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Sample records for epistemological framing examples

  1. Investigating learners' epistemological framings of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Vesal

    Classical mechanics challenges students to use their intuitions and experiences as a basis for understanding, in effect to approach learning as "a refinement of everyday thinking'' (Einstein, 1936). Moving on to quantum mechanics (QM), students, like physicists, need to adjust this approach, in particular with respect to the roles that intuitive knowledge and mathematics play in the pursuit of coherent understanding (these are adjustments to aspects of their epistemologies). In this dissertation, I explore how some students manage the epistemological transition. I began this work by recruiting both graduate and undergraduate students, interviewing each subject several times as they moved through coursework in QM. The interviews featured, among other things, how students tried to fit ideas together in mutually consistent ways, including with respect to intuitive knowledge, mathematics and experiment, if at all. I modeled these dynamic cognitive processes as different epistemological framings (i.e., tacit, in-the-moment responses to the question "How should I approach knowledge?''). Through detailed qualitative analyses of students' reasoning and a systematic coding of their interviews, I explored how these coherence seeking related framings impacted their learning. The dissertation supports three main findings: (1) students' patterns of epistemological framing are mostly stable within a given course; (2) students who profess epistemologies aligned with the coordination of coherence seeking framings tend to be more stable in demonstrating them; and (3) students aware that their understanding of QM ultimately anchors in its mathematics tend to produce more coherent explanations and perform better in their courses. These findings are consistent with existing research on student epistemologies in QM and imply that epistemologies, in particular whether and how students seek coherence, require greater attention and emphasis in instruction.

  2. Inferring Teacher Epistemological Framing from Local Patterns in Teacher Noticing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Luna, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we use research from science education on teacher framing and work from mathematics education on teacher noticing to develop new approaches to modeling teacher cognition. The framing literature proposes a dynamic cognitive model of teaching in which teacher epistemological framing, or moment-to-moment understanding of what is going on…

  3. Students' epistemological framing in quantum mechanics problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modir, Bahar; Thompson, John D.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2017-12-01

    Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not a fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of epistemological framing, we investigated four frames in our observational data: algorithmic math, conceptual math, algorithmic physics, and conceptual physics. We discuss the characteristics of each frame as well as causes for transitions between different frames, arguing that productive problem solving may occur in any frame as long as students transition appropriately between frames. Our work extends epistemological framing theory on how students frame discussions in upper-division physics courses.

  4. Students' Epistemological Framing in Quantum Mechanics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modir, Bahar; Thompson, John D.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2017-01-01

    Students' difficulties in quantum mechanics may be the result of unproductive framing and not a fundamental inability to solve the problems or misconceptions about physics content. We observed groups of students solving quantum mechanics problems in an upper-division physics course. Using the lens of epistemological framing, we investigated four…

  5. Shifting college students' epistemological framing using hypothetical debate problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    Developing expertise in physics problem solving requires the ability to use mathematics effectively in physical scenarios. Novices and experts often perceive the use of mathematics in physics differently. Students' perceptions and how they frame the use of mathematics in physics play an important role in their physics problem solving. In this study, we examined students' epistemological framing about using mathematics in physics in two types of problems: a conventional problem and a hypothetical debate problem. We found that when solving a conventional physics problem, students tended to frame problem solving in physics as rote equation chasing, i.e., plugging quantities into a memorized physics equation. In hypothetical debate problems, students were more likely to be involved in quantitative or qualitative sense making. We conclude that hypothetical debate problems might be used as an instructional tool for engaging students in sense making while using mathematics in physics. Thus, it might be potentially useful for developing more expertlike problem solving expertise.

  6. Shifting college students’ epistemological framing using hypothetical debate problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehui Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing expertise in physics problem solving requires the ability to use mathematics effectively in physical scenarios. Novices and experts often perceive the use of mathematics in physics differently. Students’ perceptions and how they frame the use of mathematics in physics play an important role in their physics problem solving. In this study, we examined students’ epistemological framing about using mathematics in physics in two types of problems: a conventional problem and a hypothetical debate problem. We found that when solving a conventional physics problem, students tended to frame problem solving in physics as rote equation chasing, i.e., plugging quantities into a memorized physics equation. In hypothetical debate problems, students were more likely to be involved in quantitative or qualitative sense making. We conclude that hypothetical debate problems might be used as an instructional tool for engaging students in sense making while using mathematics in physics. Thus, it might be potentially useful for developing more expertlike problem solving expertise.

  7. Why instructors other than Joe Redish should care about epistemological framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elby, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    In diagnosing and addressing students' difficulties with learning physics, instructors and researchers have traditionally focused on students' alternative conceptions and math skills. More recently, researchers have attributed some students' difficulties to their epistemological beliefs--their views about what counts as knowing and learning physics--and their expectations about how to do well in a given course. In this talk, I discuss a related diagnostic lens for understanding and addressing many student difficulties. In general, a person's framing of an activity is her perhaps-tacit answer to the question ``What's going on here?'' and her associated expectations about which behaviors are appropriate. Similarly, Redish's notion of epistemological framing is a student's perhaps-tacit answer to the question ``What's going on here with respect to knowledge?'' For instance, in a lecture hall, suppose the instructor regularly breaks students into small groups to answer conceptual questions. Some students might epistemologically frame these small-group conversations as debate, an opportunity to make and respond to arguments, play devil's advocate, and so on. By contrast, other students might epistemologically frame these conversations as assessment, a place to display correct understandings and to be evaluated--a stressful activity that's not about learning. Noticing that some students learn little from small-group work in lecture, an instructor might check how students are framing these discussions. If some students frame these episodes as assessment, the instructor could try to help students reframe the discussions, e.g., by asking each small group to come up with two plausible answers and the best argument for each. More generally, the notion of epistemological framing can expand a physics instructor's toolbox of instructional diagnoses and strategies.

  8. Shifting College Students' Epistemological Framing Using Hypothetical Debate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Developing expertise in physics problem solving requires the ability to use mathematics effectively in physical scenarios. Novices and experts often perceive the use of mathematics in physics differently. Students' perceptions and how they frame the use of mathematics in physics play an important role in their physics problem solving. In this…

  9. Analyzing problem solving using math in physics: Epistemological framing via warrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Thomas J.; Redish, Edward F.

    2009-12-01

    Developing expertise in physics entails learning to use mathematics effectively and efficiently as applied to the context of physical situations. Doing so involves coordinating a variety of concepts and skills including mathematical processing, computation, blending ancillary information with the math, and reading out physical implications from the math and vice versa. From videotaped observations of intermediate level students solving problems in groups, we note that students often “get stuck” using a limited group of skills or reasoning and fail to notice that a different set of tools (which they possess and know how to use effectively) could quickly and easily solve their problem. We refer to a student’s perception or judgment of the kind of knowledge that is appropriate to bring to bear in a particular situation as epistemological framing. Although epistemological framing is often unstated (and even unconscious), in group problem-solving situations students sometimes get into disagreements about how to progress. During these disagreements, they bring forth reasons or warrants in support of their point of view. For the context of mathematics use in physics problem solving, we present a system for classifying physics students’ warrants and analyze a case study. This warrant analysis provides a general widely applicable technique for identifying students’ epistemological framings.

  10. Analyzing problem solving using math in physics: Epistemological framing via warrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Bing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing expertise in physics entails learning to use mathematics effectively and efficiently as applied to the context of physical situations. Doing so involves coordinating a variety of concepts and skills including mathematical processing, computation, blending ancillary information with the math, and reading out physical implications from the math and vice versa. From videotaped observations of intermediate level students solving problems in groups, we note that students often “get stuck” using a limited group of skills or reasoning and fail to notice that a different set of tools (which they possess and know how to use effectively could quickly and easily solve their problem. We refer to a student’s perception or judgment of the kind of knowledge that is appropriate to bring to bear in a particular situation as epistemological framing. Although epistemological framing is often unstated (and even unconscious, in group problem-solving situations students sometimes get into disagreements about how to progress. During these disagreements, they bring forth reasons or warrants in support of their point of view. For the context of mathematics use in physics problem solving, we present a system for classifying physics students’ warrants and analyze a case study. This warrant analysis provides a general widely applicable technique for identifying students’ epistemological framings.

  11. Case study of a successful learner’s epistemological framings of quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesal Dini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on student epistemologies in introductory courses has highlighted the importance of understanding physics as “a refinement of everyday thinking” [A. Einstein, J. Franklin Inst. 221, 349 (1936JFINAB0016-003210.1016/S0016-0032(3691047-5]. That view is difficult to sustain in quantum mechanics, for students as for physicists. How might students manage the transition? In this article, we present a case study of a graduate student’s approaches and reflections on learning over two semesters of quantum mechanics, based on a series of nine interviews. We recount his explicit grappling with the shift in epistemology from classical to quantum, and we argue that his success in learning largely involved his framing mathematics as expressing physical meaning. At the same time, we show he was not entirely stable in these framings, shifting away from them in particular during his study of scattering. The case speaks to literature on students’ epistemologies, with respect to the roles of everyday thinking and mathematics. We discuss what this case suggests for further research, with possible implications for instruction.

  12. Case study of a successful learner's epistemological framings of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Vesal; Hammer, David

    2017-06-01

    Research on student epistemologies in introductory courses has highlighted the importance of understanding physics as "a refinement of everyday thinking" [A. Einstein, J. Franklin Inst. 221, 349 (1936), 10.1016/S0016-0032(36)91047-5]. That view is difficult to sustain in quantum mechanics, for students as for physicists. How might students manage the transition? In this article, we present a case study of a graduate student's approaches and reflections on learning over two semesters of quantum mechanics, based on a series of nine interviews. We recount his explicit grappling with the shift in epistemology from classical to quantum, and we argue that his success in learning largely involved his framing mathematics as expressing physical meaning. At the same time, we show he was not entirely stable in these framings, shifting away from them in particular during his study of scattering. The case speaks to literature on students' epistemologies, with respect to the roles of everyday thinking and mathematics. We discuss what this case suggests for further research, with possible implications for instruction.

  13. Epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, A

    2010-01-01

    This entry begins by presenting the origin, history and etymology of the term, as well as a short definition of epistemology as the discipline that deals with the nature, origin, validity and limits of knowledge. Then we focus on the classical platonic analysis of knowledge as truth justified belief. Against the backdrop of this platonic notion we present other relevant perspectives. It is essential to follow the history of the relation between origin and justification of knowledge until the contemporary separation of both problems. The study of the origin of knowledge seems to require a naturalized epistemology, while the problem of justification is usually approached from a philosophical point of view, whether coherentist, foundationalist or fallibilist. However, currently some authors are advocating for a full naturalized epistemology, while others are extending the philosophical point of view also to the genesis of knowledge.

  14. Case Study of a Successful Learner's Epistemological Framings of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Vesal; Hammer, David

    2017-01-01

    Research on student epistemologies in introductory courses has highlighted the importance of understanding physics as "a refinement of everyday thinking" [A. Einstein, J. Franklin Inst. 221, 349 (1936)]. That view is difficult to sustain in quantum mechanics, for students as for physicists. How might students manage the transition? In…

  15. The Epistemological and Didactical Challenges Involved in Teaching Socially Acute Questions. The Example of Globalization

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    Jean Simonneaux

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are being asked to manage a specific didactic situation which falls into the category of what we have proposed to call “socially acute questions (SAQs”. A SAQ is a question which is acute in society, in background knowledge and in knowledge taught. Thus, teaching SAQs demands socio-epistemological reflexivity in the processes of knowledge production and in the social conditions in which this knowledge emerges; teaching SAQs will give priority to interdisciplinary, scientific and ethical reasoning. The split between ideology and science can certainly be examined when considering a socially acute question which is the subject of debate in society. In the example of the globalization taught: the diversity of analysis in the economic domain gives rise to great uncertainty because it justifies practically opposing policies; within a transdisciplinary framework, the globalization includes concepts, ideologies or social practices in a double movement of standardization and differentiation. By way of SAQs, we have attempted to show that learning stakes are numerous. However didactic choices must be supported by socio-epistemological survey, the identification of an epistemological posture and the definition of a didactic strategy.Les enseignants sont appelés à gérer une situation didactique spécifique dans l’enseignement des «questions socialement vives (QSV ». Les QSV sont des questions qui donnent lieu à débat dans la société, dans les savoirs scientifiques et dans l’enseignement. Ainsi, l‘enseignement des QSV nécessite une réflexivité socio-épistémologique dans le processus de production du savoir et dans les conditions sociales d’émergence de ces savoirs; l’enseignement des QSV donnera la priorité au raisonnement interdisciplinaire, scientifique et éthique. La scission entre l‘idéologie et la science peut être examinée lors de l‘examen d‘une QSV qui fait l‘objet d‘un débat dans la soci

  16. Case study of a successful learner’s epistemological framings of quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Vesal Dini; David Hammer

    2017-01-01

    Research on student epistemologies in introductory courses has highlighted the importance of understanding physics as “a refinement of everyday thinking” [A. Einstein, J. Franklin Inst. 221, 349 (1936)JFINAB0016-003210.1016/S0016-0032(36)91047-5]. That view is difficult to sustain in quantum mechanics, for students as for physicists. How might students manage the transition? In this article, we present a case study of a graduate student’s approaches and reflections on learning over two semest...

  17. Analysis of "D" regions of RC structures based on example of frame corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michał, Szczecina; Andrzej, Winnicki

    2018-01-01

    Calculations of reinforcement of "D" regions of reinforced concrete structures is much difficult than for "B" regions and demands some specific approaches. Authors of the paper suggest to use both Strut-and-Tie (S&T) and Finite Element Method (FEM). The first of those methods allows to calculate required reinforcement and efficiency factor. In turn FEM can not only confirm S&T results but also gives information about crack width and pattern, strains and nodal displacement. Sample calculations were performed on example of frame corners under opening bending moment. Parameters of Concrete Damaged Plasticity model of concrete implemented in Abaqus were calibrated in tension and compressions test.

  18. On Folk Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerken, Mikkel

    that are associated with biases. In developing this account, Mikkel Gerken presents work in cognitive psychology and pragmatics, while also contributing to epistemology. For example, Gerken develops positive epistemic norms of action and assertion and moreover, critically assesses contextualism, knowledge...

  19. Genetic epistemology and nataturalized epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Pascal

    1998-01-01

    Jean Piaget's genetic epistemology is not a normative epistemology, and it aims at being a form of naturalized epistemology. I try to show that in spite of that, Piaget was well well aware of the normative aspects in epistemology and tried to account for them.

  20. Managing frame diversity in environmental participatory processes-Example fro the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Brugnach, Marcela Fabiana; Cullen, Beth; Ferrand, Nils; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Many participatory processes fail to generate social change and collaborative outcomes. This failure can partly be explained by how divergent stakeholders' frames are handled. This paper builds on the framing and participation literature to explain how facilitators can manage frame diversity and

  1. Crossing Borders in Educational Innovation: Framing Foreign Examples in Discussing Comprehensive Education in the Netherlands, 1969-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greveling, Linda; Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, crossing borders to study comprehensive schools was an important strategy in the 1970s, a decisive period for the start and the end of the innovation. According to policy-borrowing theory, actors that engage in debating educational issues are framing foreign examples of comprehensive schooling to convince their audiences.…

  2. Evolutionary epistemology and dynamical virtual learning networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Umberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to define the main features of a new educational model aimed at satisfying the needs of a rapidly changing society. The evolutionary epistemology paradigm of culture diffusion in human groups could be the conceptual ground for the development of this model. Multidimensionality, multi-disciplinarity, complexity, connectivity, critical thinking, creative thinking, constructivism, flexible learning, contextual learning, are the dimensions that should characterize distance learning models aimed at increasing the epistemological variability of learning communities. Two multimedia educational software, Dynamic Knowledge Networks (DKN) and Dynamic Virtual Learning Networks (DVLN) are described. These two complementary tools instantiate these dimensions, and were tested in almost 150 online courses. Even if the examples are framed in the medical context, the analysis of the shortcomings of the traditional educational systems and the proposed solutions can be applied to the vast majority of the educational contexts.

  3. The right frame of reference makes it simple: an example of introductory mechanics supported by video analysis of motion

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    Klein, P.; Gröber, S.; Kuhn, J.; Fleischhauer, A.; Müller, A.

    2015-01-01

    The selection and application of coordinate systems is an important issue in physics. However, considering different frames of references in a given problem sometimes seems un-intuitive and is difficult for students. We present a concrete problem of projectile motion which vividly demonstrates the value of considering different frames of references. We use this example to explore the effectiveness of video-based motion analysis (VBMA) as an instructional technique at university level in enhancing students’ understanding of the abstract concept of coordinate systems. A pilot study with 47 undergraduate students indicates that VBMA instruction improves conceptual understanding of this issue.

  4. Analysing "Migrant" Membership Frames through Education Policy Discourse: An Example of Restrictive "Integration" Policy within Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Shaik, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes combining discourse theory and perspectives on political membership developments in Western European societies. It combines theories and examples of policy discourses about "migrant integration" in the Swiss national context in the sphere of education. This examination aims to deconstruct specific membership framing…

  5. Leadership Epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bogenschneider

    2016-01-01

    The study of leadership is characterized by an expanding set of definitions of the term leadership. Some scholars even set out to know leadership by the identification of traits or behaviors of good leaders. However, the scientific study of leadership requires the identification of a causal theory of leadership. The scientific belief in causation as the common epistemology is the necessary link between the various disciplines interested in leadership (e.g., organizational psychology, statisti...

  6. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field......; the aim, scope, the future direction of epistemology and how their work fits in these respects...

  7. Epistemology and Networking Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical reflection on epistemology is presented. The important role of epistemological analysis in research in mathematics education is discussed. I analyze the epistemological evolution as a consequence of the changes in the mathematical culture and demonstrate how the epistemological analysis is tightly linked to the cultural dimension.…

  8. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  9. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...

  10. Toward an Epistemology of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend; Tanggaard, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Western philosophy has been greatly influenced by visual metaphors. Knowing something has commonly, yet implicitly, been conceptualized as seeing something clearly, learning has been framed as being visually exposed to something, and the mind has been understood as a "mirror of nature". A whole "epistemology of the eye" has been at work, which has…

  11. George Engel's Epistemology of Clinical Practice.

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    Saraga, Michael; Fuks, Abraham; Boudreau, J Donald

    2014-01-01

    George Engel's (1913-1999) biopsychosocial model, one of the most significant proposals for the renewal of medicine in the latter half of the 20th century, has been understood primarily as a multi-factorial approach to the etiology of disease and as a call to re-humanize clinical practice. This common reading of Engel's model misses the central aspect of his proposal, that the biopsychosocial model is an epistemology for clinical work. By stating the simple fact that the clinician is not dealing directly with a body, but first, and inevitably, with a person, Engel challenged the epistemology implicit in the classical clinical method-a method predicated on the possibility of direct access to the body. Framed in epistemological terms, the issue at stake is not the need to complement medical science with humane virtues, but rather to acknowledge that the object of clinical practice is not the body but the patient.

  12. Epistemology and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    The essay reviews Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's intensive engagement with French epistemology that has remained a constant throughout his career. It focuses especially on a set of recent writings by Rheinberger that all revolve around the question: how has epistemology become historical? This question is discussed in the context of Rheinberger's own move from philosophy to an embracement of history.

  13. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

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    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  14. Against Mixed Epistemology

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    Joe Milburn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We can call any reductive account of knowledge that appeals to both safety and ability conditions a mixed account of knowledge. Examples of mixed accounts of knowledge include Pritchard’s (2012 Anti-Luck Virtue Epistemology, Kelp’s (2013 Safe-Apt account of knowledge, and Turri’s (2011 Ample belief account of knowledge. Mixed accounts of knowledge are motivated by well-known counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge. It is thought that by combining both safety and ability conditions we can give an extensionally adequate reductive account of knowledge. In this paper I argue that the putative counterexamples to pure safety and pure ability accounts of knowledge fail to motivate mixed accounts of knowledge. In particular, I argue that if the putative counterexamples are problematic for safety accounts they are problematic for ability accounts and vice-versa. The reason for this, I argue, is that the safety condition and ability condition should be understood as alternative expressions of the same intuition — that knowledge must come from a reliable source.

  15. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...... for a proper acknowledgment of epistemology’s role in conceptual improvement...

  16. Journalism Curiosity and Story Telling Frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunwald, Ebbe; Rupar, Verica

    2009-01-01

    This comparative study of journalism practices in Australia and Denmark explores the interplay between two concepts relevant for journalism's meaning-making activity: a curiosity seen as an action meant to close an information gap, and a story telling frame seen as a form of structuring information...... the epistemological and organisational dimension of frames relates to the process of  meaning-making. We suggest refining the concept of frame in journalism studies by making a distinction between a frame (an epistemological category) and an angle (a textual organisation category). Our investigation shows...... that this distinction better serves the analysis and understanding of the mechanisms behind journalism in comparative contexts. Udgivelsesdato: December...

  17. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  18. When Historiography Met Epistemology

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    Jean-François Stoffel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Bordoni, Stefano. When historiography met epistemology: Sophisticated histories and philosophies of science in French-speaking countries in the second half of the nineteenth century. Reviewed by Jean-François Stoffel.

  19. Positioning oneself within an epistemology: refining our thinking about integrative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Victoria C

    2010-09-01

    Integrative approaches seem to be paramount in the current climate of family therapy and other psychotherapies. However, integration between and among theories and practices can only occur within a specific epistemology. This article makes a distinction between three different epistemologies: individualizing, systems, and poststructural. It then makes the argument that one can integrate theories within epistemologies and one can adopt practices and some theoretical concepts across theories and across epistemologies, but that it is impossible to integrate theories across epistemologies. It further states that although social constructionism has influenced much of contemporary psychological thinking, because of the divergence between a structural and a poststructural approach, constructionism looks different depending upon one's epistemological stance. Examples of integration within epistemologies and of what looks like integration across epistemologies (but is not) further illustrate these important distinctions. The conclusions reached here are crucial to our philosophical considerations, our pedagogical assumptions, and implications for both research and a reflexive clinical practice. 2010 © FPI, Inc.

  20. Readings in Formal Epistemology : Sourcebook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arló-Costa, H.; Hendricks, V.F.; van Benthem, J.

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents 38 classic texts in formal epistemology, and strengthens the ties between research into this area of philosophy and its neighbouring intellectual disciplines. The editors provide introductions to five subsections: Bayesian Epistemology, Belief Change, Decision Theory,

  1. Readings in Formal Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ‘Formal epistemology’ is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy,the roots of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science, and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty......, rationality, deliberation, decision, strategy, action and agent interaction – and it does so using methods from logic, probability, computability, decision, and game theory. This volume presents 42 classic texts in formal epistemology, and strengthens the ties between research into this area of philosophy...... and its neighbouring intellectual disciplines. The editors provide introductions to five basic subsections: Bayesian Epistemology, Belief Change, Decision Theory, Interactive Epistemology and Logics of Knowledge and Belief. The volume also includes a thorough index and suggestions for further reading...

  2. Personal Epistemologies, Work and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This paper elaborates the role and development of personal epistemologies when learning through and for work. It does this by drawing on explanatory propositions from psychology, sociology and philosophical accounts. The aim here is to go beyond conceptions of epistemological beliefs and to position personal epistemologies as being active,…

  3. Ontological and epistemological discourse(s) on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses philosophical discourses (ontology and epistemology) that have framed researchers' position on topical issues relating to sustainable development, particularly in relation to Sierra Leone. The country is a nation full of memories; that which has brought lasting pain in the minds of people and the use of ...

  4. Epistemology and Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2010-01-01

    Offers an exploration of the relationships between epistemology and probability in the work of Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrodinger; in quantum mechanics; and in modern physics. This book considers the implications of these relationships and of quantum theory for our understanding of the nature of thinking and knowledge in general

  5. Epistemologi, evidensbasering og patientperspektiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorgård, Keld

    2009-01-01

    perspektiv". I denne artikel argumenteres for, at vi må udfordre patientperspektiver forstået som præferencer og som spontane subjektive udtryk, hvis vi skal lykkes med en redegørelse for patientperspektivernes epistemologi. Dele af den humanistiske sundhedsforskning kan bidrage til at analysere, hvorledes...

  6. Universities and Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Ronald; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between epistemology and higher education. We shall start by briefly examining three classical texts on the understanding of knowledge at universities, as well as noting some others, and go on to sketch a version of our own. Our argument is as follows: the world...

  7. Patho-Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse

    Inspired by Michel Foucault and the French philosopher of medicine, Georges Canguilhem, the epistemological potential of disease is explored. The primary purpose of the dissertation is to expound upon and argue for this ‘patho-epistemological’ strategy, to elaborate and develop it as a methodology...

  8. Framing the frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined how the goal of a decision task influences the perceived positive, negative valence of the alternatives and thereby the likelihood and direction of framing effects. In Study 1 we manipulated the goal to increase, decrease or maintain the commodity in question and found that when the goal of the task was to increase the commodity, a framing effect consistent with those typically observed in the literature was found. When the goal was to decrease, a framing effect opposite to the typical findings was observed whereas when the goal was to maintain, no framing effect was found. When we examined the decisions of the entire population, we did not observe a framing effect. In Study 2, we provided participants with a similar decision task except in this situation the goal was ambiguous, allowing us to observe participants' self-imposed goals and how they influenced choice preferences. The findings from Study 2 demonstrated individual variability in imposed goal and provided a conceptual replication of Study 1. %need keywords

  9. Modal Epistemology and Conceivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Asger Bo Skjerning

    Philosophical argumentation often depends on modal facts, i.e. facts about what is possible, contingent, or necessary. For thought and cognition outside the domain of philosophy modal facts are also often decisive. It seems we have an easy access to modal facts, but how so? Through a presentation...... of the state-of-the-art in modal epistemology I wish to outline a research project based on conceivability that will try to explain how we come to know modal facts....

  10. Epistemology of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marková, Ivana S; Berrios, German E

    2012-01-01

    In historical and epistemological terms, psychiatry is a new discipline born during the 19th century. Rooted in both the natural and social sciences, psychiatric objects of inquiry, namely mental symptoms and mental disorders, are hybrid, constituted by the blending of components arising from disparate sources of knowledge ranging from the biological to the semantic in its widest sense. This poses problems for psychiatric research and therapy. Whilst conventional pluralism may be a convenient approach to manage aspects of psychiatric practice, it lacks the capacity to analyse psychiatric objects in their entirety. For the latter, psychiatry demands a new, tailored regional epistemology. This paper outlines the main features of an epistemology specific to the needs of psychiatry. It highlights the relational approach that needs to be taken and illustrates the usefulness of this approach by analysing the structure of psychiatric objects, exploring the manner in which they may be inscribed in the brain, and identifying the need to periodically recalibrate the language of psychiatry. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Research in psychopathology: epistemologic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Bovet, P

    1995-01-01

    Etiologic research in psychiatry relies on an objectivist epistemology positing that human cognition is specified by the "reality" of the outer world, which consists of a totality of mind-independent objects. Truth is considered as some sort of correspondence relation between words and external...... objects, and mind as a mirror of nature. In our view, this epistemology considerably impedes etiologic research. Objectivist epistemology has been recently confronting a growing critique from diverse scientific fields. Alternative models in neurosciences (neuronal selection), artificial intelligence...

  12. From Concepts to Predicates within Constructivist Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    Constructivism is a philosophical approach that appears in a variety of guises, some of them pedagogical, some epistemological and some in complex combinations. This article is based on constructivist epistemology. More specifically, constructivist epistemology provides a ground for conceptual...

  13. Frames and semi-frames

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Balazs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Loosely speaking, a semi-frame is a generalized frame for which one of the frame bounds is absent. More precisely, given a total sequence in a Hilbert space, we speak of an upper (resp. lower) semi-frame if only the upper (resp. lower) frame bound is valid. Equivalently, for an upper semi-frame, the frame operator is bounded, but has an unbounded inverse, whereas a lower semi-frame has an unbounded frame operator, with bounded inverse. We study mostly upper semi-frames, bot...

  14. Epistemological Resources: Applying a New Epistemological Framework to Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Loucas; Elby, Andrew; Hammer, David; Kagey, Trisha

    2004-01-01

    Most research on personal epistemologies has conceived them as made up of relatively large, coherent, and stable cognitive structures, either developmental stages or beliefs (perhaps organized into theories). Recent work has challenged these views, arguing that personal epistemologies are better understood as made up of finer grained cognitive…

  15. Design Resarch Epistemologies I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a stance on the following issues: project title and author, the research question, the methods applied, the theories consulted (or the state-of-the-art theory horizon), and the epistemology of the PhD research itself. Seen this way one could argue that each PhD student was asked two fundamental questions...... such ‘external’ target groups are also students of Architecture, Design and Media Technology here at Aalborg University and elsewhere. The individual contributions has been written by the PhD students and then discussed in the ADPL forum. There is a common structure to all of the contributions. Thus they take...

  16. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  17. Epistemologies of Ignorance in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, Erik; Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2011-01-01

    Epistemologies of Ignorance provide educators a distinct epistemological view on questions of marginalization, oppression, relations of power and dominance, difference, philosophy, and even death among our youth. The authors of this edited collection challenge the ambivalence--ignorance--found in the construction of curriculum, teaching practices,…

  18. Epistemology as Education: Know Thyself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    In his Introduction to this Special Edition of "Education Sciences," Andrew Stables points out that often, epistemological questions in education have been pursued in isolation from ethics and other social concerns. In part, this problem has been addressed by "local" epistemologies--feminist, queer, post-colonial, postmodern…

  19. The Philosophy of Personal Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, Katariina; Hyytinen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    In higher education, "personal epistemology" is today a significant research area. Personal epistemology has been seen as promising particularly because it focuses on one of the general learning aims of many contemporary universities, namely, the development of students' creative and critical thinking. The article identifies serious…

  20. Framed primal elements

    OpenAIRE

    Debongnie, Jean-François

    1986-01-01

    Framed primal finite elements may be viewed as a generalized class of elements including conforming elements, primal hybrids, and non concorming elements passing the patch test. This systematization is illustrated on a lot of examples.

  1. But…What about My Epistemological Foundations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curin, Raquel Isabel Barrera

    2015-01-01

    At one time or another, all researchers in mathematics education must face the rather complex question of their epistemological foundations. Discussing epistemological foundations naturally leads to a conversation about theories. Theories and epistemological foundations work in a circular fashion: theories can have epistemological foundations and…

  2. Epistemologi Common Sense Abad XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hamami Mintaredja

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of G.E. Moore (1873-1956, undoubtedly has brought a new wave of thought. A thought that has changed the development of English philosophical thinking into analytic and neo realism. Moore has deconstructed Bradley's idealsm. Moore revived English philosophy of common sense. Common sense is a belief in direct apprehension of material things. It is important to solve daily life probelms. Common sense epistemology is specifically Moore epistemology. Is separates the subjects from objects distingtively. A subject sees factual objects in direct experience so that he gets sense data. To apprehend sense data directly, it involves conscious activity. The result of activity is the true and necessary knowledge. Common sense Moore's epistemology based on Aristotelian epistemology. Moore common sense epistemology influenced later philosophies of Russell and Ayer in English, and Ayn Rand in America. Russell perceived common sense as an inderence rule to daily experience based on istinct. It differed from Ayer who developed his philosophy based on verification. Common sense is an understanding to given object that is directly observed. Ayn Rand in America developed his epistemology based on objective object as a real material things. The truth of knowledge is apriori. Its based on truism like Moore's epistemology.

  3. Vision as Adaptive Epistemology

    CERN Document Server

    Licata, Ignazio

    2010-01-01

    In the last years the debate on complexity has been developing and developing in transdisciplinary way to meet the need of explanation for highly organized collective behaviors and sophisticated hierarchical arrangements in physical, biological, cognitive and social systems. Unfortunately, no clear definition has been reached, so complexity appears like an anti-reductionist paradigm in search of a theory. In our short survey we aim to suggest a clarification in relation to the notions of computational and intrinsic emergence, and to show how the latter is deeply connected to the new Logical Openness Theory, an original extension of Godel theorems to the model theory. The epistemological scenario we are going to make use of is that of the theory of vision, a particularly instructive one. Vision is an element of our primordial relationship with the world;consequently it comes as no surprise that carefully taking into consideration the processes of visual perception can lead us straight to some significant quest...

  4. Cosmological Ontology and Epistemology

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2014-01-01

    In cosmology, we would like to explain our observations and predict future observations from theories of the entire universe. Such cosmological theories make ontological assumptions of what entities exist and what their properties and relationships are. One must also make epistemological assumptions or metatheories of how one can test cosmological theories. Here I shall propose a Bayesian analysis in which the likelihood of a complete theory is given by the normalized measure it assigns to the observation used to test the theory. In this context, a discussion is given of the trade-off between prior probabilities and likelihoods, of the measure problem of cosmology, of the death of Born's rule, of the Boltzmann brain problem, of whether there is a better principle for prior probabilities than mathematical simplicity, and of an Optimal Argument for the Existence of God.

  5. Universities and Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Ronald; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between epistemology and higher education. We shall start by briefly examining three classical texts on the understanding of knowledge at universities, as well as noting some others, and go on to sketch a version of our own. Our argument is as follows: the world...... is such that the relationship between the university and knowledge remains fundamental but that it needs to be reconceptualised. In particular, the 21st century is seeing the emergence of digital reason, which could be said to be a form of non-reason. It may appear, therefore, that we are witnessing the dissolution or severing...... of the relationship between the university, on the one hand, and knowledge and truth on the other hand. To the contrary, we argue for what we term an ecological perspective on knowledge, with the concept of ecology being treated in the most generous way, partly as a way of rethinking the university into the future...

  6. EPISTEMOLOGI ILMU DAKWAH KONTEMPORER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnul Khotimah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The existence of contemporary da’wa needs to be brought closer to science, particularly in the face of contemporary problems of today. Islam as a religion rahmatal lil ‘Alamin should be able to contribute and also a solution to the development and changes of modern society. During this time the Islamic civilization, Islam stagnating even impressed away from the bustle of the world of science. If we look back, it is Islam as a pioneer of the findings of science which later developed by Western civilization. science and civilization of the world today, that are in the Mecca of Western civilization and Islamic civilization seemed to stagnate without any significant progress for the benefit of the Ummah. Setbacks science in Islam was triggered by deprivation of thinking Muslims with the closing of the doors of ijtihad plus scientific epistemology of classical Islamic discourse that is patterned Ghazalian (sect Al-Ghazali the latter is more dominant. So do not be surprised if the findings achievement in the field of science and technology is far less than the West or even in the Muslim world scientific findings hardly be said not ada.Agar propagation of Islam back in concern with the vision of science as in the early days of the Islamic scientific civilization, there are several bids epistemology and method propaganda through contemporary Muslim scholarship, which now needs to be tested by backtracking to do the integration of science and religion by trying to use a knife four paradigm offered by Ian Barbour, namely, typology of conflict, independence, dialogue and integration. Besides the need for redefenisi or reconceptualization of the discourse of integration of science and religion in science Islam.   Keberadaan dakwah kontemporer perlu didekatkan dengan sains, terutama dalam menghadapi masalah-masalah kontemporer dewasa ini. Islam sebagai agama rahmatan lil ‘alamin harus mampu memberikan kontribusi dan sekaligus solusi terhadap

  7. EPISTEMOLOGI IDEOLOGI KEAMANAN PANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Adiwibowo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isu keamanan pangan memberikan dampak yang signifi kan pada kehidupan sosial ekonomi dunia. Hal ini ditandai dengan penyebaran bahaya virus, mikroba patogen dan residu pestisida yang menyebabkan gangguan kesehatan bahkan kematian.Untuk melindungi negara dari bahaya virus, mikroba patogen dan residu pestisida, maka negara maju menerapkan standar sebagai hambatan perdagangan agar produk yang terkontaminasi dan berbahaya tersebut tidak dapat masuk ke negaranya. Epistemologi Islam menjabarkan keamanan pangan dalam Al Quran sebagaimana tertulis dalam Qs Al-Baqoroh (2: 168 “makanlah yang halal lagi baik.” Makanan yang halal adalah hak Allah yang menghalalkan. Makanan yang baik adalah makanan yang memberikan ketenangan dan tidak menimbulkan bahaya. Hal ini sejalan dengan ideologi Pancasila dan konstitusi sebagai dasar fi losofi pembentukan peraturan perundang-undangan Indonesia.

  8. Didactics of Mathematics: An Epistemological Approach to Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Carl

    2007-01-01

    I present some key ideas and examples of (mainly French) work in the didactics of mathematics with the aim of identifying the didactics approach to education in relation to more general approaches. In particular I discuss three crucial features of didactics: (1) its epistemological character, i.e. the central focus on specific knowledge in…

  9. EPISTEMOLOGI YANG MENGHERMENEUTIKA MENURUT RICHARD RORTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ied el-Munir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini memiliki tujuan untuk memberikan deskripsi atas penolakan Rorty terhadap epistemologi dan kemudian menggantikannya dengan hermeneutika. Penolakan Rorty dimaksud sebenarnya adalah sebuah bentuk kritikan Rorty atas epistemologi fondasional yang berakar pada pemikiran-pemikiran Descartes, Locke, dan Kant. Epistemologi tidak harus dimengerti secara sempit dalam pengertian epistemologi fondasional menurut Rorty. Dan Rorty sendiri sesungguhnya sedang berepistemologi ketika menolak epistemologi fondasional, karena Rosty berkecimpung dalam dunia pengetahuan.

