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Sample records for epa alkali scrubbing

  1. Scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G Rapsang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by orientia tsutsugamushi, transmitted to humans by the bite of the larva of trombiculid mites. It causes a disseminated vasculitic and perivascular inflammatory lesions resulting in significant vascular leakage and end-organ injury. It affects people of all ages and even though scrub typhus in pregnancy is uncommon, it is associated with increased foetal loss, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age infants. After an incubation period of 6-21 days, onset is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, cough, and gastrointestinal symptoms. A primary papular lesion which later crusts to form a flat black eschar, may be present. If untreated, serious complications may occur involving various organs. Laboratory studies usually reveal leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, deranged hepatic and renal function, proteinuria and reticulonodular infiltrate. Owing to the potential for severe complications, diagnosis, and decision to initiate treatment should be based on clinical suspicion and confirmed by serologic tests. A therapeutic trial of tetracycline or chloramphenicol is indicated in patients in whom the diagnosis of scrub typhus is suspected. The recommended treatment regimen for scrub typhus is doxycycline. Alternative regimens include tetracycline, chloramphenicol, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, and roxithromycin. Treatment of pregnant women with azithromycin was successfully done without relapse and with favorable pregnancy outcomes. Hence, early diagnosis and treatment are essential in order to reduce the mortality and the complications associated with the disease. We searched the English-language literature for reports of scrub typhus in children, pregnant women, and non-pregnant patients with scrub typhus, using the MEDLINE/PubMed database, which includes citations from 1945 to the present time. We used the search terms ′scrub typhus′, ′scrub typhus′ and ′pregnancy′, ′scrub

  2. Pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Jimenez, J.; Herranz, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Espigares, M.M.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Kortz, Ch.; Koch, M.K.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H.; Dutton, L.M.C.; Smedley, Ch.; Trow, W.; Jones, A.V.; Bonanni, E.; Calvo, M.; Alonso, A.

    1996-12-01

    The Source Term Project in the Third Frame Work Programme of the European Union Was conducted under and important joined effort on pool scrubbing research. CIEMAT was the Task Manager of the project and several other organizations participated in it: JRC-Ispra, NNC Limited, RUB-NES and UPM. The project was divided into several tasks. A peer review of the models in the pool scrubbing codes SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 was made, considering the different aspects in the hydrodynamic phenomenology, particle retention and fission product vapor abortions. Several dominant risk accident sequences were analyzed with MAAP, SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and the predictions were compared. A churn-turbulent model was developed for the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pool. Finally, an experimental programme in the PECA facility of CIEMAT was conducted in order to study the decontamination factor under jet injection regime, and the experimental observations were compared with the SPARC and BUSCA codes. (Author)

  3. Opsoclonus in scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D'sa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a mite borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is a common cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in the Indian subcontinent. We present a case of scrub typhus with a rare ophthalmic manifestation.Our patient presented with fever and opsoclonus, was diagnosed to have scrub typhus and completely improved upon treatment. Opsoclonus complicates various medical diseases, including viral infections, toxin, encephalitis, brain tumors, and paraneoplastic syndromes. There has been only one previously reported case of opsoclonus in scrub typhus. This phenomenon highlights the increasingly complex presentation of common diseases. It also indicates there is much to be discovered about the immunopathogenesis of this infectious disease.

  4. Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, Gavin C. K. W.; Maude, Richard J.; Paris, Daniel H.; Newton, Paul N.; Blacksell, Stuart D.

    2010-01-01

    Scrub typhus is transmitted by trombiculid mites and is endemic to East and Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. The clinical syndrome classically consists of a fever, rash, and eschar, but scrub typhus also commonly presents as an undifferentiated fever that requires laboratory confirmation of

  5. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO 2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO 2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO 2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  6. Pancreatitis in scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection prevalent in most parts of India. Acute pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation is a rare complication of this condition. This paper reports acute renal failure, pancreatitis and pseudocyst formation in a 48-year-old female with scrub typhus. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed a bulky pancreas with fluid seen along the body of the pancreas in the lesser sac. The infection was successfully treated with doxycycline and supportive treatment. Pancreatitis was managed conservatively. This case report highlights the importance of identifying and managing uncommon complications of a common tropical disease for optimum outcome.

  7. Diagnosis of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Jeshina; Trowbridge, Paul; Varghese, George M

    2014-12-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness that, if untreated, can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. One of the primary reasons for delays in the treatment of this potentially fatal infection is the difficulty in diagnosing the condition. Diagnosis is often complicated because of the combination of non-specific symptoms that overlap with other infections commonly found in endemic areas and the poor available diagnostics. In the majority of the endemic settings, diagnosis still relies on the Weil-Felix test, which is neither sensitive nor specific. Other methods of testing have become available, but at this time, these remain insufficient to provide the rapid point-of-care diagnostics that would be necessary to significantly change the management of this infection by providers in endemic areas. This article reviews the currently available diagnostic tools for scrub typhus and their utility in the clinical setting.

  8. Scrub Typhus, Republic of Palau

    OpenAIRE

    Demma, Linda J.; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Nicholson, William L.; Murphy, Staci M.; Marumoto, Pearl; Sengebau-Kingzio, J. Maireng; Kuartei, Stevenson; Durand, A. Mark; Swerdlow, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a severe febrile illness transmitted to humans by trombiculid mites, which normally feed on rodents. The first known outbreak of scrub typhus in Palau occurred in 2001 to 2003 among residents of the remote southwest islands. To determine the extent of scrub typhus distribution in Palau, we tested serum samples from humans and rodents for antibodies to O. tsutsugamushi. Of 212 Palau residents surveyed in 2003, 101 (47.6%) had immunoglobulin G ...

  9. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  10. SPS: scrubbing or coating ?

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: mitigation of the electron cloud using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing runs. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed.

  11. SPS: scrubbing or coating?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The operation of the SPS with high intensity bunched beams is limited by the electron cloud building-up in both the arcs and long straight sections. Two consolidation options have been considered: suppression of the electron cloud build-up using coatings or relying, as before, on the scrubbing mitigation. A status report on both options will be given with a particular emphasis on measurements plans for 2012 and pending issues. The testing needs, corresponding beam parameters and MD time in 2012 will be addressed. The criteria for the decision making and the corresponding schedule will be discussed. (author)

  12. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi characterized by focal or disseminated vasculitis and perivasculitis which may involve the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and central nervous system. It was thought to have been eradicated from India. Recently it is being reported from many areas of India. The clinical picture and severity of the symptoms varies widely. The neurological manifestations of scrub typhus are not uncommon but are diverse. Meningoencephalitis is classical manifestation of scrub typhus but cerebellitis, cranial nerve palsies, plexopathy, transverse myelitis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and Guillan-Barré syndrome are other manifestations reported in literature. The availability of literature on the neurological manifestations of scrub typhus is limited to case reports mainly. This article reviews various neurological manifestations of scrub typhus reported in literature.

  13. Status epilepticus in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Jayantee; Mani, Vinita E; Bhoi, Sanjeev K; Misra, Usha K

    2016-07-01

    Scrub typhus is an emerging infection, and there is little information about status epilepticus (SE) in scrub typhus. We report the clinical spectrum and outcome of SE in scrub typhus. In a 3-year prospective hospital-based observational study, all scrub typhus patients with SE were included. Scrub typhus was diagnosed by immunochromatography assay. SE was defined if convulsions lasted longer than 5 min. The patients' demographic, clinical, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) findings were noted. Response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and outcome at 1 month and 1 year were recorded. Between 2012 and 2014, there were 66 patients with scrub typhus admitted with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, 10 (15.2%) of whom had SE (generalized convulsions in 5, secondary generalized in one). The median age of the patients was 34 (range 18-71) years and seven were female. The duration of SE ranged between 10 min and 48 h. SE responded to one AED in five patients, two AEDs in three patients, and more than two AEDs in two patients. Cranial MRI findings were normal. All patients recovered completely with doxycycline by 1 month and AED was withdrawn by 8 months in all. Although 15% patients with scrub typhus may have SE, they have good outcome. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Dynawave froth scrubbing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The DynaWave family of scrubbers was developed and patented by DuPont in the 1970's and is used extensively within the company. Because the technology was treated as confidential, information about the scrubbers was not published outside of DuPont. In 1986 Monsanto Enviro-Chem was asked to install a Reverse Jet scrubber at DuPont's Burnside spent acid recovery pant to replace an aging spray humidifying tower. Enviro-Chem was impressed with the technology and entered into a licensing agreement with DuPont in late 1987. This paper addresses the application of DynaWave froth scrubbing technology to metallurgical plant process and effluent gas streams. Froth scrubber design principles an sampling results from pilot plant trails on fluid bed roaster off-gas are presented

  15. HRCT findings of scrub typhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Sik; Kang, Sung Soo; Jin, Kong Yong; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Young Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Sang Yong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of scrub typhus. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT scans of 26 serologically confirmed scrub typhus patients. One underwent follow-up HRCT scanning. Twenty-three(88.5%) of the 26 patients showed abnormal findings. All 23 had lung parenchymal lesions; a small amount of pleural effusion was seen in 11 patients, and lymphadenopathy in six. The predominant parenchymal lesion was thickening of interlobular septae and the axial and intralobular interstitium (n=16). Most lesions were located in both lower lung zones. Other findings were ground-glass attenuation (n=11) and focal parenchymal consolidation (n=8). In one patient, parenchymal lesions were resolved on follow-up HRCT scanning. HRCT findings of interstitial thickening, abnormally increased parenchymal attenuation, pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy with typical clinical symptoms were diagnostic of scrub typhus

  16. HRCT findings of scrub typhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Sik; Kang, Sung Soo; Jin, Kong Yong; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Young Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Sang Yong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of scrub typhus. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT scans of 26 serologically confirmed scrub typhus patients. One underwent follow-up HRCT scanning. Twenty-three(88.5%) of the 26 patients showed abnormal findings. All 23 had lung parenchymal lesions; a small amount of pleural effusion was seen in 11 patients, and lymphadenopathy in six. The predominant parenchymal lesion was thickening of interlobular septae and the axial and intralobular interstitium (n=16). Most lesions were located in both lower lung zones. Other findings were ground-glass attenuation (n=11) and focal parenchymal consolidation (n=8). In one patient, parenchymal lesions were resolved on follow-up HRCT scanning. HRCT findings of interstitial thickening, abnormally increased parenchymal attenuation, pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy with typical clinical symptoms were diagnostic of scrub typhus.

  17. Acute Cholecystitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Chung, Kyung Min; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a rare complication of scrub typhus. Although a few such cases have been reported in patients with scrub typhus, the clinical course is not well described. Of 12 patients, acute cholecystitis developed in 66.7% (8/12) of patients older than 60 yr. The scrub typhus group with acute cholecystitis had marginal significant longer hospital stay and higher cost than the group without cholecystitis according to propensity score matching. Scrub typhus should be kept in mind as ...

  18. Improved Purex solvent scrubbing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of hydrazine and hydroxylamine salts as solvent scrubbing agents that can be decomposed into gases are summarized. Results from testing of countercurrent scrubbers and solid sorber columns that produce lesser amounts of permanent salts are reported. The status of studies of the acid-degradation of paraffin diluent and the options for removal of long-chain organic acids is given

  19. Acute Cholecystitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Chung, Kyung Min; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-11-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a rare complication of scrub typhus. Although a few such cases have been reported in patients with scrub typhus, the clinical course is not well described. Of 12 patients, acute cholecystitis developed in 66.7% (8/12) of patients older than 60 yr. The scrub typhus group with acute cholecystitis had marginal significant longer hospital stay and higher cost than the group without cholecystitis according to propensity score matching. Scrub typhus should be kept in mind as a rare etiology of acute cholecystitis in endemic areas because the typical signs of scrub typhus such as skin rash and eschar can present after the abdominal pain.

  20. Clinical manifestations of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Weeratunga, Praveen; Sivayoganathan, Sriharan; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika

    2017-02-01

    The mite-borne rickettsial zoonosis scrub typhus is widely prevalent in parts of Southeast and Far East Asia, and northern Australia. The disease is an acute febrile illness, associated with rash and often an eschar, which responds dramatically to treatment with antibiotics. In some cases it results in a serious illness leading to multiple organ involvement and death. The disease manifestations are thought to result from a systemic vasculitis, caused by both direct effects of the organisms as well as an exaggerated immune response, although little is understood about its pathogenesis. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system, have been described with scrub typhus. Some of these manifestations are serious and life threatening. In this systematic review, we summarise the typical and atypical manifestations of scrub typhus reported in the literature. Awareness of these unusual manifestations will hopefully guide clinicians towards diagnosing the condition early, and initiating early appropriate antibiotics and other supportive measures. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Scrub Typhus: An Emerging Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sayantani; Sarma, Nilendu

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly Rickettsia) and is transmitted to humans by an arthropod vector of the Trombiculidae family (Leptotrombidium deliense and L. akamushi). It is the most common re-emerging Rickettsial infection in India and many other South East Asian countries. In fact, scrub typhus is confined geographically to the Asia Pacific region, a billion people are at risk and nearly a million cases are reported every year. Scrub typhus appears particularly to be distributed in the tsutsugamushi triangle which is distributed over a very wide area of 13 million km2 bound by Japan in the east, through China, the Philippines, tropical Australia in the south, and west through India, Pakistan, possibly to Tibet to Afghanistan, and southern parts of the USSR in the north. Eschar is the characteristic lesion that starts as a vesicular lesion at the site of mite feeding. Later, an ulcer forms with black necrotic center and an erythematous border along with regional lymphadenopathy. Other features are fever, maculopapular rash starting from the trunk, and spreading to the limbs. It may affect the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, renal, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. Serious complication in the form of myocarditis, pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, acute renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and even acute respiratory distress syndrome may develop. Tetracycline or chloramphenicol remains the main stay of therapy. PMID:28979009

  2. Peritonitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Ki Jung; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2012-01-01

    Various complications have been reported in scrub typhus cases including acute respiratory distress syndrome, encephalitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatic failure. Few studies have reported on the gastrointestinal manifestations of scrub typhus. Typical gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with scrub typhus include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, melena, and diarrhea. The two cases presented in this study are the first reported cases of p...

  3. Endemic Scrub Typhus-like Illness, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern...vectors for murine typhus (R. typhi) and fl ea-borne spotted fever (R. felis), mites as vectors of rickettsialpox (R. akari), and scrub typhus ...rickettsial disease have been reported in this country since 1976 (3). Scrub typhus , caused by O. tsutsugamushi, which is usually transmitted by

  4. Acute pancreatitis associated with scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sv, Padmavathi Devi; M, Aruna; Kumar, Anil Cv; Krishna Reddy, Hari; Bl, Sangeetha; Siva Kumar, V

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus, or tsutsugamushi fever, is a zoonosis of rural Asia and the western Pacific islands. The causative organism, Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, is transmitted to humans by the bite of a larval Leptotrombidium mite (chigger). Scrub typhus may have gastrointestinal presentations, such as acute acalculous cholecystitis, duodenal ulcer perforation, peritonitis and gastric ulceration. Acute pancreatitis with scrub typhus has been reported rarely. We report a patient of scrub typhus complicated by acute pancreatitis and acute kidney injury. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Scrub typhus: Clinical spectrum and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkategowda, Pradeep M; Rao, S Manimala; Mutkule, Dnyaneshwar P; Rao, Mallela V; Taggu, Alai N

    2015-04-01

    Scrub typhus is one of the differential diagnoses for fever with thrombocytopenia. ARDS associated with Scrub typhus has high morbidity and mortality. To evaluate clinical features, lab values, and outcome in patients with scrub typhus and comparison in patients with or without ARDS. A prospective observational study was conducted on 109 patients with febrile illness and thrombocytopenia during a period of 12 months. All 109 patients were tested with both Immune-chromatography test and Weil felix test. Patients having either Immune-chromatography test/Weil felix test positive have been included and considered as scrub typhus positive whereas negative for both Immune-chromatography and Weil felix test were excluded. Clinical features, lab parameters, and outcome were evaluated in all patients with scrub typhus. Statistical analysis used in this study was T-test. Among 58 patients who were included (After exclusion of 51 patients among total of 109 patients) 34 patients had no ARDS and 24 patients had ARDS. The clinical feature like dyspnoea, cough, low blood pressure (MAPscrub typhus patients group with ARDS. The higher titers of Weil-felix can be correlated with more severe form of disease according to our observation. All 34 Scrub typhus patients without ARDS recovered completely. Among 24 Scrub typhus patients with ARDS, 22 patients recovered, and 2 patients died. Scrub typhus is an important differential diagnosis in a patients having fever with thrombocytopenia. Scrub typhus associated with ARDS has high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment with doxycycline can prevent the occurrence of ARDS.

  6. Milk-alkali syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium-alkali syndrome; Cope syndrome; Burnett syndrome; Hypercalcemia; Calcium metabolism disorder ... Milk-alkali syndrome is almost always caused by taking too many calcium supplements, usually in the form of calcium carbonate. Calcium ...

  7. Predictors of Severity in Pediatric Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Dinesh Kumar; Arun Babu, Thirunavukkarasu; Vijayadevagaran, Vijayasankar; Kittu, Devi; Ananthakrishnan, Shanthi

    2018-01-24

    To identify the factors that can predict the severity of scrub typhus in children. This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital between November 2014 to October 2016. All children scrub typhus were included in the study. These children were followed during the hospital course and their laboratory results, response to treatment and complications were documented. Cases of 'severe scrub typhus' were identified based on criteria from published adult and pediatric studies. Out of 930 children with fever for more than 7d, IgM ELISA for scrub typhus was positive in 230 children. Ninety one (40.6%) cases fulfilled the criteria of 'severe scrub typhus' in children. Out of 45 factors, 27 potential factors were studied. The multivariate analysis identified 5 factors, breathlessness (OR: 6.85, 95%CI: 2.69 to 9.87), altered sensorium (OR: 11.48, 95% CI 3.43 to 10.19), leucocytosis (OR: 3.38, 95% CI 1.12 to 10.16), hypoalbuminemia (OR: 10.78, 95% CI 2.66 to 48.76), and hyponatremia (OR: 10.08, 95% CI 2.11 to 23.42) to be significantly associated with the 'severe scrub typhus' cases. Breathlessness, altered sensorium, leucocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, and hyponatremia predict severity in childhood scrub typhus. Presence of these factors should alert the treating physician regarding the need for intensive monitoring, treatment or referral.

  8. NOx retention in scrubbing column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazone, A.K.; Costa, R.E.; Lobao, A.S.T.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F.

    1988-07-01

    During the UO 2 dissolution in nitric acid, some different species of NO x are released. The off gas can either be refluxed to the dissolver or be released and retained on special columns. The final composition of the solution is the main parameter to take in account. A process for nitrous gases retention using scubber columns containing H 2 O or diluted HNO 3 is presented. Chemiluminescence measurement was employed to NO x evalution before and after scrubbing. Gas flow, temperature, residence time are the main parameters considered in this paper. For the dissolution of 100g UO 2 in 8M nitric acid, a 6NL/h O 2 flow was the best condition for the NO/NO 2 oxidation with maximum adsorption in the scrubber columns. (author) [pt

  9. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Complicated Scrub Typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sun Kim

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi . Although early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy improve the prognosis for the majority of patients, life-threatening complications are not uncommon. Here, we present a case of successful veno-veno-type extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for scrub typhus-induced complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocarditis and multi-organ dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in complicated scrub typhus in Korea.

  10. Aerosol Scrubbing Performance Test for Self-Priming Scrubbing Nozzle Submerged in Water Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Doo Yong; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jong Chan; Kim, Gyu Tae; Song, Yong Jae [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A scrubbing nozzle is one of the key components for a wet scrubber process based Containment Filtered Venting System (CFVS). As a part of a development of Korean CFVS, a self-priming scrubbing nozzle shown in Fig. 1 has been developed based on the well-known venturi scrubber concept. The thermal-hydraulic performances such as the pressure drop across the nozzle, water suction behavior and droplet generation inside throat have been tested in the non-submerged condition as well as submerged condition. The self-priming scrubbing nozzle used for the wet scrubber based CFVS has been developed, which is submerged in the water pool. When there is gas flow at the inlet of the nozzle, the pool water is passively sucked from the water suction slit. The fine droplets generated inside the throat capture the aerosol particles and is discharged into the water pool. In the water pool, the pool scrubbing happens. The aerosol scrubbing performance tests for the developed self-priming scrubbing nozzle has been conducted under the operational conditions such as different aerosol sizes, different carrier gas steam fractions, different, different pool water level and nozzle inlet pressure. The major findings are as follows. (1) Aerosol scrubbing efficiency increases with the increase of the aerosol size. (2) Aerosol scrubbing efficiency increases with the increase of the carrier gas steam fraction. (3) Aerosol scrubbing.

  11. Aerosol Scrubbing Performance Test for Self-Priming Scrubbing Nozzle Submerged in Water Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Doo Yong; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jong Chan; Kim, Gyu Tae; Song, Yong Jae

    2016-01-01

    A scrubbing nozzle is one of the key components for a wet scrubber process based Containment Filtered Venting System (CFVS). As a part of a development of Korean CFVS, a self-priming scrubbing nozzle shown in Fig. 1 has been developed based on the well-known venturi scrubber concept. The thermal-hydraulic performances such as the pressure drop across the nozzle, water suction behavior and droplet generation inside throat have been tested in the non-submerged condition as well as submerged condition. The self-priming scrubbing nozzle used for the wet scrubber based CFVS has been developed, which is submerged in the water pool. When there is gas flow at the inlet of the nozzle, the pool water is passively sucked from the water suction slit. The fine droplets generated inside the throat capture the aerosol particles and is discharged into the water pool. In the water pool, the pool scrubbing happens. The aerosol scrubbing performance tests for the developed self-priming scrubbing nozzle has been conducted under the operational conditions such as different aerosol sizes, different carrier gas steam fractions, different, different pool water level and nozzle inlet pressure. The major findings are as follows. (1) Aerosol scrubbing efficiency increases with the increase of the aerosol size. (2) Aerosol scrubbing efficiency increases with the increase of the carrier gas steam fraction. (3) Aerosol scrubbing

  12. Scrub typhus: audit of an outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Mani Ram; Vasuki, B; Nagaraju, K

    2015-06-01

    To document the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory profile of all children with scrub typhus at a tertiary care centre in Chennai between September 2010 and June 2011. The case records of all children admitted and diagnosed with scrub typhus between September 2010 and June 2011 were analysed to look for salient clinical and laboratory parameters. During the study period, 52 children were admitted with scrub typhus in the authors' hospital. The presenting complaints included fever in all cases. Other symptoms included swelling of legs (50 %) and vomiting (45 %). 13 % presented with CNS symptoms. The commonest physical findings included eschar (67 %), hepatomegaly (94 %), splenomegaly (73 %) and third spacing (67 %). Salient lab parameters included packed cell volume (PCV) scrub typhus in a tertiary care centre is reported. Eschar and hepatosplenomegaly with a high CRP value is helpful in diagnosis. All patients responded well to the treatment.

  13. Alkali metal hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing alkali metal hydrides by absorbing hydrogen gas under pressure into a mixture of lower alkyl mono amines and alkali metal alkyl amides selected from sodium and potassium amides formed from said amines. The present invention also includes purification of a mixture of the amines and amides which contain impurities, such as is used as a catalytic exchange liquid in the enrichment of deuterium, involving the formation of the alkali metal hydride

  14. Clinical proteomic analysis of scrub typhus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Edmond Changkyun; Lee, Sang-Yeop; Yun, Sung Ho; Choi, Chi-Won; Lee, Hayoung; Song, Hyun Seok; Jun, Sangmi; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kim, Seung Il

    2018-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute and febrile infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative α-proteobacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi from the family Rickettsiaceae that is widely distributed in Northern, Southern and Eastern Asia. In the present study, we analysed the serum proteome of scrub typhus patients to investigate specific clinical protein patterns in an attempt to explain pathophysiology and discover potential biomarkers of infection. Serum samples were collected from three patients (before and after treatment with antibiotics) and three healthy subjects. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed to identify differentially abundant proteins using quantitative proteomic approaches. Bioinformatic analysis was then performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Proteomic analysis identified 236 serum proteins, of which 32 were differentially expressed in normal subjects, naive scrub typhus patients and patients treated with antibiotics. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the identified proteins revealed up-regulation of proteins involved in immune responses, especially complement system, following infection with O. tsutsugamushi , and normal expression was largely rescued by antibiotic treatment. This is the first proteomic study of clinical serum samples from scrub typhus patients. Proteomic analysis identified changes in protein expression upon infection with O. tsutsugamushi and following antibiotic treatment. Our results provide valuable information for further investigation of scrub typhus therapy and diagnosis.

  15. Duodenal perforation precipitated by scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness usually presenting with fever, myalgia, headache, and a pathognomonic eschar. Severe infection may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in the form of gastric mucosal erosions and ulcerations owing to vasculitis resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding is common. This process may worsen a pre-existent asymptomatic peptic ulcer, causing duodenal perforation, and present as an acute abdomen requiring surgical exploration. We report the case of a patient with no previous symptoms or risk factors for a duodenal ulcer, who presented with an acute duodenal perforation, probably precipitated by scrub typhus infection.

  16. Epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Uk

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Scrub typhus is the most common febrile disease in Korea during the autumn. Jeju Island is the largest island in South Korea and has a distinctive oceanic climate. This study aimed to identify epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island. METHODS From January 2011 to December 2016, 446 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus on Jeju Island. The patients’ personal data and the environmental factors that might be related to scrub typhus were investigated and retrosp...

  17. Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshokey, Tshokey; Graves, Stephen; Tshering, Dorji; Phuntsho, Kelzang; Tshering, Karchung; Stenos, John

    2017-08-01

    Scrub typhus in Bhutan was first reported in 2009. We investigated an outbreak of scrub typhus in a remote primary school during August-October 2014. Delay in recognition and treatment resulted in 2 deaths from meningoencephalitis. Scrub typhus warrants urgent public health interventions in Bhutan.

  18. Scrub Typhus Outbreak in a Remote Primary School, Bhutan, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Tshokey, Tshokey; Graves, Stephen; Tshering, Dorji; Phuntsho, Kelzang; Tshering, Karchung; Stenos, John

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus in Bhutan was first reported in 2009. We investigated an outbreak of scrub typhus in a remote primary school during August?October 2014. Delay in recognition and treatment resulted in 2 deaths from meningoencephalitis. Scrub typhus warrants urgent public health interventions in Bhutan.

