapphire substrates were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and studied using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy with the aim of implementing barrier and channels in high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Although all InAlN epilayers grow pseudomorphic to GaN, two sublayers with different compositions formed when a direct deposition onto the bare GaN buffer was carried out. On the other hand, heterostructures having single-layered In∝0.18Al∝0.82N are achieved when a spacer consisting of an AlN interlayer or an AlN/GaN/AlN stack is placed between the InAlN and the buffer. These spacers not only yield a better compositional and structural homogeneity of the InAlN, but also improve electrical properties with respect to HEMT applications. Compared to one single AlN interlayer, the use of a triple AlN/GaN/AlN multilayer further improves the structural quality of the InAlN film (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. GaN Bulk Growth and Epitaxy from Ca-Ga-N Solutions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovations proposed here are Ka-band (38 GHz) group III-nitride power FETs and the dislocation density reducing epitaxial growth methods (LPE) needed for their...

  16. Silicon epitaxy on textured double layer porous silicon by LPCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Hong; Shen Honglie; Zhang Lei; Huang Haibin; Lu Linfeng; Tang Zhengxia; Shen Jiancang

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial silicon thin film on textured double layer porous silicon (DLPS) was demonstrated. The textured DLPS was formed by electrochemical etching using two different current densities on the silicon wafer that are randomly textured with upright pyramids. Silicon thin films were then grown on the annealed DLPS, using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). The reflectance of the DLPS and the grown silicon thin films were studied by a spectrophotometer. The crystallinity and topography of the grown silicon thin films were studied by Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The reflectance results show that the reflectance of the silicon wafer decreases from 24.7% to 11.7% after texturing, and after the deposition of silicon thin film the surface reflectance is about 13.8%. SEM images show that the epitaxial silicon film on textured DLPS exhibits random pyramids. The Raman spectrum peaks near 521 cm -1 have a width of 7.8 cm -1 , which reveals the high crystalline quality of the silicon epitaxy.

  17. Constructing oxide interfaces and heterostructures by atomic layer-by-layer laser molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Qingyu; Golalikhani, Maryam; Davidson, Bruce A.; Liu, Guozhen; Schlom, D. G.; Qiao, Qiao; Zhu, Yimei; Chandrasena, Ravini U.; Yang, Weibing; Gray, Alexander X.; Arenholz, Elke; Farrar, Andrew K.; Tenne, Dmitri A.; Hu, Minhui; Guo, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in nanoscale engineering of oxide interfaces and heterostructures have led to discoveries of emergent phenomena and new artificial materials. Combining the strengths of reactive molecular-beam epitaxy and pulsed-laser deposition, we show here, with examples of Sr1+xTi1-xO3+delta, Ruddlesden-Popper phase Lan+1NinO3n+1 (n = 4), and LaAl1+yO3(1+0.5y)/SrTiO3 interfaces, that atomic layer-by-layer laser molecular-beam epitaxy (ALL-Laser MBE) significantly advances the state of the art...

  18. Characterization and growth mechanism of nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers grown on patterned sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Narihito; Tadatomo, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers with markedly improved crystalline quality can be obtained by selective-area growth from the sapphire sidewalls of patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs). In this paper, we review the crystalline qualities of GaN layers grown on PSSs and their growth mechanism. We grew semipolar {1 1 −2 2} and {1 0 −1 1} GaN layers on r- and n-PSSs. The crystalline qualities of the GaN layers grown on the PSSs were higher than those of GaN layers grown directly on heteroepitaxial substrates. To reveal the growth mechanism of GaN layers grown on PSSs, we also grew various nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers such as m-GaN on a-PSS, {1 1 −2 2} GaN on r-PSS, {1 0 − 1  1} GaN on n-PSS, m-GaN on c-PSS and a-GaN on m-PSS. It was found that the nucleation of GaN on the c-plane-like sapphire sidewall results in selective growth from the sapphire sidewall, and nonpolar or semipolar GaN can be obtained. Finally, we demonstrated a light-emitting diode fabricated on a {1 1 −2 2} GaN layer grown on an r-PSS. (paper)

  19. Heteroepitaxial growth of In-face InN on GaN (0001) by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, E.; Iliopoulos, E.; Tsagaraki, K.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Georgakilas, A.

    2005-01-01

    The thermodynamic aspects of indium-face InN growth by radio frequency plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy (rf-MBE) and the nucleation of InN on gallium-face GaN (0001) surface were investigated. The rates of InN decomposition and indium desorption from the surface were measured in situ using reflected high-energy electron diffraction and the rf-MBE 'growth window' of In-face InN (0001) was identified. It is shown that sustainable growth can be achieved only when the arrival rate of active nitrogen species on the surface is higher than the arrival rate of indium atoms. The maximum substrate temperature permitting InN growth as a function of the active nitrogen flux was determined. The growth mode of InN on Ga-face GaN (0001) surface was investigated by reflected high-energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. It was found to be of the Volmer-Weber-type for substrate temperatures less than 350 deg. C and of the Stranski-Krastanov for substrate temperatures between 350 and 520 deg. C. The number of monolayers of initial two-dimensional growth, in the case of Stranski-Krastanov mode, varies monotonically with substrate temperature, from 2 ML at 400 deg. C to about 12 ML at 500 deg. C. The evolution and coalescence of nucleated islands were also investigated as a function of substrate temperature. It was found that at higher temperature their coalescence is inhibited leading to porous-columnar InN thin films, which exhibit growth rates higher than the nominal value. Therefore, in order to achieve continuous InN layers on GaN (0001) a two-step growth approach is introduced. In that approach, InN is nucleated at low temperatures on GaN and the growth continues until full coalescence of the nucleated islands. Subsequently, this nucleation layer is overgrown at higher substrate temperature in order to achieve high-quality continuous films. The InN films grown by the two-step method were investigated by x-ray diffraction, Hall-effect measurements, and

  20. Intensity Distribution of the Three-Wave Diffraction from Dislocation Epitaxial Layers in the Reciprocal Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyutt, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The three-wave X-ray diffraction in strongly disordered epitaxial layers of GaN and ZnO is experimentally investigated. The charts of the intensity distribution in the reciprocal space are plotted in coordinates q θ and q ϕ for the most intensive three-wave combination (1010)/(1011) by means of subsequent θ- and ϕ-scanning. A nontrivial shape of the θ-sections of these contours at a distance from the ϕ center of reflection is revealed; it is different for different samples. For the θ-curves at the center of reflection, we observed a common peak that may be approximated by the Voigt function with a power-low decrease in the intensity at the wings; the decrease law (from-4.5 to-5.0) is found to be considerably greater than that for the similar curves of two-wave diffraction and not depending on the dislocation density and distribution in layers. In some films we observed a coarse-block structure; in addition, it follows from the distribution in the reciprocal space that these blocks are turned with respect to each other around a normal to the surface, which allows us to suggest the existence of low-angle boundaries between them, consisting exclusively of edge dislocations.

  1. Deposition of HgTe by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkatasamy, V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first instance of HgTe growth by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE). EC-ALE is the electrochemical analog of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) and atomic layer deposition (ALD), all of which are based on the growth...

  2. Selected Energy Epitaxial Deposition and Low Energy Electron Microscopy of AlN, GaN and SiC Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, R

    1999-01-01

    The homoepitaxial growth of GaN(0001) layers was studied in situ and in real time using the low-energy electron microscope and ex situ using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy...

  3. Implantation induced electrical isolation of sulphur doped GaN xAs1-x layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Lin, J.; Haq, A.; Sealy, B.

    2005-01-01

    The study of III-N-V semiconductor alloys, especially GaN x As 1-x has been increasing in the last few years. The strong dependence of the band gap on the nitrogen content has made this material important for a variety of applications, including long wavelength optoelectronic devices and high efficiency solar cells. We report on the effects of sulphur doping implants on the achieved electrical isolation in GaN x As 1-x layers using proton bombardment. Sulphur ions were implanted in MOCVD-grown GaN x As 1-x layers (1.4 μm thick with nominal x = 1%) with multiple energies creating approximately uniform doping profiles in the range of about 1 x 10 18 -5 x 10 19 cm -3 . Several proton implants were performed in order to find the threshold dose (minimum dose to achieve maximum sheet resistivity) for the electrical isolation of n-type GaN x As 1-x layers. Results show that the sheet resistance of n-type layers can be increased by about five orders of magnitude by proton implantation and the threshold dose to convert a conductive layer to a highly resistive one depends on the original free carrier concentration. The study of annealing temperature dependence of sheet resistivity in proton-isolated GaN x As 1-x layers shows that the electrical isolation can be preserved up to 450 and 500 deg. C when the implantation is performed at RT and 77 K with threshold dose, respectively. These results for n-type GaN x As 1-x layers are novel and have ramifications for device engineers

  4. High electron mobility through the edge states in random networks of c-axis oriented wedge-shaped GaN nanowalls grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasker, H. P.; Dhar, S.; Sain, A.; Kesaria, Manoj; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Transport and optical properties of random networks of c-axis oriented wedge-shaped GaN nanowalls grown spontaneously on c-plane sapphire substrates through molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. Our study suggests a one dimensional confinement of carriers at the top edges of these connected nanowalls, which results in a blue shift of the band edge luminescence, a reduction of the exciton-phonon coupling, and an enhancement of the exciton binding energy. Not only that, the yellow luminescence in these samples is found to be completely suppressed even at room temperature. All these changes are highly desirable for the enhancement of the luminescence efficiency of the material. More interestingly, the electron mobility through the network is found to be significantly higher than that is typically observed for GaN epitaxial films. This dramatic improvement is attributed to the transport of electrons through the edge states formed at the top edges of the nanowalls.

  5. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Characterization of GaN quantum discs embedded in AlxGa1-xN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, J.; Calleja, E.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Ulloa, J.M.; Sanchez-Paramo, J.; Calleja, J.M.; Jahn, U.; Trampert, A.; Ploog, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    GaN quantum discs embedded in AlGaN nanocolumns with outstanding crystal quality and very high luminescence efficiency were grown on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under highly N-rich conditions. Nanocolumns with diameters in the range of 30-150 nm, with no traces of any extended defects, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, were obtained. GaN quantum discs, 2 and 4 nm thick, were grown embedded in AlGaN nanocolumns by switching on and off the Al flux during variable time spans. Strong optical emissions from GaN quantum discs, observed by photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence measurements, reveal quantum confinement effects. While Raman data indicate that the nanocolumns are fully relaxed, the quantum discs appear to be fully strained. These nanostructures have a high potential for application in efficient vertical cavity emitters

  7. Characterization of GaN P-N Junction Grown on Si (111) Substrate by Plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosfariza Radzali; Rosfariza Radzali; Mohd Anas Ahmad; Zainuriah Hassan; Norzaini Zainal; Kwong, Y.F.; Woei, C.C.; Mohd Zaki Mohd Yusoff; Mohd Zaki Mohd Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    In this report, the growth of GaN pn junction on Si (111) substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) is presented. Doping of GaN p-n junction has been carried out using Si and Mg as n-type dopant and p-type dopants, respectively. The sample had been characterized by PL, Raman spectroscopy, HR-XRD and SEM. PL spectrum showed strong band edge emission of GaN at ∼364 nm, indicating good quality of the sample. The image of SEM cross section of the sample showed sharp interfaces. The presence of peak ∼657 cm -1 in Raman measurement exhibited successful doping of Mg in the sample. (author)

  8. Growth of (20 anti 21)AlGaN, GaN and InGaN by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploch, S.; Wernicke, T.; Rass, J.; Pristovsek, M. [TU Berlin, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, M. [TU Berlin, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Green InGaN-based laser diodes on (20 anti 21)GaN substrates have recently demonstrated performances exceeding those of conventional (0001) oriented devices. However little is known regarding the growth parameters. We have investigated growth of AlGaN, GaN and InGaN on (20 anti 21)GaN substrates by MOVPE. Smooth GaN layers with a rms roughness <0.5 nm were obtained by low growth temperatures and reactor pressures. The layers exhibit undulations along [10 anti 14] similar to the GaN substrate. AlGaN and InGaN layers exhibit an increased surface roughness. Undulation bunching was observed and attributed to reduced adatom surface mobility due to the binding energy of Al and the low growth temperature for InGaN respectively or strain relaxation. AlGaN and InGaN heterostructures on (20 anti 21)GaN relax by layer tilt accompanied by formation of misfit dislocations, due to shear strain of the unit cell. This relaxation mechanism leads to a reduced critical layer thickness of (20 anti 21)AlGaN layers and InGaN multi quantum wells (MQW) in comparison to (0001). PL spectral broadening of 230 meV of (20 anti 21)InGaN single QWs emitting at 415 nm can be reduced by increased growth temperature or increased number of QWs with reduced thickness.

  9. Macrodefect-free, large, and thick GaN bulk crystals for high-quality 2–6 in. GaN substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy with hardness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Konno, Taichiro; Suzuki, Takayuki; Kitamura, Toshio; Fujimoto, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Takehiro

    2018-06-01

    On the basis of a novel crystal hardness control, we successfully realized macrodefect-free, large (2–6 in.) and thick +c-oriented GaN bulk crystals by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Without the hardness control, the introduction of macrodefects including inversion domains and/or basal-plane dislocations seemed to be indispensable to avoid crystal fracture in GaN growth with millimeter thickness. However, the presence of these macrodefects tended to limit the applicability of the GaN substrate to practical devices. The present technology markedly increased the GaN crystal hardness from below 20 to 22 GPa, thus increasing the available growth thickness from below 1 mm to over 6 mm even without macrodefect introduction. The 2 and 4 in. GaN wafers fabricated from these crystals had extremely low dislocation densities in the low- to mid-105 cm‑2 range and low off-angle variations (2 in.: <0.1° 4 in.: ∼0.2°). The realization of such high-quality 6 in. wafers is also expected.

  10. Epitaxial Gd2O3 on GaN and AlGaN: a potential candidate for metal oxide semiconductor based transistors on Si for high power application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kankat; Das, S.; Khiangte, K. R.; Choudhury, N.; Laha, Apurba

    2017-11-01

    We report structural and electrical properties of hexagonal Gd2O3 grown epitaxially on GaN/Si (1 1 1) and AlGaN/GaN/Si(1 1 1) virtual substrates. GaN and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures were grown on Si(1 1 1) substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE), whereas the Gd2O3 layer was grown by the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) technique. Initial structural characterizations show that Gd2O3 grown on III-nitride layers by PLA, exhibit a hexagonal structure with an epitaxial relationship as {{≤ft[ 0 0 0 1 \\right]}G{{d2}{{O}3}}}||{{≤ft[ 0 0 0 1 \\right]}GaN} and {{≤ft[ 1 \\bar{1} 0 0 \\right]}G{{d2}{{O}3}}}||{{≤ft[ 1 \\bar{1} 0 0 \\right]}GaN} . X-ray photoelectron measurements of the valence bands revealed that Gd2O3 exhibits band offsets of 0.97 eV and 0.4 eV, for GaN and Al0.3Ga0.7N, respectively. Electrical measurements such as capacitance-voltage and leakage current characteristics further confirm that epi-Gd2O3 on III-nitrides could be a potential candidate for future metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-based transistors also for high power applications in radio frequency range.

  11. Improved radiation tolerance of MAPS using a depleted epitaxial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.; Bertolone, G.; Baudot, J.; Brogna, A.S.; Colledani, C.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R.; Deveaux, M.; Doziere, G.; Dulinski, W.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Koziel, M.; Morel, F.; Santos, C.; Specht, M.; Valin, I.

    2010-01-01

    Tracking performance of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) developed at IPHC (Turchetta, et al., 2001) have been extensively studied (Winter, et al., 2001; Gornushkin, et al., 2002) . Numerous sensor prototypes, called MIMOSA, were fabricated and tested since 1999 in order to optimise the charge collection efficiency and power dissipation, to minimise the noise and to increase the readout speed. The radiation tolerance was also investigated. The highest fluence tolerable for a 10μm pitch device was found to be ∼10 13 n eq /cm 2 , while it was only 2x10 12 n eq /cm 2 for a 20μm pitch device. The purpose of this paper is to show that the tolerance to non-ionising radiation may be extended up to O(10 14 ) n eq /cm 2 . This goal relies on a fabrication process featuring a 15μm thin, high resistivity (∼1kΩcm) epitaxial layer. A sensor prototype (MIMOSA-25) was fabricated in this process to explore its detection performance. The depletion depth of the epitaxial layer at standard CMOS voltages ( 13 n eq /cm 2 ), making evidence of a significant extension of the radiation tolerance limits of MAPS.

  12. Uniform GaN thin films grown on (100) silicon by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Chen, Miin-Jang; Lin, Ming-Chih; Chen, Liang-Yih

    2015-01-01

    The growth of uniform gallium nitride (GaN) thin films was reported on (100) Si substrate by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) using triethylgallium (TEG) and NH 3 as the precursors. The self-limiting growth of GaN was manifested by the saturation of the deposition rate with the doses of TEG and NH 3 . The increase in the growth temperature leads to the rise of nitrogen content and improved crystallinity of GaN thin films, from amorphous at a low deposition temperature of 200 °C to polycrystalline hexagonal structures at a high growth temperature of 500 °C. No melting-back etching was observed at the GaN/Si interface. The excellent uniformity and almost atomic flat surface of the GaN thin films also infer the surface control mode of the GaN thin films grown by the RP-ALD technique. The GaN thin films grown by RP-ALD will be further applied in the light-emitting diodes and high electron mobility transistors on (100) Si substrate. (paper)

  13. High-Temperature Growth of GaN and Al x Ga1- x N via Ammonia-Based Metalorganic Molecular-Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Daniel; Henderson, Walter; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2010-05-01

    The effect of high-temperature growth on the crystalline quality and surface morphology of GaN and Al x Ga1- x N grown by ammonia-based metalorganic molecular-beam epitaxy (NH3-MOMBE) has been investigated as a means of producing atomically smooth films suitable for device structures. The effects of V/III ratio on the growth rate and surface morphology are described herein. The crystalline quality of both GaN and AlGaN was found to mimic that of the GaN templates, with (002) x-ray diffraction (XRD) full-widths at half- maximum (FWHMs) of ~350 arcsec. Nitrogen-rich growth conditions have been found to provide optimal surface morphologies with a root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of ~0.8 nm, yet excessive N-rich environments have been found to reduce the growth rate and result in the formation of faceted surface pitting. AlGaN exhibits a decreased growth rate, as compared with GaN, due to increased N recombination as a result of the increased pyrolysis of NH3 in the presence of Al. AlGaN films grown directly on GaN templates exhibited Pendellösung x-ray fringes, indicating an abrupt interface and a planar AlGaN film. AlGaN films grown for this study resulted in an optimal RMS roughness of ~0.85 nm with visible atomic steps.

  14. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  15. Viability and proliferation of endothelial cells upon exposure to GaN nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniste, Tudor; Tiginyanu, Ion; Horvath, Tibor; Raevschi, Simion; Cebotari, Serghei; Lux, Marco; Haverich, Axel; Hilfiker, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing and promising field of interest in medicine; however, nanoparticle-cell interactions are not yet fully understood. The goal of this work was to examine the interaction between endothelial cells and gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor nanoparticles. Cellular viability, adhesion, proliferation, and uptake of nanoparticles by endothelial cells were investigated. The effect of free GaN nanoparticles versus the effect of growing endothelial cells on GaN functionalized surfaces was examined. To functionalize surfaces with GaN, GaN nanoparticles were synthesized on a sacrificial layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The uptake of GaN nanoparticles by porcine endothelial cells was strongly dependent upon whether they were fixed to the substrate surface or free floating in the medium. The endothelial cells grown on surfaces functionalized with GaN nanoparticles demonstrated excellent adhesion and proliferation, suggesting good biocompatibility of the nanostructured GaN.

  16. Mn doping of GaN layers grown by MOVPE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, P.; Šofer, Z.; Sedmidubský, D.; Jankovský, O.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Maryško, Miroslav; Václavů, M.; Mikulics, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2012), s. 122-126 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0621 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy * nitrides * magnetic materials * semiconducting III-V materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012

  17. Effects of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L L; Zhao, D G; Jiang, D S; Chen, P; Le, L C; Li, L; Liu, Z S; Zhang, S M; Zhu, J J; Wang, H; Zhang, B S; Yang, H

    2013-01-01

    The growth condition of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer and its effect on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN were investigated. It is confirmed that the excessive Mg doping can effectively enhance the Ni/Au contact to p-GaN after annealing at 550 °C. When the flow rate ratio between Mg and Ga gas sources is 6.4% and the layer width is 25 nm, the capping layer grown at 850 °C exhibits the best ohmic contact properties with respect to the specific contact resistivity (ρ c ). This temperature is much lower than the conventional growth temperature of Mg-doped GaN, suggesting that the deep-level-defect induced band may play an important role in the conduction of capping layer. (paper)

  18. Chemical gating of epitaxial graphene through ultrathin oxide layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo; Orlando, Fabrizio; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Omiciuolo, Luca; Baraldi, Alessandro; Lizzit, Silvano

    2015-08-07

    We achieved a controllable chemical gating of epitaxial graphene grown on metal substrates by exploiting the electrostatic polarization of ultrathin SiO2 layers synthesized below it. Intercalated oxygen diffusing through the SiO2 layer modifies the metal-oxide work function and hole dopes graphene. The graphene/oxide/metal heterostructure behaves as a gated plane capacitor with the in situ grown SiO2 layer acting as a homogeneous dielectric spacer, whose high capacity allows the Fermi level of graphene to be shifted by a few hundreds of meV when the oxygen coverage at the metal substrate is of the order of 0.5 monolayers. The hole doping can be finely tuned by controlling the amount of interfacial oxygen, as well as by adjusting the thickness of the oxide layer. After complete thermal desorption of oxygen the intrinsic doping of SiO2 supported graphene is evaluated in the absence of contaminants and adventitious adsorbates. The demonstration that the charge state of graphene can be changed by chemically modifying the buried oxide/metal interface hints at the possibility of tuning the level and sign of doping by the use of other intercalants capable of diffusing through the ultrathin porous dielectric and reach the interface with the metal.

  19. Substrate-induced magnetism in epitaxial graphene buffer layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramaniam, A; Medhekar, N V; Shenoy, V B

    2009-07-08

    Magnetism in graphene is of fundamental as well as technological interest, with potential applications in molecular magnets and spintronic devices. While defects and/or adsorbates in freestanding graphene nanoribbons and graphene sheets have been shown to cause itinerant magnetism, controlling the density and distribution of defects and adsorbates is in general difficult. We show from first principles calculations that graphene buffer layers on SiC(0001) can also show intrinsic magnetism. The formation of graphene-substrate chemical bonds disrupts the graphene pi-bonds and causes localization of graphene states near the Fermi level. Exchange interactions between these states lead to itinerant magnetism in the graphene buffer layer. We demonstrate the occurrence of magnetism in graphene buffer layers on both bulk-terminated as well as more realistic adatom-terminated SiC(0001) surfaces. Our calculations show that adatom density has a profound effect on the spin distribution in the graphene buffer layer, thereby providing a means of engineering magnetism in epitaxial graphene.

  20. High-quality nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by the combination of pulsed laser deposition and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijia; Zhang, Zichen; Wang, Wenliang; Zheng, Yulin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Guoqiang

    2018-05-01

    High-quality a-plane GaN epitaxial films have been grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by the combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). PLD is employed to epitaxial growth of a-plane GaN templates on r-plane sapphire substrates, and then MOCVD is used. The nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films with relatively small thickness (2.9 µm) show high quality, with the full-width at half-maximum values of GaN(11\\bar{2}0) along [1\\bar{1}00] direction and GaN(10\\bar{1}1) of 0.11 and 0.30°, and a root-mean-square surface roughness of 1.7 nm. This result is equivalent to the quality of the films grown by MOCVD with a thickness of 10 µm. This work provides a new and effective approach for achieving high-quality nonpolar a-plane GaN epitaxial films on r-plane sapphire substrates.

  1. Novel oxide buffer approach for GaN integration on Si(111) platform through Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnawska, Lidia

    2012-12-19

    Motivation: Preparation of GaN virtual substrates on large-scale Si wafers is intensively pursued as a cost-effective approach for high power/high frequency electronics (HEMT's etc.) and optoelectronic applications (LED, LASER). However, the growth of high quality GaN layers on Si is hampered by several difficulties mainly related to a large lattice mismatch (-17%) and a huge difference in the thermal expansion coefficient (56%). As a consequence, GaN epitaxial layers grown on Si substrates show a high number of defects (threading dislocations etc.), which severely deteriorate the overall quality of the GaN films. Additionally, due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate and the film, um-thick GaN layers crack during post-growth cooling. To solve these integration problems, different semiconducting (e.g. AlN, GaAs, ZnO, HfN) and insulating (e.g. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, LiGaO{sub 2}) buffer layers, separating the Si substrate from the GaN film, are applied. Goal: In this thesis, a novel buffer approach for the integration of GaN on Si is proposed and investigated. The new approach employs Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} bilayer templates as a step-graded buffer to reduce the lattice mismatch between GaN and the Si(111) substrate. According to the bulk crystal lattices, since the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has an in-plane lattice misfit of -2% to Si, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} -7% to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the lattice misfit between GaN and the substrate can be theoretically reduced by about 50% from -17% (GaN/Si) to -8% (GaN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Experimental: The GaN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) heterostructures are prepared in a multichamber molecular beam epitaxy system on 4 inch Si(111) wafers. In order to obtain complete information on the structural quality of the oxide buffer as well as the GaN layer, synchrotron- and laboratory-based X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements are performed. The

  2. Evolution of spirals during molecular beam epitaxy of GaN on 6H-SiC(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Y.; Li, L.

    2002-01-01

    Evolution of spirals during molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN films on 6H-SiC(0001) was studied by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. It was found that dislocations emerge at the film surface, creating straight steps with orientation along directions with a density of 10 10 cm -2 for 40-nm-thick films. During subsequent growth, these straight steps wind around dislocations and develop into spirals with a density of 10 9 cm -2 for 100-nm-thick films. The spirals can be classified into three types: single arm, interlocking double arm, and closed loop. The first two types originate from steps with one end pinned, and the third type results from steps with both ends pinned. At film thickness larger than 200 nm, these spirals further evolve into spiral mounds with a density of 10 7 cm -2 . Based on the Burton, Cabrera, and Frank theory, a model is proposed to explain the formation of different types of spirals and the reduction of their densities

  3. Study of epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN for application in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry Ann, N. J.; Rodak, L. E.; Kasarla, Kalyan; Yang, Nanying; Korakakis, D.

    2005-10-01

    In this research effort, epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of GaN on sapphire was performed by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in a horizontal reactor. All ELOG growths were stopped prior to complete coalescence, and the resulting cross-sections were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both vertical {1120} and inclined sidewalls were observed. Inclined {112n}sidewalls of various angles (n 2-2.2) were found as previously reported in the literature1. Both one-step and two-step ELOG processes were used to control the overgrowth geometry. It was confirmed that sidewall formation and growth rates are closely correlated with multiple parameters including temperature and V/III ratio1. It was also found that substrate rotation greatly influences sidewall evolution and vertical growth rate. A conceptual model was begun to completely describe the ELOG process in a horizontal reactor. It is speculated that the different sidewalls observed as a function of substrate orientation result from variation in the local V/III ratio. Once developed, the final model will be used to control the sidewalls in the growth of ELOG structures for the fabrication of novel optoelectronic devices.

  4. Low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy of AlN ultrathin films by layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lee, Wei-Hao; Kao, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Yung-Chuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-01-03

    Low-temperature epitaxial growth of AlN ultrathin films was realized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) together with the layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing (ALA), instead of a high growth temperature which is needed in conventional epitaxial growth techniques. By applying the ALA with the Ar plasma treatment in each ALD cycle, the AlN thin film was converted dramatically from the amorphous phase to a single-crystalline epitaxial layer, at a low deposition temperature of 300 °C. The energy transferred from plasma not only provides the crystallization energy but also enhances the migration of adatoms and the removal of ligands, which significantly improve the crystallinity of the epitaxial layer. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the full width at half-maximum of the AlN (0002) rocking curve is only 144 arcsec in the AlN ultrathin epilayer with a thickness of only a few tens of nm. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy also indicates the high-quality single-crystal hexagonal phase of the AlN epitaxial layer on the sapphire substrate. The result opens a window for further extension of the ALD applications from amorphous thin films to the high-quality low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy, which can be exploited in a variety of fields and applications in the near future.

  5. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, Ryan; Liu Hongxue; Lu Jiwei; Gu, Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  6. Effect of SiC buffer layer on GaN growth on Si via PA-MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, S. A.; Mizerov, A. M.; Osipov, A. V.; Redkov, A. V.; Telyatnik, R. S.; Timoshnev, S. N.

    2017-11-01

    The study is devoted to comparison of GaN thin films grown on SiC/Si substrates made by the method of atoms substitution with the films grown directly on Si substrates. The growth was performed in a single process via plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The samples were studied via optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and a comparison of their characteristics was made. Using chemical etching in KOH, the polarity of GaN films grown on SiC/Si and Si substrates was determined.

  7. Band offsets and growth mode of molecular beam epitaxy grown MgO (111) on GaN (0002) by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. S.; Collazo, R.; Losego, M. D.; Mita, S.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.

    2007-10-01

    MgO is a proposed dielectric for use as a tunneling barrier in devices integrating GaN and ferroelectric oxides. In this study, we present data regarding the growth mode and band offsets of MgO grown epitaxially on GaN (0002) surfaces using molecular beam epitaxy. Using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and molecular beam epitaxy, we determine, from sequential growth experiments, that the growth of MgO proceeds via the Volmer-Weber (three-dimensional) mode, and full coalescence of the film does not occur until approximately 12nm of MgO has been deposited. The observation of a three-dimensional growth mode is in agreement with previously published data. For the valence band offset, we find a value of 1.2±0.2eV, which corresponds to a 3.2eV conduction band offset. XPS measurements suggest a chemically abrupt interface and no effect on band lineup due to the slow coalescence behavior.

  8. Band offsets and growth mode of molecular beam epitaxy grown MgO (111) on GaN (0002) by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, H. S.; Collazo, R.; Losego, M. D.; Mita, S.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.

    2007-01-01

    MgO is a proposed dielectric for use as a tunneling barrier in devices integrating GaN and ferroelectric oxides. In this study, we present data regarding the growth mode and band offsets of MgO grown epitaxially on GaN (0002) surfaces using molecular beam epitaxy. Using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and molecular beam epitaxy, we determine, from sequential growth experiments, that the growth of MgO proceeds via the Volmer-Weber (three-dimensional) mode, and full coalescence of the film does not occur until approximately 12 nm of MgO has been deposited. The observation of a three-dimensional growth mode is in agreement with previously published data. For the valence band offset, we find a value of 1.2±0.2 eV, which corresponds to a 3.2 eV conduction band offset. XPS measurements suggest a chemically abrupt interface and no effect on band lineup due to the slow coalescence behavior

  9. GaN growth on silane exposed AlN seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Zepeda, F. [Posgrado en Fisica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Km. 107 Carret, Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Contreras, O. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condesada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 356, C.P. 22800, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Dadgar, A.; Krost, A. [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, FNW-IEP, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The microstructure and surface morphology of GaN films grown on AlN seed layers exposed to silane flow has been studied by TEM and AFM. The epilayers were grown on silicon(111) substrates by MOCVD. The AlN seed layer surface was treated at different SiH{sub 4} exposure times prior to the growth of the GaN film. A reduction in the density of threading dislocations is observed in the GaN films and their surface roughness is minimized for an optimal SiH{sub 4} exposure time between 75-90 sec. At this optimal condition a step-flow growth mode of GaN film is predominant. The improvement of the surface and structure quality of the epilayers is observed to be related to an annihilation process of threading dislocations done by SiN{sub x} masking. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Plasmas for the low-temperature growth of high-quality GaN films by molecular beam epitaxy and remote plasma MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, M.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G. [Plasmachemistry Research Center, CNR, Bari (Italy); Namkoong, G.; Doolittle, W.A.; Brown, A.S. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronic Research Center

    2002-03-16

    GaN heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire (0001) substrates was carried out by both radio-frequency (rf) remote plasma metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (RP-MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A multistep growth process including substrate plasma cleaning and nitridation, buffer growth, its subsequent annealing and epilayer growth was used. In order to achieve a better understanding of the GaN growth, in-situ real time investigation of the surface chemistry is performed for all the steps using the conventional reflection high-energy electron spectroscopy (RHEED) during the MBE process, while laser reflectance interferometry (LRI) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), which do not require UHV conditions, are used for the monitoring of the RP-MOCVD process. The chemistry of the rf N{sub 2} plasma sapphire nitridation and its effect on the epilayer growth and quality are discussed in both MBE and RP-MOCVD. (orig.)

  11. Growth of high mobility GaN and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures on 4H-SiC by ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, James B.; Tang, H.; Bardwell, J. A.; Coleridge, P.

    2001-01-01

    Ammonia molecular-beam epitaxy has been used to grow high-quality epilayers of GaN and AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) structures on insulating 4H-SiC. The growth process, which used a magnetron sputter epitaxy deposited buffer layer of AlN, has been described previously. Ex situ pretreatment of the SiC substrate was found to be unnecessary. For a single 2.0 μm thick silicon doped epilayer, a room temperature (RT) electron mobility of 500 cm2/Vs was measured at a carrier density of 6.6x10 16 cm -3 . For the HFET structure, a room temperature mobility of 1300 cm2/Vs at a sheet carrier density of 3.3x10 12 cm -2 was observed, increasing to 11000 cm2/Vs at 77 K. The surface morphology of the layers indicated a coalesced mesa structure similar to what we observed for growth on sapphire, but with a lower overall defect density and correspondingly larger grain size. The observation of well-resolved Shubnikov de Haas oscillations at fields as low as 3 T indicated a relatively smooth interface. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. Enhanced optical output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on a silicon (111) substrate with a nanoporous GaN layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae; Chun, Jaeyi; Kim, Sang-Jo; Oh, Semi; Ha, Chang-Soo; Park, Jung-Won; Lee, Seung-Jae; Song, Jae-Chul; Baek, Jong Hyeob; Park, Seong-Ju

    2016-03-07

    We report the growth of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on a silicon (111) substrate with an embedded nanoporous (NP) GaN layer. The NP GaN layer is fabricated by electrochemical etching of n-type GaN on the silicon substrate. The crystalline quality of crack-free GaN grown on the NP GaN layer is remarkably improved and the residual tensile stress is also decreased. The optical output power is increased by 120% at an injection current of 20 mA compared with that of conventional LEDs without a NP GaN layer. The large enhancement of optical output power is attributed to the reduction of threading dislocation, effective scattering of light in the LED, and the suppression of light propagation into the silicon substrate by the NP GaN layer.

  13. The role of Energy Deposition in the Epitaxial Layer in Triggering SEGR in Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, L.; Swift, G.; Taylor, W.; Edmonds, L.

    1999-01-01

    In these SEGR experiments, three identical-oxide MOSFET types were irradiated with six ions of significantly different ranges. Results show the prime importance of the total energy deposited in the epitaxial layer.

  14. Growth optimization for thick crack-free GaN layers on sapphire with HVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, E.; Hennig, Ch.; Kissel, H.; Sonia, G.; Zeimer, U.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Conditions for optimized growth of thick GaN layers with crack-free surfaces by HVPE are reported. It was found that a 1:1 mixture of H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} as carrier gas leads to the lowest density of cracks in the surface. Crack formation also depends on the properties of the GaN/sapphire templates used. Best results have been obtained for 5 {mu}m thick GaN/sapphire templates grown by MOVPE with medium compressive strain {epsilon}{sub zz} of about 0.05%. But there is no simple dependence of the crack formation on the strain status of the starting layer indicating that the HVPE growth of GaN can itself introduce strong tensile strain. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Deposition of yttrium oxysulfide thin films by atomic layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukli, K.; University of Tartu, Tartu,; Johansson, L-S.; Nykaenen, E.; Peussa, M.; Ninistoe, L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Yttrium oxysulfide is a highly interesting material for optoelectronic applications. It is industrially exploited in the form of doped powder in catholuminescent phosphors, e.g. Y 2 O 2 S: Eu 3+ for colour TV. Attempts to grow thin films of Y 2 O 2 S have not been frequent and only partially successful due to the difficulties in obtaining crystalline films at a reasonable temperature. Furthermore, sputtering easily leads to a sulphur deficiency. Evaporation of the elements from a multi-source offers a better control of the stoichiometry resulting in hexagonal (0002) oriented films at 580 deg C. In this paper we present the first successful thin film growth experiments using a chemical process with molecular precursors. Atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) allows the use of a relatively low deposition temperature and thus compatibility with other technologies. Already at 425 deg C the reaction between H 2 S and Y(thd) 3 (thd = 2,2,6,6 - tetramethyl-heptane-3,5- dione) yields a crystalline Y 2 O 2 S thin film which was characterized by XRD, XRF and XPS

  16. Increased carrier lifetimes in epitaxial silicon layers on buried silicon nitride produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorupa, W.; Kreissig, U.; Hensel, E.; Bartsch, H.

    1984-01-01

    Carrier lifetimes were measured in epitaxial silicon layers deposited on buried silicon nitride produced by high-dose nitrogen implantation at 330 keV. The values were in the range 20-200 μs. The results are remarkable taking into account the high density of crystal defects in the epitaxial layers. Comparing with other SOI technologies the measured lifetimes are higher by 1-2 orders of magnitude. (author)

  17. Molecular beam epitaxy for high-performance Ga-face GaN electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaun, Stephen W; Speck, James S; Wong, Man Hoi; Mishra, Umesh K

    2013-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has emerged as a powerful technique for growing GaN-based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epistructures. Over the past decade, HEMT performance steadily improved, mainly through the optimization of device fabrication processes. Soon, HEMT performance will be limited by the crystalline quality of the epistructure. MBE offers heterostructure growth with highly abrupt interfaces, low point defect concentrations, and very low carbon and hydrogen impurity concentrations. Minimizing parasitic leakage pathways and resistances is essential in the growth of HEMTs for high-frequency and high-power applications. Through growth on native substrates with very low threading dislocation density, low-leakage HEMTs with very low on-resistance can be realized. Ga-rich plasma-assisted MBE (PAMBE) has been studied extensively, and it is clear that this technique has inherent limitations, including a high density of leakage pathways and a very small growth parameter space. Relatively new MBE growth techniques—high-temperature N-rich PAMBE and ammonia-based MBE—are being developed to circumvent the shortcomings of Ga-rich PAMBE. (invited review)

  18. Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Epitaxy of GaN on Si(111) for Optoelectronic Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaloyeros, A

    1998-01-01

    ...%. Films were hexagonal and polycrystalline with 3 nitride bi-layer buffers, with annealing, allowed stoichiometric gallium nitride growth of up to 6000 A, but the temperatures used were not high enough...

  19. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili.unsw@gmail.com; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Crystallisation kinetic is used to analyse seed layer surface cleanliness. • Simplified RCA cleaning for the seed layer can shorten the epitaxy annealing duration. • RTA for the seed layer can improve the quality for both seed layer and epi-layer. • Epitaxial poly-Si solar cell performance is improved by RTA treated seed layer. - Abstract: This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, V{sub oc} and J{sub sc} than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  20. Determination of carrier diffusion length in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Shopan; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit; Metzner, Sebastian; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Gil, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers along the c-direction were determined from photoluminescence (PL) and cross-sectional cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements in p- and n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The investigated samples incorporate a 6 nm thick In0.15Ga0.85N active layer capped with either 500 nm p-GaN or 1500 nm n-GaN. The top GaN layers were etched in steps and PL from the InGaN active region and the underlying layers was monitored as a function of the top GaN thickness upon photo-generation near the surface region by above bandgap excitation. Taking into consideration the absorption in the top GaN layer as well as active and underlying layers, the diffusion lengths at 295 K and at 15 K were measured to be 93 ± 7 nm and 70 ± 7 nm for Mg-doped p-type GaN and 432 ± 30 nm and 316 ± 30 nm for unintentionally doped n-type GaN, respectively, at photogenerated carrier densities of 4.2 × 1018 cm-3 using PL spectroscopy. CL measurements of the unintentionally doped n-type GaN layer at much lower carrier densities of 1017 cm-3 revealed a longer diffusion length of 525 ± 11 nm at 6 K.