  10. The epistemology of modern finance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xavier De Scheemaekere

    2009-01-01

    ... physics. The aim of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework for the interpretation of mathematical models in finance, in order to determine the epistemological standards according to which financial...

  11. A social-technological epistemology of clinical decision-making as mediated by imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baalen, Sophie; Carusi, Annamaria; Sabroe, Ian; Kiely, David G

    2017-10-01

    In recent years there has been growing attention to the epistemology of clinical decision-making, but most studies have taken the individual physicians as the central object of analysis. In this paper we argue that knowing in current medical practice has an inherently social character and that imaging plays a mediating role in these practices. We have analyzed clinical decision-making within a medical expert team involved in diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare disease requiring multidisciplinary team involvement in diagnosis and management. Within our field study, we conducted observations, interviews, video tasks, and a panel discussion. Decision-making in the PH clinic involves combining evidence from heterogeneous sources into a cohesive framing of a patient, in which interpretations of the different sources can be made consistent with each other. Because pieces of evidence are generated by people with different expertise and interpretation and adjustments take place in interaction between different experts, we argue that this process is socially distributed. Multidisciplinary team meetings are an important place where information is shared, discussed, interpreted, and adjusted, allowing for a collective way of seeing and a shared language to be developed. We demonstrate this with an example of image processing in the PH service, an instance in which knowledge is distributed over multiple people who play a crucial role in generating an evaluation of right heart function. Finally, we argue that images fulfill a mediating role in distributed knowing in 3 ways: first, as enablers or tools in acquiring information; second, as communication facilitators; and third, as pervasively framing the epistemic domain. With this study of clinical decision-making in diagnosis and treatment of PH, we have shown that clinical decision-making is highly social and mediated by technologies. The epistemology of clinical decision-making needs

  12. A social‐technological epistemology of clinical decision‐making as mediated by imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carusi, Annamaria; Sabroe, Ian; Kiely, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In recent years there has been growing attention to the epistemology of clinical decision‐making, but most studies have taken the individual physicians as the central object of analysis. In this paper we argue that knowing in current medical practice has an inherently social character and that imaging plays a mediating role in these practices. We have analyzed clinical decision‐making within a medical expert team involved in diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare disease requiring multidisciplinary team involvement in diagnosis and management. Within our field study, we conducted observations, interviews, video tasks, and a panel discussion. Decision‐making in the PH clinic involves combining evidence from heterogeneous sources into a cohesive framing of a patient, in which interpretations of the different sources can be made consistent with each other. Because pieces of evidence are generated by people with different expertise and interpretation and adjustments take place in interaction between different experts, we argue that this process is socially distributed. Multidisciplinary team meetings are an important place where information is shared, discussed, interpreted, and adjusted, allowing for a collective way of seeing and a shared language to be developed. We demonstrate this with an example of image processing in the PH service, an instance in which knowledge is distributed over multiple people who play a crucial role in generating an evaluation of right heart function. Finally, we argue that images fulfill a mediating role in distributed knowing in 3 ways: first, as enablers or tools in acquiring information; second, as communication facilitators; and third, as pervasively framing the epistemic domain. With this study of clinical decision‐making in diagnosis and treatment of PH, we have shown that clinical decision‐making is highly social and mediated by technologies. The epistemology of clinical

  13. Media Framing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus T.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of media framing refers to the way in which the news media organize and provide meaning to a news story by emphasizing some parts of reality and disregarding other parts. These patterns of emphasis and exclusion in news coverage create frames that can have considerable effects on news...... consumers’ perceptions and attitudes regarding the given issue or event. This entry briefly elaborates on the concept of media framing, presents key types of media frames, and introduces the research on media framing effects....

  14. Investigating Learners' Epistemological Framings of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Vesal

    2017-01-01

    Classical mechanics challenges students to use their intuitions and experiences as a basis for understanding, in effect to approach learning as "a refinement of everyday thinking'' (Einstein, 1936). Moving on to quantum mechanics (QM), students, like physicists, need to adjust this approach, in particular with respect to the roles that…

  15. Scenario tree model for animal disease freedom framed in the OIE context using the example of a generic swine model for Aujeszky's disease in commercial swine in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jette; Vallières, André

    2016-01-01

    "Freedom from animal disease" is an ambiguous concept that may have a different meaning in trade and science. For trade alone, there are different levels of freedom from OIE listed diseases. A country can: be recognized by OIE to be "officially free"; self-declare freedom, with no official recognition by the OIE; or report animal disease as absent (no occurrence) in six-monthly reports. In science, we apply scenario tree models to calculate the probability of a population being free from disease at a given prevalence to provide evidence of freedom from animal disease. Here, we link science with application by describing how a scenario tree model may contribute to a country's claim of freedom from animal disease. We combine the idea of a standardized presentation of scenario tree models for disease freedom and having a similar model for two different animal diseases to suggest that a simple generic model may help veterinary authorities to build and evaluate scenario tree models for disease freedom. Here, we aim to develop a generic scenario tree model for disease freedom that is: animal species specific, population specific, and has a simple structure. The specific objectives were: to explore the levels of freedom described in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code; to describe how scenario tree models may contribute to a country's claim of freedom from animal disease; and to present a generic swine scenario tree model for disease freedom in Canada's domestic (commercial) swine applied to Aujeszky's disease (AD). In particular, to explore how historical survey data, and data mining may affect the probability of freedom and to explore different sampling strategies. Finally, to frame the generic scenario tree model in the context of Canada's claim of freedom from AD. We found that scenario tree models are useful to support a country's claim of freedom either as "recognized officially free" or as part of a self-declaration but the models should not stand alone in a

  16. Research in psychopathology: epistemologic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Bovet, P

    1995-01-01

    Etiologic research in psychiatry relies on an objectivist epistemology positing that human cognition is specified by the "reality" of the outer world, which consists of a totality of mind-independent objects. Truth is considered as some sort of correspondence relation between words and external...... objects, and mind as a mirror of nature. In our view, this epistemology considerably impedes etiologic research. Objectivist epistemology has been recently confronting a growing critique from diverse scientific fields. Alternative models in neurosciences (neuronal selection), artificial intelligence....... The distinction between mind and body or organism and environment is a matter of observational perspective. These models from empirical sciences are compatible with fundamental tenets of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics. They imply consequences for research in psychopathology: symptoms cannot...

  17. A Robust Enough Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    What is the nature of knowledge? A popular answer to that long-standing question comes from robust virtue epistemology, whose key idea is that knowing is just a matter of succeeding cognitively—i.e., coming to believe a proposition truly—due to an exercise of cognitive ability. Versions of robust...... virtue epistemology further developing and systematizing this idea offer different accounts of the relation that must hold between an agent’s cognitive success and the exercise of her cognitive abilities as well as of the very nature of those abilities. This paper aims to give a new robust virtue...... epistemological account of knowledge based on a different understanding of the nature and structure of the kind of abilities that give rise to knowledge....

  18. The Epistemology of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S. Becker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses questions that are relevant to the epistemology of qualitative research. In order to do so, the presumed dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research is discussed and challenged. According to the author, the similarities between these methods are more relevant than its differences. Both methods strive to describe the social reality and thus have the same epistemological basis, even though they emphasize different questions. To shed light in such dichotomy, the author explores the origins of epistemology as a discipline and its philosophical character. Finally, the particularities and advantages of qualitative research are discussed, especially ethnography and field research, through an analysis of some of its main aspects for observing social reality: its focus on the point of view of the actor; the observation of the everyday world and the full and thick description. 

  19. Stimulated Recall Interviews for Describing Pragmatic Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-01-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources…

  20. Deaf Epistemology: The Deaf Way of Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    The standard epistemology requires the use of hard science to gain knowledge and discover the truth. In contrast, Deaf epistemology relies heavily on personal testimonies, personal experiences, and personal accounts to document knowledge. In recent years, a number of deaf schools have adopted deaf-centric policies shaped by Deaf epistemology in an…

  1. Toward an Epistemology of the Hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend; Tanggaard, Lene

    2010-01-01

    epistemology of the eye' has been at work, which has had significant practical implications, not least in educational contexts. One way to characterize John Dewey's pragmatism is to see it as an attempt to replace the epistemology of the eye with an epistemology of the hand. This article develops...

  2. The epistemology of neo-Gettier epistemology | Lockie | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper begins by drawing a number of 'levels' distinctions in epistemology. It notes that a theory of knowledge must be an attempt to obtain knowledge (about knowledge). It is suggested that we can make sense of much of the work found in analytic theory of knowledge by seeing three (tacit) framework assumptions as ...

  3. On Safety Management. A Frame of Reference for Studies of Safety Management with Examples From Non-Nuclear Contexts of Relevance for Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka; Allwin, Pernilla (Risk Analysis, Social and Decision Research Unit, Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2004-11-15

    technologies. System theories could be developed to grasp both technological non-living systems and human living-systems. It is considered a strength to be able to describe both technological and human elements and their mutual relations within a common theoretical framework. In the ongoing project we have introduced a systems perspective in which both living systems and non-living systems can be described in terms of processes and structures. In the framework it is exemplified how system concepts may be related to concepts related to organizational theory. Three different areas of operations are examined in the case studies: civil aviation, petroleum production, and car manufacturing. Two of the areas are represented by authorities: the Swedish Civil Aviation Safety Authority; and the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The third study is represented by a car manufacturer, Volvo. In order to study the interaction between authority and company, a Swedish airline company was investigated. In each case study, a thorough description of the organizational structure, the activities and operations, and the safety management specific for each organization, is given. In the descriptions, safety management within each area is studied in relation to concepts central to the system theoretical framework. Structural aspects of the system studied, system regulation, information feedback, and detection and identification of threats to safety, are some examples of concepts that are related to keep the system stable, concepts that also are related to activities that are often labeled as central to safety management. Thus, the case studies generate both illustrative descriptions about the unique in the specific areas studied, both from an organizational and a safety perspective, and, furthermore, put this in relation to general system theoretical concepts that are possible to transfer across areas. Each of the case studies generated detailed descriptions of the organization studied, activities and

  4. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  5. Framing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used

  6. Technological Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Olesen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify and explain the barriers that prevented the case study organization, an Australasian university, from implementing a groupware package. This is an insider action research case study, using qualitative semi-structured interviews, group and individual training to look at users’ technological frames around the implementation and use of a groupware product. Technological frames were used to enable a systematic examination of the assumptions, expectations, and knowledge of technology; in particular, the use of technological frames reveals aspects of user resistance. While addressing criticisms of the technological frames genre, this study uses technological frames as a lens to examine the underlying drivers and impediments to information systems (IS implementation. In this case study, changes to a groupware product failed to be implemented, not because of user resistance to the product, but because of organizational politics. This study demonstrates how the culture of an organization may stifle the implementation of IS.

  7. Reading Orientalism and the Crisis of Epistemology in the Novels of Lawrence Durrell

    OpenAIRE

    Gifford, James

    1999-01-01

    In his article, "Reading Orientalism and the Crisis of Epistemology in the Novels of Lawrence Durrell," James Gifford argues that Edward Said's Orientalism has had a far reaching impact on the study of literature as well as in Comparative Literature, especially in works which depict the "Eastern Other." However, a question arises in those texts which have completed the philosophical motion from existentialism to epistemological skepticism such as the novels of Lawrence Durrell. For example, i...

  8. Drones, information technology, and distance: mapping the moral epistemology of remote fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of

  9. Deaf Epistemology: Deafhood and Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Peter C.; O'Hearn, Amanda; McKee, Michael; Steider, Anne; Thew, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Deaf epistemology constitutes the nature and extent of the knowledge that deaf individuals acquire growing up in a society that relies primarily on audition to navigate life. Deafness creates beings who are more visually oriented compared to their auditorily oriented peers. How hearing individuals interact with deaf individuals shapes how deaf…

  10. Epistemological Pluralism: Reorganizing Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus R. Miller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress in interdisciplinary research, difficulties remain. In this paper, we argue that scholars, educators, and practitioners need to critically rethink the ways in which interdisciplinary research and training are conducted. We present epistemological pluralism as an approach for conducting innovative, collaborative research and study. Epistemological pluralism recognizes that, in any given research context, there may be several valuable ways of knowing, and that accommodating this plurality can lead to more successful integrated study. This approach is particularly useful in the study and management of social-ecological systems. Through resilience theory's adaptive cycle, we demonstrate how a focus on epistemological pluralism can facilitate the reorganization of interdisciplinary research and avoid the build-up of significant, but insufficiently integrative, disciplinary-dominated research. Finally, using two case studies - urban ecology and social-ecological research in Alaska - we highlight how interdisciplinary work is impeded when divergent epistemologies are not recognized and valued, and that by incorporating a pluralistic framework, these issues can be better explored, resulting in more integrated understanding.

  11. Two Kinds of Social Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Steve Fuller’s programme of Social Epistemology was initiated some 25 years ago with the launching of a journal and the publication of a monograph with those very words as their title. Since then, the programme has evolved in a constant critical dialogue with other players in the fields...

  12. Scientific Instruments and Epistemology Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, T. (Tomáš)

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines the gradually changing attitude towards instruments and materials in the philosophy and historiography of science and confronts contemporary revaluations of the material culture of science with Hans-Jörg Rhein- berger's concept of an experimental system and Don Ihde's notion of an epistemology engine.

  13. Framing truths

    OpenAIRE

    Kuester, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Framing truths : parodic structures in contemporary English-Canadian historical novels. - Toronto u.a. : Univ. of Toronto Pr., 1992. - VIII, 192 S. - Zugl.: Winnipeg, Univ. of Manitoba, Diss., 1990. - (Theory/culture ; 12)

  14. Introductory Physics Students' Physics and Mathematics Epistemologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Erin M.

    The purpose of this three study dissertation is to investigate why students are enrolled in introductory physics courses experience difficulties in being successful; one possible source of their difficulties is related to their epistemology. In order to investigate students' epistemologies about mathematics and physics, students were observed solving physics problems in groups during a laboratory course (study 1) and while solving physics and mathematics problems individually during office-hour sessions (study 2). The Epistemological Resources theoretical framework was employed (Hammer & Elby, 2002). Using emergent and a priori epistemological resource operationalizations (Jones, 2015), 25 distinct epistemological resources were identified in study 1. Differences in physics epistemological resource usage between students of varying academic background (as measured by their number of previously completed mathematics and science classes were identified. By employing an external (Jones, 2015) and internal (Scanlon, 2016) a priori epistemological resource coding scheme, a total of 17 distinct epistemological resources were identified in study 2. The data were sampled to compare the mathematics and physics epistemological resource usage of participants with consistent and inconsistent sign usage in an energy conservation physics problem in order to provide a meaningful context for discussion. Participants of the same sign usage group employed epistemological resources similarly. Conversely, participants in different groups had significantly different physics epistemological resource usage patterns. Finally, student epistemological resource usage patterns from the first two studies were compared to course outcomes in order to determine implications for practice (study 3). Educators must be aware of and address the epistemological underpinnings of students' difficulties in introductory physics courses.

  15. Feminism and psychology: critiques of methods and epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H; Riger, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Starting in the 1960s, many of the critiques of psychological science offered by feminist psychologists focused on its methods and epistemology. This article evaluates the current state of psychological science in relation to this feminist critique. The analysis relies on sources that include the PsycINFO database, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010), and popular psychology methods textbooks. After situating the feminist critique within the late-20th-century shift of science from positivism to postpositivism, the inquiry examines feminists' claims of androcentric bias in (a) the underrepresentation of women as researchers and research participants and (b) researchers' practices in comparing women and men and describing their research findings. In most of these matters, psychology manifests considerable change in directions advocated by feminists. However, change is less apparent in relation to some feminists' criticisms of psychology's reliance on laboratory experimentation and quantitative methods. In fact, the analyses documented the rarity in high-citation journals of qualitative research that does not include quantification. Finally, the analysis frames feminist methodological critiques by a consideration of feminist epistemologies that challenge psychology's dominant postpositivism. Scrutiny of methods textbooks and journal content suggests that within psychological science, especially as practiced in the United States, these alternative epistemologies have not yet gained substantial influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Deaf epistemology: Deafhood and Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Peter C; O'Hearn, Amanda; McKee, Michael; Steider, Anne; Thew, Denise

    2010-01-01

    Deaf epistemology constitutes the nature and extent of the knowledge that deaf individuals acquire growing up in a society that relies primarily on audition to navigate life. Deafness creates beings who are more visually oriented compared to their auditorily oriented peers. How hearing individuals interact with deaf individuals shapes how deaf individuals acquire knowledge and how they learn. Aspects of the Deaf episteme, not caused by deafness but by Deafhood, have a positive impact on how deaf individuals learn, resist audism, stay healthy, and navigate the world. Research on psychology, health, and education are reviewed to illustrate how visually oriented beings think and view the world differently from the majority. The article provides support to the theory of multiple epistemologies,and has implications for families, teachers, and researchers.

  17. A Case for Flexible Epistemology and Metamethodology in Religious Fundamentalism Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter J. Haynes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available After reviewing a representative sample of current and historical research in religious fundamentalism, the author addresses the epistemological presuppositions supporting both quantitative and qualitative methodologies and argues for epistemological flexibility and metamethodology, both of which support and are supported by metatheoretical thinking. Habermas’ concept of the scientistic self-understanding of the sciences is used to point up the limitations of positivist epistemology, especially in the context of fundamentalism research. A metamethodological approach, supported by epistemological flexibility, makes dialogical engagement between researchers and those they research possible, and an example of how this would look in an actual research design is provided. The article concludes with a theoretical statement and graphic representation of a model for dialogical engagement between Western scholars and non-Western religious fundamentalists. Such engagement, the author argues, is necessary before any real progress on the “problem” of radicalized fundamentalism can be made.

  18. Evolutionary epistemology a multiparadigm program

    CERN Document Server

    Pinxten, Rik

    1987-01-01

    This volume has its already distant origin in an inter­national conference on Evolutionary Epistemology the editors organized at the University of Ghent in November 1984. This conference aimed to follow up the endeavor started at the ERISS (Epistemologically Relevant Internalist Sociology of Science) conference organized by Don Campbell and Alex Rosen­ berg at Cazenovia Lake, New York, in June 1981, whilst in­ jecting the gist of certain current continental intellectual developments into a debate whose focus, we thought, was in danger of being narrowed too much, considering the still underdeveloped state of affairs in the field. Broadly speaking, evolutionary epistemology today con­ sists of two interrelated, yet qualitatively distinct inves­ tigative efforts. Both are drawing on Darwinian concepts, which may explain why many people have failed to discriminate them. One is the study of the evolution of the cognitive apparatus of living organisms, which is first and foremost the province of biologists and...

  19. Bringing together two schools of social epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Finn; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2018-01-01

    Synthese was the first academic outlet to take notice of the phenomenon of social epistemology, by dedicating a special volume to the theme back in 1987. Since then social epistemology has grown into a major interdisciplinary effort in the borderland between philosophy and social science. Today......, almost a generation later, the journal has decided to make its pages available for an updated examination of the status of social epistemology...

  20. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This problem being the background of epistemology philosophy appears that by Emund Husserl developed through the phenomenology, Habermas through hermeneutics, and Ferdinand Gonseth through critical theory.

  1. "Evidence" Under a Magnifying Glass: Thoughts on Safety Argument Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, P. J.; Holloway, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Common definitions of "safety case" emphasize that evidence is the basis of a safety argument, yet few widely referenced works explicitly define "evidence". Their examples suggest that similar things can be regarded as evidence. But the category evidence seems to contain (1) processes for finding things out, (2) information resulting from such processes, and (3) relevant documents. Moreover, any item of evidence could be replaced by further argument. Normative models of informal argumentation do not offer clear guidance on when a safety argument should cite evidence rather than appeal to a more detailed argument. Disciplines such as the law address the problem with a practical, domain-specific epistemology. In this paper, we explore these problems associated with evidence citations in safety arguments, identify goals for a theory of safety argument evidence and a practical safety argument epistemology, propose a model of safety evidence citation that advances the identified goals, and present a related extension to the Goal Structuring Notation (GSN).

  2. Impact of instructional approach on students' epistemologies about experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in undergraduate physics laboratory courses has garnered increased attention within the PER community. Considerable work has been done to develop curricular materials and pedagogical techniques designed to enhance student learning within laboratory learning environments. Examples of these transformation efforts include the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), Modeling Instruction, and integrated lab/lecture environments (e.g., studio physics). In addition to improving students' understanding of the physics content, lab courses often have an implicit or explicit goal of increasing students' understanding and appreciation of the nature of experimental physics. We examine students' responses to a laboratory-focused epistemological assessment -- the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) -- to explore whether courses using transformed curricula or pedagogy show more expert-like student epistemologies relative to courses using traditional ...

  3. Framing scales and scaling frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.; Dewulf, A.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems are not just out there. Actors highlight different aspects of a situation as problematic and situate the problem on different scales. In this study we will analyse the way actors apply scales in their talk (or texts) to frame the complex decision-making process of the establishment

  4. Operator representations of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Hasannasab, Marzieh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider representations of frames {fk}k∈I in a Hilbert space ℋ of the form {fk}k∈I = {Tkf0}k∈I for a linear operator T; here the index set I is either ℤ or ℒ0. While a representation of this form is available under weak conditions on the frame, the analysis...... of the properties of the operator T requires more work. For example it is a delicate issue to obtain a representation with a bounded operator, and the availability of such a representation not only depends on the frame considered as a set, but also on the chosen indexing. Using results from operator theory we show...... that by embedding the Hilbert space ℋ into a larger Hilbert space, we can always represent a frame via iterations of a bounded operator, composed with the orthogonal projection onto ℋ. The paper closes with a discussion of an open problem concerning representations of Gabor frames via iterations of a bounded...

  5. Framing Feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Kaitlynn

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the framing in four British and American newspapers of the second wave feminist movement during its most politically active period (1968–1982). Using content and critical discourse analysis of 555 news articles, the article investigates how movement members were represented, what problems and solutions to women’s oppression/inequality were posed and whose voices were used. This paper identifies: opposition to the movement, support for the movement, conflict and movement ...

  6. [Epistemology as health research propedeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Calvo, Manuel; Román Torres, Pilar; Lapetra Peralta, José

    2011-01-01

    The present article advocates the need for epistemological training prior to the study of biostatistics and epidemiology. Taking Plato as the starting point, we reached this conclusion after analysis of the paradigm problems affecting biostatistics and the connotations of causality and research time in major epidemiological designs. External validity is intimately linked to the philosophical problem of induction. Evidence-based health could be renamed as "neopositive health" and could possibly have a French origin. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Transitions in students’ epistemic framing along two axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Irving

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We use epistemological framing to interpret participants’ behavior during group problem-solving sessions in an intermediate mechanics course. We are interested in how students frame discussion and in how the groups shift discussion framings. Our analysis includes two framing axes, expansive vs narrow and serious vs silly, which together incorporate and extend prior work on how students frame discussions in physics education research. We present markers for where discussion falls on these axes. We support our conclusions with both microanalytic excerpts of discussion and overall analysis of 75 hours of video-based data. We find that the group spends most of its time in more serious framings, and slightly more than half of its time in more narrow ones. The teaching assistant is the participant who initiates the largest number of frame shifts, and her shifts include bids to all quadrants in the expansive or narrow and serious or silly plane.

  8. Virtue Epistemology and the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallister, James

    2012-01-01

    This article initially provides a brief overview of virtue epistemology; it thereafter considers some possible ramifications of this branch of the theory of knowledge for the philosophy of education. The main features of three different manifestations of virtue epistemology are first explained. Importantly, it is then maintained that developments…

  9. Practical Epistemologies in Physical Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    With a point of departure in a transactional understanding of epistemology, the purpose of this paper is to explore practical epistemologies in physical education (PE) by investigating how knowledge is produced and reproduced in students' and teachers' actions in PE practices posted as clips on the user-generated video-sharing website…

  10. Two Different Epistemologies about Limit Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Joong; Kang, Hyangim; Lee, Hyun-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of limit concepts through the simultaneous use of historical and experimental epistemologies. Based on a historical epistemology which is an investigation of historical developments in a mathematical concept raised in the history of mathematics, four different developments of limit…

  11. Applied Epistemology and Understanding in Information Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorichanaz, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Applied epistemology allows information studies to benefit from developments in philosophy. In information studies, epistemic concepts are rarely considered in detail. This paper offers a review of several epistemic concepts, focusing on understanding, as a call for further work in applied epistemology in information studies. Method:…

  12. Epistemic Sensibility: Third Dimension of Virtue Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbase, Shashidhar

    2012-01-01

    The author tries to argue how epistemic sensibility as virtue sensibility can complement virtue epistemology. Many philosophers interrelated virtue reliabilism (e.g., Brogaard, 2006) and virtue responsibilism (e.g., Code, 1987) to virtue epistemology as two dimensions with many diverging and a few converging characters. The possible new dimension…

  13. Epistemological Development in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Epistemological development is an important factor in facilitating learner identity and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative action research study explored undergraduate social work students' epistemological beliefs about knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and implications for social work education. Data collection…

  14. The Epistemological Beliefs of Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer I.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that undergraduate students come into social work programs with an epistemological belief system that values personal experience over critical thinking processes. Epistemological development and self-efficacy are important factors to facilitating identity as a learner and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative,…

  15. Epistemological Foundation of Technology: A Rationist Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What this means is that technology is only established on the platform of science and this has denied it, its epistemological foundation. This paper therefore seeks to establish the epistemological foundation and significance of technology, and argues that it is only through the cognitive understanding of technology that its ...

  16. On the epistemological crisis in genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2008-04-01

    There is an epistemological crisis in genomics. At issue is what constitutes scientific knowledge in genomic science, or systems biology in general. Does this crisis require a new perspective on knowledge heretofore absent from science or is it merely a matter of interpreting new scientific developments in an existing epistemological framework? This paper discusses the manner in which the experimental method, as developed and understood over recent centuries, leads naturally to a scientific epistemology grounded in an experimental-mathematical duality. It places genomics into this epistemological framework and examines the current situation in genomics. Meaning and the constitution of scientific knowledge are key concerns for genomics, and the nature of the epistemological crisis in genomics depends on how these are understood.

  17. Ontological and Epistemological Foundations of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vasilachis de Gialdino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry. I begin by following the path that leads from the Epistemology of the Knowing Subject to the Epistemology of the Known Subject, proposed as a new and non exclusive way of knowing. I pass on to describe the primary and secondary characteristics of qualitative research, expressing the need for an ontological rupture. Finally, cognitive interaction and cooperative knowledge construction are considered as two fundamental features in the process of qualitative research grounded on the Epistemology of the Known Subject. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902307

  18. Anthropology and Epidemiology: learning epistemological lessons through a collaborative venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology has a long and tumultuous history. Based on empirical examples, this paper describes a number of epistemological lessons we have learned through our experience of cross disciplinary collaboration. Although critical of both mainstream epidemiology and medical anthropology, our analysis focuses on the implications of addressing each discipline's main epistemological differences, while addressing the goal of adopting a broader social approach to health improvement. We believe it is important to push the boundaries of research collaborations from the more standard forms of "multidisciplinarity," to the adoption of theoretically imbued "interdisciplinarity." The more we challenge epistemological limitations and modify ways of knowing, the more we will be able to provide in-depth explanations for the emergence of disease-patterns and thus, to problem-solve. In our experience, both institutional support and the adoption of a relativistic attitude are necessary conditions for sustained theoretical interdisciplinarity. Until researchers acknowledge that methodology is merely a human-designed tool to interpret reality, unnecessary methodological hyper-specialization will continue to alienate one field of knowledge from the other.

  19. An introduction to finite tight frames

    CERN Document Server

    Waldron, Shayne F D

    2018-01-01

    This textbook is an introduction to the theory and applications of finite tight frames, an area that has developed rapidly in the last decade. Stimulating much of this growth are the applications of finite frames to diverse fields such as signal processing, quantum information theory, multivariate orthogonal polynomials, and remote sensing. Key features and topics: * First book entirely devoted to finite frames * Extensive exercises and MATLAB examples for classroom use * Important examples, such as harmonic and Heisenberg frames, are presented in preliminary chapters, encouraging readers to explore and develop an intuitive feeling for tight frames * Later chapters delve into general theory details and recent research results * Many illustrations showing the special aspects of the geometry of finite frames * Provides an overview of the field of finite tight frames * Discusses future research directions in the field Featuring exercises and MATLAB examples in each chapter, the book is well suited as a textbook ...

  20. Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting–activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally—and perhaps historically—related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease. PMID

  1. Chinese Medicine: A Cognitive and Epistemological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Kavoussi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting–activating model (Yin-Yang, and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents. The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally—and perhaps historically—related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of

  2. Chinese medicine: a cognitive and epistemological review*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoussi, Ben

    2007-09-01

    In spite of the common belief that Chinese natural philosophy and medicine have a unique frame of reference completely foreign to the West, this article argues that they in fact have significant cognitive and epistemic similarities with certain esoteric health beliefs of pre-Christian Europe. From the standpoint of Cognitive Science, Chinese Medicine appears as a proto-scientific system of health observances and practices based on a symptomological classification of disease using two elementary dynamical-processes pattern categorization schemas: a hierarchical and combinatorial inhibiting-activating model (Yin-Yang), and a non-hierarchical and associative five-parameter semantic network (5-Elements/Agents). The concept-map of the five-parameter model amounts to a pentagram, a commonly found geomantic and spell casting sigil in a number of pre-Christian health and safety beliefs in Europe, to include the Pythagorean cult of Hygieia, and the Old Religion of Northern Europe. This non-hierarchical pattern-recognition archetype/prototype was hypothetically added to the pre-existing hierarchical one to form a hybrid nosology that can accommodate for a change in disease perceptions. The selection of five parameters rather than another number might be due to a numerological association between the integer five, the golden ratio, the geometry of the pentagram and the belief in health and wholeness arising from cosmic or divine harmony. In any case, this body of purely empirical knowledge is nowadays widely flourishing in the US and in Europe as an alternative to Western Medicine and with the claim of being a unique, independent and comprehensive medical system, when in reality it is structurally-and perhaps historically-related to the health and safety beliefs of pre-Christian Europe; and without the prospect for an epistemological rupture, it will remain built upon rudimentary cognitive modalities, ancient metaphysics, and a symptomological view of disease.

  3. Epistemological problems of human sciences and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Reyes Solís

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El campo de la epistemología es un mundo de conflictos, en ese sentido es mejor plantearse el problema epistemológico desde la visión de un sector de diferencias y luchas constantes, de un mundo de diversidad en el que las posiciones llegan a ser extremas, posiciones que van desde la negación de la epistemología como ideología científica, hasta afirmaciones de la epistemología como la posibilidad de un marco referencial único para el conocimiento humano validado como científico.

  4. Intuitions in Epistemology: Towards a Naturalistic Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Ahlstrom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative is then sketched that explores the positive implications of aforementioned problems for the demarcation of the respective roles of intuitions and empirical investigation within three epistemological domains, viz., the evaluation of epistemological hypotheses, the amelioration of epistemic practices, and the construction of a theory of epistemic value.

  5. Epistemology, software engineering and formal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1994-01-01

    One of the most basic questions anyone can ask is, 'How do I know that what I think I know is true?' The study of this question is called epistemology. Traditionally, epistemology has been considered to be of legitimate interest only to philosophers, theologians, and three year old children who respond to every statement by asking, 'Why?' Software engineers need to be interested in the subject, however, because a lack of sufficient understanding of epistemology contributes to many of the current problems in the field.

  6. The Epistemology of Moral Bioenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Parker

    2016-07-01

    Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e.g. beliefs) and that which manipulates other, non-representational states (e.g. motivations). Either way, I argue, the enhanced moral psychology will fail to conform to epistemic norms, and the only way to resolve this failure and allow the moral bioenhancement to be effective in addressing the targeted moral issues is to make the moral bioenhancement covert. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Systematic Knowledge Research. Rethinking Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther Abel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Systematic Knowledge Research is the approach used to (i describe the specific characteristics of various forms of knowledge (such as e.g. conceptual and non-conceptual knowledge; explicit and implicit knowledge; knowing-how and knowing-that. It (ii investigates the overlapping points among the various kinds of knowledge forms, and it (iii elucidates the mechanisms of interpenetration among them. Systematic Knowledge Research (iv grasps the dynamic of various forms of knowledge and their interplay, and (v describes the practices and the manifestations of knowledge. Systematic Knowledge Research provides analyses and suggestions for modeling each of the five fields as well as their interconnections. Because of these objectives Systematic Knowledge Research is different from both the traditional theory of knowledge and the varieties of science studies and meets the current desideratum to systematically broaden and revise the territory of epistemology.

  8. Teaching ill-structured problem solving using occupational therapy practice epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anita Witt

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epistemic and ontological cognition (EOC) have to do with an individual's beliefs about knowledge and knowing. Research has shown that EOC have an influence on learning and achievement. EOC may be discipline-specific with a profession being defined by its practice epistemology. If an individual's EOC is inconsistent with the profession's practice epistemology, the student or practitioner may struggle with effectively solving ill-structured occupational performance problems. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the constructs of EOC, to describe its importance to occupational therapy education and practice, and to provide recommendations for educators and researchers. Specific examples are detailed and recommendations for future research are proposed.

  9. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  10. Translational Science: Epistemology and the Investigative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2009-01-01

    The term “translational science” has recently become very popular with its usage appearing to be almost exclusively related to medicine, in particular, the “translation” of biological knowledge into medical practice. Taking the perspective that translational science is somehow different than science and that sound science is grounded in an epistemology developed over millennia, it seems imperative that the meaning of translational science be carefully examined, especially how the scientific epistemology manifests itself in translational science. This paper examines epistemological issues relating mainly to modeling in translational science, with a focus on optimal operator synthesis. It goes on to discuss the implications of epistemology on the nature of collaborations conducive to the translational investigative process. The philosophical concepts are illustrated by considering intervention in gene regulatory networks. PMID:19794882

  11. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epistemological and Treatment Implications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A. H.

    The treatment implications of understanding mind as solely epiphenomenal to nonlinearly founded neurobiology are discussed. G. Klimovsky's epistemological understanding of psychoanalysis as a science is rejected and treatment approaches integrating W. R. Bion's and D. W. Winnicott's work are supported.

  13. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Postmodern epistemology and the Christian apologetics of CS Lewis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DN Wilson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Evangelicalism at the turn of this century finds itself facing� a challenge that undermines its very validity. This challenge is generally referred to as postmodernism. Within the contemporary evangelical paradigm, the context in� which this term is generally used refers to epistemology � the structure and limitations of human self-consciousness. The gist of the popular post-modernist argument is that human consciousness always develops inductively � from the inside, outward � utilising a particular linguistic and cultural frame of reference in order to construct conceptions of reality. Human self-consciousness, as understood from this context, is therefore always ultimately, something that can only be referred to as insulated. In the light of this, human self- consciousness can have no direct access to what may be commonly referred to as, an absolute truth.

  15. Global Implications of the Indigenous Epistemological System from the East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The author argues and explains that the indigenous Eastern epistemological system of Yin-Yang balancing should be taken as a novel system or frame of thinking, which is deeply rooted in the indigenous Eastern culture traditions, but it has significant global implications, especially...... and Hegel’s dialectical logic in the West, to further explore the former’s global implications for the increased attention to research on paradox management. In particular, the author posits that Yin-Yang balancing appears to be better suited for paradox management than the more commonly used logics......-competition balance (co-opetition), globalization-localization balance (glocalization), institution-agency balance (institutional entrepreneurship), simultaneously positive and negative attitudes toward an entity (ambivalence), and etic-emic balance (geocentric) across all domains of management research. Originality...

  16. The ''state of the art in science'' examined as a concept of law from the angle of epistemology, with the example of the principle of averting danger, as defined in the emission control law and in the atomic energy law. Der Rechtsbegriff ''Stand der Wissenschaft'' aus erkenntnistheoretischer Sicht am Beispiel der Gefahrenabwehr im Immissionsschutz- und Atomrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohse, D.

    1994-01-01

    The term ''state of the art in science'' is the essential element guaranteeing the legally required measures for averting danger during specified normal operation and in case of an accident, as defined in the Atomic Energy Act and in the Federal Emission Control Act. The literature, jurisdiction, and the licensing practice are not unanimous in the interpretation of the content of this term ''state of the art in science'', its function in the licensing procedure, and its distinctions as compared to the term ''state of the art in technology''. The book in hand sets out to provide answers. The term state of the art in science appears at different places in the Atomic Energy Act (AtG) or the Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG), and in different factual contexts. Reference to the measures for averting danger offers the possibility of gearing to a specific context of this term and thus to discuss the term in a selected context. The principle of averting danger therefore offers the factual frame for an epistemological examination of the term ''state of the art in science''. Other than the Federal Constitutional Court in its Kalkar reactor judgment, the author's opinion is that the limits of the human capacity of knowledge are not due to theoretical capacities, but rather to practical. The aquired knowledge thus lags behind the knowledge achievable from the angle of epidemology. The remaining uncertainty in the author's theory thus is larger than that assumed in the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court. The limits of the human capacity of knowledge, the author says, cannot be regarded to likewise set the same limits to the principle or instrument of averting danger. The limits of averting danger are a result of the administrative capacities. (orig.)