  19. Scrub typhus en Scrub itch, in het bijzonder in Nieuw Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1956-01-01

    INHOUD Pag. I. Inleiding.................. 1 II. Historisch overzicht............... 3 III. Epidemiologie en oecologie............. 13 IV. Klinische waarnemingen, pathologie, diagnose en behandeling .... 24 V. Aetiologie.................. 27 VI. Scrub itch.................. 28 VII. Preventieve

  20. Distribution of Eschar in Pediatric Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Winsley; Rajan, Roshni J; Punnen, Anu; Ghosh, Urmi

    2016-10-01

    Identifying an eschar in scrub typhus is useful for initiation of prompt and appropriate antibiotic therapy. The distribution of eschars in all children scrub typhus over a 5 year period is described. Of 431 children admitted with scrub typhus, eschars were present in 176 (40.8%) children with the following distribution: head, face and neck, 33 (19.1%); axillae, 37 (21%); chest and abdomen, 21 (11.9%); genitalia, inguinal region and buttocks, 58 (33%); back, 8 (4.5%); upper extremities, 13 (7.4%); and lower extremities, 5 (2.8%). The commonest sites of eschars were scrotum (27 of 106; 25.5%) and axillae (15 of 106; 14.2%) in males and axillae (22 of 70; 31.4%) and groin (16 of 70; 22.9%) in females. Eschars were seen within skin folds in 100 of 176 (56.8%) children. Children should be carefully examined for the presence of eschar especially in the skin folds of the genitalia, axillae and groin to make an early diagnosis of scrub typhus. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Acute pancreatitis due to scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Shaikh Iqbal Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is endemic in large parts of India and can cause multi-organ failure and death. Acute pancreatitis as a complication is very rare and is potentially fatal. This case series describes seven adult patients who presented with an acute febrile illness and were diagnosed to have scrub typhus with acute pancreatitis. The mean age of the seven patients with acute pancreatitis was 49.4 years, and mean duration of fever prior to presentation was 7.7 days. All seven patients had abdominal pain, and three had a pathognomonic eschar. The mean serum lipase level was 1,509 U/L (normal value: <190 U/L and the mean serum amylase level was 434 U/L (normal value: <200 U/L. Six patients had evidence of multi-organ dysfunction. Hematological and respiratory system dysfunction was seen in five patients, hepatic and renal dysfunction in four, and central nervous system dysfunction in three patients. Three patients who had ≥4 organs involved, died (mortality rate: 42.8%. Our case series shows that pancreatitis in scrub typhus is an extremely rare complication and when present, is associated with increased mortality (42.8%. Physicians may be familiar with the various complications of scrub typhus but less so with acute pancreatitis and hence may be underdiagnosed.

  2. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  3. Tsutsugamushi Disease (Scrub Typhus) Meningoencephalitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Absence of Eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis so misdiagnosis may lead to unwarranted prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. Delay in treatment can be potentially fatal. WFT still ...

  4. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  5. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  6. Macrofungi in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Greeshma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study on macrofungi in scrub jungles (with and without fire-impact in lateritic region of southwestern coast of India was carried out.  Out of 11 species in 10 genera recovered, six and five species were confined to scrub jungle and fire-impacted scrub jungle, respectively.  An ectomycorrhizal Amanita sp. was the most frequent in scrub jungle associated with exotic (Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium and plantation (Anacardium occidentale trees.  Based on traditional knowledge, it is a highly edible and nutritional delicacy in the coastal regions.  Astraeus odoratus was another common ectomycorrhizal fungus in native trees Hopea ponga, which was recovered from the fire-impacted scrub jungle and is possibly edible.  Edible termite mound mushroom Termitomyces striatus was also common in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  Chlorophyllum molybdites was the most frequent mushroom in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  

  7. New advances in wet scrubbing improvement efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, A.R. [Altech Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Wet scrubbing systems are the most versatile and cost efficient of all air pollution abatement technologies. This paper presented System REITHER{sup TM} which is a new generation of venturi scrubber. The advantages of this design are that it is simple and compact, has high removal efficiencies for sub-micron dusts or aerosols and it is flexible to handle any mass flow rate. It also provides high and constant reliability, is easy to control and has the potential to absorb gaseous pollutants. Another advantage is that it can handle corrosive streams through corrosion resistant materials. Innovations in wet scrubbing have made it possible to provide reliable and efficient separation of fine particles, corrosive aerosols and gases. New technology provides industrial engineers with a cost effective option when control air emissions is required. 1 fig.

  8. Chest radiographic manifestations of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, Kpp; Mannam, P R; Rajendran, K; John, R A; Ramasami, P

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20-72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed. The study cohort contained 398 patients. Common presenting complaints included fever (100%), generalized myalgia (83%), headache (65%), dyspnea (54%), cough (24.3%), and altered sensorium (14%). Almost half of the patients (49.4%) had normal chest radiographs. Common radiological pulmonary abnormalities included pleural effusion (14.6%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (14%), airspace opacity (10.5%), reticulonodular opacities (10.3%), peribronchial thickening (5.8%), and pulmonary edema (2%). Cardiomegaly was noted in 3.5% of patients. Breathlessness, presence of an eschar, platelet counts of 2 mg/dL had the highest odds of having an abnormal chest radiograph. Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray had a higher requirement of noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 13.98; 95% confidence interval CI: 5.89-33.16), invasive ventilation (OR: 18.07; 95% CI: 6.42-50.88), inotropes (OR: 8.76; 95% CI: 4.35-17.62), higher involvement of other organ systems, longer duration of hospital stay (3.18 ± 3 vs. 7.27 ± 5.58 days; Pscrub typhus have abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiography should be included as part of basic evaluation at presentation in patients with scrub typhus, especially in those with breathlessness, eschar, jaundice, and severe thrombocytopenia.

  9. Non-technical skills for scrub practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Guy

    2012-12-01

    The non-technical skills of situational awareness and the formation of effective interpersonal relationships are essential to enhance surgical outcomes. However, most scrub practitioners demonstrate only tacit awareness of these skills and develop such qualities on an informal basis. Application of non-technical skills may be assessed formally, using a structured framework, to transform normative behaviour and to strengthen barriers against the latent threats that may result from fallible humans working in inadequate organisational systems.

  10. Simulation of pool scrubbing experiments using BUSCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehbi, A.; Guentay, S.

    1994-01-01

    BUSCA-PSI is a computer code which predicts the aerosol scrubbing taking place when gas bubbles containing fission products rise through stagnant pools of water after a postulated severe accident. A Lagrangian formulation is adopted to follow the path of a bubble as it rises toward the surface of the pool. The BUSCA model includes most aerosol removal mechanisms which are thought to be significant, namely: Jet Impaction at tile orifice, Convection/Diffusiophoresis during steam condensation, Thermophoresis, Sedimentation, Centrifugal Impaction during bubble rise, and Brownian Diffusion. The hydraulic modelling offers a variety of options for the initial globule volume, the stable bubble size, tile bubble rise velocity, and the bubble shape. The heat and mass transfer part of tile model uses correlations found in the relevant literature. BUSCA simulations were performed to determine the decontamination factor (DF) dependence on key aerosol and thermal hydraulic parameters. The decontamination factor increases with height, pool temperature subcooling, and steam content. The decontamination factor exhibits a parabolic dependence on the particle radius. At low particle sizes, the DF is high due to Brownian Diffusion which is the dominant removal mechanism. The DF hits a minimum and then increases with particle size as Centrifugal Impaction and Sedimentation become important. In separate calculations, BUSCA was used to the simulate the aerosol scrubbing experiments performed by EPRI. For cold pool tests, the predicted scrubbing efficiencies were in a good, conservative agreement with the data for both Tin and CsI, and the discrepancies were within the reported measurement errors. For hot pool tests, the code systematically underpredicted the scrubbing DF's; this is potentially due to condensation in the gas space above the pool, a situation not currently modelled by BUSCA. The code was also tested against data produced by the Tepco-Toshiba-Hitachi experiments. The

  11. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  12. ALKALI RESISTANT CATALYST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gasses. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a catalyst and the use of a catalyst for the selective removal of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia from gases containing a significant amount...... of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  13. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  14. ALKALI FUSION OF ROSETTA ZIRCON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAHER, A.

    2008-01-01

    The decomposition of Rosetta zircon by fusion with different types of alkalis has been investigated. These alkalis include sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and eutectic mixture of both. The influences of the reaction temperature, zircon to alkalis ratio, fusion time and the stirring of the reactant on the fusion reaction have been evaluated. The obtained results favour the decomposition of zircon with the eutectic alkalis mixture by a decomposition efficiency of 96% obtained at 500 0 C after one hour

  15. Chest radiographic manifestations of scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KPP Abhilash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20–72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed. Results: The study cohort contained 398 patients. Common presenting complaints included fever (100%, generalized myalgia (83%, headache (65%, dyspnea (54%, cough (24.3%, and altered sensorium (14%. Almost half of the patients (49.4% had normal chest radiographs. Common radiological pulmonary abnormalities included pleural effusion (14.6%, acute respiratory distress syndrome (14%, airspace opacity (10.5%, reticulonodular opacities (10.3%, peribronchial thickening (5.8%, and pulmonary edema (2%. Cardiomegaly was noted in 3.5% of patients. Breathlessness, presence of an eschar, platelet counts of 2 mg/dL had the highest odds of having an abnormal chest radiograph. Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray had a higher requirement of noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 13.98; 95% confidence interval CI: 5.89–33.16, invasive ventilation (OR: 18.07; 95% CI: 6.42–50.88, inotropes (OR: 8.76; 95% CI: 4.35–17.62, higher involvement of other organ systems, longer duration of hospital stay (3.18 ± 3 vs. 7.27 ± 5.58 days; P< 0.001, and higher mortality (OR: 4.63; 95% CI: 1.54–13.85. Conclusion: Almost half of the patients with scrub typhus have abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiography should be included as part of basic evaluation at presentation in patients with scrub typhus, especially in those with breathlessness, eschar, jaundice, and severe thrombocytopenia.

  16. Hemorrhagic Transformation of Scrub Typhus Encephalitis: A Rare Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-C; Yoon, K-W; Yoo, D-S; Cho, C-S

    2015-12-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement of scrub typhus infection is well known. Most CNS involvement of scrub typhus infection present as meningitis or encephalitis. We report on a patient suffering from hemorrhagic transformation of intracranial lesions caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. A 53-year-old female farmer who was infected by scrub typhus was treated with doxycycline and recovered from the systemic illness. However, headache persisted. Brain radiologic studies revealed acute intracranial hemorrhage and enhancing lesion, which implied a CNS involvement. Hemorrhagic transformation of encephalitis by scrub typhus is very rare complication and to our best knowledge, this is the first report of hemorrhagic transformation of scrub typhus encephalitis. Clinician should consider the possibility of hemorrhagic transformation of encephalitis in cases of scrub typhus infection.

  17. A case of scrub typhus requiring maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Yeon Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure caused by scrub typhus is known to be reversible. In most cases, renal function is almost fully restored after appropriate antibiotic treatment. A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with scrub typhus complicated by renal failure. A renal biopsy revealed histopathologic findings consistent with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. Renal function did not improve 18 months after discharge and the patient required continuous hemodialysis. Although severe renal failure requiring dialysis is a rare complication of scrub typhus, we describe a case of scrub typhus requiring maintenance hemodialysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report.

  18. Epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Uk

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is the most common febrile disease in Korea during the autumn. Jeju Island is the largest island in South Korea and has a distinctive oceanic climate. This study aimed to identify epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island. From January 2011 to December 2016, 446 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus on Jeju Island. The patients' personal data and the environmental factors that might be related to scrub typhus were investigated and retrospectively analyzed. The median age of the patients was 58-years-old (range, 8 to 91) and 43% of them worked in the agricultural, forestry or livestock industry. Regardless of their job, 87% of the patients had a history of either working outdoors or of other activities before developing scrub typhus. The south and southeast regions of Jeju Island, especially Namwon-eup, showed the highest incidence of scrub typhus. Workers in mandarin orange orchards seemed to be the highest risk group for scrub typhus infection. Scrub typhus on Jeju Island showed unique characteristics. To efficiently prevent scrub typhus, each year individual regional approaches should be developed based on the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease.

  19. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Budi; Arumbinang, Haryono.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  20. Clinical score to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue: A tool to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhanker Mitra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue and scrub typhus share similar clinical and epidemiological features, and are difficult to differentiate at initial presentation. Many places are endemic to both these infections where they comprise the majority of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses. Materials and Methods: We aimed to develop a score that can differentiate scrub typhus from dengue. In this cross-sectional study, 188 cases of scrub typhus and 201 cases of dengue infection who presented to the emergency department or medicine outpatient clinic from September 2012 to April 2013 were included. Univariate followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify clinical features and laboratory results that were significantly different between the two groups. Each variable was assigned scores based on the strength of association and receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (ROC-AUC was generated and compared. Six scoring models were explored to ascertain the model with the best fit. Results: Model 2 was developed using the following six variables: oxygen saturation (>90%, ≤90%, total white blood cell count (7000 cells/cumm, hemoglobin (≤14 and >14 g/dL, total bilirubin (200 and ≥200 IU/dL, and altered sensorium (present or absent. Each variable was assigned scores based on its strength of association. The AUC-ROC curve (95% confidence interval for model 2 was 0.84 (0.79–0.89. At the cut off score of 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 77% respectively, with a higher score favoring dengue. Conclusion: In areas of high burden of ST and dengue, model 2 (the “clinical score to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue fever” is a simple and rapid clinical scoring system that may be used to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue at initial presentation.

  1. Clinical Score to Differentiate Scrub Typhus and Dengue: A Tool to Differentiate Scrub Typhus and Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Shubhanker; Gautam, Ira; Jambugulam, Mohan; Abhilash, Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar; Jayaseeelan, Vishalakshi

    2017-01-01

    Dengue and scrub typhus share similar clinical and epidemiological features, and are difficult to differentiate at initial presentation. Many places are endemic to both these infections where they comprise the majority of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses. We aimed to develop a score that can differentiate scrub typhus from dengue. In this cross-sectional study, 188 cases of scrub typhus and 201 cases of dengue infection who presented to the emergency department or medicine outpatient clinic from September 2012 to April 2013 were included. Univariate followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify clinical features and laboratory results that were significantly different between the two groups. Each variable was assigned scores based on the strength of association and receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (ROC-AUC) was generated and compared. Six scoring models were explored to ascertain the model with the best fit. Model 2 was developed using the following six variables: oxygen saturation (>90%, ≤90%), total white blood cell count (7000 cells/cumm), hemoglobin (≤14 and >14 g/dL), total bilirubin (200 and ≥200 IU/dL), and altered sensorium (present or absent). Each variable was assigned scores based on its strength of association. The AUC-ROC curve (95% confidence interval) for model 2 was 0.84 (0.79-0.89). At the cut off score of 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 77% respectively, with a higher score favoring dengue. In areas of high burden of ST and dengue, model 2 (the "clinical score to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue fever") is a simple and rapid clinical scoring system that may be used to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue at initial presentation.

  2. Alkali cyanides; destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, J C

    1925-12-02

    The destructive distillation of carbonaceous substances can be accomplished by heating them in a bath of molten alkali and cyanide. Liquid hydrocarbons are produced. The separation of the cyanide from the coke or carbonaceous residues by filtration leaves a substantial quantity of cyanide absorbed by the carbon. A feasible method for removal has been developed by mixing the mixture of cyanide and coke with sodium carbonate or other alkali in the molten state, then treating this substance with nitrogen with or without ammonia to convert most of the carbon to cyanide. The carbonaceous material may be mixed with a liquid hydrocarbon such as petroleum, shale oil, or heavy tar oil, heated, and introduced below the surface of the liquid cyanide which partially decomposes and hydrogenates the coal to increase the yield of hydrocarbons. Dry ammonia may be bubbled through the reaction mixture to effect agitation and to form more cyanide.

  3. Geochemical modeling of magmatic gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gambardella

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The EQ3/6 software package, version 7.2 was successfully used to model scrubbing of magmatic gas by pure water at 0.1 MPa, in the liquid and liquid-plus-gas regions. Some post-calculations were necessary to account for gas separation effects. In these post-calculations, redox potential was considered to be fixed by precipitation of crystalline a-sulfur, a ubiquitous and precocious process. As geochemical modeling is constrained by conservation of enthalpy upon water-gas mixing, the enthalpies of the gas species of interest were reviewed, adopting as reference state the liquid phase at the triple point. Our results confirm that significant emissions of highly acidic gas species (SO2(g, HCl(g, and HF(g are prevented by scrubbing, until dry conditions are established, at least locally. Nevertheless important outgassing of HCl(g can take place from acid, HCl-rich brines. Moreover, these findings support the rule of thumb which is generally used to distinguish SO2-, HCl-, and HF-bearing magmatic gases from SO2-, HCl-, and HF-free hydrothermal gases.

  4. SCRUB versus trade: Enemies or allies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), scrubbing and emission allowance trading will play complementary roles. This paper reviews Phase I announced strategies and presents projections of technology controls, coal switching and industry-wide SO 2 removal costs under different assumptions about trading. The principal uncertainties characterizing today's planning environment are discussed -- ranging from changing expectations for fuel costs to swings in allowance prices and questions about regulation and new operating procedures. Economic forecasting is difficult. A clearer picture of Phase 2 strategies is emerging from EPRI's integrated analysis of fuel, technology and allowance markets -- based on collaboration between A. Van Horn and K. White (management consultants) and T. Hewson (Energy Ventures Analysis). About half the SO 2 reductions required in Phase 2 are likely to come from technology controls and half from coal switching. With trading, the highest cost open-quotes scrubsclose quotes and open-quotes switchesclose quotes can be avoided, more upgrading of low-cost scrubbing is expected, and the role of switching grows to a small extent. Additional benefits from trading, averaging and banking allowances are: better sequencing of technology controls, less stringent specs for equipment, and added flexibility/risk-sharing opportunities in contract arrangements

  5. Multiple eschars in scrub typhus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koraluru, Munegowda; Nandigam, Manideep; Bairy, Indira; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Varma, Muralidhar

    2017-01-01

    Eschar in scrub typhus aids in early diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy; however, the eschar positivity rates vary greatly in endemic regions. Multiple eschars in scrub typhus are a rare presentation. Our patient presented with fever and multiple eschars and was empirically started on doxycycline. Nested polymerase chain reaction from all the four eschars and from EDTA blood were positive for 56-kDa type-specific antigen which is specific for Orientia tsutsugamushi The patient recovered completely after 7 days of antibiotic treatment. He was from an area where scrub typhus was not observed previously. An eschar in an acute febrile patient from the "tsutsugamushi triangle" is a valuable sign in scrub typhus diagnosis. A search for multiple eschars in scrub typhus must be made by clinicians. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaewon; Kim, Soojun; Kim, Gilho; Singh, Vijay P; Hong, Seungjin; Kim, Hung Soo

    2015-06-29

    Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered.

  7. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered.

  8. EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets database contains the electronic dockets for administrative penalty cases filed by EPA Regions and Headquarters. Visitors...

  9. Alkali metal hafnium oxide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Taylor, Scott Edward

    2018-05-08

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an alkali metal hafnate, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A2HfO3:Ce; wherein A is an alkali metal having a valence of 1, such as Li or Na; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The alkali metal hafnate are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  10. Activation of the coagulation cascade in patients with scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Jeong; Park, Chi-Young; Park, Sang-Gon; Yoon, Na-Ra; Kim, Dong-Min; Chung, Choon-Hae

    2017-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the levels of coagulation factors and presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in patients with scrub typhus. We included patients confirmed to have scrub typhus at the Chosun University Hospital between September 2004 and December 2009. The DIC scores were evaluated in 365 patients and 36 healthy controls. The median concentrations of fibrinogen, d-dimer, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were compared between patients and healthy controls (pscrub typhus had longer prothrombin time and lower platelet counts than the controls. Major bleeding was observed in 18/365 patients with scrub typhus. Fifty-one (14.0%) patients presented with severe complications of scrub typhus. Overt DIC and thrombocytopenia (scrub typhus had overt DIC, as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis DIC score (DIC1) and the DIC-scoring template with a fibrinogen/C-reactive protein-ratio (DIC2), respectively. Three (16.7%) and 10 (55.6%) patients with bleeding had overt DIC, as defined by the DIC1 and DIC2, respectively. Seven (13.7%) and 26 (51%) patients with severe illness had overt DIC, as defined by DIC1 and DIC2, respectively. In conclusion, activation of the coagulation system is an important feature of scrub typhus and is correlated with severe disease, including bleeding. This is the first study to report a relationship between DIC and scrub typhus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus Infection in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakharia, Aniruddha; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Biswas, Dipankar; Yadav, Kaushal; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a major reason for febrile illness, caused by a bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, a rickettsial pathogen. Few outbreaks of scrub typhus have been reported from Arunachal Pradesh in recent past. However, there is lack of seroprevalence data from the region. In this regard, this study was undertaken using archival serum sample available from seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh. This serological study was conducted in Regional Medical Research Center for NE Region, Dibrugarh. Reactivity to IgG class of antibodies against scrub typhus was done using Scrub typhus detect IgG ELISA kit as per manufacturer's protocol. Seroprevalence of scrub typhus in seven districts of Arunachal Pradesh was found to be 40% (120/300). The age-specific scrub typhus seroprevalence rose steadily from 5.6% in children scrub typhus infection should be considered in differential diagnosis of any acute febrile illness in this part of the country. In view of the high prevalence, empirical therapy of doxycycline/azithromycin may be done in cases of undiagnosed fever. Active surveillance has to be done to understand exact magnitude, epidemiological aspects, and distribution of vector and disease of this reemerging neglected tropical disease.

  12. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez-Jimenez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC andBUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B.As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have beenassessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified.(Author) 73 refs

  13. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs

  14. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-07-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs.

  15. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2012-01-01

    It saddens us deeply to learn of the passing away of Jean-Paul Diss who died suddenly on 7 June 2012 at his home.  A tribute can be read on the GAC-EPA site. * * * * * Information: http://gac-epa.org/ e-mail: gac-epa@gac-epa.org

  16. Heidelberg polarized alkali source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, D.; Steffens, E.; Jaensch, H.; Philipps Universitaet, Marburg, Germany)

    1984-01-01

    A new atomic beam type polarized alkali ion source has been installed at Heidelberg. In order to improve the beam polarization considerably optical pumping is applied in combination with an adiabatic medium field transition which results in beams in single hyperfine sublevels. The m state population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Highly polarized beams (P/sub s/ > 0.9, s = z, zz) with intensities of 30 to 130 μA can be extracted for Li + and Na + , respectively

  17. Estimated effects of interfacial vaporization on fission product scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.; Nagy, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    When bubbles containing non-condensible gas rise through a water pool, interfacial evaporation causes a flow of vapor into the bubbles. The inflow reduces the outward particle motion toward the bubble wall, diminishing the effectiveness of fission product particle removal. This analysis provides an estimate of evaporation on pool scrubbing effectiveness. It is shown that hot gas, which boils water at the bubble wall, reduces the effective scrubbing height by less than five centimeters. Although the evaporative humidification in a rising bubble containing non-condensible gas has a diminishing effect on scrubbing mechanisms, substantial decontamination is still expected even for the limiting case of a saturated pool

  18. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  19. Scrub Typhus among Pediatric Patients in Dambadeniya:A Base Hospital in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, Nalika; Wijesundara, Sarojini; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Stenos, John

    2012-01-01

    Data on pediatric scrub typhus is uncommon in Sri Lanka and other countries. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical features of patients with scrub typhus at a Base Hospital in Sri Lanka. Sixty patients presenting with suspected scrub typhus were included in the study. Their blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against rickettsioses using the reference method. Twenty patients had confirmed scrub typhus and 24 had possible scrub typhus. Their clinical feat...

  20. A review of the global epidemiology of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang; Walker, David H; Jupiter, Daniel; Melby, Peter C; Arcari, Christine M

    2017-11-01

    Scrub typhus is a serious public health problem in the Asia-Pacific area. It threatens one billion people globally, and causes illness in one million people each year. Caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, scrub typhus can result in severe multiorgan failure with a case fatality rate up to 70% without appropriate treatment. The antigenic heterogeneity of O. tsutsugamushi precludes generic immunity and allows reinfection. As a neglected disease, there is still a large gap in our knowledge of the disease, as evidenced by the sporadic epidemiologic data and other related public health information regarding scrub typhus in its endemic areas. Our objective is to provide a systematic analysis of current epidemiology, prevention and control of scrub typhus in its long-standing endemic areas and recently recognized foci of infection.

  1. Development of Aerosol Scrubbing Test Loop for Containment Filtered Venting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Doo Yong; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jong Chan; Kim, Gyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    The scrubber tank is filled with scrubbing water with the chemical additives. The droplet separator based on a cyclone is installed above the scrubbing water pool to remove the large droplets that may clog a metal fiber filter installed at the upper section of the scrubber tank. The outlet piping is connected from the scrubber tank to the molecular sieve to chemically remove the gaseous iodine. The aerosol as a particle is physically captured in the scrubbing water pool passing through the scrubbing nozzle as well as the metal fiber filter. The gaseous iodine such as molecular iodine as well as organic iodide is chemically removed in the scrubbing water pool and molecular sieve. The thermal-hydraulic as well as scrubbing performance for the CFVS should be verified with the experiments. The experiment can be divided into the filtration component based experiment and whole system based one. In this paper, the aerosol scrubbing test loop developed to test the thermal-hydraulic and aerosol scrubbing performance of the scrubbing nozzle with the scrubbing water pool is introduced. The aerosol scrubbing test loop has been developed as a part of the Korean CFVS project. In this loop, the filtration components such as the scrubbing nozzle submerged in the scrubbing water pool as well as the cyclone as droplet separator can be tested under the CFVS operating conditions. The aerosol scrubbing performance of the filtration components including pool scrubbing behavior can be tested with the aerosol generation and feeding system and aerosol measurement system.