  1. Epitaxial growth of ZnO layers on (111) GaAs substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jian; Zhang Di; Konomi, Takaharu; Saito, Katsuhiko; Guo Qixin

    2012-01-01

    ZnO layers were grown on (111) GaAs substrates by laser molecular epitaxy at substrate temperatures between 200 and 550 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that c-axis of ZnO epilayer with a wurtzite structure is perpendicular to the substrate surface. X-ray rocking curves and Raman spectroscopy showed that the crystal quality of ZnO epilayers depends on the substrate temperature during the growth. Strong near-band-edge emission in the UV region without any deep-level emissions was observed from the ZnO epilayers at room temperature. The results indicate that laser molecular beam epitaxy is a promising growth method for obtaining high-quality ZnO layers on (111) GaAs substrates.

  2. AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with an AlGaN layer grown directly on reactive-ion-etched GaN showing a high electron mobility (>1300 cm2 V-1 s-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Makino, Shinya; Kanatani, Keito; Kuzuhara, Masaaki

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the metal-organic-vapor-phase-epitaxial growth behavior and electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN structures prepared by the growth of an AlGaN layer on a reactive-ion-etched (RIE) GaN surface without regrown GaN layers were investigated. The annealing of RIE-GaN surfaces in NH3 + H2 atmosphere, employed immediately before AlGaN growth, was a key process in obtaining a clean GaN surface for AlGaN growth, that is, in obtaining an electron mobility as high as 1350 cm2 V-1 s-1 in a fabricated AlGaN/RIE-GaN structure. High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) were successfully fabricated with AlGaN/RIE-GaN wafers. With decreasing density of dotlike defects observed on the surfaces of AlGaN/RIE-GaN wafers, both two-dimensional electron gas properties of AlGaN/RIE-GaN structures and DC characteristics of HEMTs were markedly improved. Since dotlike defect density was markedly dependent on RIE lot, rather than on growth lot, surface contaminations of GaN during RIE were believed to be responsible for the formation of dotlike defects and, therefore, for the inferior electrical properties.

  3. Valence band offset of β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Qin, Zhixin; Fan, Shunfei; Li, Zhiwei; Shi, Kai; Zhu, Qinsheng; Zhang, Guoyi

    2012-10-10

    A sample of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure has been grown by dry thermal oxidation of GaN on a sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the β-Ga2O3 layer was formed epitaxially on GaN. The valence band offset of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure is measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the valence band of the β-Ga2O3/GaN structure is 1.40 ± 0.08 eV.

  4. Epitaxial growth of tungsten layers on MgO(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Pengyuan; Ozsdolay, Brian D.; Gall, Daniel, E-mail: galld@rpi.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Smooth single crystal W(001) layers were grown on MgO(001) substrates by magnetron sputtering at 900 °C. X-ray diffraction ω–2θ scans, ω-rocking curves, pole figures, and reciprocal space maps indicate a 45°-rotated epitaxial relationship: (001){sub W}‖(001){sub MgO} and [010]{sub W}‖[110]{sub MgO}, and a relaxed lattice constant of 3.167 ± 0.001 nm. A residual in-plane biaxial compressive strain is primarily attributed to differential thermal contraction after growth and decreases from −0.012 ± 0.001 to −0.001 ± 0.001 with increasing layer thickness d = 4.8–390 nm, suggesting relaxation during cooling by misfit dislocation growth through threading dislocation glide. The in-plane x-ray coherence length increases from 3.4 to 33.6 nm for d = 4.8–390 nm, while the out-of-plane x-ray coherence length is identical to the layer thickness for d ≤ 20 nm, but is smaller than d for d ≥ 49.7 nm, indicating local strain variations along the film growth direction. X-ray reflectivity analyses indicate that the root-mean-square surface roughness increases from 0.50 ± 0.05 to 0.95 ± 0.05 nm for d = 4.8–19.9 nm, suggesting a roughness exponent of 0.38, but remains relatively constant for d > 20 nm with a roughness of 1.00 ± 0.05 nm at d = 47.9 nm.

  5. Role of experimental resolution in measurements of critical layer thickness for strained-layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental measurements of critical layer thicknesses (CLT's) in strained-layer epitaxy are considered. Finite experimental resolution can have a major effect on measured CLT's and can easily lead to spurious results. The theoretical approach to critical layer thicknesses of J. W. Matthews [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 126 (1975)] has been modified in a straightforward way to predict the apparent critical thickness for an experiment with finite resolution in lattice parameter. The theory has also been modified to account for the general empirical result that fewer misfit dislocations are generated than predicted by equilibrium calculation. The resulting expression is fit to recent x-ray diffraction data on InGaAs/GaAs and SiGe/Si. The results suggest that CLT's in these systems may not be significantly larger than predicted by equilibrium theory, in agreement with high-resolution measurements

  6. Polycrystalline GaN layer recrystallization by metal-induced method during the baking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagoda, A.; Stanczyk, B.; Dobrzanski, L.; Diduszko, R. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw 118 (Poland)

    2007-04-15

    Radio frequency reactive sputtering was used to produce gallium nitride films on thermally oxidized silicon substrates at room temperature. Metallic Ga (purity 6N) was used as the target, N{sub 2} and Ar were utilized as sputtering gases. Amorphous GaN was obtained by metal-induced crystallization with a Ni assistance. The nickel particles were scattered onto the surface by rf sputtering and their density was 2 x 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} or 4 x 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2}, which corresponds to 0.02 nm and 0.04 nm thick layer. These values are less than a monolayer thickness, so they are not continuous. Samples were annealed at 700 C for 3 h and at 900 C for 5 min in a RTP furnace. The 2.5 {mu}m GaN layers grown on the Ni-coated SiO{sub 2} surface recrystallized during annealing forming crystals of (002) orientation. The catalytic regrowth mechanism of GaN is discussed on the basis of experimental results. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Suppression of the self-heating effect in GaN HEMT by few-layer graphene heat spreading elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcheck, V. S.; Stempitsky, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    Self-heating has an adverse effect on characteristics of gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Various solutions to the problem have been proposed, however, a temperature rise due to dissipated electrical power still hinders the production of high power and high speed GaN devices. In this paper, thermal management of GaN HEMT via few-layer graphene (FLG) heat spreading elements is investigated. It is shown that integration of the FLG elements on top of the device structure considerably reduces the maximum temperature and improves the DC and small signal AC performance.

  8. Investigation of aluminium ohmic contacts to n-type GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kribes, Y.; Harrison, I.; Tuck, B.; Kim, K. S.; Cheng, T. S.; Foxon, C. T.

    1997-11-01

    Using epi-layers of different doping concentrations, we have investigated aluminium contacts on n-type gallium nitride grown by plasma source molecular beam epitaxy. To achieve repeatable and reliable results it was found that the semiconductor needed to be etched in aqua-regia before the deposition of the contact metallization. Scanning electron micrographs of the semiconductor surface show a deterioration of the semiconductor surface on etching. The specific contact resistivity of the etched samples were, however, superior. Annealing the contacts at 0268-1242/12/11/030/img9 produced contacts with the lowest specific contact resistance of 0268-1242/12/11/030/img10. The long-term aging of these contacts was also investigated. The contacts and the sheet resistance were both found to deteriorate over a three-month period.

  9. Stacking and electric field effects in atomically thin layers of GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dongwei; He, Haiying; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P

    2013-01-01

    Atomically thin layers of nitrides are a subject of interest due to their novel applications. In this paper, we focus on GaN multilayers, investigating their stability and the effects of stacking and electric fields on their electronic properties in the framework of density functional theory. Both bilayers and trilayers prefer a planar configuration rather than a buckled bulk-like configuration. The application of an external perpendicular electric field induces distinct stacking-dependent features in the electronic properties of nitride multilayers: the band gap of a monolayer does not change whereas that of a trilayer is significantly reduced. Such a stacking-dependent tunability of the band gap in the presence of an applied field suggests that multilayer GaN is a good candidate material for next generation devices at the nanoscale. (paper)

  10. Improved performance of GaN based light emitting diodes with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Wei Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal quality, electrical and optical properties of GaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs with ex-situ sputtered physical vapor deposition (PVD aluminum nitride (AlN nucleation layers were investigated. It was found that the crystal quality in terms of defect density and x-ray diffraction linewidth was greatly improved in comparison to LEDs with in-situ low temperature GaN nucleation layer. The light output power was 3.7% increased and the reverse bias voltage of leakage current was twice on LEDs with ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers. However, larger compressive strain was discovered in LEDs with ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers. The study shows the potential and constrain in applying ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers to fabricate high quality GaN crystals in various optoelectronics.

  11. Study of epitaxial lateral overgrowth of semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) GaN by using different SiO2 pattern sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki-Ryong; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Han, Sang-Hyun; Yi, Hye-Rin; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We examine comparative studies of semipolar ELO-GaN film. • Semipolar ELO-GaN film was grown by three step growth method. • The achievement of smooth surface morphology of semipolar ELO-GaN. • The crystal and optical properties was significantly improved by ELO process. - Abstract: We investigated the growth mode and the crystal properties of lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) GaN by using the various SiO 2 pattern sizes of 6, 8, 10 and 12 μm with the window width of 4.0 μm. By using three-step growth technique, we successfully obtained the fully-coalescenced semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) LEO-GaN films regardless of the SiO 2 pattern sizes. However, the coalescence thickness of LEO-GaN film was decreased with decreasing SiO 2 pattern size, indicating that the coalescence of semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) GaN was easily formed by decreasing the pattern size of SiO 2 mask. The full width at half maximums (FWHMs) of X-ray rocking curves (XRCs) of LEO-GaN films decreased with increasing SiO 2 pattern size. In the pattern size of 4 × 10 μm, we achieved the minimum XRCs FWHM of 537 and 368 arc s with two different X-ray incident beam directions of [1 1 − 2 − 3] and [1 − 1 0 0], respectively. Moreover, the photoluminescence bandedge emission of semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) GaN was 45 times increased by LEO process. Based on these results, we concluded that the LEO pattern size of 4 × 10 μm would effectively decrease crystal defects of semipolar (1 1 − 2 2) GaN epilayer, resulting in an improvement of the optical properties

  12. Optical properties of pure and Ce3+ doped gadolinium gallium garnet crystals and epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syvorotka, I.I.; Sugak, D.; Wierzbicka, A.; Wittlin, A.; Przybylińska, H.; Barzowska, J.; Barcz, A.; Berkowski, M.; Domagała, J.; Mahlik, S.; Grinberg, M.; Ma, Chong-Geng

    2015-01-01

    Results of X-ray diffraction and low temperature optical absorption measurements of cerium doped gadolinium gallium garnet single crystals and epitaxial layers are reported. In the region of intra-configurational 4f–4f transitions the spectra of the bulk crystals exhibit the signatures of several different Ce 3+ related centers. Apart from the dominant center, associated with Ce substituting gadolinium, at least three other centers are found, some of them attributed to the so-called antisite locations of rare-earth ions in the garnet host, i.e., in the Ga positions. X-ray diffraction data prove lattice expansion of bulk GGG crystals due to the presence of rare-earth antisites. The concentration of the additional Ce-related centers in epitaxial layers is much lower than in the bulk crystals. However, the Ce-doped layers incorporate a large amount of Pb from flux, which is the most probable source of nonradiative quenching of Ce luminescence, not observed in crystals grown by the Czochralski method. - Highlights: • Ce 3+ multicenters found in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet crystals and epitaxial layers. • High quality epitaxial layers of pure and Ce-doped GGG were grown. • Luminescence quenching of Ce 3+ by Pb ions from flux detected in GGG epitaxial layers. • X-ray diffraction allows measuring the amount of the rare-earth antisites in GGG

  13. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 films on GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Toshio; Okubo, Satoshi; Horikawa, Kiyotaka; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    Atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films are the most promising surface passivation and gate insulation layers in non-Si semiconductor devices. Here, we carried out an extensive study on the time-dependent dielectric breakdown characteristics of ALD-Al2O3 films formed on homo-epitaxial GaN substrates using two different oxidants at two different ALD temperatures. The breakdown times were approximated by Weibull distributions with average shape parameters of 8 or larger. These values are reasonably consistent with percolation theory predictions and are sufficiently large to neglect the wear-out lifetime distribution in assessing the long-term reliability of the Al2O3 films. The 63% lifetime of the Al2O3 films increases exponentially with a decreasing field, as observed in thermally grown SiO2 films at low fields. This exponential relationship disproves the correlation between the lifetime and the leakage current. Additionally, the lifetime decreases with measurement temperature with the most remarkable reduction observed in high-temperature (450 °C) O3-grown films. This result agrees with that from a previous study, thereby ruling out high-temperature O3 ALD as a gate insulation process. When compared at 200 °C under an equivalent SiO2 field of 4 MV/cm, which is a design guideline for thermal SiO2 on Si, high-temperature H2O-grown Al2O3 films have the longest lifetimes, uniquely achieving the reliability target of 20 years. However, this target is accomplished by a relatively narrow margin and, therefore, improvements in the lifetime are expected to be made, along with efforts to decrease the density of extrinsic Al2O3 defects, if any, to promote the practical use of ALD Al2O3 films.

  14. Layered growth model and epitaxial growth structures for SiCAlN alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaoqing; Ni Jun; Su Xiaoao; Dai Zhenhong

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial growth structures for (SiC) 1-x (AlN) x alloys are studied using a layered growth model. First-principle calculations are used to determine the parameters in the layered growth model. The phase diagrams of epitaxial growth are given. There is a rich variety of the new metastable polytype structures at x=1/6 ,1/5 ,1/4 ,1/3 , and 1/2 in the layered growth phase diagrams. We have also calculated the electronic properties of the short periodical SiCAlN alloys predicted by our layered growth model. The results show that various ordered structures of (SiC) 1-x (AlN) x alloys with the band gaps over a wide range are possible to be synthesized by epitaxial growth.

  15. Process for forming epitaxial perovskite thin film layers using halide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Paul G.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Voigt, James A.; Ashley, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an epitaxial perovskite-phase thin film on a substrate. This thin film can act as a buffer layer between a Ni substrate and a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x superconductor layer. The process utilizes alkali or alkaline metal acetates dissolved in halogenated organic acid along with titanium isopropoxide to dip or spin-coat the substrate which is then heated to about 700.degree. C. in an inert gas atmosphere to form the epitaxial film on the substrate. The YBCO superconductor can then be deposited on the layer formed by this invention.

  16. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig University of Technology, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  17. Integration of epitaxial Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} films on GaN/AlGaN/GaN/Si(111) substrates using rutile TiO{sub 2} buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elibol, K. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Nguyen, M.D. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); SolMateS B.V., Drienerlolaan 5, Building 6, 7522NB Enschede (Netherlands); International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet road, Hanoi 10000 (Viet Nam); Hueting, R.J.E. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Gravesteijn, D.J. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); NXP Semiconductors Research, High Tech Campus 46, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Koster, G., E-mail: g.koster@utwente.nl [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands); Rijnders, G. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-09-30

    The integration of ferroelectric layers on gallium nitride (GaN) offers a great potential for various applications. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT), in particular Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3}, is an interesting candidate. For that a suitable buffer layer should be grown on GaN in order to prevent the reaction between PZT and GaN, and to obtain PZT with a preferred orientation and phase. Here, we study pulsed laser deposited (100) rutile titanium oxide (R-TiO{sub 2}) as a potential buffer layer candidate for ferroelectric PZT. For this purpose, the growth, morphology and the surface chemical composition of R-TiO{sub 2} films were analyzed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find optimally (100) oriented R-TiO{sub 2} growth on GaN (0002) using a 675 °C growth temperature and 2 Pa O{sub 2} deposition pressure as process conditions. More importantly, the R-TiO{sub 2} buffer layer grown on GaN/Si substrates prevents the unwanted formation of the PZT pyrochlore phase. Finally, the remnant polarization and coercive voltage of the PZT film on TiO{sub 2}/GaN/Si with an interdigitated-electrode structure were found to be 25.6 μC/cm{sup 2} and 8.1 V, respectively. - Highlights: • Epitaxial rutile TiO{sub 2} films were grown on GaN layer buffered Si substrate using pulsed laser deposition. • The rutile-TiO{sub 2} layer suppresses the formation of the pyrochlore phase in the epitaxial PZT film grown on GaN/Si. • An epitaxial PZT film on GaN/Si substrate with rutile TiO{sub 2} buffer layer exhibits good ferroelectric properties.

  18. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaN(0001) utilizing NH3 and/or NH+x ions: Growth kinetics and defect structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, N.; Powell, R.C.; Kim, Y.; Greene, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (GS-MBE), utilizing Ga and NH 3 , and reactive-ion MBE (RIMBE), incorporating both thermal NH 3 and low-energy NH + x ions, were used to grow single crystal GaN(0001) layers on Al 2 O 3 (0001) at temperatures T s between 700 and 850 degree C with deposition rates of 0.2--0.5 μm h -1 . The RIMBE experiments were carried out with incident NH + x /Ga flux ratios J NH + x /J Ga =1.9--3.2 and NH + x acceleration energies E NH + x =45--90 eV. Plan-view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that the primary defects in the GS-MBE films were threading dislocations having either pure edge or mixed edge/screw characteristics with Burgers vectors bar b=1/3 left-angle 2 bar 1 bar 10 right-angle, basal-plane stacking faults with displacement vectors bar R=1/6 left-angle 02 bar 23 right-angle, and prismatic stacking faults with bar R=1/2 left-angle bar 1101 right-angle. In the case of RIMBE films, no stacking faults or residual ion-induced defects were observed with E NH + x =45 eV and T s ≥800 degree C. However, increasing E NH + x to ≥60 eV at T s =800 degree C gave rise to the formation of residual ion-induced point-defect clusters observable by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Increasing T s to 850 degree C with E NH + x ≥60 eV resulted in the ion-induced defects aggregating to form interstitial basal and prismatic dislocation loops, whose number densities depended upon the ion flux, with Burgers vectors 1/2 left-angle 0001 right-angle and 1/3 left-angle 2 bar 1 bar 10 right-angle, respectively. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with epitaxial and textured ferromagnetic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin; Yang, Jianhua Joshua

    2008-11-11

    This invention relates to magnetic tunnel junctions and methods for making the magnetic tunnel junctions. The magnetic tunnel junctions include a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers both of which are epitaxial or textured with respect to the underlying substrate upon which the magnetic tunnel junctions are grown. The magnetic tunnel junctions provide improved magnetic properties, sharper interfaces and few defects.

  20. Surface state of GaN after rapid-thermal-annealing using AlN cap-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zammar, G., E-mail: georgio.elzammar@univ-tours.fr [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Khalfaoui, W. [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Oheix, T. [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); STMicroelectronics, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Yvon, A.; Collard, E. [STMicroelectronics, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Cayrel, F.; Alquier, D. [Université François Rabelais, Tours, GREMAN, CNRS UMR 7347, 10 rue Thalès de Milet CS 97155, 37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Surface state of a crack-free AlN cap-layer reactive sputtered on GaN and annealed at high temperature showing a smooth, pit-free surface. - Highlights: • We deposit a crystalline AlN layer by reactive magnetron sputtering on GaN. • We show the effect of deposition parameters of AlN by reactive magnetron sputtering on the quality of the grown layer. • We demonstrate the efficiency of double cap-layer for GaN protection during high temperature thermal treatments. • We show an efficient selective etch of AlN without damaging GaN surface. - Abstract: Critical issues need to be overcome to produce high performance Schottky diodes on gallium nitride (GaN). To activate dopant, high temperature thermal treatments are required but damage GaN surface where hexagonal pits appear and prevent any device processing. In this paper, we investigated the efficiency of cap-layers on GaN during thermal treatments to avoid degradation. Aluminum nitride (AlN) and silicon oxide (SiO{sub x}) were grown on GaN by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, respectively. AlN growth parameters were studied to understand their effect on the grown layers and their protection efficiency. Focused ion beam was used to measure AlN layer thickness. Crystalline quality and exact composition were verified using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Two types of rapid thermal annealing at high temperatures were investigated. Surface roughness and pits density were evaluated using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Cap-layers wet etching was processed in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} at 120 °C for AlN and in HF (10%) for SiO{sub x}. This work reveals effective protection of GaN during thermal treatments at temperatures as high as 1150 °C. Low surface roughness was obtained. Furthermore, no hexagonal pit was observed on the surface.

  1. GaN:Co epitaxial layers grown by MOVPE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Klímová, K.; Mikulics, M.; Maryško, Miroslav; Veselý, M.; Jurek, Karel; Sofer, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, Mar (2015), 62-68 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20507S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : doping * metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy * cobalt * gallium compounds * nitrides * magnetic materials spintronics Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.462, year: 2015

  2. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 1–20} short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi [Center for SMART Green Innovation Research, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Itoi, Takaomi [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akihiko, E-mail: yoshi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Center for SMART Green Innovation Research, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Kogakuin University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

    2016-04-11

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 1–20} short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN){sub 1}/(GaN){sub 4} SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ∼1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ∼1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  3. Excimer-laser-induced activation of Mg-doped GaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-J.; Liu, W.-F.; Lee, C.-T.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the 248 nm excimer-laser-induced activation of the Mg-doped GaN layers. According to the observed photoluminescence results and the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we found that the dissociation of the Mg-H complexes and the formation of hydrogenated Ga vacancies (i.e., V Ga H 2 ) and/or the Ga vacancies occupied by interstitial Mg during the laser irradiation process, led to an increase in the hole concentration

  4. Defect structure in m-plane GaN grown on LiAlO{sub 2} using metalorganic and hydride vapour phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Tim; Netzel, Carsten; Richter, Eberhard; Knauer, Arne; Brunner, Frank; Weyers, Markus [FBH Berlin (Germany); Mogliatenko, Anna; Neumann, Wolfgang [AG Kristallographie, Institut fuer Physik, HU Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [FBH Berlin (Germany); Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The FWHM of symmetric (10 anti 10) XRD rocking curves of m-plane GaN grown on LiAlO{sub 2} is anisotropic. By investigating the microstructure with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) we identified basal plane stacking faults (BSF) and stacking mismatch boundaries (SMB) in the GaN layers. BSFs are aligned in-plane along the a-direction and therefore cause an anisotropic broadening of the FWHM{sub (10 anti 10)} with incidence along [0001]. SMBs have no preferential direction and hence result in an isotropic broadening of the FWHM{sub (10 anti 10)}. We observed that this anisotropy can be reduced by lowering the MOVPE growth temperature. We propose that the lowering of the growth temperature leads to a reduction of BSFs which is accompanied by an increase in SMBs. The MOVPE grown layers were used as templates for the growth of 200 {mu}m thick m-plane GaN layers by HVPE. During HVPE growth the LiAlO{sub 2} substrate thermally decomposed and peeled off after cool-down. On the surface a network of cracks not being aligned to crystallographic directions was found. The layers were not transparent probably due to metallic Ga inclusions and exhibited an asymmetric bow according to the lattice anisotropy of the (100) LiAlO{sub 2} surface.

  5. Ultraviolet light-absorbing and emitting diodes consisting of a p-type transparent-semiconducting NiO film deposited on an n-type GaN homoepitaxial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Mutsumi; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.

    2017-05-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and related (Al,Ga,In)N alloys provide practical benefits in the production of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes operating in ultraviolet (UV) to green wavelength regions. However, obtaining low resistivity p-type AlN or AlGaN of large bandgap energies (Eg) is a critical issue in fabricating UV and deep UV-LEDs. NiO is a promising candidate for useful p-type transparent-semiconducting films because its Eg is 4.0 eV and it can be doped into p-type conductivity of sufficiently low resistivity. By using these technologies, heterogeneous junction diodes consisting of a p-type transparent-semiconducting polycrystalline NiO film on an n-type single crystalline GaN epilayer on a low threading-dislocation density, free-standing GaN substrate were fabricated. The NiO film was deposited by using the conventional RF-sputtering method, and the GaN homoepitaxial layer was grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. They exhibited a significant photovoltaic effect under UV light and also exhibited an electroluminescence peak at 3.26 eV under forward-biased conditions. From the conduction and valence band (EV) discontinuities, the NiO/GaN heterointerface is assigned to form a staggered-type (TYPE-II) band alignment with the EV of NiO higher by 2.0 eV than that of GaN. A rectifying property that is consistent with the proposed band diagram was observed in the current-voltage characteristics. These results indicate that polycrystalline NiO functions as a hole-extracting and injecting layer of UV optoelectronic devices.

  6. Influence of the carrier Gas, trimethylgallium flow, and growth time on the character of the selective epitaxy of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhavskaya, M. M., E-mail: MRozhavskaya@gmail.com; Lundin, V. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Troshkov, S. I.; Brunkov, P. N.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    The influence of the carrier gas, trimethylgallium flow, and growth time on the character of the selective epitaxy of GaN in stripe windows oriented along the crystallographic direction Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 11-bar00 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket GaN for various widths of the mask between the stripes is studied. It is shown that the addition of nitrogen in the reactor atmosphere leads to changes in the form of the stripes in the case of wide (40 {mu}m) mask from a rectangular form restricted by a {l_brace}1 1-bar20{r_brace} lateral face to a trapezoidal form restricted by a {l_brace}1 1-bar22{r_brace} lateral face. It is also shown that during growth in the nitrogen-hydrogen mixture, the gallium flow starts to considerably affect the form of the growing stripes. It is shown that the process is significantly unstable, which leads to a noticeable variation in the form type as the transverse section of the stripe increases.

  7. Photoconduction efficiencies and dynamics in GaN nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy: A comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, R. S.; Tsai, H. Y.; Huang, Y. S.; Chen, Y. T.; Chen, L. C.; Chen, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The normalized gains, which determines the intrinsic photoconduction (PC) efficiencies, have been defined and compared for the gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). By excluding the contributions of experimental parameters and under the same light intensity, the CVD-grown GaN NWs exhibit the normalized gain which is near two orders of magnitude higher than that of the MBE-ones. The temperature-dependent time-resolved photocurrent measurement further indicates that the higher photoconduction efficiency in the CVD-GaN NWs is originated from the longer carrier lifetime induced by the higher barrier height (φ B = 160 ± 30 mV) of surface band bending. In addition, the experimentally estimated barrier height at 20 ± 2 mV for the MBE-GaN NWs, which is much lower than the theoretical value, is inferred to be resulted from the lower density of charged surface states on the non-polar side walls.

  8. TEM characterization of catalyst- and mask-free grown GaN nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schowalter, M; Aschenbrenner, T; Kruse, C; Hommel, D; Rosenauer, A

    2010-01-01

    Catalyst- and mask-free grown GaN nanorods have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). The nanorods were grown on nitridated r-plane sapphire substrates in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor. We investigated samples directly after the nitridation and after the overgrowth of the structure with GaN. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and EFTEM revealed that AlN islands have formed due to nitridation. After overgrowth, the AlN islands could not be observed any more, neither by EFTEM nor by Z-contrast imaging. Instead, a smooth layer consisting of AlGaN was found. The investigation of the overgrown sample revealed that an a-plane GaN layer and GaN nanorods on top of the a-plane GaN have formed. The nanorods reduced from top of the a-plane GaN towards the a-plane GaN/sapphire interface suggesting that the nanorods originate at the AlN islands found after nitridation. However, this could not be shown unambiguously. The number of threading dislocations in the nanorods was very low. The analysis of the epitaxial relationship to the a-plane GaN showed that the nanorods grew along the [000-1] direction, and the [1-100] direction of the rods was parallel to the [0001] direction of the a-plane GaN.

  9. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.; Sadwick, L.; Wang, K. L.; Kao, Y. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs layers have been grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates with good crystallinity by molecular beam epitaxy. In spite of the surface irregularity of PS substrates, no surface morphology deterioration was observed on epitaxial GaAs overlayers. A 10-percent Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy minimum channeling yield for GaAs-on-PS layers as compared to 16 percent for GaAs-on-Si layers grown under the same condition indicates a possible improvement of crystallinity when GaAs is grown on PS. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the dominant defects in the GaAs-on-PS layers are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/PS interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the PS layers. n-type GaAs/p-type PS heterojunction diodes were fabricated with good rectifying characteristics.

  10. A novel GaN HEMT with double recessed barrier layer for high efficiency-energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hujun; Luo, Yehui; Wu, Qiuyuan; Yang, Yintang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel GaN HEMT with high efficiency-energy characteristic is proposed. Different from the conventional structure, the proposed structure contains double recessed barriers layer (DRBL) beside the gate. The key idea in this work is to improve the microwave output characteristics. The simulated results show that the drain saturation current and peak transconductance of DRBL GaN HEMT is slightly decreased, the transconductance saturation flatness is increased by 0.5 V and the breakdown voltage is also enhanced too. Due to the both recessed barrier layer, the gate-drain/gate-source capacitance is decreased by 6.3% and 11.3%, respectively. The RF simulated results show that the maximum oscillation frequency for DRBL GaN HEMT is increased from 57 GHz to 64 GHz and the saturation power density is 8.7 W/mm at 600 MHz, 6.9 W/mm at 1200 MHz with the higher power added efficiency (PAE). Further investigation show that DRBL GaN HEMT can achieve to 6.4 W/mm and the maximum PAE 83.8% at 2400 MHz. Both are higher than the 5.0 W/mm and 80.3% for the conventional structure. When the operating frequency increases to X band, the DRBL GaN HEMT still exhibits the superior output performances. All the results show that the advantages and the potential capacities of DRBL GaN HEMT at high efficiency-energy are greater than the conventional GaN HEMT.

  11. Blue-violet InGaN laser diodes grown on bulk GaN substrates by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skierbiszewski, C.; Wasilewski, Z.R.; Siekacz, M.; Feduniewicz, A.; Perlin, P.; Wisniewski, P.; Borysiuk, J.; Grzegory, I.; Leszczynski, M.; Suski, T.; Porowski, S.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the InGaN multiquantum laser diodes (LDs) made by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The laser operation at 408 nm is demonstrated at room temperature with pulsed current injections using 50 ns pulses at 0.25% duty cycle. The threshold current density and voltage for the LDs with cleaved uncoated mirrors are 12 kA/cm 2 (900 mA) and 9 V, respectively. High output power of 0.83 W is obtained during pulse operation at 3.6 A and 9.6 V bias with the slope efficiency of 0.35 W/A. The laser structures are deposited on the high-pressure-grown low dislocation bulk GaN substrates taking full advantage of the adlayer enhanced lateral diffusion channel for adatoms below the dynamic metallic cover. Our devices compare very favorably to the early laser diodes fabricated using the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy technique, providing evidence that the relatively low growth temperatures used in this process pose no intrinsic limitations on the quality of the blue optoelectronic components that can be fabricated using PAMBE

  12. Study on structural properties of epitaxial silicon films on annealed double layer porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Zhihao; Shen Honglie; Cai Hong; Lv Hongjie; Liu Bin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, epitaxial silicon films were grown on annealed double layer porous silicon by LPCVD. The evolvement of the double layer porous silicon before and after thermal annealing was investigated by scanning electron microscope. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the structural properties of the epitaxial silicon thin films grown at different temperature and different pressure. The results show that the surface of the low-porosity layer becomes smooth and there are just few silicon-bridges connecting the porous layer and the substrate wafer. The qualities of the epitaxial silicon thin films become better along with increasing deposition temperature. All of the Raman peaks of silicon films with different deposition pressure are situated at 521 cm -1 under the deposition temperature of 1100 °C, and the Raman intensity of the silicon film deposited at 100 Pa is much closer to that of the monocrystalline silicon wafer. The epitaxial silicon films are all (4 0 0)-oriented and (4 0 0) peak of silicon film deposited at 100 Pa is more symmetric.

  13. Fabrication of current confinement aperture structure by transforming a conductive GaN:Si epitaxial layer into an insulating GaOx layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Feng; Lee, Wen-Che; Shieh, Bing-Cheng; Chen, Danti; Wang, Dili; Han, Jung

    2014-12-24

    We report here a simple and robust process to convert embedded conductive GaN epilayers into insulating GaOx and demonstrate its efficacy in vertical current blocking and lateral current steering in a working LED device. The fabrication processes consist of laser scribing, electrochemical (EC) wet-etching, photoelectrochemical (PEC) oxidation, and thermal oxidization of a sacrificial n(+)-GaN:Si layer. The conversion of GaN is made possible through an intermediate stage of porosification where the standard n-type GaN epilayers can be laterally and selectively anodized into a nanoporous (NP) texture while keeping the rest of the layers intact. The fibrous texture of NP GaN with an average wall thickness of less than 100 nm dramatically increases the surface-to-volume ratio and facilitates a rapid oxidation process of GaN into GaOX. The GaOX aperture was formed on the n-side of the LED between the active region and the n-type GaN layer. The wavelength blueshift phenomena of electroluminescence spectra is observed in the treated aperture-emission LED structure (441.5 nm) when compared to nontreated LED structure (443.7 nm) at 0.1 mA. The observation of aperture-confined electroluminescence from an InGaN LED structure suggests that the NP GaN based oxidation will play an enabling role in the design and fabrication of III-nitride photonic devices.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of epitaxial layers of anatase on strontium titanate single crystals: Morphological and photoelectrochemical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Theodore J.; Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Parkinson, B. A., E-mail: bparkin1@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemistry, School of Energy Resources, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition was used to grow epitaxial layers of anatase (001) TiO{sub 2} on the surface of SrTiO{sub 3} (100) crystals with a 3% lattice mismatch. The epilayers grow as anatase (001) as confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Atomic force microscope images of deposited films showed epitaxial layer-by-layer growth up to about 10 nm, whereas thicker films, of up to 32 nm, revealed the formation of 2–5 nm anatase nanocrystallites oriented in the (001) direction. The anatase epilayers were used as substrates for dye sensitization. The as received strontium titanate crystal was not sensitized with a ruthenium-based dye (N3) or a thiacyanine dye (G15); however, photocurrent from excited state electron injection from these dyes was observed when adsorbed on the anatase epilayers. These results show that highly ordered anatase surfaces can be grown on an easily obtained substrate crystal.

  15. Low temperature p-type doping of (Al)GaN layers using ammonia molecular beam epitaxy for InGaN laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverni, M.; Lamy, J.-M.; Martin, D.; Feltin, E.; Dorsaz, J.; Castiglia, A.; Rossetti, M.; Duelk, M.; Vélez, C.; Grandjean, N.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate state-of-the-art p-type (Al)GaN layers deposited at low temperature (740 °C) by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE) to be used as top cladding of laser diodes (LDs) with the aim of further reducing the thermal budget on the InGaN quantum well active region. Typical p-type GaN resistivities and contact resistances are 0.4 Ω cm and 5 × 10-4 Ω cm2, respectively. As a test bed, we fabricated a hybrid laser structure emitting at 400 nm combining n-type AlGaN cladding and InGaN active region grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, with the p-doped waveguide and cladding layers grown by NH3-MBE. Single-mode ridge-waveguide LD exhibits a threshold voltage as low as 4.3 V for an 800 × 2 μm2 ridge dimension and a threshold current density of ˜5 kA cm-2 in continuous wave operation. The series resistance of the device is 6 Ω and the resistivity is 1.5 Ω cm, confirming thereby the excellent electrical properties of p-type Al0.06Ga0.94N:Mg despite the low growth temperature.

  16. Efficient Exciton Diffusion and Resonance-Energy Transfer in Multi-Layered Organic Epitaxial Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Cadelano, Michele; Quochi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Multi-layered epitaxial nanofibers are exemplary model systems for the study of exciton dynamics and lasing in organic materials due to their well-defined morphology, high luminescence efficiencies, and color tunability. We resort to temperature-dependent cw and picosecond photoluminescence (PL......) spectroscopy to quantify exciton diffusion and resonance-energy transfer (RET) processes in multi-layered nanofibers consisting of alternating layers of para-hexaphenyl (p6P) and α-sexithiophene (6T), serving as exciton donor and acceptor material, respectively. The high probability for RET processes...... is confirmed by Quantum Chemical calculations. The activation energy for exciton diffusion in p6P is determined to be as low as 19 meV, proving p6P epitaxial layers also as a very suitable donor material system. The small activation energy for exciton diffusion of the p6P donor material, the inferred high p6P...

  17. Precision calibration of the silicon doping level in gallium arsenide epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhov, D. V.; Berezovskaya, T. N.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Maleev, N. A.; Timoshnev, S. N.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2017-10-01

    An approach to precision calibration of the silicon doping level in gallium arsenide epitaxial layers is discussed that is based on studying the dependence of the carrier density in the test GaAs layer on the silicon- source temperature using the Hall-effect and CV profiling techniques. The parameters are measured by standard or certified measuring techniques and approved measuring instruments. It is demonstrated that the use of CV profiling for controlling the carrier density in the test GaAs layer at the thorough optimization of the measuring procedure ensures the highest accuracy and reliability of doping level calibration in the epitaxial layers with a relative error of no larger than 2.5%.

  18. Impact of the AlN seeding layer thickness on GaN orientation on high index Si-substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravash, Roghaiyeh; Blaesing, Juergen; Veit, Peter; Hempel, Thomas; Dadgar, Armin; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany). FNW/IEP/AHE

    2010-07-01

    Silicon is considered to be a reasonable alternative to substrates such as sapphire and SiC, because of its low price and availability in large diameters. Because of spontaneous and strain induced piezoelectric polarization field along the c-axis, leading to the separation of electrons and holes in quantum wells reducing the recombination efficiency, c-axis oriented GaN-based light emitters have a low efficiency, especially in the longer wavelength region. In order to reduce or eliminate these polarization effects, semi-polar or non-polar GaN-heterostructure is favored. In this work we investigated the growth of GaN applying a low temperature AlN seeding layer with various thicknesses. The impact of the AlN seeding layer on GaN orientation using different Si substrate orientations (e. g. (211), (711), (410), (100)+4.5 off) were investigated by x-ray diffraction measurements in Bragg-Brentano geometry and X-ray pole figure measurements. We found that the thickness of the AlN seeding layer plays a significant role in obtaining different GaN textures. Applying a about 4 nm AlN seeding layer we achieved a single crystalline GaN epilayer on Si (211) with a 18 tilted c-axis orientation. Some of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Atomic layer epitaxy of hematite on indium tin oxide for application in solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Riha, Shannon; Guo, Peijun; Emery, Jonathan D.

    2016-07-12

    A method to provide an article of manufacture of iron oxide on indium tin oxide for solar energy conversion. An atomic layer epitaxy method is used to deposit an uncommon bixbytite-phase iron (III) oxide (.beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3) which is deposited at low temperatures to provide 99% phase pure .beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 thin films on indium tin oxide. Subsequent annealing produces pure .alpha.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 with well-defined epitaxy via a topotactic transition. These highly crystalline films in the ultra thin film limit enable high efficiency photoelectrochemical chemical water splitting.

  20. GaN growth via HVPE on SiC/Si substrates: growth mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharofidinov, Sh Sh; Redkov, A. V.; Osipov, A. V.; Kukushkin, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article focuses on the study of GaN thin film growth via chloride epitaxy on SiC/Si hybrid substrate. SiC buffer layer was grown by a method of substitution of atoms, which allows one to reduce impact of mechanical stress therein on subsequent growth of III-nitride films. It is shown, that change in GaN growth conditions leads to change in its growth mechanism. Three mechanisms: epitaxial, spiral and stepwise growth are considered and mechanical stresses are estimated via Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Microhardness of epitaxial layers of GaAs doped with rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, U.M.; Gamidov, Z.S.; Kuznetsova, I.Yu.; Petkeeva, L.N.; Borlikova, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    Results of the study of microhardness of GaAS layer doped by certain rare earths - Gd, Tb, Dy - are presented. The assumption is made that the higher is the value of the first potential of rare earth impurity ionization (i.e. the higher is the filling of 4f-shell), the lower is the effect of the element on electric and mechanical properties of GaAs epitaxial layers

  2. Investigation of epitaxial silicon layers as a material for radiation hardened silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Eremin, V.; Ilyashenko, I.; Ivanov, A.; Verbitskaya, E.