  17. Epistemological Beliefs in Science: An Exploratory Study of Lebanese University Students' Epistemologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Nadya; Jaber, Lama; Halwany, Sarah; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing have been investigated extensively in educational and developmental psychology research. Hofer's framework on personal epistemology is adopted in the present study for assessing Lebanese university students' epistemologies of science. Participants were 213 students in their first year of…

  18. Another frame, another game? : Explaining framing effects in economic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, Philipp; Jaeger, B.; Hopfensitz, A.; Lori, E.

    2016-01-01

    Small changes in the framing of games (i.e., the way in which the game situation is described to participants) can have large effects on players' choices. For example, referring to a prisoner's dilemma game as the "Community Game" as opposed to the "Wall Street Game" can double the cooperation rate

  19. Historical transformation and epistemological discontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močnik Rastko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from recent formulas of EU bureaucracy for subordinating scientific and educational apparatuses to the needs of the capital and to the requests of its political representatives, the article analyses the interconnection between the historical transformation of the ideological state apparatuses (universities, higher education institutions, research institutes etc. and the epistemological discontinuity provoked by the triumph of technosciences. The hypothesis to be tested is the following: While the crisis of West European-North American capitalism requires an ever tighter submission of ideological state apparatuses, and especially of scientific and academic apparatuses to the needs of the capital, theoretical practices in the humanities and social sciences have come to the point where they entered into an open conflict with the domination of the capital and have, as a consequence, started to subvert their own institutional supports in the ideological apparatuses of the capitalist state. For this purpose, the article reconsiders social sciences as a compromise formation and, eventually, reassesses the historical materialism as a non-Cartesian modern science.

  20. On frame multiresolution analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We use the freedom in frame multiresolution analysis to construct tight wavelet frames (even in the case where the refinable function does not generate a tight frame). In cases where a frame multiresolution does not lead to a construction of a wavelet frame we show how one can nevertheless...

  1. Religious Epistemology: A comparative study of Ghazi Azud al-Din Iji and Allameh Helli’s views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeedimehr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that religious knowledge, as part of human knowledge, could be a subject for epistemological researches and this is why a new discipline appeared called "religious epistemology". This branch of epistemology is in fact the result of application of epistemological approach to religious doctrines. Nowadays these issues are chiefly propounded by the philosophers of religion and often concern rationalism and fideism. Due to its general epistemic nature, religious knowledge is subjected to all general debates of epistemology. The peculiarities of this type of knowledge, nevertheless, have caused some particular issues to be propounded as to it beside the general and common issues and these new issues would have no application in other epistemic domain.    It seems that the concerns regarding consistent delineation of issues of religious epistemology are more colorful to Moslem theologians as compared to Moslem philosophers. Epistemology is less noticeable indeed in comprehensive philosophical works and issues of such bent are unsystematically dealt with in logic and through discussions concerning knowledge and psychology while among theologians one can see earnest endeavors to address these issues concerning religious knowledge.    The evidence to this is the fact that in most of theological works in middle and modern ages we find systematic collection of such debates; part of them are general epistemological issues like the essence of knowledge, kinds of knowledge, the quality of knowledge acquisition, skepticism, epistemic limitations, and so on and so forth, and some of them concern religious knowledge such as the necessity of deliberation on religious issues the first epistemic obligation and the like. For example, Nobakhti in the oldest Shiite theological books, i.e. Al-Yaghut, has discussed epistemological issues though in the shortest fashion.    Regardless of the value of specific ideas offered by theologians in this

  2. Logical and epistemological approach to critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two main approaches in the conceptualization of critical thinking, logical and epistemological, are presented and analyzed in this paper. The review of logical approach begins with defining its general framework (relationship between critical thinking and informal logic and afterwards we analyze abilities and skills which are seen as basic constituents of critical thinking. In the review of epistemological approach we analyze four conceptions that present the main directions in criticizing logical approach, and also in developing the broader perspective on critical thinking that includes specific view of knowledge and its development, noncognitive dispositions and the role of subject based knowledge. At the end, we discuss the relationship between logical and epistemological approach. We claim and justify that they should be understood as complementary approaches, and we consider specific contribution of each approach to comprehensive definition of critical thinking. .

  3. Indonesian teachers' epistemological beliefs and inclusive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Kieron; Budiyanto; Kaye, Helen; Rofiah, Khofidotur

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of children with intellectual disabilities attend inclusive schools in Indonesia. Previous research has suggested that teachers' type of school and experience influences their beliefs about inclusive education. This research collected questionnaire data from 267 Indonesian teachers and compared the responses from those working in inclusive, special and regular schools regarding their epistemological and pedagogical beliefs. The results showed that teachers in inclusive schools expressed stronger social constructivist beliefs than those in other schools. However, it was teachers' epistemological beliefs, rather than their type of school or experience, which were the significant predictor of their beliefs about inclusive education. The findings suggest that international epistemological research needs to have a more nuanced view of constructivist models of learning to better understand and inform how inclusive pedagogy is being enacted in different contexts.

  4. Framing and the health policy process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Adam D; Hawkins, Benjamin; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-07-01

    Framing research seeks to understand the forces that shape human behaviour in the policy process. It assumes that policy is a social construct and can be cast in a variety of ways to imply multiple legitimate value considerations. Frames provide the cognitive means of making sense of the social world, but discordance among them forms the basis of policy contestation. Framing, as both theory and method, has proven to generate considerable insight into the nature of policy debates in a variety of disciplines. Despite its salience for understanding health policy debates; however, little is known about the ways frames influence the health policy process. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was conducted. The literature on framing in the health sector was reviewed using nine health and social science databases. Articles were included that explicitly reported theory and methods used, data source(s), at least one frame, frame sponsor and evidence of a given frame's effect on the health policy process. A total of 52 articles, from 1996 to 2014, and representing 12 countries, were identified. Much of the research came from the policy studies/political science literature (n = 17) and used a constructivist epistemology. The term 'frame' was used as a label to describe a variety of ideas, packaged as values, social problems, metaphors or arguments. Frames were characterized at various levels of abstraction ranging from general ideological orientations to specific policy positions. Most articles presented multiple frames and showed how actors advocated for them in a highly contested political process. Framing is increasingly an important, yet overlooked aspect of the policy process. Further analysis on frames, framing processes and frame conflict can help researchers and policymakers to understand opaque and highly charged policy issues, which may facilitate the resolution of protracted policy controversies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  5. Framing of health information messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger

    2011-12-07

    The same information about the evidence on health effects can be framed either in positive words or in negative words. Some research suggests that positive versus negative framing can lead to different decisions, a phenomenon described as the framing effect. Attribute framing is the positive versus negative description of a specific attribute of a single item or a state, for example, "the chance of survival with cancer is 2/3" versus "the chance of mortality with cancer is 1/3". Goal framing is the description of the consequences of performing or not performing an act as a gain versus a loss, for example, "if you undergo a screening test for cancer, your survival will be prolonged" versus "if you don't undergo screening test for cancer, your survival will be shortened". To evaluate the effects of attribute (positive versus negative) framing and of goal (gain versus loss) framing of the same health information, on understanding, perception of effectiveness, persuasiveness, and behavior of health professionals, policy makers, and consumers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, issue 3 2007), MEDLINE (Ovid) (1966 to October 2007), EMBASE (Ovid) (1980 to October 2007), PsycINFO (Ovid) (1887 to October 2007). There were no language restrictions. We reviewed the reference lists of related systematic reviews, included studies and of excluded but closely related studies. We also contacted experts in the field. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, and cross-over studies with health professionals, policy makers, and consumers evaluating one of the two types of framing. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate and independently. We graded the quality of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach. We standardized the outcome effects using standardized mean difference (SMD). We stratified the analysis by the type of framing (attribute, goal) and conducted pre

  6. The epistemological dimension in didactics: Two problematic issues

    OpenAIRE

    Florensa, Ignasi; Bosch, Marianna; Gascón, Josep

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents some theoretical considerations concerning the relationships between epistemology and didactics. We distinguish two big issues that show the mutual enrichment of both fields. On the one hand, considering teaching and learning phenomena as part of the empirical basis of epistemology enables proposing new epistemological models of mathematical bodies of knowledge. On the other hand, these epistemological models provide guidelines for the design and an...

  7. Preservice Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Informal Reasoning Regarding Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nilay; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated preservice elementary science teachers' (PSTs) informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues (SSI), their epistemological beliefs, and the relationship between informal reasoning and epistemological beliefs. From several SSIs, nuclear power usage was selected for this study. A total of 647 Turkish PSTs enrolled in three large universities in Turkey completed the open-ended questionnaire, which assessed the participants' informal reasoning about the target SSI, and Schommer's (1990) Epistemological Questionnaire. The participants' epistemological beliefs were assessed quantitatively and their informal reasoning was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings revealed that PSTs preferred to generate evidence-based arguments rather than intuitive-based arguments; however, they failed to generate quality evidence and present different types of evidence to support their claims. Furthermore, among the reasoning quality indicators, PSTs mostly generated supportive argument construction. Regarding the use of reasoning modes, types of risk arguments and political-oriented arguments emerged as the new reasoning modes. The study demonstrated that the PSTs had different epistemological beliefs in terms of innate ability, omniscient authority, certain knowledge, and quick learning. Correlational analyses revealed that there was a strong negative correlation between the PSTs' certain knowledge and counterargument construction, and there were negative correlations between the PSTs' innate ability, certain knowledge, and quick learning dimensions of epistemological beliefs and their total argument construction. This study has implications for both science teacher education and the practice of science education. For example, PST teacher education programs should give sufficient importance to training teachers that are skillful and knowledgeable regarding SSIs. To achieve this, specific SSI-related courses should form part of science

  8. Preservice Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Informal Reasoning Regarding Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nilay; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated preservice elementary science teachers' (PSTs) informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues (SSI), their epistemological beliefs, and the relationship between informal reasoning and epistemological beliefs. From several SSIs, nuclear power usage was selected for this study. A total of 647 Turkish PSTs enrolled in three large universities in Turkey completed the open-ended questionnaire, which assessed the participants' informal reasoning about the target SSI, and Schommer's (1990) Epistemological Questionnaire. The participants' epistemological beliefs were assessed quantitatively and their informal reasoning was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings revealed that PSTs preferred to generate evidence-based arguments rather than intuitive-based arguments; however, they failed to generate quality evidence and present different types of evidence to support their claims. Furthermore, among the reasoning quality indicators, PSTs mostly generated supportive argument construction. Regarding the use of reasoning modes, types of risk arguments and political-oriented arguments emerged as the new reasoning modes. The study demonstrated that the PSTs had different epistemological beliefs in terms of innate ability, omniscient authority, certain knowledge, and quick learning. Correlational analyses revealed that there was a strong negative correlation between the PSTs' certain knowledge and counterargument construction, and there were negative correlations between the PSTs' innate ability, certain knowledge, and quick learning dimensions of epistemological beliefs and their total argument construction. This study has implications for both science teacher education and the practice of science education. For example, PST teacher education programs should give sufficient importance to training teachers that are skillful and knowledgeable regarding SSIs. To achieve this, specific SSI-related courses should form part of science

  9. Ontological and Epistemological Issues Regarding Climate Models and Computer Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezer, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent philosophical discussions (Parker 2009; Frigg and Reiss 2009; Winsberg, 2009; Morgon 2002, 2003, 2005; Gula 2002) about the ontology of computer simulation experiments and the epistemology of inferences drawn from them are of particular relevance to climate science as computer modeling and analysis are instrumental in understanding climatic systems. How do computer simulation experiments compare with traditional experiments? Is there an ontological difference between these two methods of inquiry? Are there epistemological considerations that result in one type of inference being more reliable than the other? What are the implications of these questions with respect to climate studies that rely on computer simulation analysis? In this paper, I examine these philosophical questions within the context of climate science, instantiating concerns in the philosophical literature with examples found in analysis of global climate change. I concentrate on Wendy Parker’s (2009) account of computer simulation studies, which offers a treatment of these and other questions relevant to investigations of climate change involving such modelling. Two theses at the center of Parker’s account will be the focus of this paper. The first is that computer simulation experiments ought to be regarded as straightforward material experiments; which is to say, there is no significant ontological difference between computer and traditional experimentation. Parker’s second thesis is that some of the emphasis on the epistemological importance of materiality has been misplaced. I examine both of these claims. First, I inquire as to whether viewing computer and traditional experiments as ontologically similar in the way she does implies that there is no proper distinction between abstract experiments (such as ‘thought experiments’ as well as computer experiments) and traditional ‘concrete’ ones. Second, I examine the notion of materiality (i.e., the material commonality between

  10. Beyond (methodological) Nationalism and Epistemological Behaviouralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Carney, Stephen

    of interdependence and epistemological diversity. Here, students are encouraged not only to consider the ways in which a European/ rational / scientific ‘world’ view can lead to personal understanding and societal freedoms but how the production of dominant ideologies contributes to global inequality, social...... and worldviews marginalized by the hegemony of ‘northern’ theorySimilarly, we argue that the methodological nationalism inherent in much social science research overlooks the connections between the internal (subjective and personal) and external (international) dimensions of life’. Though epistemological...

  11. Ethics and Epistemology of Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Mason, Paul H; Kerridge, Ian

    2017-12-01

    In this Symposium on the Ethics and Epistemology of Big Data, we present four perspectives on the ways in which the rapid growth in size of research databanks-i.e. their shift into the realm of "big data"-has changed their moral, socio-political, and epistemic status. While there is clearly something different about "big data" databanks, we encourage readers to place the arguments presented in this Symposium in the context of longstanding debates about the ethics, politics, and epistemology of biobank, database, genetic, and epidemiological research.

  12. The Epistemological Chain in High-Level Adventure Sports Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave; Grecic, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the personal epistemology of adventure sports coaches, the existence of the epistemological chain and its impact on professional judgment and decision-making. The epistemological chain's role and operationalization in other fields is considered, offering clues to how it may manifest itself in the adventure sports coach…

  13. Examining Epistemological Beliefs of Teacher Candidates According to Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Epistemological beliefs of teachers are important factors on their perceptions of subject area and their classroom practices. This research aims to define epistemological beliefs of teacher candidates and investigates whether or not epistemological beliefs change according to teacher candidates' gender, fields of study, year of study, and…

  14. Without Boundaries: An Inquiry into Deaf Epistemologies through a Metaparadigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing debate on Deaf epistemologies reflects two major paradigms in deaf education: positivism and constructivism. The present article investigates Deaf epistemologies through a metaparadigm, which should blur the boundaries among different paradigms and connect the epistemological inquiry to instructional practice for d/Deaf students. The…

  15. Epistemological Development and Attachment in European College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carla; Soares, Isabel; Silva, Carolina; Bastos, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Epistemological development and attachment theory have been independent frameworks for understanding psychological development. This study examined the association between epistemological development (using the Measure of Epistemological Reflection) and attachment (using the Adult Attachment Interview) in a sample of 60 pre- and postgraduated…

  16. Is there an 'African' Epistemology? | Airoboman | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work is a rethinking of the idea of culture-dependent epistemology. It inquired into the meaning of African epistemology. It presented briefly some epistemological rumination of Africans which agreed with the universal nature of philosophizing. Thereafter, it presented the position of the proponents which held that there ...

  17. In Defense of Clarity in the Study of Personal Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Andrew Elby (this issue) argues that researchers in the field of personal epistemology should beware insistence on a narrow definition of epistemology to guide this work. His argument is a response to suggestions (Hofer & Pintrich, 1997; Sandoval, 2005) that the study of personal epistemology should focus on people's views about knowledge and…

  18. Science education for sustainability, epistemological reflections and educational practices: from natural sciences to trans-disciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci-Gray, Laura; Perazzone, Anna; Dodman, Martin; Camino, Elena

    2013-03-01

    In this three-part article we seek to establish connections between the emerging framework of sustainability science and the methodological basis of research and practice in science education in order to bring forth knowledge and competences for sustainability. The first and second parts deal with the implications of taking a sustainability view in relation to knowledge processes. The complexity, uncertainty and urgency of global environmental problems challenge the foundations of reductionist Western science. Within such debate, the proposal of sustainability science advocates for inter-disciplinary and inter-paradigmatic collaboration and it includes the requirements of post- normal science proposing a respectful dialogue between experts and non-experts in the construction of new scientific knowledge. Such a change of epistemology is rooted into participation, deliberation and the gathering of extended-facts where cultural framings and values are the hard components in the face of soft facts. A reflection on language and communication processes is thus the focus of knowledge practices and educational approaches aimed at sustainability. Language contains the roots of conceptual thinking (including scientific knowledge) and each culture and society are defined and limited by the language that is used to describe and act upon the world. Within a scenario of sustainability, a discussion of scientific language is in order to retrace the connections between language and culture, and to promote a holistic view based on pluralism and dialogue. Drawing on the linguistic reflection, the third part gives examples of teaching and learning situations involving prospective science teachers in action-research contexts: these activities are set out to promote linguistic integration and to introduce reflexive process into science learning. Discussion will focus on the methodological features of a learning process that is akin to a communal and emancipatory research process within

  19. Observation of agoraphobic syndrome through the prism of psychoanalytic epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandić Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus of the text is on psychoanalytic epistemology of agoraphobic syndrome which is still not sufficiently clarified in psychodynamic parameters. Detailed theorethic study starts from the very origins, theoretical and practical suggestions of Sigmund Freud. Early psychoanalytic formulations include psychodynamic models of Karl Abraham, Helene Deutsch and Edoardo Weiss, as well as a number of other significant analysts who gave significant insight to the metapsychological formulations of agoraphobia in the beginning of XX century. After portraying crucial theoretic frames of dynamics of agoraphobia originating from French psychoanalysis, illustrated through the work of Maurice Bouvet and Jannine Chasseguet - Smirgle, author moves towards psychoanalytic models presented to the psychoanalytic community during the first and second decade of XXI century. This segment incorporates autistic objects of agoraphobic neurotic according to Donald Cartwright and synthesis of crucial traits of representations of self and representations of object according to Barbara Milrod. Leading us towards the conclusion author makes a resume of the actual psychoanalytic epistemology of the agoraphoic syndrome pointing out at the centrality of non adequately solved separation - individuation stage, as well as ego defects associated to he agoraphobic syndrome. Specificity of object relations of agoraphobic neurotic she illustrates pointing out at the nature of his relationship with the follower, that psychic fusion which provides the feeling of certainty outside the safety of ones own home. This detailed overview of severely insufficient published literature devoted to agoraphobia is resumed accenting the necessity for its further research, as well as clear notion that although neurotic disorder, agoraphobic syndrome by at least one of its pole gravitates towards nozologycal unit marking personality disorders.

  20. [Introduction to epistemology in nursing sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The development of nursing research is one of the stages in the process for the professionalization of nurses. An epistemological reflection which took place gradually became necessary. Today, three traditions derived from the positivist, interpretative and critical approaches orientate reflections on nursing sciences, not without some controversy and debate.

  1. Positionalities, Personal Epistemologies, and Instruction: An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' sense of who they are and what their positions are in relation to others is known to be their positionality. Positionalities influence individuals' conception of the world, thus their epistemologies. A few of the positionalities that exist, and included in this paper, are gender, spirituality, race/ethnicity, and social class. All…

  2. What's Epistemology Got to Do with It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Richard K.

    2017-01-01

    Feminist standpoint epistemology is neither a necessary nor a sufficient starting point for social work intervention research. Contemporary social scientists readily grapple with cultural, political, and/or structural aspects of social problems either in the absence of or in conjunction with an explicitly formulated feminist standpoint…

  3. A comprehensive philosophical approach to Qohelet's epistemology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-23

    Apr 23, 2015 ... The extant research seems to be limited to try to find a suitable philosophical profile for Qohelet's concept of knowledge whilst ignoring a whole array of topics and theories in contemporary analytic epistemology. The available research thus reveals an 'inside-out' approach that is, reading Qohelet and then ...

  4. A critical exposition of Isaac Levi's epistemology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, Allard

    2003-01-01

    The branch of philosophical logic which has become known as “belief change” has, in the course of its development, become alienated from its epistemological origins. However, as formal criteria do not suffice to defend a principled choice between competing systems for belief change, we do need to

  5. Globalization, Post-modernity and Epistemological Imperialism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge is crucial to the march of globalization but as globalization from national financial systems, this study identifies steps that Africa could adopt to confront epistemological imperialism. Keywords: Globalization; Post-modernity; Political Economy. International Journal of Educational Research Vol. 4 (1) 2008: pp. 183- ...

  6. Truth Approximation, Social Epistemology, and Opinion Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, Igor; Kelp, Christoph

    This paper highlights some connections between work on truth approximation and work in social epistemology, in particular work on peer disagreement. In some of the literature on truth approximation, questions have been addressed concerning the efficiency of research strategies for approximating the

  7. Organizational Epistemology, Education and Social Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2007-01-01

    Organizational learning or epistemology has emerged in order to manage the creation of knowledge and innovation within contemporary capitalism. Its insights are being applied also to the public sector. Much of the research in organizational learning has drawn upon the discipline of psychology, particularly constructivist theory. Two approaches in…

  8. John Locke‟s Epistemology and Teachings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... John Locke belongs to the epistemological school of thought called. Empiricism. Empiricism is a reaction ..... training at Westminster were not favourable to public school education. He sees very clearly the ... Locke is also opposed to multiplication of rules and again would rather trust the formation of habits' ...

  9. Metaethics Meets Virtue Epistemology: Salvaging Disagreement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virtue ethics and virtue epistemology shift the focus of evaluation from thin concepts to thick ones. Simon Blackburn has argued that a shift to thick ethical concepts dooms us to talking past one another. I contend that virtue epistemologists can answer. Blackburn's objection, thus salvaging genuine disagreement about the ...

  10. Humanistic epistemology* | Ijiomah | Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Humanistic epistemology*.

  11. A comprehensive philosophical approach to Qohelet's epistemology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increasing number of studies have seen the light over the last few decades concerning the epistemology of the book of Ecclesiastes. The extant research seems to be limited to try to find a suitable philosophical profile for Qohelet's concept of knowledge whilst ignoring a whole array of topics and theories in contemporary ...

  12. Anti-Luck (Too Weak) Virtue Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    I argue that Duncan Pritchard’s anti-luck virtue epistemology is insufficient for knowledge. I show that Pritchard fails to achieve the aim that motivates his adoption of a virtue-theoretic condition in the first place: to guarantee the appropriate direction of fit that known beliefs have. Finally...

  13. Can Inferentialism Contribute to Social Epistemology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Robert Brandom's work can be used to develop ideas in the area of social epistemology. It suggests that this work, precisely because it was influenced by Hegel, can make a significant contribution with philosophical anthropology at its centre. The argument is developed using illustrations from education: the first, from…

  14. Physics Teaching: Mathematics as an Epistemological Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneubil, Fabiana B.; Robilotta, Manoel R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the interconnection between Physics and Mathematics in concrete instances, departing from the usual expression for the Coulomb electric field, produced by a point-like charge. It is scrutinized by means of six epistemology-intensive questions and radical answers are proposed, intended to widen one's understanding of the subject. Our…

  15. Caring-ethical phronetic research: Epistemological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delmar, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    values, caring ethical practice, and power relations experience difficulties if the knowledge generated by their research is judged on the basis of "science as usual." In order to elucidate this problem, the Socratic epistemological theory is discussed, particularly in light of Flyvbjerg's (2001) theory...

  16. Prime tight frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Miller, Christopher; Okoudjou, Kasso A.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a class of finite tight frames called prime tight frames and prove some of their elementary properties. In particular, we show that any finite tight frame can be written as a union of prime tight frames. We then characterize all prime harmonic tight frames and use thischaracterization...... to suggest effective analysis and synthesis computation strategies for such frames. Finally, we describe all prime frames constructed from the spectral tetris method, and, as a byproduct, we obtain a characterization of when the spectral tetris construction works for redundancies below two....

  17. Framing the Realist Novel

    OpenAIRE

    Blunden, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Framing the Realist novel develops a theory of framing the realist novel with a distinction made between internal framing devices and the external frames of ontology and ethics. An encompassing methodological frame of critical rationality is developed. What the realist novel is is discussed in chapter one and a distinction is drawn between the historical period in the second half of the nineteenth century and realism that pervades realist narrative more generally. Chapter three applies the th...

  18. PERKEMBANGAN PARADIGMA EPISTEMOLOGI DALAM FILSAFAT ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathul Mufid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:    Based on historical reports, Islamic epistemology paradigm has evolved from time to time bringing different schools each other. This paper aims at revealing such differences. Methods employed are philosophical Literary Review where compiled data are analyzed inductively to formulate theoretical constructions. Research findings reveal that peripatetic philosophers highlight their mind as a dominant tool to gain knowledge using demonstrative method (burhānī.Whilst illuminative philosophers, ‘irfāniyyīn, and Sufis believe that knowledge can only be derived from mystical intuition after purification of the heart (qalb trough practices (riyā╨ah. Different schools such as ones held by Mulla Sadra and Abed al-Jabiri are based on those distinctive principles.Abstrak:      Paradigma epistemologi pemikiran Islam menurut laporan sejarah mengalami perkembangan dari zaman ke zaman, yang berbeda prinsip antara aliran yang satu dengan yang lain. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menguak letak perbedaan antara aliran-aliran tersebut. Metode kepustakaan filsafat dilakukan dengan analisa data induktif untuk merumuskan konstruksi teoritik.  Temuan penelitian ini adalah, bahwa para filosof Muslim Paripatetik mengedepankan akal atau rasio sebagai alat yang paling dominan untuk memperoleh pengetahuan yang benar dengan menggunakan metode demonstratif (burhānī. Sementara filosof iluminasi, kaum ‘irfānī, dan kaum sufi berprinsip bahwa pengetahuan hakiki hanya dapat diperoleh melalui intuisi-mistik, setelah melalui proses penyucian hati (qalb dengan berbagai bentuk latihan (riyā╨ah. Sementara epistemologi Mulla Sadra menggunakan tipe “hikmah”, yaitu pemaduan antara visi rasional dengan visi mistik, yang kemudian diselaraskan dengan syari’at. Epistemolog kontemporer, Abed al-Jabiri memilih epistemologi burhānī yang meyakini bahwa sumber pengetahuan adalah rasio, bukan teks atau intuisi.

  19. Typology reconfigured: from the metaphysics of essentialism to the epistemology of representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to encourage a reconfiguration of the discussion about typology in biology away from the metaphysics of essentialism and toward the epistemology of classifying natural phenomena for the purposes of empirical inquiry. First, I briefly review arguments concerning 'typological thinking', essentialism, species, and natural kinds, highlighting their predominantly metaphysical nature. Second, I use a distinction between the aims, strategies, and tactics of science to suggest how a shift from metaphysics to epistemology might be accomplished. Typological thinking can be understood as a scientific tactic that involves representing natural phenomena using idealizations and approximations, which facilitates explanation, investigation, and theorizing via abstraction and generalization. Third, a variety of typologies from different areas of biology are introduced to emphasize the diversity of this representational reasoning. One particular example is used to examine how there can be epistemological conflict between typology and evolutionary analysis. This demonstrates that alternative strategies of typological thinking arise due to the divergent explanatory goals of researchers working in different disciplines with disparate methodologies. I conclude with several research questions that emerge from an epistemological reconfiguration of typology.

  20. Advaita (Non-dualism as Metatheory: A Constellation of Ontology, Epistemology, and Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Poonamallee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrating contradictory and mutually exclusive positions is a challenge in building a metatheory. In this paper, I examine how advaita (non-dualism philosophy is a metatheory. Based on a holistic, non-dualistic ontology, discovery based epistemology, and personal accountability-action-reflection oriented praxis, it provides a useful metatheory for embracing, learning from, and transcending the paradoxes of social life. I use the example of Gandhi as a practitioner of this approach to action and knowledge.

  1. Epistemological messages conveyed by three high school and college mathematics textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Sundström (Raman), Manya

    2004-01-01

    Mathematics textbooks embody a particular set of assumptions about mathematics or the mathematics intended for students at a particular level. Thus, an epistemological analysis of textbooks can provide some context for understanding, for example, the difficulties many students encounter when moving from high-school to collegiate mathematics. In this study, we consider how typical pre-calculus, calculus, and analysis texts treat the topic of continuity. We find that these texts send conflictin...

  2. Ontological and epistemological terrains revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, A

    1996-12-01

    The present commentary discusses the scientific legitimacy of theories confined to correlations of observables and those that specify the mechanisms governing the relations between observable events. Operant analysts frame the theoretical differences misleadingly when the operant approach is portrayed as addressing environmental influence for effecting change but cognitive approaches are depicted as disembodied from environmental influences and thus can only provide correlates with action. In point of fact, both approaches encompass environmental influences. The major issues in contention are whether human thinking is entirely or only partially shaped by environmental influences; whether the influences in the person-environment relation flow unidirectionally or bidirectionally; and whether human thought serves a determinative function or is a functionless epiphenomenon. Proponents of epiphenomenalism regard other people's thinking as functionless by-products of conditioned responses, but present their own thoughts on matters as the right ones that provide functional guides for structuring interventions. This commentary discusses the self-negating nature of the epiphenomenalism argument. It also corrects misunderstandings and misrepresentations of self-efficacy theory.

  3. An epistemological shift: from evidence-based medicine to epistemological responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baalen, Sophie; Boon, Mieke

    2015-06-01

    In decision making concerning the diagnosis and treatment of patients, doctors have a responsibility to do this to the best of their abilities. Yet we argue that the current paradigm for best medical practice - evidence-based medicine (EBM) - does not always support this responsibility. EBM was developed to promote a more scientific approach to the practice of medicine. This includes the use of randomized controlled trials in the testing of new treatments and prophylactics and rule-based reasoning in clinical decision making. But critics of EBM claim that such a scientific approach does not always work in the clinic. In this article, we build on this critique and argue that rule-based reasoning and the use of general guidelines as promoted by EBM does not accommodate the complex reasoning of doctors in clinical decision making. Instead, we propose that a new medical epistemology is needed that accounts for complex reasoning styles in medical practice and at the same time maintains the quality usually associated with 'scientific'. The medical epistemology we propose conforms to the epistemological responsibility of doctors, which involves a specific professional attitude and epistemological skills. Instead of deferring part of the professional responsibility to strict clinical guidelines, as EBM allows for, our alternative epistemology holds doctors accountable for epistemic considerations in clinical decision making towards the diagnosis and treatment plan of individual patients. One of the key intellectual challenges of doctors is the ability to bring together heterogeneous pieces of information to construct a coherent 'picture' of a specific patient. In the proposed epistemology, we consider this 'picture' as an epistemological tool that may then be employed in the diagnosis and treatment of a specific patient. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Uniformities and covering properties for partial frames (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Frith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Partial frames provide a rich context in which to do pointfree structured and unstructured topology. A small collection of axioms of an elementary nature allows one to do much traditional pointfree topology, both on the level of frames or locales, and that of uniform or metric frames. These axioms are sufficiently general to include as examples bounded distributive lattices, $sigma$-frames, $kappa$-frames and frames.  Reflective subcategories of uniform and nearness spaces and lately coreflective subcategories of uniform and nearness frames have been a topic of considerable interest. In cite{jfas9} an easily implementable criterion for establishing certain coreflections in nearness frames was presented. Although the primary application in that paper was in the setting of nearness frames, it was observed there that similar techniques apply in many categories; we establish here, in this more general setting of structured partial frames, a technique that unifies these. We make use of the notion of a partial frame, which is a meet-semilattice in which certain designated subsets are required to have joins, and finite meets distribute over these. After presenting our axiomatization of partial frames, which we call $sels$-frames, we add structure, in the form of $sels$-covers and nearness, and provide the promised method of constructing certain coreflections. We illustrate the method with the examples of uniform, strong and totally bounded nearness $sels$-frames.  In Part (II of this paper, we consider regularity, normality and compactness for partial frames.

  5. Learning while caring: medicine's epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    An essential epistemic consideration is the conditional nature of medical knowledge. This uncertainty must be understood when acquiring new knowledge or designing treatments. We must value all sources of information, neither discarding those deemed lower on the current value scale, nor slavishly accepting randomized clinical trials or their meta-analyses as the fount of all knowledge. Generally, the tension between clinical investigation and individual care can be framed in a utilitarian versus deontologic or rights-based philosophy. The utilitarian is clearly appropriate to public health considerations, but what is learned for public health may not necessarily be in the best interest of an individual patient. In utilitarianism, the distribution of goods-in this case, health-is not important; rather, it is the amount of total good gained that is to be maximized. Too often we assume that survival or cure is a sufficient metric, with no similar quantitative measure of other factors. This often leads to the so-called best treatment being not what the patient wants. All personal care requires consideration of both the helpful and harmful consequences of treatment in the context of individual patient comorbidity, preferences, and fears. Knowledge of patients in general is not what is required; rather, it is how to apply the information to the particular patient that is the heart of medical practice. Each patient's episode of illness is the consequence of a unique interaction of that individual with the disease. Good patient care considers the disease and its management in the context of each patient's values. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Epistemological Belief Congruency in Mathematics between Vocational Technology Students and Their Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Unruh, Susan; Morphew, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Three questions were addressed in this study. Is there evidence of epistemological beliefs congruency between students and their instructor? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict mathematical anxiety? Do students' epistemological beliefs, students' epistemological congruence, or both predict…

  7. La Epistemología Naturalizada y la Necesidad de Mantener su Dimensión Filosófica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Monterroza-Ríos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of the epistemology naturalization proposals labeled as replacement thesis andas complementarity thesis described by Martínez & Olivé and aims at providing arguments to support the latter instead oftotally abandoning the philosophical activity inherent to epistemology. Such arguments are given through citing the way that twentieth century philosophy has thought about scientific theories again, but this time from aparallel and a posteriori perspective of sciences themselves and notas a basis for their development. On the other hand, this work gives two examples oftheoretical developments with philosophical contents complementing the research on knowledge and that are useful as arguments to keep the complementarity thesis. This paper maintains that although it is constructive to naturalize epistemology, the fact of turning it into a fully empirical science would be a backward movement.

  8. Frame Permutation Quantization

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ha Q.; Goyal, Vivek K; Lav R Varshney

    2009-01-01

    Frame permutation quantization (FPQ) is a new vector quantization technique using finite frames. In FPQ, a vector is encoded using a permutation source code to quantize its frame expansion. This means that the encoding is a partial ordering of the frame expansion coefficients. Compared to ordinary permutation source coding, FPQ produces a greater number of possible quantization rates and a higher maximum rate. Various representations for the partitions induced by FPQ are presented, and recons...

  9. Deep Frame Interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Samsonov, Vladislav

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a supervised learning based approach to the computer vision problem of frame interpolation. The presented technique could also be used in the cartoon animations since drawing each individual frame consumes a noticeable amount of time. The most existing solutions to this problem use unsupervised methods and focus only on real life videos with already high frame rate. However, the experiments show that such methods do not work as well when the frame rate becomes low and objec...

  10. Filter Bank Fusion Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Chebira, Amina; Fickus, Matthew; Mixon, Dustin G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using ...

  11. Non-spectral fractal measures with Fourier frames

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chun-Kit; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the compatible tower condition given by Strichartz to the almost-Parseval-frame tower and show that non-trivial examples of almost-Parseval-frame tower exist. By doing so, we demonstrate the first singular fractal measure which has only finitely many mutually orthogonal exponentials (and hence it does not admit any exponential orthonormal bases), but it still admits Fourier frames.

  12. Innovation of the Dutch window frame: The Kapla concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Kroon, J.C.A. de; Bouma, P.W.

    2003-01-01

    The development of the Kapla@ window frame means a breakthrough in the timber window frame market in the Netherlands. This development is a typical example of a combined process and product innovation, a joint project with the relevant branch organizations. The success of the Kapla@ window frame

  13. Towards a posthuman collective: ontology, epistemology, ethics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Radomska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reconstruction of the basic ontological, epistemological and ethical premises of the posthumanist project (called also the posthumanist theory or the posthumanist tool, while analysing the theoretical propositions of Karen Barad, Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari as well as Donna Haraway. It is only by such meticulous definition of theoretical tool that one may be able to pose the question of the posthuman collective and posthumanist politics.

  14. Formalized Epistemology in a Philosophical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, Hervé

    The need for a formalized epistemology is recognized by all scholars who think that the relativity of all sciences must not be referred to a social relativism. In XXth century, Husserl was the protagonist of such an epistemic philosophy. But this philosophy was more successful in social and human sciences than in natural sciences. In this latter domain, quantum mechanics obeys the requirements of a Kantien perspective in a more precise sense that was the case with Newtonian mechanics.