  2. Development of Aerosol Scrubbing Test Loop for Containment Filtered Venting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Doo Yong; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jong Chan; Kim, Gyu Tae [FNC Technology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The scrubber tank is filled with scrubbing water with the chemical additives. The droplet separator based on a cyclone is installed above the scrubbing water pool to remove the large droplets that may clog a metal fiber filter installed at the upper section of the scrubber tank. The outlet piping is connected from the scrubber tank to the molecular sieve to chemically remove the gaseous iodine. The aerosol as a particle is physically captured in the scrubbing water pool passing through the scrubbing nozzle as well as the metal fiber filter. The gaseous iodine such as molecular iodine as well as organic iodide is chemically removed in the scrubbing water pool and molecular sieve. The thermal-hydraulic as well as scrubbing performance for the CFVS should be verified with the experiments. The experiment can be divided into the filtration component based experiment and whole system based one. In this paper, the aerosol scrubbing test loop developed to test the thermal-hydraulic and aerosol scrubbing performance of the scrubbing nozzle with the scrubbing water pool is introduced. The aerosol scrubbing test loop has been developed as a part of the Korean CFVS project. In this loop, the filtration components such as the scrubbing nozzle submerged in the scrubbing water pool as well as the cyclone as droplet separator can be tested under the CFVS operating conditions. The aerosol scrubbing performance of the filtration components including pool scrubbing behavior can be tested with the aerosol generation and feeding system and aerosol measurement system.

  3. Spatial Distribution Analysis of Scrub Typhus in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hong Sung; Chu, Chaeshin; Han, Dong Yeob

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzes the spatial distribution of scrub typhus in Korea. Methods: A spatial distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi occurrence using a geographic information system (GIS) is presented, and analyzed by means of spatial clustering and correlations. Results: The provinces of Gangwon-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do show a low incidence throughout the year. Some districts have almost identical environmental conditions of scrub typhus incidence. The land use change of districts does...

  4. Separation of iodine from mercury containing scrubbing solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive iodines can be recovered from a nitric acid scrub solution containing mercuric nitrate by passing a current through the scrub solution to react the iodine with the mercuric nitrate to form mercuric iodate which precipitates out. The mercuric iodate can then be reacted to recover the radioiodine for further processing into a form suitable for long-term storage and to recover the mercury for recycling.

  5. Management of Florida Scrub for Threatened and Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    for Florida scrub: 1. The exotic species, cogon grass ( Imperata cylindrica), may become common in degraded scrubs. This is an aggressive, invasive...34Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.: A good grass gone bad!" Botany Circular No. 28, Florida Dept. Agric. & Consumer Services, Division of Plant...Industry, Gainesville, FL. Colvin, D.L., Gaffney, J., and Shilling, D. G. 1994. "Cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) Biology, ecology and

  6. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  7. Scrub Typhus: An Emerging Neglected Tropical Disease in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, B P; Shakya, G; Adhikari, S; Rijal, N; Acharya, J; Maharjan, L; Marasini, B R

    2016-05-01

    Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease and is under reported from Nepal. The objective of this study was to investigate the sero-epidemiology of scrub typhus in patients suffering from acute febrile illness. A total of 434 specimens collected from July to November 2015 at National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) were investigated for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to Orientiatsutsugamushi.The Scrub Typhus Detect TM kit (InBios, USA) was used to detect the antibodies to O.tsutsugamushi in human serum. Randomly selected 10% positive specimens were used for confirmation by dot- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the total, 175 (40.3%) were positive for IgM antibodies to O. tsutsugamushi. Positive results of scrub typhus were highest among female in 11-20 year followed by males in 41-50 years age group. The IgM antibodies to O. tsutusugamushi were positive in specimens of various geographical regions including 30 districts of Nepal. Positive cases were found in various ecological regions of Nepal. Scrub typhus is one of the neglected tropical diseases in Nepal. Patients with acute febrile illness should be investigated for scrub typhus with high priority. There is an urgent need of reliable and affordable diagnostic tests at all level of health facilities of Nepal. Surveillance and public health awareness about the disease transmission and preventive measures needs to be initiated.

  8. EPA eXcats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA eXcats is an enterprise-level data tracking application that provides management complaint tracking information for the EPA's Office of Civil Rights (OCR)...

  9. EPA Web Taxonomy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's...

  10. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; Williams, B. Ken

    2011-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act due to loss and degradation of scrub habitat. This study concerned the development of an optimal strategy for the restoration and management of scrub habitat at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which contains one of the few remaining large populations of scrub-jays in Florida. There are documented differences in the reproductive and survival rates of scrubjays among discrete classes of scrub height (Markov models to estimate annual transition probabilities among the four scrub-height classes under three possible management actions: scrub restoration (mechanical cutting followed by burning), a prescribed burn, or no intervention. A strategy prescribing the optimal management action for management units exhibiting different proportions of scrub-height classes was derived using dynamic programming. Scrub restoration was the optimal management action only in units dominated by mixed and tall scrub, and burning tended to be the optimal action for intermediate levels of short scrub. The optimal action was to do nothing when the amount of short scrub was greater than 30%, because short scrub mostly transitions to optimal height scrub (i.e., that state with the highest demographic success of scrub-jays) in the absence of intervention. Monte Carlo simulation of the optimal policy suggested that some form of management would be required every year. We note, however, that estimates of scrub-height transition probabilities were subject to several sources of uncertainty, and so we explored the management implications of alternative sets of transition probabilities. Generally, our analysis demonstrated the difficulty of managing for a species that requires midsuccessional habitat, and suggests that innovative management tools may be needed to help ensure the persistence of scrub-jays at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The development of a tailored monitoring

  11. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  12. Alkali silica reaction (ASR) in cement free alkali activated sustainable concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    This report summarizes the findings of an experimental evaluation into alkali silica : reaction (ASR) in cement free alkali-activated slag and fly ash binder concrete. The : susceptibility of alkali-activated fly ash and slag concrete binders to dele...

  13. Estimating the burden of scrub typhus: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bonell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that can be life-threatening. There are no licensed vaccines, or vector control efforts in place. Despite increasing awareness in endemic regions, the public health burden and global distribution of scrub typhus remains poorly known.We systematically reviewed all literature from public health records, fever studies and reports available on the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase and EconLit databases, to estimate the burden of scrub typhus since the year 2000.In prospective fever studies from Asia, scrub typhus is a leading cause of treatable non-malarial febrile illness. Sero-epidemiological data also suggest that Orientia tsutsugamushi infection is common across Asia, with seroprevalence ranging from 9.3%-27.9% (median 22.2% IQR 18.6-25.7. A substantial apparent rise in minimum disease incidence (median 4.6/100,000/10 years, highest in China with 11.2/100,000/10 years was reported through passive national surveillance systems in South Korea, Japan, China, and Thailand. Case fatality risks from areas of reduced drug-susceptibility are reported at 12.2% and 13.6% for South India and northern Thailand, respectively. Mortality reports vary widely around a median mortality of 6.0% for untreated and 1.4% for treated scrub typhus. Limited evidence suggests high mortality in complicated scrub typhus with CNS involvement (13.6% mortality, multi-organ dysfunction (24.1% and high pregnancy miscarriage rates with poor neonatal outcomes.Scrub typhus appears to be a truly neglected tropical disease mainly affecting rural populations, but increasingly also metropolitan areas. Rising minimum incidence rates have been reported over the past 8-10 years from countries with an established surveillance system. A wider distribution of scrub typhus beyond Asia is likely, based on reports from South America and Africa. Unfortunately, the quality and quantity of the available data on scrub typhus epidemiology is

  14. Estimating the burden of scrub typhus: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Ana; Lubell, Yoel; Newton, Paul N; Crump, John A; Paris, Daniel H

    2017-09-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that can be life-threatening. There are no licensed vaccines, or vector control efforts in place. Despite increasing awareness in endemic regions, the public health burden and global distribution of scrub typhus remains poorly known. We systematically reviewed all literature from public health records, fever studies and reports available on the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase and EconLit databases, to estimate the burden of scrub typhus since the year 2000. In prospective fever studies from Asia, scrub typhus is a leading cause of treatable non-malarial febrile illness. Sero-epidemiological data also suggest that Orientia tsutsugamushi infection is common across Asia, with seroprevalence ranging from 9.3%-27.9% (median 22.2% IQR 18.6-25.7). A substantial apparent rise in minimum disease incidence (median 4.6/100,000/10 years, highest in China with 11.2/100,000/10 years) was reported through passive national surveillance systems in South Korea, Japan, China, and Thailand. Case fatality risks from areas of reduced drug-susceptibility are reported at 12.2% and 13.6% for South India and northern Thailand, respectively. Mortality reports vary widely around a median mortality of 6.0% for untreated and 1.4% for treated scrub typhus. Limited evidence suggests high mortality in complicated scrub typhus with CNS involvement (13.6% mortality), multi-organ dysfunction (24.1%) and high pregnancy miscarriage rates with poor neonatal outcomes. Scrub typhus appears to be a truly neglected tropical disease mainly affecting rural populations, but increasingly also metropolitan areas. Rising minimum incidence rates have been reported over the past 8-10 years from countries with an established surveillance system. A wider distribution of scrub typhus beyond Asia is likely, based on reports from South America and Africa. Unfortunately, the quality and quantity of the available data on scrub typhus epidemiology is currently too

  15. Scrub typhus: radiological and clinical findings in abdominopelvic involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kun Yung; Song, Ji Soo; Park, Eun Hae; Jin, Gong Yong

    2017-03-01

    To describe the clinical and radiological findings of abdominopelvic involvement in scrub typhus. Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) of 78 patients with scrub typhus were evaluated by two readers. The presence of gallbladder wall thickening, arterial inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver, periportal edema, splenic infarction, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, ascites, pleural effusion, and sites of lymphadenopathy were evaluated. Patients were divided into four clinical subgroups according to laboratory findings. Association between imaging findings and subgroups was analyzed by Chi squared test or Fisher's exact test. The most common CT finding was hepatomegaly (74.4%), followed by splenomegaly (66.7%). The majority of patients had at least three areas of abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy (71.8%). Pelvic lymphadenopathy was most commonly seen when eschar was found in the ipsilateral lower extremity (left, n = 5/7; right, n = 8/13). Significant association between hepatic dysfunction and perigastric lymphadenopathy was documented (p = 0.03). Scrub typhus has a spectrum of variable clinical and radiological findings mimicking those of acute hepatitis. Diffuse abdominopelvic lymphadenopathy involving the retroperitoneum and pelvic area may aid in early diagnosis of scrub typhus. Perigastric lymphadenopathy could be a sign of severe scrub typhus combined with hepatic dysfunction.

  16. Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of Scrubbing Nozzle Used for CFVS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Doo Yong; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Jong Chan; Kim, Gyu Tae [FNC TECH, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A Containment Filtered Venting System (CFVS) is the most interested device to mitigate a threat against containment integrity under the severe accident of nuclear power plant by venting with the filtration of the fission products. FNC technology and partners have been developed the self-priming scrubbing nozzle used for the CFVS which is based on the venturi effect. The thermal-hydraulic performances such as passive scrubbing water suction as well as pressure drop across the nozzle have been tested under various thermal-hydraulic conditions. The two types of test section have been built for testing the thermal-hydraulic performance of the self-priming scrubbing nozzle. Through the visualization loop, the liquid suction performance through the slit, pressure drop across the nozzle are measured. The passive water suction flow through the suction slit at the throat is important parameter to define the scrubbing performance of the self-priming scrubbing nozzle. The water suction flow is increased with the increase of the overhead water level at the same inlet gas flow. It is not so much changed with the change of inlet gas flow at the overhead water level.

  17. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention describes a method of disposing of alkali metals by forming a solid waste for storage. The method comprises preparing an aqueous disposal solution of at least 55 weight percent alkali metal hydroxide, heating the alkali metal to melting temperature to form a feed solution, and spraying the molten feed solution into the disposal solution. The alkali metal reacts with the water in the disposal solution in a controlled reaction which produces alkali metal hydroxide, hydrogen and heat and thereby forms a solution of alkali metal hydroxides. Water is added to the solution in amounts sufficient to maintain the concentration of alkali metal hydroxides in the solution at 70 to 90 weight percent, and to maintain the temperature of the solution at about the boiling point. Removing and cooling the alkali metal hydroxide solution thereby forms a solid waste for storage. The method is particularly applicable to radioactive alkali metal reactor coolant. (auth)

  18. Diagnostic validation of selected serological tests for detecting scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koraluru, Munegowda; Bairy, Indira; Varma, Muralidhar; Vidyasagar, Sudha

    2015-07-01

    Clinical diagnosis of scrub typhus is often difficult because the symptoms are very similar to those of other febrile illness such as dengue, leptospirosis, malaria and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Though better diagnostic tests are available for rickettsial diseases and scrub typhus elsewhere, the Weil-Felix test is still commonly used in India, mainly because microimmunofluorescence assays (M-IFA) were not available in India till recently and relevant staff had insufficient training. The present study was performed to investigate the performance of M-IFA, IgM ELISA, and Weil-Felix test on 546 non-repeated serum samples from subjects suspected of having scrub typhus. One hundred and forty-three of these 546 samples were positive by M-IFA; these cases were also confirmed clinically to have scrub typhus based on their dramatic responses to doxycycline therapy. IgM ELISA was positive in 122 of the 143 M-IFA positive cases and the Weil-Felix test in 96. Though the Weil-Felix test is a heterophile agglutination test, it was found in this study to have good specificity but far too little sensitivity to use as a routine diagnostic test. IgM ELISA can be a good substitute for M-IFA. Incorporation of multiple prototype antigens on M-IFA slides is likely one of the reasons for its superior performance. As newer and better diagnostic assays become available for scrub typhus diagnosis in developed countries, it will be imperative to also use such tests in other endemic countries to prevent over- or under-diagnosis of scrub typhus. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Urbanization of scrub typhus disease in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Won; Ha, Na-Young; Ryu, Boyeong; Bang, Ji Hwan; Song, Hoyeon; Kim, Yuri; Kim, Gwanghun; Oh, Myoung-don; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Lee, Jong-koo

    2015-05-01

    Scrub typhus is an endemic disease in Asia. It has been a rural disease, but indigenous urban cases have been observed in Seoul, South Korea. Urban scrub typhus may have a significant impact because of the large population. Indigenous urban scrub typhus was epidemiologically identified in Seoul, the largest metropolitan city in South Korea, using national notifiable disease data from 2010 to 2013. For detailed analysis of clinical features, patients from one hospital that reported the majority of cases were selected and compared to a historic control group. Chigger mites were prospectively collected in the city using a direct chigger mite-collecting trap, and identified using both phenotypic and 18S rDNA sequencing analyses. Their infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi was confirmed by sequencing the 56-kDa antigen gene. Eighty-eight cases of urban scrub typhus were determined in Seoul. The possible sites of infection were mountainous areas (56.8%), city parks (20.5%), the vicinity of one's own residence (17.0%), and riversides (5.7%). Eighty-seven chigger mites were collected in Gwanak mountain, one of the suspected infection sites in southern Seoul, and seventy-six (87.4%) of them were identified as Helenicula miyagawai and eight (9.2%) as Leptotrombidium scutellare. Pooled DNA extracted from H. miyagawai mites yielded O. tsutsugamushi Boryong strain. Twenty-six patients from one hospital showed low APACHE II score (3.4 ± 2.7), low complication rate (3.8%), and no hypokalemia. We identified the presence of indigenous urban scrub typhus in Seoul, and a subgroup of them had mild clinical features. The chigger mite H. miyagawai infected with O. tsutsugamushi within the city was found. In endemic area, urban scrub typhus needs to be considered as one of the differential febrile diseases and a target for prevention.

  20. The clinical characteristics of pleural effusion in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Ho; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Lee, Jun; Kwon, Yong Eun; Yoon, Sung Ho; Lee, Seung Il; Han, Mi Ah

    2016-06-11

    The aim of this study is to identify the factors associated with the occurrence of pleural effusion and to investigate the characteristics of pleural effusion in scrub typhus. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of scrub typhus patients between January 2004 and December 2011 at Chosun University Hospital in South Korea. A total of 445 scrub typhus patients were divided into the following two groups: without (n = 352) or with pleural effusion (n = 93). The data of 18 scrub typhus patients who underwent thoracentesis were summarized. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the following factors were associated with the occurrence of pleural effusion in scrub typhus: older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.029, P = 0.037, confidence interval [CI] = 1.002-1.056); male gender (OR = 1.924, P = 0.020, CI = 1.109-3.340); presence of heart failure (OR = 2.628, P = 0.039, CI = 1.052-6.565); and lower albumin (OR = 0.107, P ≤ 0.001, CI = 0.058-0.196). Most pleural effusion presentations were bilateral (88 %) and small (91 %). The effusion had transudate characteristics in 7 patients and exudate characteristics in 11 patients based on Light's criteria. This study provided the first data regarding the following four independent risk factors associated with the occurrence of pleural effusion: older age; male gender; the presence of heart failure; and lower albumin. The pleural effusion presentations in scrub typhus patients were bilateral and small in most cases, with transudate and/or exudate characteristics.

  1. Ultraviolet optical absorption of alkali cyanides and alkali halide cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Camargo Junior, S.A. de.

    1982-09-01

    The ultraviolet absorption spectra of alkali cyanide and mixed alkali halide cyanide crystals were measured at temperatures ranging from 300K down to 4.2K. A set of small absorption peaks was observed at energies near 6 eV and assigned to parity forbidden X 1 Σ + →a' 3 Σ + transitions of the CN - molecular ions. It was observed that the peak position depends on the alkali atom while the absorption cross section strongly depends on the halogen and on the CN - concentration of the mixed crystals. These effects are explained in terms of an interaction between the triplet molecular excitons and charge transfer excitons. The experimental data were fit with a coupling energy of a few meV. The coupling mechanism is discussed and it is found to be due to the overlap between the wave functions of the two excitations. (Author) [pt

  2. Alkali-vapor laser-excimer pumped alkali laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Desheng; Li Wenyu; Wang Hongyan; Yang Zining; Xu Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Based on the research internal and overseas, the principle of the excimer pumped alkali laser (XPAL) is explained, and the advantages and disadvantages of the XPAL are analyzed. Taking into consideration the difficulties that the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) meets on its development, the ability to solve or avoid these difficulties of XPAL is also analyzed. By summing up the achievements of the XPAL, the possible further prospect is proposed. The XPAL is of possibility to improve the performance of the DPAL. (authors)

  3. Quality of surgical scrub in a heart hospital: Do not take it for granted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abdollahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of scrub in the prevention of post-surgery infections is well-known. This study aimed to investigate the inputs and process of surgical scrub in operating rooms of the largest heart hospital of northwest Iran. Methods: This study took place with a before-after design as a clinical audit in 2014. A check list developed based on national and international standards of surgical hand scrub was used as the study instrument. Checklists were completed by observation of surgical team scrubbing in real situation. Descriptive statistics and graphs were used to describe the results. Results: A compliance degree with the standards for prerequisites, equipment, general items, process and time of scrub was observed as 58%, 55%, 33%, 68% and 22%, respectively. The compliance degree after the intervention was 72%, 66%, 66%, 85% and 61%, respectively. Improvement was observed in all studied aspects of scrub. The total score of compliance with the standards changed from 47% to 70%. The main issues were incorrect order of scrubbing the areas of the hands, incorrect way of scrubbing the arms, insufficient scrubbing the arms (not above elbow, and lack of awareness about hospital’s policy on scrub time. Conclusion: The results showed defects in the surgical scrub of the studied hospital and that the compliance with the standards can be improved by simple interventions. Periodical audit and observation of the scrub and then feedback is recommended.

  4. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Patients Suspected of Having Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Yu Mi; Woo, Hye In; Park, Dahee; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2016-11-01

    To determine prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in South Korea, we examined serum samples from patients with fever and insect bite history in scrub typhus-endemic areas. During the 2013 scrub typhus season, prevalence of this syndrome among patients suspected of having scrub typhus was high (23.0%), suggesting possible co-infection.

  5. Quality of surgical scrub in a heart hospital: Do not take it for granted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Leila; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Jodati, Ahmadreza; Safaie, Naser; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Daemi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The role of scrub in the prevention of post-surgery infections is well-known. This study aimed to investigate the inputs and process of surgical scrub in operating rooms of the largest heart hospital of northwest Iran. Methods: This study took place with a before-after design as a clinical audit in 2014. A check list developed based on national and international standards of surgical hand scrub was used as the study instrument. Checklists were completed by observation of surgical team scrubbing in real situation. Descriptive statistics and graphs were used to describe the results. Results: A compliance degree with the standards for prerequisites, equipment, general items, process and time of scrub was observed as 58%, 55%, 33%, 68% and 22%, respectively. The compliance degree after the intervention was 72%, 66%, 66%, 85% and 61%, respectively. Improvement was observed in all studied aspects of scrub. The total score of compliance with the standards changed from 47% to 70%. The main issues were incorrect order of scrubbing the areas of the hands, incorrect way of scrubbing the arms, insufficient scrubbing the arms (not above elbow), and lack of awareness about hospital's policy on scrub time. Conclusion: The results showed defects in the surgical scrub of the studied hospital and that the compliance with the standards can be improved by simple interventions. Periodical audit and observation of the scrub and then feedback is recommended.

  6. "Slicer" for EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    During the design of the Electron-Positron-Accumulator (EPA), there was an apprehension about the stability-limit of positron bunch-intensity in the SPS. In case that EPA would be able to produce bunches with intensities exceeding what the SPS could digest, an electrostatic septum was to slice up the EPA beam over 2 or 4 turns, thus lowering the bunch intensity while maintaining fast filling of LEP. The "slicer" septum was built and installed, but thanks to the good appetite of the SPS its use never became necessary. The slicer was removed from EPA to lower the machine impedance.

  7. EPA Envirofacts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Envirofacts integrates information from a variety of EPA's environmental databases. Each of these databases contains information about facilities that are required...

  8. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL SITE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT USING OPEN-PATH UV-DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In December 2003, the EPA promulgated the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for mercury cell chlor-alkali plants. In February 2004, the Natural Resources Defense Council filed petitions on the final rule in U.S. district court citing, among other issues, th...

  9. Alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) facts book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This document provides detailed information on alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR). It primarily discusses alkali-silica reaction (ASR), covering the chemistry, symptoms, test methods, prevention, specifications, diagnosis and prognosis, and mitigation...

  10. Method of making alkali metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Gupta, Shalabh; Pruski, Marek; Hlova, Ihor; Castle, Andra

    2017-05-30

    A method is provided for making alkali metal hydrides by mechanochemically reacting alkali metal and hydrogen gas under mild temperature (e.g room temperature) and hydrogen pressure conditions without the need for catalyst, solvent, and intentional heating or cooling.

  11. Mechanical filter for alkali atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Toporkov, D K

    2000-01-01

    A device for separating gases of different mass is discussed. Such a device could be used in a laser-driven spin exchange source of polarized hydrogen atoms to reduce the contamination of alkali atoms. A Monte Carlo simulation has shown that the suggested apparatus based on a commercial turbo pump could reduce by a factor of 10-15 the concentration of the alkali-metal atoms in the hydrogen flow from a laser driven polarized source. This would greatly enhance the effective polarization in hydrogen targets.

  12. The lived experiences of operating theatre scrub nurses learning technical scrub skills 'I'm doing this right, aren't I? Am I doing this right?'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Eleanor J; Fotis, Theo

    2018-01-01

    Operating theatre scrub nurses (OTSNs) are not required to have undertaken a secondary or specialist post-registration theatre qualification to work in the operating theatre (OT) setting in the UK. From the systematic review there is only very limited literature or research in how technical scrub skills are acquired. This study explores the lived experiences of OTSNs learning technical scrub skills. The study employed the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data was collected from six participating OTSNs using semi-structured interviews. Four superordinate themes emerged: How technical scrub skills are established, Gatekeepers, How the learner feels whilst learning and, Reflections of the experienced scrub nurse. The study found that the experiences of OTSNs learning technical scrub skills are varied and a variety of teaching and learning methods are utilised. These experiences were influenced by the team, mentor and surgeon within the OT environment. Lived experiences were also influenced by organisational structure and service pressures within the NHS.

  13. Scrub Typhus Leading to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Siraj A; Bora, Trishna; Laskar, Basanta; Khan, Abdul M; Dutta, Prafulla

    2017-01-01

    To determine the contribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, as a cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Assam, India, we conducted a retrospective study of hospital patients with symptoms of AES during 2013-2015. Our findings suggest that O. tsutsugamushi infection leads to AES and the resulting illness and death.

  14. Milder clinical manifestation of scrub typhus in Kinmen, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Hung Su

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: A unique summer-autumn type of scrub typhus with milder disease manifestations is identified in Kinmen. The younger patient population, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment may be associated with a shortened disease course and lead to a better outcome.

  15. A study of muscle involvement in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K; Mani, Vinita E; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susrala K

    2015-01-15

    Patients with scrub typhus often complain of myalgia, but a comprehensive study on muscle dysfunction is lacking. We therefore report the clinical, electromyographic and muscle biopsy findings in patients with scrub typhus. Consecutive patients with scrub typhus were included, and their clinical and laboratory findings were noted. The patients with myalgia or weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) were considered to have muscle involvement. Electromyography (EMG) and muscle biopsy were done in some patients. Patients were treated with doxycycline 200mg daily for 7 days, and their clinical and biochemical outcome on discharge and one month were evaluated. 13 out of 33 (39.4%) patients had muscle involvement and their CK levels ranged between 287 and 3166 (859 ± 829) U/L. EMG revealed short duration polyphasic potentials, and muscle histopathology revealed evidence of vasculitis. There were significant correlations between severity of weakness and CK levels (r = -0.6; p scrub typhus. Although muscle histopathology showed evidence of vasculitis, patients responded to doxycycline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for scrub typhus in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Paul; P, Divya; Premkumar, Prasanna S; Varghese, George M

    2017-05-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of scrub typhus in Tamil Nadu, South India. We performed a clustered seroprevalence study of the areas around Vellore. All participants completed a risk factor survey, with seropositive and seronegative participants acting as cases and controls, respectively, in a risk factor analysis. After univariate analysis, variables found to be significant underwent multivariate analysis. Of 721 people participating in this study, 31.8% tested seropositive. By univariate analysis, after accounting for clustering, having a house that was clustered with other houses, having a fewer rooms in a house, having fewer people living in a household, defecating outside, female sex, age >60 years, shorter height, lower weight, smaller body mass index and smaller mid-upper arm circumference were found to be significantly associated with seropositivity. After multivariate regression modelling, living in a house clustered with other houses, female sex and age >60 years were significantly associated with scrub typhus exposure. Overall, scrub typhus is much more common than previously thought. Previously described individual environmental and habitual risk factors seem to have less importance in South India, perhaps because of the overall scrub typhus-conducive nature of the environment in this region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes in patients with scrub typhus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fost, Maaike; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Pimda, Kriangsak; Dondorp, Arjen M.; White, Nicholas J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Thai patients with scrub typhus caused by the intracellular pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi displayed elevated plasma concentrations of granzymes A and B, interferon-gamma (IFN)-gamma-inducible protein 10, and monokine induced by IFN-gamma. These data suggest that activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes

  18. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  19. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashok V [Salt Lake City, UT; Balagopal, Shekar [Sandy, UT; Pendelton, Justin [Salt Lake City, UT

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  20. Construction of thermionic alkali-ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, F.