    1997-12-01

    Epitaxial grown thick layers (≥ 100 micrometers) of high resistivity silicon (Epi-Si) have been investigated as a possible candidate of radiation hardened material for detectors for high-energy physics. As grown Epi-Si layers contain high concentration (up to 2 x 10 12 cm -3 ) of deep levels compared with that in standard high resistivity bulk Si. After irradiation of test diodes by protons (E p = 24 GeV) with a fluence of 1.5 x 10 11 cm -2 , no additional radiation induced deep traps have been detected. A reasonable explanation is that there is a sink of primary radiation induced defects (interstitial and vacancies), possibly by as-grown defects, in epitaxial layers. The ''sinking'' process, however, becomes non-effective at high radiation fluences (10 14 cm -2 ) due to saturation of epitaxial defects by high concentration of radiation induced ones. As a result, at neutron fluence of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 the deep level spectrum corresponds to well-known spectrum of radiation induced defects in high resistivity bulk Si. The net effective concentration in the space charge region equals to 3 x 10 12 cm -3 after 3 months of room temperature storage and reveals similar annealing behavior for epitaxial as compared to bulk silicon

  3. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolat, Sami; Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N 2 /H 2 PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH 3 PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N 2 :H 2 ambient

  4. Research of acceptor impurity thermal activation in GaN: Mg epitaxial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr V. Mazalov

    2016-06-01

    The effect of thermal annealing of GaN:Mg layers on acceptor impurity activation has been investigated. Hole concentration increased and mobility decreased with an increase in thermal annealing temperature. The sample annealed at 1000 °C demonstrated the lowest value of resistivity. Rapid thermal annealing (annealing with high heating speed considerably improved the efficiency of Mg activation in the GaN layers. The optimum time of annealing at 1000 °C has been determined. The hole concentration increased by up to 4 times compared to specimens after conventional annealing.

  5. High-rate deposition of epitaxial layers for efficient low-temperature thin film epitaxial silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, L.; Schmidt, J.; Wagner, T.A.; Bergmann, R.B. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physical Electronics

    2001-07-01

    Low-temperature deposition of Si for thin-film solar cells has previously been hampered by low deposition rates and low material quality, usually reflected by a low open-circuit voltage of these solar cells. In contrast, ion-assisted deposition produces Si films with a minority-carrier diffusion length of 40 {mu}m, obtained at a record deposition rate of 0.8 {mu}m/min and a deposition temperature of 650{sup o}C with a prebake at 810{sup o}C. A thin-film Si solar cell with a 20-{mu}m-thick epitaxial layer achieves an open-circuit voltage of 622 mV and a conversion efficiency of 12.7% without any light trapping structures and without high-temperature solar cell process steps. (author)

  6. Sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions fabricated using molecular layer epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ohno and Yutaka Oyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the fundamental properties and applications of sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions. Heavily impurity-doped GaAs epitaxial layers were prepared using molecular layer epitaxy (MLE, in which intermittent injections of precursors in ultrahigh vacuum were applied, and sidewall tunnel junctions were fabricated using a combination of device mesa wet etching of the GaAs MLE layer and low-temperature area-selective regrowth. The fabricated tunnel junctions on the GaAs sidewall with normal mesa orientation showed a record peak current density of 35 000 A cm-2. They can potentially be used as terahertz devices such as a tunnel injection transit time effect diode or an ideal static induction transistor.

  7. Epitaxial Growth of Hard Ferrimagnetic Mn3Ge Film on Rhodium Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Sugihara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mn\\(_3\\Ge has a tetragonal Heusler-like D0\\(_{22}\\ crystal structure, exhibiting a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and small saturation magnetization due to its ferrimagnetic spin structure; thus, it is a hard ferrimagnet. In this report, epitaxial growth of a Mn\\(_3\\Ge film on a Rh buffer layer was investigated for comparison with that of a film on a Cr buffer layer in terms of the lattice mismatch between Mn\\(_3\\Ge and the buffer layer. The film grown on Rh had much better crystalline quality than that grown on Cr, which can be attributed to the small lattice mismatch. Epitaxial films of Mn\\(_3\\Ge on Rh show somewhat small coercivity (\\(H_{\\rm c}\\ = 12.6 kOe and a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (\\(K_{\\rm u}\\ = 11.6 Merg/cm\\(^3\\, comparable to that of the film grown on Cr.

  8. Photoacoustic study of the effect of doping concentration on the transport properties of GaAs epitaxial layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, S.D.; Dilna, S.; Prasanth, R.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.

    2003-01-01

    We report a photoacoustic (PA) study of the thermal and transport properties of a GaAs epitaxial layer doped with Si at varying doping concentration, grown on GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The data are analyzed on the basis of Rosencwaig and Gersho's theory of the PA effect. The

  9. The Growth of GaN on Si by the Beam Flux Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, C. H.; Ha, M. W.; Song, H. J.; Choi, H. G.; Lee, J. H.; Ra, Y. W.; Hahn, C. K.

    2011-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure was grown on Si (111) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) using a beam flux modulation methods. In this result, it was verified that the propagation of treading dislocation (TD) due to N-rich GaN layer was effectively suppressed.

  10. Optical excitation and external photoluminescence quantum efficiency of Eu3+ in GaN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, W.D.A.M.; McGonigle, C.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Stallinga, P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate photoluminescence of Eu-related emission in a GaN host consisting of thin layers grown by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy. By comparing it with a reference sample of Eu-doped Y2O3, we find that the fraction of Eu3+ ions that can emit light upon optical excitation is of the order of

  11. Insulating gallium oxide layer produced by thermal oxidation of gallium-polar GaN: Insulating gallium oxide layer produced by thermal oxidation of gallium-polar GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, T. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Wei, D. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Nepal, N. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Garces, N. Y. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Hite, J. K. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Meyer, H. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eddy, C. R. [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States); Baker, Troy [Nitride Solutions, Wichita, KS (United States); Mayo, Ashley [Nitride Solutions, Wichita, KS (United States); Schmitt, Jason [Nitride Solutions, Wichita, KS (United States); Edgar, J. H. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2014-02-24

    We report the benefits of dry oxidation of n -GaN for the fabrication of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures. GaN thin films grown on sapphire by MOCVD were thermally oxidized for 30, 45 and 60 minutes in a pure oxygen atmosphere at 850 °C to produce thin, smooth GaOx layers. Moreover, the GaN sample oxidized for 30 minutes had the best properties. Its surface roughness (0.595 nm) as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was the lowest. Capacitance-voltage measurements showed it had the best saturation in accumulation region and the sharpest transition from accumulation to depletion regions. Under gate voltage sweep, capacitance-voltage hysteresis was completely absent. The interface trap density was minimum (Dit = 2.75×1010 cm–2eV–1) for sample oxidized for 30 mins. These results demonstrate a high quality GaOx layer is beneficial for GaN MOSFETs.

  12. Growth mechanisms for Si epitaxy on O atomic layers: Impact of O-content and surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayachandran, Suseendran, E-mail: suseendran.jayachandran@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Castle Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Billen, Arne [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Douhard, Bastien; Conard, Thierry; Meersschaut, Johan; Moussa, Alain; Caymax, Matty; Bender, Hugo [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, Wilfried [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heyns, Marc [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Castle Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delabie, Annelies [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • O{sub 3} or O{sub 2} exposures on H-Si(100) result in O ALs with different surface structures. • Si-EPI on O AL using O{sub 3} process is by direct epitaxial growth mechanism. • Si-EPI on O AL using O{sub 2} process is by epitaxial lateral overgrowth mechanism. • Distortions by O AL, SiH{sub 4} flux rate and Si thickness has an impact on Si-EPI quality. - Abstract: The epitaxial growth of Si layers on Si substrates in the presence of O atoms is generally considered a challenge, as O atoms degrade the epitaxial quality by generating defects. Here, we investigate the growth mechanisms for Si epitaxy on O atomic layers (ALs) with different O-contents and structures. O ALs are deposited by ozone (O{sub 3}) or oxygen (O{sub 2}) exposure on H-terminated Si at 50 °C and 300 °C respectively. Epitaxial Si is deposited by chemical vapor deposition using silane (SiH{sub 4}) at 500 °C. After O{sub 3} exposure, the O atoms are uniformly distributed in Si-Si dimer/back bonds. This O layer still allows epitaxial seeding of Si. The epitaxial quality is enhanced by lowering the surface distortions due to O atoms and by decreasing the arrival rate of SiH{sub 4} reactants, allowing more time for surface diffusion. After O{sub 2} exposure, the O atoms are present in the form of SiO{sub x} clusters. Regions of hydrogen-terminated Si remain present between the SiO{sub x} clusters. The epitaxial seeding of Si in these structures is realized on H-Si regions, and an epitaxial layer grows by a lateral overgrowth mechanism. A breakdown in the epitaxial ordering occurs at a critical Si thickness, presumably by accumulation of surface roughness.

  13. Influence of V/III growth flux ratio on trap states in m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Hurni, C. A.; Speck, J. S.; Ringel, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) were utilized to investigate the behavior of deep states in m-plane, n-type GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH 3 -MBE) as a function of systematically varied V/III growth flux ratios. Levels were detected at E C - 0.14 eV, E C - 0.21 eV, E C - 0.26 eV, E C - 0.62 eV, E C - 0.67 eV, E C - 2.65 eV, and E C - 3.31 eV, with the concentrations of several traps exhibiting systematic dependencies on V/III ratio. The DLTS spectra are dominated by traps at E C - 0.14 eV and E C - 0.67 eV, whose concentrations decreased monotonically with increasing V/III ratio and decreasing oxygen impurity concentration, and by a trap at E C - 0.21 eV that revealed no dependence of its concentration on growth conditions, suggestive of different physical origins. Higher concentrations of deeper trap states detected by DLOS with activation energies of E C - 2.65 eV and E C - 3.31 eV in each sample did not display measureable sensitivity to the intentionally varied V/III ratio, necessitating further study on reducing these deep traps through growth optimization for maximizing material quality of NH 3 -MBE grown m-plane GaN.

  14. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Zhang, Xueyi; Lee, Jong Suk; Tsapatsis, Michael; Nair, Sankar

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered

  15. AlGaN/GaN field effect transistors for power electronics—Effect of finite GaN layer thickness on thermal characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, C., E-mail: chris.hodges@bristol.ac.uk; Anaya Calvo, J.; Kuball, M. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Stoffels, S.; Marcon, D. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-11

    AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors with a 150 nm thick GaN channel within stacked Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layers were investigated using Raman thermography. By fitting a thermal simulation to the measured temperatures, the thermal conductivity of the GaN channel was determined to be 60 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}, over 50% less than typical GaN epilayers, causing an increased peak channel temperature. This agrees with a nanoscale model. A low thermal conductivity AlGaN buffer means the GaN spreads heat; its properties are important for device thermal characteristics. When designing power devices with thin GaN layers, as well as electrical considerations, the reduced channel thermal conductivity must be considered.

  16. Impacts of oxidants in atomic layer deposition method on Al2O3/GaN interface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Noriyuki; Kubo, Toshiharu; Yamada, Toshikazu; Egawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-01-01

    The electrical interface properties of GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with an Al2O3 gate insulator formed by atomic layer deposition method using three kinds of oxidants were investigated by the capacitance-voltage technique, Terman method, and conductance method. We found that O3 and the alternate supply of H2O and O3 (AS-HO) are effective for reducing the interface trap density (D it) at the energy range of 0.15 to 0.30 eV taking from the conduction band minimum. On the other hand, we found that surface potential fluctuation (σs) induced by interface charges for the AS-HO oxidant is much larger than that for a Si MOS capacitor with a SiO2 layer formed by chemical vapor deposition despite the small D it values for the AS-HO oxidant compared with the Si MOS capacitor. This means that the total charged center density including the fixed charge density, charged slow trap density, and charged interface trap density for the GaN MOS capacitor is higher than that for the Si MOS capacitor. Therefore, σs has to be reduced to improve the performances and reliability of GaN devices with the Al2O3/GaN interfaces.

  17. Impact of N-plasma and Ga-irradiation on MoS2 layer in molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan

    2017-01-03

    Recent interest in two-dimensional materials has resulted in ultra-thin devices based on the transfer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) onto other TMDs or III-nitride materials. In this investigation, we realized p-type monolayer (ML) MoS2, and intrinsic GaN/p-type MoS2 heterojunction by the GaN overgrowth on ML-MoS2/c-sapphire using the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A systematic nitrogen plasma (N∗2N2*) and gallium (Ga) irradiation studies are employed to understand the individual effect on the doping levels of ML-MoS2, which is evaluated by micro-Raman and high-resolution X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) measurements. With both methods, p-type doping was attained and was verified by softening and strengthening of characteristics phonon modes E12gE2g1 and A1gA1g from Raman spectroscopy. With adequate N∗2N2*-irradiation (3 min), respective shift of 1.79 cm−1 for A1gA1g and 1.11 cm−1 for E12gE2g1 are obtained while short term Ga-irradiated (30 s) exhibits the shift of 1.51 cm−1 for A1gA1g and 0.93 cm−1 for E12gE2g1. Moreover, in HRXPS valence band spectra analysis, the position of valence band maximum measured with respect to the Fermi level is determined to evaluate the type of doping levels in ML-MoS2. The observed values of valance band maximum are reduced to 0.5, and 0.2 eV from the intrinsic value of ≈1.0 eV for N∗2N2*- and Ga-irradiated MoS2 layers, which confirms the p-type doping of ML-MoS2. Further p-type doping is verified by Hall effect measurements. Thus, by GaN overgrowth, we attained the building block of intrinsic GaN/p-type MoS2 heterojunction. Through this work, we have provided the platform for the realization of dissimilar heterostructure via monolithic approach.

  18. Impact of N-plasma and Ga-irradiation on MoS2 layer in molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pawan; Tangi, Malleswararao; Ng, Tien Khee; Hedhili, Mohamed Nejib; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Tseng, Chien-Chih; Li, Lain-Jong; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent interest in two-dimensional materials has resulted in ultra-thin devices based on the transfer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) onto other TMDs or III-nitride materials. In this investigation, we realized p-type monolayer (ML) MoS2, and intrinsic GaN/p-type MoS2 heterojunction by the GaN overgrowth on ML-MoS2/c-sapphire using the plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A systematic nitrogen plasma ( N2 * ) and gallium (Ga) irradiation studies are employed to understand the individual effect on the doping levels of ML-MoS2, which is evaluated by micro-Raman and high-resolution X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) measurements. With both methods, p-type doping was attained and was verified by softening and strengthening of characteristics phonon modes E2 g 1 and A 1 g from Raman spectroscopy. With adequate N2 * -irradiation (3 min), respective shift of 1.79 cm-1 for A 1 g and 1.11 cm-1 for E2 g 1 are obtained while short term Ga-irradiated (30 s) exhibits the shift of 1.51 cm-1 for A 1 g and 0.93 cm-1 for E2 g 1 . Moreover, in HRXPS valence band spectra analysis, the position of valence band maximum measured with respect to the Fermi level is determined to evaluate the type of doping levels in ML-MoS2. The observed values of valance band maximum are reduced to 0.5, and 0.2 eV from the intrinsic value of ≈1.0 eV for N2 * - and Ga-irradiated MoS2 layers, which confirms the p-type doping of ML-MoS2. Further p-type doping is verified by Hall effect measurements. Thus, by GaN overgrowth, we attained the building block of intrinsic GaN/p-type MoS2 heterojunction. Through this work, we have provided the platform for the realization of dissimilar heterostructure via monolithic approach.

  19. Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Ohad; Katz, Moti; Atar, Gil; Paltiel, Yossi; Sicron, Noam

    2017-07-01

    Optical losses in c-plane (0001) GaN ridge waveguides, containing Mg-doped layers, were measured at 1064 nm, using the Fabry-Perot method. The losses increase linearly with the modal content of the p-layer, indicating that the absorption in these waveguides is dominated by p-layer absorption. The p-layer absorption is strongly anisotropic with E⊥c losses 4 times higher than E∥c. The absorption is temperature independent between 10 °C and 60 °C, supporting the possibility that it is related to Mg-bound holes.

  20. Deposition of O atomic layers on Si(100) substrates for epitaxial Si-O superlattices: investigation of the surface chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayachandran, Suseendran, E-mail: suseendran.jayachandran@imec.be [KU Leuven, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Castle Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delabie, Annelies; Billen, Arne [KU Leuven, Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dekkers, Harold; Douhard, Bastien; Conard, Thierry; Meersschaut, Johan; Caymax, Matty [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, Wilfried [KU Leuven, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heyns, Marc [KU Leuven, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Castle Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Atomic layer is deposited by O{sub 3} chemisorption reaction on H-terminated Si(100). • O-content has critical impact on the epitaxial thickness of the above-deposited Si. • Oxygen atoms at dimer/back bond configurations enable epitaxial Si on O atomic layer. • Oxygen atoms at hydroxyl and more back bonds, disable epitaxial Si on O atomic layer. - Abstract: Epitaxial Si-O superlattices consist of alternating periods of crystalline Si layers and atomic layers of oxygen (O) with interesting electronic and optical properties. To understand the fundamentals of Si epitaxy on O atomic layers, we investigate the O surface species that can allow epitaxial Si chemical vapor deposition using silane. The surface reaction of ozone on H-terminated Si(100) is used for the O deposition. The oxygen content is controlled precisely at and near the atomic layer level and has a critical impact on the subsequent Si deposition. There exists only a small window of O-contents, i.e. 0.7–0.9 atomic layers, for which the epitaxial deposition of Si can be realized. At these low O-contents, the O atoms are incorporated in the Si-Si dimers or back bonds (-OSiH), with the surface Si atoms mainly in the 1+ oxidation state, as indicated by infrared spectroscopy. This surface enables epitaxial seeding of Si. For O-contents higher than one atomic layer, the additional O atoms are incorporated in the Si-Si back bonds as well as in the Si-H bonds, where hydroxyl groups (-Si-OH) are created. In this case, the Si deposition thereon becomes completely amorphous.

  1. The role of defects in fluorescent silicon carbide layers grown by sublimation epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schimmel, Saskia; Kaiser, Michl; Jokubavicius, Valdas

    Donor-acceptor co-doped silicon carbide layers are promising light converters for novel monolithic all-semiconductor LEDs due to their broad-band donor-acceptor pair luminescence and potentially high internal quantum efficiency. Besides appropriate doping concentrations yielding low radiative...... lifetimes, high nonradiative lifetimes are crucial for efficient light conversion. Despite the excellent crystalline quality that can generally be obtained by sublimation epitaxy according to XRD measurements, the role of defects in f-SiC is not yet well understood. Recent results from room temperature...... photoluminescence, charge carrier lifetime measurements by microwave detected photoconductivity and internal quantum efficiency measurements suggest that the internal quantum efficiency of f-SiC layers is significantly affected by the incorporation of defects during epitaxy. Defect formation seems to be related...

  2. Defect analysis of NiMnSb epitaxial layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowicki, L. [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: lech.nowicki@fuw.edu.pl; Turos, A. [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Stonert, A. [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Garrido, F. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Molenkamp, L.W. [Department of Physics, University Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Bach, P. [Department of Physics, University Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Schmidt, G. [Department of Physics, University Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Karczewski, G. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Muecklich, A. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, POB 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2005-10-15

    NiMnSb layers grown on InP substrates with InGaAs buffer were studied by the backscattering/channeling spectrometry (RBS/C) with He beams. The nature of predominant defects observed in the layers was studied by determination of incident-energy dependence of the relative channeling yield. The defects are described as a combination of large amount of interstitial atoms and of stacking faults or grain boundaries. The presence of grains was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

  3. Few layer epitaxial germanene: a novel two-dimensional Dirac material

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Dávila; Guy Le Lay

    2016-01-01

    Monolayer germanene, a novel graphene-like germanium allotrope akin to silicene has been recently grown on metallic substrates. Lying directly on the metal surfaces the reconstructed atom-thin sheets are prone to lose the massless Dirac fermion character and unique associated physical properties of free standing germanene. Here, we show that few layer germanene, which we create by dry epitaxy on a gold template, possesses Dirac cones thanks to a reduced interaction. This finding established o...

  4. Direct Current Sputter Epitaxy of Heavily Doped p+ Layer for Monocrystalline Si Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchang Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sputter epitaxy of p+ layer for fabrication of Si solar cells (SCs was demonstrated. Hall carrier concentration of p+ layer was 2.6 × 1020 cm−3 owing to cosputtering of B with Si at low temperature, which had enabled heavy and shallow p+ dope layer. p+nn+ SCs were fabricated and influence of p+ and n+ layers was investigated. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE of p+nn+ SCs was 95% at visible light and was larger than 60% at ultraviolet (UV light when the p+ layer was thinner than 30 nm. At near infrared (NIR, extra increment on IQE was achieved by rear n+ back surface field (BSF layer with a thickness thinner than 100 nm.

  5. Pump-probe surface photovoltage spectroscopy measurements on semiconductor epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Dipankar; Porwal, S.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M.; Kumar, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    Pump-probe Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy (SPS) measurements are performed on semiconductor epitaxial layers. Here, an additional sub-bandgap cw pump laser beam is used in a conventional chopped light geometry SPS setup under the pump-probe configuration. The main role of pump laser beam is to saturate the sub-bandgap localized states whose contribution otherwise swamp the information related to the bandgap of material. It also affects the magnitude of Dember voltage in case of semi-insulating (SI) semiconductor substrates. Pump-probe SPS technique enables an accurate determination of the bandgap of semiconductor epitaxial layers even under the strong influence of localized sub-bandgap states. The pump beam is found to be very effective in suppressing the effect of surface/interface and bulk trap states. The overall magnitude of SPV signal is decided by the dependence of charge separation mechanisms on the intensity of the pump beam. On the contrary, an above bandgap cw pump laser can be used to distinguish the signatures of sub-bandgap states by suppressing the band edge related feature. Usefulness of the pump-probe SPS technique is established by unambiguously determining the bandgap of p-GaAs epitaxial layers grown on SI-GaAs substrates, SI-InP wafers, and p-GaN epilayers grown on Sapphire substrates

  6. Influence of growth conditions and surface reaction byproducts on GaN grown via metal organic molecular beam epitaxy: Toward an understanding of surface reaction chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, David; Henderson, Walter; Burnham, Shawn D.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-04-01

    The surface reaction byproducts during the growth of GaN films via metal organic molecular beam epitaxy (MOMBE) were investigated as a means to optimize material properties. Ethylene and ethane were identified as the dominant surface reaction hydrocarbon byproducts, averaging 27.63% and 7.15% of the total gas content present during growth. Intense ultraviolet (UV) photoexcitation during growth was found to significantly increase the abundance of ethylene and ethane while reducing the presence of H2 and N2. At 920°C, UV excitation was shown to enhance growth rate and crystalline quality while reducing carbon incorporation. Over a limited growth condition range, a 4.5×1019-3.4×1020 cm-3 variation in carbon incorporation was achieved at constant high vacuum. Coupled with growth rate gains, UV excitation yielded films with ˜58% less integrated carbon content. Structural material property variations are reported for various ammonia flows and growth temperatures. The results suggest that high carbon incorporation can be achieved and regulated during MOMBE growth and that in-situ optimization through hydrocarbon analysis may provide further enhancement in the allowable carbon concentration range.

  7. Closed-loop MBE growth of droplet-free GaN with very metal rich conditions using Metal Modulated Epitaxy with Mg and In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, S.D.; Henderson, W.; Doolittle, W.A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Improvements to the Metal Modulated Epitaxy (MME) technique are achieved through computer controlled shutter transitions based on feedback from RHEED transients (S. D. Burnham and W. A. Doolittle, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2100 (2006)), thus creating a closed-loop control system for nitride MBE, the first of its kind. A high-sensitivity 22 bit camera is used to determine when RHEED transients have subsided, upon which a shutter transition is initiated allowing the efficient buildup and depletion of the metal bilayer, which improves surface morphology and growth rate compared to the standard MME technique. RMS surface roughness was reduced by 41% by using this 'Smart Shuttering' improvement to MME. A substantially higher peak concentration of Mg, approaching 2% atomic concentration, was achieved using the MME technique. As expected, a negligible amount of In was incorporated into the very Ga-rich films. Using the new closed loop control system developed for MBE, the surface morphology was improved for GaN films while highly repeatable holes concentrations as high as 4.7 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} with 1.07 cm{sup 2}/V-sec mobility was obtained. This approach offers great promise for improved reproducibility and improved material quality. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Impact of substrate temperature on the incorporation of carbon-related defects and mechanism for semi-insulating behavior in GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.; Poblenz, C.; Green, D.S.; Mishra, U.K.; Speck, J.S.; Ringel, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The electrical conductivity and deep level spectrum of GaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy and codoped with carbon and silicon were investigated for substrate temperatures T s of 650 and 720 deg. C as a function relative carbon and silicon doping levels. With sufficiently high carbon doping, semi-insulating behavior was observed for films grown at both temperatures, and growth at T s =720 deg. C enhanced the carbon compensation ratio. Similar carbon-related band gap states were observed via deep level optical spectroscopy for films grown at both substrate temperatures. Due to the semi-insulating nature of the films, a lighted capacitance-voltage technique was required to determine individual deep level concentrations. Carbon-related band gap states underwent substantial redistribution between deep level and shallow acceptor configurations with change in T s . In light of a T s dependence for the preferential site of carbon incorporation, a model of semi-insulating behavior in terms of carbon impurity state incorporation mediated by substrate temperature is proposed

  9. Transport and optical properties of c-axis oriented wedge shaped GaN nanowall network grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhasker, H. P.; Dhar, S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra-400076 (India); Thakur, Varun; Kesaria, Manoj; Shivaprasad, S. M. [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) Bangalore- 560064 (India)

    2014-02-21

    The transport and optical properties of wedge-shaped nanowall network of GaN grown spontaneously on cplane sapphire substrate by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PAMBE) show interesting behavior. The electron mobility at room temperature in these samples is found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of a continuous film. Our study reveals a strong correlation between the mobility and the band gap in these nanowall network samples. However, it is seen that when the thickness of the tips of the walls increases to an extent such that more than 70% of the film area is covered, it behaves close to a flat sample. In the sample with lower surface coverage (≈40% and ≈60%), it was observed that the conductivity, mobility as well as the band gap increase with the decrease in the average tip width of the walls. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments show a strong and broad band edge emission with a large (as high as ≈ 90 meV) blue shift, compared to that of a continuous film, suggesting a confinement of carriers on the top edges of the nanowalls. The PL peak width remains wide at all temperatures suggesting the existence of a high density of tail states at the band edge, which is further supported by the photoconductivity result. The high conductivity and mobility observed in these samples is believed to be due to a “dissipation less” transport of carriers, which are localized at the top edges (edge states) of the nanowalls.

  10. Transport and optical properties of c-axis oriented wedge shaped GaN nanowall network grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasker, H. P.; Dhar, S.; Thakur, Varun; Kesaria, Manoj; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The transport and optical properties of wedge-shaped nanowall network of GaN grown spontaneously on cplane sapphire substrate by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PAMBE) show interesting behavior. The electron mobility at room temperature in these samples is found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of a continuous film. Our study reveals a strong correlation between the mobility and the band gap in these nanowall network samples. However, it is seen that when the thickness of the tips of the walls increases to an extent such that more than 70% of the film area is covered, it behaves close to a flat sample. In the sample with lower surface coverage (≈40% and ≈60%), it was observed that the conductivity, mobility as well as the band gap increase with the decrease in the average tip width of the walls. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments show a strong and broad band edge emission with a large (as high as ≈ 90 meV) blue shift, compared to that of a continuous film, suggesting a confinement of carriers on the top edges of the nanowalls. The PL peak width remains wide at all temperatures suggesting the existence of a high density of tail states at the band edge, which is further supported by the photoconductivity result. The high conductivity and mobility observed in these samples is believed to be due to a “dissipation less” transport of carriers, which are localized at the top edges (edge states) of the nanowalls

  11. Determination of carrier diffusion length in p- and n-type GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Shopan; Metzner, Sebastian; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Karbaum, Christopher; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Gil, Bernard; Özgür, Ümit

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers along the c-direction were determined from photoluminescence (PL) measurements in p- and n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The investigated samples incorporate a 6 nm thick In0.15Ga0.85N active layer capped with either 500 nm p- GaN or 1300 nm n-GaN. The top GaN layers were etched in steps and PL from the InGaN active region and the underlying layers was monitored as a function of the top GaN thickness upon photogeneration near the surface region by above bandgap excitation. Taking into consideration the absorption in the active and underlying layers, the diffusion lengths at 295 K and at 15 K were measured to be about 92 ± 7 nm and 68 ± 7 nm for Mg-doped p-type GaN and 432 ± 30 nm and 316 ± 30 nm for unintentionally doped n-type GaN, respectively. Cross-sectional cathodoluminescence line-scan measurement was performed on a separate sample and the diffusion length in n-type GaN was measured to be 280 nm.

  12. P-type surface effects for thickness variation of 2um and 4um of n-type layer in GaN LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, N. S. A. Abdul; Wahid, M. H. A.; Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Rashid, S.; Ramli, M. M.; Shahimin, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    The internal quantum efficiency of III-Nitrides group, GaN light-emitting diode (LED) has been considerably limited due to the insufficient hole injection and this is caused by the lack of performance p-type doping and low hole mobility. The low hole mobility makes the hole less energetic, thus reduced the performance operation of GaN LED itself. The internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based LED with surface roughness (texture) can be changed by texture size, density, and thickness of GaN film or by the combined effects of surface shape and thickness of GaN film. Besides, due to lack of p-type GaN, attempts to look forward the potential of GaN LED relied on the thickness of n-type layer and surface shape of p-type GaN layer. This work investigates the characteristics of GaN LED with undoped n-GaN layer of different thickness and the surface shape of p-type layer. The LEDs performance is significantly altered by modifying the thickness and shape. Enhancement of n-GaN layer has led to the annihilation of electrical conductivity of the chip. Different surface geometry governs the emission rate extensively. Internal quantum efficiency is also predominantly affected by the geometry of n-GaN layer which subjected to the current spreading. It is recorded that the IQE droop can be minimized by varying the thickness of the active layer without amplifying the forward voltage. Optimum forward voltage (I-V), total emission rate relationship with the injected current and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for 2,4 µm on four different surfaces of p-type layer are also reported in this paper.

  13. In situ variations of the scintillation characteristics in GaN and CdS layers under irradiation by 1.6 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubas, E., E-mail: eugenijus.gaubas@ff.vu.lt; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Tekorius, A.

    2015-12-15

    Evolution of the non-radiative and radiative recombination in GaN and CdS 2.5–20 μm thick layers has been examined by the in situ measurements of the 1.6 MeV proton induced luminescence and laser excited photoconductivity characteristics. The introduction rate of radiation defects has been evaluated by the comparative analysis of the laser and proton beam induced luminescence for the examined GaN and CdS layers.

  14. Infrared reflection spectra of multilayer epitaxial heterostructures with embedded InAs and GaAs layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seredin, P. V.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Lukin, A. N.; Arsent'ev, I. N.; Vinokurov, D. A.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the thickness of embedded InAs and GaAs layers on the infrared reflection spectra of lattice vibrations for AlInAs/InAs/AlInAs, InGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs, and AlInAs/InGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs/AlInAs multilayer epitaxial heterostructures grown by MOC hydride epitaxy on InP (100) substrates is studied. Relative stresses emerging in the layers surrounding the embedded layers with variation in the number of monolayers from which the quantum dots are formed and with variation the thickness of the layers themselves surrounding the embedded layers are evaluated.

  15. Ion-induced crystal damage during plasma-assisted MBE growth of GaN layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, V.; Heinke, H.; Birkle, U.; Einfeldt, S.; Hommel, D.; Selke, H.; Ryder, P. L.

    1998-12-01

    Gallium nitride layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (0001)-oriented sapphire substrates using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and a radio frequency (rf) plasma source. An applied substrate bias was varied from -200 to +250 V, resulting in a change of the density and energy of nitrogen ions impinging the growth surface. The layers were investigated by high-resolution x-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Applying a negative bias during growth has a marked detrimental effect on the crystal perfection of the layers grown with an ECR plasma source. This is indicated by a change in shape and width of (0002) and (202¯5) reciprocal lattice points as monitored by triple axis x-ray measurements. In HRTEM images, isolated basal plane stacking faults were found, which probably result from precipitation of interstitial atoms. The crystal damage in layers grown with a highly negative substrate bias is comparable to that observed for ion implantation processes at orders of magnitude larger ion energies. This is attributed to the impact of ions on the growing surface. None of the described phenomena was observed for the samples grown with the rf plasma source.

  16. About influence of buffer porous layers between epitaxial layers of heterostructure on distributions of concentrations of dopants in heterobipolar transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pankratov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce an approach to manufacture a heterobipolar transistors. Framework this approach we consider doping by diffusion or by ion implantation of required parts of a heterostructure with special configuration and optimization of annealing of dopant and/or radiation defects. In this case one have possibility to manufacture bipolar transistors, which include into itself p-n-junctions with higher sharpness and smaller dimensions. We also consider influence of presents of buffer porous layers between epitaxial layers of heterostructure on distributions of concentrations of dopants in the considered transistors. An approach to decrease value of mismatch-induced stress has been considered.

  17. Effect of Al/N ratio during nucleation layer growth on Hall mobility and buffer leakage of molecular-beam epitaxy grown AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.F.; Katzer, D.S.; Binari, S.C.; Shanabrook, B.V.; Zhou Lin; Smith, David J.

    2004-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures have been grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on semi-insulating 4H-SiC utilizing an AlN nucleation layer. The electron Hall mobility of these structures increases from 1050 cm 2 /V s to greater than 1450 cm 2 /V s when the Al/N flux ratio during the growth of the nucleation layer is increased from 0.90 to 1.07. Buffer leakage currents increase abruptly by nearly three orders of magnitude when the Al/N ratio increases from below to above unity. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that high buffer leakage is correlated with the presence of stacking faults in the nucleation layer and cubic phase GaN in the buffer, while low mobilities are correlated with high dislocation densities

  18. GaN membrane MSM ultraviolet photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A.; Konstantinidis, G.; Kostopoulos, A.; Dragoman, M.; Neculoiu, D.; Androulidaki, M.; Kayambaki, M.; Vasilache, D.; Buiculescu, C.; Petrini, I.

    2006-12-01

    GaN exhibits unique physical properties, which make this material very attractive for wide range of applications and among them ultraviolet detection. For the first time a MSM type UV photodetector structure was manufactured on a 2.2 μm. thick GaN membrane obtained using micromachining techniques. The low unintentionally doped GaN layer structure was grown by MOCVD on high resistivity (ρ>10kΩcm) oriented silicon wafers, 500μm thick. The epitaxially grown layers include a thin AlN layer in order to reduce the stress in the GaN layer and avoid cracking. Conventional contact lithography, e-gun Ni/Au (10nm /200nm) evaporation and lift-off techniques were used to define the interdigitated Schottky metalization on the top of the wafer. Ten digits with a width of 1μm and a length of 100μm were defined for each electrode. The distance between the digits was also 1μm. After the backside lapping of the wafer to a thickness of approximately 150μm, a 400nm thick Al layer was patterned and deposited on the backside, to be used as mask for the selective reactive ion etching of silicon. The backside mask, for the membrane formation, was patterned using double side alignment techniques and silicon was etched down to the 2.2μm thin GaN layer using SF 6 plasma. A very low dark current (30ρA at 3V) was obtained. Optical responsivity measurements were performed at 1.5V. A maximum responsivity of 18mA/W was obtained at a wavelength of 370nm. This value is very good and can be further improved using transparent contacts for the interdigitated structure.

  19. The impact of SiC substrate treatment on the heteroepitaxial growth of GaN by plasma assisted MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.S.; Kim, T.H.; Choi, S.; Morse, M.; Wu, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27709 (United States); Losurdo, M.; Giangregorio, M.M.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, and INSTM via Orabona 4 -70126, Bari (Italy)

    2005-11-01

    We report on the impact of the preparation of the Si-face 4H-SiC(0001){sub Si} substrate using a Ga flash-off process on the epitaxial growth of GaN by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The nucleation, as well as the resultant structural and morphological properties of GaN grown directly on 4H-SiC(0001){sub Si} are strongly influenced by the chemical and morphological modifications of the SiC surface induced by the Ga flash-off process. Herein we describe the impact of the specific concentration of Ga incident on the surface (quantified in terms of monolayer (ML) coverage): of 0.5 ML, 1ML and 2ML. The residual oxygen at the SiC surface, unintentional SiC nitridation and the formation of cubic GaN grains during the initial nucleation stage, are all reduced when a 2 ML Ga flash is used. All of the above factors result in structural improvement of the GaN epitaxial layers. The correlation between the SiC surface modification, the initial nucleation stage, and the GaN epitaxial layer structural quality has been articulated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry data. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Rubrene epitaxial layers for organic TFT's grown by hot wall epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd AL-Baqi, S.

    2010-01-01

    discussed in a statistical analysis as well as using thermodynamic modelling. Rubrene films were grown on different substrates as well as applying electrical field during the growth to study the growth mechanism. Optical characterisation techniques like fluorescence microscopy (FM), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), time resolved photoluminescence spectra and thermally stimulated luminescence were implemented to analyse various growth conditions to obtain more details about the material and the crystallization properties. Ellipsometry was also used to find the optical parameters for rubrene thin films. By using a special evaluation program for ellipsometry, it was possible to find the thickness of rubrene films. Finally, field effect transistors with rubrene thin films as an active layer were fabricated and characterized. Better output characteristics are achieved by using a self-assembled monolayer at the interface between SiO 2 and rubrene. (author) [de

  1. Vibrational properties of epitaxial silicene layers on (1 1 1) Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, E.; Cinquanta, E.; Houssa, M.; Broek, B. van den; Chiappe, D.; Grazianetti, C.; Pourtois, G.; Ealet, B.; Molle, A.; Fanciulli, M.; Afanas’ev, V.V.; Stesmans, A.

    2014-01-01

    The electronic and vibrational properties of three different reconstructions of silicene on Ag(1 1 1) are calculated and compared to experimental results. The 2D epitaxial silicon layers, namely the (4 × 4), (√13 × √13) and (2√3 × 2√3) phases, exhibit different electronic and vibrational properties. Few peaks in the experimental Raman spectrum are identified and attributed to the vibrational modes of the silicene layers. The position and behavior of the Raman peaks with respect to the excitation energy are shown to be a fundamental tool to investigate and discern different phases of silicene on Ag(1 1 1).

  2. Vibrational properties of epitaxial silicene layers on (1 1 1) Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalise, E., E-mail: emilio.scalise@fys.kuleuven.be [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cinquanta, E. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Houssa, M.; Broek, B. van den [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Chiappe, D. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Grazianetti, C. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Aix-Marseille University, CNRS-CINaM, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Pourtois, G. [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, Plasmant Research Group, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Ealet, B. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS-CINaM, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Molle, A. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, via R. Cozzi 53, I-20126 Milano (MI) (Italy); Afanas’ev, V.V.; Stesmans, A. [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-02-01

    The electronic and vibrational properties of three different reconstructions of silicene on Ag(1 1 1) are calculated and compared to experimental results. The 2D epitaxial silicon layers, namely the (4 × 4), (√13 × √13) and (2√3 × 2√3) phases, exhibit different electronic and vibrational properties. Few peaks in the experimental Raman spectrum are identified and attributed to the vibrational modes of the silicene layers. The position and behavior of the Raman peaks with respect to the excitation energy are shown to be a fundamental tool to investigate and discern different phases of silicene on Ag(1 1 1).

  3. X-ray and scanning electron microscopic investigation of porous silicon and silicon epitaxial layers grown on porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Pawlowska, M.; Nossarzewska-Orlowska, E.; Brzozowski, A.; Wieteska, K.; Graeff, W.