  15. Epistemology and politics of interdisciplinary methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gabriel Rodríguez Zoya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to propound a complex concept of interdiscipline, one that should be epistemologically rigorous, methodologically viable and politically critical. This implies to assume an explicit ideological position that involves a particular conception of the relation between science and society: interdisciplinary knowledge is necessary for a politics being able to intervene in complex problems affecting people life in Latin America.

  16. Relationship-centred care: antidote, guidepost or blind alley? The epistemology of 21st century health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, Peter C; Alves Silva, Suzana; Post, Stephen G; Quinlan, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Contemporary health care is increasing in complexity and lacks a unifying understanding of epistemology, methodology and goals. Lack of conceptual consistency in concepts such as 'patient-centred care' (PCC) typifies system-wide discordance. We contrast the fragmented descriptions of PCC and related tools to its own origins in the writings of Balint and to a subsequent construct, relationship-centred care (RCC). We identify the explicit and elaborated connection between RCC and a defined epistemological foundation as a distinguishing feature of the construct and we demonstrate that this makes possible the recognition of alignments between RCC and independently developed constructs. Among these, we emphasize Schon's reflective practice, Nonaka's theory of organizational knowledge creation and the research methodology of realist synthesis. We highlight the relational principles common to these domains and to their common epistemologies and illustrate unsatisfying consequences of adherence to less adequate epistemological frameworks such as positivism. We offer RCC not as an 'antidote' to the dilemmas identified at the outset but as an example that illuminates the value and importance of explicit identification of the premises and assumptions underlying approaches to improvement of the health care system. We stress the potential value of identifying epistemological affinities across otherwise disparate fields and disciplines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Making students' frames explicit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Hansen, Poul Henrik Kyvsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Framing is a vital part of the design and innovation process. Frames are cognitive shortcuts (i.e. metaphors) that enable designers to connect insights about i.e. market opportunities and users needs with a set of solution principles and to test if this connection makes sense. Until now, framing...

  18. Recognizing tacit knowledge in medical epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based medicine movement advocates basing all medical decisions on certain types of quantitative research data and has stimulated protracted controversy and debate since its inception. Evidence-based medicine presupposes an inaccurate and deficient view of medical knowledge. Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge both explains this deficiency and suggests remedies for it. Polanyi shows how all explicit human knowledge depends on a wealth of tacit knowledge which accrues from experience and is essential for problem solving. Edmund Pellegrino's classic treatment of clinical judgment is examined, and a Polanyian critique of this position demonstrates that tacit knowledge is necessary for understanding how clinical judgment and medical decisions involve persons. An adequate medical epistemology requires much more qualitative research relevant to the clinical encounter and medical decision making than is currently being done. This research is necessary for preventing an uncritical application of evidence-based medicine by health care managers that erodes good clinical practice. Polanyi's epistemology shows the need for this work and provides the structural core for building an adequate and robust medical epistemology that moves beyond evidence-based medicine.

  19. Frame-to-frame coherent GPU splatting

    OpenAIRE

    Grau Carrion, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Recently, several improvements of the classical splatting volume rendering technique have been proposed, specifically, GPU implementations that considerably speed it up. However, splatting time-varying data, even using the GPU, is still slow and not very suitable for interactive data exploration through time. In this paper, we propose a GPU-based viewaligned splatting algorithm that exploits frame-to-frame coherence to render time-varying volume datasets. Our method run-length enc...

  20. The Hermeneutics of Frames and Framing

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Carter

    2013-01-01

    Frames are organizing principles that are socially shared and persistent over time, and that work symbolically to meaningfully structure the social world. The study of framing has grown over the past decades as mass media has become more and more ubiquitous in society. People rely on media for information and access to local, national, and world events. This reliance on the media is important to address as news stories...

  1. The epistemological chain in high-level adventure sports coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, L.; Collins, D; Grecic, D.,

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the personal epistemology of adventure sports coaches, the existence of the epistemological chain and its impact on professional judgment and decision-making. The epistemological chain’s role and operationalization in other fields is considered, offering clues to how it may manifest itself in the adventure sports coach context. High-level adventure sports coaches were interviewed and an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach was adopted for the interview transcri...

  2. Multivariate wavelet frames

    CERN Document Server

    Skopina, Maria; Protasov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a systematic study of multivariate wavelet frames with matrix dilation, in particular, orthogonal and bi-orthogonal bases, which are a special case of frames. Further, it provides algorithmic methods for the construction of dual and tight wavelet frames with a desirable approximation order, namely compactly supported wavelet frames, which are commonly required by engineers. It particularly focuses on methods of constructing them. Wavelet bases and frames are actively used in numerous applications such as audio and graphic signal processing, compression and transmission of information. They are especially useful in image recovery from incomplete observed data due to the redundancy of frame systems. The construction of multivariate wavelet frames, especially bases, with desirable properties remains a challenging problem as although a general scheme of construction is well known, its practical implementation in the multidimensional setting is difficult. Another important feature of wavelet is ...

  3. Epistemology and Education: Nimat Hafez BarazangiEpistemology and Education: Nimat Hafez Barazangi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda Guardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The text whose translation I present here deals with feminist epistemology in the Muslim world. As the epistemological assumptions are different from that of Western feminist thought, I introduce it to make the reader familiar with some basic concepts. I consider this text a classic in its field as it is a fundamental text for the development of Muslim feminist thought, a thought whose beginning can be placed in the second half of the twentieth century. In the introduction, after presenting some critical issues, I will briefly introduce the author and her thought.

  4. The influence of modern epistemological streams. The case of epistemological anarchism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore Ioan PIROȘCĂ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The rationale of this research goes into the origins of the history of economic science but is willing to underpin new coordinates in methodology of science. An unusual account about this aspect shows the fear of some economists that overrating the role of methodology of science could bring scientific chauvinism out. Nor were these problems of recent origin; they were rooted in deep epistemological debates over time. Considering the theoretical evidence analyzed in this paper work, this approach of modern epistemological streams puts forward new highlights of economic methodology.

  5. EPISTEMOLOGI KEILMUAN DALAM ISLAM: KAJIAN TERHADAP PEMIKIRAN M. AMIN ABDULLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musliadi Musliadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to answer the fundamental questions regarding epistemological problems in philosophical science discourses; the role and the influence of epistemological science in Islam and the offering constructional models of Islamic epistemological science of Amin Abdullah thinking context. Amin Abdullah is the founder of integrative-inter-connective Islamic epistemology. This integrative-inter-connective can be understood as an attempt to build a bridge knowledge of various disciplines which previously experienced a gap (normative and historical, whether religious, social, humanities, and of natural science.

  6. EPISTEMOLOGY OF SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF HUMBERTO MATURANA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyce Lúcia Abreu Pereira Oliveira; Maria Aparecida Crepaldi

    2017-01-01

    Epistemology of Systems Thinking (ST) has undergone important changes throughout the twentieth century and has gradually gained ground in scientific investigations and interventions in different contexts...

  7. Scholarly Holds Lead over Popular and Instructional: Text Type Influences Epistemological Reading Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Isabel; Nuckles, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Scholarly scientific literature conveys epistemological assumptions scientists operate on. Popular scientific literature and instructional science texts deviate in their portrayal of science from these epistemological assumptions. Thus, scholarly scientific literature holds more potential for improving students' epistemological understanding…

  8. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More Than Qualitative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with this premise, I address four themes in this commentary. First, I criticize the ubiquitous and uncritical use of the term health disparities in U.S. public health. Next, I advocate for the increased use of qualitative methodologies-namely, photovoice and critical ethnography-that, pursuant to critical approaches, prioritize dismantling social-structural inequities as a prerequisite to health equity. Thereafter, I discuss epistemological stance and its influence on all aspects of the research process. Finally, I highlight my critical discourse analysis HIV prevention research based on individual interviews and focus groups with Black men, as an example of a critical health equity research approach.

  9. Geometric Properties of Grassmannian Frames for and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto John J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassmannian frames are frames satisfying a min-max correlation criterion. We translate a geometrically intuitive approach for two- and three-dimensional Euclidean space ( and into a new analytic method which is used to classify many Grassmannian frames in this setting. The method and associated algorithm decrease the maximum frame correlation, and hence give rise to the construction of specific examples of Grassmannian frames. Many of the results are known by other techniques, and even more generally, so that this paper can be viewed as tutorial. However, our analytic method is presented with the goal of developing it to address unresovled problems in -dimensional Hilbert spaces which serve as a setting for spherical codes, erasure channel modeling, and other aspects of communications theory.

  10. Aerospace Example

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a textbook, created example for illustration purposes. The System takes inputs of Pt, Ps, and Alt, and calculates the Mach number using the Rayleigh Pitot...

  11. Religious Epistemology: A comparative study of Ghazi Azud al-Din Iji and Allameh Helli’s views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Fattahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that religious knowledge, as part of human knowledge, could be a subject for epistemological researches and this is why a new discipline appeared called "religious epistemology". This branch of epistemology is in fact the result of application of epistemological approach to religious doctrines. Nowadays these issues are chiefly propounded by the philosophers of religion and often concern rationalism and fideism. Due to its general epistemic nature, religious knowledge is subjected to all general debates of epistemology. The peculiarities of this type of knowledge, nevertheless, have caused some particular issues to be propounded as to it beside the general and common issues and these new issues would have no application in other epistemic domain.    It seems that the concerns regarding consistent delineation of issues of religious epistemology are more colorful to Moslem theologians as compared to Moslem philosophers. Epistemology is less noticeable indeed in comprehensive philosophical works and issues of such bent are unsystematically dealt with in logic and through discussions concerning knowledge and psychology while among theologians one can see earnest endeavors to address these issues concerning religious knowledge.    The evidence to this is the fact that in most of theological works in middle and modern ages we find systematic collection of such debates; part of them are general epistemological issues like the essence of knowledge, kinds of knowledge, the quality of knowledge acquisition, skepticism, epistemic limitations, and so on and so forth, and some of them concern religious knowledge such as the necessity of deliberation on religious issues the first epistemic obligation and the like. For example, Nobakhti in the oldest Shiite theological books, i.e. Al-Yaghut, has discussed epistemological issues though in the shortest fashion.    Regardless of the value of specific ideas offered by theologians in this

  12. Trusting others. The epistemological authority of testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando BRONCANO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available I propose to consider the interpersonal character of testimony as a kind of social bond created by the mutual intention of sharing knowledge. The paper explores the social mechanism that supports this mutual intention starting from an initial situation of modelling the other’s epistemic perspective. Accepting testimony as a joint action creates epistemic duties and responsibilities and the eventual success can be considered as a genuine achievement at the social level of epistemology. Trust is presented here as the symptom that both parties are involved in such a social bond.

  13. Constructive Analysis : A Study in Epistemological Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    , and develops a framework for a kind of analysis that is more in keeping with recent psychological research on categorization. Finally, it is shown that this kind of analysis can be applied to the concept of justification in a manner that furthers the epistemological goal of providing intellectual guidance.......The present study is concerned the viability of the primary method in contemporary philosophy, i.e., conceptual analysis. Starting out by tracing the roots of this methodology to Platonic philosophy, the study questions whether such a methodology makes sense when divorced from Platonic philosophy...

  14. Overview of research of personal epistemologies: Analysis of research metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents developmental, cognitive and psychometric tradition in research of personal epistemologies. Instead of a 'neutral' approach, we offer the analysis of research metaphors underlying the studying of personal epistemologies. Metaphor 'pilgrim's progress' assumes understanding epistemological development as a 'temptation' leading towards 'enlightenment' and abandoning faith in Absolute truth. Metaphor 'regulatory software' narrows down researcher's subject of interest to epistemic cognition in the specific problem situation, whereby evaluation of functioning of 'regulatory software' and its improvement are observed as the most important tasks. Finally, within the metaphor 'decent outfit' the starting assumption is that epistemological beliefs are relatively fixed and that personal epistemologies which are 'balanced' and 'decent' are privileged. By analyzing research metaphors, light was shed on basic assumptions and implications of research of personal epistemologies. The following questions were explored: which ways of 'seeing' were pledged in the approaches to research of personal epistemologies, which methodological choices arise from those ways of 'seeing', as well as which are the functions or effects of different ways of 'seeing'. In this way, a new perspective was offered for the assessment of multiple conceptualizations in research of personal epistemologies.

  15. Loneliness, Depression, and Epistemological Relativity in Early and Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; And Others

    Epistemological loneliness refers to the isolation adolescents may experience as the result of cognitive relativism, ushered in by the emergence of formal operational thought. To examine the relationship between cognitive relativity, epistemological loneliness, and depression in adolescence, 108 adolescents (29 seventh graders, 29 ninth graders,…

  16. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Epistemologies in the Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örnek, Funda

    2015-01-01

    Students' epistemologies play a crucial role in helping them construct knowledge. In addition, studying epistemological beliefs is important because they influence students' motivation and affect students' selection of learning strategies (Schommer, Crouse, & Rhodes, 1992; Hofer & Pintrich, 1997). The purpose of this study is to…

  17. Influences on Cognitive Engagement: Epistemological Beliefs and Need for Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBacker, Teresa K.; Crowson, H. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Background: Research indicates that achievement goals influence cognitive engagement, which, in turn, influences academic achievement. We believe that there are other individual difference variables in the realm of personal epistemology that may also directly or indirectly influence cognitive engagement; specifically, epistemological beliefs and…

  18. Predicting Preservice Teachers' Cognitive Engagement with Goals and Epistemological Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Bhuvaneswari; Greene, Barbara A.; DeBacker, Teresa K.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among achievement goals, epistemological beliefs, cognitive engagement, and application learning of 101 preservice teachers. The authors used an 84-item survey to measure achievement goals (learning and performance), epistemological beliefs (innate ability, certain knowledge, simple knowledge, quick learning, and…

  19. [Althusser/Bachelard: An epistemological break at stake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Louis Althusser claimed that Bachelard and french historical epistemology were an influence on his own attempt to reconstruct Marxism. Yet, both the nature and the working of this influence are far from obvious. The links between Bachelard and Althusser have often been reduce to a serie of formulas that endeed up concealing, rather than revealing, the way Althusser used epistemology and philosophy of science.

  20. "Abuelita" Epistemologies: Counteracting Subtractive Schools in American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    This autoethnographic inquiry examines the intersection of elder epistemology and subtractive education, exploring how one "abuelita" countered her granddaughter's divestment of Mexican-ness. I demonstrate how the grandmother used "abuelita" epistemologies to navigate this tension and resist the assimilative pressures felt…

  1. Comparison and Consolidation of Models of Personal Epistemologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urman, Linda; Roth, Gene L.

    2010-01-01

    Assumptions that students and instructors have about their personal epistemologies have important effects on their expectations and performance in career and technical classrooms and laboratories. Personal epistemologies of career and technical education students influence their behaviors in classes and their interactions with instructors. The…

  2. Introduction: Toward an Understanding of Epistemology and Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Peter V.; Moores, Donald F.

    2010-01-01

    The major concept of epistemology--or epistemologies--is discussed, as well as related terms such as "paradigm" and "science". Also covered are two broad paradigms, the clinical and the cultural, that seem to drive theorizing, research, and practice regarding individuals who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The two paradigms emanate from different…

  3. An Analytic Search for the Elements of Naturalized Epistemology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most cases when reference is made to naturalized epistemology, reference is only made to W. V. Quine, Alvin Goldman and Thomas Kuhn, but this piece argues that John Locke had made enormous contribution to the development of Naturalised Epistemology. The researcher observes that Locke's break away from ...

  4. Epistemologies of Situated Knowledges: "Troubling" Knowledge in Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Epistemologies of situated knowledges, advanced by scholars such as Donna Haraway, Lorraine Code, and Maureen Ford, challenge mainstream epistemology's claim to be the gold standard in determining what counts as knowledge. In this essay, James Lang uses the work of these and other feminist theorists to explicate the notion of situated knowledges…

  5. Epistemology in Qualitative Educational Research: A Review of Published Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the epistemological basis for qualitative educational research studies. Within this context, 20 qualitative studies on education were analysed and three dimensions were sorted out: (1) the purpose or aim of the study, (2) the rationale for the study, and (3) the occurrence of epistemological aspects (theory, paradigm,…

  6. The Relevance of Proverbs in African Epistemology | Etta | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, this work argues as its thesis, that African proverbs is necessarily essential in the understanding and in transmitting African epistemology. This is because, knowledge has been acknowledged to be indispensable for human existence, as well as the core of epistemology. Proverbs, of the African type, is the ...

  7. Positioning Design Epistemology and Its Applications in Education Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chai, Ching Sing; Wong, Benjamin Koon Siak; Hong, Huang-Yao; Tan, Seng Chee

    2013-01-01

    This position paper proposes to broaden the conception of personal epistemology to include design epistemology that foregrounds the importance of creativity, collaboration, and design thinking. Knowledge creation process, we argue, can be explicated using Popper's ontology of three worlds of objects. In short, conceptual artifacts (World 3)…

  8. High School Physics Students' Personal Epistemologies and School Science Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen

    2017-10-01

    This case study explores students' physics-related personal epistemologies in school science practices. The school science practices of nine eleventh grade students in a physics class were audio-taped over 6 weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their ideas on the nature of scientific knowledge after each activity. Analysis of transcripts yielded several epistemological resources that students activated in their school science practice. The findings show that there is inconsistency between students' definitions of scientific theories and their epistemological judgments. Analysis revealed that students used several epistemological resources to decide on the accuracy of their data including accuracy via following the right procedure and accuracy via what the others find. Traditional, formulation-based, physics instruction might have led students to activate naive epistemological resources that prevent them to participate in the practice of science in ways that are more meaningful. Implications for future studies are presented.

  9. Knowledge production in education: Post-structuralism as epistemological potency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirley Lizott Tedeschi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the epistemological and methodological potentialities of Poststructuralism in education research. With a theoretical-bibliographic character, the research takes as main references Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derrida’s contributions in order to problematize the modern metanarratives and the processes of knowledge production in this area. By problematizing modern metanarratives and pointing out the historical, contextual character, inherent in the process of knowledge production, this epistemological perspective has triggered a number of concerns, doubts and discontinuities that have reverberated in investigative processes in that area. Being open to this epistemological field may both contribute to the deconstruction of the conceptual apparatus of modernity, which has strongly marked the education research, and bring other epistemological and methodological possibilities for knowledge production in that area. In this sense, the potentiality of this epistemological and methodological perspective for research in education is the multiplicity of possibilities that it provides.

  10. High School Physics Students' Personal Epistemologies and School Science Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen

    2017-11-01

    This case study explores students' physics-related personal epistemologies in school science practices. The school science practices of nine eleventh grade students in a physics class were audio-taped over 6 weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their ideas on the nature of scientific knowledge after each activity. Analysis of transcripts yielded several epistemological resources that students activated in their school science practice. The findings show that there is inconsistency between students' definitions of scientific theories and their epistemological judgments. Analysis revealed that students used several epistemological resources to decide on the accuracy of their data including accuracy via following the right procedure and accuracy via what the others find. Traditional, formulation-based, physics instruction might have led students to activate naive epistemological resources that prevent them to participate in the practice of science in ways that are more meaningful. Implications for future studies are presented.

  11. A Frame Size Adjustment with Sub-Frame Observation for Dynamic Framed Slotted Aloha

    OpenAIRE

    Robithoh Annur; Suvit Nakpeerayuth

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple frame size adjustment of dynamic framed slotted Aloha for tag identification in RFID networks is proposed. In dynamic framed slotted Aloha, the reader is required to announce the frame size for every frame. To achieve maximum system efficiency, it is essential to set the frame size according to the number unidentified tags appropriately. The proposed approach utilizes the information from a portion of the frame to adjust the size of the next frame. Simulation results s...

  12. Multimodal news framing effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Visuals in news media play a vital role in framing citizens’ political preferences. Yet, compared to the written word, visual images are undervalued in political communication research. Using framing theory, this thesis redresses the balance by studying the combined, or multimodal, effects of visual

  13. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...

  14. Discretization of continuous frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which is a positive, self-adjoint, invertible operator on H with A · IdH ≤ SWω ≤ B · IdH. 2. Main result. For establishing a relationship between discrete and continuous frame of subspaces, we generalize the concept of continuous frame and resolution of identity to arbitrary Hilbert space H. For this purpose, we introduce the ...

  15. Nullspaces and frames

    OpenAIRE

    Antezana, J.; Corach, G.; Ruiz, M.; Stojanoff, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we give new characterizations of Riesz and conditional Riesz frames in terms of the properties of the nullspace of their synthesis operators. On the other hand, we also study the oblique dual frames whose coefficients in the reconstruction formula minimize different weighted norms.

  16. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  17. On the epistemology of postmodern spirituality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley A. Schreiber

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available At first glance, the postmodern spiritual �scene� appears �sociologically messy, experiential, multifaceted, ecological, provisional and collective� (Petrolle 2007 and of uncertain epistemic provenance. Here, I ask: can Roland Benedikter�s (2005 conception of postmodern dialectic and spiritual turn, help us understand postmodern spirituality and can it assist in a construction of a postmodern epistemology of spirituality? The current argument constitutes a meta-theoretical exploration of:� Deconstruction and neo-essentialism as representing the significant dialectic in philosophical postmodernism. Deconstruction is presented as an apophatic moment in Western thought about �knowing� and �being� whilst postmodern neo-essentialism, though contextualised by antirealism and ambiguity, palpably suggests itself. � Postmodern trends which derive from the dialectic. � How these epistemic trends influence methodology in the study of spirituality. � How a trans-traditional (anthropological spirituality might incorporate insights about transformation from a complex of epistemologies in which, theories of �self� abound.In the conclusion an attempt is made to describe how postmodern spirituality expresses itself in society.�

  18. Konstruksi Epistemologi dalam Filsafat Illuminasi Suhrawardi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslih

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini mengkaji secara filosofis konstruksi epistemologi Filsafat Illuminasi Suhrawardi dengan mengungkap argume nnya tentang proses keilmuan. Secara lebih khusus, akan menunjuk kan kritik Suhrawardi terhadap logika Peripatetik dan kemudian mem­posisikannya dalam proses penggalian ilmu. Kemudian mengungkap tawaran Suhrawardi yang ia klaim sebagai dapat mengantar manusia mem peroleh pengetahuan yang se benarnya, dengan menemukan syarat bagi suatu pengetahuan yang valid. Pemikiran demikian sudah tentu akan menjadi model keilmuan alternatif di tengah perkembang­an keilmuan yang bercorak rasiona listik. Dengan mengungkap anasir­anasir lebih dalam, bisa jadi pengetahuan model illuminasi ini dapat sebagai alternatif bagi krisis keilmuan modern saat ini. Ada beberapa per soalan yang di bahas, antara lain kegelisahan Suhrawardi atas problem logika dan persoalan validitas pengetahuan, lalu mengurai kan metode dasar Filsafat Isyraqiyah, dan yang paling pokok membahas struktur fundamental Logika Illuminasi. Tidak lupa artikel ini juga menunjukkan konsekuensi epistemologi Suhrawardi dengan tesis Tuhan itu merupakan objek “ kenal” bukan objek “ tahu”.

  19. Verification and validation as applied epistemology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; McNamara, Laura A.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-04-01

    Since 1998, the Department of Energy/NNSA National Laboratories have invested millions in strategies for assessing the credibility of computational science and engineering (CSE) models used in high consequence decision making. The answer? There is no answer. There's a process--and a lot of politics. The importance of model evaluation (verification, validation, uncertainty quantification, and assessment) increases in direct proportion to the significance of the model as input to a decision. Other fields, including computational social science, can learn from the experience of the national laboratories. Some implications for evaluating 'low cognition agents'. Epistemology considers the question, How do we know what we [think we] know? What makes Western science special in producing reliable, predictive knowledge about the world? V&V takes epistemology out of the realm of thought and puts it into practice. What is the role of modeling and simulation in the production of reliable, credible scientific knowledge about the world? What steps, investments, practices do I pursue to convince myself that the model I have developed is producing credible knowledge?

  20. EPISTEMOLOGI ISLAM: KEDUDUKAN WAHYU SEBAGAI SUMBER ILMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Mujahidin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:    Modern science dominated by idealism, rationalism, and empiricism has brought an acute humanity crisis. At the epistemology level, religion provides knowledge which guarantees human values, beyond ration and empirical findings. This paper aims at exploring texts of al-Qur’an as a source of knowledge. The methodology construction starts from seeing it as a paradigm-placing the holy text as an open corpus critically analyzed from linguistics, literary, and historical points of views. Abstrak:      Sains modern yang dikuasai oleh idealisme, rasionalisme dan empirisme telah membawa krisis kemanusiaan yang akut. Pada ranah epistemologis, agama menyediakan pengetahuan yang tidak disediakan oleh rasio maupun temuan empirik yang menjamin adanya nilai-nilai kemanusiaan. Paper ini bertujuan mengeksplorasi peluang dijadikannya wahyu al-Qur’an sebagai sumber ilmu. Konstruksi metodologi ilmiah dimulai dengan mengubah cara pandang terhadap wahyu al-Qur’an sebagai paradigma yang berarti menempatkan al-Qur’an dalam hakekat ontologisnya sebagai teks kebahasaan yang  terbuka terhadap kerangka analisis modern seperti lingusitik, kritik sastra dan analisis historis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa teks suci al-Qur’an yang bersumber dari wahyu dapat dijadikan sumber ilmu dengan persyaratan kajian dengan metodologi yang ilmiah.

  1. Dragging of inertial frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufolini, Ignazio

    2007-09-06

    The origin of inertia has intrigued scientists and philosophers for centuries. Inertial frames of reference permeate our daily life. The inertial and centrifugal forces, such as the pull and push that we feel when our vehicle accelerates, brakes and turns, arise because of changes in velocity relative to uniformly moving inertial frames. A classical interpretation ascribed these forces to acceleration relative to some absolute frame independent of the cosmological matter, whereas an opposite view related them to acceleration relative to all the masses and 'fixed stars' in the Universe. An echo and partial realization of the latter idea can be found in Einstein's general theory of relativity, which predicts that a spinning mass will 'drag' inertial frames along with it. Here I review the recent measurements of frame dragging using satellites orbiting Earth.

  2. Artifact-based reflective interviews for identifying pragmatic epistemological resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Christopher Walden

    Physics Education Research studies the science of teaching and learning physics. The process of student learning is complex, and the factors that affect it are numerous. Describing students' understanding of physics knowledge and reasoning is the basis for much productive research; however, such research fails to account for certain types of student learning difficulties. In this dissertation, I explore one source of student difficulty: personal epistemology, students' ideas about knowledge and knowing. Epistemology traditionally answers three questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge created? And, how do we know what we know? An individual's responses to these questions can affect learning in terms of how they approach tasks involving the construction and application of knowledge. The key issue addressed in this dissertation is the effect of methodological choices on the validity and reliability of claims concerning personal epistemology. My central concern is contextual validity, how what is said about one's epistemology is not identical to how one behaves epistemologically. In response to these issues, I present here a new methodology for research on student epistemology: video artifact-based reflective interview protocols. These protocols begin with video taping students in their natural classroom activities, and then asking the participants epistemological questions immediately after watching selected scenes from their activity, contextually anchoring them in their actual learning experience. The data from these interviews is viewed in the framework of Epistemological Resource Theory, a framework of small bits of knowledge whose coordination in a given context is used to describe personal epistemology. I claim that the privileged data from these interviews allows detailed epistemological resources to be identified, and that these resources can provide greater insight into how student epistemologies are applied in learning activities. This research

  3. The linguistic aspect of strategic framing in modern political campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pluwak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The linguistic aspect of strategic framing in modern political campaigns The following article describes the role of semantics in political marketing, emphasizing the mechanism of framing and perspectivising in discourse. The complexity of the framing process is discussed in the introduction, then the linguistic aspect of political framing is debated and the technique of wording formulation in political discourse analyzed. Finally, implications and conclusions for further research are presented. Examples of political framing provided within the paper are based on the analysis of contemporary public discourses.

  4. Framing Gangnam Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Catherine Yoon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.

  5. New characterizations of fusion frames (frames of subspaces)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bounded surjective operator. Keywords. Frame; fusion frame (frames of subspaces); exact fusion frame; Bessel fusion sequence; orthonormal fusion basis; pseudo-inverses. 1. Introduction. A frame is a redundant set of vectors in a Hilbert space H with the property that provide usually non-unique representations of vectors in ...

  6. Applied minimalist epistemology (AME): Improving upon three contributions to the dual epistemological problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagdis, Dimitrios

    2000-05-01

    Even though major efforts have been spent to solve the problem of certainty and the problem of demarcation, which together constitute the dual epistemological problem, a number of difficulties seem to pervade. The paper summarises some of the major ones on the basis of three major contributions. They are: Plato's as the first post-Socratic contribution that did not invoke the divine as a guarantor or source of certainty, Descartes' as the first contribution that brought the problem of certainty to a first person basis, and Popper's as the first falsificationist contribution to the problem of demarcation. An attempt is made to solve the difficulties through two reformulations, yielding two postulates and four puzzles. Together they define what is called an Applied Minimalist Epistemology (AME).

  7. Covariance and the hierarchy of frame bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Frank B.

    1987-01-01

    This is an essay on the general concept of covariance, and its connection with the structure of the nested set of higher frame bundles over a differentiable manifold. Examples of covariant geometric objects include not only linear tensor fields, densities and forms, but affinity fields, sectors and sector forms, higher order frame fields, etc., often having nonlinear transformation rules and Lie derivatives. The intrinsic, or invariant, sets of forms that arise on frame bundles satisfy the graded Cartan-Maurer structure equations of an infinite Lie algebra. Reduction of these gives invariant structure equations for Lie pseudogroups, and for G-structures of various orders. Some new results are introduced for prolongation of structure equations, and for treatment of Riemannian geometry with higher-order moving frames. The use of invariant form equations for nonlinear field physics is implicitly advocated.

  8. Epistemology and uncertainty in primary care: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lance; Trotter, David R M

    2009-05-01

    Primary care is an endeavor marked by breadth, complexity, and more clinical uncertainty than all non-primary care specialties except psychiatry. This is significant, as uncertainty is associated with a variety of troublesome economic and clinical indicators. Researchers have identified the three types of cognitive resources needed to combat uncertainty (technical, personal, or conceptual), as well as the affective stress reactions physicians have when confronted with uncertainty. In this study, we explored the relationship between primary care physicians' stress reactions to uncertainty and the conceptual resource of epistemology. Using Likert-type measures of epistemology and stress reactions to uncertainty, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with 78 board-certified and resident physicians in primary care. A simple bivariate regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between epistemology and stress reactions to uncertainty (Model 1), and a multivariate regression analysis was performed to test for the independent effect of epistemology on stress reactions to uncertainty while controlling for gender, specialty, and professional development status (Model 2). Physician epistemology and stress reactions to uncertainty were significantly related in both models. Among primary care physicians, a biopsychosocial epistemology is associated with less stress reactions to uncertainty, and a biomedical epistemology is associated with more stress reactions to uncertainty.

  9. Epistemological Presuppositions for the Theistic Philosophy of A. Plantinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Karpov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts to reconstruct the context surrounding the projects for a reformed epistemology and an affi rmation of the Christian faith by Alvin Plantinga. An analysis of Plantinga’s epistemological presuppositions reveals how they are intertwined. The basic problem surrounding the dispute between fundamentalists and anti-fundamentalists concerning the nature of knowledge constituted the background against which the theistic philosophy of Plantinga began to take form. Examining this dispute, the author of this article attempts to define the position of the philosophers in question and to clarify the differences in terminology which are found in the appropriate literature. The relationship between evidentialism and reliabilism on the one hand and internalism and externalism on the other is noted. The author distinguishes between an early (weak and later (strong type of reformed epistemology. In the former type, Plantinga was concerned with refuting the classical version of epistemological fundamentalism; in the latter, he concentrated his attention on constructing a philosophical scheme which could grant to the basic teachings of theism an epistemological foundation. The author discusses and analyses the main objections to Plantinga. These objections are of two kinds: theological and philosophical. The philosophical objections are aimed at the epistemological presuppositions suggested by Plantinga. The author concludes that, in spite of the value and longevity of Plantiga’s arguments, the solutions to the questions which he raised are dependent on contemporary discussions of analytical epistemology.

  10. The epistemology of Deep Brain Stimulation and neuronal pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Erwin B.

    2012-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a remarkable therapy succeeding where all manner of pharmacological manipulations and brain transplants fail. The success of DBS has resurrected the relevance of electrophysiology and dynamics on the order of milliseconds. Despite the remarkable effects of DBS, its mechanisms of action are largely unknown. There has been an expanding catalogue of various neuronal and neural responses to DBS or DBS-like stimulation but no clear conceptual encompassing explanatory scheme has emerged despite the technological prowess and intellectual sophistication of the scientists involved. Something is amiss. If the scientific observations are sound, then why has there not been more progress? The alternative is that it may be the hypotheses that frame the questions are at fault as well as the methods of inference (logic) used to validate the hypotheses. An analysis of the past and current notions of the DBS mechanisms of action is the subject in order to identify the presuppositions (premises) and logical fallacies that may be at fault. The hope is that these problems will be avoided in the future so the DBS can realize its full potential quickly. In this regard, the discussion of the methods of inference and presuppositions that underlie many current notions is no different then a critique of experimental methods common in scientific discussions and consequently, examinations of the epistemology and logic are appropriate. This analysis is in keeping with the growing appreciation among scientists and philosophers of science, the scientific observations (data) to not “speak for themselves” nor is the scientific method self-evidently true and that consideration of the underlying inferential methods is necessary. PMID:23024631

  11. Social behavioural epistemology and the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watve, Milind

    2017-07-01

    The progress of science is influenced substantially by social behaviour of and social interactions within the scientific community. Similar to innovations in primate groups, the social acceptance of an innovation depends not only upon the relevance of the innovation but also on the social dominance and connectedness of the innovator. There are a number of parallels between many well-known phenomena in behavioural evolution and various behavioural traits observed in the scientific community. It would be useful, therefore, to use principles of behavioural evolution as hypotheses to study the social behaviour of the scientific community. I argue in this paper that a systematic study of social behavioural epistemology is likely to boost the progress of science by addressing several prevalent biases and other problems in scientific communication and by facilitating appropriate acceptance/rejection of novel concepts.

  12. A personal epistemology: towards gender diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryfeather, Lyn

    2011-04-01

    In spite of the growing public awareness of those who would identify as transgender, very little has changed in attitudes that would accord such people full approbation. The author takes the reader on a 40-year journey of discovery that has led her to an abiding interest in and dedication to the issues faced by people who do not fit within the gender binary of Western society. As well as describing a personal experience with someone who identifies as transsexual, the author relates two troubling experiences from her nursing career. Included in the discussion are linguistics, sexuality, and vocabulary. A personal epistemology is explored that incorporates unknowing, intuition, and embodiment, and the difference this view can make to the care of those who identify as gender-diverse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Ethics and Epistemology in Big Data Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, Wendy; Mason, Paul H; Kerridge, Ian; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-12-01

    Biomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using "big data." The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to "real-world" patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and technical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithms, and data analysis techniques. While such advances will likely go some way towards resolving technical and methodological issues, we believe that the epistemological issues raised by big data research have important ethical implications and raise questions about the very possibility of big data research achieving its goals.

  14. Epistemological and didactic valuation of professional competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jacinto Abambari Arévalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of competency-based approach is not only a new expression of learning outcomes, but also for its epistemological and pedagogical implications leading to a transformation of the educational process and its evaluation. Today, this is an extremely controversial topic due to divorce between university curricula recognized competency, its realization in the teaching-learning process and how evaluated is practiced. It is therefore of utmost importance to achieve a thematic approach about the topic, for the reason that, while theorizing from process competences development is not new, it is so from the perspective of the considerations about how to evaluate performances and evidences. The results of this study contributed to provide a strategy to fulfill this purpose. Keywords: competence development, competence assessment, professional problem solving

  15. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  16. [Science and magic. Motives from ethnology and the psychology of perception in the epistemology of Ludwik Fleck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sylwia

    2014-01-01

    Fleck's social theory of science refers to many ethnological examples in order to explain how collective thinking and acting constructs certain systems of belief and knowing. According to Fleck, scientific concepts and practices are comparable with magic terms and ceremonies. This essay aims to identify the ethnological sources that Fleck's epistemology is using. By confronting them with other relativistic theories that were circulating in Lemberg during the interwar period, the originality of Fleck's own position can be contextualized and explained as well.

  17. Framing (implicitly) matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Joel; Antalikova, Radka

    2014-01-01

    and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified...... by the participants’ religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion...

  18. Multimodal news framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Visuals in news media play a vital role in framing citizens’ political preferences. Yet, compared to the written word, visual images are undervalued in political communication research. Using framing theory, this thesis redresses the balance by studying the combined, or multimodal, effects of visual and verbal media. Three experimental studies using international affairs news – a ready source of compelling visuals – address the following questions: (a) what is the individual and combined cont...

  19. Framing French Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Natalie; McCann, Ben; Poiana, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Throughout this book, the concept of framing is used to look at art, photography, scientific drawings and cinema as visually constituted, spatially bounded productions. The way these genres relate to that which exists beyond the frame, by means of plastic, chemically transposed, pencil-sketched or moving images allows us to decipher the particular language of the visual and at the same time circumscribe the dialectic between presence and absence that is proper to all visual media. Yet, these ...