    1986-01-01

    A simple technique is described by which singly charged alkali ions of K, Na, Li, Rb and Cs are produced by heating ultra-pure chemical salts of different alkali metals on tungsten filaments without employing a temperature measuring device. The character of alkali-ion currents at different heating powers and the remarkably constant ion emission current for prolonged periods are discussed. (author)

  1. Alkali binding in hydrated Portland cement paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wei; Brouwers, Jos

    2010-01-01

    The alkali-binding capacity of C–S–H in hydrated Portland cement pastes is addressed in this study. The amount of bound alkalis in C–S–H is computed based on the alkali partition theories firstly proposed by Taylor (1987) and later further developed by Brouwers and Van Eijk (2003). Experimental data

  2. Temperature dependent fission product removal efficiency due to pool scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke, E-mail: suchida@iae.or.jp [Institute of Applied Energy, 1-14-2, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Itoh, Ayumi; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Institute of Applied Energy, 1-14-2, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Hanamoto, Yukio [KAKEN, Inc., 1044, Hori-machi, Mito 310-0903 (Japan); Osakabe, Masahiro [Tokyo University of Marine Science & Technology, Koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Fujikawa, Masahiro [Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 2-2-1, Jinnan, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8001 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Pool temperature effects on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications. • It was confirmed that the removal efficiency decreased with temperature around the boiling point. • A modified empirical formula for FP removal was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature. • DF could be predicted with an accuracy within a factor of 2 with the proposed formula. - Abstract: The wet-well of boiling water reactors plays important roles not only to suppress the pressure in the primary containment vessel due to steam scrubbing effects during severe accidents but also to mitigate release of radioactive fission products (FP), aerosols and particulates, into the environment. The effects of steam scrubbing in the wet-well on FP removal have been well studied and reported by changing major parameters determining the removal efficiencies, e.g., aerosol diameters, submergence (depth of scrubbing nozzles) and steam/non-condensable gas volume fraction. Unfortunately, the effects of pool temperature on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications, though it would be easily expected that boiling in the pool resulted in reduced aerosol removal efficiency. In order to determine the temperature effects on FP removal efficiency, amounts of cesium in aerosols released from scrubbing pool were measured by changing pool temperature in mini and medium scale scrubbing experiments, and then, it was confirmed that the removal efficiency clearly decreased with temperature around the boiling point. Then, a modified empirical formula to express the FP removal around the boiling point temperature was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature by applying the effective steam volume fraction, which was designated as the volume ratio of condensed steam in the pool versus the sum of input steam and non-condensable gas. By comparing the measured removal efficiency with the calculated, it was validated that the

  3. Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seethalakshmi Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. Aims: This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus. After transportation to the laboratory, the serum was separated from the blood and subjected to rapid card test. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were subjected to DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR. Results: 24/68 (35.29% cases showed the presence of antibody against scrub typhus by serology. 6/68 (8.8% patients showed the presence of outer membrane protein antigen gene 56 kDa by nPCR. 5/24 serology positive cases showed the presence of 56 kDa outer membrane protein antigen gene by nPCR. A large number of cases positive by serology were negative by PCR which may indicate a low sensitivity of this test either due to low copy numbers or due to excess host DNA. Conclusion: Delay in treatment may increase disease severity and leads to higher mortality. Thus, molecular methods of diagnosis may aid in the early diagnosis of infection and enable prompt treatment. This is the first report on the diagnosis of scrub typhus in the suburbs of Chennai using molecular methods and reemphasizes the need for increased awareness of rickettsial infections in rural areas.

  4. Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Seethalakshmi; Menon, Thangam

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. A total of 68 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus. After transportation to the laboratory, the serum was separated from the blood and subjected to rapid card test. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were subjected to DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). 24/68 (35.29%) cases showed the presence of antibody against scrub typhus by serology. 6/68 (8.8%) patients showed the presence of outer membrane protein antigen gene 56 kDa by nPCR. 5/24 serology positive cases showed the presence of 56 kDa outer membrane protein antigen gene by nPCR. A large number of cases positive by serology were negative by PCR which may indicate a low sensitivity of this test either due to low copy numbers or due to excess host DNA. Delay in treatment may increase disease severity and leads to higher mortality. Thus, molecular methods of diagnosis may aid in the early diagnosis of infection and enable prompt treatment. This is the first report on the diagnosis of scrub typhus in the suburbs of Chennai using molecular methods and reemphasizes the need for increased awareness of rickettsial infections in rural areas.

  5. Temperature dependent fission product removal efficiency due to pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Itoh, Ayumi; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Hanamoto, Yukio; Osakabe, Masahiro; Fujikawa, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pool temperature effects on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications. • It was confirmed that the removal efficiency decreased with temperature around the boiling point. • A modified empirical formula for FP removal was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature. • DF could be predicted with an accuracy within a factor of 2 with the proposed formula. - Abstract: The wet-well of boiling water reactors plays important roles not only to suppress the pressure in the primary containment vessel due to steam scrubbing effects during severe accidents but also to mitigate release of radioactive fission products (FP), aerosols and particulates, into the environment. The effects of steam scrubbing in the wet-well on FP removal have been well studied and reported by changing major parameters determining the removal efficiencies, e.g., aerosol diameters, submergence (depth of scrubbing nozzles) and steam/non-condensable gas volume fraction. Unfortunately, the effects of pool temperature on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications, though it would be easily expected that boiling in the pool resulted in reduced aerosol removal efficiency. In order to determine the temperature effects on FP removal efficiency, amounts of cesium in aerosols released from scrubbing pool were measured by changing pool temperature in mini and medium scale scrubbing experiments, and then, it was confirmed that the removal efficiency clearly decreased with temperature around the boiling point. Then, a modified empirical formula to express the FP removal around the boiling point temperature was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature by applying the effective steam volume fraction, which was designated as the volume ratio of condensed steam in the pool versus the sum of input steam and non-condensable gas. By comparing the measured removal efficiency with the calculated, it was validated that the

  6. Exciton emissions in alkali cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weid, J.P. von der.

    1979-10-01

    The emissions of Alkali Cyanides X irradiated at low temperature were measured. In addition to the molecular (Frenkel Type) exciton emissions, another emitting centre was found and tentatively assigned to a charge transfer self trapped exciton. The nature of the molecular exciton emitting state is discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. EPA Linked Open Data (Collection)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a collection item referencing the following EPA Linked Data resources: - EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS) - EPA Substance Registry Service (SRS) -...

  8. EPA Library Network Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish Agency-wide procedures for the EPA National Library Network libraries to communicate, using a range of established mechanisms, with other EPA libraries, EPA staff, organizations and the public.

  9. Structure peculiarities of mixed alkali silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershtein, V.A.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Egorov, V.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal porperties and structure of alkali and mixed alkali (Li, Na, K) silicate glasses by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the positron annihilation method, X-ray fluorescence and infrared (300-30 cm -1 ) spectroscopy were studied. Introduction of different alkali cations in glass results in nonadditive change in their electron structure (bond covalence degree growth) and the thermal behaviour. The different manifestations of mixed alkali effect can be explained by the lessening of long distance Coulomb interactions and strengthening the short-range forces in the mixed alkali glasses. (orig.)

  10. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; Williams, B. Ken

    2011-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act due to loss and degradation of scrub habitat. This study concerned the development of an optimal strategy for the restoration and management of scrub habitat at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which contains one of the few remaining large populations of scrub-jays in Florida. There are documented differences in the reproductive and survival rates of scrubjays among discrete classes of scrub height (strategy that would maximize the long-term growth rate of the resident scrub-jay population. We used aerial imagery with multistate Markov models to estimate annual transition probabilities among the four scrub-height classes under three possible management actions: scrub restoration (mechanical cutting followed by burning), a prescribed burn, or no intervention. A strategy prescribing the optimal management action for management units exhibiting different proportions of scrub-height classes was derived using dynamic programming. Scrub restoration was the optimal management action only in units dominated by mixed and tall scrub, and burning tended to be the optimal action for intermediate levels of short scrub. The optimal action was to do nothing when the amount of short scrub was greater than 30%, because short scrub mostly transitions to optimal height scrub (i.e., that state with the highest demographic success of scrub-jays) in the absence of intervention. Monte Carlo simulation of the optimal policy suggested that some form of management would be required every year. We note, however, that estimates of scrub-height transition probabilities were subject to several sources of uncertainty, and so we explored the management implications of alternative sets of transition probabilities. Generally, our analysis demonstrated the difficulty of managing for a species that requires midsuccessional habitat, and suggests that innovative management tools may be needed to

  11. US EPA CARE Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a provisional dataset that contains point locations for the subset of Community Action for a Renewed Environment (CARE) grants given out by the US EPA. CARE...

  12. EPA User Personas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA's three web user personas (Information Consumer, Information Intermediary, and Information Interpreter) can help you identify appropriate top audiences and top tasks for a topic or web area.

  13. EPA's Efforts in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has been collaborating with Russia, Central Asia, the Caucasus and Ukraine for over 20 years and continues to work with their governments and non-governmental organizations on environment, science and technology issues.

  14. US EPA EJ Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a provisional dataset that contains point locations for all Environmental Justice (EJ) grants given out by the US EPA. There are many limitations to the data...

  15. EPA Nanorelease Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA Nanorelease Dataset. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Wohlleben, W., C. Kingston, J. Carter, E. Sahle-Demessie, S. Vazquez-Campos, B....

  16. Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Science Inventory is a searchable database of research products primarily from EPA's Office of Research and Development. Science Inventory records provide descriptions of the product, contact information, and links to available printed material or websites.

  17. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  18. Scrub typhus meningitis in a renal transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Dhanapriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection commonly seen in Asia. The clinical presentation ranges from nonspecific febrile illness to potentially fatal multiorgan involvement such as liver, kidney, or lung. Central nervous system involvement is uncommon. We report a 45-year-old female renal transplant recipient who presented with fever, headache, meningeal signs, graft dysfunction, and eschar. IgM antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Despite oral doxycycline therapy for 5 days, she did not improve but responded well to intravenous azithromycin. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus as a cause of meningitis in a renal transplant recipient has not been reported so far.

  19. Immunohistochemical Study of Scrub Typhus: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Yuan Tseng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, which is transmitted by chiggers. The target cells of this rickettsia are poorly defined in humans. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections of patients with scrub typhus is helpful in investigating the target cells of this rickettsia in different organs. We studied two autopsy specimens by immunohistochemical staining using a specific antibody against O. tsutsugamushi. Rickettsiae were located in endothelial cells in all of the organs evaluated, namely heart, lung, brain, kidney, appendix and skin, within cardiac muscle cells and renal tubular epithelial cells, and in macrophages located in the lymph node, liver and spleen. In conclusion, O. tsutsugamushi may disseminate into multiple organs through endothelial cells and macrophages, resulting in the development of fatal complications.

  20. On-line alkali monitoring - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Christer; Ljung, P.; Woxlin, H.

    1997-02-01

    As a consequence of the increased knowledge of the environmental impact of combustion based heat and power generation, the use of renewable biofuels will be increased. An obstacle associated to biofuel combustion compared to other fuels is the large release of alkali. Alkali compounds in flue gases are known to cause severe operational problems. Three of the major problems are; fouling of superheating tubes (causing reduced heat transfer and possibly corrosion), agglomeration of the bed material in fluidized beds, and poisoning of SCR catalysts. Yet another alkali related problem arises when, in order to increase the electric efficiency of combustion power plants, combined-cycle technology is used. Alkali vapour present in the fuel gas for the gas turbine is condensed to particles which increase corrosion and erosion of the turbine blades. The research on ash related operational problems has to be extended in order to ensure future use of biofuels in heat and power generation. In all successful research, adequate tools are necessary. To investigate ash related problems the key issue is to be able to perform continuous alkali measurements. This pilot study has investigated the need of continuous alkali measurements, which alkali species are harmful in the different applications and also available instrumentation capable of measuring the specific alkali species. The report gives a short summary presenting alkali related operational problems. In addition a schematic overview is given, showing the alkali species that possibly can exist in various parts of the power plant. 48 refs, 13 figs, 4 tabs

  1. EPA Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Chemistry Laboratory (ECL) is a national program laboratory specializing in residue chemistry analysis under the jurisdiction of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs in Washington, D.C. At Stennis Space Center, the laboratory's work supports many federal anti-pollution laws. The laboratory analyzes environmental and human samples to determine the presence and amount of agricultural chemicals and related substances. Pictured, ECL chemists analyze environmental and human samples for the presence of pesticides and other pollutants.

  2. Severe scrub typhus infection: Clinical features, diagnostic challenges and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, John Victor; Sudarsan, Thomas I; Prakash, John Anthony J; Varghese, George M

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus infection is an important cause of acute undifferentiated fever in South East Asia. The clinical picture is characterized by sudden onset fever with chills and non-specific symptoms that include headache, myalgia, sweating and vomiting. The presence of an eschar, in about half the patients with proven scrub typhus infection and usually seen in the axilla, groin or inguinal region, is characteristic of scrub typhus. Common laboratory findings are elevated liver transaminases, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis. About a third of patients admitted to hospital with scrub typhus infection have evidence of organ dysfunction that may include respiratory failure, circulatory shock, mild renal or hepatic dysfunction, central nervous system involvement or hematological abnormalities. Since the symptoms and signs are non-specific and resemble other tropical infections like malaria, enteric fever, dengue or leptospirosis, appropriate laboratory tests are necessary to confirm diagnosis. Serological assays are the mainstay of diagnosis as they are easy to perform; the reference test is the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of IgM antibodies. However in clinical practice, the enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay is done due to the ease of performing this test and a good sensitivity and sensitivity when compared with the IFA. Paired samples, obtained at least two weeks apart, demonstrating a ≥ 4 fold rise in titre, is necessary for confirmation of serologic diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is the tetracycline group of antibiotics or chloramphenicol although macrolides are used alternatively. In mild cases, recovery is complete. In severe cases with multi-organ failure, mortality may be as high as 24%. PMID:26261776

  3. Liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys as electron-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.

    1981-06-01

    The article reviews the theory of thermodynamic and structural properties of liquid alkali metals and alkali-based alloys, within the framework of linear screening theory for the electron-ion interactions. (author)

  4. Epidemiology & risk factors of scrub typhus in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Scrub typhus is a major public health threat in South and Southeastern Asian countries including India. Understanding local patterns of disease and factors that place individuals at risk is pivotal to future preventive measures against scrub typhus. The primary aim of this study was to identify specific epidemiological and geographical factors associated with an increased risk of developing scrub typhus in this region. Methods: We mapped 709 patients from Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana who were admitted to the Christian Medical College (CMC Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, for the period 2006-2011, assessed seasonality using monthly counts of scrub typhus cases, and conducted a case-control study among a subset of patients residing in Vellore. Results: The geographic distribution of cases at CMC Hospital clusters around the Tamil Nadu-Andhra Pradesh border. However, distinct hotspots clearly exist distal to this area, near Madurai and the coast in Tamil Nadu, and in the Northeast of Andhra Pradesh. Seasonally, the highest numbers of cases were observed in the cooler months of the year, i.e. September to January. In the case-control analysis, cases were more likely to be agricultural laborers (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01 - 3.15, not wear a shirt at home (OR 4.23, 95% CI 1.12 - 16.3, live in houses adjacent to bushes or shrubs (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.08 - 3.53, and live in a single room home (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.02 - 3.01. On binary logistic regression, the first three of these variables were statistically significant. Interpretation & conclusions: With the growing number of cases detected in India, scrub typhus is fast emerging as a public health threat and further research to protect the population from this deadly infection is essential. Health education campaigns focusing on the agricultural workers of Southern India, especially during the cooler months of the year, can serve as an important public health measure to

  5. Clinical indicators for severe prognosis of scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwongpan P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pamornsri Sriwongpan,1,2 Pornsuda Krittigamas,3 Pacharee Kantipong,4 Naowarat Kunyanone,5 Jayanton Patumanond,1 Sirianong Namwongprom1,61Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 3Department of General Pediatrics, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Internal Medicine, 5Department of Medical Technology, Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: The study explored clinical risk characteristics that may be used to forecast scrub typhus severity under routine clinical practices.Methods: Retrospective data were collected from patients registered at two university-affiliated tertiary care hospitals in the north of Thailand, from 2004 to 2010. Key information was retrieved from in-patient records, out patient cards, laboratory reports and registers. Patients were classified into three severity groups: nonsevere, severe (those with at least one organ involvement, and deceased. Prognostic characteristics for scrub typhus severity were analyzed by a multivariable ordinal continuation ratio regression.Results: A total of 526 patients were classified into nonsevere (n = 357, severe (n = 100, and deceased (n = 69. The significant multivariable prognostic characteristics for scrub typhus severity were increased body temperature (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.45–0.74, P < 0.001, increased pulse rate (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01–1.05, P < 0.001, presence of crepitation (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.52–6.96, P = 0.001, increased percentage of lymphocytes (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95–0.98, P = 0.001, increased aspartate aminotransferase (every 10 IU/L (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02–1.06, P < 0.001, increased serum albumin (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.27–0.80, P = 0

  6. Rapid Increase in Scrub Typhus Incidence in Mainland China, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Cheng; Qian, Quan; Magalhaes, Ricardo J Soares; Han, Zhi-Hai; Haque, Ubydul; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Hu, Wen-Biao; Liu, Yun-Xi; Sun, Yan-Song; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Shen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne disease, which has recently reemerged in China. In this study, we describe the distribution and incidence of scrub typhus cases in China from 2006 to 2014 and quantify differences in scrub typhus cases with respect to sex, age, and occupation. The results of our study indicate that the annual incidence of scrub typhus has increased during the study period. The number of cases peaked in 2014, which was 12.8 times greater than the number of cases reported in 2006. Most (77.97%) of the cases were reported in five provinces (Guangdong, Yunnan, Anhui, Fujian, and Shandong). Our study also demonstrates that the incidence rate of scrub typhus was significantly higher in females compared to males (P scrub typhus incidence, but also document an expansion in the geographic distribution throughout the country. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Genotype Diversity and Distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi Causing Scrub Typhus in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Genotype Diversity and Distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi Causing Scrub Typhus in Thailand" Toon...2011 Scrub typhus , caused by antigenically disparate isolates of Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a widely distributed mite-borne human disease in the Asia...evaluation of scrub typhus - specific diagnostic assays and vaccines. Using indirect immunoHuorescence assays (IF A) and PCR assays, 0. tsutsugamushi

  8. Associated factors and clinical implications of serum aminotransferase elevation in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tung-Hung; Liu, Chun-Jen; Shu, Pei-Yun; Fu, Yang-Hsien; Chang, Chi-Hsien; Jao, Ping; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2016-12-01

    Timely diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the complications of scrub typhus. It is thus important to find easy laboratory tests to help in the diagnosis, especially in patients without eschar at initial presentation. Because serum aminotransferase elevation is common in scrub typhus, its associated factors and clinical implications need further investigations. We conducted a retrospective study in Kinmen, Taiwan, to collect clinically suspected scrub typhus patients notified to Taiwan Centers for Disease Control for confirmation during 2005-2010. Scrub typhus was diagnosed and Orientia tsutsugamushi was genotyped by serological or molecular assays. The laboratory data and clinical information were recorded for analysis. Overall, 344 suspected scrub typhus patients were reported to Taiwan Centers for Disease Control and 288 of them were certified scrub typhus. Scrub typhus patients had significantly more thrombocytopenia, serum aminotransferase elevation (76% vs. 54%, p = 0.001), higher frequency of fever, eschar, and lymphadenopathy, compared with nontyphus patients. Hepatic dysfunction in scrub typhus was associated with older age, longer fever duration, and absence of lymphadenopathy, but seemed to be unrelated to the rickettsial genotypes. Multivariate analysis showed that serum aminotransferase elevation (odds ratio: 3.75; p = 0.003; 95% confidence interval: 1.56-9.01) independently predicted scrub typhus. Furthermore, in suspected scrub typhus patients without eschar, 92% of true typhus patients had serum aminotransferase elevation compared with the nontyphus ones (odds ratio: 6.47; p = 0.028, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-34.11). Hepatic dysfunction in scrub typhus patients is associated with older age, longer fever duration, and absence of lymphadenopathy. Serum aminotransferase elevation can aid in the diagnosis of scrub typhus, especially in suspected patients without eschar. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2014-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 4 février de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org. * * * * * Carte de membre de l'Association du personnel du CERN Les membres GAC-EPA qui souhaitent recevoir une carte de membre AP en 2014 doivent  en faire la demande par email à secretariat@gac-epa.org, ou par lettre au secrétaire ...

  10. Acute sensorineural hearing loss and severe otalgia due to scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong-Min

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Case presentations We encountered a patient with sensorineural hearing loss complicating scrub typhus, and three patients with scrub typhus who complained of otalgia, which was sudden onset, severe, paroxysmal, intermittent yet persistent pain lasting for several seconds, appeared within 1 week after the onset of fever and rash. The acute sensorineural hearing loss and otalgia were resolved after antibiotic administration. Conclusion When patients in endemic areas present with fever and rash and have sensorineural hearing loss or otalgia without otoscopic abnormalities, clinicians should suspect scrub typhus and consider empirical antibiotic therapy.

  11. Successfully Managed Acute Transverse Myelitis Related to Scrub Typhus and Serial Image Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jae Sung; Song, Ji Soo; Choi, Eun Jung; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Seop; Park, Eun Hae

    2017-03-01

    AbstractCentral nervous system involvement manifesting as meningitis or meningoencephalitis is a known complication of scrub typhus, but very few spinal cord lesions such as acute transverse myelitis (ATM) have been reported in association with this disease. Scrub typhus patients with a spinal lesion present with neurologic symptoms including dysuria, motor, and sensory weakness. Herein, we describe a rare case of ATM associated with scrub typhus. Clinical characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid cytology, Orientia tsutsugamushi serum antibody titer, and serial magnetic resonance imaging scans resulted in a diagnosis of ATM associated with scrub typhus.

  12. Adaptation of a tool to assess non-technical skills of scrub practitioners in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Anna Sofie; Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle Teglgaard; Østergaard, Doris

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Scottish tool, Scrub Practitioners List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, to Danish organisation and culture. With an explorative and qualitative approach, four group interviews with scrub practitioners, surgeons and anaesthesia staff were conducted. The main differences found were related to communication and teamwork regarding scrub practitioners focus on the team and speaking up. Differences in the non-technical skills described in the behavioural markers are perhaps explained by cultural differences between Scotland and Denmark. A new tool for scrub practitioners in Denmark was adapted. Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.

  13. 76 FR 9780 - Notification of Deletion of System of Records; EPA Parking Control Office File (EPA-10) and EPA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... System of Records; EPA Parking Control Office File (EPA-10) and EPA Transit and Guaranteed Ride Home... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is deleting the systems of records for EPA Parking Control Office File... through the EPA Internet under the ``Federal Register'' listings at http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/ . Dated...

  14. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2015-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 3 mars de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 7 avril, 5 mai, 2 juin, 1er septembre, 6 octobre, 3 novembre et 1er décembre 2013. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  15. GAC-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2013-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 1er octobre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 5 novembre et 3 décembre 2013. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  16. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 5 avril de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 3 mai, 7 juin, 6 septembre, 4 octobre, 1er et 29 novembre décembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  17. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : le mardi 29 novembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  18. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : le mardi 1er novembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel. La permanence suivante aura lieu le mardi 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  19. GAC-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 3 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 7 juin, 6 septembre, 4 octobre, 1er et 29 novembre décembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  20. GAC-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 5 avril de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 3 mai, 7 juin, 6 septembre, 4 octobre, 1er et 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  1. GAC-EPA

    CERN Document Server

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 4 octobre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 1er et 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  2. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2015-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 1er décembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  3. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 2 février de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 1er mars, 5 avril, 3 mai, 7 juin, 6 septembre, 4 octobre, 1er et 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  4. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 1er mars de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 5 avril, 3 mai, 7 juin, 6 septembre, 4 octobre, 1er et 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  5. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2015-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 3 novembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel La permanence suivante aura lieu le mardi 1er décembre 2015. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  6. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2013-01-01

    Carte de membre de l'Association du personnel du CERN Comme cela a été précisé dans le bulletin d'automne n° 43, les membres GAC-EPA qui souhaitent recevoir une carte de membre AP en 2013 devront en faire la demande, avant le 31 janvier, par email à secretariat@gac-epa.org, ou par lettre au secrétaire du GAC-EPA, p/a Association du personnel CERN, CH-1211 GENEVE 23. Il n'y a pas de tacite reconduction de ces cartes et par conséquent une demande doit être faite chaque année par l'intéressé(e).

  7. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from a Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants can emit significant quantities of fugitive elemental mercury vapor to the air as part of production operations and maintenance activities. In the fall of 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a measurement project at a ch...

  8. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical note describes a United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) measurement project to determine elemental mercury (Hg0) emissions from a mercury cell chlor-alkali (MCCA) facility in the southeastern U.S. during a 53-day monitoring campaign in the fall of...