    1998-01-01

    The 1 to 5 μm thick layers of porous silicon and epitaxial layers grown on porous silicon were studied by means of X-ray diffraction methods, realised with a wide use of synchrotron source and scanning microscopy. The results of x-ray investigation pointed the difference of lateral periodicity between the porous layer and the substrate. It was also found that the deposition of epitaxial layer considerably reduced the coherence of porous fragments. A number of interface phenomena was also observed in section and plane wave topographs. The scanning electron microscopic investigation of cleavage faces enabled direct evaluation of porous layer thickness and revealed some details of their morphology. The scanning observation of etched surfaces of epitaxial layers deposited on porous silicon revealed dislocations and other defects not reasonable in the X-ray topographs. (author)

  4. Effect of H, O intentionally doping on photoelectric properties in MOVPE-growth GaN layers

    KAUST Repository

    Ohkawa, Kazuhiro; Wang, Yaxin

    2017-01-01

    such as H2O on the properties of undoped-GaN layer, high purity NH3 (N70) was used as NH3 source. The concentration of H2O in NH3 was varied at 32, 49, 75, 142, 266, 489, and 899 ppb, respectively. Under the same recipe, we deposited undoped-GaN epitaxial

  5. SiC epitaxial layer growth in a novel multi-wafer VPE reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burk, A.A. Jr.; O`Loughlin, M.J. [Northrop Grumman Advanced Technology Lab., Baltimore, MD (United States); Mani, S.S. [Northrop Grumman Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Preliminary results are presented for SiC epitaxial layer growth employing a unique planetary SiC-VPE reactor. The high-throughput, multi-wafer (7 x 2-inch) reactor, was designed for atmospheric and reduced pressure operation at temperatures up to and exceeding 1600 C. Specular epitaxial layers have been grown in the reactor at growth rates from 3-5 {mu}m/hr. The thickest layer grown to data was 42 {mu}m. The layers exhibit minimum unintentional n-type doping of {proportional_to}1 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, room temperature mobilities of {proportional_to}1000 cm{sup 2}/Vs, and intentional n-type doping from {proportional_to}5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} to >1 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Intrawafer thickness and doping uniformities of 4% and 7% (standard deviation/mean) have been obtained, respectively, on 35 mm diameter substrates. Recently, 3% thickness uniformity has been demonstrated on a 50 mm substrate. Within a run, wafer-to-wafer thickness deviation is {proportional_to}4-14%. Doping variation is currently larger, ranging as much as a factor of two from the highest to the lowest doped wafer. Continuing efforts to improve the susceptor temperature uniformity and reduce unintentional hydrocarbon generation to improve layer uniformity and reproducibility, are presented. (orig.) 18 refs.

  6. Improving the Efficiency Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Based InGaN Solar Cell by Using a GaN Cap Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Gundogdu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a high indium content (0.8 InGaN based solar cell design where the active InGaN layer is sandwiched between a GaN cap layer and a GaN spacer layer. The incorporation of the sacrificial cap layer allows for the etching of the front surface without removing the active InGaN resulting in a 50% enhancement of the short-circuit current density for a 15 nm-thick InGaN layer.

  7. GaN and LED structures grown on pre-patterned silicon pillar arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shunfeng; Fuendling, Soenke; Soekmen, Uensal; Merzsch, Stephan; Neumann, Richard; Peiner, Erwin; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Hinze, Peter; Weimann, Thomas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvoigteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    GaN nanorods (or nanowires) have attracted great interest in a variety of applications, e.g. high-efficiency light emitting diodes, monolithic white light emission and optical interconnection due to their superior properties. In contrast to the mostly investigated self-assembled growth of GaN nanorods, we performed GaN nanorod growth by pre-patterning of the Si substrates. The pattern was transferred to Si substrates by photolithography and cryo-temperature inductively-coupled plasma etching. These Si templates then were used for further GaN nanorod growth by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The low temperature AlN nucleation layer had to be optimized since it differs from its 2D layer counterpart on the surface area and orientations. We found a strong influence of diffusion processes, i.e. the GaN grown on top of the Si nanopillars can deplete the GaN around the Si pillars. Transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrated clearly that the threading dislocations bend to the side facets of the pyramidal GaN nanostructures and terminate. Cathodoluminescence measurements reveal a difference of In composition and/or thickness of InGaN quantum wells on the different facets of the pyramidal GaN nanostructures. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. The investigation of stress in freestanding GaN crystals grown from Si substrates by HVPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonsang; Mikulik, Dmitry; Yang, Mino; Park, Sungsoo

    2017-08-17

    We investigate the stress evolution of 400 µm-thick freestanding GaN crystals grown from Si substrates by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) and the in situ removal of Si substrates. The stress generated in growing GaN can be tuned by varying the thickness of the MOCVD AlGaN/AlN buffer layers. Micro Raman analysis shows the presence of slight tensile stress in the freestanding GaN crystals and no stress accumulation in HVPE GaN layers during the growth. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the residual tensile stress in HVPE GaN is caused only by elastic stress arising from the crystal quality difference between Ga- and N-face GaN. TEM analysis revealed that the dislocations in freestanding GaN crystals have high inclination angles that are attributed to the stress relaxation of the crystals. We believe that the understanding and characterization on the structural properties of the freestanding GaN crystals will help us to use these crystals for high-performance opto-electronic devices.

  9. Evaluation of methods for application of epitaxial layers of superconductor and buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The recent achievements in a number of laboratories of critical currents in excess of 1.0x10{sup 6} amp/cm{sup 2} at 77K in YBCO deposited over suitably textured buffer/substrate composites have stimulated interest in the potential applications of coated conductors at high temperatures and high magnetic fields. As of today, two different approaches for obtaining the textured substrates have been identified. These are: Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL) ion-beam assisted deposition called IBAD, to obtain a highly textured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffer on nickel alloy strips, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) rolling assisted, bi-axial texturized substrate option called RABiTS. Similarly, based on the published literature, the available options to form High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) films on metallic, semi-metallic or ceramic substrates can be divided into: physical methods, and non-physical or chemical methods. Under these two major groups, the schemes being proposed consist of: - Sputtering - Electron-Beam Evaporation - Flash Evaporation - Molecular Beam Epitaxy - Laser Ablation - Electrophoresis - Chemical Vapor Deposition (Including Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition) - Sol-Gel - Metal-Organic Decomposition - Electrodeposition, and - Aerosol/Spray Pyrolysis. In general, a spool- to-spool or reel-to-reel type of continuous manufacturing scheme developed out of any of the above techniques, would consist of: - Preparation of Substrate Material - Preparation and Application of the Buffer Layer(s) - Preparation and Application of the HTS Material and Required Post-Annealing, and - Preparation and Application of the External Protective Layer. These operations would be affected by various process parameters which can be classified into: Chemistry and Material Related Parameters; and Engineering and Environmental Based Parameters. Thus, one can see that for successful development of the coated conductors manufacturing process, an

  10. Photoelectrochemistry of III-V epitaxial layers and nanowires for solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Enck, Ryan; Chung, Roy; Kelley, Stephen; Sampath, Anand; Reed, Meredith; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2017-05-01

    III-V materials, which exhibit high absorption coefficients and charge carrier mobility, are ideal templates for solar energy conversion applications. This work describes the photoelectrochemistry research in several IIIV/electrolyte junctions as an enabler for device design for solar chemical reactions. By designing lattice-matched epitaxial growth of InGaP and GaP on GaAs and Si, respectively, extended depletion region electrodes achieve photovoltages which provide an additional boost to the underlying substrate photovoltage. The InGaP/GaAs and GaP/Si electrodes drive hydrogen evolution currents under aqueous conditions. By using nanowires of InN and InP under carefully controlled growth conditions, current and capacitance measurements are obtained to reveal the nature of the nanowire-electrolyte interface and how light is translated into photocurrent for InP and a photovoltage in InN. The materials system is expanded into the III-V nitride semiconductors, in which it is shown that varying the morphology of GaN on silicon yields insights to how the interface and light conversion is modulated as a basis for future designs. Current extensions of this work address growth and tuning of the III-V nitride electrodes with doping and polarization engineering for efficient coupling to solar-driven chemical reactions, and rapid-throughput methods for III-V nanomaterials synthesis in this materials space.

  11. Design of Strain-Compensated Epitaxial Layers Using an Electrical Circuit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujofsa, Tedi; Ayers, John E.

    2017-12-01

    The design of heterostructures that exhibit desired strain characteristics is critical for the realization of semiconductor devices with improved performance and reliability. The control of strain and dislocation dynamics requires an understanding of the relaxation processes associated with mismatched epitaxy, and the starting point for this analysis is the equilibrium strain profile, because the difference between the actual strain and the equilibrium value determines the driving force for dislocation glide and relaxation. Previously, we developed an electrical circuit model approach for the equilibrium analysis of semiconductor heterostructures, in which an epitaxial layer may be represented by a stack of subcircuits, each of which involves an independent current source, a resistor, an independent voltage source, and an ideal diode. In this work, we have applied the electrical circuit model to study the strain compensation mechanism and show that, for a given compositionally uniform device layer with fixed mismatch and layer thickness, a buffer layer may be designed (in terms of thickness and mismatch) to tailor the strain in the device layer. A special case is that in which the device layer will exhibit zero residual strain in equilibrium (complete strain compensation). In addition, the application of the electrical circuit analogy enables the determination of exact expressions for the residual strain characteristics of both the buffer and device layers in the general case where the device layer may exhibit partial strain compensation. On the basis of this framework, it is possible to develop design equations for the tailoring of the strain in a device layer grown on a uniform composition buffer.

  12. Epitaxial growth of GaN by radical-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (REMOCVD) in the downflow of a very high frequency (VHF) N2/H2 excited plasma - effect of TMG flow rate and VHF power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Oda, Osamu; Takeda, Keigo; Sekine, Makoto; Amano, Hiroshi; Hori, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films have been grown by using our newly developed Radical-Enhanced Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (REMOCVD) system. This system has three features: (1) application of very high frequency (60 MHz) power in order to increase the plasma density, (2) introduction of H2 gas together with N2 gas in the plasma discharge region to generate not only nitrogen radicals but also active NHx molecules, and (3) radical supply under remote plasma arrangement with suppression of charged ions and photons by employing a Faraday cage. Using this new system, we have studied the effect of the trimethylgallium (TMG) source flow rate and of the plasma generation power on the GaN crystal quality by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and double crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that this REMOCVD allowed the growth of epitaxial GaN films of the wurtzite structure of (0001) orientation on sapphire substrates with a high growth rate of 0.42 μm/h at a low temperature of 800 °C. The present REMOCVD is a promising method for GaN growth at relatively low temperature and without using costly ammonia gas.

  13. Epitaxial growth and characterization of approximately 300-nm-thick AlInN films nearly lattice-matched to c-plane GaN grown on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Makoto; Yamanaka, Mizuki; Egawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Tetsuya

    2018-05-01

    AlInN epitaxial films with film thicknesses up to approximately 300 nm were grown nearly lattice-matched to a c-plane GaN-on-sapphire template by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The AlInN films showed relative good crystal qualities and flat surfaces, despite the existence of surface pits connected to dislocations in the underlying GaN film. The refractive index derived in this study agreed well with a previously reported result obtained over the whole visible wavelength region. The extinction coefficient spectrum exhibited a clear absorption edge, and the bandgap energy for AlInN nearly lattice-matched to GaN was determined to be approximately 4.0 eV.

  14. Impact of substrate off-angle on the m-plane GaN Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hisashi; Chonan, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effects of the substrate off-angle on the m-plane GaN Schottky diodes. GaN epitaxial layers were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on m-plane GaN substrates having an off-angle of 0.1, 1.1, 1.7, or 5.1° toward [000\\bar{1}]. The surface of the GaN epitaxial layers on the 0.1°-off substrate consisted of pyramidal hillocks and contained oxygen (>1017 cm-3) and carbon (>1016 cm-3) impurities. The residual carbon and oxygen impurities decreased to current of the 0.1°-off m-plane GaN Schottky diodes originated from the +c facet of the pyramidal hillocks. The leakage current was efficiently suppressed through the use of an off-angle that was observed to be greater than 1.1°. The off-angle of the m-plane GaN substrate is critical in obtaining high-performance Schottky diodes.

  15. Low temperature p-type doping of (Al)GaN layers using ammonia molecular beam epitaxy for InGaN laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinverni, M., E-mail: marco.malinverni@epfl.ch; Lamy, J.-M.; Martin, D.; Grandjean, N. [ICMP, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Feltin, E.; Dorsaz, J. [NOVAGAN AG, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Castiglia, A.; Rossetti, M.; Duelk, M.; Vélez, C. [EXALOS AG, CH-8952 Schlieren (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate state-of-the-art p-type (Al)GaN layers deposited at low temperature (740 °C) by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE) to be used as top cladding of laser diodes (LDs) with the aim of further reducing the thermal budget on the InGaN quantum well active region. Typical p-type GaN resistivities and contact resistances are 0.4 Ω cm and 5 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm{sup 2}, respectively. As a test bed, we fabricated a hybrid laser structure emitting at 400 nm combining n-type AlGaN cladding and InGaN active region grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, with the p-doped waveguide and cladding layers grown by NH{sub 3}-MBE. Single-mode ridge-waveguide LD exhibits a threshold voltage as low as 4.3 V for an 800 × 2 μm{sup 2} ridge dimension and a threshold current density of ∼5 kA cm{sup −2} in continuous wave operation. The series resistance of the device is 6 Ω and the resistivity is 1.5 Ω cm, confirming thereby the excellent electrical properties of p-type Al{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N:Mg despite the low growth temperature.

  16. Study on GaN buffer leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures grown by ammonia-molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Ng, G. I.; Munawar Basha, S.; Dharmarasu, N.; Agrawal, M.; Manoj kumar, C. M.; Arulkumaran, S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of carbon doping on the structural and electrical properties of GaN buffer layer of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures has been studied. In the undoped HEMT structures, oxygen was identified as the dominant impurity using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. In addition, a notable parallel conduction channel was identified in the GaN buffer at the interface. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer using a CBr 4 beam equivalent pressure of 1.86 × 10 −7 mTorr showed a reduction in the buffer leakage current by two orders of magnitude. Carbon doped GaN buffers also exhibited a slight increase in the crystalline tilt with some pits on the growth surface. PL and Raman measurements indicated only a partial compensation of donor states with carbon acceptors. However, AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer with 200 nm thick undoped GaN near the channel exhibited good 2DEG characteristics

  17. Study on GaN buffer leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures grown by ammonia-molecular beam epitaxy on 100-mm Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravikiran, L.; Radhakrishnan, K., E-mail: ERADHA@e.ntu.edu.sg; Ng, G. I. [NOVITAS-Nanoelectronics, Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Munawar Basha, S.; Dharmarasu, N.; Agrawal, M.; Manoj kumar, C. M.; Arulkumaran, S. [Temasek Laboratories@NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2015-06-28

    The effect of carbon doping on the structural and electrical properties of GaN buffer layer of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures has been studied. In the undoped HEMT structures, oxygen was identified as the dominant impurity using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. In addition, a notable parallel conduction channel was identified in the GaN buffer at the interface. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer using a CBr{sub 4} beam equivalent pressure of 1.86 × 10{sup −7} mTorr showed a reduction in the buffer leakage current by two orders of magnitude. Carbon doped GaN buffers also exhibited a slight increase in the crystalline tilt with some pits on the growth surface. PL and Raman measurements indicated only a partial compensation of donor states with carbon acceptors. However, AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures with carbon doped GaN buffer with 200 nm thick undoped GaN near the channel exhibited good 2DEG characteristics.

  18. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO{sub 3}), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  19. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G.; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al 2 O 3 and HfO 2 . However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO 3 ), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable

  20. High-quality AlGaN/GaN grown on sapphire by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy using a thin low-temperature AlN layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkovic, M.J.; Li, L.K.; Turk, B.; Wang, W.I.; Syed, S.; Simonian, D.; Stormer, H.L.

    2000-07-01

    Growth of high-quality AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on sapphire by ammonia gas-source molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Incorporation of a thin AlN layer grown at low temperature within the GaN buffer is shown to result in enhanced electrical and structural characteristics for subsequently grown heterostructures. AlGaN/GaN structures exhibiting reduced background doping and enhanced Hall mobilities (2100, 10310 and 12200 cm{sup 2}/Vs with carrier sheet densities of 6.1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}2}, and 5.8 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}2} at 300 K, 77 K, and 0.3 K, respectively) correlate with dislocation filtering in the thin AlN layer. Magnetotransport measurements at 0.3 K reveal well-resolved Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations starting at 3 T.

  1. Growth of GaN on SiC/Si substrates using AlN buffer layer by hot-mesh CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuyuki; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Yasui, Kanji; Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi; Endou, Tetsuro; Nakazawa, Hideki; Narita, Yuzuru; Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi

    2008-01-01

    GaN films were grown on SiC/Si (111) substrates by hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using ammonia (NH 3 ) and trimetylgallium (TMG) under low V/III source gas ratio (NH 3 /TMG = 80). The SiC layer was grown by a carbonization process on the Si substrates using propane (C 3 H 8 ). The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH 3 and trimetylaluminum (TMA). GaN films were formed and grown by the reaction between NH x radicals, generated on a tungsten hot mesh, and the TMG molecules. The GaN films with the AlN buffer layer showed better crystallinity and stronger near-band-edge emission compared to those without the AlN layer

  2. Growth of GaN on SiC/Si substrates using AlN buffer layer by hot-mesh CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Kazuyuki [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)], E-mail: kazuyuki@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Yasui, Kanji [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Endou, Tetsuro [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakazawa, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Narita, Yuzuru [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    GaN films were grown on SiC/Si (111) substrates by hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and trimetylgallium (TMG) under low V/III source gas ratio (NH{sub 3}/TMG = 80). The SiC layer was grown by a carbonization process on the Si substrates using propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}). The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH{sub 3} and trimetylaluminum (TMA). GaN films were formed and grown by the reaction between NH{sub x} radicals, generated on a tungsten hot mesh, and the TMG molecules. The GaN films with the AlN buffer layer showed better crystallinity and stronger near-band-edge emission compared to those without the AlN layer.

  3. The barrier to misfit dislocation glide in continuous, strained, epitaxial layers on patterned substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.P.; Ast, D.G.; Anderson, T.J.; Pathangey, B.

    1993-01-01

    In a previous report [G. P. Watson, D. G. Ast, T. J. Anderson, and Y. Hayakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2517 (1991)] we demonstrated that the motion of misfit dislocations in InGaAs, grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned GaAs substrates, can be impeded even if the strained epitaxial layer is continuous. Trenches etched into GaAs before growth are known to act as a barrier to misfit dislocation propagation [E. A. Fitzgerald, G. P. Watson, R. E. Proano, D. G. Ast, P. D. Kirchner, G. D. Pettit, and J. M. Woodall, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 2220 (1989)] when those trenches create discontinuities in the epitaxial layers; but even shallow trenches, with continuous strained layers following the surface features, can act as barriers. By considering the strain energy required to change the length of the dislocation glide segments that stretch from the interface to the free surface, a simple model is developed that explains the major features of the unique blocking action observed at the trench edges. The trench wall angle is found to be an important parameter in determining whether or not a trench will block dislocation glide. The predicted blocking angles are consistent with observations made on continuous 300 and 600 nm thick In 0.04 Ga 0.96 As films on patterned GaAs. Based on the model, a structure is proposed that may be used as a filter to yield misfit dislocations with identical Burgers vectors or dislocations which slip in only one glide plane

  4. Atomistics of Ge deposition on Si(100) by atomic layer epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D S; Wu, J L; Pan, S Y; Chiang, T C

    2003-01-31

    Chlorine termination of mixed Ge/Si(100) surfaces substantially enhances the contrast between Ge and Si sites in scanning tunneling microscopy observations. This finding enables a detailed investigation of the spatial distribution of Ge atoms deposited on Si(100) by atomic layer epitaxy. The results are corroborated by photoemission measurements aided by an unusually large chemical shift between Cl adsorbed on Si and Ge. Adsorbate-substrate atomic exchange during growth is shown to be important. The resulting interface is thus graded, but characterized by a very short length scale of about one monolayer.

  5. Increasing the radiation resistance of single-crystal silicon epitaxial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmashev Sh. D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the possibility of increasing the radiation resistance of silicon epitaxial layers by creating radiation defects sinks in the form of dislocation networks of the density of 109—1012 m–2. Such networks are created before the epitaxial layer is applied on the front surface of the silicon substrate by its preliminary oxidation and subsequent etching of the oxide layer. The substrates were silicon wafers KEF-4.5 and KDB-10 with a diameter of about 40 mm, grown by the Czochralski method. Irradiation of the samples was carried out using electron linear accelerator "Electronics" (ЭЛУ-4. Energy of the particles was 2,3—3,0 MeV, radiation dose 1015—1020 m–2, electron beam current 2 mA/m2. It is shown that in structures containing dislocation networks, irradiation results in reduction of the reverse currents by 5—8 times and of the density of defects by 5—10 times, while the mobility of the charge carriers is increased by 1,2 times. Wafer yield for operation under radiation exposure, when the semiconductor structures are formed in the optimal mode, is increased by 7—10% compared to the structures without dislocation networks. The results obtained can be used in manufacturing technology for radiation-resistant integrated circuits (bipolar, CMOS, BiCMOS, etc..

  6. Surface morphology and structure of Ge layer on Si(111) after solid phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryoma; Tosaka, Aki; Shigeta, Yukichi

    2018-05-01

    The surface morphology change of a Ge layer on a Si(111) surface formed by solid phase epitaxy has been investigated with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The Ge film was deposited at room temperature and annealed at 400 °C or 600 °C. The STM images of the sample surface after annealing at 400 °C show a flat wetting layer (WL) with small three-dimensional islands on the WL. After annealing at 600 °C, the STM images show a surface roughening with large islands. From the relation between the average height of the roughness and the deposited layer thickness, it is confirmed that the diffusion of Ge atoms becomes very active at 600 °C. The Si crystal at the interface is reconstructed and the intermixing occurs over 600 °C. However, the intermixing is fairly restricted in the solid phase epitaxy growth at 400 °C. The surface morphology changes with the crystallization at 400 °C are discussed by the shape of the islands formed on the WL surface. It is shown that the diffusion of the Ge atoms in the amorphous phase is active even at 400 °C.

  7. Epitaxial TiN(001) wetting layer for growth of thin single-crystal Cu(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, J. S.; Zhang, X. Y.; Gall, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Single-crystal Cu(001) layers, 4-1400 nm thick, were deposited on MgO(001) with and without a 2.5-nm-thick TiN(001) buffer layer. X-ray diffraction and reflection indicate that the TiN(001) surface suppresses Cu-dewetting, yielding a 4 x lower defect density and a 9 x smaller surface roughness than if grown on MgO(001) at 25 deg. C. In situ and low temperature electron transport measurements indicate that ultra-thin (4 nm) Cu(001) remains continuous and exhibits partial specular scattering at the Cu-vacuum boundary with a Fuchs-Sondheimer specularity parameter p = 0.6 {+-} 0.2, suggesting that the use of epitaxial wetting layers is a promising approach to create low-resistivity single-crystal Cu nanoelectronic interconnects.

  8. Structural and electrical properties of epitaxial Si layers prepared by E-beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, P. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Kekulestr. 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: pinar.dogan@hmi.de; Rudigier, E.; Fenske, F.; Lee, K.Y.; Gorka, B.; Rau, B.; Conrad, E.; Gall, S. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Kekulestr. 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-08-30

    In this work, we present structural and electrical properties of thin Si films which are homoepitaxially grown at low substrate temperatures (T{sub s} 450-700 deg. C) by high-rate electron beam evaporation. As substrates, monocrystalline Si wafers with (100) and (111) orientations and polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) seed layers on glass were used. Applying Secco etching, films grown on Si(111) wafers exhibit a decreasing etch pit density with increasing T{sub s}. The best structural quality of the films was obtained on Si(100) wafers. Defect etching on epitaxially grown poly-Si absorbers reveal regions with different crystalline quality. Solar cells have been prepared on both wafers and seed layers. Applying Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) and Hydrogen plasma passivation an open circuit voltage of 570 mV for wafer based and 346 mV for seed layer based solar cells have been reached.

  9. Photoluminescence characteristics of Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy grown ZnSe crystal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Yoh; Kuronuma, Ryoichi; Inoue, Masanori; Sasaki, Shoichiro; Miyamoto, Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic green photoluminescence emission and related phenomena in Pb-doped, molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE)-grown ZnSe crystal layers were investigated to explore the nature of the center responsible for the green emission. The intensity of the green emission showed a distinct nonlinear dependence on excitation intensity. Pb-diffused polycrystalline ZnSe was similarly examined for comparison. The characteristic green emission has been observed only in MBE-grown ZnSe crystal layers with moderate Pb doping. The results of the investigations on the growth conditions, luminescence, and related properties of the ZnSe crystal layers suggest that the green emission is due to isolated Pb replacing Zn and surrounded with regular ZnSe lattice with a high perfection

  10. Ultra-smooth epitaxial Ge grown on Si(001) utilizing a thin C-doped Ge buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mantey, J.; Hsu, W.; James, J.; Onyegam, E. U.; Guchhait, S.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present work on epitaxial Ge films grown on a thin buffer layer of C doped Ge (Ge:C). The growth rate of Ge:C is found to slow over time and is thus unsuitable for thick (>20 nm) layers. We demonstrate Ge films from 10 nm to >150 nm

  11. A dominant electron trap in molecular beam epitaxial InAlN lattice-matched to GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ayush; Bhattacharya, Aniruddha; Cheng, Shaobo; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Mi, Zetian; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2018-04-01

    Deep levels in lattice-matched undoped and Si-doped InAlN/GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy have been identified and characterized by capacitance and photocapacitance measurements. From x-ray diffraction, reflectance measurements, electron energy loss spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy it is evident that the material has two distinct phases with different compositions. These correspond to In compositions of 18.1% and 25.8%, with corresponding bandgaps of 4.6 eV and 4.1 eV, respectively. The lower bandgap material is present as columnar microstructures in the form of quantum wires. A dominant electron trap with an activation energy of 0.293  ±  0.01 eV, a small capture cross-section of (1.54  ±  0.25)  ×  10-18 cm2, and density increasing linearly with Si doping density is identified in all the samples. The characteristics of the electron trap and variation of diode capacitance are discussed in the context of carrier dynamics involving the dominant trap level and the quantum wires.

  12. Single phase semipolar (11 anti 22) GaN on (10 anti 10) sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploch, S.; Stellmach, J.; Schwaner, T.; Frentrup, M.; Wernicke, T.; Pristovsek, M.; Kneissl, M. [Institute of Solid States Physics, (Germany); Park, J.B.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M. [Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, TU Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    InGaN quantum well based light emitters grown on (0001) GaN suffer from poor quantum efficiencies with increasing indium mole fraction due to strong polarization fields along the polar crystal orientation. This effect can be greatly reduced by growing on semi- and non-polar GaN orientations. Semipolar (11 anti 22) GaN layers were deposited by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy on (10 anti 10) sapphire. After sapphire substrate nitridation at 1000 C, a GaN nucleation layer was deposited at high temperature, followed by the deposition of 1.5 nm thick GaN buffer layers. The samples show predominantly (11 anti 22) orientation with a small fraction of (10 anti 13) oriented domains. With increasing nitridation layer thickness the (10 anti 13) phase is suppressed leading to a very smooth surface morphology (rms roughness < 4nm). PL measurements show dominant basel plane stacking fault (BSF) I{sub 1} luminescence without any other defects. Transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal a high BSF density. The FWHM of the X-ray diffraction rocking curve measurements of the (1122) reflection decreases to 1193 arcsec and 739 arcsec along [1 anti 100] and [11 anti 23] respectively with increasing nucleation temperature. Using high temperature nucleation smooth and homogeneous (11 anti 22) phase GaN layers have been obtained.

  13. Performance Analysis of GaN Capping Layer Thickness on GaN/AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Periasamy, C; Chaturvedi, N

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we present an investigation of the impact of GaN capping layer and AlGaN layer thickness on the two-dimensional (2D)-electron mobility and the carrier concentration which was formed close to the AlGaN/GaN buffer layer for Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN and GaN/Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures deposited on sapphire substrates. The results of our analysis clearly indicate that expanding the GaN capping layer thickness from 1 nm to 100 nm prompts an increment in the electron concentration at hetero interface. As consequence of which drain current was additionally increments with GaN cap layer thicknesses, and eventually saturates at approximately 1.85 A/mm for capping layer thickness greater than 40 nm. Interestingly, for the same structure, the 2D-electron mobility, decrease monotonically with GaN capping layer thickness, and saturate at approximately 830 cm2/Vs for capping layer thickness greater than 50 nm. A device with a GaN cap layer didn't exhibit gate leakage current. Furthermore, it was observed that the carrier concentration was first decrease 1.03 × 1019/cm3 to 6.65 × 1018/cm3 with AlGaN Layer thickness from 5 to 10 nm and after that it increases with the AlGaN layer thickness from 10 to 30 nm. The same trend was followed for electric field distributions. Electron mobility decreases monotonically with AlGaN layer thickness. Highest electron mobility 1354 cm2/Vs were recorded for the AlGaN layer thickness of 5 nm. Results obtained are in good agreement with published experimental data.

  14. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM of (102 X-ray diffraction (XRD line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  15. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Sun, Shichuang; Deng, Xuguang; Fu, Kai; Yu, Guohao; Song, Liang; Hao, Ronghui; Fan, Yaming; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Baoshun

    2017-12-01

    In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs) under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (102) X-ray diffraction (XRD) line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  16. Characteristics of surface mount low barrier silicon Schottky diodes with boron contamination in the substrate–epitaxial layer interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Debdas; Hoag, David; Barter, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Unusual negative resistance characteristics were observed in low barrier HMIC (Heterolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) silicon Schottky diodes with HF (hydrofluoric acid)/IPA (isopropyl alcohol) vapor clean prior to epitaxial growth of silicon. SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy) analysis and the results of the buried layer structure confirmed boron contamination in the substrate/epitaxial layer interface. Consequently the structure turned into a thyristor like p-n-p-n device. A dramatic reduction of boron contamination was found in the wafers with H 2 0/HCl/HF dry only clean prior to growth, which provided positive resistance characteristics. Consequently the mean differential resistance at 10 mA was reduced to about 8.1 Ω. The lower series resistance (5.6–5.9 Ω) and near 1 ideality factor (1.03–1.06) of the Schottky devices indicated the good quality of the epitaxial layer. (paper)

  17. Magnetoresistance measurements of different geometries on epitaxial InP and GaInAs/InP layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Research Inst. for Technical Physics

    1996-12-31

    Hall effect measurement is the main method of the determination of the charge carrier mobility in semiconductors. Magnetoresistance measurements are much less used for the same purpose, perhaps because of the influence of the sample geometry or of the scattering factor differing from the Hall factor. On the other hand, in the case of the epitaxial layers, all these measurements require semi-insulating substrate. In this work two aspects of the magnetoresistance measurements and use of them is demonstrated. First classical geometrical magnetoresistance measurements on InP are studied. On the other hand, a method is presented and applied to sandwich structures in order to measure the geometrical magnetoresistance on epitaxial layers grown on conducting substrates. Resistance of structures metal-epitaxial layer-substrate-metal is measured in the dependence on the angle between the current and magnetic field vectors.

  18. Structural anisotropy of nonpolar and semipolar InN epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darakchieva, V.; Xie, M.-Y.; Franco, N.; Giuliani, F.; Nunes, B.; Alves, E.; Hsiao, C. L.; Chen, L. C.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takagi, Y.; Kawashima, K.; Nanishi, Y.

    2010-10-01

    We present a detailed study of the structural characteristics of molecular beam epitaxy grown nonpolar InN films with a- and m-plane surface orientations on r-plane sapphire and (100) γ-LiAlO2, respectively, and semipolar (101¯1) InN grown on r-plane sapphire. The on-axis rocking curve (RC) widths were found to exhibit anisotropic dependence on the azimuth angle with minima at InN [0001] for the a-plane films, and maxima at InN [0001] for the m-plane and semipolar films. The different contributions to the RC broadening are analyzed and discussed. The finite size of the crystallites and extended defects are suggested to be the dominant factors determining the RC anisotropy in a-plane InN, while surface roughness and curvature could not play a major role. Furthermore, strategy to reduce the anisotropy and magnitude of the tilt and minimize defect densities in a-plane InN films is suggested. In contrast to the nonpolar films, the semipolar InN was found to contain two domains nucleating on zinc-blende InN(111)A and InN(111)B faces. These two wurtzite domains develop with different growth rates, which was suggested to be a consequence of their different polarity. Both, a- and m-plane InN films have basal stacking fault densities similar or even lower compared to nonpolar InN grown on free-standing GaN substrates, indicating good prospects of heteroepitaxy on foreign substrates for the growth of InN-based devices.

  19. Structural anisotropy of nonpolar and semipolar InN epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darakchieva, V.; Xie, M.-Y.; Franco, N.; Alves, E.; Giuliani, F.; Nunes, B.; Hsiao, C. L.; Chen, L. C.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takagi, Y.; Kawashima, K.; Nanishi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the structural characteristics of molecular beam epitaxy grown nonpolar InN films with a- and m-plane surface orientations on r-plane sapphire and (100) γ-LiAlO 2 , respectively, and semipolar (1011) InN grown on r-plane sapphire. The on-axis rocking curve (RC) widths were found to exhibit anisotropic dependence on the azimuth angle with minima at InN [0001] for the a-plane films, and maxima at InN [0001] for the m-plane and semipolar films. The different contributions to the RC broadening are analyzed and discussed. The finite size of the crystallites and extended defects are suggested to be the dominant factors determining the RC anisotropy in a-plane InN, while surface roughness and curvature could not play a major role. Furthermore, strategy to reduce the anisotropy and magnitude of the tilt and minimize defect densities in a-plane InN films is suggested. In contrast to the nonpolar films, the semipolar InN was found to contain two domains nucleating on zinc-blende InN(111)A and InN(111)B faces. These two wurtzite domains develop with different growth rates, which was suggested to be a consequence of their different polarity. Both, a- and m-plane InN films have basal stacking fault densities similar or even lower compared to nonpolar InN grown on free-standing GaN substrates, indicating good prospects of heteroepitaxy on foreign substrates for the growth of InN-based devices.

  20. Semi-polar GaN heteroepitaxy an high index Si-surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravash, Roghaiyeh; Blaesing, Juergen; Hempel, Thomas; Dadgar, Armin; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, FNW/IEP/AHE, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the lack of GaN homosubstrates, the growth of GaN-based devices is usually performed on heterosubstrates as sapphire or SiC. These substrates are either insulating or expensive, and both unavailable in large diameters. Meanwhile, silicon can meet the requirements for a low price and thermally well conducting substrate and also enabling the integration of optoelectronic devices with Si-based electronics. Up to now, the good matching of hexagonal GaN with the three-fold symmetry of Si(111) greatly promotes the c-axis orientated growth of GaN on this surface plane. A large spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization oriented along the c-axis exists in such hexagonal structure leading to low efficiencies for thick quantum wells. The attention to the growth of non-polar or semi-polar GaN based epitaxial structures has been increased recently because of reducing the effect of the polarization fields in these growth directions. Therefore we studied semi-polar GaN epilayers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on silicon substrates with different orientations from Si(211) to Si(711). We observed that AlN seeding layer growth time play a significant role in obtaining the different GaN texture.

  1. Few layer epitaxial germanene: a novel two-dimensional Dirac material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, María Eugenia; Le Lay, Guy

    2016-02-10

    Monolayer germanene, a novel graphene-like germanium allotrope akin to silicene has been recently grown on metallic substrates. Lying directly on the metal surfaces the reconstructed atom-thin sheets are prone to lose the massless Dirac fermion character and unique associated physical properties of free standing germanene. Here, we show that few layer germanene, which we create by dry epitaxy on a gold template, possesses Dirac cones thanks to a reduced interaction. This finding established on synchrotron-radiation-based photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy imaging and surface electron diffraction places few layer germanene among the rare two-dimensional Dirac materials. Since germanium is currently used in the mainstream Si-based electronics, perspectives of using germanene for scaling down beyond the 5 nm node appear very promising. Other fascinating properties seem at hand, typically the robust quantum spin Hall effect for applications in spintronics and the engineering of Floquet Majorana fermions by light for quantum computing.

  2. Few layer epitaxial germanene: a novel two-dimensional Dirac material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, María Eugenia; Le Lay, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Monolayer germanene, a novel graphene-like germanium allotrope akin to silicene has been recently grown on metallic substrates. Lying directly on the metal surfaces the reconstructed atom-thin sheets are prone to lose the massless Dirac fermion character and unique associated physical properties of free standing germanene. Here, we show that few layer germanene, which we create by dry epitaxy on a gold template, possesses Dirac cones thanks to a reduced interaction. This finding established on synchrotron-radiation-based photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy imaging and surface electron diffraction places few layer germanene among the rare two-dimensional Dirac materials. Since germanium is currently used in the mainstream Si-based electronics, perspectives of using germanene for scaling down beyond the 5 nm node appear very promising. Other fascinating properties seem at hand, typically the robust quantum spin Hall effect for applications in spintronics and the engineering of Floquet Majorana fermions by light for quantum computing.

  3. Unusual strain in homoepitaxial CdTe(001) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinke, H.; Waag, A.; Moeller, M.O.; Regnet, M.M.; Landwehr, G. [Physikalisches Institut, Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1994-01-01

    For homoepitaxial CdTe(001) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy onto CdTe(001) substrates, a difference between the lattice constants of the substrate and the layer was systematically observed using high resolution X-ray diffraction. Reciprocal space maps point out an unusual strain state of such layers which is indicated by the position of their reciprocal lattice points. They lie in a section of reciprocal space which is usually forbidden by elasticity theory. The strain is laterally anisotropic leading to a monoclinic symmetry of the thin films. The lateral strain is depth dependent. Possible reasons for the formation of the unusual strain are discussed, and a correlation of the unusual strain with the growth conditions is attempted

  4. Characterization of InGaGdN layers prepared by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawil, Siti Nooraya Mohd [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihagaoka, Ibaraki, 567-0047 Osaka (Japan); Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tun Hussein Onn University of Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat Johor (Malaysia); Kakimi, Rina; Krishnamurthy, Daivasigamani; Emura, Shuichi; Tambo, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shigehiko; Asahi, Hajime [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihagaoka, Ibaraki, 567-0047 Osaka (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Gd-doped InGaN layers were prepared by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy in search of new functional diluted magnetic semiconductors for their potential use in spintronics. The local structure around the Gd atoms was examined by the Gd L{sub III}-edge of X-ray absorption fine structure. It was found that the majority of Gd atoms substitutionally occupied the cation sites in the InGaGdN layers. Clear hysteresis and saturation magnetization were observed from the magnetization versus field curves examined by means of a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer at low and room temperatures. In addition, the incorporation of extra shallow donors by co-doping InGaN with both Gd and Si showed higher magnetization than the undoped InGaGdN. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, J.; Oehme, M.; Werner, J.

    2012-01-01

    A key challenge to obtain a convergence of classical Si-based microelectronics and optoelectronics is the manufacturing of photonic integrated circuits integrable into classical Si-based integrated circuits. This integration would be greatly enhanced if similar facilities and technologies could be used. Therefore one approach is the development of optoelectronic components and devices made from group-IV-based materials such as SiGe, Ge or Ge:Sn. In this paper the optoelectronic performances of a pin diode made from a Ge/Si heterostructure pin layer sequence grown by molecular beam epitaxy are discussed. After a detailed description of the layer sequence growth and the device manufacturing process it will be shown that – depending on the chosen operating point and device design – the diode serves as a broadband high speed photo detector, Franz–Keldysh effect modulator or light emitting diode.

  6. Molecular beam epitaxy grown Ge/Si pin layer sequence for photonic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J., E-mail: schulze@iht.uni-stuttgart.de; Oehme, M.; Werner, J.

    2012-02-01

    A key challenge to obtain a convergence of classical Si-based microelectronics and optoelectronics is the manufacturing of photonic integrated circuits integrable into classical Si-based integrated circuits. This integration would be greatly enhanced if similar facilities and technologies could be used. Therefore one approach is the development of optoelectronic components and devices made from group-IV-based materials such as SiGe, Ge or Ge:Sn. In this paper the optoelectronic performances of a pin diode made from a Ge/Si heterostructure pin layer sequence grown by molecular beam epitaxy are discussed. After a detailed description of the layer sequence growth and the device manufacturing process it will be shown that - depending on the chosen operating point and device design - the diode serves as a broadband high speed photo detector, Franz-Keldysh effect modulator or light emitting diode.