  20. On transforms between Gabor frames and wavelet frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2013-01-01

    We describe a procedure that enables us to construct dual pairs of wavelet frames from certain dual pairs of Gabor frames. Applying the construction to Gabor frames generated by appropriate exponential Bsplines gives wavelet frames generated by functions whose Fourier transforms are compactly...... supported splines with geometrically distributed knot sequences. There is also a reverse transform, which yields pairs of dual Gabor frames when applied to certain wavelet frames....

  1. Directional Time-frequency Analysis via Continuous Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Forster, Birgitte; Massopust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Grafakos and Sansing [‘Gabor frames and directional time–frequency analysis’, Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal.25 (2008), 47–67] have shown how to obtain directionally sensitive time–frequency decompositions in L2(Rn) based on Gabor systems in L2(R). The key tool is the ‘ridge idea’, which lifts...... a function of one variable to a function of several variables. We generalise their result in two steps: first by showing that similar results hold starting with general frames for L2(R), in the settings of both discrete frames and continuous frames, and second by extending the representations to Sobolev...... spaces. The first step allows us to apply the theory to several other classes of frames, for example wavelet frames and shift-invariant systems, and the second one significantly extends the class of examples and applications. We consider applications to the Meyer wavelet and complex B...

  2. Type of frame dependence: variation in media frames affecting attitudes via audience frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drunen, A.S.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper two suggested processes of framing theory (Scheufele, 1999) are tested: frame setting (media affecting audience frames) and the individual effects process (audience frames affecting attitudes or behavior). Media frames may affect opinions and behavior, however these effects are not

  3. Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bartley, W W

    1993-01-01

    This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

  4. "Effectivity" in international law: self-empowerment against epistemological claustrophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the idea of effectivity in international law and formulates epistemological remarks on the role of effectivity in the main doctrines of international law (statehood, responsibility, jurisdiction, etc). After distinguishing between effectivity and effectiveness, it

  5. Significance of Learner's Externalization and Argumentation in Research on Mathematics Education : Based on epistemology of mathematics and epistemology in mathematics education

    OpenAIRE

    松島, 充

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate relation between externalization by oral language and understanding in mathematics education, and to clarify epistemology in mathematics education whichhas deep relation in a Jigsaw method. Method of this study is literature study on epistemology. Epistemology of mathematics and epistemology in mathematics education are analyzed from the standpoints of the relation between externalization by oral language and understanding in mathematics education...

  6. Perceptual frames in frequency estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyłowska, Aleksandra; Kossek, Marcin; Wawrzyniak, Małgorzata

    2014-02-01

    This study is an introductory investigation of cognitive frames, focused on perceptual frames divided into information and formal perceptual frames, which were studied based on sub-additivity of frequency estimations. It was postulated that different presentations of a response scale would result in different percentage estimates of time spent watching TV or using the Internet. The results supported the existence of perceptual frames that influence the perception process and indicated that information perceptual frames had a stronger effect than formal frames. The measures made possible the exploration of the operation of perceptual frames and also outlined the relations between heuristics and cognitive frames.

  7. KRITIK TERHADAP EPISTEMOLOGI UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS: PERSPEKTIF ISLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Afdal Afdal; Waston Waston

    2015-01-01

    Since established, Universal Declaracion of Human Rights (UDHR) upheld as a global value by all the countries in the world. UDHR through the UN as a reference as a common standard for measuring the level of success of a country in upholding human rights. How this study focus on the implications of the secular epistemology against the substance of the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? and How does Islam look at epistemology Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? To answer t...

  8. Research into employee trust: epistemological foundations and paradigmatic boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Sabina; Martin, Graeme; Bozic, Branko

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the epistemological roots and paradigmatic boundaries of research into employee trust, a growing field in human resource management. Drawing on Burrell and Morgan's well-known sociological paradigms and their epistemological foundations, we identify the dominant approaches to employee trust research to examine its strengths and limitations. Our review of the literature on employee trust revealed that the majority of the most cited papers were written from a psychological...

  9. EFL Teachers’ Epistemological Beliefs and Their Assessment Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Abdullah Mahmoud Ismail

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological beliefs—beliefs about the nature of knowledge, where it resides, and how knowledge is constructed and evaluated—have been the target of increased research interest lately. Heretofore, emphasis has been directed to language teaching/learning aspects and strategies. Language assessment practices have not yet received due attention in epistemic research literature. The current study examined the relationship between pre-service EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs and their assessment orientations. Dimensions of epistemological beliefs were assessed via a questionnaire designed and validated by the researcher based on Schommer’s work. Two assessment orientations were examined including: (a transmissive surface- processing orientation and (b constructive deep-processing orientation. The study involved 114 preservice EFL teachers enrolled in the Professional Diploma in Teaching Program in the Abu Dhabi University, the United Arab Emirates. Results of the study showed that EFL teachers’ epistemological beliefs have a direct bearing on their assessment orientations and practices. EFL teachers with naive epistemological beliefs tended more to adopt surface-level assessment orientations whereas those with sophisticated epistemological beliefs showed more tendency to adopt deeper level approaches to assessment in language settings. Results are discussed in terms of backwash effects on foreign language instruction, curriculum development, and teacher education. Suggestions for further research are also discussed.

  10. EPISTEMOLOGY OF SYSTEMS THINKING AND THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF HUMBERTO MATURANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Lúcia Abreu Pereira Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Epistemology of Systems Thinking (ST has undergone important changes throughout the twentieth century and has gradually gained ground in scientific investigations and interventions in different contexts. Understanding its epistemological principles has been a challenge in undergraduate and graduate courses of different areas, and it is sine qua non for the implementation of systemic research and interventions. Thus, this article aims to present the historical and epistemological development of ST in the twentieth century and the contributions of Humberto Maturana for the advancement of postmodern science, with Biology of Cognition and Cultural Biology. It describes the paradigm shift from traditional science to postmodern science, as well as the basic assumptions that characterize them. We used a historical and epistemological spiral, along with the concept of recursion, to facilitate the understanding of the interconnections between researchers and theories that have contributed to the development of ST. The main concepts of the systemic theories that are recognized and well-known in the scientific community were presented, namely, the General Systems Theory, Cybernetics, the Communication Theory. Our conclusion is that the epistemology of ST has provided significant advances to science, because it integrates the epistemological assumptions of complexity, instability and inter-subjectivity in phenomena analysis, in research and interventions in different contexts.

  11. Scrutinizing The Epistemology of Islamic Economics: A Historical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurizal Ismail

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The first International Conference on Islamic Economics was held in Makkah, in 1976. Economists, jurists and scholars met together to discuss issues of Muslim ummah. However, there was many books written related to Islamic economics in the history of Islamic civilization, especially in the period of Abbasid caliphate. The fact, development of knowledge in Islamic medieval had established the epistemology of Islamic economics itself. Moreover, the epistemology is a study of the theory of knowledge, the source of knowledge, the application of knowledge and limitation of knowledge. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the contribution of earlier Muslim thinkers to the source of Islamic economics and to identify the epistemology of Islamic economics as proposed by the Muslim thinkers in medieval period. As a result, this paper will propose the epistemology of Islamic economics by integrating Islamic heritage and modern economics that is not conflict with Islamic principles and values. To achieve its objectives; this study employs qualitative research by applying content and descriptive analysis. The finding of this study is that the earlier Muslim thinkers have contributed to the construction of epistemology in Islamic economics. Then, to construct the genuine of Islamic economics, tawhid must be put as a core of Islamic economic epistemology that directs the sources of knowledge which are rooted firstly from revealed and then rational knowledge by using appropriate methods.

  12. Grasping the spirit in nature: Anschauung in Ørsted's epistemology of science and beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynning, Kristine Hays; Jacobsen, Anja Skaar

    2011-03-01

    The intersection between art, poetry, philosophy and science was the leitmotif which guided the lives and careers of romantic natural philosophers including that of the Danish natural philosopher, H. C. Ørsted. A simple model of orsted's career would be one in which it was framed by two periods of philosophical speculation: the youth's curious and idealistic interest in new attractive thoughts and the experienced man's mature reflections at the end of his life. We suggest that a closer look at the epistemological aspects of his works on the theory of beauty reveals a connection between this late work and his early philosophical work including experimental philosophy, but also with the work in teaching and textbook writing, that lies in between. The latter includes Ørsted's view on the application of mathematics in natural philosophy as well as his failed attempt at a genetic presentation of elementary geometry.

  13. Riesz frames and approximation of the frame coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, P.; Christensen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A frame is a fmaily {f i } i=1 ∞ of elements in a Hilbert space with the property that every element in can be written as a (infinite) linear combination of the frame elements. Frame theory describes how one can choose the corresponding coefficients, which are called frame coefficients. From...

  14. Fusion frames and G-frames in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soc., Providence, RI) (1999). [4] Casazza P G and Kutyniok G, Frames of subspaces, Wavelets, frames and operator theory, pp. 87–113, Contemp. Math. 345 (Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI) (2004). [5] Casazza P G and Kutyniok G, Robustness of fusion frames under erasures of subspaces and of local frame vectors, ...

  15. Analog Frame Store Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-15

    enhancement when coupled with the video acquisition performed by the Frame Store Memory in mode 2. 3 -11 It cr (A 3 coJ 0( kLL P.- FAIRCHILO IMAGING ...AD-AOSI 979 FAIRCHILD IMAGING SYSTEMS SYOSSET N Y F/0 17/2 ANALOG FRAME STORE MEMORY . CU) JAN 80 OAAK77-C-0165 UNCLASSIFIED ED-CX-141-5 M 1 .0 H " 1...DESCRIPTION 1-2 1.1.1 Analog Frame Store Memory 1-2 1.1.2 Analog Field Storage Device 1-4 1.1.3 Image Analyzer Digital Display (IADD) 1-4 1.2 PROGRAM’S

  16. Framing the Newspaper Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruggemann, Michael; Humprecht, Edda; Kleis, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    as well as a qualitative analysis of policy documents and relevant media coverage. The study demonstrates that debates on the newspaper crisis are only partly influenced by (1) economic realities and (2) media policy traditions in the six countries but also reflect (3) the strategic motives of powerful......This article argues that discourses of a newspaper crisis should not be regarded simply as descriptions of the actual state of the press but also as a means by which strategic actors frame the situation. The emerging frames can have substantial consequences for media policy making. The study...... identifies four key frames used to portray the newspaper crisis and discusses their relevance for public debates in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States. Similarities and differences are examined through 59 in-depth interviews with policymakers and industry executives...

  17. A protoscientific master metaphor for framing violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Herbert H

    2006-11-01

    Every new field of investigation requires a guiding scheme or frame. Its purpose is to provide a heuristic for discovery and a structure for organizing information. Neither the World Health Organization's public health nor a biosocial model of violence are adequate for providing a protoscientific frame for conceptualizing violent acts. This essay suggests a master metaphor--Burke's Dramatism--through which to deepen and expand our knowledge of violence and what must be done to reduce its toll. An illustrative example is presented.

  18. Epistemology applied to conclusions of expert reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Molina, Jose-Juan

    2016-07-01

    It is believed that to build a robust reasoning logic to make probabilistic inferences in forensic science from a merely mathematical or logistical viewpoint is not enough. Mathematical logic is the positive science of reasoning and as for that it is only interested in the positive calculus of its validity, regardless any prior ontological assumption. But without a determined ontology and epistemology which imply to define the concepts that they will use, it seems difficult that the proposed scientifically correct mathematical solution be successful as a European standard for making conclusions in forensic reports because it has to be based on judicial language. Forensic experts and Courts are not interested in the development of a positive science but in a practical science: in clarifying whether certain known facts are related to a possible crime. Therefore, not only the coherence of the demonstrative logic reasoning used (logic of propositions) is important, but also the precision of the concepts used by language and consistency among them in reasoning (logic of concepts). There is a linguistic level essential for a successful communication between the forensic practitioner and the Court which is mainly related, in our opinion, to semantics and figures of speech. The first one is involved because words used in forensic conclusions often have different meanings - it is said that they are polysemic - and the second one because there is often metonymy as well. Besides, semantic differences among languages regarding words with the same etymological root add another difficulty for a better mutual understanding. The two main European judicial systems inherit a wide and deep culture related to evidence in criminal proceedings and each of them has coined their own terminology but there are other two more abstract levels such as logical and epistemological, where we can find solid arguments by which terms used at legal level on conclusions of forensic reports could be

  19. Framing financial culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm; Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.

    2014-01-01

    between competing frames leads to the conclusion that this political “blame game” is related to struggles over how to define the scandal, how to conceptualize its causes, and policy recommendations. Banks may have lost the battle of “Liborgate,” but the war over the meaning of financial culture is far...... from over. Originality/value – The paper is theoretically and methodologically original in its combination of the theories of framing and stasis, and it provides analytical insights into how sense is made of financial culture in the wake of the financial crisis....

  20. Institutional Justification in Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Christian; Schultz, Friederike

    Crises – such as the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (2010) – are moments in which conventional interpretations break down. This paper analyzes the dynamics of the re-construction and stabilization of meaning in the public debate and assesses how BP’s strategic framing affected the emerging...... consensus. It extents research on framing in mass communication by applying institutional theory and Boltanski and Thévenot’s (2006) theory on justification in order to explain how the success and failure of proposed interpretations depend on the mobilization of accepted social institutions to justify...

  1. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...

  2. Carbon. Examples of Property Realization

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Kossko; A.A. Onoprienko; T.G. Kossko

    2013-01-01

    Examples of realization of carbon properties in formation of section near-surface boundaries defining the mechanism of oxidizing (normal) wear are presented. Synthesis of strengt hening diamond- lonsdaleite -carbene «frame» and graphite with function of solid lubricant on a friction surface in high-desperse carbon environment is reviewed. Prospects of carbon ap placation in implementation of the concept of electronics on one element, and also use of thin-film structures of amorphous carbon – ...

  3. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  4. Clinical Psychology and Research: epistemological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Coppola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a reflection on the relationship between clinical psychology and research, highlighting the constant epistemological crossing the two practices, empirical and professional. The paper warns against the pitfalls of reductionism that, in both cases, may impact the effectiveness of therapeutic results. In fact, both in clinical practice and is in psychological research, the mere application of techniques contradicts the specificity of the object of study (the mind which, rather, requires the constant attention to a complexity of variables and contextual elements essential for the understanding the psychic. Qualitative research has been a prolific space for dialogue and joint trials between research and clinical practice that has rehabilitated scientific dignity of affective and subjective for a long time confined to the ephemeral world of poetry and literature. It must therefore be a further extension of the convergence not only of qualitative and quantitative methods but also of training modules for researchers and practitioners are able to stimulate, in daily practice, confidence in the utility of scientific monitoring and detection of inter-subjective variables in research devices.

  5. The central dogma, "GMO" and defective epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-10-02

    The expression "Genetically Modified Organisms" was coined to indicate a group of agricultural products (mostly crops and vegetables), modified through direct DNA recombination in order to obtain useful phenotypic traits or to inhibit undesirable characteristics. But the border between rDNA ("GMO") and other biotech methods is blurred. Moreover, the ill-assorted group is frequently charged with having peculiar, negative characteristics: many activists, part of the public and a few social science scholars think that "GMOs" are all dubious, even inherently dangerous. However, theoretical justifications of this alleged problematic nature which is supposed to be necessarily linked to the "splicing" of DNA, only when applied to agricultural products, are missing: the only text which tries to go in depth on the subject, an article by biologist Barry Commoner, takes aim at the wrong target, misunderstanding the Central Dogma. "GMO" is a term that has no clear reference, let alone in a detrimental sense. The only attempt to give it epistemological dignity fails.

  6. The epistemological status of general circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehle, Craig

    2017-05-01

    Forecasts of both likely anthropogenic effects on climate and consequent effects on nature and society are based on large, complex software tools called general circulation models (GCMs). Forecasts generated by GCMs have been used extensively in policy decisions related to climate change. However, the relation between underlying physical theories and results produced by GCMs is unclear. In the case of GCMs, many discretizations and approximations are made, and simulating Earth system processes is far from simple and currently leads to some results with unknown energy balance implications. Statistical testing of GCM forecasts for degree of agreement with data would facilitate assessment of fitness for use. If model results need to be put on an anomaly basis due to model bias, then both visual and quantitative measures of model fit depend strongly on the reference period used for normalization, making testing problematic. Epistemology is here applied to problems of statistical inference during testing, the relationship between the underlying physics and the models, the epistemic meaning of ensemble statistics, problems of spatial and temporal scale, the existence or not of an unforced null for climate fluctuations, the meaning of existing uncertainty estimates, and other issues. Rigorous reasoning entails carefully quantifying levels of uncertainty.

  7. Can nursing epistemology embrace p-values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Christine H K; Hall, Wendy A; Thorne, Sally E

    2017-10-01

    The use of correlational probability values (p-values) as a means of evaluating evidence in nursing and health care has largely been accepted uncritically. There are reasons to be concerned about an uncritical adherence to the use of significance testing, which has been located in the natural science paradigm. p-values have served in hypothesis and statistical testing, such as in randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses to support what has been portrayed as the highest levels of evidence in the framework of evidence-based practice. Nursing has been minimally involved in the rich debate about the controversies of treating significance testing as evidentiary in the health and social sciences. In this paper, we join the dialogue by examining how and why this statistical mechanism has become entrenched as the gold standard for determining what constitutes legitimate scientific knowledge in the postpositivistic paradigm. We argue that nursing needs to critically reflect on the limitations associated with this tool of the evidence-based movement, given the complexities and contextual factors that are inherent to nursing epistemology. Such reflection will inform our thinking about what constitutes substantive knowledge for the nursing discipline. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Aluminum automotive space frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Design of aluminum structures is to a new topic. Aircraft makers have successfully solved difficult structural problems with a high degree of understanding and reliability. Other transportation modes such as trucks, trailers, and railcars have faced structural problems with some emphasis on high- and low-cycle fatigue of welded aluminum structures. However, the automotive market places stringent engineering demands on materials and superimposes demanding cost constraints. A project was instituted at Reynolds Metals Co. to investigate the opportunities for the cost-effective application of aluminum to automotive spaceframes. Several areas were recognized as key to the success of this application. They were: equivalent or superior structural stiffness of the assembly to existing steel unibody and/or steel spaceframe vehicles; effective joining of spaceframe members; equivalent or superior crashworthiness of the assembly; weight savings; flexibility; and low-cost approach aimed at effective manufacturing. To gain experience with the key aspects in a practical environment, the experience of current builders of steel tube frame chassis was explored. These chassis are typically used in low-volume vehicles requiring torsional stiffness, excellent crashworthiness, and exterior body-style flexibility. A model was developed using finite element methods that accurately predicts mass and stiffness of frames. An effective aluminum space frame was generated which was 7.5% stiffer and more than 20% lighter than the steel frame, with stresses kept below the fatigue limit for aluminum welds.

  9. What's in a frame?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    of meaning. In Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 123-131. Amsterdam: North Holland. Fillmore, Charles. 1982. Frame semantics. In Linguistics in the Morning Calm, Linguistic Society of Korea (ed.), 111-137. Seoul: Hanshin Publishing. Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise. 2009...

  10. The Cage; Framing Dad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kau, Edvin

    2012-01-01

    Unfolding his story very gradually and arousing the viewer’s curiosity, Sitaru invites the audience to investigate the parents’ and the boy’s mutual positions in their small flat, as well as the various layers of their conversations, through such means as framing, editing style, and the use...

  11. Framing a Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2012-01-01

    in the information given. However, in this process the organisation is not operating in a social vacuum but is continuously interacting with various players, such as the media, for its discursive construction. This article will focus on the role of this interaction in metaphorically and conceptually framing a large...

  12. FishFrame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis

    2006-01-01

    . Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...

  13. Framing the Oscars live

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Helle Kannik

    2016-01-01

    How is the global media event of the Oscars localised through the talk show on Danish television? How are both the mediated film star and the special brand of Hollywood celebrity culture addressed by the cultural intermediaries in the Danish framing? These are the questions I propose to answer th...... through a brief analysis of the Academy Awards live broadcast on Danish television....

  14. Popcorn Story Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLella, Carol Ann

    This paper presents "popcorn story frames"--holistic outlines that facilitate comprehension when reading and writing stories, useful for outlining stories read and for creating outlines for original student stories--that are particularly useful for elementary and intermediate school students. "Popcorn" pops in a horizontal…

  15. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process...

  16. What's in a Frame?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    Maintaining a good image and reputation in the eyes of stakeholders is vital to the organisation. Thus, in its corporate communication and discourse the organisation will seek to present or frame itself as favourably as possible while observing regulations stipulating accuracy and precision...

  17. Framing ‘fracking’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Philip; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public

  18. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  19. Sparse Matrices in Frame Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta

    2014-01-01

    Frame theory is closely intertwined with signal processing through a canon of methodologies for the analysis of signals using (redundant) linear measurements. The canonical dual frame associated with a frame provides a means for reconstruction by a least squares approach, but other dual frames...... yield alternative reconstruction procedures. The novel paradigm of sparsity has recently entered the area of frame theory in various ways. Of those different sparsity perspectives, we will focus on the situations where frames and (not necessarily canonical) dual frames can be written as sparse matrices...

  20. Thinking-feeling with the Earth: Territorial Struggles and the Ontological Dimension of the Epistemologies of the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical framework of Epistemologies of the South was proposed by Boaventura de Sousa Santos as a way to recognize other different manners to understand the World. This offers a much more relevant role to non-Western views about our existence. Under this framework the present article describes the concept of relational ontologies, which implies different theoretical fundamentals for those who no longer want to be complicit with the silencing of popular knowledges and experiences by Eurocentric knowledge. Responding to the monolithic idea of World or Universe, this article presents a transition towards the zapatist inspiration of pluriverse, a world where many words fit. The article describes several examples of indigenous reactions against the mining practices, which were extended into the ontological occupation of the land. This article also argues that the knowledge offered by the Epistemologies of the South is much deeper for the context of social transformation than the one that usually originates in the academy.

  1. Frame Complexity and the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Jan; Schultz, Friederike; Oegema, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Communicative complexity concerns the variety of issues and stakeholders (agenda complexity) and their associations (frame complexity) in the news. One issue may dominate news in crises (9/11, Katrina), but as soon as complexity recovers, uncertainty may decrease and the public mood may improve. ...... gradual recovery was only partly interrupted by the euro crisis. A Vector AutoRegression time series analysis shows that increasing frame complexity may indeed have fostered the recovery of financial markets and consumer confidence........ The financial crisis in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany (2007–2012) offers an example. An automated content analysis was applied to over 160,000 newspaper articles. Frame complexity decreased until the spotlight fell on the demise of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers (2008). The subsequent...

  2. Some relationship between G-frames and frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proved that every g-Riesz basis for Hilbert space $H$ with respect to $K$ by adding a condition is a Riesz basis for Hilbert $B(K$-module $B(H,K$. This is an extension of [A. Askarizadeh,M. A. Dehghan, {em G-frames as special frames}, Turk. J. Math., 35, (2011 1-11]. Also, we derived similar results for g-orthonormal and orthogonal bases. Some relationships between dual frame, dual g-frame and exact frame and exact g-frame are presented too.

  3. An Essay for Educators: Epistemological Realism Really is Common Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Loving, Cathleen C.

    2008-04-01

    “What is truth?” Pontius Pilot asked Jesus of Nazareth. For many educators today this question seems quaintly passé. Rejection of “truth” goes hand-in-hand with the rejection of epistemological realism. Educational thought over the last decade has instead been dominated by empiricist, anti-realist, instrumentalist epistemologies of two types: first by psychological constructivism and later by social constructivism. Social constructivism subsequently has been pressed to its logical conclusion in the form of relativistic multiculturalism. Proponents of both psychological constructivism and social constructivism value knowledge for its utility and eschew as irrelevant speculation any notion that knowledge is actually about reality. The arguments are largely grounded in the discourse of science and science education where science is “western” science; neither universal nor about what is really real. The authors defended the notion of science as universal in a previous article. The present purpose is to offer a commonsense argument in defense of critical realism as an epistemology and the epistemically distinguished position of science (rather than privileged) within a framework of epistemological pluralism. The paper begins with a brief cultural survey of events during the thirty-year period from 1960-1990 that brought many educators to break with epistemological realism and concludes with comments on the pedagogical importance of realism. Understanding the cultural milieu of the past forty years is critical to understanding why traditional philosophical attacks on social constructivist ideas have proved impotent defenders of scientific realism.

  4. Narrative and epistemology: Georges Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimisso, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    In the late 1960s, Georges Canguilhem introduced the concept of 'scientific ideology'. This concept had not played any role in his previous work, so why introduce it at all? This is the central question of my paper. Although it may seem a rather modest question, its answer in fact uncovers hidden tensions in the tradition of historical epistemology, in particular between its normative and descriptive aspects. The term ideology suggests the influence of Althusser's and Foucault's philosophies. However, I show the differences between Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology and Althusser's and Foucault's respective concepts of ideology. I argue that Canguilhem was in fact attempting to solve long-standing problems in the tradition of historical epistemology, rather than following the lead of his younger colleagues. I argue that Canguilhem's 'refurbishment without rejection' of Bachelard's epistemology, which the concept of scientific ideology was aimed to implement, was necessary to justify the historical narratives that Canguilhem had constructed in his own work as a historian of concepts. A strict acceptance of Bachelard's epistemology would have made it impossible to justify them. Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology therefore served as a theoretical justification of his practice as a historian. I maintain that the concept of scientific ideology was needed to reconcile Bachelard's normative epistemology with Canguilhem's view of the history of science and its aims, which differed from Bachelard's more than it is generally acknowledged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Epistemology of tourism: theoretical schools and critical proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Panosso Netto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is present, discuss and problematize the issue of epistemology applied to tourism. The paper discusses the problems in the construction of knowledge of tourism, and theoretical schools, and a proposed critical epistemology. Progress in the scientific production of knowledge in tourism, referring to epistemology, despite its growth in recent years, remains an issue that can be considered neglected or very complex due to the need for a strong philosophical reflection, with little application in practical life, by the claim of achieving scientific rigor of analytic epistemology. The procedure is a critical review of the term epistemology to discriminate the scientistic position of the term and the other schools recognize influencing this trend (analytical and those opposed to it (such as historical, to no effect misrepresent its meaning in the humanities and social sciences, but particularly in tourism. The proposal relates to the development of reflective critical foundations, based on critical theory, as a build option to transform the reality and knowledge of tourism.

  6. EPISTEMOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MODERN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONAL PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S. Tokovenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is finding the reasonability of using bio-evolutionary paradigm for researching ratio morphic cognitive activity. Methodology. Methodological grounds consist of the original principles and conceptual apparatus of evolutionary epistemology. Scientific novelty. The article identifies opportunities for using of biological and evolutionary paradigm to study the peculiarities of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds and their influence on the formation and development of human knowledge. Conclusions. The article concludes that together with the idea of hyper cycles (feedback loop with mutual transmission of information in cognitive process the concept of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds, as well as attempts to examine cognitive processes based on the scientific criteria (empirical verification, explanatory power and ability to predict should be certainly considered as a positive contribution to the development of evolutionary epistemology into modern epistemological research. However, it is also indicated the fact of narrowing the heuristic possibilities of this epistemological direction because of excessive metaphor of bio-evolutionary paradigm. Further development of evolutionary epistemological research is considered in shifting the emphasis from biological and evolutionary towards cultural and evolutionary paradigm.

  7. Relationship between nursing students' epistemological beliefs and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Aylin; Kaya, Hülya

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between nursing students' epistemologic beliefs and locus of control, and the research was conducted at Istanbul University Florence Nightingale School of Nursing with 350 nursing students. Data were collected using the Turkish version of the Epistemological beliefs questionnaire and Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. In the data analysis number, percentage, mean, correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD test were used. The findings as whole indicated that nursing students' epistemological beliefs that "The Belief of Learning Depends on Effort (Effort)" showed a greater degree of development than their beliefs about the two other dimensions as named "The Belief of Learning Depends on Ability (Ability)" and "The Belief That There is Only One Unchanging Truth (Unchanging Truth)" in this study, while their belief that there is Unchanging Truth was not developed when compared to the other two. There was a positive correlation between nursing students locus of control and Effort and Ability dimensions, but a significant correlation was not found with Unchanging Truth dimension. This researcher suggests that research should be carried out to determine nursing students' epistemological beliefs and the factors influencing them in an environment to promote the development of these beliefs, and thus the research can be used to learn about the development of the epistemological beliefs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spirit of place: Bridging the 'epistemological gap'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nickola B. N.

    My work explores the psychological gap between humans and nature. Also how humanity is a parcel of nature and that the philosophy of spirit of place can create oneness through imagery, describing the landscape while also encompassing the 'larger frame' within the aesthetic. These transcendental moments connect with not only the landscape but to earth as a spiritual entity. My work is a response to the landscape and these moments.

  9. Wavelet frames and their duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    frames with good time localization and other attractive properties. Furthermore, the dual wavelet frames are constructed in such a way that we are guaranteed that both frames will have the same desirable features. The construction procedure works for any real, expansive dilation. A quasi-affine system....... The signals are then represented by linear combinations of the building blocks with coefficients found by an associated frame, called a dual frame. A wavelet frame is a frame where the building blocks are stretched (dilated) and translated versions of a single function; such a frame is said to have wavelet...... structure. The dilation of the wavelet building blocks in higher dimension is done via a square matrix which is usually taken to be integer valued. In this thesis we step away from the "usual" integer, expansive dilation and consider more general, expansive dilations. In most applications of wavelet frames...

  10. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  11. Work and Inertial Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Richard

    2017-12-01

    A fairly recent paper resolves a large discrepancy in the internal energy utilized to fire a cannon as calculated by two inertial observers. Earth and its small reaction velocity must be considered in the system so that the change in kinetic energy is calculated correctly. This paper uses a car in a similar scenario, but considers the work done by forces acting over distances. An analysis of the system must include all energy interactions, including the work done on the car and especially the (negative) work done on Earth in a moving reference frame. This shows the importance of considering the force on Earth and the distance Earth travels. For calculation of work in inertial reference frames, the center of mass perspective is shown to be useful. We also consider the energy requirements to efficiently accelerate a mass among interacting masses.

  12. Density of Gabor Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Heil, C.; Deng, B.

    1997-01-01

    A Gabor system is a set of time-frequency shifts$S(g,\\Lambda) = \\{e^{2\\pi i b x} g(x-a)\\}_{(a,b) \\in \\Lambda}$of a function $g \\in L^2({\\bold R}^d)$.We prove that if a finite union of Gabor systems$\\bigcup_{k=1}^r S(g_k,\\Lambda_k)$, with arbitrary sequences $\\Lambda_k$,forms a frame for $L^2({\\bo...

  13. Frame for a firearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David L [Idaho Falls, ID; Watson, Richard W [Blackfoot, ID

    2008-03-04

    A firearm frame which is adapted to be disposed in operative relationship as a component part of a firearm, the firearm having disposed in operative relationships each with one or more of the others, a barrel, a receiver, and at least one firing mechanism; wherein the barrel and receiver form operative parts of a movable assembly and the at least one firing mechanism is disposed in a substantially stationary operative relationship therewith; the firearm frame including at least one elongated support structure discrete from the barrel and receiver, the elongated support structure being adapted to directly support the movable assembly in an operative movable relationship therewith; whereby at least one of the barrel and receiver is in direct contact with and movable on the elongated support structure; and, a firing mechanism support structure connected to the at least one elongated support structure, the firing mechanism support structure being adapted to have the firing mechanism connected thereto; the firearm frame also directly supporting the movable assembly and the firing mechanism in corresponding movable and stationary operative relationships each with the other.

  14. How College-Level Introductory Instruction Can Impact Student Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Mollohan, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a survey study of college students' epistemologies about biology and learning biology. Specifically, the authors examined the differences between science and nonscience majors and their changes in epistemologies over the course of a semester of instruction.

  15. Epistemology of nursing care: a reflection on its foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salviano, Márcia Eller Miranda; Nascimento, Prince Daiane Felizardo Silva; Paula, Mariane Andreza de; Vieira, Carolina Santiago; Frison, Susiane Sucasas; Maia, Mariana Almeida; Souza, Kleyde Ventura; Borges, Eline Lima

    2016-01-01

    to reflect on nursing care and its epistemology from its historical, theoretical, philosophical, spiritual dimensions and as a social practice. discussions originated in the discipline "Epistemology of caring", from the graduate nursing program of the School of Nursing, Federal University of Minas Gerais, and in critical analysis of nursing literature together with the professional practice of the authors. we identified the necessity of developing a critical conscience on health care provision, research, and teaching, as well as on challenges in maintaining high standards of working interpersonal relationships, which has a profound impact on population health. we suggest the rescue of integrality, humanization, unity, and spirituality in researches and practices of individual, familiar, and community care, as an advance in incorporating epistemology of caring in nursing.

  16. Epistemology and Information Seeking Behaviour: Outcome of a Quantitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khowsrojerdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to study the state of information seeking among 158 graduate students in University of Tehran and examine its correlation with students’ epistemological beliefs. A survey employing two sets of questionnaires was carried out. One set was devised by the author while the other was Schommers 63-item epistemological beliefs questionnaire. Findings indicated that there is a positive significance at 0.05 level between knowledge organization and students’ information relevancy judgments. Furthermore there is a positive significance at 0.001 level between knowledge management and time allocation. Learning speed and internalization of past knowledge however displayed a negative significance at 0.01 level. No significance was observed among the rest of epistemological beliefs aspects with other aspects of information seeking behavior

  17. Combination of interventions can change students’ epistemological beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin S. Kalman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was based on the hypothesis that students’ epistemological beliefs could become more expertlike with a combination of appropriate instructional activities: (i preclass reading with metacognitive reflection, and (ii in-class active learning that produces cognitive dissonance. This hypothesis was tested through a five-year study involving close to 1000 students at two institutions, in four physics courses. Using an experimental design, data from student interviews, writing product assessments, and the Discipline-Focused Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (DFEBQ we demonstrate that the beliefs of novice science learners became more expertlike on 2 of the 4 DFEBQ factors. We conclude that a combination of an activity that gets students to examine textual material metacognitively (Reflective Writing with one or more types of in-class active learning interventions can promote positive change in students’ epistemological beliefs.

  18. Combination of interventions can change students' epistemological beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Calvin S.; Sobhanzadeh, Mandana; Thompson, Robert; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Wang, Xihui

    2015-12-01

    This study was based on the hypothesis that students' epistemological beliefs could become more expertlike with a combination of appropriate instructional activities: (i) preclass reading with metacognitive reflection, and (ii) in-class active learning that produces cognitive dissonance. This hypothesis was tested through a five-year study involving close to 1000 students at two institutions, in four physics courses. Using an experimental design, data from student interviews, writing product assessments, and the Discipline-Focused Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (DFEBQ) we demonstrate that the beliefs of novice science learners became more expertlike on 2 of the 4 DFEBQ factors. We conclude that a combination of an activity that gets students to examine textual material metacognitively (Reflective Writing) with one or more types of in-class active learning interventions can promote positive change in students' epistemological beliefs.

  19. PESANTREN SAINS: EPISTEMOLOGY OF ISLAMIC SCIENCE IN TEACHING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Yasin Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    Pada umumnya, umat Islam di dunia ini berada di bawah dominasi Barat dalam penguasaan ilmu dan teknologi. Pendirian lembaga pendidikan yang didasarkan pada ilmu dan teknologi merupakan salah satu cara untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti epistemologi ilmu dalam sistem pengajaran di SMA Trensains di pondok Pesantren Tebuireng Jombang. Dengan menggunakan metode penelitian lapangan dan dengan pendekatan penelitian kualitatif serta analisis filosofis, kajian ini menemukan bahwa SMA Trensains Tebuireng Jombang menerapkan Sains Islam, di mana ilmu dibangun berdasar wahyu Tuhan. Maksudnya adalah bahwa dalam epistemologi Islam wahyu dan sunnah adalah sumber yang memberikan inspirasi bagi pembangunan ilmu pengetahuan. Diharapkan pembangunan epistemologi Islam untuk ilmu penge­tahuan akan melahirkan generasi Muslim yang shalih dalam bidang agama dan ahli dalam bidang ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, yang pada gilirannya akan memberikan dampak bagi kejayaan peradaban Islam di masa yang akan datang.