  9. Scrub typhus, a disease with increasing threat in Guangdong, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu De

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid increase in the number of scrub typhus cases in Guangdong Province, China. For this reason, an epidemiologic study was conducted to understand the characteristics of scrub typhus epidemics in Guangdong. From 2006 to 2013, the incidence of human cases increased from 0.4321 to 3.5917 per 100,000 with a bimodal peak in human cases typically occurring between May and November. To detect the prevalence of Orientia tsutsugamushi among suspected human cases and rodents, we performed ELISA tests of IgM/IgG and nested PCR tests on 59 whole blood samples from the suspected cases and 112 spleen samples from the rodents. Suspected cases tested positive for anti-O. tsutsugamushi IgM and IgG 66.1% (39/59 and 50.8% (30/59 of the time, respectively. Additionally, 20.3% (12/59 of blood samples and 13.4% (15/112 of spleen samples were positive for PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there were four definable clusters among the 27 nucleotide sequences of the 56-kDa antigen genes: 44.4% Karp (12/27, 25.9% Kato (7/27, 22.2% Gilliam (6/27 and 7.4% TA763 (2/27. We concluded many suspected cases may result in diagnostic errors; therefore, it is necessary to perform laboratory tests on suspected cases in hospitals. The high infection rate of O. tsutsugamushi among the limited rodents tested suggested that further rodent sampling throughout the province is necessary to further define high-risk areas. Furthermore, the multiple co-circulating genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi play a key role in the pervasiveness of scrub typhus in the Guangdong area.

  10. CLINICAL PROFILE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN SCRUB TYPHUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Scrub typhus is an underdiagnosed disease, but potentially treatable, if diagnosis is made with high index of suspicion. Deaths are attributable to late presentation, delayed diagnosis and drug resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was an observational study of prospective design conducted in the Department of General Medicine, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, over a period of one year. History, physical examination and relevant lab investigations were done in 70 patients in the study. RESULTS Majority of patients were in working class. Most common physical finding was lymphadenopathy. Eschar was present in 46% of patients. Majority responded to doxycycline. Case fatality was 14.3%. CONCLUSION 1. Most cases occurred during cooler months of the year (Oct-Feb. 2. Fever and headache were the most common symptoms. 3. Lymphadenopathy was the most common sign followed by splenomegaly. 4. Eschar was present in 46% cases. 5. Leucocytosis was associated with poor prognosis and increased complication like meningoencephalitis. 6. Hypoalbuminaemia was associated with increased incidence of complications like myocarditis and encephalitis. 7. More than 2 times, elevation of transaminases was a poor prognostic marker. 8. Most common and important complication was Acute Kidney Injury (AKI. 9. Microangiopathic haemolysis could possibly be a contributory factor for high incidence of AKI associated with scrub typhus. 10. Rampant NSAID use is another contributory factor for high incidence of AKI associated with scrub typhus. 11. Resistance to doxycycline is emerging in our community and we should consider this possibility in cases with strong suspicion with no response to doxycycline.

  11. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiments on jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez-Jimenez, J.

    1995-01-01

    Plant analyses have shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination ofboundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanisms acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence, a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei the pool were measured and fitted to a long normal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inletgas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major highlights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  12. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  13. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Scrub Typhus Transmission in Mainland China, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Cheng; Qian, Quan; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Han, Zhi-Hai; Hu, Wen-Biao; Haque, Ubydul; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yun-Xi; Li, Xin-Lou; Sun, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan-Song; Clements, Archie C A; Li, Shen-Long; Zhang, Wen-Yi

    2016-08-01

    Scrub typhus is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region including China, and the number of reported cases has increased dramatically in the past decade. However, the spatial-temporal dynamics and the potential risk factors in transmission of scrub typhus in mainland China have yet to be characterized. This study aims to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of reported scrub typhus cases in mainland China between January 2006 and December 2014, to detect the location of high risk spatiotemporal clusters of scrub typhus cases, and identify the potential risk factors affecting the re-emergence of the disease. Monthly cases of scrub typhus reported at the county level between 2006 and 2014 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. Time-series analyses, spatiotemporal cluster analyses, and spatial scan statistics were used to explore the characteristics of the scrub typhus incidence. To explore the association between scrub typhus incidence and environmental variables panel Poisson regression analysis was conducted. During the time period between 2006 and 2014 a total of 54,558 scrub typhus cases were reported in mainland China, which grew exponentially. The majority of cases were reported each year between July and November, with peak incidence during October every year. The spatiotemporal dynamics of scrub typhus varied over the study period with high-risk clusters identified in southwest, southern, and middle-eastern part of China. Scrub typhus incidence was positively correlated with the percentage of shrub and meteorological variables including temperature and precipitation. The results of this study demonstrate areas in China that could be targeted with public health interventions to mitigate the growing threat of scrub typhus in the country.

  14. Meteorological factors and risk of scrub typhus in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiegang; Yang, Zhicong; Dong, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ming

    2014-03-12

    Scrub typhus is becoming the most common vector born disease in Guangzhou, southern China. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of Scrub typhus in the subtropical city of Guangzhou for the period 2006-2012, and assist public health prevention and control measures. Scrub typhus reported cases during the period of 2006-2012 in Guangzhou were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). Simultaneous meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, sunshine, and rainfall were obtained from the documentation of the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and scrub typhus. Annual incidence rates of scrub typhus from 2006 to 2012 were 3.25, 2.67, 3.81, 4.22, 4.41, 5.12, and 9.75 (per 100 000) respectively. Each 1°C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 14.98% (95% CI 13.65% to 16.33%) in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, while a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 8.03% (95% CI -8.75% to -7.31%). Similarly, a 1 hour rise in sunshine corresponded to an increase of 0.17% or 0.54%, and a 1 millimeter rise in rainfall corresponded to an increase of 0.05% or 0.10%, in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. Our study provided evidence that climatic factors were associated with occurrence of scrub typhus in Guangzhou city, China. Temperature, duration of sunshine, and rainfall were positively associated with scrub typhus incidence, while atmospheric pressure was inversely associated with scrub typhus incidence. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of scrub typhus transmission.

  15. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level. 6 claims

  16. The chemistry of the liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A study of liquid alkali metals. It encourages comparison with molecular solvents in chapter covering the nature and reactivity of dissolved species, solvation, solubility and electrical conductivity of solutions. It demonstrates lab techniques unique to liquid alkali metals. It discusses large-scale applications from storage batteries to sodium-cooled reactors and future fusion reactors, and associated technological problems. Contents: Some Basic Physical and Chemical Properties; Manipulation of the Liquids; The Chemistry of Purification Methods; Species Formed by Dissolved Elements; Solubilities and Analytical Methods; Alkali Metal Mixtures; Solvation in Liquid Metal; Reactions Between Liquid Alkali Metals and Water; Reactions of Nitrogen with Lithium and the Group II Metals in Liquid Sodium; The Formation, Dissociation and Stability of Heteronuclear Polyatomic Anions; Reactions of the Liquid Alkali Metals and Their Alloys with Simple Alipatic Hydrocarbons; Reactions of the Liquid Alkali Metals with Some Halogen Compounds; Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon Meters; Surface Chemistry and Wetting; Corrosion of Transition Metals by the Liquid Alkali Metals; Modern Applications of the Liquid Alkali Metals

  17. US EPA overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    EPA believes that effective and efficient solutions to problems in all radioactive waste disposal areas will require close coordination and cooperation among all agencies involved. In this regard, EPA already has participated in meetings with the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Council on Environmental Quality, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Office of Management and Budget to lay the groundwork for the development of a consolidated national radioactive waste disposal plan. The EPA program is directed first toward developing goals and requirements; and then, in cooperation with the public, industry, the States and Federal agencies, towards determining by what means these goals can be achieved for each waste management option. In addition, the program will develop criteria for determining when the goals of the waste management options have been achieved. In summary, EPA will provide fundamental environmental criteria and generally applicable environmental standards for permanent disposal of high level radwastes. Concurrently, ERDA will develop the necessary technology; and NRC will conduct necessary studies, develop waste-related regulations, and license specific sites and methods of control. Together, we will be able to manage the disposal of the Nation's radioactive waste in an environmentally adequate manner

  18. EPA Web Training Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheduled webinars can help you better manage EPA web content. Class topics include Drupal basics, creating different types of pages in the WebCMS such as document pages and forms, using Google Analytics, and best practices for metadata and accessibility.

  19. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  20. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  1. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcpheeters, C.C.; Wolson, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1

  2. EPA Communications Stylebook: Writing Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the most part, EPA follows the Associated Press (AP) Stylebook. Other requirements of basic punctuation and grammar and usage in EPA writing modify, supplement, or in some cases reiterate AP style.

  3. EPA Alternative Dispute Resolution Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's ADR efforts depends on a network of talented and experienced professionals in Headquarters offices and EPA Regions. For Agency-wide ADR information, please contact the Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center.

  4. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Scrub-Shrub and Wetlands, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_scrub-shrub_wetland_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) scrub-shrub and wetlands data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system,...

  5. A Spatiotemporal Database to Track Human Scrub Typhus Using the VectorMap Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J Kelly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a potentially fatal mite-borne febrile illness, primarily of the Asia-Pacific Rim. With an endemic area greater than 13 million km2 and millions of people at risk, scrub typhus remains an underreported, often misdiagnosed febrile illness. A comprehensive, updatable map of the true distribution of cases has been lacking, and therefore the true risk of disease within the very large endemic area remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a database and map to track human scrub typhus. An online search using PubMed and the United States Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System was performed to identify articles describing human scrub typhus cases both within and outside the traditionally accepted endemic regions. Using World Health Organization guidelines, stringent criteria were used to establish diagnoses for inclusion in the database. The preliminary screening of 181 scrub typhus publications yielded 145 publications that met the case criterion, 267 case records, and 13 serosurvey records that could be georeferenced, describing 13,739 probable or confirmed human cases in 28 countries. A map service has been established within VectorMap (www.vectormap.org to explore the role that relative location of vectors, hosts, and the pathogen play in the transmission of mite-borne scrub typhus. The online display of scrub typhus cases in VectorMap illustrates their presence and provides an up-to-date geographic distribution of proven scrub typhus cases.

  6. Climate variability, animal reservoir and transmission of scrub typhus in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuehong; Huang, Yong; Li, Xiaoning; Ma, Yu; Tao, Xia; Wu, Xinwei; Yang, Zhicong

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationships between climate variability, animal reservoirs and scrub typhus incidence in Southern China. We obtained data on scrub typhus cases in Guangzhou every month from 2006 to 2014 from the Chinese communicable disease network. Time-series Poisson regression models and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) were used to evaluate the relationship between risk factors and scrub typhus. Wavelet analysis found the incidence of scrub typhus cycled with a period of approximately 8-12 months and long-term trends with a period of approximately 24-36 months. The DLNM model shows that relative humidity, rainfall, DTR, MEI and rodent density were associated with the incidence of scrub typhus. Our findings suggest that the incidence scrub typhus has two main temporal cycles. Determining the reason for this trend and how it can be used for disease control and prevention requires additional research. The transmission of scrub typhus is highly dependent on climate factors and rodent density, both of which should be considered in prevention and control strategies for scrub typhus.

  7. Risk factors associated with severe scrub typhus in Shandong, northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyan Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: This study indicates that improved diagnosis and timely treatment are important factors for the prevention of severe scrub typhus. When scrub typhus patients present with a rash, lymphadenopathy, or blood platelet count <100 × 109/l, clinicians should be alert to the appearance of severe complications.

  8. A Spatiotemporal Database to Track Human Scrub Typhus Using the VectorMap Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daryl J; Foley, Desmond H; Richards, Allen L

    2015-12-01

    Scrub typhus is a potentially fatal mite-borne febrile illness, primarily of the Asia-Pacific Rim. With an endemic area greater than 13 million km2 and millions of people at risk, scrub typhus remains an underreported, often misdiagnosed febrile illness. A comprehensive, updatable map of the true distribution of cases has been lacking, and therefore the true risk of disease within the very large endemic area remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a database and map to track human scrub typhus. An online search using PubMed and the United States Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System was performed to identify articles describing human scrub typhus cases both within and outside the traditionally accepted endemic regions. Using World Health Organization guidelines, stringent criteria were used to establish diagnoses for inclusion in the database. The preliminary screening of 181 scrub typhus publications yielded 145 publications that met the case criterion, 267 case records, and 13 serosurvey records that could be georeferenced, describing 13,739 probable or confirmed human cases in 28 countries. A map service has been established within VectorMap (www.vectormap.org) to explore the role that relative location of vectors, hosts, and the pathogen play in the transmission of mite-borne scrub typhus. The online display of scrub typhus cases in VectorMap illustrates their presence and provides an up-to-date geographic distribution of proven scrub typhus cases.

  9. Factors that influence the non-technical skills performance of scrub nurses: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Evelyn; Massey, Debbie; Gillespie, Brigid M

    2015-12-01

    To identify and describe the factors that impact on the performance of scrub nurses' non-technical skills performance during the intra-operative phase of surgery. Non-technical skills have been identified as important precursors to errors in the operating room. However, few studies have investigated factors influencing non-technical skills of scrub nurses. Prospective observational study. Structured observations were performed on a sample of 182 surgical procedures across eight specialities by two trained observers from August 2012-April 2013 at two hospital sites. Participants were purposively selected scrub nurses. Bivariate correlations and a multiple linear regression model were used to identify associations among length of surgery, patients' acuity using the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification system, team familiarity, number of occasions scout nurses leave the operating room, change of scout nurse and the outcome, the non-technical skills performance of scrub nurses. Patient acuity and team familiarity were the strongest predictors of scrub nurses' non-technical skills performance at hospital site A. There were no correlations between the predictors and the performance of scrub nurses at hospital site B. A dedicated surgical team and patient acuity potentially influence the performance of scrub nurses' non-technical skills. Familiarity with team members foster advanced planning, thus minimizing distractions and interruptions that impact on scrub nurses' performance. Development of interventions aimed at improving non-technical skills has the potential to make a substantial difference and enhance patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Bayesian spatial modelling and the significance of agricultural land use to scrub typhus infection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A; Kuo, Chi-Chien; Wang, Hsi-Chieh; Clements, Archie C A; Lee, Pei-Fen; Atkinson, Peter M

    2013-11-01

    Scrub typhus is transmitted by the larval stage of trombiculid mites. Environmental factors, including land cover and land use, are known to influence breeding and survival of trombiculid mites and, thus, also the spatial heterogeneity of scrub typhus risk. Here, a spatially autoregressive modelling framework was applied to scrub typhus incidence data from Taiwan, covering the period 2003 to 2011, to provide increased understanding of the spatial pattern of scrub typhus risk and the environmental and socioeconomic factors contributing to this pattern. A clear spatial pattern in scrub typhus incidence was observed within Taiwan, and incidence was found to be significantly correlated with several land cover classes, temperature, elevation, normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, population density, average income and the proportion of the population that work in agriculture. The final multivariate regression model included statistically significant correlations between scrub typhus incidence and average income (negatively correlated), the proportion of land that contained mosaics of cropland and vegetation (positively correlated) and elevation (positively correlated). These results highlight the importance of land cover on scrub typhus incidence: mosaics of cropland and vegetation represent a transitional land cover type which can provide favourable habitats for rodents and, therefore, trombiculid mites. In Taiwan, these transitional land cover areas tend to occur in less populated and mountainous areas, following the frontier establishment and subsequent partial abandonment of agricultural cultivation, due to demographic and socioeconomic changes. Future land use policy decision-making should ensure that potential public health outcomes, such as modified risk of scrub typhus, are considered.

  11. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary.

  12. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2016-01-01

    Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 1er novembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel La permanence suivante aura lieu le mardi 29 novembre 2016. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php  

  13. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 31 octobre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel La permanence suivante aura lieu le mardi 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  14. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 29 août de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php  

  15. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 28 novembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  16. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 30 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  17. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 26 septembre de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/ Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  18. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsick, D.

    2004-01-01

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  19. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 31 janvier de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 28 février, 28 mars, 25 avril, 30 mai, 29 août, 26 septembre, 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. e-mail : gac-epa@gac-epa.org.

  20. Process to separate alkali metal salts from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier; Larsen, Dennis; Killpack, Jeff

    2017-06-27

    A process to facilitate gravimetric separation of alkali metal salts, such as alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides, from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons. The disclosed process is part of a method of upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the hydrocarbon feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase containing alkali metal salts and reduced heavy metals, and an upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock. The inorganic phase may be gravimetrically separated from the upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock after mixing at a temperature between about 350.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for a time period between about 15 minutes and 2 hours.

  1. Alkali metal for ultraviolet band-pass filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, Nick (Inventor); Fraschetti, George A. (Inventor); Mccann, Timothy A. (Inventor); Mayall, Sherwood D. (Inventor); Dunn, Donald E. (Inventor); Trauger, John T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alkali metal filter having a layer of metallic bismuth deposited onto the alkali metal is provided. The metallic bismuth acts to stabilize the surface of the alkali metal to prevent substantial surface migration from occurring on the alkali metal, which may degrade optical characteristics of the filter. To this end, a layer of metallic bismuth is deposited by vapor deposition over the alkali metal to a depth of approximately 5 to 10 A. A complete alkali metal filter is described along with a method for fabricating the alkali metal filter.

  2. Density of mixed alkali borate glasses: A structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doweidar, H.; El-Damrawi, G.M.; Moustafa, Y.M.; Ramadan, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Density of mixed alkali borate glasses has been correlated with the glass structure. It is assumed that in such glasses each alkali oxide associates with a proportional quantity of B 2 O 3 . The number of BO 3 and BO 4 units related to each type of alkali oxide depends on the total concentration of alkali oxide. It is concluded that in mixed alkali borate glasses the volumes of structural units related to an alkali ion are the same as in the corresponding binary alkali borate glass. This reveals that each type of alkali oxide forms its own borate matrix and behaves as if not affected with the presence of the other alkali oxide. Similar conclusions are valid for borate glasses with three types of alkali oxide

  3. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.

    1995-07-01

    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  4. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiment on jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez, J.

    1995-01-01

    Plant analyses nave shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination of boundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanism acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence. a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei in the pool were measured and fitted to a lognormal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inlet gas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90 consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major high lights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  5. Relaxation of quadrupole orientation in an optically pumped alkali vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, E; Tornos, J

    1985-04-01

    The relaxation of quadrupole orientation (alignment) in an optically pumped alkali vapour is theoretically studied by taking into account the relaxation processes by alkali-buffer gas, alkali-alkali with spin exchange and alkali-cell wall (diffusion process) collisions. The relaxation transients of the quadrupole orientation are obtained by introducing a first-order weak-pumping approximation (intermediate pumping) less restrictive than the usually considered (zeroth order) one.

  6. Milk Alkali and Hydrochlorothiazide: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Parvez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia is a relatively common clinical problem in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Primary pathophysiology is the entry of calcium that exceeds its excretion into urine or deposition in bone into circulation. Among a wide array of causes of hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are the most common, accounting for greater than 90 percent of cases. Concordantly, there has been a resurgence of milk-alkali syndrome associated with the ingestion of large amounts of calcium and absorbable alkali, making it the third leading cause of hypercalcemia (Beall and Scofield, 1995 and Picolos et al., 2005. This paper centers on a case of over-the-counter calcium and alkali ingestion for acid reflux leading to milk alkali with concordant use of thiazide diuretic for hypertension.

  7. [Epidemiology of scrub typhus and influencing factors in Yunnan province, 2006-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Shi, C; Li, X L; Fang, L Q; Cao, W C

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhu s and influencing factors in Yunnan province, and provide further information for the prevention and control of scrub typhus. Methods: Based on the incidence data of scrub typhus reported in Yunnan from 2006 to 2013, the epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus were analyzed and related environmental factors were identified with panel negative binomial regression model. Results: A total of 8 980 scrub typhus cases were reported during 2006-2013 in Yunnan. The average annual incidence was 2.46/100 000, with an uptrend observed. Natural focus expansion was found, affecting 71.3% of the counties in 2013. The epidemic mainly occurred in summer and autumn with the incidence peak during July-October. The annual incidence was higher in females than in males. More cases occurred in children and farmers, the proportions of cases in farmers and pre-school aged children showed an obvious increase. Panel negative binomial regression model indicated that the transmission risk of scrub typhus was positive associated with monthly temperature and monthly relative humidity. Furthermore, an "U" pattern between the risk and the increased coverage of cropland and grassland as well as an "inverted-U" pattern between the risk and increased coverage of shrub were observed. Conclusion: It is necessary to strengthen the scrub typhus surveillance in warm and moist areas as well as the areas with high coverage of cropland and grassland in Yunnan, and the health education in children and farmers who are at high risk.

  8. Acute transverse myelitis following scrub typhus: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Moon, Bong Ju; Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Sang-Deok; Seo, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Jung-Kil

    2018-01-19

    Context Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease can usually involve the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and brain through hematogenous dissemination. However, very rarely, acute transverse myelitis in the spinal cord develops from scrub typhus. We present a case of acute transverse myelitis following scrub typhus with a review of the literature. Findings A 66-year-old male visited a hospital for general myalgia, mild headache, and fever in October. He was noted to have thick, black papule skin on his abdomen, which was highly suggestive of scrub typhus. To confirm the diagnosis, O. tsutsugamushi antibody titers were examined and detected highly in serum by an indirect fluorescence antibody assay. Doxycycline, the standard treatment for scrub typhus, was administered. However, after seven days of treatment, he rapidly developed weakness in the right leg, paresthesia in both lower limbs, and voiding difficulty. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed lesions with high signal intensity involving the spinal cord at the thoracolumbar junction. Paraparesis gradually improved following steroid pulse therapy for five days. At one-year follow-up, he could walk without cane. Conclusions Orientia tsutsugamushi causes scrub typhus, which can affect not only the brain, but also the spinal cord. Although acute transverse myelitis develops rarely from scrub typhus, this should be considered as differential diagnosis in patients of fever with neurological deficit in endemic areas.

  9. Thinking ahead of the surgeon. An interview study to identify scrub nurses' non-technical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George

    2011-07-01

    Efforts to reduce adverse event rates in healthcare have revealed the importance of identifying the essential non-technical (cognitive and social) skills for safe and effective performance. Previous research on non-technical skills for operating theatre staff has concentrated on doctors rather than nursing professionals. The aim of the study was to identify the critical non-technical skills that are essential for safe and effective performance as an operating theatre scrub nurse. Experienced scrub nurses (n = 25) and consultant surgeons (n = 9) from four Scottish hospitals were interviewed using a semi-structured format. The protocols were designed to identify the main social and cognitive skills required by scrub nurses. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and independently coded to extract behaviours in order to produce a list of the main non-technical skills for safe and effective scrub nurse performance. The non-technical skills of situation awareness, communication, teamwork, task management and coping with stress were identified as key to successful scrub nurse task performance. Component sets of behaviours for each of these categories were also noted. The interviews with subject matter experts from scrub nursing and surgery produced preliminary evidence that situation awareness, communication, teamwork and coping with stress are the principal non-technical skills required for effective performance as a scrub nurse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scrub typhus: risks, diagnostic issues, and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash JAJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available John Antony Jude Prakash Department of Clinical Microbiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness in the “tsutsugamushi triangle”, transmitted by chiggers that can be treated effectively if detected early. Laboratory testing, including molecular and serological assays, is needed for confirming the diagnosis, especially in the absence of the pathognomonic eschar. In this review, factors that play a role in disease occurrence and clinical clues for diagnosis, in addition to risk factors contributing to disease severity, including mortality, are discussed in detail. Moreover, issues related to diagnostic assays, treatment, and mixed infections are also enumerated and described. Keywords: Orientia tsutsugamushi, disease severity, mortality predictors, diagnosis, coinfections, treatment

  11. Alkali metals and group IIA metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter on the coordination complexes of the alkali metals of group IIA starts with a historical perspective of their chemistry, from simple monodentate ligands, metal-β-diketonates to the macrocyclic polyethers which act as ligands to the alkali and akaline earth metals. Other macrocyclic ligands include quarterenes, calixarenes, porphyrins, phthalocyanines and chlorophylls. A section on the naturally occurring ionophores and carboxylic ionophores is included. (UK)

  12. Calcium silicate hydrate: Crystallisation and alkali sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.

    2000-01-01

    Homogeneous single C-S-H gels has been prepared for the investigation of alkali binding potential and crystallisation. A distribution coefficient, R d , was introduced to express the partition of alkali between solid and aqueous phases at 25 deg. C. R d is independent of alkali hydroxide concentration and depends only on Ca:Si ratio over wide ranges of alkali concentration. The trend of numerical values of R d indicates that alkali bonding into the solid improves as its Ca:Si ratio decreases. Reversibility is demonstrated, indicating a possibility of constant R d value of the material. Al has been introduced to form C-A-S-H gels and their alkali sorption properties also determined. Al substituted into C-S-H markedly increases R d , indicating enhancement of alkali binding. However, the dependence of R d on alkali concentration is non-ideal with composition. A two-site model for bonding is presented. Crystallisation both under saturated steam and 1 bar vapour pressure has been investigated. It has been shown that heat treatment by saturated steam causes crystallisation of gels. The principal minerals obtained were (i) C-S-H gel and Ca(OH) 2 at -55 deg. C, (ii) 1.1 nm tobermorite, jennite and afwillite at 85 -130 deg. C, and (iii) xonotlite, foshagite and hillebrandite at 150-180 deg. C. Properties of crystalline C-S-H were also reported for reversible phase transformation, pH conditioning ability, seeding effect and solubility. At 1 bar pressure, crystallisation is slower than in saturated steam due to lower water activity. Tobermorite-like nanodomains develop during reaction at low Ca/Si ratios. In some Ca-rich compositions, Ca(OH) 2 is exsolved and occurs as nano-sized crystallites. (author)

  13. Code Development of Radioactive Aerosol Scrubbing in Pool-Injection Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyun Joung; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Dong Soon [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the injection zone. The developed code has been verified using the experimental results and evaluated parametrically on the input variables. In injection zone, the initial steam condensation was most effective mechanism for the aerosol removal, and the steam fraction and pool temperature were highly affected on the decontamination factor by initial steam condensation. The aerosol scrubbing code will be updated to evaluate the decontamination factor at rise zone and finally whole pool scrubber phenomena. If a severe accident occurs in a nuclear power plant (NPP), the aerosol and gaseous fission products might be produced in the reactor vessel, and then released to the environment after the containment failure. FCVS (Filtered Containment Venting System) is one of the severe accident mitigation systems for retaining the containment integrity by discharging the high-temperature and high-pressure fission products to the environment after passing through the filtration system. In general, the FCVS is categorized into two types, wet and dry types. The scrubbing pool could play an important role in the wet type FCVS because a large amount of aerosol is captured in the water pool. The pool scrubbing phenomena have been modelled and embedded in several computer codes, such as SPARC (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code), BUSCA (BUbble Scrubbing Algorithm) and SUPRA (Suppression Pool Retention Analysis). These codes aim at simulating the pool scrubbing process and estimating the decontamination factors (DFs) of the radioactive aerosol and iodine gas in the water pool, which is defined as the ratio of initial mass of the specific radioactive material to final massy after passing through the water pool. The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the injection

  14. Bilateral Symmetrical Brachial Plexopathy in Association with Scrub Typhus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a commonly encountered rickettsial disease of the Indian subcontinent caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It can be associated with various neurological manifestations. We report a case of 50 year old man with bilateral symmetrical brachial plexopathy associated with scrub typhus from the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand state. The initial manifestations were fever, bodyaches and weakness in both upper limbs. Laboratory reports confirmed the diagnosis of scrub typhus. EMG and NCV were strongly suggestive of upper brachial plexopathy. Patient was discharged in satisfactory condition

  15. First case of scrub typhus with meningoencephalitis from Kerala: An emerging infectious threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Saifudheen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsial disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, one of the most common infectious diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. It has been reported from northern, eastern, and southern India, and its presence has been documented in at least 11 Indian states. However, scrub typhus meningoencephalitis has not been well documented in Kerala. We report two cases of scrub typhus meningoencephalitis from northern Kerala. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical pictures, presence of eschar, and a positive Weil-Felix test with a titer of > 1:320. The first patient succumbed to illness due to respiratory failure and the second patient improved well.