  7. The kinetics of solid phase epitaxy in As-doped buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics of dopant-enhanced solid phase epitaxy (SPE) have been measured in buried a-Si layers doped with arsenic. SPE rates were measured over the temperature range 480 - 660 deg C for buried a-Si layers containing ten different As concentrations. In the absence of H-retardation effects, the dopant-enhanced SPE rate is observed to depend linearly on the As concentration over the entire range of concentrations, 1-16 x 10 19 cm -3 covered in the study. The Fermi level energy was calculated as a function of doping and find an equation that can provide good fits to the data. The implications of these results for models of the SPE process is discussed

  8. Probing the dielectric response of the interfacial buffer layer in epitaxial graphene via optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather M.; Rigosi, Albert F.; Chowdhury, Sugata; Yang, Yanfei; Nguyen, Nhan V.; Tavazza, Francesca; Elmquist, Randolph E.; Newell, David B.; Hight Walker, Angela R.

    2017-11-01

    Monolayer epitaxial graphene (EG) is a suitable candidate for a variety of electronic applications. One advantage of EG growth on the Si face of SiC is that it develops as a single crystal, as does the layer below, referred to as the interfacial buffer layer (IBL), whose properties include an electronic band gap. Although much research has been conducted to learn about the electrical properties of the IBL, not nearly as much work has been reported on the optical properties of the IBL. In this work, we combine measurements from Mueller matrix ellipsometry, differential reflectance contrast, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, as well as calculations from Kramers-Kronig analyses and density-functional theory, to determine the dielectric function of the IBL within the energy range of 1 eV to 8.5 eV.

  9. Growth on nonpolar and semipolar GaN: The substrate dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, T.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institute, Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institute, Berlin (Germany); Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Growth of nonpolar and semipolar GaN is very promising for achieving green laser diodes (LDs). However, the choice of the substrate is a difficult one: Heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire, SiC, LiAlO{sub 2} yields GaN films with a poor surface quality and high defect densities. On the other hand non- and semipolar bulk GaN substrates provide excellent crystal quality, but are so far only available in very small sizes. In this paper hetero- and homoepitaxial growth is compared. For all heteroepitaxially grown semi- and nonpolar GaN layers threading dislocations (TD) and basal plane stacking faults (BSF) can be found. There are four possible mechanisms for the generation of BSF: Growth of the N-polar basal plane, formation during nucleation at substrate steps, formation at the coalescence front of differently stacked nucleation islands, and generation at planar defects occurring in m-plane GaN on LiAlO{sub 2}. BSF induce surface roughening and are associated with partial dislocations causing nonradiative recombination. Thus they affect the performance of devices. We show that BSFs and TDs can be reduced by epitaxial lateral overgrowth resulting in several micrometer wide defect free areas. However, for LEDs larger defect-free areas are required. GaN layers grown on bulk GaN substrates exhibit a high crystal quality, but show in many cases long-range surface structures with a height of {approx}1{mu}m.

  10. Si Complies with GaN to Overcome Thermal Mismatches for the Heteroepitaxy of Thick GaN on Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsunori; Choi, Woojin; Chen, Renjie; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2017-10-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth of lattice mismatched materials has advanced through the epitaxy of thin coherently strained layers, the strain sharing in virtual and nanoscale substrates, and the growth of thick films with intermediate strain-relaxed buffer layers. However, the thermal mismatch is not completely resolved in highly mismatched systems such as in GaN-on-Si. Here, geometrical effects and surface faceting to dilate thermal stresses at the surface of selectively grown epitaxial GaN layers on Si are exploited. The growth of thick (19 µm), crack-free, and pure GaN layers on Si with the lowest threading dislocation density of 1.1 × 10 7 cm -2 achieved to date in GaN-on-Si is demonstrated. With these advances, the first vertical GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors on Si substrates with low leakage currents and high on/off ratios paving the way for a cost-effective high power device paradigm on an Si CMOS platform are demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Microstructures and growth mechanisms of GaN films epitaxially grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Lin, Yunhao; Zhou, Shizhong; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-11-13

    2 inch-diameter GaN films with homogeneous thickness distribution have been grown on AlN/Si(111) hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with laser rastering technique. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN films are characterized in detail. By optimizing the laser rastering program, the ~300 nm-thick GaN films grown at 750 °C show a root-mean-square (RMS) thickness inhomogeneity of 3.0%, very smooth surface with a RMS surface roughness of 3.0 nm, full-width at half-maximums (FWHMs) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.7° and 0.8°, respectively, and sharp and abrupt AlN/GaN hetero-interfaces. With the increase in the growth temperature from 550 to 850 °C, the surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN films are gradually improved at first and then decreased. Based on the characterizations, the corresponding growth mechanisms of GaN films grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by PLD with various growth temperatures are hence proposed. This work would be beneficial to understanding the further insight of the GaN films grown on Si(111) substrates by PLD for the application of GaN-based devices.

  12. Current status of AlInN layers lattice-matched to GaN for photonics and electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butte, R; Carlin, J-F; Feltin, E; Gonschorek, M; Nicolay, S; Christmann, G; Simeonov, D; Castiglia, A; Dorsaz, J; Buehlmann, H J; Christopoulos, S; Hoegersthal, G Baldassarri Hoeger von; Grundy, A J D; Mosca, M; Pinquier, C; Py, M A; Demangeot, F; Frandon, J; Lagoudakis, P G; Baumberg, J J; Grandjean, N

    2007-01-01

    We report on the current properties of Al 1-x In x N (x ∼ 0.18) layers lattice-matched (LM) to GaN and their specific use to realize nearly strain-free structures for photonic and electronic applications. Following a literature survey of the general properties of AlInN layers, structural and optical properties of thin state-of-the-art AlInN layers LM to GaN are described showing that despite improved structural properties these layers are still characterized by a typical background donor concentration of (1-5) x 10 18 cm -3 and a large Stokes shift (∼800 meV) between luminescence and absorption edge. The use of these AlInN layers LM to GaN is then exemplified through the properties of GaN/AlInN multiple quantum wells (QWs) suitable for near-infrared intersubband applications. A built-in electric field of 3.64 MV cm -1 solely due to spontaneous polarization is deduced from photoluminescence measurements carried out on strain-free single QW heterostructures, a value in good agreement with that deduced from theoretical calculation. Other potentialities regarding optoelectronics are demonstrated through the successful realization of crack-free highly reflective AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors (R > 99%) and high quality factor microcavities (Q > 2800) likely to be of high interest for short wavelength vertical light emitting devices and fundamental studies on the strong coupling regime between excitons and cavity photons. In this respect, room temperature (RT) lasing of a LM AlInN/GaN vertical cavity surface emitting laser under optical pumping is reported. A description of the selective lateral oxidation of AlInN layers for current confinement in nitride-based light emitting devices and the selective chemical etching of oxidized AlInN layers is also given. Finally, the characterization of LM AlInN/GaN heterojunctions will reveal the potential of such a system for the fabrication of high electron mobility transistors through the report of a high two

  13. STM studies of GeSi thin layers epitaxially grown on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, N.; Sgarlata, A.; De Crescenzi, M.; Derrien, J.

    1996-08-01

    Ge/Si alloys were prepared in UHV by solid phase epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. The alloy formation, as a function of the evaporation rate and the Ge layer thickness has been followed in situ by RHEED and scanning tunneling microscopy. The 5 × 5 surface reconstruction appeared after annealing at 450°C Ge layers (up to 10 Å thick), obtained from a low rate Knudsen cell evaporator. In this case a nearly flat and uniform layer of reconstructed alloy was observed. When using an e-gun high rate evaporator we needed to anneal the Ge layer up to 780°C to obtain a 5 × 5 reconstruction. The grown layer was not flat, with many steps and Ge clusters; at high coverages (10 Å and more) large Ge islands appeared. Moreover, we then succeeded in visualizing at atomic resolution the top of some of these Ge islands which displayed a 2 × 1 reconstruction, probably induced from the high compressive strain due to the lattice mismatch with the substrate. We suggest that this unusual behavior could be connected to the high evaporation rate, which helped the direct formation of Ge microcrystals on the Si substrate during the deposition process.

  14. Synthesis of Epitaxial Single-Layer MoS2 on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønborg, Signe S; Ulstrup, Søren; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej; Sanders, Charlotte E; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; Hofmann, Philip; Miwa, Jill A

    2015-09-08

    We present a method for synthesizing large area epitaxial single-layer MoS2 on the Au(111) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction, the evolution of the growth is followed from nanoscale single-layer MoS2 islands to a continuous MoS2 layer. An exceptionally good control over the MoS2 coverage is maintained using an approach based on cycles of Mo evaporation and sulfurization to first nucleate the MoS2 nanoislands and then gradually increase their size. During this growth process the native herringbone reconstruction of Au(111) is lifted as shown by low energy electron diffraction measurements. Within the MoS2 islands, we identify domains rotated by 60° that lead to atomically sharp line defects at domain boundaries. As the MoS2 coverage approaches the limit of a complete single layer, the formation of bilayer MoS2 islands is initiated. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of both single and bilayer MoS2 samples show a dramatic change in their band structure around the center of the Brillouin zone. Brief exposure to air after removing the MoS2 layer from vacuum is not found to affect its quality.

  15. Epitaxially influenced boundary layer model for size effect in thin metallic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Zdenek P.; Guo Zaoyang; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Zhu Yong; Peng Bei

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the size effect recently observed by Espinosa et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids51, 47 (2003)] in pure tension tests on free thin metallic films can be explained by the existence of a boundary layer of fixed thickness, located at the surface of the film that was attached onto the substrate during deposition. The boundary layer is influenced by the epitaxial effects of crystal growth on the dislocation density and texture (manifested by prevalent crystal plane orientations). This influence is assumed to cause significantly elevated yield strength. Furthermore, the observed gradual postpeak softening, along with its size independence, which is observed in short film strips subjected to pure tension, is explained by slip localization, originating at notch-like defects, and by damage, which can propagate in a stable manner when the film strip under pure tension is sufficiently thin and short. For general applications, the present epitaxially influenced boundary layer model may be combined with the classical strain-gradient plasticity proposed by Gao et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47, 1239 (1999)], and it is shown that this combination is necessary to fit the test data on both pure tension and bending of thin films by one and the same theory. To deal with films having different crystal grain sizes, the Hall-Petch relation for the yield strength dependence on the grain size needs to be incorporated into the combined theory. For very thin films, in which a flattened grain fills the whole film thickness, the Hall-Petch relation needs a cutoff, and the asymptotic increase of yield strength with diminishing film thickness is then described by the extension of Nix's model of misfit dislocations by Zhang and Zhou [J. Adv. Mater. 38, 51 (2002)]. The final result is a proposal of a general theory for strength, size effect, hardening, and softening of thin metallic films

  16. Epitaxially influenced boundary layer model for size effect in thin metallic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bažant, Zdeněk P.; Guo, Zaoyang; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Zhu, Yong; Peng, Bei

    2005-04-01

    It is shown that the size effect recently observed by Espinosa et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids51, 47 (2003)] in pure tension tests on free thin metallic films can be explained by the existence of a boundary layer of fixed thickness, located at the surface of the film that was attached onto the substrate during deposition. The boundary layer is influenced by the epitaxial effects of crystal growth on the dislocation density and texture (manifested by prevalent crystal plane orientations). This influence is assumed to cause significantly elevated yield strength. Furthermore, the observed gradual postpeak softening, along with its size independence, which is observed in short film strips subjected to pure tension, is explained by slip localization, originating at notch-like defects, and by damage, which can propagate in a stable manner when the film strip under pure tension is sufficiently thin and short. For general applications, the present epitaxially influenced boundary layer model may be combined with the classical strain-gradient plasticity proposed by Gao et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47, 1239 (1999)], and it is shown that this combination is necessary to fit the test data on both pure tension and bending of thin films by one and the same theory. To deal with films having different crystal grain sizes, the Hall-Petch relation for the yield strength dependence on the grain size needs to be incorporated into the combined theory. For very thin films, in which a flattened grain fills the whole film thickness, the Hall-Petch relation needs a cutoff, and the asymptotic increase of yield strength with diminishing film thickness is then described by the extension of Nix's model of misfit dislocations by Zhang and Zhou [J. Adv. Mater. 38, 51 (2002)]. The final result is a proposal of a general theory for strength, size effect, hardening, and softening of thin metallic films.

  17. Epitaxial Fe16N2 thin film on nonmagnetic seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Xudong; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ma, Bin; Lauter, Valeria; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2018-05-01

    Metastable α″ -Fe16N2 has attracted much interest as a candidate for rare-earth-free hard magnetic materials. We demonstrate that Fe16N2 thin films were grown epitaxially on Cr seed layers with MgO (001) substrates by facing-target sputtering. Good crystallinity with the epitaxial relation MgO (001 )[110 ] ∥ Cr (001 )[100 ] ∥ Fe16N2 (001 )[100 ] was obtained. The chemical order parameter, which quantifies the degree of N ordering in the Fe16N2 (the N-disordered phase is α' -Fe8N martensite), reaches 0.75 for Cr-seeded samples. Cr has a perfect lattice constant match with Fe16N2, and no noticeable strain can be assigned to Fe16N2. The intrinsic saturation magnetization of this non-strained Fe16N2 thin film at room temperature is determined to be 2.31 T by polarized neutron reflectometry and confirmed with vibrating sample magnetometry. Our work provides a platform to directly study the magnetic properties of high purity Fe16N2 films with a high order parameter.

  18. Growth and characterization of Fe nanostructures on GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Yuya; Hayakawa, Satoko; Hasegawa, Shigehiko; Asahi, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the growth of Fe nanostructures on GaN(0 0 0 1) substrates at room temperature using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. Initially, a ring RHEED pattern appears, indicating the growth of polycrystalline α-Fe. At around 0.5 nm deposition, the surface displays a transmission pattern from α-Fe films with the epitaxial relationship of Fe(1 1 0)//GaN(0 0 0 1) and Fe[1 -1 1]//GaN[1 1 -2 0] (Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) orientational relationship). Further deposition to 1 nm results in the appearance of a new spot pattern together with the pattern from domains with the KS orientation relationship. The newly observed pattern shows that Fe layers are formed with the epitaxial relationship of Fe(1 1 0)//GaN(0 0 0 1) and Fe[0 0 1]//GaN[1 1 -2 0] (Nishiyama-Wasserman (NW) orientational relationship). From STM images for Fe layers with the KS and NW orientational relationships, it can be seen that Fe layers with the KS relationship consist of round-shaped Fe nanodots with below 7 nm in average diameter. These nanodots coalesce to form nanodots elongating along the Fe[1 0 0] direction, and they have the KS orientational relationship. Elongated Fe nanodots with the NW relationship show ferromagnetism while round-shaped Fe nanodots with the KS relationship show super-paramagnetic behavior. We will discuss their magnetic properties in connection with the change in crystalline configurations of nanodots.

  19. Morphological and microstructural stability of N-polar InAlN thin films grown on free-standing GaN substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Matthew T.; Storm, David F.; Downey, Brian P.; Katzer, D. Scott; Meyer, David J.; McConkie, Thomas O.; Smith, David J.; Nepal, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the surface morphology and microstructure of N-polar-oriented InAlN to variations in composition, temperature, and layer thickness for thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been investigated. Lateral compositional inhomogeneity is present in N-rich InAlN films grown at low temperature, and phase segregation is exacerbated with increasing InN fraction. A smooth, step-flow surface morphology and elimination of compositional inhomogeneity can be achieved at a growth temperature 50 °C above the onset of In evaporation (650 °C). A GaN/AlN/GaN/200-nm InAlN heterostructure had a sheet charge density of 1.7 × 10 13  cm −2 and no degradation in mobility (1760 cm 2 /V s) relative to 15-nm-thick InAlN layers. Demonstration of thick-barrier high-electron-mobility transistors with good direct-current characteristics shows that device quality, thick InAlN layers can be successfully grown by PAMBE

  20. Morphological and microstructural stability of N-polar InAlN thin films grown on free-standing GaN substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Matthew T., E-mail: matthew.hardy.ctr@nrl.navy.mil; Storm, David F.; Downey, Brian P.; Katzer, D. Scott; Meyer, David J. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); McConkie, Thomas O.; Smith, David J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Nepal, Neeraj [Sotera Defense Solutions, 2200 Defense Hwy Suite 405, Crofton, Maryland 21114 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The sensitivity of the surface morphology and microstructure of N-polar-oriented InAlN to variations in composition, temperature, and layer thickness for thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been investigated. Lateral compositional inhomogeneity is present in N-rich InAlN films grown at low temperature, and phase segregation is exacerbated with increasing InN fraction. A smooth, step-flow surface morphology and elimination of compositional inhomogeneity can be achieved at a growth temperature 50 °C above the onset of In evaporation (650 °C). A GaN/AlN/GaN/200-nm InAlN heterostructure had a sheet charge density of 1.7 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and no degradation in mobility (1760 cm{sup 2}/V s) relative to 15-nm-thick InAlN layers. Demonstration of thick-barrier high-electron-mobility transistors with good direct-current characteristics shows that device quality, thick InAlN layers can be successfully grown by PAMBE.

  1. Influence of layer thickness on the structure and the magnetic properties of Co/Pd epitaxial multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobari, Kousuke, E-mail: tobari@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nagano, Katsumasa; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Co/Pd epitaxial multilayer films were prepared on Pd(111){sub fcc} underlayers hetero-epitaxially grown on MgO(111){sub B1} single-crystal substrates at room temperature by ultra-high vacuum RF magnetron sputtering. In-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction shows that the in-plane lattice spacing of Co on Pd layer gradually decreases with increasing the Co layer thickness, whereas that of Pd on Co layer remains unchanged during the Pd layer formation. The CoPd alloy phase formation is observed around the Co/Pd interface. The atomic mixing is enhanced for thinner Co and Pd layers in multilayer structure. With decreasing the Co and the Pd layer thicknesses and increasing the repetition number of Co/Pd multilayer film, stronger perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is observed. The relationships between the film structure and the magnetic properties are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epitaxial Co/Pd multilayer films are prepared on Pd(111){sub fcc} underlayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lattice strain in Co layer and CoPd-alloy formation are noted around the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic property dependence on layer thickness is reported.

  2. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of high-mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures on GaN templates and native GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jr-Tai, E-mail: jrche@ifm.liu.se; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Forsberg, Urban; Janzén, Erik [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE 581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-02-28

    Severe surface decomposition of semi-insulating (SI) GaN templates occurred in high-temperature H{sub 2} atmosphere prior to epitaxial growth in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition system. A two-step heating process with a surface stabilization technique was developed to preserve the GaN template surface. Utilizing the optimized heating process, a high two-dimensional electron gas mobility ∼2000 cm{sup 2}/V·s was obtained in a thin AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure with an only 100-nm-thick GaN spacer layer homoepitaxially grown on the GaN template. This technique was also demonstrated viable for native GaN substrates to stabilize the surface facilitating two-dimensional growth of GaN layers. Very high residual silicon and oxygen concentrations were found up to ∼1 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} at the interface between the GaN epilayer and the native GaN substrate. Capacitance-voltage measurements confirmed that the residual carbon doping controlled by growth conditions of the GaN epilayer can be used to successfully compensate the donor-like impurities. State-of-the-art structural properties of a high-mobility AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure was then realized on a 1 × 1 cm{sup 2} SI native GaN substrate; the full width at half maximum of the X-ray rocking curves of the GaN (002) and (102) peaks are only 21 and 14 arc sec, respectively. The surface morphology of the heterostructure shows uniform parallel bilayer steps, and no morphological defects were noticeable over the entire epi-wafer.

  3. Growth of layered superconductor β-PdBi{sub 2} films using molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, N.V., E-mail: denisov@iacp.dvo.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Matetskiy, A.V.; Tupkalo, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zotov, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Electronics, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, 690600 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Saranin, A.A. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} is layered material with advanced properties of topological superconductor. • We present a method for growing β-PdBi{sub 2} films of a desired thickness. • Method utilizes MBE growth of β-PdBi{sub 2}, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. • Electronic and superconducting properties of the films are similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2}. - Abstract: Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} layered material exhibits advanced properties and is supposed to be probable topological superconductor. We present a method based on molecular beam epitaxy that allows us to grow β-PdBi{sub 2} films from a single β-PdBi{sub 2} triple layer up to the dozens of triple layers, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. The grown films demonstrate structural, electronic and superconducting properties similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} crystals. Ability to grow the β-PdBi{sub 2} films of desired thickness opens the promising possibilities to explore fascinating properties of this advanced material.

  4. Optimization studies of HgSe thin film deposition by electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkatasamy, V

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the optimization of HgSe thin film deposition using electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (EC-ALE) are reported. Cyclic voltammetry was used to obtain approximate deposition potentials for each element. These potentials were then coupled...

  5. Epitaxial TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell heterostructure by atomic layer deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin; Liu, Jiabin; Li, Qianqian; Cheng, Yingchun; Dong, Cezhou; Zhou, Wu; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Qingxiao; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Yihan; Zeng, Yuewu; Wang, Hongtao

    2012-01-01

    Taking TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell nanowires (NWs) as a model system, we systematically investigate the structure and the morphological evolution of this heterostructure synthesized by atomic layer deposition/epitaxy (ALD/ALE). All characterizations

  6. Interface manipulation in GaxIn1-xAs/InP multiple layer structures grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, R.T.H.; van Rijswijk, A.J.C.; Leijs, M.R.; Es, van C.M.; Vonk, H.; Wolter, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    In this study the control of interfacial layers in nanometre thin heterostructures is demonstrated by variation of the growth interruption sequence (GIS) at the binary - ternary interfaces. All samples have been prepared by chemical beam epitaxy simultaneously growing the structures on exact (100)

  7. AlGaInAs EML having high extinction ratios fabricated by identical epitaxial layer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qiufang; Guo, Lu; Liang, Song; Sun, Siwei; Xie, Xiao; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    AlGaInAs electroabsorption-modulated lasers (EMLs) fabricated by identical epitaxial layer technique are demonstrated. The EML device shows an infinite characteristic temperature when the temperature ranges from 20 oC to 30 oC. The integrated modulator has static extinction ratios of larger than 20 dB at a reverse bias voltage of - 2 V. The small signal modulation bandwidth of the modulator is larger than 11 GHz. At 10 Gb/s data modulation, the dynamic extinction ratio is about 9.5 dB in a back to back test configuration. Because only a simple fabrication procedure is needed, our EMLs are promising low cost light sources for optical fiber transmission applications.

  8. Epitaxial growth and characterization of CoO/Fe(001) thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, A.; Sessi, P.; Cantoni, M.; Duo, L.; Finazzi, M.; Ciccacci, F.

    2008-01-01

    By means of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction, we show that it is possible to grow good quality thin epitaxial CoO films on Fe(001) substrates, through deposition in oxygen atmosphere. In particular, the composition and the structure of CoO(001)/Fe(001) bilayer systems and Fe(001)/CoO(001)/Fe(001) trilayer systems have been investigated by monitoring the evolution of the chemical interactions at the interfaces as a function of CoO thickness and growth temperature. We observe the presence of Fe oxides at the CoO/Fe interface and of a thin layer of metallic cobalt at the upper Fe/CoO interface of trilayer systems

  9. The effect of a thin silver layer on the critical current of epitaxial YBCO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Cohen, D.; Cohen, D.; Snapiro, I.

    1992-01-01

    We compare measurements of the critical current density of an epitaxial YBCO film with that of an identical film overlaid by a thin silver layer. We find that the presence of the silver lowers Tc of the film by about 1.5 K, which is two orders of magnitude larger than predicted by the theory of the proximity effect for our experimental conditions. In addition, J c of the Ag/YBCO film near Tc is also significantly lower than that of the bare YBCO film. We propose two alternate interpretations of this effect, one in terms of destabilization of the flux distribution in the film and the other making use of the effect of the silver on the Bean-Livingston surface barrier for the initial penetration of flux. The latter seems the more plausible explanation of our results. (orig.)

  10. Layer-by-Layer Epitaxial Growth of Defect-Engineered Strontium Cobaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Tassie K. [Materials Science; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Cook, Seyoung [Materials Science; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Wan, Gang [Materials Science; Hong, Hawoong [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Marks, Laurence D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Fong, Dillon D. [Materials Science

    2018-01-31

    Control over structure and composition of (ABO(3)) perovskite oxides offers exciting opportunities since these materials possess unique, tunable properties. Perovskite oxides with cobalt B-site cations are particularly promising, as the range of the cations stable oxidation states leads to many possible structural frameworks. Here, we report growth of strontium cobalt oxide thin films by molecular beam epitaxy, and conditions necessary to stabilize different defect concentration phases. In situ X-ray scattering is used to monitor structural evolution during growth, while in situ X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy is used to probe oxidation state and measure changes to oxygen vacancy concentration as a function of film thickness. Experimental results are compared to kinetically limited thermodynamic predictions, in particular, solute trapping, with semiquantitative agreement. Agreement between observations of dependence of cobaltite phase on oxidation activity and deposition rate, and predictions indicates that a combined experimental/theoretical approach is key to understanding phase behavior in the strontium cobalt oxide system.

  11. Ellipsometric study of GaN/AIN/Si(111) heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, M. A. U.; Ashfaq, A.; Arshad, M. I.; Ali, A.; Mahmood, K.; Hasan, M. A.; Asghar, M.

    2013-01-01

    GaN and related structures attracted a great interest in the recent years for electronic and optoelectronic applications due to their promising properties. GaN is grown popularly on foreign substrates like sapphire and SiC. However, silicon due to its favourable properties attended the great attention of material scientists and researchers to utilize as substrate for heteroepitaxy of GaN based structures and devices. Silicon substrates are low cost, available in large diameters and have well characterized thermal and electrical properties. In this study, GaN/AlN/Si(111) heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We performed x-ray diffraction spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry on these samples to study their structural and optical properties. XRD measurements performed on these samples revealed the presence of high quality GaN films as well as the presence of AlN buffer layer with the following miller indices: GaN (002), GaN (004), GaN (006) and GaN (110) along with Si peak of phase (111). The ellipsometric data obtained were used to characterize the GaN/Si samples as a function of film thickness. Refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant were calculated by the measured data. (author)

  12. White emission from non-planar InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs grown on GaN template with truncated hexagonal pyramids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Lun; Yeh, Yu-Hsiang; Tu, Shang-Ju; Chen, P C; Lai, Wei-Chih; Sheu, Jinn-Kong

    2015-04-06

    Non-planar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures are grown on a GaN template with truncated hexagonal pyramids (THPs) featuring c-plane and r-plane surfaces. The THP array is formed by the regrowth of the GaN layer on a selective-area Si-implanted GaN template. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the InGaN/GaN epitaxial layers regrown on the THPs exhibit different growth rates and indium compositions of the InGaN layer between the c-plane and r-plane surfaces. Consequently, InGaN/GaN MQW light-emitting diodes grown on the GaN THP array emit multiple wavelengths approaching near white light.

  13. Heteroepitaxial growth of basal plane stacking fault free a-plane GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieneke, Matthias; Hempel, Thomas; Noltemeyer, Martin; Witte, Hartmut; Dadgar, Armin; Blaesing, Juergen; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg, FNW/IEP, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Growth of light emitting quantum-wells based on a-plane GaN is a possibility to reduce or even to avoid polarization correlated luminescence red shift and reduction of radiative recombination efficiency. But until now heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN films are characterized by a poor crystalline quality expressed by a high density of basal plane stacking faults (BSF) and partial dislocations. We present Si doped a-plane GaN films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using high temperature AlGaN nucleation layers. FE-SEM images revealed three dimensionally grown GaN crystallites sized up to tenth micrometer in the basal plane and a few tenth micrometers along the c-axes. Though, the full width at half maxima of the X-ray diffraction {omega}-scans of the in-plane GaN(1 anti 100) and GaN(0002) Bragg reflections exhibited a very high crystal quality. Furthermore, luminescence spectra were dominated by near band gap emission, while there was no separated peak of the basal plane stacking fault. In summary we present heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN without an evidence of basal plane stacking faults in X-ray diffraction measurements and luminescence spectra.

  14. Improvement of luminescence properties of GaN buffer layer for fast nitride scintillator structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubáček, T.; Hospodková, Alice; Oswald, Jiří; Kuldová, Karla; Pangrác, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, Apr (2017), s. 221-225 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-11769S; GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MOVPE * GaN * scintillators * yellow band Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  15. Polarity-inverted lateral overgrowth and selective wet-etching and regrowth (PILOSWER) of GaN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dongsoo; Jue, Miyeon; Kim, Donghoi; Kim, Hwa Seob; Lee, Hyunkyu; Kim, Chinkyo

    2018-03-07

    On an SiO 2 -patterned c-plane sapphire substrate, GaN domains were grown with their polarity controlled in accordance with the pattern. While N-polar GaN was grown on hexagonally arranged circular openings, Ga-polar GaN was laterally overgrown on mask regions due to polarity inversion occurring at the boundary of the circular openings. After etching of N-polar GaN on the circular openings by H 3 PO 4 , this template was coated with 40-nm Si by sputtering and was slightly etched by KOH. After slight etching, a thin layer of Si left on the circular openings of sapphire,but not on GaN, was oxidized during thermal annealing and served as a dielectric mask during subsequent regrowth. Thus, the subsequent growth of GaN was made only on the existing Ga-polar GaN domains, not on the circular openings of the sapphire substrate. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed no sign of threading dislocations in this film. This approach may help fabricating an unholed and merged GaN film physically attached to but epitaxially separated from the SiO 2 -patterned sapphire.

  16. Analysis of reaction between c+a and -c+a dislocations in GaN layer grown on 4-inch Si(111) substrate with AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattice by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Yukari, E-mail: yukari@jfcc.or.jp [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Atsuta, Nagoya, 456-8587 (Japan); Watanabe, Arata [Research Center for Nano Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Miyoshi, Makoto; Egawa, Takashi [Research Center for Nano Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Innovation Center for Multi-Business of Nitride Semiconductors, Nagoya Institute of Technoloy, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    The behavior of dislocations in a GaN layer grown on a 4-inch Si(111) substrate with an AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattice using horizontal metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Cross-sectional observation indicated that a drastic decrease in the dislocation density occurred in the GaN layer. The reaction of a dislocation (b=1/3[-211-3]) and anothor dislocation (b =1/3[-2113]) to form one dislocation (b =2/3[-2110]) in the GaN layer was clarified by plan-view observation using weak-beam dark-field and large-angle convergent-beam diffraction methods.

  17. Efficient n-type doping of CdTe epitaxial layers grown by photo-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with the use of chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommel, D.; Scholl, S.; Kuhn, T.A.; Ossau, W.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G. (Univ. Wuerzburg, Physikalisches Inst. (Germany)); Bilger, G. (Univ. Stuttgart, Inst. fuer Physikalische Elektronik (Germany))

    1993-01-30

    Chlorine has been used successfully for the first time for n-type doping of CdTe epitaxial layers (epilayers) grown by photo-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Similar to n-type doping of ZnSe layers, ZnCl[sub 2] has been used as source material. The free-carrier concentration can be varied over more than three orders of magnitude by changing the ZnCl[sub 2] oven temperature. Peak mobilities are 4700 cm[sup 2] V[sup -1] s[sup -1] for an electron concentration of 2x10[sup 16] cm[sup -3] and 525 cm[sup 2] V[sup -1] s[sup -1] for 2x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3]. The electrical transport data obtained by Van der Pauw configuration and Hall structure measurements are consistent with each other, indicating a good uniformity of the epilayers. In photoluminescence the donor-bound-exciton emission dominates for all chlorine concentrations. This contasts significantly with results obtained for indium doping, commonly used for obtaining n-type CdTe epilayers. The superiority of chlorine over indium doping and the influence of growth parameters on the behaviour of CdTe:Cl layers will be discussed on the basis of transport, luminescence, secondary ion mass spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data. (orig.).

  18. CBE growth of high-quality ZnO epitaxial layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shaer, A.; Bakin, A.; Mofor, A.C.; Kreye, M.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Blaesing, J.; Krost, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany); Stoimenos, J. [Physics Department, Aristotele University, Univ. Campus, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pecz, B. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Heuken, M. [Aixtron AG, Kackertstr. 15-17, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Further improvements on the recently reported novel approach to zinc oxide Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE) are presented. Hydrogen peroxide is employed as a very efficient novel oxidant. ZnO layers with a thickness from 100 nm to 600 nm were grown on c-sapphire using a MgO buffer. PL-mapping as well as conductivity mapping shows a good uniformity across the 2 inch ZnO-on-sapphire epiwafers. The measured surface roughness for the best layers is as low as 0.26 nm. HRXRD measurements of the obtained ZnO layers show excellent quality of the single crystalline ZnO. The FWHM of the HRXRD (0002) rocking curves measured for the 2 inch ZnO-on-sapphire wafers is as low as 27 arcsec with a very high lateral homogeneity across the whole wafer. Plane view HRTEM observations reveal the very good quality of the ZnO films. The results indicate that CBE is a suitable technique to fabricate ZnO of very high structural quality, which can eventually be used as an alternative to bulk ZnO substrates. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Crystal Structures of GaN Nanodots by Nitrogen Plasma Treatment on Ga Metal Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Zhe Su

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallium nitride (GaN is one of important functional materials for optoelectronics and electronics. GaN exists both in equilibrium wurtzite and metastable zinc-blende structural phases. The zinc-blende GaN has superior electronic and optical properties over wurtzite one. In this report, GaN nanodots can be fabricated by Ga metal droplets in ultra-high vacuum and then nitridation by nitrogen plasma. The size, shape, density, and crystal structure of GaN nanodots can be characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The growth parameters, such as pre-nitridation treatment on Si surface, substrate temperature, and plasma nitridation time, affect the crystal structure of GaN nanodots. Higher thermal energy could provide the driving force for the phase transformation of GaN nanodots from zinc-blende to wurtzite structures. Metastable zinc-blende GaN nanodots can be synthesized by the surface modification of Si (111 by nitrogen plasma, i.e., the pre-nitridation treatment is done at a lower growth temperature. This is because the pre-nitridation process can provide a nitrogen-terminal surface for the following Ga droplet formation and a nitrogen-rich condition for the formation of GaN nanodots during droplet epitaxy. The pre-nitridation of Si substrates, the formation of a thin SiNx layer, could inhibit the phase transformation of GaN nanodots from zinc-blende to wurtzite phases. The pre-nitridation treatment also affects the dot size, density, and surface roughness of samples.

  20. Nitrogen vacancies as a common element of the green luminescence and nonradiative recombination centers in Mg-implanted GaN layers formed on a GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kazunobu; Takashima, Shinya; Edo, Masaharu; Ueno, Katsunori; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Takahashi, Tokio; Ishibashi, Shoji; Uedono, Akira; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.

    2017-06-01

    The photoluminescences of ion-implanted (I/I) and epitaxial Mg-doped GaN (GaN:Mg) are compared. The intensities and lifetimes of the near-band-edge and ultraviolet luminescences associated with a MgGa acceptor of I/I GaN:Mg were significantly lower and shorter than those of the epilayers, respectively. Simultaneously, the green luminescence (GL) became dominant. These emissions were quenched far below room temperature. The results indicate the generation of point defects common to GL and nonradiative recombination centers (NRCs) by I/I. Taking the results of positron annihilation measurement into account, N vacancies are the prime candidate to emit GL and create NRCs with Ga vacancies, (VGa) m (VN) n , as well as to inhibit p-type conductivity.

  1. Porosity-induced relaxation of strains in GaN layers studied by means of micro-indentation and optical spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel; Gerland, Michel; Jouiad, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    We report the fabrication of porous GaNnanostructures using UV-assisted electroless etching of bulk GaN layer grown on c-plane sapphire substrate in a solution consisting of HF:CH3OH:H2O2. The morphology of the porous Ga

  2. Linearly polarized photoluminescence of anisotropically strained c-plane GaN layers on stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongmyeong; Moon, Daeyoung; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Donghyun; Yang, Duyoung; Jang, Jeonghwan; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2018-05-01

    Anisotropic in-plane strain and resultant linearly polarized photoluminescence (PL) of c-plane GaN layers were realized by using a stripe-shaped cavity-engineered sapphire substrate (SCES). High resolution X-ray reciprocal space mapping measurements revealed that the GaN layers on the SCES were under significant anisotropic in-plane strain of -0.0140% and -0.1351% along the directions perpendicular and parallel to the stripe pattern, respectively. The anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers was attributed to the anisotropic strain relaxation due to the anisotropic arrangement of cavity-incorporated membranes. Linearly polarized PL behavior such as the observed angle-dependent shift in PL peak position and intensity comparable with the calculated value based on k.p perturbation theory. It was found that the polarized PL behavior was attributed to the modification of valence band structures induced by anisotropic in-plane strain in the GaN layers on the SCES.

  3. Site-selective spectroscopy of Er in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierolf, V.; Sandmann, C.; Zavada, J.; Chow, P.; Hertog, B.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated different Er 3+ defect sites found in Er-doped GaN layers by site-selective combined excitation-emission spectroscopy and studied the role of these sites in different direct and multistep excitation schemes. The layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and were 200 nm thick. Two majority sites were found along with several minority sites. The sites strongly differ in excitation and energy transfer efficiencies as well as branching ratios during relaxation. For this reason, relative emission intensities from these sites depend strongly on emission and excitation. The sites were identified for several transitions and a comprehensive list of energy levels has been compiled. One of the minority sites appears strongly under ultraviolet excitation above the GaN band gap suggesting that this site is an excellent trap for excitation energy of electron-hole pairs

  4. Bromine doping of CdTe and CdMnTe epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, A. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Scholl, S. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Schierstedt, K. von (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Hommel, D. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Landwehr, G. (Physikalisches Inst. der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)); Bilger, G. (Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    We report on the n-type doping of CdTe and CdMnTe with bormine as a novel dopant material. /the thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. ZnBr[sub 2] was used as a source material for the n-type doping. Free carrier concentrations at room temperature of up to 2.8x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] could be readily obtained for both CdTe as well as CdMnTe thin films with Mn concentrations below 10%. This is to our knowledge the highest value ever obtained for the dilute magnetic semiconductor CdMnTe. For ZnBr[sub 2] source temperatures up to 60 C - corresponding to a free carrier concentration of (2-3)x10[sup 18] cm[sup -3] - the free carrier concentration of the epitaxial film increases with ZnBr[sub 2] source temperature. For higher ZnBr[sub 2] source temperatures compensation becomes dominant, which is indicated by a steep decrease of the free carrier concentration with increasing ZnBr[sub 2] source temperature. In addition the carrier mobility decreases drastically for such high dopant fluxes. A model of bromine incorporation is proposed. (orig.)

  5. Tolerance of GaAs as an original substrate for HVPE growth of free standing GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mio; Sato, T.; Suemasu, T.; Hasegawa, F.

    2004-09-01

    In order to investigate possibility of thick GaN growth on a GaAs substrate by halide vapar phase epitaxy (HVPE), GaN was grown on GaAs(111)/Ti wafer with Ti deposited by E-gun. It was found that surface treatment of the GaAs substrate by HF solution deteriorated greatly the tolerence of GaAs and that Ti can protected GaAs from erosion by NH3. By depositing Ti on GaAs(111)A surface, a millor-like GaN layer could be grown at 1000 °C for 1 hour without serious deterioration of the original GaAs substrate. By increasing the growth rate, a thick free standing GaN will be obtained with GaAs as an original substrate in near future.