  20. Electrodynamics in accelerated frames revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluf, J.W. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia (Brazil); Ulhoa, S.C. [Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, UFVJM, Diamantina, MG (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    Maxwell's equations are formulated in arbitrary moving frames by means of tetrad fields, which are interpreted as reference frames adapted to observers in space-time. We assume the existence of a general distribution of charges and currents in an inertial frame. Tetrad fields are used to project the electromagnetic fields and sources on accelerated frames. The purpose is to study several configurations of fields and observers that in the literature are understood as paradoxes. For instance, are the two situations, (i) an accelerated charge in an inertial frame, and (ii) a charge at rest in an inertial frame described from the perspective of an accelerated frame, physically equivalent? Is the electromagnetic radiation the same in both frames? Normally in the analysis of these paradoxes the electromagnetic fields are transformed to (uniformly) accelerated frames by means of a coordinate transformation of the Faraday tensor. In the present approach coordinate and frame transformations are disentangled, and the electromagnetic field in the accelerated frame is obtained through a frame (local Lorentz) transformation. Consequently the fields in the inertial and accelerated frames are described in the same coordinate system. This feature allows the investigation of paradoxes such as the one mentioned above. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  2. Perbandingan Konsepsi Epistemologi Empirisisme Ibnu Taymiyyah dan John Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rido Kurnianto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the epistemological empiricism conception of Ibn Taimiyyah and John Locke based on the comparative analysis to obtain the complete description of epistemological empiricism thought of both, as well as its implications and consequences for the development of science and religious thought. To obtain the detailed answer about the two figures thought, it would be revealed the similarities and differences of epistemological empiricism of each by showing the elements that became the focus of both studies. Furthermore, from those, it will be sought the strange and weaknesses, and possible relevance of the two thought to find a new alternative as a reflective systematic model for the development of science and religious thought in the present and future. Comparing the empirical thought of both figures above is important to do, due to the empirical tradition in the two mens’ world have a very extreme differences. In the west, Empiricism had contributed significantly to the epistemological assets or legacy and had led to the development of science and technology. In contrast, empiricism in the east, was suspected as a harmful tradition to the Islamic ideology. It was considered as the seed that gave birth to atheism. Based on the two thinkers empiricism, will appear the strategic idea that can be synthesized to developed modern science as well as Islamic thought. Bot of epistemology thought can be combine to reconstruct the Islamic epistemology which is more open and more mature, because in that context will emerge the theories of knowledge without eliminating the metaphysical and ethical authority. In the context of combination, the natural tendency of foundation of Islamic teaching should be the bases of policy as descript by Ibnu Taimiyyah, that human nature becomes the foundation of the human responsibility in the end after and imposition of responsibility or duty, are the necessities to obey Allah order and to leave the Allah

  3. Kantian epistemology as an alternative to heroic astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. I.

    Theoretical and observational methods in astronomy have advanced to a point where certain of their outcomes are difficult to comprehend with the traditional categories of human knowledge. The philosophical discipline of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is used here to address four current problems in observational astronomy, exobiology, cosmology, and quantum mechanics. The problems are united by an epistemological content which, when unrecognized, has resulted in some heroic solutions of an ad hoc nature. Immanuel Kant's critical philosophy is employed because his work is consistent with basic attitudes in present-day physics and biology.

  4. Kantian epistemology as an alternative to heroic astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and observational methods in astronomy have advanced to a point where certain of their outcomes are difficult to comprehend with the traditional categories of human knowledge. The philosophical discipline of epistemology, the theory of knowledge, is used here to address four current problems in observational astronomy, exobiology, cosmology, and quantum mechanics. The problems are united by an epistemological content which, when unrecognized, has resulted in some heroic solutions of an ad hoc nature. Kant's critical philosophy is employed because his work is consistent with basic attitudes in present-day physics and biology.

  5. RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Calgaro Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.

  6. Rehumanisasi Pendidikan Akuntansi melalui Pendekatan Epistemologi 3ling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Ekasari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to rehumanize accounting education by employing 3ling epistemology. The method used in this research consisted of 3 steps: ngerti, ngrasa, and ngelakoni. This research concluded that dehumanization in accounting education has become accepted reality. Humanization in accounting education could be implemented by integrating ethics, moral and spirituality both in accounting and accounting education and it could be done by inserting ngrasa in learning process. Humanizing accounting education will lead to human welfare. The implementation of 3ling epistemology could change the student’s perception about accounting.

  7. Kepercayaan Epistemologis dan Faktor-faktor yang Memengaruhinya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur Ghufron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to: (1 finding out whether there was conformity between the theoretical model of factors affecting students’ epistemological beliefs and the empirical models, (2 assessing whether interdependent self-construal, level of education, constructivist learning environment and metacognition predicted of epistemological beliefs as measured by belief about knowledge and belief about learning, (3 assessing whether interdependent self-construal, level of education, constructivist learning environment and metacognition predicted of epistemological beliefs as measured by belief about knowledge and (4 assessing whether interdependent self-construal, level of education, constructivist learning environment and metacognition predicted of epistemological beliefs as measured by belief about learning.The population in this research consists of the first to eight semesters students of “X” Department of STAIN Kudus , Central Java. The sample was as many as study 268 students, taken through stratified random sampling method. The data collection techniques used in this research was questionnaire in the form of scales and checklists.The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Models (SEM. The research resulted: (1 The (theoretical model designed in the research is proper, and conforms with the data collected (empirical model, (2 The determination (R² of the students’ epistemological beliefs is 0.80, which means that 80 percent of epistemological beliefs can be explained or predicted through the variables of interdependent self-construal, level of education and constructivist learning environment, (3 The determination (R² of the students’ beliefs about knowledge is 0.52, which means that 52 percent can be explained or predicted through the variables of interdependent self-construal, level of education and constructivist learning environment, (4 The determination (R² of the students’ beliefs about learning is 0.28, which means that

  8. "I'm Just No Good at Writing": Epistemological Style and Attitudes toward Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, Davida; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assesses writing attitudes and epistemologies of 117 first-year and 329 upper-level undergraduates. Uses attitude scales and epistemological scales. Finds that students with higher "evaluatism" scores tended to enjoy writing more, and that differences in attitudes and epistemologies emerged between men and women and among upper-level students in…

  9. An Epistemological Analysis of the Application of an Online Inquiry-Based Program in Tourism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Liwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper was designed to investigate the application of an online inquiry-based program to European tourism from an epistemological perspective. Fifty tourism students (n = 50) participated in this study and their epistemological beliefs were measured with the Epistemological Belief Scale. A set of pre-, post-, and delayed tests were utilised to…

  10. Multiple Epistemological Coherences in an Eighth-Grade Discussion of the Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Seth; Hammer, David; Phelan, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Research on personal epistemologies (Hofer & Pintrich, 2002) has mostly conceptualized them as stable beliefs or stages of development. On these views, researchers characterize individual students' epistemologies with single, coherent descriptions. Evidence of variability in student epistemologies, however, suggests the need for more complex…

  11. Testimony in Narrative Educational Research: A Qualitative Interview, Narrative Analysis and Epistemological Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess issues that arise in the context of epistemological claims in narrative educational research by means of narrative analysis and epistemological evaluation. The research questions which guided the study were: 1) To what extent is epistemology considered by narrative educational researchers?; 2) What issues do…

  12. Ricoeur's "Petite éthique": an ethical epistemological perspective for clinician-bioethicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Josée

    2010-12-01

    The passage from a posture of clinician to that of clinician-bioethicist poses significant challenges for health professionals, most notably with regards to theoretical or epistemological views of complex ethical impasses encountered in clinical settings. Apprehending these situations from the only clinical perspective of the nurse or the doctor, for example, can be very unproductive to help solve this kind of situation and certainly poses great limits to the role of the clinician-bioethicist. Drawing on my own experience as a former nurse who, following graduate studies in bioethics has begun providing ethics consultation services, I argue that clinicians must undergo an epistemological transformation in order to become clinician-bioethicists. A source of inspiration or framework for would-be clinician-bioethicists is, I suggest, the "Petite éthique" developed by the contemporary French philosopher Paul Ricoeur. Specifically, clinician-bioethicists should develop specific core ethical competencies (in line with the conclusions of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities (Core competencies for health care ethics consultation, 1998); namely: savoir or knowing, savoir faire or knowing how to do, and savoir être or knowing how to be.

  13. Ernst Mach and the Epistemological Ideas Specific for Finnish Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemsen, Hayo

    2011-03-01

    Where does Finnish science education come from? Where will it go? The following outside view reflects on relations, which Finns consider "normal" (and thus unrecognizable in introspection) in science education. But what is "normal" in Finnish culture cannot be considered "normal" for science education in other cultures, for example in Germany. The following article will trace the central ideas, which had a larger influence in the development of this difference. The question is, if and why the Finnish uniqueness in the philosophy of science education is empirically important. This puts Finnish science education into the perspective of a more general epistemological debate around Ernst Mach's Erkenntnistheorie (a German term similar to the meaning of history and philosophy of science, though more general; literally translated "cognition/knowledge theory"). From this perspective, an outlook will be given on open questions within the epistemology of Finnish science education. Following such questions could lead to the adaptation of the "successful" ideas in Finnish science education (indicated by empirical studies, such as the OECD PISA study) as well as the further development of the central ideas of Finnish science education.

  14. Principles of epistemological accountability with methodological implications for measuring, assessing, and profiling human resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astier M. Almedom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose two fundamental principles of epistemological accountability with critical methodological implications for studies designed to measure, assess, and/or profile human psychosocial resilience. Firstly, researchers involved in human psychosocial resilience studies owe it to the individuals and communities that they engage to disclose their motives and possible misreadings of the situations they enter, albeit with good intentions. Secondly, researchers and those individuals researched need to share a language of colearning and coproduction, and utilization of knowledge that is mutually intelligible. Again, the onus is on researchers and their funders to respect the researched and their particular epistemological sovereignties. As the number of published examples of authentic community- and/or needs-driven research and action to strengthen human psychosocial resilience increases, the sustainability of human social well-being and harmony may also be expected to rise. Psychosocial resilience encompasses a dynamic multidimensional set of personal capabilities as well as social and material assets/resources that individuals, families, and communities mobilize to mentally and emotionally embrace "turbulent" change and transformation while maintaining routine functioning without loss of identity, integrity, or core purpose in life that defines them as who they are individually as well as collectively. These proposed informed predictions are yet to be widely adopted and applied in the new paradigm for advancing this century of human psychosocial resilience, well-being, and sustainability.

  15. PERBANDINGAN ASPEK ONTOLOGI DAN EPISTEMOLOGI ILM AL-MA’ANIY DAN PRAGMATIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Sony Fauzi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ma’aniy and Pragmatics are two field of study that is closely related to language. Both of them have different background. The Ma’aniy was born from the intention to discover the miracle of Qur’an from its language. On the other hand, pragmatics was born from the study of language phenomena in the forms of human utterances. The ma’aniy was born in eastern world, and pragmatics was from the west. Through contrastive analytic and conventional text study this paper is aimed at comparing the epistemological aspects of those two field of study, especially at three different aspects of pragmatics, theory of speech act, implicature and relevance. Those three aspects are found out the similarities with the aspects in ma’aniy. The findings are first, ontologically, there is similarity between ma’aniy and pragmatics, especially in discussing the forms and meaning of speech that is influenced by speech context. Many definitions of those two field of studies have similarities. Second, epistemologically, those two field of studies have similarities, for example, in ma’aniy there is “kalam khabariy” and “kalam insya’iy”, that is similar to the maxim violation in the speech implicature in pragmatics.

  16. The Role of Metaphor in Scientific Epistemology: A Constructivist Perspective and Consequences for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quale, Andreas

    I examine the role played by metaphor, in supporting andconditioning our thinking about theoretical models of learning in science education.Some examples are given, of cases where the use of inappropriate metaphors can actually counteract a properunderstanding of the topic being learnt. With special reference to von Glasersfeld's theory of radicalconstructivism, it is argued that much of the controversy appearing in the academic discussion of this theorystems from the injudicious use of metaphors of ``truth'' and ``reality'', concepts that are in a sense inheritedfrom the domain of Law. These metaphors are often taken too literally, as representing ``obvious'' and henceindisputable constraints on scientific investigation; and they then strongly favour the adoption of an epistemologyof scientific realism, which is at variance with the theory of knowledge that is proposed by radical constructivism.However, it is argued that this realist epistemology is not compelling, since it rests on a somewhat contentiousmetaphoric base, and that a radical-constructivist epistemology offers a better strategy for the purposesof science education.

  17. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  18. The Levels of Visual Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lulu; Dimitrova, Daniela V.

    2011-01-01

    While framing research has centered mostly on the evaluations of media texts, visual news discourse has remained relatively unexamined. This study surveys the visual framing techniques and methods employed in previous studies and proposes a four-tiered model of identifying and analyzing visual frames: (1) visuals as denotative systems, (2) visuals…

  19. New avenues for framing research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the studies in this special issue of the American Behavioral Scientist. It is a strong collection of articles reporting findings from an integrated project that looks at frame building, frames, and effects of frames. The project is part of an exciting large-scale

  20. Vehicle frame measurement device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarauer, A.J.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a vehicle frame and body measurement apparatus for use in realigning the structure of a damaged unibody vehicle the device having a longitudinal axis utilized in a horizontal plane the apparatus comprising means for measuring the vehicle body and frame comprising, (a) means for supporting a damaged motor vehicle in a fixed position, (b) an elongated rail on each side of the supporting means spaced apart a distance greater than the width of the supporting means and the width of the vehicle, (c) a vertical upright of a length exceeding the height of the motor vehicle slidably supported by each of the rails and having a vertical axis substantially perpendicular to the horizontal plane of the vehicle, (d) a vertically adjustable horizontal bar attached to each of the uprights, substantially perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis of the rails and the vertical axis of the uprights, (e) means for affixing the horizontal bar to the uprights so that the bar is vertically adjustable, the affixing means being provided with releasable means to permit adjustable horizontal extension of the horizontal bar and (f) at least one extendable measuring means attached to each vertical upright at its junction with its associated horizontal rail and adjustably extending along the horizontal rail, the free end of the measuring means having to releasably affix it to the rail.

  1. Mapping in inertial frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arunasalam, V.

    1989-05-01

    World space mapping in inertial frames is used to examine the Lorentz covariance of symmetry operations. It is found that the Galilean invariant concepts of simultaneity (S), parity (P), and time reversal symmetry (T) are not Lorentz covariant concepts for inertial observers. That is, just as the concept of simultaneity has no significance independent of the Lorentz inertial frame, likewise so are the concepts of parity and time reversal. However, the world parity (W) (i.e., the space-time reversal symmetry (P-T)) is a truly Lorentz covariant concept. Indeed, it is shown that only those mapping matrices M that commute with the Lorentz transformation matrix L (i.e., (M,L) = 0) are the ones that correspond to manifestly Lorentz covariant operations. This result is in accordance with the spirit of the world space Mach's principle. Since the Lorentz transformation is an orthogonal transformation while the Galilean transformation is not an orthogonal transformation, the formal relativistic space-time mapping theory used here does not have a corresponding non-relativistic counterpart. 12 refs.

  2. on Goal Framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia P. Abril

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En respuesta a la enorme y algunas veces conceptualmente inconsistente literatura sobre valence framing,Levin y sus colegas (1998 desarrollaron una tipología de encuadre de valencia que organiza los diferentesresultados a partir de elección arriesgada, atributo, y encuadre de los resultados (goal framing. Este estudiofavorece la literatura sobre encuadre de los resultados mediante (a su aplicación en el contexto de una cuestiónsocial como la pobreza infantil extrema; y (b el examen de los mecanismos afectivos sobre el cual el encuadrede los resultados es de eficacia persuasiva. Los resultados experimentales (N = 197 mostraron que la exposiciónal mensaje de encuadre de pérdida permitió un apoyo mayor hacia las políticas públicas que buscan erradicar lapobreza infantil, en comparación con el mensaje de encuadre de ganancia. Los resultados también revelaronque el afecto negativo sirve como herramienta mediadora de apoyo hacia las políticas públicas. Estos hallazgossugieren que, en el contexto del apoyo social hacia la población pobre, la capacidad de persuasión dentro delencuadre de pérdida se facilita cuando los participantes experimentan afectos negativos.

  3. Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around the Renaissance: How Science and Technique Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pisano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is divided into two parts, this being the first one. The second is entitled ‘Historical and Epistemological Reflections on the Culture of Machines around Renaissance: Machines, Machineries and Perpetual Motion’ and will be published in Acta Baltica Historiae et Philosophiae Scientiarum in 2015. Based on our recent studies, we provide here a historical and epistemological feature on the role played by machines and machineries. Ours is an epistemological thesis based on a series of historical examples to show that the relations between theoretical science and the construction of machines cannot be taken for granted, a priori. Our analysis is mainly based on the culture of machines around 15th and 17th centuries, namely the epoch of Late Renaissance and Early Modern Age. For this is the period of scientific revolution and this age offers abundant interesting material for researches into the relations of theoretical science/construction of machines as well. However, to prove our epistemological thesis, we will also exploit examples of machines built in other historical periods. Particularly, a discussion concerning the relationship between science theory and the development of science art crafts produced by non-recognized scientists in a certain historical time is presented. The main questions are: when and why did the tension between science (physics, mathematics and geometry give rise to a new scientific approach to applied discipline such as studies on machines and machineries? What kind of science was used (if at all for projecting machines and machineries? Was science at the time a necessary precondition to build a machine? In the first part we will focus on the difference between Aristotelian-Euclidean and Archimedean approaches and we will outline the heritage of these two different approaches in late medieval and Renaissance science. In the second part, we will apply our reconstructions to some historical and epistemological

  4. Epistemology, Practical Work and Academic Skills in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inherent flaws in considering and using the epistemology of the natural sciences as equivalent to a pedagogic basis for teaching and learning in the natural sciences. Discusses the difference between practicing science and learning to practice science. Concludes with the presentation of three new motives for the use of laboratory…

  5. Evolution Acceptance and Epistemological Beliefs of College Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Deniz, Hasan; Anderson, Elizabeth Shevock

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary theory is central to biology, and scientifically accurate evolution instruction is promoted within national and state standards documents. Previous literature has identified students' epistemological beliefs as potential predictors of evolution acceptance. The present work seeks to explore more directly how student views of evolution…

  6. The Relationship between Epistemological Beliefs and Teaching Anxiety in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Erhan; Dilmac, Bulent; Yazici, Ersen; Peker, Murat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the anxiety of teaching mathematics and epistemological beliefs of prospective teachers. Research was carried out on 279 teacher candidates studying in the primary education mathematics teaching, secondary education mathematics teaching and class teaching programs. A 23-item…

  7. 'Epistemology models ontology'− In gesprek met John Polkinghorne

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    7 Jun 2011 ... The famous premise of John Polkinghorne, 'epistemology models ontology', has been assessed in this article. It is interpreted that its logic is based on a linear trajectory of knowledge → being. Polkinghorne places much emphasis on the fact that he pursues a 'bottom-up' approach, that is, an inductive way ...

  8. Feminism, Epistemology and Experience: Critically (En)gendering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responding to Elizabeth Castelli's (2001) call to “trouble” and destabilise dominant or mainstream categories of analysis in the study of religion and gender, this paper looks at the feminist epistemological category of “experience” as it relates to the study of Islam and Muslim societies. I explore how mystical and mundane ...

  9. Causality, randomness, intelligibility, and the epistemology of the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward R; Bittner, Michael L

    2010-06-01

    Because the basic unit of biology is the cell, biological knowledge is rooted in the epistemology of the cell, and because life is the salient characteristic of the cell, its epistemology must be centered on its livingness, not its constituent components. The organization and regulation of these components in the pursuit of life constitute the fundamental nature of the cell. Thus, regulation sits at the heart of biological knowledge of the cell and the extraordinary complexity of this regulation conditions the kind of knowledge that can be obtained, in particular, the representation and intelligibility of that knowledge. This paper is essentially split into two parts. The first part discusses the inadequacy of everyday intelligibility and intuition in science and the consequent need for scientific theories to be expressed mathematically without appeal to commonsense categories of understanding, such as causality. Having set the backdrop, the second part addresses biological knowledge. It briefly reviews modern scientific epistemology from a general perspective and then turns to the epistemology of the cell. In analogy with a multi-faceted factory, the cell utilizes a highly parallel distributed control system to maintain its organization and regulate its dynamical operation in the face of both internal and external changes. Hence, scientific knowledge is constituted by the mathematics of stochastic dynamical systems, which model the overall relational structure of the cell and how these structures evolve over time, stochasticity being a consequence of the need to ignore a large number of factors while modeling relatively few in an extremely complex environment.

  10. The Comparative Studying of Rumi and Bonaventura Mystical Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyari, Farshad; Elmi, Qorban; Alizamani, Amirabbas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider most critical issues of mystical epistemology in Rumi and Bonaventura once the views on subject, reality of the world, and the possibility of knowledge were expressed. This research referring works of Rumi and Bonaventura studies this issue through a descriptive-analytical method. Rumi and Bonaventura…

  11. Towards an indigenous African epistemology of community in higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is evidenced in present times by the call for an African Renaissance in education, as well as, a growing discourse that demands the acknowledgement and inclusion of indigenous knowledge systems in the South African education system. This article considers the epistemological question that centres around the ...

  12. 'Every teacher is a researcher!': Creating indigenous epistemologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lesley Wood

    2012-12-13

    Dec 13, 2012 ... teachers to generate indigenous epistemologies and practices that not only are effective in creating sustainable and empowering learning environments for HIV prevention education, but also for teaching and learning in general. Keywords: HIV and AIDS prevention, gender education, action research, ...

  13. On the Epistemology of Narrative Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caduri, Galit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the epistemological foundations of narrative research in education. In particular, I seek to explain how one can obtain knowledge, given its origin in teachers' subjective experiences. The problem with rhetorical and aesthetic criteria that narrative researchers use to warrant their knowledge claims is not…

  14. Formal Epistemology and New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, Niki; Douven, Igor

    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of

  15. Epistemology, Practical Work and Academic Skills in Science Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the inherent flaws in considering and using the epistemology of the natural sciences as equivalent to a pedagogic basis for teaching and learning in the natural sciences. It begins with a discussion of the difference between practising science and learning to practice

  16. Students' Epistemological Beliefs, Expectations, and Learning Physics: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Ahluwalia, P. K.; Sharma, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    It has been established by physics education researchers that there is a correlation between the learner's behavior, their epistemological beliefs with which they come to the classrooms, and their success in a course. This study of Indian students and teachers explores expectations and beliefs in learning physics at the secondary and tertiary…

  17. John Locke‟s Epistemology and Teachings | Jaja | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the contributions of John Locke to philosophy especially his epistemology and his idea of the primacy of experience as the basis of all knowledge. For Locke, there is a clear distinction between simple and complex ideas. The paper also examines the concept of primary and secondary qualities, his ...

  18. The epistemology and ontology of human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes epistemological and ontological dimensions of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through an analysis of the functions of computer systems in relation to their users. It is argued that the primary relation between humans and computer systems has historically been epistemic:

  19. Epistemological and Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching International Business Ethics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Michel

    2015-01-01

    International business ethics courses imply four basic epistemological and pedagogical challenges: (a) understanding various perceptions of ethics and values/virtues; (b) identifying ethical maxims among religious/spiritual traditions; (c) designing international business ethics courses as dialogical experiences; and (d) deepening our personal…

  20. The Epistemological Challenges of Social Work Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrow, Eve E.; Hasenfeld, Yeheskel

    2017-01-01

    We argue that the dominance of an empiricist epistemology in social work research steers much of the research away from studying and explaining the structural forces that cause the conditions of oppression, exploitation, and social exclusion that are at the roots of the social problems addressed by the profession. It does so because it assumes…

  1. Epistemological Development and Critical Thinking in Post-Secondary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette-Schramm, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Using Kegan's constructive-developmental theory, this study explores to what extent epistemological development is a factor in critical thinking performance and learning in reading and writing among a diverse group of six adult learners. Analysis of a developmental interview, a summative assessment and participant surveys indicated that learners…

  2. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  3. The Metaphysics and Epistemology of Singular Terms | Borg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Can we draw apart questions of what it is to be a singular term (a metaphysical issue) from questions about how we tell when some expression is a singular term (an epistemological matter)? Prima facie, it might seem we can't: language, as a man-made edifice, might seem to prohibit such a distinction, and, indeed, some ...

  4. 'Epistemology models ontology'− In gesprek met John Polkinghorne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The famous premise of John Polkinghorne, 'epistemology models ontology', has been assessed in this article. It is interpreted that its logic is based on a linear trajectory of knowledge → being. Polkinghorne places much emphasis on the fact that he pursues a 'bottom-up' approach, that is, an inductive way of going about ...

  5. Karl Barth's epistemology: A critical appraisal | Veldsman | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In my appraisal of Barth's epistemological stance, I would like to argue in this article that his stance in the first place, does not only lead to a total isolation of theological reflection, but secondly through his highly exclusive claim, takes on the character of a personal religious credo expanded into a comprehensive doctrine ...

  6. Ethico-epistemological implications of artificial intelligence for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The celebrated efficiency of these techno-scientific products in outdoing human persons in assignments previously reserved for man such as: translations, warfare and industry raises the level of unemployment and comes with an epistemological challenge of man‟s intelligence. Not only does artificial intelligence threaten ...

  7. The epistemology of AIDS in South Africa: Lessons from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is a critical reflection of Future Studies epistemology which claims to contribute a unique heuristic niche in the study of AIDS. ... against perpetuating the myth that this methodology is a crystal ball into the future because they are powerful tools for strategic planning about the present, rather than the distant future.

  8. Zvierwa as African IKS: Epistemological and Ethical Implications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article, therefore, explores African indigenous knowledge systems, particularly taboos and examines how these helped the Shona people of Zimbabwe in preserving natural resources and the environment; in saving as indigenous curriculum with ethical codes of conduct and epistemological systems for present and ...

  9. Interrogating Gender and the Tourism Academy Through Epistemological Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambers, Donna; Munar, Ana Maria; Khoo-Lattimore, Catheryn

    2017-01-01

    This introductory essay argues for the adoption of feminist epistemologies to unpack the role, nature and effects of gender (in) equality in our tourism academy. Our focus on tourism academia recognizes the importance of tourism to social life and the crucial role that tourism academics play in k...

  10. Frame junction vibration transmission with a modified frame deformation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J A

    1990-12-01

    A previous paper dealt with vibration transmission through junctions of connected frame members where the allowed frame deformations included bending, torsion, and longitudinal motions [J.A. Moore, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2766-2776 (1990)]. In helicopter and aircraft structures the skin panels can constitute a high impedance connection along the length of the frames that effectively prohibits in-plane motion at the elevation of the skin panels. This has the effect of coupling in-plane bending and torsional motions within the frame. This paper discusses the transmission behavior through frame junctions that accounts for the in-plane constraint in idealized form by assuming that the attached skin panels completely prohibit inplane motion in the frames. Also, transverse shear deformation is accounted for in describing the relatively deep web frame constructions common in aircraft structures. Longitudinal motion in the frames is not included in the model. Transmission coefficient predictions again show the importance of out-of-plane bending deformation to the transmission of vibratory energy in an aircraft structure. Comparisons are shown with measured vibration transmission data along the framing in the overhead of a helicopter airframe, with good agreement. The frame junction description has been implemented within a general purpose statistical energy analysis (SEA) computer code in modeling the entire airframe structure including skin panels.

  11. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1961) for example, reports on the direct links between the study of the nervous system of cats, the design of anti-aircraft guns, and learning machines based upon cybernetic principles. Early computers were directly modeled upon the analogy ...

  12. A question mark on the equivalence of Einstein and Jordan frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Banerjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With an explicit example, we show that Jordan frame and the conformally transformed Einstein frames clearly lead to different physics for a non-minimally coupled theory of gravity, namely Brans–Dicke theory, at least at the quantum level. The example taken up is the spatially flat Friedmann cosmology in Brans–Dicke theory.

  13. Do frame à pintura

    OpenAIRE

    Haddad, João Müller

    2011-01-01

    A pesquisa parte do encontro, na arte contemporânea, entre meios artísticos (mídias analógicas e digitais), possibilitado pela utilização de meios tecnológicos. Trata, mais especificamente, da materialidade e imaterialidade das linguagens da pintura e do vídeo, se pautando na produção de artistas da cena contemporânea, Romanita Disconzi, e minha própria produção poética. A investigação poética trata da transposição de frames, instantes, parte mínima divisível de cenas de corpos humanos em mov...

  14. Orwell Framed for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Tracy Sutherland, a secondary school teacher, gives her opinion of the American public education that keeps changing so often that it finally loses its sight of the overall structure. She has taken George Orwell's book "Animal Farm" as examples in helping students apply the issues from the book in real life.

  15. Health and human rights: epistemological status and perspectives of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; London, Leslie; Chastonay, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    The health and human rights movement (HHR) shows obvious signs of maturation both internally and externally. Yet there are still many questions to be addressed. These issues include the movement's epistemological status and its perspectives of development. This paper discusses critically the conditions of emergence of HHR, its identity, its dominant schools of thought, its epistemological postures and its methodological issues. Our analysis shows that: (a) the epistemological status of HHR is ambiguous; (b) its identity is uncertain in the absence of a validated definition: is it an action movement, an interdisciplinary field, a domain, an approach, a setting or a scientific discipline? (c) its main schools of thoughts are defined as "advocacists", "ethicists", "interventionists", "normativists"; (d) the movement is in the maturation process as a discipline in which "interface", "distance", "interference" and "fusion" epistemological postures represent the fundamental steps; (e) parent disciplines (health sciences and law) competences, logics and cultures introduce duality and difficulties in knowledge production, validation and diffusion; (f) there is need to re-write the history of the HHR movement by inscribing it not only into the humanitarian or public health perspectives but also into the evolution of sciences and its social, political and economical conditions of emergence. The ambiguous epistemological status of this field, the need to re-write its history, the methodological duality in its research, the question of the competence of the knowledge validation, as well as the impact of HHR practice on national and international health governance are the challenges of its future development. To meet those challenges; we call for the creation and implementation of an international research agenda, the exploration of new research topics and the evaluation of the movement's contribution to the national and global public health and human rights governance.

  16. Carbon. Examples of Property Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Kossko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Examples of realization of carbon properties in formation of section near-surface boundaries defining the mechanism of oxidizing (normal wear are presented. Synthesis of strengt hening diamond- lonsdaleite -carbene «frame» and graphite with function of solid lubricant on a friction surface in high-desperse carbon environment is reviewed. Prospects of carbon ap placation in implementation of the concept of electronics on one element, and also use of thin-film structures of amorphous carbon – metal for data recording are discussed.

  17. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanli Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  18. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, Mehmet; Unal, Alptug

    2017-10-01

    After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  19. An Analysis of Frame Semantics of Continuous Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Cause_motion verbs, with their mandatory Agent or Cause, appear in additional patterns. For example, the subject of the sentence can be the entity... issue is bridging the gap between these cognitive models of change and purely linguistic models. Doing so illuminates the semantics of continuous...lexical items in a sentence to their role in a semantic description (Fillmore, Wooters, & Baker, 2001). Fillmore et al’s (2001) FrameNet is a frame

  20. Riesz Frames and Approximation of the Frame Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A frame is a familyof elements in a Hilbert space with the propertythat every element in the Hilbert space can be written as a (infinite)linear combination of the frame elements. Frame theory describes howone can choose the corresponding coefficients, which are calledframe coefficients. From...... the mathematical point of view this isgratifying, but for applications it is a problem that the calculationrequires inversion of an operator on the Hilbert space.The projection method is introduced in order to avoid this problem.The basic idea is to consider finite subfamiliesof the frame and the orthogonal...

  1. TRU-FRAME Steel Truss

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    After earthquakes, repair and replacement of structural elements is time consuming and expensive. This new truss system contains several diagonal elements designed to absorb seismic energy and yield at prescribed levels. Standard moment frame design requires 100% visual inspection and ultrasonic testing which is eliminated when using the Tru-Frame system. Since all Tru-Frame connections are single pass fillet welds and tension control bolts, they can be visually inspected any time after compl...

  2. Inertial Frames and Clock Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Kak, Subhash

    2012-01-01

    This article revisits the historiography of the problem of inertial frames. Specifically, the case of the twins in the clock paradox is considered to see that some resolutions implicitly assume inertiality for the non-accelerating twin. If inertial frames are explicitly identified by motion with respect to the large scale structure of the universe, it makes it possible to consider the relative inertiality of different frames.

  3. Six problems in frame theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role.......We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role....

  4. EPISTEMOLOGI TASAWUF DALAM PEMIKIRAN FIQH AL-SYA‘RÂNÎ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahul Huda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study of Islamic law, epistemology constitutes a fundamental aspect of the law upon which the legitimate concept of the law is based. Epistemology becomes the root of debates regarding the truth of legal reasoning among Muslims who often made a truth clam about their own superior episteme. This causes discrepancies amongst them. This dispute was what al-Sya‘rânî found in his time. As a famous jurist, he sought to resolve it and offered a new theory of law. He contends that the arguments underlying the debates about the epistemology of Islamic law flawed. He wants to demonstrate that the arguments do not fit into the tradition of Islamic thought. This study examines al-Sya‘rânî’s thought in the epistemology of Islamic law. It discusses four issues: the valid path to the knowledge about shari’a, kashf as a source of knowledge, the path to the kashf, and the position and relation of reason, tradition and intuition in Islamic law.Abstrak:  Epistemologi merupakan hal yang fundamental karena dari situlah legitimasi dari konsep-konsep hukum syariah bersumber. Di situ pula akar perdebatan tentang kebenaran hasil ijtihad yang sering diklaim secara eksklusif oleh kelompok-kelompok umat Islam sehingga berdampak buruk bagi hubungan dan solidaritas sosial di antara mereka. Fakta seperti itulah yang disaksikan al-Sya‘rânî sepanjang hayatnya. Sebagai faqih terkemuka, dia merasa terpanggil untuk memberikan alternatif solusi teoretik atas masalah ini demi kemaslahatan umat. Setelah melakukan kajian yang panjang, akhirnya dia berkesimpulan bahwa sesungguhnya semua klaim eksklusif tentang kebenaran dan superioritas system episteme tertentu adalah tidak memiliki argumen yang benar-benar meyakinkan, baik dalam tradisi keilmuan umat Islam maupun dalam perspektif  sosiologis. Dalam tulisan ini konsep al-Sya‘rânî mengenai Epistemologi syariah dideskripsikan dalam empat pokok pemikirannya yaitu tentang; jalan yang sah menuju pengetahuan

  5. Power to the frame: bringing sociology back to frame analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; van Zoonen, L.

    2011-01-01

    This article critically reviews current frame and framing research in media and communication studies. It is first argued that most authors fail to distinguish between ‘frame’ and ‘framing’ and therewith produce a conceptual confusion and imprecision that is not conducive to the field. Second, it is

  6. column frame for design of reinforced concrete sway frames

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adminstrator

    Journal, proceedings, 2009, pp.24-48. 11. Ewnetie A., Investigation on Applicability of Substitute Beam-Column Frame for. Design of Reinforced Concrete Sway. Frames, MSc Thesis, 2012. Notations. ACI: American Concrete Institute. As,tot: Theoretical area of reinforcement required by the design. D: Dead (permanent) load.

  7. Group Frames With Few Distinct Inner Products and Low Coherence

    KAUST Repository

    Thill, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Frame theory has been a popular subject in the design of structured signals and codes in recent years, with applications ranging from the design of measurement matrices in compressive sensing, to spherical codes for data compression and data transmission, to spacetime codes for MIMO communications, and to measurement operators in quantum sensing. High-performance codes usually arise from designing frames whose elements have mutually low coherence. Building off the original “group frame” design of Slepian which has since been elaborated in the works of Vale and Waldron, we present several new frame constructions based on cyclic and generalized dihedral groups. Slepian\\'s original construction was based on the premise that group structure allows one to reduce the number of distinct inner pairwise inner products in a frame with n elements from [(n(n-1))/2] to n-1. All of our constructions further utilize the group structure to produce tight frames with even fewer distinct inner product values between the frame elements. When n is prime, for example, we use cyclic groups to construct m-dimensional frame vectors with at most [(n-1)/m] distinct inner products. We use this behavior to bound the coherence of our frames via arguments based on the frame potential, and derive even tighter bounds from combinatorial and algebraic arguments using the group structure alone. In certain cases, we recover well-known Welch bound achieving frames. In cases where the Welch bound has not been achieved, and is not known to be achievable, we obtain frames with close to Welch bound performance.

  8. Effects of News Frames on Perceived Risk, Emotions, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Christine; Spada, Hans; Renkl, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The media play a key role in forming opinions by influencing people´s understanding and perception of a topic. People gather information about topics of interest from the internet and print media, which employ various news frames to attract attention. One example of a common news frame is the human-interest frame, which emotionalizes and dramatizes information and often accentuates individual affectedness. Our study investigated effects of human-interest frames compared to a neutral-text condition with respect to perceived risk, emotions, and knowledge acquisition, and tested whether these effects can be "generalized" to common variants of the human-interest frame. Ninety-one participants read either one variant of the human-interest frame or a neutrally formulated version of a newspaper article describing the effects of invasive species in general and the Asian ladybug (an invasive species) in particular. The framing was achieved by varying the opening and concluding paragraphs (about invasive species), as well as the headline. The core text (about the Asian ladybug) was the same across all conditions. All outcome variables on framing effects referred to this common core text. We found that all versions of the human-interest frame increased perceived risk and the strength of negative emotions compared to the neutral text. Furthermore, participants in the human-interest frame condition displayed better (quantitative) learning outcomes but also biased knowledge, highlighting a potential dilemma: Human-interest frames may increase learning, but they also lead to a rather unbalanced view of the given topic on a “deeper level”. PMID:24223999

  9. Effects of news frames on perceived risk, emotions, and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Otieno

    Full Text Available The media play a key role in forming opinions by influencing people´s understanding and perception of a topic. People gather information about topics of interest from the internet and print media, which employ various news frames to attract attention. One example of a common news frame is the human-interest frame, which emotionalizes and dramatizes information and often accentuates individual affectedness. Our study investigated effects of human-interest frames compared to a neutral-text condition with respect to perceived risk, emotions, and knowledge acquisition, and tested whether these effects can be "generalized" to common variants of the human-interest frame. Ninety-one participants read either one variant of the human-interest frame or a neutrally formulated version of a newspaper article describing the effects of invasive species in general and the Asian ladybug (an invasive species in particular. The framing was achieved by varying the opening and concluding paragraphs (about invasive species, as well as the headline. The core text (about the Asian ladybug was the same across all conditions. All outcome variables on framing effects referred to this common core text. We found that all versions of the human-interest frame increased perceived risk and the strength of negative emotions compared to the neutral text. Furthermore, participants in the human-interest frame condition displayed better (quantitative learning outcomes but also biased knowledge, highlighting a potential dilemma: Human-interest frames may increase learning, but they also lead to a rather unbalanced view of the given topic on a "deeper level".