  16. Differential diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis from tuberculous meningitis using clinical and laboratory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, Ashraf V; Thiruvoth, Sohanlal; Peedikayil, Jabir M; Raghunath, Praveenkumar; Thekkedath, Manojan

    2017-12-01

    The involvement of the central nervous system in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus and is an important differential diagnosis of other lymphocytic meningitis like tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters that may be helpful in differentiating scrub typhus meningitis from TBM. We compared of the clinical and laboratory features of 57 patients admitted with scrub typhus meningitis or TBM during a 3-year period. Patients who had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positive scrub typhus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serology (n=28) were included in the scrub typhus meningitis group, while the TBM group included those who satisfied the consensus diagnostic criteria of TBM (n=29). Compared with the TBM group, the mean duration of symptoms was less in patients with scrub typhus meningitis, who also had a lower magnitude of neurological deficits, such as altered mental status and cranial nerve and motor deficits. Patients with scrub typhus meningitis had a lower CSF white blood-cell count (WBC) than the TBM group (130.8±213 195±175 cells/mm 3 , P=0.002), lower CSF protein elevation (125±120 vs. 195.2±108.2mg/dl, P=0.002), and higher CSF sugar (70.1±32.4 vs. 48.7±23.4mg/dl, P=0.006). Features predictive of the diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis included the absence of neurological impairment at presentation, blood serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase>40 international units (IU)/L, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase>60 IU/L, total blood leukocyte count>10,000/mm 3 , CSF protein50mg/dl, CSF WBC<100 cells/mm 3 . All patients with scrub typhus meningitis recovered completely following doxycycline therapy CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, clinical features, including duration of fever, neurological deficits at presentation and laboratory parameters such as CSF pleocytosis,CSF protein elevation, CSF sugar levels and liver enzyme values are helpful in

  17. Adaptation of a tool to assess non-technical skills of scrub practitioners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundt, Anna Sofie; Spanager, Lene; Lyk-Jensen, Helle Teglgaard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt the Scottish tool, Scrub Practitioners List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, to Danish organisation and culture. With an explorative and qualitative approach, four group interviews with scrub practitioners, surgeons and anaesthesia staff were conducted....... The main differences found were related to communication and teamwork regarding scrub practitioners focus on the team and speaking up. Differences in the non-technical skills described in the behavioural markers are perhaps explained by cultural differences between Scotland and Denmark. A new tool...

  18. Estimated effects of interfacial vaporization on fission product scrubbing: Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, F.J.; Nagy, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    When bubbles containing non-condensible gas rise through a water pool, interfacial evaporation causes a flow of vapor into the bubbles. The inflow reduces the outward particle motion toward the bubble wall, diminishing the effectiveness of fission product particle removal. This analysis provides an estimate of evaporation on pool scrubbing effectiveness. It is shown that hot gas, which boils water at the bubble wall, reduces the effective scrubbing height by less than five centimeters. Although the evaporative humidification in a rising bubble containing non-condensible gas has a diminishing effect on scrubbing mechanisms, substantial decontamination is still expected even for the limiting case of a saturated pool

  19. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. Methods We applied Pearson’s product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. Results In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively

  20. US EPA Region 4 Brownfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve public health and the environment, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) collects information about facilities, sites, or places subject to environmental regulation or of environmental interest. Through the Geospatial Data Download Service, the public is now able to download the EPA Geodata shapefile containing facility and site information from EPA's national program systems. The file is Internet accessible from the Envirofacts Web site (https://www3.epa.gov/enviro/). The data may be used with geospatial mapping applications. (Note: The shapefile omits facilities without latitude/longitude coordinates.) The EPA Geospatial Data contains the name, location (latitude/longitude), and EPA program information about specific facilities and sites. In addition, the file contains a Uniform Resource Locator (URL), which allows mapping applications to present an option to users to access additional EPA data resources on a specific facility or site. This dataset shows Brownfields listed in the 2012 Facility Registry System.

  1. Antiseptic Effect of Conventional Povidone-Iodine Scrub, Chlorhexidine Scrub, and Waterless Hand Rub in a Surgical Room: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jui-Chen; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Huang, Yen-Jung; Loh, El-Wui; Wen, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Yin-Tai; Hsieh, Wen-Shyang; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Effective perioperative hand antisepsis is crucial for the safety of patients and medical staff in surgical rooms. The antimicrobial effectiveness of different antiseptic methods, including conventional hand scrubs and waterless hand rubs, has not been well evaluated. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the 3 antiseptic methods among surgical staff of Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital. For each method used, a group of 80 participants was enrolled. INTERVENTION Surgical hand cleansing with conventional 10% povidone-iodine scrub, conventional 4% chlorhexidine scrub, or waterless hand rub (1% chlorhexidine gluconate and 61% ethyl alcohol). RESULTS Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were collected using the hand imprinting method before and after disinfection and after surgery. After surgical hand disinfection, the mean CFU counts of the conventional chlorhexidine (0.5±0.2, Pantiseptic method (P=.0036), but not other variables, predicted the mean CFU count. CONCLUSIONS Conventional chlorhexidine scrub and waterless hand rub were superior to a conventional povidone-iodine product in bacterial inhibition. We recommend using conventional chlorhexidine scrub as a standard method for perioperative hand antisepsis. Waterless hand rub may be used if the higher cost is affordable. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:417-422.

  2. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 25 avril de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 30 mai, 29 août, 26 septembre, 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  3. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 28 février de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 28 mars, 25 avril, 30 mai, 29 août, 26 septembre, 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  4. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 28 mars de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 25 avril, 30 mai, 29 août, 26 septembre, 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  5. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2017-01-01

    Le GAC organise des permanences avec entretiens individuels qui se tiennent le dernier mardi de chaque mois, sauf en juin, juillet et décembre. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 30 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 29 août, 26 septembre, 31 octobre et 28 novembre 2017. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires. Informations : http://gac-epa.org/. Formulaire de contact : http://gac-epa.org/Organization/ContactForm/ContactForm-fr.php

  6. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    The application of electric propulsion to communications satellites, however, has been limited to the use of hydrazine thrusters with electric heaters for thrust and specific impulse augmentation. These electrothermal thrusters operate at specific impulse levels of approximately 300 s with heater powers of about 500 W. Low power arcjets (1-3 kW) are currently being investigated as a way to increase specific impulse levels to approximately 500 s. Ion propulsion systems can easily produce specific impulses of 3000 s or greater, but have yet to be applied to communications satellites. The reasons most often given for not using ion propulsion systems are their high level of overall complexity, low thrust with long burn times, and the difficulty of integrating the propulsion system into existing commercial spacecraft busses. The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass.

  7. Studies on the alkali-silica reaction rim in a simplified calcium-alkali-silicate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Kunpeng; Adriaensens, Peter; De Schutter, Geert; Ye, G.; Taerwe, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This work is intended to provide a better understanding about the properties and roles of the reaction rim in an alkali-silica reaction. A simplified calcium-alkali-silicate system was created to simulate the multiple interactions among reactive silica, alkaline solution and portlandite near the

  8. Alkali metal and alkali metal hydroxide intercalates of the layered transition metal disulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Y.; Konuma, M.; Matsumoto, O.

    1981-01-01

    The intercalation reaction of some layered transition metal disulfides with alkali metals, alkali metal hydroxides, and tetraalkylammonium hydroxides were investigated. The alkali metal intercalates were prepared in the respective metal-hexamethylphosphoric triamide solutions in vaccuo, and the hydroxide intercalates in aqueous hydroxide solutions. According to the intercalation reaction, the c-lattice parameter was increased, and the increase indicated the expansion of the interlayer distance. In the case of alkali metal intercalates, the expansion of the interlayer distance increased continuously, corresponding to the atomic radius of the alkali metal. On the other hand, the hydroxide intercalates showed discrete expansion corresponding to the effective ionic radius of the intercalated cation. All intercalates of TaS 2 amd NbS 2 were superconductors. The expansion of the interlayer distance tended to increase the superconducting transition temperature in the intercalates of TaS 2 and vice versa in those of NbS 2 . (orig.)

  9. Scrub typhus infection presenting as acute heart failure: A case report and systematic review of literature of cardiopulmonary involvement in scrub typhus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Ray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a middle aged previoulsy healthy female patient who presented with clinical features suggestive of acute heart failure. Investigations revealed very high NT pro-BNP, right heart enlargement, bilateral pulmonary alveolar edema and bilateral pleural effusion. In view of falling platelet counts and exudative pleural effusion inflammatory/infective causes were considered. Her Weil Felix test was strongly positive and IgM for scrub typhus also returned positive. She was started on doxycycline to which there was dramatic improvement. Thus in this case scrub typhus infection presented as acute right heart failure and the cause seemed elusive at the outset.We also systematically reviewed the existing literature on cardio-pulmonary manifestations of scrub typhus infection.

  10. The genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi, identified in scrub typhus patients in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hang L K; Pham, Hang T T; Nguyen, Tinh V; Hoang, Phuong Vm; Le, Mai T Q; Takemura, Taichiro; Hasebe, Futoshi; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Akio; Hotta, Kozue

    2017-03-01

    There are an estimated one million patients with scrub typhus in the Asia-Pacific region. There are few reports describing the incidence of scrub typhus in Vietnam. Blood samples collected from 63 patients clinically diagnosed as having scrub typhus from July 2015 to September 2016 were subjected to genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi. Of these patients, 42 (67%) tested positive for O. tsutsugamushi, and the most common genotype was identified to be Karp (55%). Other genotypes, TA763, Gilliam type in Japan variant, and Kato were also found in 17%, 17% and 12% of patients, respectively. To better understand the epidemiological landscape of scrub typhus in Vietnam, a countrywide study is needed. LC110330-LC110333, LC110336-LC110351 and LC214804-LC214825. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A Comparative Study of Hepatitis Caused by Scrub Typhus and Viral Hepatitis A in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-01-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A. PMID:22049041

  12. A comparative study of hepatitis caused by scrub typhus and viral hepatitis A in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-11-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A.

  13. Meteorological factors and risk of scrub typhus in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is becoming the most common vector born disease in Guangzhou, southern China. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of Scrub typhus in the subtropical city of Guangzhou for the period 2006–2012, and assist public health prevention and control measures. Methods Scrub typhus reported cases during the period of 2006–2012 in Guangzhou were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). Simultaneous meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, sunshine, and rainfall were obtained from the documentation of the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and scrub typhus. Results Annual incidence rates of scrub typhus from 2006 to 2012 were 3.25, 2.67, 3.81, 4.22, 4.41, 5.12, and 9.75 (per 100 000) respectively. Each 1°C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 14.98% (95% CI 13.65% to 16.33%) in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, while a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 8.03% (95% CI −8.75% to −7.31%). Similarly, a 1 hour rise in sunshine corresponded to an increase of 0.17% or 0.54%, and a 1 millimeter rise in rainfall corresponded to an increase of 0.05% or 0.10%, in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. Conclusion Our study provided evidence that climatic factors were associated with occurrence of scrub typhus in Guangzhou city, China. Temperature, duration of sunshine, and rainfall were positively associated with scrub typhus incidence, while atmospheric pressure was inversely associated with scrub typhus incidence. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of scrub typhus transmission. PMID:24620733

  14. The pathologic splenic rupture of a patient with scrub typhus: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kum Rae; Park, Won Kyu; Chang, Jay Chun; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Jae Woon; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan

    2008-01-01

    A pathologic splenic rupture is rare, occurring primarily in a spleen affected by infective, hematological, and neoplastic disease. To the best of our knowledge, no prior reports of a pathologic splenic rupture due to scrub typhus exist. Intrasplenic pseudoaneurysms and focal infarctions are visible on an initial CT scan. Moreover, the spontaneous splenic rupture occurred a week later. We report a case of nontraumatic-splenic rupture in a patient with scrub typhus

  15. The pathologic splenic rupture of a patient with scrub typhus: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kum Rae; Park, Won Kyu; Chang, Jay Chun; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Jae Woon; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    A pathologic splenic rupture is rare, occurring primarily in a spleen affected by infective, hematological, and neoplastic disease. To the best of our knowledge, no prior reports of a pathologic splenic rupture due to scrub typhus exist. Intrasplenic pseudoaneurysms and focal infarctions are visible on an initial CT scan. Moreover, the spontaneous splenic rupture occurred a week later. We report a case of nontraumatic-splenic rupture in a patient with scrub typhus.

  16. Factors that affect scrub practitioner non-technical skills: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Guy

    2018-04-01

    Non-technical skills are the cognitive and interpersonal behaviours that compliment clinical competence in surgery. Effective use of non-technical skills is essential for scrub practice, because they facilitate anticipation of the surgeon's requirements and promote appropriate communication behaviours. This literature review analyses the factors that may influence a scrub practitioner's use of non-technical skills during surgery. Recommendations are made that are intended to improve their use by reducing behavioural variations during surgery.

  17. Seawater scrubbing - reduction of SO{sub x} emissions from ship exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karle, Ida-Maja; Turner, David (Dept. of Chemistry, Goeteborg Univ. (SE))

    2007-07-01

    It is shown that seawater scrubbing is a promising technology for reducing sulphur oxide emissions from ships. The marine chemical aspects of shipboard seawater scrubbing have been modelled and analysed, based on a 12 MW engine burning fuel with a 3% sulphur content. Calculations have been made for different efficiencies of sulphur scrubbing, different water temperatures, and for six different water types (open ocean, Kattegatt, Baltic Proper, Bothnian Sea, Bothnian Bay, and river freshwater). The results of the calculations give the volumes of water required for (i) uptake of SO{sub x} (the scrubbing process), (ii) dilution of the scrubbing water to achieve a pH of 6.5, (iii) further dilution to achieve a pH within 0.2 units of that in the ambient water, and no more that a 1% reduction in dissolved oxygen concentration. The volumes of water required for a given efficiency of the scrubbing process increase with decreasing salinity and with increasing water temperature. The salinity dependence is non-linear, such that operation in the Bothnian Sea, Bothnian Bay and low alkalinity river freshwater would require significantly larger water volumes for scrubbing and dilution that operation in the Baltic Proper, Kattegatt or open ocean. The calculations assume access to large volumes of unaffected, ambient water. This is reasonable for a ship under way in open water, but not in enclosed or semi-enclosed waters, which would therefore require detailed case studies. It may be possible to reduce the volumes of dilution water required by, for example, aeration of the scrubbing water and addition of base to neutralise the acidic sulphur oxides. Further studies would be needed in order to assess these options

  18. Scrub-shrub bird habitat associations at multiple spatial scales in beaver meadows in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, R.B.; King, D.I.; DeStefano, S.

    2009-01-01

    Most scrub-shrub bird species are declining in the northeastern United States, and these declines are largely attributed to regional declines in habitat availability. American Beaver (Castor canadensis; hereafter “beaver”) populations have been increasing in the Northeast in recent decades, and beavers create scrub-shrub habitat through their dam-building and foraging activities. Few systematic studies have been conducted on the value of beaver-modified habitats for scrub-shrub birds, and these data are important for understanding habitat selection of scrub-shrub birds as well as for assessing regional habitat availability for these species. We conducted surveys in 37 beaver meadows in a 2,800-km2 study area in western Massachusetts during 2005 and 2006 to determine the extent to which these beaver-modified habitats are used by scrub-shrub birds, as well as the characteristics of beaver meadows most closely related to bird use. We modeled bird abundance in relation to microhabitat-, patch-, and landscape-context variables while adjusting for survey-specific covariates affecting detectability using N-mixture models. We found that scrub-shrub birds of regional conservation concern occupied these sites and that birds responded differently to microhabitat, patch, and landscape characteristics of beaver meadows. Generally, scrub-shrub birds increased in abundance along a gradient of increasing vegetation complexity, and three species were positively related to patch size. We conclude that these habitats can potentially play an important role in regional conservation of scrub-shrub birds and recommend that conservation priority be given to larger beaver meadows with diverse vegetation structure and composition.

  19. Meteorological factors affecting scrub typhus occurrence: a retrospective study of Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 1984-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, J; Suzuki, Y; Nakao, R; Otani, K; Yahagi, K; Mizuta, K

    2017-02-01

    Climate change, by its influence on the ecology of vectors might affect the occurrence of vector-borne diseases. This study examines the effects of meteorological factors in Japan on the occurrence of scrub typhus, a mite-borne zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Using negative binomial regression, we analysed the relationships between meteorological factors (including temperature, rainfall, snowfall) and spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, during 1984-2014. The average temperature in July and August of the previous year, cumulative rainfall in September of the previous year, snowfall throughout the winter, and maximum depth of snow cover in January and February were positively correlated with the number of scrub typhus cases. By contrast, cumulative rainfall in July of the previous year showed a negative relationship to the number of cases. These associations can be explained by the life-cycle of Leptotrombidium pallidum, a predominant vector of spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in northern Japan. Our findings show that several meteorological factors are useful to estimate the number of scrub typhus cases before the endemic period. They are applicable to establish an early warning system for scrub typhus in northern Japan.

  20. Risk factors associated with severe scrub typhus in Shandong, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Zhao, Zhongtang; Bi, Zhenwang; Kou, Zengqiang; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Li; Zheng, Li

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with severe scrub typhus, in order to provide a reference for clinical decision-making. A case-control study was conducted of scrub typhus patients who presented at local hospitals between 2010 and 2013. In total, 46 patients with severe scrub typhus complications (cases) and 194 without severe complications (controls) were included. There were significant differences in the duration of illness before effective antibiotic therapy, lymphadenopathy, rash, blood platelet count, white blood cell (WBC) count, percentage neutrophils, and percentage lymphocytes between the case and control groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the following four factors were significantly associated with the severe complications of scrub typhus: (1) duration of illness before effective antibiotic therapy (odds ratio (OR) 2.287, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.096-4.770); (2) the presence of a rash (OR 3.694, 95% CI 1.300-10.495); (3) lymphadenopathy (OR 2.438, 95% CI 1.090-5.458); (4) blood platelet count scrub typhus. When scrub typhus patients present with a rash, lymphadenopathy, or blood platelet count <100×10(9)/l, clinicians should be alert to the appearance of severe complications. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Hematogenously disseminated Orientia tsutsugamushi-infected murine model of scrub typhus [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Shelite

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, is a mite-borne rickettsia transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites. Approximately one-third of the world's population is at risk of infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi, emphasizing its importance in global health. In order to study scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp strain has been used extensively in mouse studies with various inoculation strategies and little success in inducing disease progression similar to that of human scrub typhus. The objective of this project was to develop a disease model with pathology and target cells similar to those of severe human scrub typhus. This study reports an intravenous infection model of scrub typhus in C57BL/6 mice. This mouse strain was susceptible to intravenous challenge, and lethal infection occurred after intravenous inoculation of 1.25 × 10(6 focus (FFU forming units. Signs of illness in lethally infected mice appeared on day 6 with death occurring ∼ 6 days later. Immunohistochemical staining for Orientia antigens demonstrated extensive endothelial infection, most notably in the lungs and brain. Histopathological analysis revealed cerebral perivascular, lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, focal hemorrhages, meningoencephalitis, and interstitial pneumonia. Disseminated infection of endothelial cells with Orientia in C57BL/6 mice resulted in pathology resembling that of human scrub typhus. The use of this model will allow detailed characterization of the mechanisms of immunity to and pathogenesis of O. tsutsugamushi infection.

  2. Uncommon manifestations of scrub typhus encephalitis in two cases: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin; Jeong, Hae Woong [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Scrub typhus is a well-known acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. This disease has multiorgan involvement, which includes the lungs, heart, liver, spleen, and the central or peripheral nervous system. Scrub typhus involving the central nervous system (CNS) is not rare. However, meningitis and meningoencephalitis can cause changes in mentation and death and are therefore associated with a poor prognosis. We report two consecutive cases of scrub typhus with CNS involvement. One patient presented with extensive white matter involvement, similar to that observed in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas the other patient presented with subependymal enhancement along the lateral ventricles. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus encephalitis, with extensive white matter involvement and subependymal enhancement, are very rarely described findings in the previous literature. Our patients did not show complete recovery, but the symptoms resolved with treatment. Recognizing these uncommon radiologic findings of scrub typhus may be helpful in the early diagnosis of scrub typhus with CNS involvement, which may alter the prognoses of patients.

  3. Uncommon manifestations of scrub typhus encephalitis in two cases: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Young Jin; Jeong, Hae Woong

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a well-known acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. This disease has multiorgan involvement, which includes the lungs, heart, liver, spleen, and the central or peripheral nervous system. Scrub typhus involving the central nervous system (CNS) is not rare. However, meningitis and meningoencephalitis can cause changes in mentation and death and are therefore associated with a poor prognosis. We report two consecutive cases of scrub typhus with CNS involvement. One patient presented with extensive white matter involvement, similar to that observed in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas the other patient presented with subependymal enhancement along the lateral ventricles. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus encephalitis, with extensive white matter involvement and subependymal enhancement, are very rarely described findings in the previous literature. Our patients did not show complete recovery, but the symptoms resolved with treatment. Recognizing these uncommon radiologic findings of scrub typhus may be helpful in the early diagnosis of scrub typhus with CNS involvement, which may alter the prognoses of patients

  4. Flotability Improvement of Ilmenite Using Attrition-Scrubbing as a Pretreatment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation technology of the recovery and utilization of ilmenite from tailings of iron beneficiated in Panzhihua was investigated based on mineralogical study. The results of mineralogical study show that the main occurrence of the valuable mineral are liberated grains of ilmenite. Experimental results of flotation conditions show that attrition-scrubbing raw ores exhibit good flotability with higher recoveries and a slight decrease in grade compared to ores without attrition-scrubbing. Further, open-circuit experiments also prove the superiority of attrition-scrubbing raw ores. The results of closed-circuit experiments show that qualified ilmenite concentrate can be obtained and the yield, grade, and recovery are 22.26%, 47.06%, and 60.73%, respectively. Theoretical study and analysis show that there are two contributions to superior flotability for attrition-scrubbing samples. The first is that the attrition-scrubbing samples can uncover more ferrous ions on the newly-produced fresh ilmenite surface, resulting in the increase in active sites. The other is that in the process of attrition-scrubbing, the transformation of ferrous ions to ferric ions can be promoted.

  5. Epidemiology of scrub typhus and the eschars patterns in South Korea from 2008 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hyuk; Kim, Sun-Ja; Youn, Seung-Ki; Park, Kisoo; Gwack, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, scrub typhus is the most common acute febrile illness in autumn. We analyzed scrub typhus cases reported from 2008 to 2012 to describe the epidemiology of scrub typhus as well as eschar patterns. A total of 30,478 cases were reported from 2008 to 2012; the incidence rates were higher in the southern and western regions of South Korea. The common clinical symptoms of confirmed scrub typhus cases from 2010 to 2012 were fever/chills (95.2%), eschars (78.9%), and myalgia (61.7%). The primary sites of eschars were the lower extremities (19.0%), abdomen/waist (13.4%), and axilla (11.5%) in men and the shoulder/frontal chest (15.1%), lower extremities (14.5%), and abdomen/waist (13.6%) in women. Regardless of gender, eschars tended to be more on the lower extremities among the leisure activities group. Among the occupational farm work group, who usually lived in rural areas, eschars appeared most frequently on the abdomen/waist in men and on the shoulder/frontal chest in women. Eschar patterns were influenced by gender and activities. These results could facilitate the prevention of scrub typhus and clarify the current status of scrub typhus in South Korea.

  6. EPA's radon study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Last winter, in cooperation with agencies in 10 states and two metropolitan area counties, EPA measured the indoor air radon concentrations of 14,000 houses, some chosen statistically at random and some by request of the homeowner. Passive measurement methodologies were used, such as exposing a charcoal canister to the air for a few days and allowing the air to migrate in to the charcoal naturally. To reduce dilution of radon by the outside air, the protocol required that the house be shut up; therefore, the study was conducted during winter. The measuring device was placed in the lowest livable area (usually the basement) of each house to maximize potential concentration. It should be noted that these procedures are generally considered to be screening tests because they result in a worst-case measurement rather than a best value. The results of these findings are presented

  7. Muonium centers in the alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumeler, H.; Kiefl, R.F.; Keller, H.; Kuendig, W.; Odermatt, W.; Patterson, B.D.; Schneider, J.W.; Savic, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    Muonium centers (Mu) in single crystals and powdered alkali halides have been studied using the high-timing-resolution transverse field μSR technique. Mu has been observed and its hyperfine parameter (HF) determined in every alkali halide. For the rocksalt alkali halides, the HF parameter A μ shows a systematic dependence on the host lattice constant. A comparison of the Mu HF parameter with hydrogen ESR data suggests that the Mu center is the muonic analogue of the interstitial hydrogen H i 0 -center. The rate of Mu diffusion can be deduced from the motional narrowing of the nuclear hyperfine interaction. KBr shows two different Mu states, a low-temperature Mu I -state and a high-temperature Mu II -state. (orig.)