  6. Tolerance of GaAs as an original substrate for HVPE growth of free standing GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Mio; Sato, T.; Suemasu, T.; Hasegawa, F. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Applied Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    In order to investigate possibility of thick GaN growth on a GaAs substrate by halide vapar phase epitaxy (HVPE), GaN was grown on GaAs(111)/Ti wafer with Ti deposited by E-gun. It was found that surface treatment of the GaAs substrate by HF solution deteriorated greatly the tolerance of GaAs and that Ti can protected GaAs from erosion by NH{sub 3}. By depositing Ti on GaAs(111)A surface, a mirror-like GaN layer could be grown at 1000 C for 1 hour without serious deterioration of the original GaAs substrate. By increasing the growth rate, a thick free standing GaN will be obtained with GaAs as an original substrate in near future. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Step-flow growth mode instability of N-polar GaN under N-excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chèze, C.; Sawicka, M.; Siekacz, M.; Łucznik, B.; Boćkowski, M.; Skierbiszewski, C.; Turski, H.; Cywiński, G.; Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Weyher, J. L.; Kryśko, M.

    2013-01-01

    GaN layers were grown on N-polar GaN substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy under different III/V ratios. Ga-rich conditions assure step-flow growth with atomically flat surface covered by doubly-bunched steps, as for Ga-polar GaN. Growth under N-excess however leads to an unstable step-flow morphology. Particularly, for substrates slightly miscut towards , interlacing fingers are covered by atomic steps pinned on both sides by small hexagonal pits. In contrast, a three-dimensional island morphology is observed on the Ga-polar equivalent sample. We attribute this result to lower diffusion barriers on N-polar compared to Ga-polar GaN under N-rich conditions

  8. DOE-EPSCoR. Exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeClair, Patrick R. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Gary, Mankey J. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2015-05-25

    The goal of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic alloy thin films and multilayers, including films and multilayers of Fe-Pt, Co-Pt and Fe-P-Rh alloys deposited on MgO and Al2O3 substrates. Our prior results have revealed that these materials have a rich variety of ferromagnetic, paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases which are sensitive functions of composition, substrate symmetry and layer thickness. Epitaxial antiferromagnetic films of FePt alloys exhibit a different phase diagram than bulk alloys. The antiferromagnetism of these materials has both spin ordering transitions and spin orienting transitions. The objectives include the study of exchange-inversion materials and the interface of these materials with ferromagnets. Our aim is to formulate a complete understanding of the magnetic ordering in these materials, as well as developing an understanding of how the spin structure is modified through contact with a ferromagnetic material at the interface. The ultimate goal is to develop the ability to tune the phase diagram of the materials to produce layered structures with tunable magnetic properties. The alloy systems that we will study have a degree of complexity and richness of magnetic phases that requires the use of the advanced tools offered by the DOE-operated national laboratory facilities, such as neutron and x-ray scattering to measure spin ordering, spin orientations, and element-specific magnetic moments. We plan to contribute to DOE’s mission of producing “Materials by Design” with properties determined by alloy composition and crystal structure. We have developed the methods for fabricating and have performed neutron diffraction experiments on some of the most interesting phases, and our work will serve to answer questions raised about the element-specific magnetizations using the magnetic x-ray dichroism techniques and interface magnetism in layered structures

  9. The Low Temperature Epitaxy of Strained GeSn Layers Using RTCVD System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Yeon-Ho; Yuk, Sim-Hoon; Jang, Han-Soo; Lee, Sang-Geul; Choi, Chel-Jong; Shim, Kyu-Hwan

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the low temperature (LT) growth of GeSn-Ge-Si structures using rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition system utilizing Ge2H6 and SnCl4 as the reactive precursors. Due to inappropriate phenomena, such as, Ge etch and Sn segregation, it was hard to achieve high quality GeSn epitaxy at the temperature > 350 °C. On the contrary, we found that the SnCl4 promoted the reaction of Ge2H6 precursors in a certain process condition of LT, 240-360 °C. In return, we could perform the growth of GeSn epi layer with 7.7% of Sn and its remaining compressive strain of 71.7%. The surface propagated defects were increased with increasing the Sn content in the GeSn layer confirmed by TEM analysis. And we could calculate the activation energies at lower GeSn growth temperature regime using by Ge2H6 and SnCl4 precursors about 0.43 eV.

  10. Oxygen adsorption and incorporation at irradiated GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces: First-principles density-functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Selloni, Annabella; Myers, T. H.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-11-01

    Density functional theory calculations of oxygen adsorption and incorporation at the polar GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces have been carried out to explain the experimentally observed reduced oxygen concentration in GaN samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy in the presence of high energy (˜10keV) electron beam irradiation [Myers , J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2295 (2000)]. Using a model in which the effect of the irradiation is to excite electrons from the valence to the conduction band, we find that both the energy cost of incorporating oxygen impurities in deeper layers and the oxygen adatom diffusion barriers are significantly reduced in the presence of the excitation. The latter effect leads to a higher probability for two O adatoms to recombine and desorb, and thus to a reduced oxygen concentration in the irradiated samples, consistent with experimental observations.

  11. Effects of Mg/Ga and V/III source ratios on hole concentration of N-polar (000\\bar{1}) p-type GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoda, Ryohei; Shojiki, Kanako; Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Katayama, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    The effects of growth conditions such as Mg/Ga and V/III ratios on the properties of N-polar (000\\bar{1}) p-type GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were studied. Photoluminescence spectra from Mg-doped GaN depended on Mg/Ga and V/III ratios. For the lightly doped samples, the band-to-acceptor emission was observed at 3.3 eV and its relative intensity decreased with increasing V/III ratio. For the heavily doped samples, the donor-acceptor pair emission was observed at 2.8 eV and its peak intensity monotonically decreased with V/III ratio. The hole concentration was maximum for the Mg/Ga ratio. This is the same tendency as in group-III polar (0001) growth. The V/III ratio also reduced the hole concentration. The higher V/III ratio reduced the concentration of residual donors such as oxygen by substituting nitrogen atoms. The surface became rougher with increasing V/III ratio and the hillock density increased.

  12. Growth kinetics for temperature-controlled atomic layer deposition of GaN using trimethylgallium and remote-plasma-excited NH{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pansila, P. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Kanomata, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Miura, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Ahmmad, B.; Kubota, S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Hirose, F., E-mail: fhirose@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We discuss the reaction mechanism of the low temperature GaN ALD. • The plasma-excited NH{sub 3} is effective in the nitridation of the TMG saturated GaN surface with surface temperatures in excess of 100 °C. • The temperature controlled ALD of GaN is examined using RT-TMG adsorption and plasma-excited NH{sub 3} treatment with the temperature of 115 °C. - Abstract: Fundamental surface reactions in the atomic layer deposition of GaN with trimethylgallium (TMG) and plasma-excited NH{sub 3} are investigated by multiple-internal-reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy (MIR-IRAS) at surface temperatures varying from room temperature (RT) to 400 °C. It is found that TMG is saturated at RT on GaN surfaces when the TMG exposure exceeds 8 × 10{sup 4} Langmuir (L), where 1 L corresponds to 1.33 × 10{sup −4} Pa s (or 1.0 × 10{sup −6} Torr s), and its saturation density reaches the maximum value at RT. Nitridation with the plasma-excited NH{sub 3} on the TMG-saturated GaN surface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nitridation becomes effective at surface temperatures in excess of 100 °C. The reaction models of TMG adsorption and nitridation on the GaN surface are proposed in this paper. Based on the surface analysis, a temperature-controlled ALD process consisting of RT-TMG adsorption and nitridation at 115 °C is examined, where the growth per cycle of 0.045 nm/cycle is confirmed. XPS analysis indicates that all N atoms are bonded as GaN. Atomic force microscopy indicates an average roughness of 0.23 nm. We discuss the reaction mechanism of GaN ALD in the low-temperature region at around 115 °C with TMG and plasma-excited NH{sub 3}.

  13. Growth kinetics for temperature-controlled atomic layer deposition of GaN using trimethylgallium and remote-plasma-excited NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pansila, P.; Kanomata, K.; Miura, M.; Ahmmad, B.; Kubota, S.; Hirose, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We discuss the reaction mechanism of the low temperature GaN ALD. • The plasma-excited NH 3 is effective in the nitridation of the TMG saturated GaN surface with surface temperatures in excess of 100 °C. • The temperature controlled ALD of GaN is examined using RT-TMG adsorption and plasma-excited NH 3 treatment with the temperature of 115 °C. - Abstract: Fundamental surface reactions in the atomic layer deposition of GaN with trimethylgallium (TMG) and plasma-excited NH 3 are investigated by multiple-internal-reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy (MIR-IRAS) at surface temperatures varying from room temperature (RT) to 400 °C. It is found that TMG is saturated at RT on GaN surfaces when the TMG exposure exceeds 8 × 10 4 Langmuir (L), where 1 L corresponds to 1.33 × 10 −4 Pa s (or 1.0 × 10 −6 Torr s), and its saturation density reaches the maximum value at RT. Nitridation with the plasma-excited NH 3 on the TMG-saturated GaN surface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nitridation becomes effective at surface temperatures in excess of 100 °C. The reaction models of TMG adsorption and nitridation on the GaN surface are proposed in this paper. Based on the surface analysis, a temperature-controlled ALD process consisting of RT-TMG adsorption and nitridation at 115 °C is examined, where the growth per cycle of 0.045 nm/cycle is confirmed. XPS analysis indicates that all N atoms are bonded as GaN. Atomic force microscopy indicates an average roughness of 0.23 nm. We discuss the reaction mechanism of GaN ALD in the low-temperature region at around 115 °C with TMG and plasma-excited NH 3 .

  14. The kinetics of solid phase epitaxy in As-doped buried amorphous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Ion implantation is the principal method used to introduce dopants into silicon for fabrication of semiconductor devices. During ion implantation, damage accumulates in the crystalline silicon lattice and amorphisation may occur over the depth range of the ions if the implant dose is sufficiently high. As device dimensions shrink, the need to produce shallower and shallower highly-doped layers increases and the probability of amorphisation also increases. To achieve dopant-activation, the amorphous or damaged material must be returned to the crystalline state by thermal annealing. Amorphous silicon layers can be crystallised by the solid-state process of solid phase epitaxy (SPE) in which the amorphous layer transforms to crystalline silicon (c-Si) layer by layer using the underlying c-Si as a seed. The atomic mechanism that is responsible for the crystallisation is thought to involve highly-localised bond-breaking and rearrangement processes at the amorphous/crystalline (a/c) interface but the defect responsible for these bond rearrangements has not yet been identified. Since the bond breaking process necessarily generates dangling bonds, it has been suggested that the crystallisation process may solely involve the formation and migration of dangling bonds at the interface. One of the key factors which may shed further light on the nature of the SPE defect is the observed dopant-dependence of the rate of crystallisation. It has been found that moderate concentrations of dopants enhance the SPE crystallisation rate while the presence of equal concentrations of an n-type and a p-type dopant (impurity compensation) returns the SPE rate to the intrinsic value. This provides crucial evidence that the SPE mechanism is sensitive to the position of the Fermi level in the bandgap of the crystalline and/or the amorphous silicon phases and may lead to identification of an energy level within the bandgap that can be associated with the defect. This paper gives details of SPE

  15. Changing of micromorphology of silicon-on-sapphire epitaxial layer surface at irradiation by subthreshold energy X-radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, A N; Skupov, V D; Filatov, D O

    2001-01-01

    The morphology of silicon-on-sapphire epitaxial layer surface after pulse irradiation by the X-rays with the energy of <= 140 keV is studied. The study on the irradiated material surface is carried out by the methods of the atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The average roughness value after irradiation constitutes 7 nm. The change in the films surface microrelief occurs due to reconstruction of their dislocation structure under the action of elastic waves, originating in the X radiation

  16. Wafer-scale controlled exfoliation of metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN multi quantum well structures using low-tack two-dimensional layered h-BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayari, Taha; Li, Xin; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah, E-mail: aougazza@georgiatech-metz.fr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef [Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Salvestrini, Jean Paul [Georgia Tech Lorraine, UMI 2958, Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France)

    2016-04-25

    Recent advances in epitaxial growth have led to the growth of III-nitride devices on 2D layered h-BN. This advance has the potential for wafer-scale transfer to arbitrary substrates, which could improve the thermal management and would allow III-N devices to be used more flexibly in a broader range of applications. We report wafer scale exfoliation of a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy grown InGaN/GaN Multi Quantum Well (MQW) structure from a 5 nm thick h-BN layer that was grown on a 2-inch sapphire substrate. The weak van der Waals bonds between h-BN atomic layers break easily, allowing the MQW structure to be mechanically lifted off from the sapphire substrate using a commercial adhesive tape. This results in the surface roughness of only 1.14 nm on the separated surface. Structural characterizations performed before and after the lift-off confirm the conservation of structural properties after lift-off. Cathodoluminescence at 454 nm was present before lift-off and 458 nm was present after. Electroluminescence near 450 nm from the lifted-off structure has also been observed. These results show that the high crystalline quality ultrathin h-BN serves as an effective sacrificial layer—it maintains performance, while also reducing the GaN buffer thickness and temperature ramps as compared to a conventional two-step growth method. These results support the use of h-BN as a low-tack sacrificial underlying layer for GaN-based device structures and demonstrate the feasibility of large area lift-off and transfer to any template, which is important for industrial scale production.

  17. Positron annihilation studies of defects in molecular beam epitaxy grown III-V layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umlor, M.T.; Keeble, D.J.; Cooke, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    A summary of recent positron annihilation experiments on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown III-V layers is Presented. Variable energy positron beam measurements on Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 As undoped and Si doped have been completed. Positron trapping at a open volume defect in Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 :Si for temperatures from 300 to 25 K in the dark was observed. The positron trap was lost after 1.3 eV illumination at 25K. These results indicate an open volume defect is associated with the local structure of the deep donor state of the DX center. Stability of MBE GaAs to thermal annealing war, investigated over the temperature range of 230 to 700 degrees C, Proximity wafer furnace anneals in flowing argon were used, Samples grown above 450 degrees C were shown to be stable but for sample below this temperature an anneal induced vacancy related defect was produced for anneals between 400 and 500 degrees C. The nature of the defect was shown to be different for material grown at 350 and 230 degrees C. Activation energies of 2.5 eV to 2.3 eV were obtained from isochronal anneal experiments for samples grown at 350 and 230 degrees C, respectively

  18. Time-resolved photon echoes from donor-bound excitons in ZnO epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kosarev, A. N.; Akimov, I. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Sadofev, S.; Puls, J.; Hoffmann, S. P.; Albert, M.; Meier, C.; Meier, T.; Bayer, M.

    2017-07-01

    The coherent optical response from 140 nm and 65 nm thick ZnO epitaxial layers is studied using four-wave-mixing spectroscopy with picosecond temporal resolution. Resonant excitation of neutral donor-bound excitons results in two-pulse and three-pulse photon echoes. For the donor-bound A exciton (D0XA ) at temperature of 1.8 K we evaluate optical coherence times T2=33 -50 ps corresponding to homogeneous line widths of 13 -19 μ eV , about two orders of magnitude smaller as compared with the inhomogeneous broadening of the optical transitions. The coherent dynamics is determined mainly by the population decay with time T1=30 -40 ps, while pure dephasing is negligible. Temperature increase leads to a significant shortening of T2 due to interaction with acoustic phonons. In contrast, the loss of coherence of the donor-bound B exciton (D0XB ) is significantly faster (T2=3.6 ps ) and governed by pure dephasing processes.

  19. Epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si substrates with TiN buffer layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si (100 substrates with a TiN buffer layer. A 50-nm-thick (200-oriented TiN thin film was introduced as the buffer layer for epitaxial growth of NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers on Si substrates. The fabricated NbN/AlN/NbN junctions demonstrated excellent tunneling properties with a high gap voltage of 5.5 mV, a large IcRN product of 3.8 mV, a sharp quasiparticle current rise with a ΔVg of 0.4 mV, and a small subgap leakage current. The junction quality factor Rsg/RN was about 23 for the junction with a Jc of 47 A/cm2 and was about 6 for the junction with a Jc of 3.0 kA/cm2. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers were grown epitaxially on the (200-orientated TiN buffer layer and had a highly crystalline structure with the (200 orientation.

  20. Epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si substrates with TiN buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Makise, Kazumasa; Terai, Hirotaka [Advanced ICT Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (Japan); Zhang, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Zhen, E-mail: zwang@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Tech University, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2016-06-15

    We have developed epitaxial NbN/AlN/NbN tunnel junctions on Si (100) substrates with a TiN buffer layer. A 50-nm-thick (200)-oriented TiN thin film was introduced as the buffer layer for epitaxial growth of NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers on Si substrates. The fabricated NbN/AlN/NbN junctions demonstrated excellent tunneling properties with a high gap voltage of 5.5 mV, a large I{sub c}R{sub N} product of 3.8 mV, a sharp quasiparticle current rise with a ΔV{sub g} of 0.4 mV, and a small subgap leakage current. The junction quality factor R{sub sg}/R{sub N} was about 23 for the junction with a J{sub c} of 47 A/cm{sup 2} and was about 6 for the junction with a J{sub c} of 3.0 kA/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers were grown epitaxially on the (200)-orientated TiN buffer layer and had a highly crystalline structure with the (200) orientation.

  1. Growth kinetics for temperature-controlled atomic layer deposition of GaN using trimethylgallium and remote-plasma-excited NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansila, P.; Kanomata, K.; Miura, M.; Ahmmad, B.; Kubota, S.; Hirose, F.

    2015-12-01

    Fundamental surface reactions in the atomic layer deposition of GaN with trimethylgallium (TMG) and plasma-excited NH3 are investigated by multiple-internal-reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy (MIR-IRAS) at surface temperatures varying from room temperature (RT) to 400 °C. It is found that TMG is saturated at RT on GaN surfaces when the TMG exposure exceeds 8 × 104 Langmuir (L), where 1 L corresponds to 1.33 × 10-4 Pa s (or 1.0 × 10-6 Torr s), and its saturation density reaches the maximum value at RT. Nitridation with the plasma-excited NH3 on the TMG-saturated GaN surface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nitridation becomes effective at surface temperatures in excess of 100 °C. The reaction models of TMG adsorption and nitridation on the GaN surface are proposed in this paper. Based on the surface analysis, a temperature-controlled ALD process consisting of RT-TMG adsorption and nitridation at 115 °C is examined, where the growth per cycle of 0.045 nm/cycle is confirmed. XPS analysis indicates that all N atoms are bonded as GaN. Atomic force microscopy indicates an average roughness of 0.23 nm. We discuss the reaction mechanism of GaN ALD in the low-temperature region at around 115 °C with TMG and plasma-excited NH3.

  2. Structure characterization of Pd/Co/Pd tri-layer films epitaxially grown on MgO single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobari, Kousuke, E-mail: tobari@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nagano, Katsumasa; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2011-09-30

    Pd/Co/Pd tri-layer films were prepared on MgO substrates of (001), (111), and (011) orientations at room temperature by ultra high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The detailed film structures around the Co/Pd and the Pd/Co interfaces are investigated by reflection high energy electron diffraction. Pd layers of (001){sub fcc}, (111){sub fcc}, and (011){sub fcc} orientations epitaxially grow on the respective MgO substrates. Strained fcc-Co(001) single-crystal layers are formed on the Pd(001){sub fcc} layers by accommodating the fairly large lattice mismatch between the Co and the Pd layers. On the Co layers,, Pd polycrystalline layers are formed. When Co films are formed on the Pd(111){sub fcc} and the Pd(011){sub fcc} layers, atomic mixing is observed around the Co/Pd interfaces and fcc-CoPd alloy phases are coexisting with Co crystals. The Co crystals formed on the Pd(111){sub fcc} layers consist of hcp(0001) + fcc(111) and Pd(111){sub fcc} epitaxial layers are formed on the Co layers. Co crystals epitaxially grow on the Pd(011){sub fcc} layers with two variants, hcp(11-bar 00) and fcc(111). On the Co layers, Pd(011){sub fcc} epitaxial layers are formed.

  3. Photo-irradiation effects on GaAs atomic layer epitaxial growth. GaAs no genshiso epitaxial seicho ni okeru hikari reiki koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashita, M.; Kawakyu, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Ishikawa, H. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan). Research and Development Center)

    1990-08-10

    Single atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) aims at controlling a growing film at a precision of single molecular layer. In this article, it is reported that the growth temperature range of ALE was expanded by the vertical irradiation of KrF exima laser (248 nm) onto the substrate for the ALE growth of GaAs using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. Thanks for the results of the above experiment, it was demonstrated that the irradiation effect was not thermal, but photochemical. In addition, this article studies the possibility of adsorption layer irradiation and surface irradiation as the photo-irradiation mechanism, and points out that coexistence of both irradiation mechanisms can be considered and, in case of exima laser, strong possibility of direct irradiation of the adsorption layer because of its high power density. Hereinafter, by using both optical growth ALE and thermal growth ALE jointly, the degree of freedom of combination of hetero ALE increases and its application to various material systems becomes possible. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Comparison of trimethylgallium and triethylgallium as “Ga” source materials for the growth of ultrathin GaN films on Si (100) substrates via hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alevli, Mustafa; Haider, Ali; Kizir, Seda; Leghari, Shahid A.; Biyikli, Necmi

    2016-01-01

    GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMG) and triethylgallium (TEG) as gallium precursors are compared. Optimized and saturated TMG/TEG pulse widths were used in order to study the effect of group-III precursors. The films were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Refractive index follows the same trend of crystalline quality, mean grain, and crystallite sizes. GaN layers grown using TMG precursor exhibited improved structural and optical properties when compared to GaN films grown with TEG precursor

  5. Comparison of trimethylgallium and triethylgallium as “Ga” source materials for the growth of ultrathin GaN films on Si (100) substrates via hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alevli, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafaalevli@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Marmara University, Göztepe Kadıköy, 34722 İstanbul (Turkey); Haider, Ali; Kizir, Seda; Leghari, Shahid A.; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara, Turkey and National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMG) and triethylgallium (TEG) as gallium precursors are compared. Optimized and saturated TMG/TEG pulse widths were used in order to study the effect of group-III precursors. The films were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Refractive index follows the same trend of crystalline quality, mean grain, and crystallite sizes. GaN layers grown using TMG precursor exhibited improved structural and optical properties when compared to GaN films grown with TEG precursor.

  6. Bi-epitaxial YBa2Cu3Ox Thin Films on Tilted-axes NdGaO3 Substrates with CeO2 Seeding Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhaev, P B; Mozhaeva, J E; Jacobsen, C S; Hansen, J Bindslev; Bdikin, I K; Luzanov, V A; Kotelyanskii, I M; Zybtsev, S G

    2006-01-01

    Bi-epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (YBCO) thin films with out-of-plane tilt angle in the range 18 - 27 0 were manufactured using pulsed laser deposition on NdGaO 3 tilted-axes substrates with CeO 2 seeding layers. The YBCO thin film orientation over the seeding layer depended on deposition conditions. Removal of the seeding layer from part of the substrate surface by ionbeam etching resulted in formation of a bi-epitaxial thin film with different c-axis orientation of two parts of the film. The bi-epitaxial film orientation and structure were studied using X-ray diffraction techniques, and surface morphology was observed with atomic force microscope (AFM). Photolithography and ion-beam etching techniques were used for patterning bi-epitaxial thin films. Electrical characterization of the obtained structures was performed

  7. Low temperature (100 °C) atomic layer deposited-ZrO2 for recessed gate GaN HEMTs on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Young-Chul; Lee, Jae-Gil; Meng, Xin; Lee, Joy S.; Lucero, Antonio T.; Kim, Si Joon; Young, Chadwin D.; Kim, Moon J.; Kim, Jiyoung

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of atomic layer deposited ZrO2 gate dielectrics, deposited at low temperature (100 °C), on the characteristics of recessed-gate High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) on Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN/Si is investigated and compared with the characteristics of those with ZrO2 films deposited at typical atomic layer deposited (ALD) process temperatures (250 °C). Negligible hysteresis (ΔVth 4 V), and low interfacial state density (Dit = 3.69 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2) were observed on recessed gate HEMTs with ˜5 nm ALD-ZrO2 films grown at 100 °C. The excellent properties of recessed gate HEMTs are due to the absence of an interfacial layer and an amorphous phase of the film. An interfacial layer between 250 °C-ZrO2 and GaN is observed via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. However, 100 °C-ZrO2 and GaN shows no significant interfacial layer formation. Moreover, while 100 °C-ZrO2 films maintain an amorphous phase on either substrate (GaN and Si), 250 °C-ZrO2 films exhibit a polycrystalline-phase when deposited on GaN and an amorphous phase when deposited on Si. Contrary to popular belief, the low-temperature ALD process for ZrO2 results in excellent HEMT performance.

  8. The roles of buffer layer thickness on the properties of the ZnO epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kun, E-mail: ktang@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Huang, Shimin [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gu, Shulin, E-mail: slgu@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Shunming [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ye, Jiandong [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Nanjing University Institute of Optoelectronics at Yangzhou, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Xu, Zhonghua; Zheng, Youdou [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The growth mechanism has been revealed for the ZnO buffers with different thickness. • The surface morphology has been determined as the key factor to affect the epitaxial growth. • The relation between the hexagonal pits from buffers and epi-films has been established. • The hexagonal pits formed in the epi-films have been attributed to the V-shaped defects inheriting from the dislocations in the buffers. • The structural and electrical properties of the V-defects have been presented and analyzed. - Abstract: In this article, the authors have investigated the optimization of the buffer thickness for obtaining high-quality ZnO epi-films on sapphire substrates. The growth mechanism of the buffers with different thickness has been clearly revealed, including the initial nucleation and vertical growth, the subsequent lateral growth with small grain coalescence, and the final vertical growth along the existing larger grains. Overall, the quality of the buffer improves with increasing thickness except the deformed surface morphology. However, by a full-scale evaluation of the properties for the epi-layers, the quality of the epi-film is briefly determined by the surface morphology of the buffer, rather than the structural, optical, or electrical properties of it. The best quality epi-layer has been grown on the buffer with a smooth surface and well-coalescent grains. Meanwhile, due to the huge lattice mismatch between sapphire and ZnO, dislocations are inevitably formed during the growth of buffers. More importantly, as the film grows thicker, the dislocations may attracting other smaller dislocations and defects to reduce the total line energy and thus result in the formation of V-shape defects, which are connected with the bottom of the threading dislocations in the buffers. The V-defects appear as deep and large hexagonal pits from top view and they may act as electron traps which would affect the free carrier concentration of the epi-layers.

  9. The roles of buffer layer thickness on the properties of the ZnO epitaxial films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Kun; Huang, Shimin; Gu, Shulin; Zhu, Shunming; Ye, Jiandong; Xu, Zhonghua; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The growth mechanism has been revealed for the ZnO buffers with different thickness. • The surface morphology has been determined as the key factor to affect the epitaxial growth. • The relation between the hexagonal pits from buffers and epi-films has been established. • The hexagonal pits formed in the epi-films have been attributed to the V-shaped defects inheriting from the dislocations in the buffers. • The structural and electrical properties of the V-defects have been presented and analyzed. - Abstract: In this article, the authors have investigated the optimization of the buffer thickness for obtaining high-quality ZnO epi-films on sapphire substrates. The growth mechanism of the buffers with different thickness has been clearly revealed, including the initial nucleation and vertical growth, the subsequent lateral growth with small grain coalescence, and the final vertical growth along the existing larger grains. Overall, the quality of the buffer improves with increasing thickness except the deformed surface morphology. However, by a full-scale evaluation of the properties for the epi-layers, the quality of the epi-film is briefly determined by the surface morphology of the buffer, rather than the structural, optical, or electrical properties of it. The best quality epi-layer has been grown on the buffer with a smooth surface and well-coalescent grains. Meanwhile, due to the huge lattice mismatch between sapphire and ZnO, dislocations are inevitably formed during the growth of buffers. More importantly, as the film grows thicker, the dislocations may attracting other smaller dislocations and defects to reduce the total line energy and thus result in the formation of V-shape defects, which are connected with the bottom of the threading dislocations in the buffers. The V-defects appear as deep and large hexagonal pits from top view and they may act as electron traps which would affect the free carrier concentration of the epi-layers.

  10. GaN and ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuendling, Soenke; Soekmen, Uensal; Behrends, Arne; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Merzsch, Stephan; Li, Shunfeng; Bakin, Andrey; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Laehnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    GaN and ZnO are both wide band gap semiconductors with interesting properties concerning optoelectronic and sensor device applications. Due to the lack or the high costs of native substrates, alternatives like sapphire, silicon, or silicon carbide are taken, but the resulting lattice and thermal mismatches lead to increased defect densities which reduce the material quality. In contrast, nanostructures with high aspect ratio have lower defect densities as compared to layers. In this work, we give an overview on our results achieved on both ZnO as well as GaN based nanorods. ZnO nanostructures were grown by a wet chemical approach as well as by VPT on different substrates - even on flexible polymers. To compare the growth results we analyzed the structures by XRD and PL and show possible device applications. The GaN nano- and microstructures were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy either in a self-organized process or by selective area growth for a better control of shape and material composition. Finally we take a look onto possible device applications, presenting our attempts, e.g., to build LEDs based on GaN nanostructures. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Fe doping for making resistive GaN layers with low dislocation density; consequence on HEMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougrioua, Z.; Lorenzini, P. [CRHEA-CNRS, rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Azize, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); LUMILOG, 2720 Chemin St Bernard, 06220 Vallauris (France); Jimenez, A. [E. Politecnica. Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Brana, A.F.; Munoz, E. [ETSI Telecomunicacion, UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Beaumont, B.; Gibart, P. [LUMILOG, 2720 Chemin St Bernard, 06220 Vallauris (France)

    2005-05-01

    Highly resistive GaN (>10{sup 8} {omega}{sub {upsilon}}) is grown by MOVPE on sapphire with dislocation density in the range 10{sup 8} to 8 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}, using Fe modulation doping. High mobility 2DEGs are created at AlGaN/GaN:Fe interface for moderate Al composition: 2200 cm{sup 2}/V/s at n{sub s}{proportional_to}7.6 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. Good DC and RF small signal behaviour could be obtained in HEMTs processed on structures with less dislocated GaN:Fe template: I{sub DS}{sup max}=1.28 A/mm, g{sub m}{sup max} {proportional_to}290 mS/mm and f{sub T} {proportional_to}23 GHz were measured for 0.2 {mu}m transistors. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. GaN/NbN epitaxial semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rusen; Khalsa, Guru; Vishwanath, Suresh; Han, Yimo; Wright, John; Rouvimov, Sergei; Katzer, D. Scott; Nepal, Neeraj; Downey, Brian P.; Muller, David A.; Xing, Huili G.; Meyer, David J.; Jena, Debdeep

    2018-03-01

    Epitaxy is a process by which a thin layer of one crystal is deposited in an ordered fashion onto a substrate crystal. The direct epitaxial growth of semiconductor heterostructures on top of crystalline superconductors has proved challenging. Here, however, we report the successful use of molecular beam epitaxy to grow and integrate niobium nitride (NbN)-based superconductors with the wide-bandgap family of semiconductors—silicon carbide, gallium nitride (GaN) and aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN). We apply molecular beam epitaxy to grow an AlGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure directly on top of an ultrathin crystalline NbN superconductor. The resulting high-mobility, two-dimensional electron gas in the semiconductor exhibits quantum oscillations, and thus enables a semiconductor transistor—an electronic gain element—to be grown and fabricated directly on a crystalline superconductor. Using the epitaxial superconductor as the source load of the transistor, we observe in the transistor output characteristics a negative differential resistance—a feature often used in amplifiers and oscillators. Our demonstration of the direct epitaxial growth of high-quality semiconductor heterostructures and devices on crystalline nitride superconductors opens up the possibility of combining the macroscopic quantum effects of superconductors with the electronic, photonic and piezoelectric properties of the group III/nitride semiconductor family.

  13. In-situ potential mapping of space charge layer in GaN nanowires under electrical field by off-axis electron holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ potential mapping of space charge (SC layer in a single GaN nanowire (NW contacted to the Au metal electrode has been conducted using off-axis electron holography in order to study the space distribution of SC layer under electric biases. Based on the phase image reconstructed from the complex hologram the electrostatic potential at the SC layer was clearly revealed; the SC width was estimated to be about 76 nm under zero bias condition. In order to study dynamic interrelation between the SC layer and bias conditions, the variation of the electrostatic potential due to change of the SC widths respond to the different bias conditions have also been examined. The measured SC layers are found to vary between 68 nm and 91 nm, which correspond to the saturated SC layers at the GaN-Au contact under the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively. By plotting the square widths of the SC layer against the applied voltages, donor density of GaN NWs was derived to be about 4.3*106 cm−3. Our experiments demonstrate that in-situ electron holography under electric field can be a useful method to investigate SC layers and donor density in single NW and other heterostructures.

  14. Influence of substrate quality on structural properties of AlGaN/GaN superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, F. [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Straße 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Merkel, U.; Schmult, S. [TU Dresden, Institute of Semiconductors and Microsystems, Nöthnitzer Straße 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Mikolajick, T. [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Straße 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institute of Semiconductors and Microsystems, Nöthnitzer Straße 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-02-28

    Short-period AlGaN/GaN superlattices were established as versatile test structures to investigate the structural properties of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown GaN and AlGaN layers and their dependence on the GaN substrate quality. X-ray diffractometry data of the investigated superlattices allow access to relevant structural parameters such as aluminum mole fraction and layer thicknesses. The occurrence of theoretically predicted intense high-order satellite peaks and pronounced interface fringes in the diffraction pattern reflects abrupt interfaces and perfect 2-dimensional growth resulting in smooth surfaces. The data unambiguously demonstrate that the structural quality of the MBE grown layers is limited by the structural properties of the GaN substrate.

  15. Growth of GaN Layers on Sapphire by Low-Temperature-Deposited Buffer Layers and Realization of p-type GaN by Magesium Doping and Electron Beam Irradiation (Nobel Lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hiroshi

    2015-06-26

    This Review is a personal reflection on the research that led to the development of a method for growing gallium nitride (GaN) on a sapphire substrate. The results paved the way for the development of smart display systems using blue LEDs. The most important work was done in the mid to late 80s. The background to the author's work and the process by which the technology that enables the growth of GaN and the realization of p-type GaN was established are reviewed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Emission dynamics of hybrid plasmonic gold/organic GaN nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Schmitzer, H.; Kunert, G.; Hommel, D.; Ge, J.; Duscher, G.; Langbein, W.; Wagner, H. P.

    2017-12-01

    We studied the emission of bare and aluminum quinoline (Alq3)/gold coated wurtzite GaN nanorods by temperature- and intensity-dependent time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). The GaN nanorods of ˜1.5 μm length and ˜250 nm diameter were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Gold/Alq3 coated GaN nanorods were synthesized by organic molecular beam deposition. The near band-edge and donor-acceptor pair luminescence was investigated in bare GaN nanorods and compared with multilevel model calculations providing the dynamical parameters for electron-hole pairs, excitons, impurity bound excitons, donors and acceptors. Subsequently, the influence of a 10 nm gold coating without and with an Alq3 spacer layer was studied and the experimental results were analyzed with the multilevel model. Without a spacer layer, a significant PL quenching and lifetime reduction of the near band-edge emission is found. The behavior is attributed to surface band-bending and Förster energy transfer from excitons to surface plasmons in the gold layer. Inserting a 5 nm Alq3 spacer layer reduces the PL quenching and lifetime reduction which is consistent with a reduced band-bending and Förster energy transfer. Increasing the spacer layer to 30 nm results in lifetimes which are similar to uncoated structures, showing a significantly decreased influence of the gold coating on the excitonic dynamics.

  17. Growth of AlN/Pt heterostructures on amorphous substrates at low temperatures via atomic layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal, N.; Goswami, R.; Qadri, S.B.; Mahadik, N.A.; Kub, F.J.; Eddy, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent results on atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) growth and characterization of (0 0 0 1)AlN on highly oriented (1 1 1)Pt layers on amorphous HfO 2 /Si(1 0 0) are reported. HfO 2 was deposited by atomic layer deposition on Si(1 0 0) followed by ALE growth of Pt(15 nm) and, subsequently, AlN(60 nm) at 500 °C. Based on the X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements, the Pt and AlN layers are highly oriented along the (1 1 1) and (0 0 0 2) directions, respectively. Demonstrations of AlN/Pt heterostructures open up the possibility of new state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems devices

  18. Ultra-smooth epitaxial Ge grown on Si(001) utilizing a thin C-doped Ge buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mantey, J.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present work on epitaxial Ge films grown on a thin buffer layer of C doped Ge (Ge:C). The growth rate of Ge:C is found to slow over time and is thus unsuitable for thick (>20 nm) layers. We demonstrate Ge films from 10 nm to >150 nm are possible by growing pure Ge on a thin Ge:C buffer. It is shown that this stack yields exceedingly low roughness levels (comparable to bulk Si wafers) and contains fewer defects and higher Hall mobility compared to traditional heteroepitaxial Ge. The addition of C at the interface helps reduce strain by its smaller atomic radius and its ability to pin defects within the thin buffer layer that do not thread to the top Ge layer. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  19. Influence of the GaN spacer thickness on the structural and photoluminescence properties of multi-stack InN/GaN quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Wen-Cheng; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Chen, Shiow-Long; Kao, Chia-Yu; Houng, Wei-Chung; Wei, Chih-An; Su, Yi-Ru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present structural and photoluminescence characteristics of multi-stack InN/GaN QDs. ► A single crystalline 10-nm thick GaN capping layer is grown on the InN QDs. ► The PL intensity of the three-layer stacked sample is about 3 times that of the single-layer sample. - Abstract: This paper reports the structural and photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of single-layer and multi-stack InN/GaN quantum dots (QDs) with varying spacer thickness. A single crystalline 10-nm thick GaN capping layer is grown on the InN QDs by the flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME) method. The PL peak is red shifted down to 18 meV and its full width at half maximum (FWHM) was narrowed from 104 meV to 77 meV as increasing GaN capping layer thickness to 20-nm. The red-shift and the linewidth narrowing of the PL spectra for the single-layer InN QDs as a result of the increase in capping thickness are believed to be due to the fact that the GaN capping layer decreases the surface defect density thereby decreasing the surface electron concentration of the InN QDs. However, the PL intensity decreases rapidly with the increase in GaN spacer thickness for the three-layer stacked InN/GaN QDs. Because of kinetic roughening, the 20-nm thick GaN capping layer shows a roughened surface. This roughened GaN capping layer degrades the InN QDs growth in the next layer of multi-stack InN QDs. In addition, the increased compressive strain on the InN QDs with the increase in GaN spacer thickness increases the defect density at the InN/GaN capped interface and will further decrease the PL intensity. After the GaN spacer thickness is modified, the PL intensity of the three-layer stacked sample with a 10-nm thick GaN spacer layer is about 3 times that of the single-layer sample.

  20. Non-destructive determination of ultra-thin GaN cap layer thickness in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Anshu; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Raman, R.; Kapoor, Ashok K.

    2018-02-01

    Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) investigations have been carried out to characterize the GaN cap layer in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure. The paper discusses the qualitative (presence or absence of a cap layer) and quantitative (cap layer thickness) characterization of cap layer in HEMT structure non-destructively using ARXPS measurements in conjunction with the theoretical modeling. Further the relative sensitive factor (RSF=σ/Ga σAl ) for Ga to Al ratio was estimated to be 0.963 and was used in the quantification of GaN cap layer thickness. Our results show that Al/Ga intensity ratio varies with the emission angle in the presence of GaN cap layer and otherwise remains constant. Also, the modeling of this intensity ratio gives its thickness. The finding of ARXPS was also substantiated by SIMS depth profiling studies.

  1. Non-destructive determination of ultra-thin GaN cap layer thickness in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Goyal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS investigations have been carried out to characterize the GaN cap layer in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure. The paper discusses the qualitative (presence or absence of a cap layer and quantitative (cap layer thickness characterization of cap layer in HEMT structure non-destructively using ARXPS measurements in conjunction with the theoretical modeling. Further the relative sensitive factor (RSF=σGaσAl for Ga to Al ratio was estimated to be 0.963 and was used in the quantification of GaN cap layer thickness. Our results show that Al/Ga intensity ratio varies with the emission angle in the presence of GaN cap layer and otherwise remains constant. Also, the modeling of this intensity ratio gives its thickness. The finding of ARXPS was also substantiated by SIMS depth profiling studies.