  10. Advanced Wall Framing; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Advanced framing techniques for home construction have been researched extensively and proven effective. Both builders and home owners can benefit from advanced framing. Advanced framing techniques create a structurally sound home that has lower material and labor costs than a conventionally framed house. This fact sheet describes advanced framing techniques, design considerations, and framing.

  11. The Consilient Epistemology: Structuring Evolution of Our Logical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    It is argued that the current principles of modern culture are not congruent with the demands for long-term sustainable evolution. Even our modern democracy is run by the "Golden Rule" favoring "Gold" owners. To assure our peaceful and sustainable evolution, we need to replace this "Golden Rule" by the true democratic rule, or "Knowledge & Debate Rule" through the development of an over-arching consilient epistemology, now enabled by the global internet system. Inseparable connection between the consilient epistemology and our successful evolution is justified from an understanding that, for many millennia, the rapid evolution of human minds is being driven dominantly by the cultural-selection (intra-cultural and inter-cultural conflicts and pressures) rather than by the Darwinian natural-selection.

  12. Lay Epistemology of Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines Among Appalachian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Scott, Allison M; Shaunfield, Sara; Jones, M Grace; Collins, Tom; Cohen, Elisia L

    2017-09-01

    Recent changes to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast cancer screening have contributed to increased patient uncertainty regarding the timing and appropriateness of screening behaviors. To gain insight into the lay epistemology of women regarding breast cancer screening practices, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 24 adult women living in a medically underserved Appalachian region. We found that women were unaware of breast cancer screening guidelines (i.e., start age, frequency, stop age). Qualitative analysis revealed two lay epistemological narratives establishing (a) uncertain knowledge and ambiguity about breast cancer screening guidelines but certain knowledge of other women's experiences with breast cancer diagnoses, and (b) feelings of knowing one's own body best and seeing the value in "overscreening" to save even one life. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications for scholars and practitioners seeking to improve knowledge or behavior regarding adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations.

  13. Explicating formal epistemology: Carnap's legacy as Jeffrey's radical probabilism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Quine's "naturalized epistemology" presents a challenge to Carnapian explication: why try to rationally reconstruct probabilistic concepts instead of just doing psychology? This paper tracks the historical development of Richard C. Jeffrey who, on the one hand, voiced worries similar to Quine's about Carnapian explication but, on the other hand, claims that his own work in formal epistemology—what he calls "radical probabilism"—is somehow continuous with both Carnap's method of explication and logical empiricism. By examining how Jeffrey's claim could possibly be accurate, the paper suggests that Jeffrey's radical probabilism can be seen as a sort of alternative explication project to Carnap's own inductive logic. In so doing, it deflates both Quine's worries about Carnapian explication and so also, by extension, similar worries about formal epistemology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [The medical rationale category and a new epistemology in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Marilene Cabral; de Barros, Nelson Filice; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2013-12-01

    This article is an analytical report on the 20-year trajectory of the 'medical rationale' category that emerged in the early 1990s in the area of Social and Human Sciences in Health in the field of Public Health. Its objective was to study complex and therapeutic medical systems and traditional, complementary and alternative medicines. Based on a critical review of the literature, it presents some aspects of the cultural, political, institutional and social context of its emergence, as well as its main contributions and developments on a theoretical level and on social policies and practices in health. The southern epistemology concept of Boaventura de Sousa Santos is used to reflect upon the contribution of the 'medical rationale' category to the critique of the post-modern scientific rationale and to the creation of a new epistemology in health.

  15. Mapping knowledge to boolean dynamic systems in Bateson's epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Thomas E; Jensen, Gary C; Song, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Gregory Bateson (1972, 1979) established an epistemology that integrates mind and nature as a necessary unity, a unity in which learning and evolution share fundamental principles and in which criteria for mental process are explicitly specified. E42 is a suite of freely available Java applets that constitute an online research lab for creating and interacting with simulations of the Boolean systems developed by Kauffman (1993) in his study of evolution where he proposed that self-organization and natural selection are co-principles "weaving the tapestry of life." This paper maps Boolean systems, developed in the study of evolution, onto Bateson's epistemology in general and onto his criteria of mental process in particular.

  16. Desclassification in knowledge organization: a post-epistemological essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available The contents of the digital network stem from different forms, logics and cultures of knowledge. Once on the Net, however, they are all submitted to unifying formats and logics provided by digital technology itself. A technology is, first of all, the product of a given culture. Every culture and identity classifies and names all kinds of material and symbolic objects. Nowadays, the West is the one culture that has taken upon itself the task of global classification supported by its own digital networks. Classification is an epistemological tool provided by modern rationality whose internal structures and modes of inference are derived from metonymic, dichotomic and analogical reductions of the diversity of current worlds. In this paper, a kind of practical Hermeneutics, called "declassification", is introduced and proposed as the route to a knowledge which overcomes organizational epistemology. Declassification is an open system that installs logical pluralism in the core of understanding and enunciation processes through meta-cognitive tools.

  17. Critique of influential epistemological presuppositions in clinical reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorgård, Keld

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is an important resource in modern clinical reasoning. It is, however, widely discussed how judgement, experience and patient perspectives are supposed to be integrated in evidence-based decision-making. They are recognised as important aspects, but their epistemological...... status has remained unclarified. In this article, it is argued that we need to consider three different yet related epistemological problems in order to obtain a better understanding of these aspects in clinical reasoning. Even though judgement and values are mentioned in the decision-making procedure......, better clinical reasoning is typically linked to detachment, neutrality and monological conceptions of rationality. In this article, it is argued that rational clinical decision-making must also include position-dependent experiences, values and dialogical deliberation....

  18. Historical epistemology of space from primate cognition to spacetime physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schemmel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This monograph investigates the development of human spatial knowledge by analyzing its elementary structures and studying how it is further shaped by various societal conditions. By taking a thoroughly historical perspective on knowledge and integrating results from various disciplines, this work throws new light on long-standing problems in epistemology such as the relation between experience and preformed structures of cognition. What do the orientation of apes and the theory of relativity have to do with each other? Readers will learn how different forms of spatial thinking are related in a long-term history of knowledge. Scientific concepts of space such as Newton’s absolute space or Einstein’s curved spacetime are shown to be rooted in pre-scientific structures of knowledge, while at the same time enabling the integration of an ever expanding corpus of experiential knowledge. This work addresses all readers interested in questions of epistemology, in particular philosophers and historians of scie...

  19. Epistemological and Anthropological Thoughts About Neurophilosophy: An Initial Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia París Albert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE At the dawn of the twenty-first century, neurophilosophy appears as a branch of neurosciences. The aim of this article is to review critically some of the epistemological and anthropological debates which neurophilosophy is putting on question again. In this sense the philosophical research conducted by the UNESCO Chair of Philosophy for Peace will be used as the main thread of the analysis. To accomplish this critical review, the article has been organized into two parts: the first is of epistemological nature, and the second has an anthropological perspective. This analysis will lead us to question the significance of the contributions of neurophilosophy to a better understanding of the human being.

  20. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  1. MedlinePlus FAQ: Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → FAQs → Question URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/faq/framing.html I'd like to link to MedlinePlus, but only if I can frame it. Why don't you allow this? To ...

  2. Framing the patent troll debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  3. The brain/mind complex an epistemological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sanvito,Wilson Luiz

    1991-01-01

    It is stressed that the brain/mind complex constitutes a monolithic system that functions with emergent properties at several levels of hierarchical organization. These hierarchical levels are non-reducible to one another; they are at least three (neuronal, functional, and semantic), and they function within an interactional plan. From the epistemological view-point, the brain/mind complex uses logical and non-logical mechanisms to dea) with day-to-day problems. Logic is necessary for the thi...

  4. Epistemological and Anthropological Thoughts About Neurophilosophy: An Initial Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia París Albert; Irene Comins Mingol

    2013-01-01

    At the dawn of the twenty-first century, neurophilosophy appears as a branch of neurosciences. The aim of this article is to review critically some of the epistemological and anthropological debates which neurophilosophy is putting on question again. In this sense the philosophical research conducted by the UNESCO Chair of Philosophy for Peace will be used as the main thread of the analysis. To accomplish this critical review, the article has been organized into two parts: the first is of ep...

  5. Professional knowledge and the epistemology of reflective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne

    2010-01-01

    Reflective practice is one of the most popular theories of professional knowledge in the last 20 years and has been widely adopted by nursing, health, and social care professions. The term was coined by Donald Schön in his influential books The Reflective Practitioner, and Educating the Reflective Practitioner, and has garnered the unprecedented attention of theorists and practitioners of professional education and practice. Reflective practice has been integrated into professional preparatory programmes, continuing education programmes, and by the regulatory bodies of a wide range of health and social care professions. Yet, despite its popularity and widespread adoption, a problem frequently raised in the literature concerns the lack of conceptual clarity surrounding the term reflective practice. This paper seeks to respond to this problem by offering an analysis of the epistemology of reflective practice as revealed through a critical examination of philosophical influences within the theory. The aim is to discern philosophical underpinnings of reflective practice in order to advance increasingly coherent interpretations, and to consider the implications for conceptions of professional knowledge in professional life. The paper briefly examines major philosophical underpinnings in reflective practice to explicate central themes that inform the epistemological assumptions of the theory. The study draws on the work of Donald Schön, and on texts from four philosophers: John Dewey, Nelson Goodman, Michael Polanyi, and Gilbert Ryle. Five central epistemological themes in reflective practice are illuminated: (1) a broad critique of technical rationality; (2) professional practice knowledge as artistry; (3) constructivist assumptions in the theory; (4) the significance of tacit knowledge for professional practice knowledge; and (5) overcoming mind body dualism to recognize the knowledge revealed in intelligent action. The paper reveals that the theory of reflective

  6. Kritik Terhadap Epistemologi Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Perspektif Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Afdal, Afdal; Waston, Waston

    2015-01-01

    Since established, Universal Declaracion of Human Rights (UDHR) upheldas a global value by all the countries in the world. UDHR through the UN as a referenceas a common standard for measuring the level of success of a country in upholdinghuman rights. How this study focus on the implications of the secular epistemologyagainst the substance of the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? and How doesIslam look at epistemology Universal Declaration Of Human Rights? To answer thesequestions used t...

  7. Rehumanisasi Pendidikan Akuntansi melalui Pendekatan Epistemologi 3ling

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnia Ekasari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to rehumanize accounting education by employing 3ling epistemology. The method used in this research consisted of 3 steps: ngerti, ngrasa, and ngelakoni. This research concluded that dehumanization in accounting education has become accepted reality. Humanization in accounting education could be implemented by integrating ethics, moral and spirituality both in accounting and accounting education and it could be done by inserting ngrasa in learning process. H...

  8. Epistemologies of Religious Education Research in the Nordic Welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette; Osbeck, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is the epistemological conditions and significant features for doing research in religious education in the Nordic region. Historical and institutional conditions make up an important part of the background for understanding. The articles in this issue which...... are introduced here try to grasp and explore the conditions for scholarly knowledge production concerning the teaching of religion in the states in question: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark....

  9. Notes For Supporting An Epistemological Neuropsychology: Contributions From Three Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera Valencia, Mauricio; Cognitive psychology research group, Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; Calderón Delgado, Liliana; Psychology, health and society research group, Faculty of Psychology, Universidad CES, Medellín, Colombia

    2013-01-01

    A review of the epistemological basis of neuropsychology is done in order to clarify its foundations and its dual status as a discipline rooted in biology and psychology. This work is justified from two fundamental issues that are faced by neuropsychology: from an external perspective based on the upswing of certain disciplines, which by definition seem to have similar subjects of study to neuropsychology; however, given the complexity of the study of the relationship between the behavior and...

  10. On the Epistemological Nature of Genius and Individual Scientific Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendro I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief exposition summarizes a universally over-arching deepening of the epistemo- logy of aesthetics (especially as regards the nature of Genius as outlined in a particular section of the Author’s work on an all-embracing, post-Kantian epistemological theory of Reality and the Universe called “The Surjective Monad Theory of Reality” (SMTR, which generalizes, in the utmost ontological sense, Kantianism, phenomenology, and a paradigm of Reality called “Reflexive Monism” (RM.

  11. Why Pursue Unification? A Social-Epistemological Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Harp

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many have argued that unified theories ought to be pursued wherever possible. We deny this on the basis of social-epistemological and game-theoretic considerations. Consequently, those seeking a more ubiquitous role for unification must either attend to the scientific community’s social structure in greater detail than has been the case, and/or radically revise their conception of unification.

  12. Gender and Criminological Thought: Perspectives From a Feminist Epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Cássius Guimarães; Passos, Kennya Regyna Mesquita

    2016-01-01

    The research aims to analyze, from a feminist epistemological framework and approach, the role of Criminology in the production and reproduction of power relationship, studying how women were perceived in their different schools of criminological thought, understanding that the adoption of gender as a category of analysis contributes to the production of a wider knowledge in this science, unveiling the invisibility of women's relationships towards to crime and to the Penal System. The methodo...

  13. Frames, agency and institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Jensen, Per Langaa; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    This study examines change and the sources influencing the formulation and diffusion of policies in construction. The change examined is the introduction of a benchmarking policy initiative in the Danish construction industry. Using institutional theory with emphasis on the concepts of frames...... and framings, we show how strategically motivated actors are able to frame policy problems in ways that disclose the mixture of motives, interests and institutional mechanisms at play in change processes. In doing so, we contribute to the literature on the role of agency in institutional change and the framing...... of policy problems. We conclude by highlighting how insights gained from the framing perspective present a challenge to the dominant comprehensive rationalist view of the policy process and the formulation and implementation of reform initiatives....

  14. From epistemology to hidden curriculum: Critical vs. 'commercial' pedagogic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marojević Jovana C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge or, more precisely, its power is one of central themes in critical pedagogy. Since they are interested in school as the site of social critique, aimed at social transformations, critically oriented pedagogues pay special attention to the relation of knowledge and power or, to simplify it, the function of knowledge in the reproduction of the existing (often oppressive social relations. Not recognizing school as a mere site of social, economic or cultural preservation, they often study epistemology on which modern school is founded (positivistic epistemology and its hidden curriculum who function so that they legitimate social reproductive function of the school in a continuous cycle of self-justification. Since a certain understanding of knowledge and its function reveals the hidden curriculum of a certain educational philosophy, and since this consequently changes school into a site of social transformation or social transmission, viewed from the critical position this is the subject of the analysis of our paper. By final sublimation and contrasting the opposite positivistic and critical positions we conclude that the hidden curriculum of the first is the curriculum of the soliloquies while the curriculum of the second, critical tendency is entirely of a dialogue nature. It is clear that uni-directedness of the hidden curriculum formed according the postulates of positivistic epistemology can contribute only to positivistic transmission and regeneration of the existing social order, while the discursivity of critically oriented school defines the relation towards society as two-way, transformational, active and emancipatory.

  15. The many encounters of Thomas Kuhn and French epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    The work of Thomas Kuhn has been very influential in Anglo-American philosophy of science and it is claimed that it has initiated the historical turn. Although this might be the case for English speaking countries, in France an historical approach has always been the rule. This article aims to investigate the similarities and differences between Kuhn and French philosophy of science or 'French epistemology'. The first part will argue that he is influenced by French epistemologists, but by lesser known authors than often thought. The second part focuses on the reactions of French epistemologists on Kuhn's work, which were often very critical. It is argued that behind some superficial similarities there are deep disagreements between Kuhn and French epistemology. This is finally shown by a brief comparison with the reaction of more recent French philosophers of science, who distance themselves from French epistemology and are more positive about Kuhn. Based on these diverse appreciations of Kuhn, a typology of the different positions within the philosophy of science is suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Navigating cultures and epistemologies in science and technology education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Kathleen T.

    This investigation focuses on the nexus of science and culture in the lives of marginalized youth in the United States and South Africa. The epistemologies and contextual realities of cross-cultural learner cohorts and their understandings of scientific phenomena are examined. The researcher was a participant observer within the context of the Science, Technology & Culture: Empowering Learners (STC) program, an after-school and school-based collaboration focused upon integrating science, technology and culture. Electronic communication provided a vehicle for dialogue between youth in St. Louis, Missouri, USA and a South African Township. Study findings include documentation of the marginalizing effects of poverty for the United States and South African study participants. Study participants drew upon multiple contexts to form identity. United States and South African learners revealed many ways of knowing as explanatory tools for natural phenomena. Learners maintained multiple epistemologies as explanatory tools after engaging in scientific pedagogical activities. However, belief in multiple epistemologies did not preclude learner trust in scientifically acceptable explanations for natural events. Change was a constant in the experience of study participants. Educators and learners negotiated their changing world through the lenses of their cultural/indigenous understandings. Implications for policy and practice are provided.

  17. Vitalism as an Epistemological Obstacle to Biochemical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Almeida

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This work resulted from the study of Gaston Bachelard’s epistemology in the Logic and Philosophy of Science discipline, Biochemistry Graduate Program, UFRJ, which lead to discussions of epistemological obstacles on biochemical knowledge construction. The aim was to identify barriers to scientific knowledge development in the praxis of graduate students of biochemistry and correlated areas, emphasizing the vitalist (animist and teleological (unitary and pragmatic obstacles conceptions. In order to verify whether students, which never attended classes in epistemology, agree or are able to identify the vitalist conception, a questionnaire containing also selected excerpts of scientific papers in high impact factor journals was delivered to thirty graduating students from different courses at UFRJ and other Brazilian universities. Not only those conceptions were accepted or were not recognized, but it was also possible to observe a vitalist approach in the answers. We could also perceive a pragmatic and teleological vision of the evolution process, expressed in apologies of immanent purposes in organisms adaptations. Considering these facts, it is clear the necessity to emphasize the material, non-teleological character of biochemistry/biology, especially in disciplines offered in under-graduate courses.

  18. Is management a science? Epistemological considerations about its scientificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Júnior Damke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This epistemological study aims to expose and discuss the issue of management scientificity. This discussion has been held in other studies, without being, however, like this study, conducted through an epistemological criteria analysis of the philosophers Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn and Imre Lakatos. On the basis of epistemological analysis, can be concluded: that management, as a theory of knowledge, can be considered science, which arises from the possibility of distorting the studies in this area as sophisticated falsification of Popper, that management meets the assumption science paradigm of Kuhn, although there was no consensus on what stage fits the mold research programs presented by Lakatos. It is known that management still has a long way to go in quest to expand its methodological rigor and mature, but dismissing it as a science, and does not help with the ripening, it undercuts a wide range of social actors – organizations – which are not the main object of study of other sciences.

  19. Changing epistemological beliefs with nature of science implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses our investigation regarding nature of science (NOS implementations and epistemological beliefs within an undergraduate introductory astronomy course. The five year study consists of two years of baseline data in which no explicit use of NOS material was implemented, then three years of subsequent data in which specific NOS material was integrated into the classroom. Our original study covered two years of baseline data and one year of treatment data. Two additional years of treatment course data have revealed intriguing new insights into our students’ epistemic belief structure. To monitor the evolution of belief structures across each semester we used student pre-post data on the Epistemological Beliefs About the Physical Sciences (EBAPS assessment. The collected data were also partitioned and analyzed according to the following variables: college (Letters of Science, Business, Education, etc., degree (BA or BS, status (freshman, sophomore, etc., and gender (male or female. We find that the treatment course no longer undergoes significant overall epistemic deterioration after a semester of instruction. We also acquire a more detailed analysis of these findings utilizing the aforementioned variables. Most notably, we see that this intervention had a pronounced positive impact on males and on students within the college of Education, Arts & Architecture, and those with no concentration. Lastly, whether or not students believe their ability to learn science is innate or malleable did not seem to change, remaining a rigid construct with student epistemologies.

  20. The Art of Displacement: Designing Experiential Systems and Transverse Epistemologies as Conceptual Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Hughes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With architects and designers increasingly facing problems that are neither predictable nor simple but highly complex, a particular synthesis of design intelligence and creativity is required. If the art of being a professional is becoming ‘the art of managing complexity’, what are the ‘boundaries’ of professional practice? ‘Trans-disciplinarity’, for example, requires liminal or neither/nor thinking (thus ‘boundary concepts’ remain a core concern. A concern with boundaries and ‘edges’ implies in turn a concern with ‘relationality’ (i.e. how we establish relations, positions, borders between different disciplinary priorities and methods and thence a problem that affects how we think of disciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, networks of various kinds, and trans-disciplinarity – that of ‘substance’, ‘content’ or ‘matter’.This paper subjects design research, theory and practice to transverse epistemologies, attempting a ‘flow of transformations’ via such themes as authorship, remediation, smuggling, disruptive innovation, performative knowledge, and gesture versus identity. It brings together an ars combinatoria of conceptual criticism, trans-disciplinary practice as ‘disruptive innovation’, Michael Speaks’s notion of ‘design intelligence’ and Margaret Boden’s three types of creativity – combinatorial, exploratory, and transformational – seeking thereby to suggest new structures that might yield ‘transdisciplines’. Departing from two separate points – Bruno Latour’s call for ‘earthly accounts of buildings and design processes’ and Jack Burnham’s identification of a paradigm shift from an ‘object-oriented’ to a ‘systems-oriented’ culture – the paper describes the formation of a new interdisciplinary practice, experience design (the design of meaningful experience across time, as a form of ‘epistemological Conceptualism’. This prioritises critical thinking and

  1. Simulation approaches for the two-phase flow in saline repositories using the code TOUGH2-GRS. Report in the frame of the project ZIESEL. Two-phase flow in a saline repository using the example ERAM; Ansaetze zur Simulation der Zweiphasenstroemung in salinaren Endlagern mit dem Code TOUGH2-GRS. Bericht im Vorhaben ZIESEL. Zweiphasenfluss in einem salinaren Endlager am Beispiel des ERAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Martin; Fischer, Heidemarie; Seher, Holger; Weyand, Torben

    2016-10-15

    The simulation approaches for the two-phase flow in saline repositories using the code TOUGH2-GRS cover the following issues: simulation of gravitational flows in horizontal galleries without vertical discretization, homogenization approach for the simulation of the two-phase flow in converging partly backfilled galleries, qualification of the convergence approach implemented by GRS into the code TOUGH2-GRS, discretization effects during replacement of liquid by gas, consequences for the system analyses in the frame of the project ZIESEL.

  2. Epistemological shell of the econometric findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madžar Ljubomir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a continuation of the dialogue relating to the study cited as the first item in the reference list to this article. It contains further comments on that study as well as responses to the authors’ reply to the previously given comments, published in a special issue of the Ekonomski anali cited as the second item of the reference list. The principal issue of this exchange is the treatment of previous non-econometric work in the field of macroeconomic interrelationships and of the corresponding changes in the economy of Serbia. The postulate advanced in this text is the same as the one in the previous critical review of the study by Arsić et al. (2005a and consists in the statement that econometric analysis of empirical characteristics of the Serbian economy should respect and incorporate knowledge accumulated through the use of non-econometric techniques before the study was produced. Econometricians should do that by framing appropriately their maintained hypotheses, by selecting structural specification of the various relations in the model and through interpreting the results obtained in the form of econometric estimates. A number of critical observations are reiterated regarding the way some relations are structurally specified. Among such criticized relations are the model’s production function having imports as the only argument and the import function. Imports are judged as inappropriate in the role of the argument in the production function because they not only contribute to production through technological complementarities but also reduce it through the demand segment of the system, by capturing a good deal of domestic demand and stifling a number of sectors of domestic economy. Imports are financed, among other, by several ephemeral, short-lived sources such as donations, foreign indebtedness and privatization receipts. Imports are therefore not sustainable and their enormous increase within a limited time interval

  3. French Epistemology and its Revisions: Towards a Reconstruction of the Methodological Position of Foucaultian Discourse Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-01-01

    This article reconstructs epistemology in the tradition of Gaston BACHELARD as one of the main foundations of the methodology of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis. Foundational concepts and the methodological approach of French epistemology are one of the continuities in the work of Michel FOUCAULT. BACHELARDian epistemology (and of his successor Georges CANGUILHEM) can be used for the reconstruction of the FOUCAULTian methodology and it can also be used to instruct the practices of FOUCAULTian ...

  4. Limits of Science and the Importance of Epistemological Functions of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qodratullah Qorbani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human is encountered by many metaphysical, scientific, religious and other fundamentalquestions which Science, and its potentials, can answer some of them, specially in the material realm.In fact, empirical science is limited to the material world, and it can’t answer human’s fundamentalquestions of his/her living. Then human can’t provide all his/her epistemological requirements byempirical science. In addition, contemporary human’s scientism caused many problems for him/her.Human tried to make empirical science as a worldview which caused some important andfundamental crisis. So he/she needs metaphysical, religious and other sources to know aboutsupernatural facts. Fulfilling this, he/she has to use religious teachings, because religions, in particulardivine ones, have many basic functions. They can make man aware about immaterial realms andexistents including God, origin and resurrection of man, the world system etc. They can give areasonable explanation of the origin and resurrection of human’s life and the meaning of human’sevolution in the mundane universe, and the philosophy of living by explaining the nature of Goodnessand Evil. Religions give some ethical and religious laws to manage and control his/her individual andsocial treatments. In fact, through religious teachings,man can take a suitable framework to managehis/her living, for example, by them man can determine functional results of his/her scientific andtechnological activities. In addition, religions can draw the spiritual future of human’s mundaneliving, and give a good motivation to get mundane and spiritual happiness. In the other word, man,only by the help of religious teachings, can take his/her fundamental requirements. Then, byconsidering the contemporary human epistemological crisis and important limits of human’sknowledge and science, there is the only way to refer to divine religions teachings. In this paper, it istried to explain religion functions in

  5. [Contagion - some notes on the epistemology and the ethics of public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Manuel Silvério; Ferreira, Carlos Miguel

    2010-01-01

    European Medical thought on epidemics - ranging from the opposition clean/dirty, pollution, malaria, pestilential seeds to 19th century microbiology - has always been ruled by figures such as the miasma, the repulsive, the excrement, the filth, the corrupt, the contagion. Theoretically framed, in general, by Foucault's ideas, this research focuses on some aspects of the historical epistemology and ethics of Public Health. Based on the history of Tuberculosis (TB) management in Portugal and, more briefly, on the flu pandemics, we thematize aspects of Biopolitics, namely, the disciplinary power and the processes of indifferentiation and reification. We will focus on the disjunction between contamination and transmission, on the systems of inclusion and exclusion and on the differences between uncertainty, risk, danger, precaution and prevention, aiming to contribute to the public debate on an ethic of precaution. It will be attested that the praxis of Public Health inevitably calls together, at various levels, the old categories of medical ethos, among which are the catharsis, the crisis, and the kairos.

  6. The epistemology of AIDS in South Africa: lessons from three scenario projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Charl; Fourie, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the methodology of future scenario-building in the context of HIV and AIDS in Africa. It considers three scenario studies conducted in the past decade: UNAIDS (2005), Metropolitan Holdings (2006) and the AIDS Governance scenarios (2015). The article is a critical reflection of Future Studies epistemology which claims to contribute a unique heuristic niche in the study of AIDS. The article offers several methodological insights: (1) despite claims to the contrary, scenario methodology remains profoundly influenced by existing political and research agenda; instead of denying these, scenarists should acknowledge this; (2) the utility of scenario studies is strongly influenced by their unit of analysis and their time frame, which determine their applicability and therefore their policy relevance; and (3) scenario planners should guard against perpetuating the myth that this methodology is a crystal ball into the future because they are powerful tools for strategic planning about the present, rather than the distant future. In addition to these methodological insights, the article finds that future scenario studies are useful in identifying significant discursive and policy shifts in the AIDS response.

  7. Helical containers with classical and quantum fluids in rotating frame

    OpenAIRE

    Okulov, A. Yu.

    2017-01-01

    The examples of the classical liquids confined by rotating helical boundaries are considered and these examples are compared with rotating helical reservoir filled by ultracold bosonic ensemble. From the point of view of observer who co-rotates with classical liquid trapped by reservoir the quantum fluid will move translationally alongside rotation axis while in laboratory frame the quantum fluid will stay in rest. This behavior of quantum ensemble which is exactly opposite to the classical c...

  8. La epistemología evolucionista y el conocimiento según Platón

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Masís Iverson

    2013-01-01

    Este ensayo presenta una breve comparación entre la epistemología evolucionista y el conocimiento según Platón. Primeramente, se describe el abordaje que hace Platón del conocimiento según lo presenta en el Teeteto. Seguidamente, se hace una caracterización de la epistemología evolucionista según Nathalie Gontier y, finalmente, se discuten algunos puntos de acuerdo y desacuerdo entre la epistemología platónica y la epistemología evolucionista.

  9. La epistemología evolucionista y el conocimiento según Platón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Masís Iverson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo presenta una breve comparación entre la epistemología evolucionista y el conocimiento según Platón. Primeramente, se describe el abordaje que hace Platón del conocimiento según lo presenta en el Teeteto. Seguidamente, se hace una caracterización de la epistemología evolucionista según Nathalie Gontier y, finalmente, se discuten algunos puntos de acuerdo y desacuerdo entre la epistemología platónica y la epistemología evolucionista.

  10. Serialising languages: Satellite-framed, verb-framed or neither ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity in the coding of the core schema of motion, i.e., Path, has led to a traditional typology of languages into verb-framed and satellite-framed languages. In the former Path is encoded in verbs and in the latter it is encoded in non-verb elements that function as sisters to co-event expressing verbs such as manner ...

  11. The Theoretical Highest Frame Rate of Silicon Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeharu Goji Etoh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The frame rate of the digital high-speed video camera was 2000 frames per second (fps in 1989, and has been exponentially increasing. A simulation study showed that a silicon image sensor made with a 130 nm process technology can achieve about 1010 fps. The frame rate seems to approach the upper bound. Rayleigh proposed an expression on the theoretical spatial resolution limit when the resolution of lenses approached the limit. In this paper, the temporal resolution limit of silicon image sensors was theoretically analyzed. It is revealed that the limit is mainly governed by mixing of charges with different travel times caused by the distribution of penetration depth of light. The derived expression of the limit is extremely simple, yet accurate. For example, the limit for green light of 550 nm incident to silicon image sensors at 300 K is 11.1 picoseconds. Therefore, the theoretical highest frame rate is 90.1 Gfps (about 1011 fps

  12. Mediernes framing af Folketingsvalget 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrkinewsky Mathiesen, Marie; Fruergaard, Oliver; Toft-Nielsen, Nina Kristine; Løvstrup Thejls, Michelle; Abild Patrzarlek, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This project will be centered around the media’s framing of the political election in Denmark 2015. More specifically, we will examine how the public service channel DR1 has presented and framed the two political parties Alternativet and Det Kon-servative Folkeparti. Our examination will have its basis in framing theories as pre-sented by Robert Entman and Dietram A. Scheufele and also the theory of Social Constructivism. Through a deductive analysis, we have tried to answer whether DR1,...

  13. Specialized Orthonormal Frames and Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank B. Estabrook

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss some specializations of the frames of flat orthonormal frame bundles over geometries of indefinite signature, and the resulting symmetries of families of embedded Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian geometries. The specializations are closed sets of linear constraints on the connection 1-forms of the framing. The embeddings can be isometric, as in minimal surfaces or Regge-Teitelboim gravity, or torsion-free, as in Einstein vacuum gravity. Involutive exterior differential systems are given, and their Cartan character tables calculated to express the well-posedness of the underlying partial differential embedding and specialization equations.

  14. Magni Reproducibility Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    An example of how to use the magni.reproducibility package for storing metadata along with results from a computational experiment. The example is based on simulating the Mandelbrot set.......An example of how to use the magni.reproducibility package for storing metadata along with results from a computational experiment. The example is based on simulating the Mandelbrot set....

  15. Reference frame for Product Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2011-01-01

    on configuration systems in the shape of anecdotal reporting on the development of information systems that perhaps support the configuration task – perhaps not. Consequently, the definition of configuration has become ambiguous as different research groups defines configuration differently. This paper propose......This paper presents a reference frame for configuration. The reference frame is established by review of existing literature, and consequently it is a theoretical frame of reference. The review of literature shows a deterioration of the understanding of configuration. Most recent literature reports...... a reference frame for configuration that permits 1) a more precise understanding of a configuration system, 2) a understanding of how the configuration system relate to other systems, and 3) a definition of the basic concepts in configuration. The total configuration system, together with the definition...

  16. Putting Safety in the Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Jean O’Keeffe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses’ safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS, patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used “frames” built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses’ decisions about WHS: (a communicating builds knowledge, (b experiencing situations guides decisions, (c adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d team working promotes safe working. Nurses’ frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses’ safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management.

  17. Willpower depletion and framing effects

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan, Thomas; van Veldhuizen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether depleting people's cognitive resources (or willpower) affects the degree to which they are susceptible to framing effects. Recent research in social psychology and economics has suggested that willpower is a resource that can be temporarily depleted and that a depleted level of willpower is associated with self-control problems in a variety of contexts. In this study, we extend the willpower depletion paradigm to framing effects and argue that willpower depletion should...

  18. Frames and extension problems II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2014-01-01

    This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems.......This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems....

  19. Using Computer Simulations for Promoting Model-based Reasoning. Epistemological and Educational Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Develaki, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Scientific reasoning is particularly pertinent to science education since it is closely related to the content and methodologies of science and contributes to scientific literacy. Much of the research in science education investigates the appropriate framework and teaching methods and tools needed to promote students' ability to reason and evaluate in a scientific way. This paper aims (a) to contribute to an extended understanding of the nature and pedagogical importance of model-based reasoning and (b) to exemplify how using computer simulations can support students' model-based reasoning. We provide first a background for both scientific reasoning and computer simulations, based on the relevant philosophical views and the related educational discussion. This background suggests that the model-based framework provides an epistemologically valid and pedagogically appropriate basis for teaching scientific reasoning and for helping students develop sounder reasoning and decision-taking abilities and explains how using computer simulations can foster these abilities. We then provide some examples illustrating the use of computer simulations to support model-based reasoning and evaluation activities in the classroom. The examples reflect the procedure and criteria for evaluating models in science and demonstrate the educational advantages of their application in classroom reasoning activities.

  20. Chemistry inside an epistemological community box! Discursive exclusions and inclusions in Swedish National tests in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Marie; Hussénius, Anita

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the Swedish national tests in chemistry for implicit and explicit values. The chemistry subject is understudied compared to biology and physics and students view chemistry as their least interesting science subject. The Swedish national science assessments aim to support equitable and fair evaluation of students, to concretize the goals in the chemistry syllabus and to increase student achievement. Discourse and multimodal analyses, based on feminist and critical didactic theories, were used to examine the test's norms and values. The results revealed that the chemistry discourse presented in the tests showed a traditional view of science from the topics discussed (for example, oil and metal), in the way women, men and youth are portrayed, and how their science interests are highlighted or neglected. An elitist view of science emerges from the test, with distinct gender and age biases. Students could interpret these biases as a message that only "the right type" of person may come into the chemistry epistemological community, that is, into this special sociocultural group that harbours a common view about this knowledge. This perspective may have an impact on students' achievement and thereby prevent support for an equitable and fair evaluation. Understanding the underlying evaluative meanings that come with science teaching is a question of democracy since it may affect students' feelings of inclusion or exclusion. The norms and values harboured in the tests will also affect teaching since the teachers are given examples of how the goals in the syllabus can be concretized.

  1. Learning the Theory in Reverse: An Epistemological Approach to Introducing Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, G. S.

    2008-12-01

    One of the great challenges in teaching at all levels is to involve and habituate students to the process of scientific thinking. To fully understand new concepts, students must understand the reasoning that led to their formulation. In this talk I discuss the use of an epistemological approach to introducing new concepts. The approach is based on the idea that both motivation to learn and comprehension are enhanced when students are introduced to the process of creating new theories. A simple example from atmospheric science might be the decrease in atmospheric pressure with height. In the present approach, a discussion is generated in which students attempt to develop a theory that explains this phenomenon. Different theories are critically evaluated until the class centers on a chosen explanation, at which point the accepted scientific explanation is presented. An essential point is that the students need not center on the correct explanation: the emphasis in this approach is the process. More complex examples, such as a discussion of how clouds form, can span multiple lectures and include a number of sub-concepts. Practical considerations are discussed regarding the design and implementation of the method for large survey courses. At its core, the above approach is simply designed to help students internalize the use of the scientific method: observe, explain, and evaluate the explanation. By involving students in this process, the subject matter becomes both accessible and engaging.