  8. EPA's Information Architecture and Web Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Information Architecture creates a topical organization of our website, instead of an ownership-based organization. The EPA Web Taxonomy allows audiences easy access to relevant information from EPA programs, by using a common vocabulary.

  9. A procedure for preparing alkali metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, R.U.; Sanford, C.E.; Prescott, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A plain low cost, procedure for the continuous, low temperature preparation of sodium or potassium hydrides using cheap reagents is presented. Said invention is especially concerned with a process of purifying of a catalytic exchange liquid used for deuterium enrichment, in which an alkali metal hydride is produced as intermediate product. The procedure for producing the sodium and potassium hydrides consists in causing high pressure hydrogen to be absorbed by a mixture of at least a lower monoalkylamine and an alkylamide of an alkali metal from at least one of said amines [fr

  10. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  11. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in the...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject to...

  15. EPA Metadata Style Guide Keywords and EPA Organization Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following keywords and EPA organization names listed below, along with EPA’s Metadata Style Guide, are intended to provide suggestions and guidance to assist with the standardization of metadata records.

  16. EPA Office Points, Tutuila AS, 2009, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA office location in Tutila Island in American Samoa. American Samoa is an unincorporated and unorganized territory of the United States, and administered by...

  17. Tsutsugamushi Disease (Scrub Typhus) Meningoencephalitis in North Eastern India: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S R; Masaraf, H; Lynrah, K G; Lyngdoh, M

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is rampant in northern, eastern, and southern India. Central nervous system involvement in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus. As specific laboratory methods remain inadequate or inaccessible in developing countries, prompt diagnosis is often difficult. The aim of this study was to characterize neurological complications in scrub typhus from northeastern region of India. We did a prospective study of scrub meningoencephalitis at North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Medical Sciences among patients admitted to hospital between October 2009 and November 2011. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical pictures, presence of an eschar, and a positive Weil-Felix test (WFT) with a titer of >1:160 and if required a positive scrub IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain performed if needed. Twenty-three patients of scrub typhus meningitis that were serologically confirmed were included in the study. There were 13 males and 10 females. Fever ≥1 week was the most common manifestation (39.1%). Interestingly, none had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 17 cells/μL, 90%, 86 mg/dL, 0.6605 and 3.6 U/mL, respectively. All patients were treated with doxycycline. There was no mortality in our study. Absence of Eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis so misdiagnosis may lead to unwarranted prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. Delay in treatment can be potentially fatal. WFT still serves as a useful and affordable diagnostic tool for this disease in resource-poor countries.

  18. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Taylor

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease's non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes.A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max of 0-70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9-19.Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This information would facilitate reliable quantification of

  19. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew J; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease's non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes. A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max) of 0-70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9-19)). Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This information would facilitate reliable quantification of DALYs and

  20. Clinical Profile of Scrub Typhus in Pregnancy in Sub-Himalayan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Thakur, Surinder; Bhawani, Rajesh; Kanga, Anil; Ranjan, Asha

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is rare in pregnancy, but it has now become an important cause of febrile illness in pregnancy in sub-Himalayan region of India. Only a few case reports have been published so far, and they show adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. No consensus has been reached till now regarding treatment. All the pregnant patients irrespective of period of gestation admitted with febrile illness with positive IgM ELISA for scrub typhus with or without eschar were included. The clinical profile was observed using a detailed history of symptoms, travel, recreation, agricultural activities, treatment record prior to admission, and a detailed examination, and the treatment outcome was noted. Fever workup including cultures, CXR, CSF analysis, serology for scrub was done. IgM scrub typhus was done by kit method manufactured by InBios Intertational, Inc. We observed in total 14 pregnant patients out of which eight were in the the second trimester and six were in the third trimester. The clinical features of the disease observed for pregnant females were the same as for nonpregnant females. There was no difference in the severity of scrub typhus between pregnant and nonpregnant women. No mortality was found in these patients. On follow-up, they had normal peripartum and postpartum periods. All were treated with azithromycin 500 mg once a day for 5 days. Although rare, scrub typhus should be considered in differential diagnosis of fever in pregnant patients especially in scrub season. Azithromycin should be the drug of choice in pregnancy as it has no adverse effect on fetus and pregnancy outcome.

  1. Predictors of acute myocarditis in complicated scrub typhus: an endemic province in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jung Yeon; Kang, Ki-Woon; Moon, Kyung Min; Kim, Jongwoo; Choi, Yu Jeong

    2018-03-01

    Scrub typhus is known as a self-limited infectious disease. Cardiac complication is uncommon and usually not life-threatening. Until now, few cases of fulminant myocarditis by scrub typhus have been reported. So, we investigated incidence and predictors of acute myocarditis in severe scrub typhus. We retrospectively reviewed 89 patients among 91 scrub typhus confirmed patients who examined an echocardiogram and cardiac biomarkers from 2005 to 2015 in the intensive care unit at our hospital. We excluded two patients who didn't have electrocardiography. Patients were divided into two groups and compared between scrub typhus with (n = 13) and without (n = 76) acute myocarditis. Age, sex, and underlying diseases were similar between the groups. The existence of eschar and duration of general ache and fever were similar between the groups. However, patients with acute myocarditis had more elevated total bilirubin, high incidence of ST elevations and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) than those without acute myocarditis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the PAF was a predictor of myocarditis with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 84%. Predictive power of combination of ST-segment elevation and PAF was significantly associated with myocarditis in the multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 11.7; p = 0.041) and area under the curve was 0.947 (95% CI, 0.878 to 0.983; p scrub typhus may be more common than previously reported. Patients with high bilirubin and PAF are at increased risk of acute myocarditis with scrub typhus. These patients warrant closer follow-up and echocardiogram would be needed.

  2. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2013-01-01

    Dear GAC-EPA members, This year, owing to works in the main Auditorium, we have to hold our General assembly in the auditorium of the Globe on 27 March 2013 and we really hope that you can be present. We wish to give you some preliminary practical recommendations: Do not forget your CERN access card, the guards may carry out checks. As far as possible, use public transport because there is very limited parking. If you come by car, park your vehicle on the car parks inside CERN because the outside car park cannot be used by visitors. Refreshments cannot be organized in the Globe; they will be held in cafeteria n°1, which will force us to move by using CERN entrances A or B or via building 33 (access cards required here too). We thank you for your attention and hope to see you soon. Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 2 avril de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l&rsquo...

  3. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2013-01-01

    En tant que Président du GAC-EPA, je porte à votre connaissance ce communiqué émanant de la Direction du CERN. Le 2 juin 2013, le CERN inaugure le projet Passeport Big Bang, un parcours touristique et scientifique formé de dix plates-formes d'exposition devant dix sites du CERN dans le Pays de Gex et le Canton de Genève. Les plateformes sont reliées par des itinéraires balisés et par un jeu de piste. C'est un projet est mené en collaboration avec les communes du Pays de Gex, Meyrin et Genève Tourisme dans un souci de renforcer notre dialogue avec nos voisins : http://passeport-big-bang.web.cern.ch/fr. A l’occasion de cette inauguration, nous organisons un événement populaire et festif : le matin, les familles pourront participer à des randonnées à vélo tandis que les sportifs pourront tester les 5...

  4. Assessing the effectiveness of scrub management at the landscape scale using rapid field assessment and remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, John; Cuevas-Gonzales, Maria; Smith, Geoffrey; Gerard, France; Pywell, Richard

    2012-04-30

    Controlling scrub encroachment is a major challenge for conservation management on chalk grasslands. However, direct comparisons of scrub removal methods have seldom been investigated, particularly at the landscape scale. Effective monitoring of grassland scrub is problematic as it requires simultaneous information on large scale patterns in scrub cover and fine-scale changes in the grassland community. This study addressed this by combining analysis of aerial imagery with rapid field surveys in order to compare the effectiveness of four scrub management strategies on Defence Training Estate Salisbury Plain, UK. Study plots were sited within areas undergoing management and in unmanaged controls. Controls showed dramatic increases in scrub cover, with encroachment of a mean 1096 m(2) per hectare over ten years. Whilst all management strategies were effective in reducing scrub encroachment, they differed in their ability to influence regeneration of scrub and grassland quality. There was a general trend, evident in both the floral community and scrub levels, of increased effectiveness with increasing management intensity. The dual methodology proved highly effective, allowing rapid collection of data over a range of variables and spatial scales unavailable to each method individually. The methodology thus demonstrates potential for a useful monitoring tool. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Porous alkali activated materials with slow alkali release dynamic. Role of composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.

    2018-01-01

    Alkali activated materials (AAM) based on calcined metakaolin or illite clay together with waste by-products, such as waste glass or aluminium scrap recycling waste, were tested as value-added materials for pH stabilization in biogas technology where decrease of pH should be avoided. Porous materials with ability to slowly leach alkalis in the water media thus providing continuous control of the pH level were obtained. XRD, FTIR, SEM and titration methods were used to characterize AAM and their leaching properties. It is clear that composition of the material has an important effect on the diffusion of alkali from structure. Namely, higher Si/Al and Na/Al molar ratios may increase pore solution transfer to the leachate. The leaching rate of alkalis from the structure of AAM is high for the first few days, decreasing over time. It was possible to calculate the buffer capacity from the mixture design of AAM. [es

  6. Chemical effects of alkali atoms on critical temperature in superconducting alkali-doped fullerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetfleisch, F.; Gunnarsson, O.; Srama, R.; Han, J. E.; Stepper, M.; Roeser, H.-P.; Bohr, A.; Lopez, J. S.; Mashmool, M.; Roth, S.

    2018-03-01

    Alkali metal doped fullerides (A3C60) are superconductors with critical temperatures, Tc, extending up to 38 K. Tc is known to depend strongly on the lattice parameter a, which can be adjusted by physical or chemical pressure. In the latter case an alkali atom is replaced by a different sized one, which changes a. We have collected an extensive data base of experimental data for Tc from very early up to recent measurements. We disentangle alkali atom chemical effects on Tc, beyond the well-known consequences of changing a. It is found that Tc, for a fixed a, is typically increased as smaller alkali atoms are replaced by larger ones, except for very large a. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. Although smaller in size than the lattice parameter contribution, the chemical effect is not negligible and should be considered in future physical model developments.

  7. Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

    2014-11-18

    In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

  8. Alkali metals in fungi of forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, M.; Taylor, A.; Rosen, K.; Nikolova, I.; Johanson, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The high affinity of forest soil fungi for alkali metals such as potassium, rubidium, caesium as well as radiocaesium is shown and discussed. Good positive correlation was found between K: Rb concentration ratios in soil and in fungi, when correlation between K: Cs concentration ratios was less pronounced. (LN)

  9. Corrosion and compatibility in liquid alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The literature dealing with liquid alkali metal corrosion of vanadium and its alloys is reviewed in the following subsections. Attention is given to both lithium and sodium data. Preceding this review, a brief outline of the current state of understanding of liquid metal corrosion mechanisms is provided

  10. Alkali slagging problems with biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Baxter, L.L.; Jenkins, B.M.; Oden, L.L.

    1993-12-31

    Biomass fueled power boilers are unable to burn more than minor percentages of annually generated agricultural fuels. Determining the mechanisms of deposit formation, and developing means of increasing the proportion of these annual biofuels to be fired are the aims of the ongoing Alkali Deposit Investigation sponsored by DOE/NREL with matching funds from industry sponsors, combining Science, Engineering and Industry.

  11. High effective silica fume alkali activator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Growing demands on the engineering properties of cement based materials and the urgency to decrease unsuitable ecologic impact of Portland cement manufacturing represent significant motivation for the development of new cement corresponding to these aspects. One category represents prospective alkali.

  12. Complexes in polyvalent metal - Alkali halide melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Tosi, M.P.

    1991-03-01

    Experimental evidence is available in the literature on the local coordination of divalent and trivalent metal ions by halogens in some 140 liquid mixtures of their halides with alkali halides. After brief reference to classification criteria for main types of local coordination, we focus on statistical mechanical models that we are developing for Al-alkali halide mixtures. Specifically, we discuss theoretically the equilibrium between (AlF 6 ) 3- and (AlF 4 ) - complexes in mixtures of AlF 3 and NaF as a function of composition in the NaF-rich region, the effect of the alkali counterion on this equilibrium, the possible role of (AlF 5 ) 2- as an intermediate species in molten cryolite, and the origin of the different complexing behaviours of Al-alkali fluorides and chlorides. We also present a theoretical scenario for processes of structure breaking and electron localization in molten cryolite under addition of sodium metal. (author). 26 refs, 2 tabs

  13. luminescence in coloured alkali halide crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have studied the effect of annealing in chlorine gas on the ML of X-rayed KCl crystals. ..... high temperature because of the thermal bleaching of the coloration in alkali halide ..... [31] J Hawkins, Ph.D. Thesis (University of Reading, 1976).

  14. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-01-01

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization

  15. Technologies and policies for "hard to scrub" emissions sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, J.

    2016-12-01

    The science of climate change yields harsh math regarding atmospheric accumulations of GHGs. The world is far from target trajectories for 2C or 1.5C, and the global carbon budget is severe. To achieve those targets requires two things. First, we must field technologies that reduce emissions from the "hard to scrub" parts of the US and global economies, such as heavy industry (cement and steel), aviation, ocean shipping, and household cooking and heating. Second, we will likely need negative emissions pathways for those sources that prove extremely difficult to remove or reduce - the climate equivalent of adding revenue to one's budget. Such pathways may well need to convert GHG emissions (especially CO2 and methane) into useful products with minimal infrastructure builds. Dramatic advances in advanced manufacturing, 3D printing, simulation, modeling, and data analytics have made possible solutions which were previously unthinkable or impossible. This include "bespoke reactors", which can simultaneously perform separations and conversions; low-cost modular chemical systems of any scale; biologically inspired or biologically mediated energy services; direct air carbon-capture systems; and electrochemical pathways for emissions reduction and conversion. However, these approaches are unlikely to be fielded without policy actions or reforms that support such systems in competitive global energy markets. Such policy measures do NOT require a carbon price. Rather, they could include individual or combined measures such as emission or performance standards, financial incentives (like tax credits or low-cost access to capital), border adjustable tariffs, creation of CO2 utilities, ands public good surcharges. Innovation in both technical and policy arenas are needed to achieve the goals of the Paris agreement signatories, and these innovations can be simultaneously configured to deliver substantive greenhouse gas mitigation.

  16. EPA Collaboration with South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA, the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and partner agencies in both countries cooperate to strengthen environmental governance, improve air and water quality, and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals.

  17. EPA scientific integrity policy draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its draft scientific integrity policy on 5 August. The draft policy addresses scientific ethical standards, communications with the public, the use of advisory committees and peer review, and professional development. The draft policy was developed by an ad hoc group of EPA senior staff and scientists in response to a December 2010 memorandum on scientific integrity from the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The agency is accepting public comments on the draft through 6 September; comments should be sent to osa.staff@epa.gov. For more information, see http://www.epa.gov/stpc/pdfs/draft-scientific-integrity-policy-aug2011.pdf.

  18. EPA Nonregulatory Nonroad Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA nonregulatory, nonroad duty cycles for equipment such as agricultural tractors, backhoe loaders,crawlers tractors, excavators, arc welding skid steer loaders, and wheel loaders. Also,test procedures, laboratory methods, and emissions for this equipmen

  19. Scrub typhus re-emergence in India: Contributing factors and way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Jai; Prakash, John Antony Jude

    2018-06-01

    Scrub typhus is a mite borne infectious disease which has re-emerged in India in the 3rd millennium after years of quiescence. In this review, the authors hypothesize the various factors responsible for resurgence of this disease. The main drivers that could have contributed to the upsurge in scrub typhus cases in past two decades are changes in land use land cover (LULC) and urbanisation which are; as a result of the population explosion, causing a strain on sanitation and also increased diversion of forest land for agricultural use. In addition, the availability of better tests, changes in antimicrobial use, climate change also could have impacted the epidemiology, which is showing an upward trend as is evidenced by increasing reports and concomitant publications from India on scrub typhus. Scrub typhus cases are supposed to increase in the coming years as factors like global warming, urbanisation, changes in LULC and rise in AMR (anti-microbial resistance) will be difficult or impossible to control. Therefore, increasing awareness of public and health care professionals regarding scrub typhus coupled with availability of rapid diagnostic assays and implementation of appropriate treatment protocols for control of AFI (acute febrile illness) especially at the community level will help mitigate the scenario in the long run. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effects of clarithromycin treatment in scrub typhus in children: comparison with chloramphenicol and azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min; Kim, June; Jo, Dae Sun

    2017-04-01

    Chloramphenicol and tetracycline are not recommended for treating scrub typhus in pediatric patients because of potential side effects, such as aplastic anemia or tooth discoloration. While clarithromycin has recently been used in adults, few reports have been published on its effects in pediatric patients. We report the clinical profiles of pediatric scrub typhus and the effects of clarithromycin on scrub typhus in children. We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 56 children with scrub typhus who were admitted between 2004 and 2013 to Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Korea. Cases were divided into 3 groups based on thetreatment drug (chloramphenicol, azithromycin, and clarithromycin). We compared their clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. All patients exhibited fever and rash. Other common clinical manifestations were eschars (66%), lymphadenopathy (48%), upper respiratory symptoms (42%), abdominal pain (32%), and hepatosplenomegaly (14%). Elevated levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase were detected in 95%, 96%, 84%, and 77% of patients, respectively. Additionally, decreased platelet and white blood cell levels were observed in 43% and 36% of patients, respectively. There were no statistical differences between the treatment groups in mean age ( P =0.114) or sex ( P =0.507). However, time to defervescence after the treatments differed significantly, being the shortest in the clarithromycin group ( P =0.019). All patients recovered without complications related to the disease or drugs. Clarithromycin was as effective as chloramphenicol and azithromycin in pediatric scrub typhus patients and may be used as a first-line treatment drug.

  1. Comparative scrub solution tests for decontamination of transuranic radionuclides from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.R.; Kochen, R.L.; Rutherford, D.W.; Riordan, G.A.; Delaney, I.C.

    1982-08-01

    Soil decontamination tests were done using three scrubbing solutions on five different transuranic-contaminated soils from Department of Energy sites. The soils came from Rocky Flats, Colorado; Hanford, Washington; Mound Facility, Ohio; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. Decontamination was effected by physical and chemical means. A pH 12.5 scrub effected decontamination by serving as a hydraulic grading and attrition scrub medium; this solution did not solubilize the actinide contamination. A 2% HNO 3 , 0.2% HF, 2% pine oil, and 5% Calgon solution effected decontamination by physical and chemical means; this solution solubilized particulate actinide and actinide dispersed on the surface of soil particles. A 2N HCl scrub was also used to effect decontamination by physical and chemical means; this reagent solubilized soil constituents, removing contamination that had migrated into mineral surfaces. Only Rocky Flats soil was effectively decontaminated by the high pH solution although all soils had an enrichment of the activity in the -150 mesh fraction. Attrition scrubbing with both acid solutions had a better decontamination ability for the +150 mesh fraction for Hanford, INEL, and LANL soils. In addition, the acid solutions solubilized some of the plutonium and had a decontamination effect on the fine fractions

  2. Electro-scrubbing volatile organic carbons in the air stream with a gas diffusion electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Ji, E-mail: yangji@ecust.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Kaichen; Jia Jinping; Cao Limei [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-04-15

    It is demonstrated that exposing the VOC air streams to the electro-scrubbing reactor with a gas diffusion electrode leads to an efficient removal of organics. The importance order of the influence factors on the electro-scrubbing reactor performance is: conductivity, voltage and air stream flow-rate. The effective conductivity and high voltages generally are beneficial to the removal process and the air flow-rate is not a significant factor compared with the other two, indicating that the reactor might have a consistently satisfying performance within a wide range of gas volumetric load. The mass transfer of both organics and oxygen in the reactor is estimated by mathematical model, and the calculation determines the concentration boundary conditions for the 2-ethoxyethyl acetate removal: if the 2-ethoxyethyl acetate concentration in the inflow air stream holds C{sub G,i} {<=} 0.7198 % , the removal in the electro-scrubbing reactor is electrochemical reaction controlled; if C{sub G,i} > 0.7198 % , the controlling step will be the oxygen mass transfer from the air to the liquid in the electro-scrubbing reactor. The Apparent Current Efficiency of the electro-scrubbing reactor was also determined using COD data, which is significantly higher than some commercial metal oxide electrodes, showing that the reactor is energy efficient and has the promise for the future scale-up.

  3. Thermodynamic properties of alkali borosilicate gasses and metaborates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Mitsuru

    1992-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses are the proposed solidifying material for storing high level radioactive wastes in deep underground strata. Those have low melting point, and can contain relatively large amount of high level radioactive wastes. When borosilicate glasses are used for this purpose, they must be sufficiently stable and highly reliable in the vitrification process, engineered storage and the disposal in deep underground strata. The main vaporizing components from borosilicate glasses are alkali elements and boron. In this report, as for the vaporizing behavior of alkali borosilicate glasses, the research on thermodynamic standpoint carried out by the authors is explained, and the thermodynamic properties of alkali metaborates of monomer and dimer which are the main evaporation gases are reported. The evaporation and the activity of alkali borosilicate glasses, the thermodynamic properties of alkali borosilicate glasses, gaseous alkali metaborates and alkali metaborate system solid solution and so on are described. (K.I.)

  4. EPA for Businesses and Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and links to EPA web pages that are meant to help businesses and non-profits adhere to EPA regulations and otherwise protect the environment, take advantage of opportunities to collaborate with the EPA, and find training EPA training programs.

  5. STATUS OF SCRUB TYPHUS RESEARCH IN INDONESIA (Based on published reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus merupakan penyakit yang endemis di Indonesia. Akan tetapi laporan mengenai hal tersebut sangat sedikit. Penelusuran hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebelum tahun 1945 pernah dilaporkan hasil isolasi Rickettsia tsutsugamushi dari penderita demam di beberapa tempat di Indonesia. Setelah tahun 1970 beberapa penelitian seroepidemiologi dilakukan di beberapa daerah di Indonesia terutama daerah transmigrasi dengan hasil prevalensi antibodi terhadap scrub typhus tertinggi di daerah Biak dan Owi, Irian Jaya dan yang terendah di Flores dan Jakarta. Selain itu dilakukan pula penelitian mengenai vektor scrub typhus dan hospesnya dengan hasil di­temukannya 7 species tungau Leptotrombidium termasuk 2 jenis yang merupakan vektor. Saran untuk penelitian di masa yang akan datang diberikan dalam laporan ini.

  6. BIONOMIK TUNGAU VEKTOR SCRUB TYPHUS DAN HOSPESNYA DI DAERAH TRANSMIGRASI KUMPEH, JAMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Nurisa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on bionomics of scrub typhus vector and its host species was conducted in a transmigration scheme of Kumpeh, Jambi, Sumatera. Ten species of trombiculid mites were collected from 6 species of rats and 2 species of squirrels. Leptotrombidium (L. deliense, a known vectorof scrub typhus vector elsewhere, was found mostly on Rattus tiomanicus. This rat species was widely distributed in forest, disturbed land and cultivated land habitations found in the study area. Chigger infestations on R. tioma­nicus trapped in disturbed land were 63.6% — 81.8%. The average number of chigger collected from disturbed land was highest in December, from forest habitation was in October and from the cultivated land habitation was in November. Rattus tiomanicus was found to be a potential rat species for main­taining the natural cycle of scrub typhus in the study area.

  7. A viable on-chip FPGA configuration memory scrubbing approach for CBM-ToF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oancea, Andrei-Dumitru; Stuellein, Christian; Manz, Sebastian; Gebelein, Jano; Kebschull, Udo [Infrastruktur und Rechnersysteme in der Informationsverarbeitung (IRI), Goethe-Universitaet, Senckenberganlage 31, 60325 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The ToF Detector of the CBM Experiment will be equipped with FPGA-based read-out boards (ROBs). These ROBs will be operated in a radiation environment, and therefore need a mitigation mechanism against soft errors in the SRAM-based configuration memories of the FPGAs. The proposed approach combines intrinsic on-chip single upset correction with extrinsic selective frame scrubbing for multiple-bit upsets. The slow control is realized using the GBT-SCA, which is capable of handling interrupts. This enables the new approach of event-driven configuration frame correction. While conventional blind scrubbing leads to a continuous load on the control path, the selective frame scrubbing reduces this load to a minimum. For verification purposes, radiation tests with a proton beam were performed at COSY, Juelich. The occurred soft errors were classified into single and multiple- bit upsets, enabling an estimation of the rate at which extrinsic intervention is necessary.

  8. THE KNOWLEDGE OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS AND DOCTORS REGARDING HAND SCRUB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sanjeev Chaudhary

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hand hygiene practices of health care workers has been shown to be an effective measure in preventing hospital acquired infections. This concept has been aptly used to improve understanding, training, monitoring, and reporting hand hygiene among healthcare workers. We conducted this study to assess the knowledge of doctors and health care workers regarding hand scrub. METHODS A study was conducted among doctors and health care workers in a tertiary care hospital. Knowledge was evaluated by using self-structured questionnaire based on the guidelines of hand hygiene prescribed by WHO. RESULTS The awareness and knowledge of preoperative surgical hand scrubbing was moderate in doctors, but unfortunately poor in HCWs. CONCLUSION Our study highlights the need for introducing measures in order to increase the knowledge of preoperative hand scrub in teaching hospital which may translate into good practices.