  2. Control of ion content and nitrogen species using a mixed chemistry plasma for GaN grown at extremely high growth rates >9 μm/h by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Clinton, Evan A.; Merola, Joseph J.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Bresnahan, Rich C.

    2015-10-01

    Utilizing a modified nitrogen plasma source, plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been used to achieve higher growth rates in GaN. A higher conductance aperture plate, combined with higher nitrogen flow and added pumping capacity, resulted in dramatically increased growth rates up to 8.4 μm/h using 34 sccm of N2 while still maintaining acceptably low operating pressure. It was further discovered that argon could be added to the plasma gas to enhance growth rates up to 9.8 μm/h, which was achieved using 20 sccm of N2 and 7.7 sccm Ar flows at 600 W radio frequency power, for which the standard deviation of thickness was just 2% over a full 2 in. diameter wafer. A remote Langmuir style probe employing the flux gauge was used to indirectly measure the relative ion content in the plasma. The use of argon dilution at low plasma pressures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the plasma ion current by more than half, while high plasma pressures suppressed ion content regardless of plasma gas chemistry. Moreover, different trends are apparent for the molecular and atomic nitrogen species generated by varying pressure and nitrogen composition in the plasma. Argon dilution resulted in nearly an order of magnitude achievable growth rate range from 1 μm/h to nearly 10 μm/h. Even for films grown at more than 6 μm/h, the surface morphology remained smooth showing clear atomic steps with root mean square roughness less than 1 nm. Due to the low vapor pressure of Si, Ge was explored as an alternative n-type dopant for high growth rate applications. Electron concentrations from 2.2 × 1016 to 3.8 × 1019 cm-3 were achieved in GaN using Ge doping, and unintentionally doped GaN films exhibited low background electron concentrations of just 1-2 × 1015 cm-3. The highest growth rates resulted in macroscopic surface features due to Ga cell spitting, which is an engineering challenge still to be addressed. Nonetheless, the dramatically enhanced growth rates demonstrate

  3. Control of ion content and nitrogen species using a mixed chemistry plasma for GaN grown at extremely high growth rates >9 μm/h by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Clinton, Evan A.; Merola, Joseph J.; Doolittle, W. Alan, E-mail: alan.doolittle@ece.gatech.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Bresnahan, Rich C. [Veeco Instruments, St. Paul, Minnesota 55127 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Utilizing a modified nitrogen plasma source, plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been used to achieve higher growth rates in GaN. A higher conductance aperture plate, combined with higher nitrogen flow and added pumping capacity, resulted in dramatically increased growth rates up to 8.4 μm/h using 34 sccm of N{sub 2} while still maintaining acceptably low operating pressure. It was further discovered that argon could be added to the plasma gas to enhance growth rates up to 9.8 μm/h, which was achieved using 20 sccm of N{sub 2} and 7.7 sccm Ar flows at 600 W radio frequency power, for which the standard deviation of thickness was just 2% over a full 2 in. diameter wafer. A remote Langmuir style probe employing the flux gauge was used to indirectly measure the relative ion content in the plasma. The use of argon dilution at low plasma pressures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the plasma ion current by more than half, while high plasma pressures suppressed ion content regardless of plasma gas chemistry. Moreover, different trends are apparent for the molecular and atomic nitrogen species generated by varying pressure and nitrogen composition in the plasma. Argon dilution resulted in nearly an order of magnitude achievable growth rate range from 1 μm/h to nearly 10 μm/h. Even for films grown at more than 6 μm/h, the surface morphology remained smooth showing clear atomic steps with root mean square roughness less than 1 nm. Due to the low vapor pressure of Si, Ge was explored as an alternative n-type dopant for high growth rate applications. Electron concentrations from 2.2 × 10{sup 16} to 3.8 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} were achieved in GaN using Ge doping, and unintentionally doped GaN films exhibited low background electron concentrations of just 1–2 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}. The highest growth rates resulted in macroscopic surface features due to Ga cell spitting, which is an engineering challenge still to be

  4. Control of ion content and nitrogen species using a mixed chemistry plasma for GaN grown at extremely high growth rates >9 μm/h by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Clinton, Evan A.; Merola, Joseph J.; Doolittle, W. Alan; Bresnahan, Rich C.

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing a modified nitrogen plasma source, plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been used to achieve higher growth rates in GaN. A higher conductance aperture plate, combined with higher nitrogen flow and added pumping capacity, resulted in dramatically increased growth rates up to 8.4 μm/h using 34 sccm of N 2 while still maintaining acceptably low operating pressure. It was further discovered that argon could be added to the plasma gas to enhance growth rates up to 9.8 μm/h, which was achieved using 20 sccm of N 2 and 7.7 sccm Ar flows at 600 W radio frequency power, for which the standard deviation of thickness was just 2% over a full 2 in. diameter wafer. A remote Langmuir style probe employing the flux gauge was used to indirectly measure the relative ion content in the plasma. The use of argon dilution at low plasma pressures resulted in a dramatic reduction of the plasma ion current by more than half, while high plasma pressures suppressed ion content regardless of plasma gas chemistry. Moreover, different trends are apparent for the molecular and atomic nitrogen species generated by varying pressure and nitrogen composition in the plasma. Argon dilution resulted in nearly an order of magnitude achievable growth rate range from 1 μm/h to nearly 10 μm/h. Even for films grown at more than 6 μm/h, the surface morphology remained smooth showing clear atomic steps with root mean square roughness less than 1 nm. Due to the low vapor pressure of Si, Ge was explored as an alternative n-type dopant for high growth rate applications. Electron concentrations from 2.2 × 10 16 to 3.8 × 10 19 cm −3 were achieved in GaN using Ge doping, and unintentionally doped GaN films exhibited low background electron concentrations of just 1–2 × 10 15 cm −3 . The highest growth rates resulted in macroscopic surface features due to Ga cell spitting, which is an engineering challenge still to be addressed. Nonetheless, the

  5. Epitaxial TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell heterostructure by atomic layer deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2012-01-01

    Taking TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell nanowires (NWs) as a model system, we systematically investigate the structure and the morphological evolution of this heterostructure synthesized by atomic layer deposition/epitaxy (ALD/ALE). All characterizations, by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and Raman spectra, reveal that single crystalline rutile TiO 2 shells can be epitaxially grown on SnO 2 NWs with an atomically sharp interface at low temperature (250 °C). The growth behavior of the TiO 2 shells highly depends on the surface orientations and the geometrical shape of the core SnO 2 NW cross-section. Atomically smooth surfaces are found for growth on the {110} surface. Rough surfaces develop on {100} surfaces due to (100) - (1 × 3) reconstruction, by introducing steps in the [010] direction as a continuation of {110} facets. Lattice mismatch induces superlattice structures in the TiO 2 shell and misfit dislocations along the interface. Conformal epitaxial growth has been observed for SnO 2 NW cores with an octagonal cross-section ({100} and {110} surfaces). However, for a rectangular core ({101} and {010} surfaces), the shell also derives an octagonal shape from the epitaxial growth, which was explained by a proposed model based on ALD kinetics. The surface steps and defects induced by the lattice mismatch likely lead to improved photoluminescence (PL) performance for the yellow emission. Compared to the pure SnO 2 NWs, the PL spectrum of the core-shell nanostructures exhibits a stronger emission peak, which suggests potential applications in optoelectronics. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  6. Doping of GaN by ion implantation: Does It Work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvkhanov, A.; Wu, W.; Price, K.; Parikh, N.; Irene, E.; Hunn, J.; Thomson, D.; Davis, R.F.; Krasnobaev, L.

    1998-04-01

    Epitaxially grown GaN by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on SiC were implanted with 100 keV Si + (for n-type) and 80 keV Mg + (for p-type) with various fluences from 1 x 10 12 to 7 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 at liquid nitrogen temperature (LT), room temperature (RT), and 700 C (HT). High temperature (1,200 C and 1,500 C) annealing was carried out after capping the GaN with epitaxial AlN by MOCVD to study damage recovery. Samples were capped by a layer of AlN in order to protect the GaN surface during annealing. Effects of implant temperature, damage and dopant activation are critically studied to evaluate a role of ion implantation in doping of GaN. The damage was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channeling, spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence. Results show dependence of radiation damage level on temperature of the substrate during implantation: implantations at elevated temperatures up to 550 C decrease the lattice disorder; hot implants above 550 C can not be useful in doping of GaN due to nitrogen loss from the surface. SE measurements have indicated very high sensitivity to the implantation damage. PL measurements at LT of 80 keV Mg + (5 x 10 14 cm 2 ) implanted and annealed GaN showed two peaks: one ∼ 100 meV and another ∼ 140 meV away from the band edge

  7. One unit-cell seed layer induced epitaxial growth of heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T L; Hirose, Y; Hitosugi, T; Hasegawa, T [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: chen@ksp.or.jp

    2008-03-21

    We present a novel way to obtain heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films by using a solid-state nitrogen source. Epitaxial growth of the films was realized by introducing one unit-cell seed layer, which was indicated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction as intensity oscillation. Results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the films were in the anatase phase heavily doped with nitrogen of {approx}15 at%. The films obtained exhibited considerable narrowing of the optical bandgap, resulting in an enhancement of absorption in the visible-light region. (fast track communication)

  8. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy of antiphase boundaries in epitaxially grown GaP layers on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohl, Christopher; Lenz, Andrea, E-mail: alenz@physik.tu-berlin.de [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Döscher, Henning; Kleinschmidt, Peter; Hannappel, Thomas [Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    In a fundamental cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy investigation on epitaxially grown GaP layers on a Si(001) substrate, differently oriented antiphase boundaries are studied. They can be identified by a specific contrast and by surface step edges starting/ending at the position of an antiphase boundary. Moreover, a change in the atomic position of P and Ga atoms along the direction of growth is observed in agreement with the structure model of antiphase boundaries in the GaP lattice. This investigation opens the perspective to reveal the orientation and position of the antiphase boundaries at the atomic scale due to the excellent surface sensitivity of this method.

  9. Selective growth of Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on patterned SiO2/Si substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Wakana; Washizu, Tomoya; Ike, Shinichi; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the selective growth of a Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on a line/space-patterned SiO2/Si substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. We examined the behavior of a Sn precursor of tributyl(vinyl)tin (TBVSn) during the growth on Si and SiO2 substrates and investigated the effect of the Sn precursor on the selective growth. The selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer was performed under various total pressures and growth temperatures of 300 and 350 °C. The selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on the patterned Si region is achieved at a low total pressure without Ge1- x Sn x growth on the SiO2 region. In addition, we found that the Sn content in the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer increases with width of the SiO2 region for a fixed Si width even with low total pressure. To control the Sn content in the selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer, it is important to suppress the decomposition and migration of Sn and Ge precursors.

  10. Epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Walt A.; Berger, Claire; Wu, Xiaosong; First, Phillip N.; Conrad, Edward H.; Li, Xuebin; Li, Tianbo; Sprinkle, Michael; Hass, Joanna; Sadowski, Marcin L.; Potemski, Marek; Martinez, Gérard

    2007-07-01

    Graphene multilayers are grown epitaxially on single crystal silicon carbide. This system is composed of several graphene layers of which the first layer is electron doped due to the built-in electric field and the other layers are essentially undoped. Unlike graphite the charge carriers show Dirac particle properties (i.e. an anomalous Berry's phase, weak anti-localization and square root field dependence of the Landau level energies). Epitaxial graphene shows quasi-ballistic transport and long coherence lengths; properties that may persist above cryogenic temperatures. Paradoxically, in contrast to exfoliated graphene, the quantum Hall effect is not observed in high-mobility epitaxial graphene. It appears that the effect is suppressed due to the absence of localized states in the bulk of the material. Epitaxial graphene can be patterned using standard lithography methods and characterized using a wide array of techniques. These favorable features indicate that interconnected room temperature ballistic devices may be feasible for low-dissipation high-speed nanoelectronics.

  11. Demonstration of high-responsivity epitaxial β-Ga2O3/GaN metal–heterojunction-metal broadband UV-A/UV-C detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Anisha; Vura, Sandeep; Rathkanthiwar, Shashwat; Muralidharan, Rangarajan; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Nath, Digbijoy N.

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate epitaxial β-Ga2O3/GaN-based vertical metal–heterojunction-metal (MHM) broadband UV-A/UV-C photodetectors with high responsivity (3.7 A/W) at 256 and 365 nm, UV-to-visible rejection >103, and a photo-to-dark current ratio of ∼100. A small (large) conduction (valence) band offset at the heterojunction of pulsed laser deposition (PLD)-grown β-Ga2O3 on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-grown GaN-on-silicon with epitaxial registry, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) azimuthal scanning, is exploited to realize detectors with an asymmetric photoresponse and is explained with one-dimensional (1D) band diagram simulations. The demonstrated novel vertical MHM detectors on silicon are fully scalable and promising for enabling focal plane arrays for broadband ultraviolet sensing.

  12. Density of bunched threading dislocations in epitaxial GaN layers as determined using X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchuk, M.; Holý, V.; Rafaja, D.

    2018-04-01

    X-ray diffraction is one of the most popular experimental methods employed for determination of dislocation densities, as it can recognize both the strain fields and the local lattice rotations produced by dislocations. The main challenge of the quantitative analysis of the dislocation density is the formulation of a suitable microstructure model, which describes the dislocation arrangement and the effect of the interactions between the strain fields from neighboring dislocations reliably in order to be able to determine the dislocation densities precisely. The aim of this study is to prove the capability of X-ray diffraction and two computational methods, which are frequently used for quantification of the threading dislocation densities from X-ray diffraction measurements, in the special case of partially bunched threading dislocations. The first method is based on the analysis of the dislocation-controlled crystal mosaicity, and the other one on the analysis of diffuse X-ray scattering from threading dislocations. The complementarity of both methods is discussed. Furthermore, it is shown how the complementarity of these methods can be used to improve the results of the quantitative analysis of bunched and thus inhomogeneously distributed threading dislocations and to get a better insight into the dislocation arrangement.

  13. Schottky barriers based on metal nanoparticles deposited on InP epitaxial layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grym, Jan; Yatskiv, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2013) ISSN 0268-1242 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12014 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Colloidal graphite * Epitaxial growth * Schottky barrier diodes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.206, year: 2013

  14. Self-assembled growth and structural analysis of inclined GaN nanorods on nanoimprinted m-sapphire using catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyuseung; Chae, Sooryong; Jang, Jongjin; Min, Daehong; Kim, Jaehwan; Nam, Okhyun, E-mail: ohnam@kpu.ac.kr [Convergence Center for Advanced Nano Semiconductor (CANS), Department of Nano-Optical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung, 15073 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In this study, self-assembled inclined (1-10-3)-oriented GaN nanorods (NRs) were grown on nanoimprinted (10-10) m-sapphire substrates using catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. According to X-ray phi-scans, the inclined GaN NRs were tilted at an angle of ∼57.5° to the [10-10]{sub sapp} direction. Specifically, the GaN NRs grew in a single inclined direction to the [11-20]{sub sapp}. Uni-directionally inclined NRs were formed through the one-sided (10-11)-faceted growth of the interfacial a-GaN plane layer. It was confirmed that a thin layer of a-GaN was formed on r-facet nanogrooves of the m-sapphire substrate by nitridation. The interfacial a-GaN nucleation affected both the inclined angle and the growth direction of the inclined GaN NRs. Using X-ray diffraction and selective area electron diffraction, the epitaxial relationship between the inclined (1-10-3) GaN NRs and interfacial a-GaN layer on m-sapphire substrates was systematically investigated. Moreover, the inclined GaN NRs were observed to be mostly free of stacking fault-related defects using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  15. Electronic Transport Mechanism for Schottky Diodes Formed by Au/HVPE a-Plane GaN Templates Grown via In Situ GaN Nanodot Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonsang Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the electrical characteristics of Schottky contacts for an Au/hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE a-plane GaN template grown via in situ GaN nanodot formation. Although the Schottky diodes present excellent rectifying characteristics, their Schottky barrier height and ideality factor are highly dependent upon temperature variation. The relationship between the barrier height, ideality factor, and conventional Richardson plot reveals that the Schottky diodes exhibit an inhomogeneous barrier height, attributed to the interface states between the metal and a-plane GaN film and to point defects within the a-plane GaN layers grown via in situ nanodot formation. Also, we confirm that the current transport mechanism of HVPE a-plane GaN Schottky diodes grown via in situ nanodot formation prefers a thermionic field emission model rather than a thermionic emission (TE one, implying that Poole–Frenkel emission dominates the conduction mechanism over the entire range of measured temperatures. The deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS results prove the presence of noninteracting point-defect-assisted tunneling, which plays an important role in the transport mechanism. These electrical characteristics indicate that this method possesses a great throughput advantage for various applications, compared with Schottky contact to a-plane GaN grown using other methods. We expect that HVPE a-plane GaN Schottky diodes supported by in situ nanodot formation will open further opportunities for the development of nonpolar GaN-based high-performance devices.

  16. Texture and microstructure analysis of epitaxial oxide layers prepared on textured Ni-12wt%Cr tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huehne, R; Kursumovic, A; Tomov, R I; Glowacki, B A [Department of Materials Science and IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Holzapfel, B [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Evetts, J E [Department of Materials Science and IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-07

    Oxide layers for the preparation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} coated conductors were grown on highly textured Ni-12wt%Cr tapes in pure oxygen using surface oxidation epitaxy at temperatures between 1000 deg. C and 1300 deg. C. Microstructural investigations revealed a layered oxide structure. The upper layer consists mainly of dense cube textured NiO. This is followed by a porous layer containing NiO and NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. A detailed texture analysis showed a cube-on-cube relationship of the NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel to the metal substrate. Untextured Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in a nickel matrix were found in a third layer arising from internal oxidation of the alloy. A high surface roughness and mechanical instability of the oxide were observed, depending on oxidation temperature and film thickness. However, mechanically stable oxide layers have been prepared using an additional annealing step in a protective atmosphere. Additionally, mechanical polishing or a second buffer layer, which grows with a higher smoothness, may be applied to reduce the surface roughness for coated conductor applications.

  17. Continuous growth of low-temperature Si epitaxial layer with heavy phosphorous and boron doping using photoepitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Minakata, H.; Ito, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors grew p + -n + silicon epitaxial layers, heavily doped with phosphorus and boron, continuously at 650 degrees C using low-temperature photoepitaxy. Then N + photoepitaxial layer with a phosphorus concentration above 10 17 cm -3 grown on p - substrate shows high-density surface pits, and as a result, poor crystal quality. However, when this n + photoepitaxial layer is grown continuously on a heavily boron-doped p + photoepitaxial layer, these surface pits are drastically decreased, disappearing completely above a hole concentration of 10 19 cm -3 in the p + photoepitaxial layer. The phosphorus activation ratio and electron Hall mobility in the heavily phosphorus-doped n + photoexpitaxial layer were also greatly improved. The authors investigated the cause of the surface pitting using a scanning transmission electron microscope, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. They characterized the precipitation of phosphorus atoms on the crystal surface at the initial stage of the heavily phosphorus-doped n + photoexpitaxial layer growth

  18. Vertical current-flow enhancement via fabrication of GaN nanorod p–n junction diode on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Sung Ryong; Ram, S.D. Gopal; Lee, Seung Joo; Cho, Hak-dong; Lee, Sejoon; Kang, Tae Won; Kwon, Sangwoo; Yang, Woochul; Shin, Sunhye; Woo, Yongdeuk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniaxial p–n junction diode in GaN nanorod is made by Hydride vapor phase epitaxy method. • The p–n junction diode property is clearly observed from the fabricated uniaxial p–n junction nanorod GaN nanorod. • Graphene is used as a current spreading layer to reduce the lateral resistance up to 700 times when compared with the commercial sapphire substrate, which is clearly explained with the aid of an equivalent circuit. • Kelvin Force Probe microscopy method is employed to visualize the p- and n- regions in a single GaN nanorod. - Abstract: Mg doped GaN nanorods were grown on undoped n-type GaN nanorods uniaxial on monolayer graphene by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method. The monolayer graphene used as the bottom electrode and a substrate as well provides good electrical contact, acts as a current spreading layer, well suitable for the growth of hexagonal GaN nanorod. In addition it has a work function suitable to that of n-GaN. The formed p–n nanorods show a Schottky behavior with a turn on voltage of 3 V. Using graphene as the substrate, the resistance of the nanorod is reduced by 700 times when compared with the case without using graphene as the current spreading layer. The low resistance of graphene acts in parallel with the resistance of the GaN buffer layer, and reduces the resistance drastically. The formed p–n junction in a single GaN nanorod is visualized by Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy (KPFM) to have distinctively contrast p and n regions. The measured contact potential difference of p-and n-region has a difference of 103 mV which well confirms the formed regions are electronically different. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra give evidence of dopant related acceptor bound emission at 3.2 eV different from 3.4 eV of undoped GaN. The crystalline structure, compositional purity is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission and Scanning electron microcopies (SEM), (TEM), Energy dispersive analysis

  19. Vertical current-flow enhancement via fabrication of GaN nanorod p–n junction diode on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sung Ryong [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University-Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Department of physics, Dongguk University, Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Ram, S.D. Gopal; Lee, Seung Joo; Cho, Hak-dong; Lee, Sejoon [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University-Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Won, E-mail: twkang@dongguk.edu [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University-Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Clean Energy and Nano Convergence Centre, Hindustan University, Chennai 600 016 (India); Kwon, Sangwoo; Yang, Woochul [Department of physics, Dongguk University, Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sunhye [Soft-Epi Inc., 240 Opo-ro, Opo-eup, Gwangju-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Yongdeuk [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Woosuk University, Chonbuk 565-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Uniaxial p–n junction diode in GaN nanorod is made by Hydride vapor phase epitaxy method. • The p–n junction diode property is clearly observed from the fabricated uniaxial p–n junction nanorod GaN nanorod. • Graphene is used as a current spreading layer to reduce the lateral resistance up to 700 times when compared with the commercial sapphire substrate, which is clearly explained with the aid of an equivalent circuit. • Kelvin Force Probe microscopy method is employed to visualize the p- and n- regions in a single GaN nanorod. - Abstract: Mg doped GaN nanorods were grown on undoped n-type GaN nanorods uniaxial on monolayer graphene by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method. The monolayer graphene used as the bottom electrode and a substrate as well provides good electrical contact, acts as a current spreading layer, well suitable for the growth of hexagonal GaN nanorod. In addition it has a work function suitable to that of n-GaN. The formed p–n nanorods show a Schottky behavior with a turn on voltage of 3 V. Using graphene as the substrate, the resistance of the nanorod is reduced by 700 times when compared with the case without using graphene as the current spreading layer. The low resistance of graphene acts in parallel with the resistance of the GaN buffer layer, and reduces the resistance drastically. The formed p–n junction in a single GaN nanorod is visualized by Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy (KPFM) to have distinctively contrast p and n regions. The measured contact potential difference of p-and n-region has a difference of 103 mV which well confirms the formed regions are electronically different. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra give evidence of dopant related acceptor bound emission at 3.2 eV different from 3.4 eV of undoped GaN. The crystalline structure, compositional purity is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission and Scanning electron microcopies (SEM), (TEM), Energy dispersive analysis

  20. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Qingxue; Liu, Rong; Xiao, Hongdi; Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GaN film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer was etched by electrochemical etching. • Vertically aligned nanopores in n-GaN films were buried underneath the InGaN/GaN structures. • The relaxation of compressive stress in the MQW structure was found by PL and Raman spectra. - Abstract: A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  1. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qingxue [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Liu, Rong [Department of Fundamental Theories, Shandong Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Jinan 250063 (China); Xiao, Hongdi, E-mail: hdxiao@sdu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • GaN film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer was etched by electrochemical etching. • Vertically aligned nanopores in n-GaN films were buried underneath the InGaN/GaN structures. • The relaxation of compressive stress in the MQW structure was found by PL and Raman spectra. - Abstract: A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  2. Growth of β-FeSi2 layers on Si (111) by solid phase and reactive deposition epitaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miquita, D.R.; Paniago, R.; Rodrigues, W.N.; Moreira, M.V.B.; Pfannes, H.-D.; Oliveira, A.G. de

    2005-01-01

    Iron silicides were grown on Si (111) substrates by Solid Phase Epitaxy (SPE) and Reactive Deposition Epitaxy (RDE) to identify the optimum conditions to obtain the semiconducting β-FeSi 2 phase. The films were produced under different growth and annealing conditions and analyzed in situ and ex situ by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and ex situ by Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The use of these techniques allowed the investigation of different depth regions of the grown layer. Films of the ε-FeSi and β-FeSi 2 phases were obtained as well as the mixtures Fe 3 Si + ε-FeSi and ε-FeSi + β-FeSi 2 . The sequence Fe 3 Si→ε-FeSi→β-FeSi 2 was found upon annealing, where the phase transformation occurred due to the migration of silicon atoms from the substrate to the surface region of the grown layer. The best conditions for the phase transformation in SPE samples were met after annealing in the range 700 - 800 deg. C. For the RDE samples, the transition to the beta phase occurred between 600 and 700 deg. C, but pure β-FeSi 2 was obtained only after two hours of annealing at 700 deg. C

  3. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of GaSb layers on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanbo; Zhang Yang; Zhang Yuwei; Wang Baoqiang; Zhu Zhanping; Zeng Yiping

    2012-01-01

    We report on the growth of GaSb layers on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We investigate the influence of the GaAs substrate surface treatment, growth temperature, and V/III flux ratios on the crystal quality and the surface morphology of GaSb epilayers. Comparing to Ga-rich GaAs surface preparation, the Sb-rich GaAs surface preparation can promote the growth of higher-quality GaSb material. It is found that the crystal quality, electrical properties, and surface morphology of the GaSb epilayers are highly dependent on the growth temperature, and Sb/Ga flux ratios. Under the optimized growth conditions, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of high quality GaSb layers on GaAs substrates. The p-type nature of the unintentionally doped GaSb is studied and from the growth conditions dependence of the hole concentrations of the GaSb, we deduce that the main native acceptor in the GaSb is the Ga antisite (Ga Sb ) defect.

  4. Single layers and multilayers of GaN and AlN in square-octagon structure: Stability, electronic properties, and functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, E.; Cahangirov, S.; Durgun, E.; Ciraci, S.

    2017-11-01

    Further to planar single-layer hexagonal structures, GaN and AlN can also form free-standing, single-layer structures constructed from squares and octagons. We performed an extensive analysis of dynamical and thermal stability of these structures in terms of ab initio finite-temperature molecular dynamics and phonon calculations together with the analysis of Raman and infrared active modes. These single-layer square-octagon structures of GaN and AlN display directional mechanical properties and have wide, indirect fundamental band gaps, which are smaller than their hexagonal counterparts. These density functional theory band gaps, however, increase and become wider upon correction. Under uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain, the fundamental band gaps decrease and can be closed. The electronic and magnetic properties of these single-layer structures can be modified by adsorption of various adatoms, or by creating neutral cation-anion vacancies. The single-layer structures attain magnetic moment by selected adatoms and neutral vacancies. In particular, localized gap states are strongly dependent on the type of vacancy. The energetics, binding, and resulting electronic structure of bilayer, trilayer, and three-dimensional (3D) layered structures constructed by stacking the single layers are affected by vertical chemical bonds between adjacent layers. In addition to van der Waals interaction, these weak vertical bonds induce buckling in planar geometry and enhance their binding, leading to the formation of stable 3D layered structures. In this respect, these multilayers are intermediate between van der Waals solids and wurtzite crystals, offering a wide range of tunability.

  5. Improved crystalline quality of AlN epitaxial layer on sapphire by introducing TMGa pulse flow into the nucleation stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hualong; Wang, Hailong; Chen, Yingda; Zhang, Lingxia; Chen, Zimin; Wu, Zhisheng; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hao

    2018-05-01

    The crystalline quality of AlN epitaxial layers on sapphire substrates was improved by introducing trimethylgallium (TMGa) pulse flow into the growth of AlN nucleation layers. It was found that the density of both screw- and edge-type threading dislocations could be significantly reduced by introducing the TMGa pulse flow. With increasing TMGa pulse flow times, the lateral correlation length (i.e. the grain size) increases and the strain in the AlN epilayers changes from tensile state to compressive state. Unstrained AlN with the least dislocations and a smooth surface was obtained by introducing 2-times TMGa pulse flow. The crystalline improvement is attributed to enhanced lateral growth and improved crystalline orientation by the TMGa pulse flow.

  6. Far-infrared phonon spectroscopy of Pb1-xMn xTe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romcevic, N.; Nadolny, A.J.; Romcevic, M.; Story, T.; Taliashvili, B.; Milutinovic, A.; Trajic, J.; Lusakowska, E.; Vasiljevic-Radovic, D.; Domukhovski, V.; Osinniy, V.; Hadzic, B.; Dziawa, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we used far-infrared spectroscopy, reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate structural and optical properties of Pb 1-x Mn x Te layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A numerical model for calculating the reflectivity coefficient for complex systems which include films, buffer layer and substrate has been applied. The infrared reflectivity spectra consist of Pb 1-x Mn x Te phonons, which exhibit intermediate one-two mode behavior, and MnTe phonons. A good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra is achieved. We registered the local distribution of Mn impurities depending on substrate type. For films growth on BaF 2 substrate we registered the orthorhombic local structure of MnTe clusters, while in the case of KCl substrate this structure is cubic. The Pb 1-x Mn x Te long wavelength optical phonons were described by the modified Genzel's model

  7. Impact of rare earth elements on the properties of InP-based epitaxial layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Olga; Grym, Jan; Zavadil, Jiří; Žďánský, Karel; Kopecká, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2005), s. 187-187 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemických spoločností /57./. Tatranské Matliare, 04.09.2005-08.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/03/0379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : epitaxial growth * semiconductors * rare earth compounds Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. Thin film evolution equations from (evaporating) dewetting liquid layers to epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, U

    2010-01-01

    In the present contribution we review basic mathematical results for three physical systems involving self-organizing solid or liquid films at solid surfaces. The films may undergo a structuring process by dewetting, evaporation/condensation or epitaxial growth, respectively. We highlight similarities and differences of the three systems based on the observation that in certain limits all of them may be described using models of similar form, i.e. time evolution equations for the film thickness profile. Those equations represent gradient dynamics characterized by mobility functions and an underlying energy functional. Two basic steps of mathematical analysis are used to compare the different systems. First, we discuss the linear stability of homogeneous steady states, i.e. flat films, and second the systematics of non-trivial steady states, i.e. drop/hole states for dewetting films and quantum-dot states in epitaxial growth, respectively. Our aim is to illustrate that the underlying solution structure might be very complex as in the case of epitaxial growth but can be better understood when comparing the much simpler results for the dewetting liquid film. We furthermore show that the numerical continuation techniques employed can shed some light on this structure in a more convenient way than time-stepping methods. Finally we discuss that the usage of the employed general formulation does not only relate seemingly unrelated physical systems mathematically, but does allow as well for discussing model extensions in a more unified way.

  9. Formation of gallium nitride templates and freestanding substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy for homoepitaxial growth of III-nitride devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Adrian Daniel

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a direct wide band gap semiconductor currently under heavy development worldwide due to interest in its applications in ultra-violet optoelectronics, power electronics, devices operating in harsh environments (high temperature or corrorsive), etc. While a number of devices have been demonstrated with this material and its related alloys, the unavailability of GaN substrates is seen as one of the current major bottlenecks to both material quality and device performance. This dissertation is concerned with the synthesis of high quality GaN substrates by the hydride vapor phase epitaxy method (HVPE). In this work, the flow of growth precursors in a home-built HVPE reactor was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equation and solved by finite element analysis to promote uniformity of GaN on 2'' sapphire substrates. Kinetics of growth was studied and various regimes of growth were identified to establish a methodology for HVPE GaN growth, independent of reactor geometry. GaN templates as well as bulk substrates were fabricated in this work. Realization of freestanding GaN substrates was achieved through discovery of a natural stress-induced method of separating bulk GaN from sapphire via mechanical failure of a low-temperature GaN buffer layer. Such a process eliminates the need for pre- or post-processing of sapphire substrates, as is currently the standard. Stress in GaN-on-sapphire is discussed, with the dominant contributor identified as thermal stress due to thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the two materials. This thermal stress is analyzed using Stoney's equation and conditions for crack-free growth of thick GaN substrates were identified. An etch-back process for planarizing GaN templates was also developed and successfully applied to rough GaN templates. The planarization of GaN has been mainly addressed by chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) methods in the literature, with notable shortcomings including the inability to effectively

  10. Fabrication of SGOI material by oxidation of an epitaxial SiGe layer on an SOI wafer with H ions implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xinli; Chen Zhijun; Wang Yongjin; Jin Bo; Zhang Feng; Zou Shichang

    2005-01-01

    SGOI materials were fabricated by thermal dry oxidation of epitaxial H-ion implanted SiGe layers on SOI wafers. The hydrogen implantation was found to delay the oxidation rate of SiGe layer and to decrease the loss of Ge atoms during oxidation. Further, the H implantation did not degrade the crystallinity of SiGe layer during fabrication of the SGOI

  11. Ln{sup 3+}:KLu(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}/KLu(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, O.; Pujol, M.C.; Sole, R.; Bolanos, W.; Carvajal, J.J.; Massons, J.; Aguilo, M. [Fisica i Cristal.lografia de Materials (FiCMA), Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades c/Marcel.li Domingo, s/n E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Diaz, F. [Fisica i Cristal.lografia de Materials (FiCMA), Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades c/Marcel.li Domingo, s/n E-43007 Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: f.diaz@urv.cat

    2008-01-15

    Monoclinic epitaxial layers of single doped KLu{sub 1-x}Ln{sub x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} (Ln{sup 3+} = Yb{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) have been grown on optically passive KLuW substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique using K{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} as solvent. The ytterbium content in the layer is in the range of 0.05 < x < 0.75 atomic substitution and the studied thulium concentrations are 0.05 < x < 0.10. The grown epitaxies are free of macroscopic defects and only in highly ytterbium-doped epilayers do some cracks or inclusions appear. The refractive indices of the epilayers were determined. The absorption and emission cross sections of ytterbium and thulium in KLuW are characterised and laser generation results are presented and discussed.

  12. Influence of a deep-level-defect band formed in a heavily Mg-doped GaN contact layer on the Ni/Au contact to p-GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Jing; Zhao De-Gang; Jiang De-Sheng; Chen Ping; Zhu Jian-Jun; Liu Zong-Shun; Yang Jing; He Xiao-Guang; Yang Hui; Zhang Li-Qun; Zhang Shu-Ming; Le Ling-Cong; Liu Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The influence of a deep-level-defect (DLD) band formed in a heavily Mg-doped GaN contact layer on the performance of Ni/Au contact to p-GaN is investigated. The thin heavily Mg-doped GaN (p ++ -GaN) contact layer with DLD band can effectively improve the performance of Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-GaN. The temperature-dependent I–V measurement shows that the variable-range hopping (VRH) transportation through the DLD band plays a dominant role in the ohmic contact. The thickness and Mg/Ga flow ratio of p ++ -GaN contact layer have a significant effect on ohmic contact by controlling the Mg impurity doping and the formation of a proper DLD band. When the thickness of the p ++ -GaN contact layer is 25 nm thick and the Mg/Ga flow rate ratio is 10.29%, an ohmic contact with low specific contact resistivity of 6.97× 10 −4 Ω·cm 2 is achieved. (paper)

  13. Epitaxial growth of matched metallic ErP0.6As0.4 layers on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guivarc'h, A.; Le Corre, A.; Gaulet, J.; Guenais, B.; Minier, M.; Ropars, G.; Badoz, P.A.; Duboz, J.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Successful growth of (001)ErP 0.6 As 0.4 single crystal film on (001) GaAs has been demonstrated. The epitaxial metallic layers reproducibly showed lattice mismatch below 5 10 -4 . This is, to the authors' knowledge, the first report of a stable, epitaxial and lattice-matched metal/compound semiconductor heterostructure. The ErP 0.6 As 0.4 /n-GaAs diodes yielded excellent I-V characteristics with an ideality factor of 1.1 and barrier height of 0.88 eV. For a 240 Angstrom- thick film, metallic behavior was observed with resistivities of 25 and 86 μΩcm at 1.5 K and room temperature, respectively. As the other Er compounds ErP, ErAs, ErSb and ErSi 2 , ErP 0.6 As 0.4 presents an abrupt drop in resistivity in the vicinity of the liquid helium temperature, due to a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase transition

  14. Epitaxial AlN layers on sapphire and diamond; Epitaktische AlN-Schichten auf Saphir und Diamant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Martin

    2009-04-27

    In this work, epitaxial AlN layers deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire and diamond substrates were investigated. Starting from this AlN, the dopant silicon was added. The influence of the silicon doping on the structural properties of the host AlN crystal was investigated using high resolution X-ray diffraction. Once the silicon concentration exceeds 1 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, a significant change of the AlN:Si crystal can be observed: increasing the silicon concentration up to 5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} results in a decrease of the a lattice parameter by approximately 1.2 pm and an increase of the c lattice parameter by about 1.0 pm. The crystal is stressed additionally by adding silicon resulting in a increase of the biaxial compressive stress of up to 2.0 GPa. Further increase of the silicon concentration leads to lattice relaxation. This result from X-ray diffraction was independently confirmed by Raman spectroscopy investigations. Further increase of the silicon concentration leads to the generation of polycrystalline phases within the epitaxial layer. XTEM measurements detected these polycrystalline phases. In addition, XTEM investigations confirmed also the increase of the lateral crystal size with increasing silicon concentration, as well as a great reduction of the screw dislocation density by more than one order of magnitude as found by X-ray diffraction: in undoped, nitrogen rich grown AlN layers the screw dislocation density is about 3 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2}, while AlN layers with a silicon concentration of 5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} show a screw dislocation density of only 1 x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -2}. In low-doped AlN:Si ([Si]{approx}2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}) the activation energy of the electronic conductivity is about 250 meV. Increasing the silicon concentration to about 1 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} leads to an increase of the activation energy up to more than 500 meV in the now much more stressed AlN:Si epilayer. Studies of the absorption

  15. Proton irradiation effects on deep level states in Mg-doped p-type GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Kyle, E. C. H.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Speck, J. S.; Ringel, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of proton irradiation on the deep level states throughout the Mg-doped p-type GaN bandgap is investigated using deep level transient and optical spectroscopies. Exposure to 1.8 MeV protons of 1 × 1013 cm-2 and 3 × 1013 cm-2 fluences not only introduces a trap with an EV + 1.02 eV activation energy but also brings monotonic increases in concentration for as-grown deep states at EV + 0.48 eV, EV + 2.42 eV, EV + 3.00 eV, and EV + 3.28 eV. The non-uniform sensitivities for individual states suggest different physical sources and/or defect generation mechanisms. Comparing with prior theoretical calculations reveals that several traps are consistent with associations to nitrogen vacancy, nitrogen interstitial, and gallium vacancy origins, and thus are likely generated through displacing nitrogen and gallium atoms from the crystal lattice in proton irradiation environment.

  16. Dependence of N-polar GaN rod morphology on growth parameters during selective area growth by MOVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunfeng; Wang, Xue; Mohajerani, Matin Sadat; Fündling, Sönke; Erenburg, Milena; Wei, Jiandong; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas; Mandl, Martin; Bergbauer, Werner; Strassburg, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Selective area growth of GaN rods by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy has attracted great interest due to its novel applications in optoelectronic and photonics. In this work, we will present the dependence of GaN rod morphology on various growth parameters i.e. growth temperature, H2/N2 carrier gas concentration, V/III ratio, total carrier gas flow and reactor pressure. It is found that higher growth temperature helps to increase the aspect ratio of the rods, but reduces the height homogeneity. Furthermore, H2/N2 carrier gas concentration is found to be a critical factor to obtain vertical rod growth. Pure nitrogen carrier gas leads to irregular growth of GaN structure, while an increase of hydrogen carrier gas results in vertical GaN rod growth. Higher hydrogen carrier gas concentration also reduces the diameter and enhances the aspect of the GaN rods. Besides, increase of V/III ratio causes reduction of the aspect ratio of N-polar GaN rods, which could be explained by the relatively lower growth rate on (000-1) N-polar top surface when supplying more ammonia. In addition, an increase of the total carrier gas flow leads to a decrease in the diameter and the average volume of GaN rods. These phenomena are tentatively explained by the change of partial pressure of the source materials and boundary layer thickness in the reactor. Finally, it is shown that the average volume of the N-polar GaN rods keeps a similar value for a reactor pressure PR of 66 and 125 mbar, while an incomplete filling of the pattern opening is observed with PR of 250 mbar. Room temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the rods is also briefly discussed.