  2. ILMU ḤUḌŪRĪ Khazanah Epistemologi Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidurrahman Saidurrahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Knowledge of the presence (ḥuḍūrī with mystical experience as describe above is deemed the most popular models of knowledge in Islamic philosophy at the same coloring methodology and epistemology of Islam. Through logical arguments, semantic analysis and epistemo¬logy sharp Suhrawardī considered very successfully demonstrate authenticity huduri science as a science model of non-representational. Among the classical epistemological problems that have not been resolved until now -but able to be dissected in clear and distinct- is about the relationship of subject and object of knowledge, that is the problem more acute in modern Western philosophy. What is interesting is when when to review the issues very carefully and consistently Mehdi directing and bringing the students (who interest in Islamic philosophy into the recesses of the inner world and the dialogue with the depth of their own existence. It is undeniable that Ha'iri Mehdi Yazdi take existentialist philosophy illumination Suhrawardī and MullaṢadrā as a main reference, as he learned the lesson of Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Ibn Sīnā, and al-Ṭūsī, citing the idea of a number of Western philosophers were actually familiar with the science huduri that he wanted to offer. However unique, he expertly directs their ideas to the conclusion that it is inevitable for us to acknowledge the existence of non - phenomenal knowledge. Abstrak:Pengetahuan dengan kehadiran (ḥuḍūrī dibarengai pengalaman mistik seperti yang paprkan diatas dipandang model pengetahuan yang paling populer dalam filsafat Islam sekaligus mewarnai metodologi dan epistemologi Islam. Melalui argumen-argumen logis, analisis semantik dan epistemologi yang tajam Suhrawardī dipandang sangat berhasil mendemonstrasikan keautentikan ilmu huduri sebagai sebuah model ilmu non-representasional. Diantara problem-problem klasik episte-mologis yang belum terselesaikan hingga kini—tetapi mampu dibedah secara

  3. THE CONTEMPORARY FRACTURE BETWEEN LOGOS AND POLIS. EPISTEMOLOGICAL INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO AHUMADA DURÁN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focus on the turning point political sciences has been aware of in the last decades, by which has broken up from its origin in order to search for his own epistemological identity in the milieu of the social sciences, with an essential empiricist idea of science, rather “positivist”. This is based on the conviction that the only valid knowledge, the only possible science is the one that comes from the observation of phenomena: there is only the science of the observed, of what can be quantifiable or measurable. Thus only the empiric would suffice to satisfy all the needs of the human being.  From this epistemological logic, two immediate consequences spring out. First, the unfeasibility of any dialog between ethics (social, and politics thus forgetting the fact that all reality properly human is essentially ethical. Secondly, is the separation between politics from any anthropological referent, leaving aside the human person, as principle, subject and ends of politics.  Because of that, political sciences today is threatened by a double temptation, from which the politologists not always have a clear perception: by one side to be fully absorbed by political sociology, becoming its object of study only the power, and by the other side, to be contaminated by the ideology.   In this article, the author focus on the epistemological backgrounds of political science, in the hypothesis of the work by which political sciences as an object of study belongs to the social ethics and not to the eld of social sciences. So its end and object is not and cannot be the power.

  4. University bioscientists' risk epistemologies and research problem choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamilage Dilshani Eranga Sarathchandra, Walakada

    Scientific discoveries take place within scientific communities that are established in legitimating organizations such as universities and research institutes. Often times, scientists undergo tensions and paradoxes as they evaluate the risks they are willing to accept in their work. The types of risk/benefit decisions scientists make to determine which research projects to engage in and how they engage in them is more important than ever, due to current restrictions on funding for scientific research. The main objective of this dissertation is to analyze the ways in which university bioscientists define, evaluate, and manage risks in science, i.e. their risk epistemologies. In the process, I examine bioscientists' risk perceptions and demographic and contextual factors that influence those perceptions. Additionally, I investigate the associations between risk perceptions and research problem choices. This dissertation followed a mix-methods approach. The data collection included twenty semi-structured in-depth interviews and a large-scale online survey of university bioscientists. Based on three theoretically driven research questions that surfaced through examining current literature, I organized the dissertation into three different essays. The first essay explores risk epistemologies of university bioscientists as they determine the best trajectories for their scientific careers. This essay analyses data gathered by conducting in-depth interviews meant to elicit university bioscientists' different understandings of the notion of risk. The second essay quantifies bioscientists' risk perceptions using data gathered from the online survey. In this essay, I investigate the influence of life-course, gender, sources of funding, research orientation, network interactions, and perceived significance of research on risk perception. In the third essay I use data gathered from the online survey to investigate the associations between university bioscientists' risk

  5. How can the epistemology subsidy curricular planning in physics?

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo de Cudmani, Leonor

    2003-01-01

    Se plantea la importancia del aporte de la epistemología de la ciencia a la enseñanza de la misma en las siguientes problemáticas: • la explicitación del marco teórico de referencia. •la selección y organización de contenidos. •la integración de las componentes cognoscitivas, metodológicas y afectivas de cada contenido. Se destaca la importancia de incorporar estas cuestiones a la formación de profesores.Abstract: This paper presents the main features respect the : *explicitation de theoretic...

  6. TITIK TOLAK EPISTEMOLOGIS FILSAFAT ALAM SEMESTA IMMANUEL KANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miska M. Amien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Immanuel Kant denied metaphysical thought. According to Kant, men are not able to understand the nature of something but phenomena. So also in terms of the universe, men can not attain the nature of universe but phenomena that rose from universe. In this context, Kant denied traditional cosmology. However, Kant develops his own cosmology. He talks about the origin of cosmos. Although the origin of cosmos can not retrace clearly, but it is able to understood by nebular theory. Kant explained space and time base on epistemological principles. Space and time are an image in human mind, they rose in the same time, and the other things came later.

  7. VET and the creative epistemology of the hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    , and to collaborate across the value chains in our organisations. This developing situation should attract the attention of those involved in VET. This keynote presentation will link crafts, vocational education and training and creativity which have a lot in common. In this, the pragmatist idea of an epistemology...... with practical action. We should count something as knowledge only if it enables us to make a fruitful difference to human experience. This links with an understanding of creative actions as those actions that make an impact in and on the world. A practical implication of this would be that VET must teach its...

  8. Epistemología e historia del juicio penal oral

    OpenAIRE

    Juan de Dios González Ibarra

    2008-01-01

    El diario avance de la sociedad ha dado origen a nuevas exigencias en los diversos campos de la vida cotidiana, y el derecho no es la excepción. La base de esta investigación es la urgente necesidad de innovación dentro del ámbito del derecho procesal penal, para hacer frente a los rezagos existentes. El objetivo es estudiar los antecedentes y la epistemología de los juicios orales como un nuevo sistema emergente de justicia penal, cuestionándonos principalmente desde los puntos de vista de l...

  9. EPISTEMOLOGI DAKWAH FARDIYAH DALAM PERSPEKTIF KOMUNIKASI ANTAR PRIBADI

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Basit

    2016-01-01

    Da ’wa fardiycih is one of the common activities in Islamic preaching and has been applied since earlier period of Islam. However, it has not applied scientific development so that it goes naturally. Referring to this case, this paper tries to discuss the epistemology of da ’wa fardiyah. The study on essence of da ’wa fardiyah will be started from the use of the term itself Since the term is not specifically found in the Quran, its definition is taken from interpersonal communication. The wri...

  10. Epistemologi Dakwah Fardiyah Dalam Perspektif Komunikasi Antar Pribadi

    OpenAIRE

    Basit, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Da 'wa fardiycih is one of the common activities in Islamic preaching and has been applied since earlier period of Islam. However, it has not applied scientific development so that it goes naturally. Referring to this case, this paper tries to discuss the epistemology of da 'wa fardiyah. The study on essence of da 'wa fardiyah will be started from the use of the term itself Since the term is not specifically found in the Quran, its definition is taken from interpersonal communication. The wri...

  11. Epistemología genética.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Vásquez, Ramiro; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.

    2015-01-01

    Para recrear las ideas de Jean Piaget sobre su epistemología genética se ha visto por conveniente abordar el trabajo desde varios aspectos: abordar el problema de su significado y de lo que estudia; fundamentar su estatus de ciencia, característica central que la diferencia de otras posturas epistemológicas; probar que la psicología juega un rol importante al momento de analizar la ciencia. Del mismo modo, se estudia los métodos y procedimientos originales con los que Piaget abordó los temas ...

  12. On The Epistemological Dimension Of The Soul in Plato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmir de Souza Soares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to investigate the epistemological dimension of the knowledge of the soul in Plato. For this we take as base the idea that the knowledge comes from the principle of differencition betwen the man [soul] and the world [nature] in the western thought. From antient greeks, this question appears by its given responses that in after philosophy remains as principal point of discussion and attention amogn different traditions and philsophers. In this article we will show interpretation of Plato regarding to that question.

  13. Computation of Smarandache curves according to Darboux frame in Minkowski 3-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Abdel-Aziz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study Smarandache curves according to Darboux frame in the three-dimensional Minkowski space E13. Using the usual transformation between Frenet and Darboux frames, we investigate some special Smarandache curves for a given timelike curve lying fully on a timelike surface. Finally, we defray a computational example to confirm our main results. Keywords: Smarandache curves, Timelike curves, Timelike surfaces, Darboux frame, Minkowski 3-space, MSC: 53A04, 53A35, 53C50

  14. Coloured Petri nets and graphical animation: a proposal for a means to address problem frame concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk

    2008-01-01

    To address a frame concern in Jackson's problem frames, we must make appropriate descriptions of (1) the problem domain; (2) the requirements; (3) the specification of the machine. Based on these descriptions, we must give a convincing argument that the given domain properties and the machine...... is augmented with a graphical animation. The CPN model is executable and we simulate it to address frame concerns. We illustrate the approach on the elevator controller example....

  15. Poverty and Knowing: Exploring Epistemological Development in Welfare-to-Work Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth; Olson, Avery B.

    2016-01-01

    Through a one year-long, qualitative study of welfare-to-work students, this study investigates the developing epistemologies of women enrolled in a community college CalWORKs program. We investigate how poverty as a macro-environment and the community college as a micro-environment influence participants' epistemological development. Findings…

  16. French Epistemology and its Revisions: Towards a Reconstruction of the Methodological Position of Foucaultian Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reconstructs epistemology in the tradition of Gaston BACHELARD as one of the main foundations of the methodology of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis. Foundational concepts and the methodological approach of French epistemology are one of the continuities in the work of Michel FOUCAULT. BACHELARDian epistemology (and of his successor Georges CANGUILHEM can be used for the reconstruction of the FOUCAULTian methodology and it can also be used to instruct the practices of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis as a stand-alone form of qualitative social research. French epistemology was developed in critical opposition to the phenomenology of Edmund HUSSERL, and to phenomenological theories of science. Because the phenomenology of HUSSERL is one foundation of social phenomenology, the reconstruction of the FOUCAULTian methodology—as built on the French tradition of BACHELARDian epistemology—makes it clear that FOUCAULTian discourse analysis is incommensurable with approaches derived from social phenomenology. The epistemology of BACHELARD is portrayed as a proto-version of discourse analysis. Discourses as well as discourse analyses are conceived as forms of socio-epistemological practice. In this article, the main concepts and strategies of French epistemology are introduced and related to discourse analysis. The consequences of epistemology for a self-reflexive methodology and its practice are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702241

  17. An Examination of Locus of Control, Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness in Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the locus of control, epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness levels of preservice early childhood education teachers and to determine the interrelations among these variables. 206 teacher candidates have been asked to fill out Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Central Epistemological Beliefs…

  18. The Related Effects of Item Characteristics in Measures of Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kathryn J.; Mooney, Gillian A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal epistemology is concerned with people's beliefs or assumptions about the nature of knowledge and knowing. Whilst contributions in this field can be traced back to the 1970s, fundamental questions about the ontology and epistemology of the construct still remain. The current study explored the effects of three characteristics of questions…

  19. The Relation between the Epistemological Beliefs of Teachers and Students and Their Behavior in Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravilla, Jaime; Gómez, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the relation of the epistemological beliefs of students and teachers and the actions deployed in the classroom. The framework is the study of personal epistemology, which was developed, among other researchers, by Hofer, Pintrich and Schommer. The research method was, within the qualitative paradigm, through case studies,…

  20. Personal Epistemology across Different Judgement Domains: Effects of Grade Level and School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghua; Zhou, Ji; Shen, Jiliang

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a study that is based on the framework of personal epistemology proposed by Kuhn, Cheney, and Weinstock (2000). The instrument developed by Kuhn et al. (2000) for assessing the three positions (absolutist, multiplist and evaluativist) of epistemological understanding across five judgements' domains was translated and…

  1. Enabling Gender-Inclusivity in LIS Education through Epistemology, Ethics, and Essential Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Melodie J.

    2014-01-01

    Epistemology, or the study of knowledge and knowing, is foundational for Library and Information Science (LIS) programs, as the recognition of different conceptions of how people "know" can help LIS professions handle diversity, especially gender diversity. The incorporation of epistemology can provide LIS students with more…

  2. We need to talk about epistemology: orientations, meaning, and interpretation within music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Epistemology is a term used explicitly in social science research to refer to theory of knowledge, or ways of knowing. Describing the epistemological stance underpinning research studies in music therapy that use social science methods such as grounded theory, phenomenology, and ethnography will increase understanding of the outcomes presented. To promote an understanding of epistemology and its applications for music therapy research. The researcher describes her own views and experiences in developing knowledge of epistemology with reference to the social sciences and music therapy research literature published in English. She first focuses on terminology, then presents a discussion of epistemology. Further clarification is needed to improve understanding of the role of epistemology in advancing understanding of the foundations of the methods from the social sciences used in research in music therapy. In order to improve some aspects of research studies the following recommendations are made to authors. At minimum, a research report should, (a) define and describe the specific methodology such as grounded theory, phenomenology, ethnography, or other, (b) present the epistemological foundations of the method chosen, (c) include a statement on the personal standpoint of the researcher including motivations to undertake the study, (d) include the process of data analysis with justification from the epistemological stance as to why the process is credible, (e) provide outcomes of the analysis of the research in detail and in summary, and (f) refer to processes of reflexivity.

  3. Epistemology, Metacognition, and Self-Regulation: Musings on an Emerging Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Barbara K.; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2010-01-01

    The contributors to this special issue explore the connections between metacognition and personal epistemology. This commentary on the five articles addresses definitional concerns regarding both epistemology and metacognition, discusses the conceptual relation between the constructs, critiques methodological approaches, and suggests developmental…

  4. Changing Personal Epistemologies in Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers Using an Integrated Teaching Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Jo; Petriwskyj, Anne; Thorpe, Karen; Stacey, Phillip; Gibson, Megan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated changes in pre-service teachers' personal epistemologies as they engaged in an integrated teaching program. Personal epistemology refers to individual beliefs about the nature of knowing and knowledge and has been shown to influence teaching practice. An integrated approach to teaching, based on both an "implicit"…

  5. Diagnosing Conceptions about the Epistemology of Science: Contributions of a Quantitative Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Alonso, Ángel; Manassero-Mas, María-Antonia; García-Carmona, Antonio; Montesano de Talavera, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    This study applies a new quantitative methodological approach to diagnose epistemology conceptions in a large sample. The analyses use seven multiple-rating items on the epistemology of science drawn from the item pool Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS). The bases of the new methodological diagnostic approach are the empirical…

  6. Epistemological and Reading Beliefs Profiles and Their Role in Multiple Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Mar; Solé, Isabel; Martín, Elena; Castells, Nuria; Cuevas, Isabel; González-Lamas, Jara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of epistemological beliefs and reading beliefs in the comprehension of multiple texts which presented conflicting positions about a controversial topic (nuclear energy). More specifically, we investigated the influence of the multidimensional configuration of epistemological and reading…

  7. The Correlates of Taiwan Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs concerning Internet Environments, Online Search Strategies, and Search Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the correlates among teachers' epistemological beliefs concerning Internet environments, their web search strategies and search outcomes. The sample of this study included 105 teachers from 63 grades 1 to 9 schools in Taiwan. The results show that the teachers with more advanced epistemological beliefs concerning…

  8. Qualitative Epistemology: A Scientific Platform for the Study of Subjectivity from a Cultural-Historical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, José Fernando; Goulart, Daniel Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the platform of thought proposed by González Rey in the development of qualitative epistemology and the theory of subjectivity. We discuss three core aspects: firstly, the general epistemological problems of modern science, with its non-critical, non-theoretical scientific ideals, and low reflexivity; secondly, we…

  9. Exploring Epistemological Beliefs and Learning Approaches in Context: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research investigation into epistemological beliefs and students' approaches to learning (SAL) from a qualitative perspective has been limited to a few studies. In particular, very research has attempted to explore the origin of personal epistemology and its relation with SAL, taking into account the sociocultural background and …

  10. Theories of Mind and Personal Epistemology: Their Interrelation and Connection with the Concept of Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnant, Annick; Crahay, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the links and discrepancies between three contemporary theoretical fields. The first part is devoted to theories of mind and personal epistemology. Both fields deal with naive theories relating to the nature of knowledge and can be integrated within the concept of "folk epistemology" (Kitchener New Ideas Psychol…

  11. Significance of Epistemological Beliefs for Teaching and Learning Psychology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Heather J.; Hood, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Beliefs about the nature of knowledge, termed "epistemological beliefs", are relevant to understanding educational strategies of both learners and teachers. Epistemological beliefs arguably have particular relevance in the discipline and profession of psychology, due to an emphasis on integration of knowledge from multiple theoretical…

  12. The relationship between medical students’ epistemological beliefs and achievement on a clinical performance examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-A Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was to explore the relationship between clinical performance examination (CPX achievement and epistemological beliefs to investigate the potentials of epistemological beliefs in ill-structured medical problem solving tasks. Methods: We administered the epistemological beliefs questionnaire (EBQ to fourth-year medical students and correlated the results with their CPX scores. The EBQ comprised 61 items reflecting five belief systems: certainty of knowledge, source of knowledge, rigidity of learning, ability to learn, and speed of knowledge acquisition. The CPX included scores for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Results: The higher epistemological beliefs group obtained significantly higher scores on the CPX with regard to history taking and patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores on certainty of knowledge and source of knowledge were significantly positively correlated with patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores for ability to learn were significantly positively correlated with those for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Conclusion: Students with more sophisticated and advanced epistemological beliefs stances used more comprehensive and varied approaches in the patient-physician interaction. Therefore, educational efforts that encourage discussions pertaining to epistemological views should be considered to improve clinical reasoning and problem-solving competence in the clinic setting.

  13. Effects of Computer Graphics Types and Epistemological Beliefs on Students' Learning of Mathematical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hui

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that determined the implications of computer graphics types and epistemological beliefs with regard to the design of computer-based mathematical concept learning with elementary school students in Taiwan. Discusses the factor structure of the epistemological belief questionnaire, student performance, and students' attitudes…

  14. Epistemological Beliefs of Third-Grade Students in an Investigation-Rich Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    As part of becoming scientifically literate, students should come to appreciate epistemic aspects of science. Little research has been conducted on elementary students' epistemological beliefs specific to science education. This study offers insights into third-grade students' epistemological beliefs while paying attention to the intersection of…

  15. Neuro-epistemology: A Post-modernist Analysis of the Neuro-sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Keywords: neuro-epistemology; neuro-sciences; mental health; discourse; epistemology. ABSTRACT. This paper ... of neuro-science, including the assumptive framework upon which the dominant discourse in this field is based, which ultimately ...... human language, “attack” on Piaget's sensory-motor theory, and the focus ...

  16. Scientific Thinking in Elementary School: Children's Social Cognition and Their Epistemological Understanding Promote Experimentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding…

  17. Frame by frame analysis of glottic insufficiency using laryngovideostroboscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas L; Wu, Yi-Hsuan E; McRay, Marissa; Gherson, Shirley

    2012-03-01

    Glottic insufficiency (GI) can be either grossly obvious or subtle in its presentation. Subtle GI is demonstrated by various Laryngovideostroboscopic (LVS) clues, including complete but "short" phase closure of the true vocal folds (VFs) during the glottic cycle. We used the frame by frame analysis (FBFA) technique to evaluate its effectiveness in objectively contributing to the diagnosis of subtle GI in patients with atrophic and/or paretic VFs. This article intends to formally present the methods and intentions of the FBFA technique and report our findings using FBFA on subjects with clinically diagnosed GI and normal volunteers. Retrospective review and demonstration of technique. Forty-four subjects with a prior clinical diagnosis of true VF atrophy (25/44) and/or paresis (19/44) and five normal volunteers were identified. Using the FBFA technique, each subject's average percentage of closed frames per glottic cycle was recorded. Subjects with atrophy spent 32.4% of the frames of the glottic cycle in the closed phase, subjects with paresis spent 35.7% of the frames closed, and normal subjects spent 50.2% of the frames closed. FBFA appears to be a simple objective method for the novice or experienced LVS interpreter, by which one can suspect subtle GI. Because of the inherent physical properties by which LVS gives an "illusionary" representation of the glottic cycle, the FBFA technique remains a theoretical tool. Future studies using high-speed digital imaging are needed to validate this useful technique. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. f3: Full Frame Fotometry for Kepler Full Frame Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin T.

    2017-05-01

    Light curves from the Kepler telescope rely on "postage stamp" cutouts of a few pixels near each of 200,000 target stars. These light curves are optimized for the detection of short-term signals like planet transits but induce systematics that overwhelm long-term variations in stellar flux. Longer-term effects can be recovered through analysis of the Full Frame Images, a set of calibration data obtained monthly during the Kepler mission. The Python package f3 analyzes the Full Frame Images to infer long-term astrophysical variations in the brightness of Kepler targets, such as magnetic activity or sunspots on slowly rotating stars.

  19. Einstein and Jordan reconciled. A frame-invariant approach to scalar-tensor cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pietroni, M. [INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy); Scarabello, L. [INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy)]|[Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2006-04-15

    Scalar-Tensor theories of gravity can be formulated in different frames, most notably, the Einstein and the Jordan one. While some debate still persists in the literature on the physical status of the different frames, a frame transformation amounts to a change of units, and then should not affect physical results. We analyze the issue in a cosmological context. In particular, we define all the relevant observables (redshift, distances, cross-sections,..) in terms of frame-independent quantities. Then, we give a frame-independent formulation of the Boltzmann equation, and outline its use in relevant examples such as particle freeze-out and the evolution of the CMB photon distribution function. Finally, we derive the gravitational equations for the frame-independent quantities at first order in perturbation theory. From a practical point of view, the present approach allows the simultaneous implementation of the good aspects of the two frames in a clear and straightforward way. (orig.)

  20. Some properties of frames of subspaces obtained by operator theory methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mariano A.; Stojanoff, Demetrio

    2008-07-01

    We study the relationship among operators, orthonormal basis of subspaces and frames of subspaces (also called fusion frames) for a separable Hilbert space H. We get sufficient conditions on an orthonormal basis of subspaces of a Hilbert space K and a surjective T[set membership, variant]L(K,H) in order that {T(Ei)}i[set membership, variant]I is a frame of subspaces with respect to a computable sequence of weights. We also obtain generalizations of results in [J.A. Antezana, G. Corach, M. Ruiz, D. Stojanoff, Oblique projections and frames, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 134 (2006) 1031-1037], which relate frames of subspaces (including the computation of their weights) and oblique projections. The notion of refinement of a fusion frame is defined and used to obtain results about the excess of such frames. We study the set of admissible weights for a generating sequence of subspaces. Several examples are given.

  1. Children's informal reasoning skills and epistemological beliefs within the family : the role of parenting practices, parental epistemological beliefs and family communication patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Chng, Grace Shiao En

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The current work formulated theoretical models for empirical testing based on three objectives: 1) to explore the associations of familial variables, specifically with regards to parental socialization, with two cognitive aspects of good thinking in children - their informal reasoning skills and their epistemological beliefs, 2) to test the relation between these two competencies as epistemological beliefs have been found to enhance or constrain reasoning, and 3) to investigate...

  2. Interactions among Knowledge, Beliefs, and Goals in Framing a Qualitative Study in Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past, qualitative research methods have become more prevalent in the field of statistics education. This paper offers thoughts on the process of framing a qualitative study by means of an illustrative example. The decisions that influenced the framing of a study of pre-service teachers' understanding of the concept of statistical…

  3. Patterns of Epistemological Beliefs among Filipino Students at a Graduate Seminary in Manila: Cultural Perspectives and Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano-Soberano, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Research points to the centrality of one's personal epistemology to learning. While most studies were conducted in Western countries, the few studies done in non-Western contexts have shown varied number and nature of epistemological belief dimensions pointing to the cultural specificity of epistemological beliefs. A culturally-sensitive study…

  4. Epistemology and People Who Are Deaf: Deaf Worldviews, Views of the Deaf World, or My Parents Are Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margery S.

    2010-01-01

    Epistemology is examined from two different perspectives within the framework of a broader evolutionary epistemology. Within this framework, reality is not absolute, and truth is a relative concept. People construct individual or personal epistemologies through their experiences, and develop or receive group or socially constructed epistemologies…

  5. Smarandache Curves In Terms of Sabban Frame of Fixed Pole Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Şenyurt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the special Smarandache curve interms of Sabban frame of Fixed Pole curve and we give some characterization of Smarandache curves. Besides, we illustrate examples of our results.

  6. The Bernoulli equation in a moving reference frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mungan, Carl E, E-mail: mungan@usna.edu [Physics Department, US Naval Academy Annapolis, MD 21402-1363 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Unlike other standard equations in introductory classical mechanics, the Bernoulli equation is not Galilean invariant. The explanation is that, in a reference frame moving with respect to constrictions or obstacles, those surfaces do work on the fluid, constituting an extra term that needs to be included in the work-energy calculation. A quantitative example is presented here for a horizontal tapered pipe. A frame-independent expression for the pressure drop in the pipe is obtained. The concepts discussed in this paper are accessible to introductory undergraduate physics majors.

  7. MENGARIFI ORIENTALISME: MERETAS JALAN KE ARAH INTEGRASI EPISTEMOLOGI STUDI ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrizal Afrizal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Islamic studies taken by orientalists are often suspected as having hidden agenda. Main indicator of such agenda, according to Edward W. Said, is their biased works on Islam. Regardless to its negative side, honestly to say, orientalism has contributed important aspects in Islamic studies in terms of establishing approaches and methodologies, and creating new fields as branches of Islamic studies. Besides, they do give significant role in preservation and maintenance of Muslim intellectual heritage (turâts such as manuscripts. In the context of Islamic studies in IAIN, the raise of attention to orientalism studies will gradually balance the hegemony of its textual tradition based on Arabs and Persian bayânî and ‘irfânî epistemologies with Western sciences that are compatible with burhânî epistemology. The balance hopefully would be a kind of Islamic studies that more historical and inclusive in nature, analyzing any problem not only from religious but scientific perspective as well.

  8. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Rediscovering psychopathology: the epistemology and phenomenology of the psychiatric object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis A; Zahavi, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the "psychiatric object" (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary "operationalist" epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, "atheoretical" definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind.

  10. 'Diverse epistemologies', truth and archaeology: in defence of realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsthemke, Kai

    2011-06-01

    In a recent journal article, as well as in a recent book chapter, in which she critiques my position on 'indigenous knowledge', Lesley Green of the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cape Town argues that 'diverse epistemologies ought to be evaluated not on their capacity to express a strict realism but on their ability to advance understanding'. In order to examine the implications of Green's arguments, and of Nelson Goodman and Catherine Elgin's work in this regard, I apply them to a well-known controversy between Native American (or First Nations) creationism and archaeology. I argue that issues in social justice should be distinguished from issues in epistemology. Moreover, in tightening in this paper the link between knowledge and truth, I attempt to defend science as a 'privileged way of seeing the world'. The analysis of truth, and of related concepts like reality and 'the way the world is', will assume a central role here. I contend that, ultimately, the only coherent and consistent position is a realist view of the pertinent issues and ideas.

  11. Giant viruses: The difficult breaking of multiple epistemological barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of the first "giant virus", Mimivirus, in 2003 could solely have been that of an exceptional freak, a blind alley of evolution as occasionally encountered in biology, albeit without conceptual significance. On the contrary, once broken this epistemological barrier, additional unrelated families of giant viruses such as the Pandoraviruses, the Pithoviruses and most recently Mollivirus, were quickly unraveled, suggesting that an entire chapter of microbiology had been ignored since Pasteur and Ivanovski. In this article, we examine to what extent the giant viruses challenge previous definitions of viruses, the diversity of forms they could take, and how they might have evolved from extinct ancestral cellular lineages. Inspired by the epistemology of Gaston Bachelard, we will also suggest the reasons for which giant viruses laid hidden in plain sight for more than a century. Finally, we propose a new definition for "viruses" that paradoxically emphasize the fact that they do not encode a single universally shared macromolecule or biochemical function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Folding into being: early embryology and the epistemology of rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, Janina

    2015-03-01

    Historians have often described embryology and concepts of development in the period around 1800 in terms of "temporalization" or "dynamization". This paper, in contrast, argues that a central epistemological category in the period was "rhythm", which played a major role in the establishment of the emerging discipline of biology. I show that Caspar Friedrich Wolff's epigenetic theory of development was based on a rhythmical notion, namely the hypothesis that organic development occurs as a series of ordered rhythmical repetitions and variations. Presenting Christian Heinrich Pander's and Karl Ernst von Baer's theory of germ layers, I argue that Pander and Baer regarded folding as an organizing principle of ontogenesis, and that the principle's explanatory power stems from their understanding of folding as a rhythmical figuration. In a brief discussion of the notion of rhythm in contemporary music theory, I identify an underlying physiological epistemology in the new musical concept of rhythm around 1800. The paper closes with a more general discussion of the relationship between the rhythmic episteme, conceptions of life, and aesthetic theory at the end of the eighteenth century.

  13. Epistemological Anarchy and the Many Forms of Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David R.

    Constructivism has become an important referent for research and practice in science education. A variety of more or less divergent forms of constructivism have developed: discussion between these is occasionally heated. Six such forms are briefly described in order to provide an overview of the field of constructivist theory. A scheme for characterising constructivist writing on the basis of its relative emphasis on (a) personal versus social construction of knowledge and (b) objectivist versus relativist views of the nature of science is suggested. Issues of theory creation and reflexivity, central to constructivist practice, are discussed. It is suggested that debate about the "best" form of constructivism is counterproductive. A more powerful approach to epistemology is that described by Feyerabend, the holding in dialectical tension of a variety of incompatible perspectives: The following essay is written in the conviction that anarchism, while perhaps not the most attractive political philosophy, is certainly excellent medicine for epistemology, and for the philosophy of science (Feyerabend, 1975, 17, italics in original).

  14. Feminist approaches to social science: epistemological and methodological tenets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R; Wasco, S M

    2000-12-01

    This paper is a primer for community psychologists on feminist research. Much like the field of community psychology, feminist scholarship is defined by its values and process. Informed by the political ideologies of the 1970s women's movement (liberal, radical, socialist feminism, and womanism), feminist scholars reinterpreted classic concepts in philosophy of science to create feminist epistemologies and methodologies. Feminist epistemologies, such as feminist empiricism, standpoint theory, and postmodernism, recognize women's lived experiences as legitimate sources of knowledge. Feminist methodologies attempt to eradicate sexist bias in research and find ways to capture women's voices that are consistent with feminist ideals. Practically, the process of feminist research is characterized by four primary features: (1) expanding methodologies to include both quantitative and qualitative methods, (2) connecting women for group-level data collection, (3) reducing the hierarchical relationship between researchers and their participants to facilitate trust and disclosure, and (4) recognizing and reflecting upon the emotionality of women's lives. Recommendations for how community psychologists can integrate feminist scholarship into their practice are discussed.

  15. Piaget's epistemic subject and science education: Epistemological vs. psychological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1993-06-01

    Many individuals claim that Piaget's theory of cognitive development is empirically false or substantially disconfirmed by empirical research. Although there is substance to such a claim, any such conclusion must address three increasingly problematic issues about the possibility of providing an empirical test of Piaget's genetic epistemology: (1) the empirical underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence, (2) the empirical difficulty of testing competence-type explanations, and (3) the difficulty of empirically testing epistemic norms. This is especially true of a central epistemic construct in Piaget's theory — the epistemic subject. To illustrate how similar problems of empirical testability arise in the physical sciences, I briefly examine the case of Galileo and the correlative difficulty of empirically testing Galileo's laws. I then point out some important epistemological similarities between Galileo and Piaget together with correlative changes needed in science studies methodology. I conclude that many psychologists and science educators have failed to appreciate the difficulty of falsifying Piaget's theory because they have tacitly adopted a philosophy of science at odds with the paradigm-case of Galileo.

  16. From method to hermeneutics: which epistemological framework for narrative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abettan, Camille

    2017-06-01

    The past 10 years have seen considerable developments in the use of narrative in medicine, primarily through the emergence of the so-called narrative medicine. In this article, I question narrative medicine's self-understanding and contend that one of the most prominent issues is its lack of a clear epistemological framework. Drawing from Gadamer's work on hermeneutics, I first show that narrative medicine is deeply linked with the hermeneutical field of knowledge. Then I try to identify which claims can be legitimately expected from narrative medicine, and which ones cannot be. I scrutinize in particular whether narrative medicine can legitimately grasp the patient's lived experience of his or her illness. In the last section of this article, I begin to explore the potential usefulness of this epistemological clarification. This analysis allows for a further understanding of what is really at stake with narrative medicine, and thus to identify when it may be convenient, and when it may not. Furthermore, this clarification opens up promising new possibilities of dialogue with critics of the field. I conclude that narrative medicine finds its proper place as a possible tool available to mediate dialogue, which is at the heart of the clinical encounter in medical practice.

  17. Rediscovering Psychopathology: The Epistemology and Phenomenology of the Psychiatric Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the “psychiatric object” (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research. In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers’ book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary “operationalist” epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers’ views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature of consciousness or subjectivity, which in turn cannot be treated as a collection of thing-like, mutually independent objects, accessible to context-free, “atheoretical” definitions or unproblematic forms of measurement (as is often assumed in structured interviewing). Adequate and faithful distinctions in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind. PMID:23267191

  18. Frames of exponentials:lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies, and approximation of the inverse frame operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Lindner, Alexander M

    2001-01-01

    We give lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies of a frame of exponentials {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ in L-2(-pi,pi). We also present a method for approximation of the inverse frame operator corresponding to {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ, where knowledge of the frame bounds for...

  19. Source Code Generator Based on Dynamic Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper presents the model of source code generator based on dynamic frames. The model is named as the SCT model because if its three basic components: Specification (S, which describes the application characteristics, Configuration (C, which describes the rules for building applications, and Templates (T, which refer to application building blocks. The process of code generation dynamically creates XML frames containing all building elements (S, C ant T until final code is produced. This approach is compared to existing XVCL frames based model for source code generating. The SCT model is described by both XML syntax and the appropriate graphical elements. The SCT model is aimed to build complete applications, not just skeletons. The main advantages of the presented model are its textual and graphic description, a fully configurable generator, and the reduced overhead of the generated source code. The presented SCT model is shown on development of web application example in order to demonstrate its features and justify our design choices.

  20. Diagrammatic Thinking: Notes on Peirce’s Semiotics and Epistemology (Pensamiento Diagramático: Notas sobre la Semiótica y la Epistemología de Peirce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Radford

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss the role of diagrammatic thinking within the larger context of cognitive activity as framed by Peirce’s semiotic theory of and its underpinning realistic ontology. After a short overview of Kant’s scepticism in its historical context, I examine Peirce’s attempt to rescue perception as a way to reconceptualize the Kantian “manifold of senses”. I argue that Peirce’s redemption of perception led him to a series of problems that are as fundamental as those that Kant encountered. I contend that the understanding of the difficulties of Peirce’s epistemology allows us to better grasp the limits and possibilities of diagrammatic thinking. En este artículo se discute el papel que desempeña el concepto de pensamiento diagramático en el contexto de la actividad cognitiva, tal y como es concebida dentro del marco de la teoría semiótica de Peirce y su subyacente ontología realista. Luego de presentar una visión general del escepticismo kantiano en su contexto histórico, se examina el esfuerzo de Peirce por rescatar la percepción, esfuerzo que lo lleva a indagar de manera innovadora el “multiespacio de los sentidos” del que hablaba Kant. Se mantiene que este esfuerzo lleva a Peirce a una serie de problemas que son tan fundamentales como los que Kant encontró en su propio itinerario epistemológico. Se sostiene que la comprensión de las dificultades intrínsecas a la epistemología de Peirce nos permite cernir mejor los límites y posibilidades de su pensamiento diagramático.