  17. Low temperature step-graded InAlAs/GaAs metamorphic buffer layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, X Z; Wu, S D; Liu, C; Wang, W X; Guo, L W; Huang, Q; Zhou, J M

    2006-01-01

    Low-temperature step-graded InAlAs metamorphic buffer layers on GaAs substrate grown by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The strain relaxation and the composition of the top InAlAs layer were determined by high-resolution triple-axis x-ray diffraction measurements, which show that the top InAlAs layer is nearly fully relaxed. Surface morphology was observed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern and atomic force microscopy. Under a selected range of growth parameters, the root mean square surface roughness of the sample grown at 380 deg. C is 0.802 nm, which has the smallest value compared with those of other samples. Furthermore, The ω-2θ and ω scans of the triple-axis x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence show the sample grown at 380 deg. C has better crystalline quality. With decreasing As overpressure at this growth temperature, crystalline quality became poor and could not maintain two dimensional growth with increasing overpressure. The carrier concentrations and Hall mobilities of the InAlAs/ InGaAs/GaAs MM-HEMT structure on low-temperature step-graded InAlAs metamorphic buffer layers grown in optimized conditions are high enough to make devices

  18. Plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy of N-polar InAlN-barrier High-electron-mobility Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Matthew T; Storm, David F; Katzer, D Scott; Downey, Brian P; Nepal, Neeraj; Meyer, David J

    2016-11-24

    Plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is well suited for the epitaxial growth of III-nitride thin films and heterostructures with smooth, abrupt interfaces required for high-quality high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). A procedure is presented for the growth of N-polar InAlN HEMTs, including wafer preparation and growth of buffer layers, the InAlN barrier layer, AlN and GaN interlayers and the GaN channel. Critical issues at each step of the process are identified, such as avoiding Ga accumulation in the GaN buffer, the role of temperature on InAlN compositional homogeneity, and the use of Ga flux during the AlN interlayer and the interrupt prior to GaN channel growth. Compositionally homogeneous N-polar InAlN thin films are demonstrated with surface root-mean-squared roughness as low as 0.19 nm and InAlN-based HEMT structures are reported having mobility as high as 1,750 cm 2 /V∙sec for devices with a sheet charge density of 1.7 x 10 13 cm -2 .

  19. Multiple defects in GaInN multiple quantum wells grown on ELO GaN layers and on GaN substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiya, S.; Goto, O.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Ikeda, M.

    2006-01-01

    A new type of structural defects was observed in GaInN multiple quantum well structures with higher In concentrations that were grown on low-threading-dislocation-density templates. The defects were investigated by using various kinds of transmission electron microscopy techniques, and were found to consist of planar defects and associated dislocations. The planar defects nucleate at the interfaces between the quantum well layers and barrier layers. The dislocations are created at the edge boundary of the planar defects and run almost along the c-axis towards the epi-surface. The planar defects are revealed to be inversion domains which are thought to be caused by the segregation of excess In-In bonds at the interface between the quantum well layer and the barrier layer. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Multiple defects in GaInN multiple quantum wells grown on ELO GaN layers and on GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomiya, S. [Materials Analysis Laboratory, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan); Goto, O.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Ikeda, M. [Shiroishi Laser Center, Semiconductor Laser Division, MSNC, Sony Corporation, Miyagi (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    A new type of structural defects was observed in GaInN multiple quantum well structures with higher In concentrations that were grown on low-threading-dislocation-density templates. The defects were investigated by using various kinds of transmission electron microscopy techniques, and were found to consist of planar defects and associated dislocations. The planar defects nucleate at the interfaces between the quantum well layers and barrier layers. The dislocations are created at the edge boundary of the planar defects and run almost along the c-axis towards the epi-surface. The planar defects are revealed to be inversion domains which are thought to be caused by the segregation of excess In-In bonds at the interface between the quantum well layer and the barrier layer. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. The trap states in lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE on a freestanding GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tetsuo; Tokuda, Yutaka; Kogiso, Tatsuya; Tomita, Kazuyoshi; Kachi, Tetsu

    2018-04-01

    We investigated traps in lightly Mg-doped (2 × 1017 cm-3) p-GaN fabricated by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on a freestanding GaN substrate and the subsequent post-growth annealing, using deep level transient spectroscopy. We identified four hole traps with energy levels of EV + 0.46, 0.88, 1.0, and 1.3 eV and one electron trap at EC - 0.57 eV in a p-type GaN layer uniformly doped with magnesium (Mg). The Arrhenius plot of hole traps with the highest concentration (˜3 × 1016 cm-3) located at EV + 0.88 eV corresponded to those of hole traps ascribed to carbon on nitrogen sites in n-type GaN samples grown by MOVPE. In fact, the range of the hole trap concentrations at EV + 0.88 eV was close to the carbon concentration detected by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Moreover, the electron trap at EC - 0.57 eV was also identical to the dominant electron traps commonly observed in n-type GaN. Together, these results suggest that the trap states in the lightly Mg-doped GaN grown by MOVPE show a strong similarity to those in n-type GaN, which can be explained by the Fermi level close to the conduction band minimum in pristine MOVPE grown samples due to existing residual donors and Mg-hydrogen complexes.

  2. Lattice defects in LPE InP-InGaAsP-InGaAs structure epitaxial layers on InP substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Taguchi, K.

    1982-01-01

    Lattice defects generated during LPE growth of InP-InGaAsP-InGaAs structure epitaxial layers on InP substrates are studied. Two different kinds of dislocations are observed at the two interfaces of the epitaxial layers; at the InP-InGaAsP interface, misfit dislocations are generated in the InP layer by carry over of InGaAsP melt into the InP one and at the InGaAs-InP interface, V-shaped dislocations are generated in the InGaAs layer. It is shown that the critical amount of lattice mismatch to suppress generation of misfit dislocations in InP is about two times smaller than that of other III-V compound semiconductors. Conditions to suppress the generation of these dislocations are clarified. (author)

  3. Structural, electrical and luminescent characteristics of ultraviolet light emitting structures grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Polyakov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and luminescent properties of near-UV light emitting diode structures (LEDs prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE were studied. Variations in photoluminescence and electroluminescence efficiency observed for LEDs grown under nominally similar conditions could be attributed to the difference in the structural quality (dislocation density, density of dislocations agglomerates of the GaN active layers, to the difference in strain relaxation achieved by growth of AlGaN/AlGaN superlattice and to the presence of current leakage channels in current confining AlGaN layers of the double heterostructure.

  4. Surface morphology of homoepitaxial GaN grown on non- and semipolar GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Tim; Ploch, Simon [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, Veit; Knauer, Arne; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    GaN layers on bulk m-plane, (11 anti 22), (10 anti 12) and (10 anti 11) GaN substrates were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. XRD rocking curves have a FWHM of less than 150'', indicating excellent crystalline quality. However in many cases surface morphology exhibits hillocks with a height of 1-2 {mu}m and a lateral extension of 50-200 {mu}m whereas a smooth surface would be desirable for optoelectronic devices. The influence of growth parameters on the surface morphology was studied. The goal was, to constrain the material redistribution, that is necessary to form large hillocks. This was achieved by lowering the adatom diffusion length by a reduction of temperature and an increased reactor pressure. In the case of the (10 anti 11) and (10 anti 12) semipolar planes a reduction of the adatom diffusion length leads to a reduction of hillock density, hillock size and a smoother surface between hillocks. However, the m-plane surface does not react to a reduction of adatom mobility. Even at 890 C and 400 mbar rectangular pyramids cover the surface. In contrast to the other planes, the (11 anti 22) becomes instable, when the adatom diffusion length is reduced. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Structural and optical properties of GaxIn1-xP layers grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Tae-Yeon; Yang, Jung-Ja; Ryu, Mee Yi; Song, Jong-In; Yu, Phil W.

    1998-05-01

    Chemical beam epitaxial (CBE) GaxIn1-xP layers (x≈0.5) grown on (001) GaAs substrates at temperatures ranging from 490 to 580°C have been investigated using transmission electron diffraction (TED), transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence (PL). TED examination revealed the presence of diffuse scattering 1/2{111}B positions, indicating the occurrence of typical CuPt-type ordering in the GaInP CBE layers. As the growth temperature decreased from 580 to 490°C, maxima in the intensity of the diffuse scattering moved from ½{111}B to ½{-1+δ,1-δ,0} positions, where δ is a positive value. As the growth temperature increased from 490 to 550°C, the maxima in the diffuse scattering intensity progressively approached positions of 1/2\\{bar 110\\} , i.e., the value of δ decreased from 0.25 to 0.17. Bandgap reduction (˜45 meV) was observed in the CBE GaInP layers and was attributed to the presence of ordered structures.

  6. Structural properties of relaxed thin film germanium layers grown by low temperature RF-PECVD epitaxy on Si and Ge (100) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, R., E-mail: romain.cariou@polytechnique.edu [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau (France); III-V lab a joint laboratory between Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs France, Thales Research and Technology and CEA-LETI, route de Nozay, 91460, Marcoussis, France. (France); Ruggeri, R. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau (France); CNR-IMM, strada VIII n°5, zona industriale, 95121, Catania (Italy); Tan, X.; Nassar, J.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau (France); Mannino, Giovanni [CNR-IMM, strada VIII n°5, zona industriale, 95121, Catania (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    We report on unusual low temperature (175 °C) heteroepitaxial growth of germanium thin films using a standard radio-frequency plasma process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal a perfect crystalline quality of epitaxial germanium layers on (100) c-Ge wafers. In addition direct germanium crystal growth is achieved on (100) c-Si, despite 4.2% lattice mismatch. Defects rising from Ge/Si interface are mostly located within the first tens of nanometers, and threading dislocation density (TDD) values as low as 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} are obtained. Misfit stress is released fast: residual strain of −0.4% is calculated from Moiré pattern analysis. Moreover we demonstrate a striking feature of low temperature plasma epitaxy, namely the fact that crystalline quality improves with thickness without epitaxy breakdown, as shown by TEM and depth profiling of surface TDD.

  7. Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical spectra of various ZnO epitaxial layers and of bulk material obtained by different experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priller, H.; Brueckner, J.; Klingshirn, C.; Kalt, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gruber, Th.; Waag, A. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Ko, H.J.; Yao, T. [Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2004-03-01

    We investigate ZnO epitaxial layers grown by MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy) and MOVPE (Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy) techniques. The samples show similar optical behavior in temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements, reflection and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy in the low density regime. High excitation measurements show different behavior. While the MBE sample leads to stimulated emission from the exciton-exciton-scattering, an electron hole plasma is formed in the MOVPE sample which leads to stimulated emission at higher excitation intensities. The gain value measured by the variable stripe length method is much higher for the MBE grown sample. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Growth of gallium nitride based devices on silicon(001) substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy; Wachstum von Galliumnitrid-basierten Bauelementen auf Silizium(001)-Substraten mittels metallorganischer Gasphasenepitaxie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiher, Fabian

    2009-02-25

    The main topic of this thesis is to investigate GaN-based layer systems grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on Si(001) substrates. A temperature shift up to 45 K is measured for a complete device structure on a 2-inch silicon substrate. By using a 40 nm thin LT-AlN-seed layer (680 C), the GaN crystallites on Si(001) substrates are almost oriented with their GaN(10 anti 12)-planes parallel to the Si(001)-plane. A four-fold azimuthal symmetry occurs for these layers, with the GaN[10 anti 11]-direction is aligned parallel to one of the four equivalent left angle 110 right angle -directions, respectively. However, a mono-crystalline and fully coalesced GaN-layer with this crystallographic orientation could not yet been obtained. If a deposition temperature of more than 1100 C is used for the AlN-seed layer, solely the GaN[0001]- growth direction of crystallites occurs in the main GaN layer on Si(001) substrates. These c-axis oriented GaN columns feature two opposite azimuthal alignments that are rotated by 90 with respect to each other and with GaN[11 anti 20] parallel Si[110] and GaN[10 anti 10] parallel Si[110], respectively. By using 4 off-oriented substrates towards the Si[110]-direction, one certain azimuthal texture component can be selected. The critical value of the miscut angle corresponds to theoretical calculations predicting the occurrence of atomic double steps on the Si(001) surface. The achieved crystallographic quality of the GaN layers on Si(001) is characterized by having a tilt of FWHM=0.27 and a twist of FWHM=0.8 of the crystallites, determined by X-ray diffraction. A completely crack-free, up to 2.5 {mu}m thick, and mono-crystalline GaN-template can be realized on Si(001), integrating 4 or 5 LT-AlN-interlayers in the GaN buffer structure. Based on this structure, the first successful implementation of an (InGaN/GaN)-LED on Si(001) is achieved. Furthermore, the possible fabrication of GaN-based FET-structures is demonstrated with a fully

  9. High optical and structural quality of GaN epilayers grown on ( 2¯01) β-Ga2O3

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila; Peres, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Morishima, Y.; Sato, S.; Franco, N.; Lorenz, K.; Kuramata, A.; Roqan, Iman S.

    2014-01-01

    Producing highly efficient GaN-based optoelectronic devices has been a challenge for a long time due to the large lattice mismatch between III-nitride materials and the most common substrates, which causes a high density of threading dislocations. Therefore, it is essential to obtain alternative substrates with small lattice mismatches, appropriate structural, thermal and electrical properties, and a competitive price. Our results show that (2̄01) oriented β-Ga2O3 has the potential to be used as a transparent and conductive substrate for GaN-growth. Photoluminescence spectra of thick GaN layers grown on (2̄01) oriented β-Ga 2O3 are found to be dominated by intense bandedge emission. Atomic force microscopy studies show a modest threading dislocation density of ∼108cm-2. X-ray diffraction studies show the high quality of the single-phase wurtzite GaN thin film on (2̄01) β-Ga2O3 with in-plane epitaxial orientation relationships between the β-Ga2O3 and the GaN thin film defined by (010) β-Ga2O3 || (112̄0) GaN and (2̄01) β-Ga2O3 || (0001) GaN leading to a lattice mismatch of ∼4.7%. Complementary Raman spectroscopy indicates that the quality of the GaN epilayer is high. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  10. High optical and structural quality of GaN epilayers grown on ( 2¯01) β-Ga2O3

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila

    2014-07-28

    Producing highly efficient GaN-based optoelectronic devices has been a challenge for a long time due to the large lattice mismatch between III-nitride materials and the most common substrates, which causes a high density of threading dislocations. Therefore, it is essential to obtain alternative substrates with small lattice mismatches, appropriate structural, thermal and electrical properties, and a competitive price. Our results show that (2̄01) oriented β-Ga2O3 has the potential to be used as a transparent and conductive substrate for GaN-growth. Photoluminescence spectra of thick GaN layers grown on (2̄01) oriented β-Ga 2O3 are found to be dominated by intense bandedge emission. Atomic force microscopy studies show a modest threading dislocation density of ∼108cm-2. X-ray diffraction studies show the high quality of the single-phase wurtzite GaN thin film on (2̄01) β-Ga2O3 with in-plane epitaxial orientation relationships between the β-Ga2O3 and the GaN thin film defined by (010) β-Ga2O3 || (112̄0) GaN and (2̄01) β-Ga2O3 || (0001) GaN leading to a lattice mismatch of ∼4.7%. Complementary Raman spectroscopy indicates that the quality of the GaN epilayer is high. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  11. Epitaxial growth of Co(0 0 0 1)hcp/Fe(1 1 0)bcc magnetic bi-layer films on SrTiO3(1 1 1) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru; Shikada, Kouhei; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2008-01-01

    Co(0 0 0 1) hcp /Fe(1 1 0) bcc epitaxial magnetic bi-layer films were successfully prepared on SrTiO 3 (1 1 1) substrates. The crystallographic properties of Co/Fe epitaxial magnetic bi-layer films were investigated. Fe(1 1 0) bcc soft magnetic layer grew epitaxially on SrTiO 3 (1 1 1) substrate with two type variants, Nishiyama-Wasserman and Kurdjumov-Sachs relationships. An hcp-Co single-crystal layer is obtained on Ru(0 0 0 1) hcp interlayer, while hcp-Co layer formed on Au(1 1 1) fcc or Ag(1 1 1) fcc interlayer is strained and may involve fcc-Co phase. It has been shown possible to prepare Co/Fe epitaxial magnetic bi-layer films which can be usable for patterned media application

  12. In-situ transport and microstructural evolution in GaN Schottky diodes and epilayers exposed to swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Singh, R.; Kumar, Parmod; Singh, Udai B.; Asokan, K.; Karaseov, Platon A.; Titov, Andrei I.; Kanjilal, D.

    2018-04-01

    A systematic investigation of radiation hardness of Schottky barrier diodes and GaN epitaxial layers is carried out by employing in-situ electrical resistivity and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) microstructure measurements. The change in the current transport mechanism of Au/n-GaN Schottky barrier diodes due to irradiation is reported. The role of irradiation temperature and ion type was also investigated. Creation of damage is studied in low and medium electron energy loss regimes by selecting different ions, Ag (200 MeV) and O (100 MeV) at various fluences at two irradiation temperatures (80 K and 300 K). GaN resistivity increases up to 6 orders of magnitude under heavy Ag ions. Light O ion irradiation has a much lower influence on sheet resistance. The presence of isolated defect clusters in irradiated GaN epilayers is evident in XTEM investigation which is explained on the basis of the thermal spike model.

  13. Multilayer porous structures of HVPE and MOCVD grown GaN for photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniste, T.; Ciers, Joachim; Monaico, Ed.; Martin, D.; Carlin, J.-F.; Ursaki, V. V.; Sergentu, V. V.; Tiginyanu, I. M.; Grandjean, N.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we report on a comparative study of electrochemical processes for the preparation of multilayer porous structures in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and metal organic chemical vapor phase deposition (MOCVD) grown GaN. It was found that in HVPE-grown GaN, multilayer porous structures are obtained due to self-organization processes leading to a fine modulation of doping during the crystal growth. However, these processes are not totally under control. Multilayer porous structures with a controlled design have been produced by optimizing the technological process of electrochemical etching in MOCVD-grown samples, consisting of five pairs of thin layers with alternating-doping profiles. The samples have been characterized by SEM imaging, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and micro-reflectivity measurements, accompanied by transfer matrix analysis and simulations by a method developed for the calculation of optical reflection spectra. We demonstrate the applicability of the produced structures for the design of Bragg reflectors.

  14. MOVPE growth of violet GaN LEDs on β-Ga2O3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ding; Hoffmann, Veit; Richter, Eberhard; Tessaro, Thomas; Galazka, Zbigniew; Weyers, Markus; Tränkle, Günther

    2017-11-01

    We report that a H2-free atmosphere is essential for the initial stage of metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of GaN on β-Ga2O3 to prevent the surface from damage. A simple growth method is proposed that can easily transfer established GaN growth recipes from sapphire to β-Ga2O3 with both (-2 0 1) and (1 0 0) orientations. This method features a thin AlN nucleation layer grown below 900 °C in N2 atmosphere to protect the surface of β-Ga2O3 from deterioration during further growth under the H2 atmosphere. Based on this, we demonstrate working violet vertical light emitting diodes (VLEDs) on n-conductive β-Ga2O3 substrates.

  15. van der Waals epitaxy of SnS film on single crystal graphene buffer layer on amorphous SiO2/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Yang, Yunbo; Guo, Fawen; Sun, Xin; Lu, Zonghuan; Mohanty, Dibyajyoti; Bhat, Ishwara; Washington, Morris; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wang, Gwo-Ching

    2018-03-01

    Conventional hetero-epitaxial films are typically grown on lattice and symmetry matched single crystal substrates. We demonstrated the epitaxial growth of orthorhombic SnS film (∼500 nm thick) on single crystal, monolayer graphene that was transferred on the amorphous SiO2/Si substrate. Using X-ray pole figure analysis we examined the structure, quality and epitaxy relationship of the SnS film grown on the single crystal graphene and compared it with the SnS film grown on commercial polycrystalline graphene. We showed that the SnS films grown on both single crystal and polycrystalline graphene have two sets of orientation domains. However, the crystallinity and grain size of the SnS film improve when grown on the single crystal graphene. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements show that the near surface texture has more phases as compared with that of the entire film. The surface texture of a film will influence the growth and quality of film grown on top of it as well as the interface formed. Our result offers an alternative approach to grow a hetero-epitaxial film on an amorphous substrate through a single crystal graphene buffer layer. This strategy of growing high quality epitaxial thin film has potential applications in optoelectronics.

  16. Bi-epitaxial tilted out-of-plane YBCO junctions on NdGaO{sub 3} substrates with YSZ seeding layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozhaev, P.B. (Institute of Physics and Technology RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Mozhaev, J.E.; Bindslev Hansen, J.; Jacobsen, C.S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Physics, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kotelyanskil, I.M.; Luzanov, V.A. (Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Benacka, S.; Strbik, V. (Institute of Electrical Engineering SAS, Bratislava (SK))

    2008-10-15

    Bi-epitaxial junctions with out-of plane tilt of the c axis were fabricated of YBCO superconducting thin films on NdGaO{sub 3} substrates with different miscut angles. Bi-epitaxial growth was provided by implementation of an Y:ZrO{sub 2} seeding layer on a certain part of the substrate. Junctions with different orientation of the bi-epitaxial boundaries were fabricated, their DC electrical properties were studied as a function of the boundary orientation angle. The junctions showed extremely high critical current densities for all tested miscut angles and bi-epitaxial boundary orientations (about 105 A/cm2 at 77 K and up to 106 A/cm2 at 4.2 K). The dependence of critical current density on the bi-epitaxial boundary orientation angle may be explained as an effect of a d-wave pairing mechanism in the HTSC with the simple Sigrist-Rice model. The studied boundaries may be considered as model structures for the grain boundaries in the coated conductors. (au)

  17. Characterization of crystallinity of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layers grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inuzuka, Yuki [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ike, Shinichi; Asano, Takanori [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Takeuchi, Wakana [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Nakatsuka, Osamu, E-mail: nakatuka@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Zaima, Shigeaki [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-03-01

    The epitaxial growth of a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer was examined using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with two types of Ge precursors; tetra-ethyl-germane (TEGe) and tertiary-butyl-germane (TBGe); and the Sn precursor tri-butyl-vinyl-tin (TBVSn). Though the growth of a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer on a Ge(001) substrate by MOCVD has been reported, a high-Sn-content Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer and the exploration of MO material combinations for Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} growth have not been reported. Therefore, the epitaxial growth of a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer on Ge(001) and Si(001) substrates was examined using these precursors. The Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers were pseudomorphically grown on a Ge(001) substrate, while the Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer with a high degree of strain relaxation was obtained on a Si(001) substrate. Additionally, it was found that the two Ge precursors have different growth temperature ranges, where the TBGe could realize a higher growth rate at a lower growth temperature than the TEGe. The Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers grown using a combination of TBGe and TBVSn exhibited a higher crystalline quality and a smoother surface compared with the Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layer prepared by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. In this study, a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layer with a Sn content as high as 5.1% on a Ge(001) substrate was achieved by MOCVD at 300 °C. - Highlights: • Tertiary-butyl-germane and tri-butyl-vinyl-tin are suitable for Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} MOCVD growth. • We achieved a Sn content of 5.1% in Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} epitaxial layer on Ge(001). • The Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} layers grown on Ge and Si by MOCVD have high crystalline quality.

  18. III-nitride integration on ferroelectric materials of lithium niobate by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Madison, Shannon M.; Henderson, Walter; Ralph, Stephen E.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2005-01-01

    Integration of III-nitride electrical devices on the ferroelectric material lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) has been demonstrated. As a ferroelectric material, lithium niobate has a polarization which may provide excellent control of the polarity of III-nitrides. However, while high temperature, 1000 deg. C, thermal treatments produce atomically smooth surfaces, improving adhesion of GaN epitaxial layers on lithium niobate, repolarization of the substrate in local domains occurs. These effects result in multi domains of mixed polarization in LiNbO 3 , producing inversion domains in subsequent GaN epilayers. However, it is found that AlN buffer layers suppress inversion domains of III-nitrides. Therefore, two-dimensional electron gases in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction structures are obtained. Herein, the demonstration of the monolithic integration of high power devices with ferroelectric materials presents possibilities to control LiNbO 3 modulators on compact optoelectronic/electronic chips

  19. Single-Crystal Y2O3 Epitaxially on GaAs(001 and (111 Using Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal atomic-layer-deposited (ALD Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\ films 2 nm thick were epitaxially grown on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE GaAs(001-4 \\(\\times\\ 6 and GaAs(111A-2 \\(\\times\\ 2 reconstructed surfaces. The in-plane epitaxy between the ALD-oxide films and GaAs was observed using \\textit{in-situ} reflection high-energy electron diffraction in our uniquely designed MBE/ALD multi-chamber system. More detailed studies on the crystallography of the hetero-structures were carried out using high-resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction. When deposited on GaAs(001, the Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\ films are of a cubic phase and have (110 as the film normal, with the orientation relationship being determined: Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\(\\(110\\[\\(001\\][\\(\\overline{1}10\\]//GaAs(\\(001\\[\\(110\\][\\(1\\overline{1}0\\]. On GaAs(\\(111\\A, the Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\ films are also of a cubic phase with (\\(111\\ as the film normal, having the orientation relationship of Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\(\\(111\\[\\(2\\overline{1}\\overline{1}\\] [\\(01\\overline{1}\\]//GaAs (\\(111\\ [\\(\\overline{2}11\\][\\(0\\overline{1}1\\]. The relevant orientation for the present/future integrated circuit platform is (\\(001\\. The ALD-Y\\(_{\\mathrm{2}}\\O\\(_{\\mathrm{3}}\\/GaAs(\\(001\\-4 \\(\\times\\ 6 has shown excellent electrical properties. These include small frequency dispersion in the capacitance-voltage CV curves at accumulation of ~7% and ~14% for the respective p- and n-type samples with the measured frequencies of 1 MHz to 100 Hz. The interfacial trap density (Dit is low of ~10\\(^{12}\\ cm\\(^{−2}\\eV\\(^{−1}\\ as extracted from measured quasi-static CVs. The frequency dispersion at accumulation and the D\\(_{it}\\ are the lowest ever achieved among all the ALD-oxides on GaAs(\\(001\\.

  20. Atomic-scale structure of irradiated GaN compared to amorphised GaP and GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgway, M.C.; Everett, S.E.; Glover, C.J.; Kluth, S.M.; Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Hussain, Z.S.; Llewellyn, D.J.; Foran, G.J.; Azevedo, G. de M.

    2006-01-01

    We have compared the atomic-scale structure of ion irradiated GaN to that of amorphised GaP and GaAs. While continuous and homogenous amorphised layers were easily achieved in GaP and GaAs, ion irradiation of GaN yielded both structural and chemical inhomogeneities. Transmission electron microscopy revealed GaN crystallites and N 2 bubbles were interspersed within an amorphous GaN matrix. The crystallite orientation was random relative to the unirradiated epitaxial structure, suggesting their formation was irradiation-induced, while the crystallite fraction was approximately constant for all ion fluences beyond the amorphisation threshold, consistent with a balance between amorphisation and recrystallisation processes. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements at the Ga K-edge showed short-range order was retained in the amorphous phase for all three binary compounds. For ion irradiated GaN, the stoichiometric imbalance due to N 2 bubble formation was not accommodated by Ga-Ga bonding in the amorphous phase or precipitation of metallic Ga but instead by a greater reduction in Ga coordination number

  1. Reduced-droop green III-nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Abdullah I.; Young, Erin C.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Albadri, Abdulrahman; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication of low-droop high-efficiency green c-plane light-emitting diodes (LEDs) utilizing GaN tunnel junction (TJ) contacts. The LED epitaxial layers with a top p-GaN layer were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and an n++-GaN layer was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy to form a TJ. The TJ LEDs were then compared with equivalent LEDs having a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) contact. The TJ LEDs exhibited a higher performance and a lower efficiency droop than did the ITO LEDs. At 35 A/cm2, the external quantum efficiencies for the TJ and ITO LEDs were 31.2 and 27%, respectively.

  2. The structural and optical properties of metal ion-implanted GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macková, A.; Malinský, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, České Mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Sofer, Z.; Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Veselý, M. [Dept. of Organic Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Böttger, R. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    The practical development of novel optoelectronic materials with appropriate optical properties is strongly connected to the structural properties of the prepared doped structures. We present GaN layers oriented along the (0 0 0 1) crystallographic direction that have been grown by low-pressure metal–organic vapour-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on sapphire substrates implanted with 200 keV Co{sup +}, Fe{sup +} and Ni{sup +} ions. The structural properties of the ion-implanted layers have been characterised by RBS-channelling and Raman spectroscopy to obtain a comprehensive insight into the structural modification of implanted GaN layers and to study the subsequent influence of annealing on crystalline-matrix recovery. Photoluminescence was measured to control the desired optical properties. The post-implantation annealing induced the structural recovery of the modified GaN layer depending on the introduced disorder level, e.g. depending on the ion implantation fluence, which was followed by structural characterisation and by the study of the surface morphology by AFM.

  3. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  4. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher

    2017-08-15

    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a <111> oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  5. Determination of the nitrogen concentration in epitaxial layers of GaAs /SUB 1-x/ p /SUB x/ by the optical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupal, M.V.; Klot, B; Nikhter, K.; Pikhtin, A.N.; Trapp, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper determines the dependence of the cross section for absorption in the A /SUB N/ line of a bound exciton on the nitrogen content in the solid solution GaAs /SUB 1-x/ P /SUB x/ by comparing the results of optical measurements with the data from secondary ionic mass spectrometry, and these results are used to study the effect of technological factors on the nitrogen concentration epitaxial layers obtained by the gas-transport method. Doping was carried out with nitrogen by injecting ammonia into the reactor zone; the partial pressure of the ammonia was varied from 1 to 25 kPa. Aside from nitrogen, the authors doped the layers with shallow donor Te. It is established that the solubility of nitrogen in the solid solution decreases as the arsenic content increases when the convenient optical method for determining the nitrogen concentration in epitaxial GaAs /SUB 1-x/ P /SUB x/ layers is used

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of Strain in Epitaxial 2H AlN Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, N.; Pezoldt, J.

    2011-01-01

    To improve the quality of AlN layer deposit on SiC/Si, different Ge amounts (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2ML) were deposited before the carbonization process at the silicon substrate in order to reduce the lattice parameters mismatch between Si and SiC grown layers. The residual stress of the hexagonal AlN layers derives from the phonon frequency shifts of the E1(TO) phonon mode. The crystalline quality of the AlN layer is correlated to and investigated by the full width of the half maximum (FWHM) and the intensity of E1(TO) mode of the 2H-AlN. Best crystalline quality and lower stress value are found in the case where 1ML of Ge amount is predeposited. The E1(TO) mode phonon frequency shifts-down by 3 cm-1/GPa with respect to an unstrained layer. (author)

  7. Induced defects in neutron irradiated GaN single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I. W.; Koh, E. K.; Kim, Y. M.; Choh, S. H.; Park, S. S.; Kim, B. G.; Sohn, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The local structure of defects in undoped, Si-doped, and neutron irradiated free standing GaN bulk crystals, grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy, has been investigated by employing Raman scattering and cathodoluminescence. The GaN samples were irradiated to a dose of 2 x 10 17 neutrons in an atomic reactor at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. There was no appreciable change in the Raman spectra for undoped GaN samples before and after neutron irradiation. However, a forbidden transition, A 1 (TO) mode, appeared for a neutron irradiated Si-doped GaN crystal. Cathodoluminescence spectrum for the neutron irradiated Si-doped GaN crystal became much more broadened than that for the unirradiated one. The experimental results reveal the generation of defects with locally deformed structure in the wurtzite Si-doped GaN single crystal

  8. GaN Nanowire Arrays for High-Output Nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chi-Te

    2010-04-07

    Three-fold symmetrically distributed GaN nanowire (NW) arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire substrates. The GaN NW possesses a triangular cross section enclosed by (0001), (2112), and (2112) planes, and the angle between the GaN NW and the substrate surface is ∼62°. The GaN NW arrays produce negative output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope in contact mode. The average of piezoelectric output voltage was about -20 mV, while 5-10% of the NWs had piezoelectric output voltages exceeding -(0.15-0.35) V. The GaN NW arrays are highly stable and highly tolerate to moisture in the atmosphere. The GaN NW arrays demonstrate an outstanding potential to be utilized for piezoelectric energy generation with a performance probably better than that of ZnO NWs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila

    2016-07-14

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1−xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 107 cm−2) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1−xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1−xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  10. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, M M; Roldan, M A; Yamashita, Y; Sahonta, S-L; Ajia, I A; Iizuka, K; Kuramata, A; Humphreys, C J; Roqan, I S

    2016-07-14

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1-xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 10(7) cm(-2)) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1-xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1-xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  11. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila; Roldan, M. A.; Yamashita, Y.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Ajia, Idris A.; Iizuka, K.; Kuramata, A.; Humphreys, C. J.; Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1−xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 107 cm−2) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1−xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1−xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  12. Formation mechanism of Al-depleted bands in MOVPE-AlGaN layer on GaN template with trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwano, Noriyuki [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ezaki, Tetsuya; Kurogi, Takuya [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    A microstructure in an AlGaN/GaN layer was analyzed in detail by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with special attention to the formation of steps on the surface. The AlGaN layer was grown by MOVPE on a GaN template with periodic trenches. It was revealed that there formed were Al-depleted bands in the AlGaN layer. These bands were generated from rather lower regions in the AlGaN layer or those above the trenches, and run upwards. Some of them reached the top surface to connect a macro step. The formation mechanism of the Al-depleted region is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. If the total bonding energy of atoms on the macro step of surface is assumed to be smaller than that of atoms on a flat surface, the Al-depletion can be explained provided that the local equilibrium in concentration is conserved during the growth of AlGaN layer. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Growth Mechanism, Controllability, and Scalability

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan; Li, Ying; Aljarb, Areej; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences. The capability to precisely engineer 2D materials by chemical approaches

  14. Probing defect states in polycrystalline GaN grown on Si(111) by sub-bandgap laser-excited scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, F.-M.; Schnedler, M.; Portz, V.; Huang, Y.-C.; Huang, B.-C.; Shih, M.-C.; Chang, C.-W.; Tu, L.-W.; Eisele, H.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Ebert, Ph.; Chiu, Y.-P.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the potential of sub-bandgap laser-excited cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to investigate the presence of defect states in semiconductors. The characterization method is illustrated on GaN layers grown on Si(111) substrates without intentional buffer layers. According to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, the GaN layers consist of nanoscale wurtzite and zincblende crystallites with varying crystal orientations and hence contain high defect state densities. In order to discriminate between band-to-band excitation and defect state excitations, we use sub-bandgap laser excitation. We probe a clear increase in the tunnel current at positive sample voltages during sub-bandgap laser illumination for the GaN layer with high defect density, but no effect is found for high quality GaN epitaxial layers. This demonstrates the excitation of free charge carriers at defect states. Thus, sub-bandgap laser-excited scanning tunneling spectroscopy is a powerful complimentary characterization tool for defect states.

  15. Increase the threshold voltage of high voltage GaN transistors by low temperature atomic hydrogen treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erofeev, E. V., E-mail: erofeev@micran.ru [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Research Institute of Electrical-Communication Systems (Russian Federation); Fedin, I. V.; Kutkov, I. V. [Research and Production Company “Micran” (Russian Federation); Yuryev, Yu. N. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on AlGaN/GaN epitaxial heterostructures are a promising element base for the fabrication of high voltage electronic devices of the next generation. This is caused by both the high mobility of charge carriers in the transistor channel and the high electric strength of the material, which makes it possible to attain high breakdown voltages. For use in high-power switches, normally off-mode GaN transistors operating under enhancement conditions are required. To fabricate normally off GaN transistors, one most frequently uses a subgate region based on magnesium-doped p-GaN. However, optimization of the p-GaN epitaxial-layer thickness and the doping level makes it possible to attain a threshold voltage of GaN transistors close to V{sub th} = +2 V. In this study, it is shown that the use of low temperature treatment in an atomic hydrogen flow for the p-GaN-based subgate region before the deposition of gate-metallization layers makes it possible to increase the transistor threshold voltage to V{sub th} = +3.5 V. The effects under observation can be caused by the formation of a dipole layer on the p-GaN surface induced by the effect of atomic hydrogen. The heat treatment of hydrogen-treated GaN transistors in a nitrogen environment at a temperature of T = 250°C for 12 h reveals no degradation of the transistor’s electrical parameters, which can be caused by the formation of a thermally stable dipole layer at the metal/p-GaN interface as a result of hydrogenation.

  16. Increase the threshold voltage of high voltage GaN transistors by low temperature atomic hydrogen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erofeev, E. V.; Fedin, I. V.; Kutkov, I. V.; Yuryev, Yu. N.

    2017-01-01

    High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on AlGaN/GaN epitaxial heterostructures are a promising element base for the fabrication of high voltage electronic devices of the next generation. This is caused by both the high mobility of charge carriers in the transistor channel and the high electric strength of the material, which makes it possible to attain high breakdown voltages. For use in high-power switches, normally off-mode GaN transistors operating under enhancement conditions are required. To fabricate normally off GaN transistors, one most frequently uses a subgate region based on magnesium-doped p-GaN. However, optimization of the p-GaN epitaxial-layer thickness and the doping level makes it possible to attain a threshold voltage of GaN transistors close to V_t_h = +2 V. In this study, it is shown that the use of low temperature treatment in an atomic hydrogen flow for the p-GaN-based subgate region before the deposition of gate-metallization layers makes it possible to increase the transistor threshold voltage to V_t_h = +3.5 V. The effects under observation can be caused by the formation of a dipole layer on the p-GaN surface induced by the effect of atomic hydrogen. The heat treatment of hydrogen-treated GaN transistors in a nitrogen environment at a temperature of T = 250°C for 12 h reveals no degradation of the transistor’s electrical parameters, which can be caused by the formation of a thermally stable dipole layer at the metal/p-GaN interface as a result of hydrogenation.

  17. Growth of GaN on Sapphire via Low-Temperature Deposited Buffer Layer and Realization of p-Type GaN by Mg Doping Followed by Low-Energy Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    This is a personal history of one of the Japanese researchers engaged in developing a method for growing GaN on a sapphire substrate, paving the way for the realization of smart television and display systems using blue LEDs. The most important work was done in the mid- to late 80s. The background to the author's work and the process by which the technology enabling the growth of GaN and the realization of p-type GaN was established are reviewed.

  18. Growth of GaN on sapphire via low-temperature deposited buffer layer and realization of p-type GaN by Mg doping followed by low-energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Venture Business Laboratory, Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    This is a personal history of one of the Japanese researchers engaged in developing a method for growing GaN on a sapphire substrate, paving the way for the realization of smart television and display systems using blue LEDs. The most important work was done in the mid to late 1980s. The background to the author's work and the process by which the technology enabling the growth of GaN and the realization of p-type GaN was established are reviewed. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Impact of AlN seeding layer growth rate in MOVPE growth of semi-polar gallium nitride structures on high index silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravash, Roghaiyeh; Blaesing, Juergen; Hempel, Thomas; Noltemeyer, Martin; Dadgar, Armin; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, FNW/IEP/AHE, Postfach 4120, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    We present metal organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of semi-polar GaN structures on high index silicon surfaces. The crystallographic structure of GaN grown on Si(112), (115), and (117) substrates is investigated by X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was performed in Bragg Brentano geometry as well as pole figure measurements. The results demonstrate that the orientation of GaN crystallites on Si is significantly dependent on thickness of the AlN seeding layer and TMAl-flow rate. We observe that the crystallographic structures of GaN by applying thin AlN seeding layers grown with high TMAl-flow rate depend on Si surface direction while they are independent for thicker layers. By applying such seeding layer we obtain single crystalline semi-polar