  9. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the solvent transfer to salt waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared approximately 240 gallons of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for use at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of the prepared solvent using a salt solution prepared by Parsons to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams. This data will be used by Parsons to help qualify the solvent for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 15.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  10. Effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights from alkali pretreated rice straw hydrolyzate on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Wan, Yinhua

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Different alkali lignins fractions, which were obtained from cascade ultrafiltration, were added into the dilute acid pretreated (DAP) and alkali pretreated (AP) rice straws respectively during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the addition of alkali lignins enhanced the hydrolysis and the enhancement for hydrolysis increased with increasing molecular weights of alkali lignins, with maximum enhancement being 28.69% for DAP and 20.05% for AP, respectively. The enhancement was partly attributed to the improved cellulase activity, and filter paper activity increased by 18.03% when adding lignin with highest molecular weight. It was found that the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was correlated with the adsorption affinity of cellulase on alkali lignins, and the difference in surface charge and hydrophobicity of alkali lignins were responsible for the difference in affinity between cellulase and lignins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scrub typhus in Uttarakhand & adjoining Uttar Pradesh: Seasonality, clinical presentations & predictors of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Anurag; Kaushik, Reshma; Kaushik, Rajeev Mohan; Sharma, Anita; Ahmad, Sohaib; Dhar, Minakshi; Mittal, Garima; Khanduri, Sushant; Pant, Priyannk; Kakkar, Rajesh

    2016-12-01

    Scrub typhus is a re-emerging mite-borne rickettsiosis, which continues to be underdiagnosed, with lethal consequences. The present study was conducted to determine the seasonality, clinical presentation and predictors of mortality in patients with scrub typhus at a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India. Scrub typhus was suspected in patients attending the hospital as per the standard case definition and serological evidence was obtained by performing an IgM ELISA. A total of 284 patients with scrub typhus from urban and rural areas were seen, predominantly from July to November. The most common clinical presentation was a bilateral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), which resembled pneumonia due to atypical pathogens and often progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). An acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) or a febrile illness associated with altered sensorium, aseptic meningitis, shock, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding or jaundice was also seen. Eschars were seen in 17 per cent of patients, and thrombocytopenia, transaminitis and azotaemia were frequent. There were 24 deaths (8.5%) caused predominantly by ARDS and multi-organ dysfunction. The mortality in patients with ARDS was high (37%). ARDS [odds ratio (OR)=38.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.93, 147.71] and acute kidney injury (OR=8.30, 95% CI: 2.21, 31.21) were the major predictors of death. The present findings indicate that scrub typhus may be considered a cause of CAP, ARDS, AUFI or a febrile illness with multisystem involvement, in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, especially from July to November. Empiric therapy of CAP may include doxycycline or azithromycin to ensure coverage of underlying unsuspected scrub typhus.

  12. Clinico - Laboratory Profile of Scrub Typhus - An Emerging Rickettsiosis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Dinesh Kumar; Arunagirinathan, Arul Kumaran; Kumar, Revathi Krishna; Raghavendran, V D

    2016-11-01

    To study the clinical and laboratory profile of pediatric scrub typhus in rural south India. This is a descriptive study of the clinical and laboratory features of 117 children with IgM ELISA proven scrub typhus out of 448 children, who were admitted in the Pediatric ward of a tertiary care hospital, during the study period of November 2014 through March 2015. Fever was present in all 117 children, with mean duration of fever at admission as 9 d. Gastrointestinal tract was the most commonly affected system, seen in 51 % of children. Cough (82 %), myalgia (70 %), vomiting (68 %), headache (45 %) and pain abdomen (42 %) were the most common symptoms of scrub typhus. Hepatomegaly (70), splenomegaly (53 %), pallor (50 %) and eschar (41 %) were the common clinical findings in children with scrub typhus. Out of 49 children with eschar, 32 were associated with regional lymphadenopathy, which was commonly seen in axillary, neck and groin regions. Leucocytosis (50 %), anemia (56 %), increased SGOT / SGPT (47 %), thrombocytopenia (41 %), hypoalbuminemia (40 %) and hyponatremia (40 %) were the common lab features. Shock (46 %), myocarditis (24 %) and pneumonia (16 %) were the common complications seen in these children. This study showed that early treatment for scrub typhus results in a good outcome in terms of early recovery and nil mortality. Regional lymphadenopathy is a marker of hidden or developing eschar. Total count and differential count should be interpreted on the background of the duration of fever. Since IgM ELISA, which is diagnostic of scrub typhus may not be widely available, any febrile child coming from rural area with hepatosplenomegaly, pallor, eschar, generalised / regional lymphadenopathy, anemia, leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia and increased Aspartate transaminase (AST) /Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) should be started on empirical Doxycycline or Azithromycin in order to prevent life threatening complications secondary to delay in

  13. Use of Multiplex Real-Time PCR To Diagnose Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantibhedhyangkul, Wiwit; Wongsawat, Ekkarat; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk; Waywa, Duangdao; Saenyasiri, Nuttawut; Suesuay, Jintapa; Thipmontree, Wilawan; Suputtamongkol, Yupin

    2017-05-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi , is a common cause of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in the Asia-Pacific region. However, its nonspecific clinical manifestation often prevents early diagnosis. We propose the use of PCR and serologic tests as diagnostic tools. Here, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay using hydrolysis (TaqMan) probes targeting O. tsutsugamushi 47-kDa, groEL , and human interferon beta (IFN-β gene) genes to improve early diagnosis of scrub typhus. The amplification efficiency was higher than 94%, and the lower detection limit was 10 copies per reaction. We used a human gene as an internal DNA quality and quantity control. To determine the sensitivity of this PCR assay, we selected patients with confirmed scrub typhus who exhibited a clear 4-fold increase in the level of IgG and/or IgM. The PCR assay result was positive in 45 of 52 patients, indicating a sensitivity of 86.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.2 to 94.4). The PCR assessment was negative for all 136 non-scrub typhus patients, indicating a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 97.3 to 100). In addition, this test helped diagnose patients with inconclusive immunofluorescence assay (IFA) results and using single blood samples. In conclusion, the real-time PCR assay proposed here is sensitive and specific in diagnosing scrub typhus. Combining PCR and serologic tests will improve the diagnosis of scrub typhus among patients presenting with acute febrile illness. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Scrub typhus in Uttarakhand & adjoining Uttar Pradesh: Seasonality, clinical presentations & predictors of mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Scrub typhus is a re-emerging mite-borne rickettsiosis, which continues to be underdiagnosed, with lethal consequences. The present study was conducted to determine the seasonality, clinical presentation and predictors of mortality in patients with scrub typhus at a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India. Methods: Scrub typhus was suspected in patients attending the hospital as per the standard case definition and serological evidence was obtained by performing an IgM ELISA. Results: A total of 284 patients with scrub typhus from urban and rural areas were seen, predominantly from July to November. The most common clinical presentation was a bilateral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, which resembled pneumonia due to atypical pathogens and often progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. An acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI or a febrile illness associated with altered sensorium, aseptic meningitis, shock, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding or jaundice was also seen. Eschars were seen in 17 per cent of patients, and thrombocytopenia, transaminitis and azotaemia were frequent. There were 24 deaths (8.5% caused predominantly by ARDS and multi-organ dysfunction. The mortality in patients with ARDS was high (37%. ARDS [odds ratio (OR=38.29, 95% confidence interval (CI: 9.93, 147.71] and acute kidney injury (OR=8.30, 95% CI: 2.21, 31.21 were the major predictors of death. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings indicate that scrub typhus may be considered a cause of CAP, ARDS, AUFI or a febrile illness with multisystem involvement, in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, especially from July to November. Empiric therapy of CAP may include doxycycline or azithromycin to ensure coverage of underlying unsuspected scrub typhus.

  15. Local structure of alkalis in mixed-alkali borate glass to elucidate the origin of mixed-alkali effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomei Tokuda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium borate crystals and glasses using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. The composition dependence of NMR spectra of the borate was similar to that of the silicate: (1 the peak position of cesium borate crystals shifted to upfield for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers, (2 the MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-3B2O3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, x + y = 1 glass showed that the average coordination number (CN of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. However, the degree of decrement in borates is much smaller than that in silicates. We have considered that the small difference in CN is due to 4-coordinated B, because it is electrically compensated by the alkali metal ions resulting in the restriction of having various coordinations of O to alkali metal.

  16. High seroprevalence of antibodies against spotted fever and scrub typhus bacteria in patients with febrile Illness, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiga, Jacqueline W; Mutai, Beth K; Eyako, Wurapa K; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L; Waitumbi, John N

    2015-04-01

    Serum samples from patients in Kenya with febrile illnesses were screened for antibodies against bacteria that cause spotted fever, typhus, and scrub typhus. Seroprevalence was 10% for spotted fever group, typhus group, and 5% for scrub typhus group. Results should help clinicians expand their list of differential diagnoses for undifferentiated fevers.

  17. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., without a permit, take scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) and Steller's jays (Cyanocitta stelleri) when... transported or sold or offered for sale except that, such transportation within the area, as may be necessary... the State agricultural department, college, or other public institution may requisition such scrub...

  18. Effects of Width, Edge and Habitat on the Abundance and Nesting Success of Scrub-shrub Birds in Powerline Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Richard B. Chandler; Jeffrey M. Collins; Wayne R. Petersen; Thomas E. Lautzenheiser

    2009-01-01

    Concern about declines in scrub–shrub bird populations has resulted in efforts to create and maintain habitat for these species. Vegetation within powerline corridors is managed to prevent contact of vegetation with transmission lines, and comprises approximately 2% of all of habitat for scrub–shrub birds in southern New England. Although previous studies have...

  19. Clinical and paraclinical profile, and predictors of outcome in 90 cases of scrub typhus, Meghalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarajan, Sunuraj; Shivalli, Siddharudha; Bhuyan, Debomallya; Mawlong, Michael; Barman, Rittwick

    2016-10-05

    India is an integral component of "tsutsugamushi triangle" which depicts a part of the globe endemic to scrub typhus. Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. The present study aimed to study the clinical and paraclinical profile, complications and predictors of outcome among 90 cases of scrub typhus diagnosed in a hospital of north-eastern India from Sept 2011 to Aug 2012. A longitudinal study was conducted in a hospital of Meghalaya, India between Sept 2011 and Aug 2012. Diagnosis of scrub typhus was arrived by SD BIOLINE tsutsugamushi (solid phase immunochromatographic assay) rapid diagnostic test for antibodies (IgM, IgG or IgA). Descriptive analyses of age, gender, geographic area, symptoms and signs, treatment, laboratory findings, complications, and outcome were conducted. Relative risk (RR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) was computed for Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) and mortality. Binary logistic regression was applied to the significant correlates (P scrub typhus. As many as 662 clinically suspected scrub typhus patients were tested and 90 (13.6 %) were diagnosed to have scrub typhus. Out of 90 patients, 52.2 % (n = 47) were males and their mean (SD) age was 36.29 (13.38) years. Fever of 1.5 mg/dl, and transaminase (AST, ALT or both) >500 U/L were associated with MODS (P 3 mg/dl was also associated with MODS (P 1.5 mg/dl was a predictor of MODS (OR: 76.1, 95 % CI: 4.9-1175.6) and mortality (OR: 18.03, 95 % CI: 1.38-235.1). In this study setting, approximately one-seventh (13.6 %) of the acute undifferentiated febrile illness were due to scrub typhus. Systemic complications were common (33.3 %). Serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dl was a predictor of MODS and mortality.

  20. Scrub typhus causing neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure-A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajpayee, Shailja; Gupta, R K; Gupta, M L

    2017-05-01

    Neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure due to varied etiology including various infections is reported in the past. Scrub typhus as a cause of neonatal hepatitis has rarely been reported in literature. A high index of clinical suspicion is required for early diagnosis and timely treatment. Severity and prognosis of the disease varies widely because several different strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi exist with different virulence. Delayed diagnosis can result in complication and significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we report three cases of neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure caused by scrub typhus to increase awareness.

  1. Pyrolysis characteristic of kenaf studied with separated tissues, alkali pulp, and alkali li

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Kojima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the potential of kenaf as a new biomass source, analytical pyrolysis was performed using various kenaf tissues, i.e., alkali lignin and alkali pulp. The distribution of the pyrolysis products from the whole kenaf was similar to that obtained from hardwood, with syringol, 4-vinylsyringol, guaiacol, and 4-vinylguaiacol as the major products. The phenols content in the pyrolysate from the kenaf core was higher than that from the kenaf cuticle, reflecting the higher lignin content of the kenaf core. The ratios of the syringyl and guaiacyl compounds in the pyrolysates from the core and cuticle samples were 2.79 and 6.83, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major pyrolysis product obtained from the kenaf alkali pulp, although glycol aldehyde and acetol were also produced in high yields, as previously observed for other cellulosic materials. Moreover, the pathways for the formation of the major pyrolysis products from alkali lignin and alkali pulp were also described, and new pyrolysis pathways for carbohydrates have been proposed herein. The end groups of carbohydrates bearing hemiacetal groups were subjected to ring opening and then they underwent further reactions, including further thermal degradation or ring reclosing. Variation of the ring-closing position resulted in the production of different compounds, such as furans, furanones, and cyclopentenones.

  2. Thermal investigation of alkali metal hexacyanoruthenate (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorskaya, A.P.; Sergeeva, A.N.; Pavlenko, L.I.; Semenishin, D.I.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal stability of Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs hexacyanoruthenates has been investigated. It has been established, that thermal decomposition of complexes depends upon outer spherical cations; complex compound stability decreasing with the rize of cation ionization potential. According to their thermal stability, alkali metal hexacyanoruthenates can be placed in the following row: Li < Na < K < Rb < Cs. Decomposition of Na, Rb and Cs complexes is accompanied by formation of thermally stable cyanides of these metals

  3. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    One approach to fission power system design uses alkali metal heat pipes for the core primary heat-transfer system. Heat pipes may also be used as radiator elements or auxiliary thermal control elements. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where information that is more detailed can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstration purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Nasa Project Prometheus point designs. (author)

  4. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballif, III, John L.; Yuan, Wei W.

    1980-01-01

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  5. Decalcification resistance of alkali-activated slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komljenovic, Miroslav M., E-mail: miroslav.komljenovic@imsi.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Bascarevic, Zvezdana, E-mail: zvezdana@imsi.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Marjanovic, Natasa, E-mail: natasa@imsi.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Nikolic, Violeta, E-mail: violeta@imsi.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of decalcification on properties of alkali-activated slag were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decalcification was performed by concentrated NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution (accelerated test). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Portland-slag cement (CEM II/A-S 42.5 N) was used as a benchmark material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decalcification led to strength decrease and noticeable structural changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkali-activated slag showed significantly higher resistance to decalcification. - Abstract: This paper analyses the effects of decalcification in concentrated 6 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution on mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated slag (AAS). Portland-slag cement (CEM II/A-S 42.5 N) was used as a benchmark material. Decalcification process led to a decrease in strength, both in AAS and in CEM II, and this effect was more pronounced in CEM II. The decrease in strength was explicitly related to the decrease in Ca/Si atomic ratio of C-S-H gel. A very low ratio of Ca/Si {approx}0.3 in AAS was the consequence of coexistence of C-S-H(I) gel and silica gel. During decalcification of AAS almost complete leaching of sodium and tetrahedral aluminum from C-S-H(I) gel also took place. AAS showed significantly higher resistance to decalcification in relation to the benchmark CEM II due to the absence of portlandite, high level of polymerization of silicate chains, low level of aluminum for silicon substitution in the structure of C-S-H(I), and the formation of protective layer of polymerized silica gel during decalcification process. In stabilization/solidification processes alkali-activated slag represents a more promising solution than Portland-slag cement due to significantly higher resistance to decalcification.

  6. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  7. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete (II) expansion and microstructure of concrete microbar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Duyou; Mei Laibao; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Mo Xiangyin; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the type of alkalis on the expansion behavior of concrete microbars containing typical aggregate with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity was studied. The results verified that: (1) at the same molar concentration, sodium has the strongest contribution to expansion due to both ASR and ACR, followed by potassium and lithium; (2) sufficient LiOH can completely suppress expansion due to ASR whereas it can induce expansion due to ACR. It is possible to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to clarify the ACR contribution when ASR and ACR may coexist. It has been shown that a small amount of dolomite in the fine-grained siliceous Spratt limestone, which has always been used as a reference aggregate for high alkali-silica reactivity, might dedolomitize in alkaline environment and contribute to the expansion. That is to say, Spratt limestone may exhibit both alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactivity, although alkali-silica reactivity is predominant. Microstructural study suggested that the mechanism in which lithium controls ASR expansion is mainly due to the favorable formation of lithium-containing less-expansive product around aggregate particles and the protection of the reactive aggregate from further attack by alkalis by the lithium-containing product layer

  8. Alkali adsorption on Ni(1 1 1) and their coadsorption with CO and O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politano, A.; Formoso, V.; Chiarello, G.

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of alkalis (Na, K) on Ni(1 1 1) and their coadsorption with CO and O were studied by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Loss measurements of clean alkali adlayers provided the expected behaviour of the alkali-substrate vibration energy as a function of the alkali coverage. This result was achieved by eliminating any trace of CO contamination from the alkali adlayer. As a matter of fact, a significant softening of the alkali-Ni vibration energy was revealed in the alkali + CO coadsorbed phase. Moreover, alkali coadsorption with oxygen caused a weakening of the O-Ni bond and a strengthening of the alkali-Ni bond

  9. Alkali Influence on Synthesis of Solid Electrolyte Based on Alkali Nitrate-Alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yustinus Purwamargapratala; Purnama, S.; Purwanto, P.

    2008-01-01

    Research of solid electrolyte based on alumina with addition of alkali materials of barium nitrate, calcium nitrate, sodium nitrate and lithium nitrate has been done. Aluminium hydroxide and alkali nitrate were mixed in mole ratio of 1 : 1 in water media and pyrolyzed at 300 o C for 1 hour Pyrolysis result were then mixed with alumina in mole ratio of 1 : 1, compacted and heated at 600 o C for 3 hours. To characterize the sample, XRD (X-Ray Diffractometers) and LCR meter (impedance, capacitance, and resistance) were used for analysis the phase and conductivity properties. The result showed formation of alkali-aluminate in which Li-base have the highest room temperature conductivity of 3.1290 x 10 -5 S.cm -1 , while Ba-base have the lowest conductivity of 5.7266 x 10 -8 S.cm -1 . (author)

  10. Alkali depletion and ion-beam mixing in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Ion-implantation-induced alkali depletion in simple alkali-silicate glasses (12M 2 O.88SiO 2 ) has been studied for implantations at room temperature and near 77K. Results are consistent with a mechanism for alkali removal, by heavy ion bombardment, based on radiation-enhanced migration and preferential removal of alkali from the outermost layers. Similar results were obtained for mixed-alkali glasses ((12-x)Cs 2 .O.xM 2 O.88SiO 2 ) where, in addition, a mixed-alkali effect may also be operative. Some preliminary experiments with ion implantation through thin Al films on SiO 2 glass and on a phosphate glass show that inter-diffusion takes place and suggest that this ion-mixing technique may be a useful method for altering the physical properties of glass surfaces

  11. Method for the safe disposal of alkali metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.

    1977-01-01

    Alkali metals such as those employed in liquid metal coolant systems can be safely reacted to form hydroxides by first dissolving the alkali metal in relatively inert metals such as lead or bismuth. The alloy thus formed is contacted with a molten salt including the alkali metal hydroxide and possibly the alkali metal carbonate in the presence of oxygen. This oxidizes the alkali metal to an oxide which is soluble within the molten salt. The salt is separated and contacted with steam or steam--CO 2 mixture to convert the alkali metal oxide to the hydroxide. These reactions can be conducted with minimal hydrogen evolution and with the heat of reaction distributed between the several reaction steps. 5 claims, 1 figure

  12. Effect of alkali ion on relaxation properties of binary alkali-borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomovskoj, V.A.; Bartenev, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Method of relaxation spectrometry were used to analyze the data on internal friction spectra of lithium, sodium, potassium and rubidium alkali-borate glasses in wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The nature of two relaxation processes was clarified: β m -process, related with mobility of alkaline metal cations, and α-process (vitrification), conditioned by system transformation from viscous-flow to vitreous state. It is shown that atomic-molecular mechanism of vitrification process changes when passing from vitreous B 2 O 3 to alkali-borate glasses

  13. Physical and optical studies in mixed alkali borate glasses with three types of alkali ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samee, M.A.; Awasthi, A.M.; Shripathi, T.; Bale, Shashidhar; Srinivasu, Ch.; Rahman, Syed

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We report, for the first time, the mixed alkali effect in the (40-x)Li 2 O-xNa 2 O-10K 2 O-50B 2 O 3 glasses through optical properties, density and modulated DSC studies. → Optical band gap (E opt ) and Urbach energy (ΔE) have been evaluated. → The values of E opt and ΔE show non-linear behavior with compositional parameter showing the mixed alkali effect. → The glass stability S is observed to be less which may be important for the present glasses as promising material for non-optical applications. - Abstract: So far only a handful of publications have been concerned with the study of the mixed alkali effect in borate glasses containing three types of alkali ions. In the present work, the mixed alkali effect (MAE) has been investigated in the glass system (40-x)Li 2 O-xNa 2 O-10K 2 O-50B 2 O 3 . (0 ≤ x ≤ 40 mol%) through density and modulated DSC studies. The density and glass transition temperature of the present glasses varies non-linearly exhibiting mixed alkali effect. The glass stability is observed to be less which may be important for the present glasses as promising material for non-optical applications. We report, for the first time, the mixed alkali effect in the present glasses through optical properties. From the absorption edge studies, the values of indirect optical band gap (E opt ), direct optical band gap and Urbach energy (ΔE) have been evaluated. The values of E opt and ΔE show non-linear behavior with compositional parameter showing the mixed alkali effect. The average electronic polarizability of oxide ions α O 2- , optical basicity Λ, and Yamashita-Kurosawa's interaction parameter A have been examined to check the correlations among them and bonding character. Based on good correlation among electronic polarizability of oxide ions, optical basicity and interaction parameter, the present Li 2 O-Na 2 O-K 2 O-B 2 O 3 glasses are classified as normal ionic (basic) oxides.

  14. Survival probability in small angle scattering of low energy alkali ions from alkali covered metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neskovic, N.; Ciric, D.; Perovic, B.

    1982-01-01

    The survival probability in small angle scattering of low energy alkali ions from alkali covered metal surfaces is considered. The model is based on the momentum approximation. The projectiles are K + ions and the target is the (001)Ni+K surface. The incident energy is 100 eV and the incident angle 5 0 . The interaction potential of the projectile and the target consists of the Born-Mayer, the dipole and the image charge potentials. The transition probability function corresponds to the resonant electron transition to the 4s projectile energy level. (orig.)

  15. Coincidence between geographical distribution of Leptotrombidium scutellare and scrub typhus incidence in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yul Roh

    Full Text Available To clarify the geographical distribution of scrub typhus vectors in Korea, a survey of larval trombiculid mites was conducted from 2005 to 2007 by collecting wild small mammals twice a year (spring and autumn at 24 sites nationwide. A total of 67,325 mites representing 4 genera and 14 species were collected from 783 trapped rodents, corresponding to a chigger index (number of chigger mites per rodent of 86.0. The predominant mite species were Leptotrombidium pallidum (52.6%, Leptotrombiduim scutellare (27.1%, Leptotrombidium palpale (8.2%, Leptotrombidium orientale (5.6%, and Neotrombicula tamiyai (1.7%. However, the proportions of L. scutellare in southern areas, including endemic provinces such as Jeollabuk-Do (34.3%, Jeollanam-Do (49.0%, and Gyeongsangnam-Do (88%, were relatively higher than in central Korean regions where L. pallidum was predominant. In autumn, the ratio of L. scutellare increased to 42% while the ratio of L. pallidum decreased. The geographical distribution map of the L. scutellare chigger index was identical to the incidence pattern of scrub typhus, whereas those of overall mites and L. pallidum showed no relationship with case incidence patterns. Distribution mapping analysis shows an identical geographical distribution of L. scutellare and epidemic incidence of scrub typhus in South Korea. L. pallidum could be another vector at all other parts of the Korean peninsula, including the eastern and northern regions that have a low level of scrub typhus incidence.

  16. Comparison of minocycline and azithromycin for the treatment of mild scrub typhus in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minxing; Wang, Ting; Yuan, Xiaoyu; Du, Weiming; Lin, Miaoxin; Shen, Yanbo

    2016-09-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has recently emerged in northern China where the disease had not been known to exist. Although doxycycline and azithromycin are the recommended agents for the treatment of scrub typhus, clinical responses depend both on the susceptibilities of various O. tsutsugamushi strains and the severity of the disease. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients diagnosed with mild scrub typhus from August 2013 to January 2016 in the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, northern China. A total of 40 patients who received minocycline treatment and 34 patients who received azithromycin treatment were included in the analysis. All patients except one defervesced within 120 h after initiating antimicrobial therapy. Kaplan-Meier curves in association with log-rank test showed that the median time to defervescence was significantly shorter for the minocycline-treated group than the azithromycin-treated group (P = 0.003). There were no serious adverse events during treatment. No relapse occurred in either group during the 1-month follow-up period. In conclusion, both minocycline and azithromycin are effective and safe for the treatment of mild scrub typhus, but minocycline is more active than azithromycin against O. tsutsugamushi infection acquired in northern China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical profile and outcome of children with scrub typhus from Chennai, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Ramaswamy; Suresh, Natarajan; Pratyusha, L L; Janakiraman, Lalitha; Manickam, Mani; Andal, A

    2018-06-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. We prospectively studied the clinico-laboratory profile and outcome of 358 children aged 1 day to 18 years diagnosed with scrub typhus from Chennai, South India. All children (100%) had fever. Eschar was seen in 67%. All children were treated with oral doxycycline and those with complications were treated with intravenous chloramphenicol/azithromycin. Rapid defervescence (within 48 h) after initiation of doxycline was seen in 306 (85%) and 52 (14.5%) developed complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that children who had an elevated aspartate amino transferase (> 120 IU/L) and the presence of thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 1 lac cells/mm 3 ) at admission had high risk of developing complications. The overall mortality rate in this series was 0.8%. Our 4-year study highlights the clinico-laboratory profile of Scrub typhus in children from Chennai, South India. Early recognition and prompt treatment reduces the complication and mortality. What is Known: • Scrub typhus is endemic to tsutsugamushi triangle, a geographical triangle extending from northern Japan in the east to Pakistan and Afghanistan in the west and northern Australia in the south. • There is paucity of data regarding its clinico-laboratory profile in neonates as well as its predictors of outcome. What is New: • Children who had an elevated AST and the presence of thrombocytopenia at admission had high risk of developing complications.

  18. Clinical significance of NGAL and KIM-1 for acute kidney injury in patients with scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, In O; Shin, Sung Hye; Cho, A Young; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Chang, Mi Yok; Lee, Kwang Young

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with scrub typhus. From 2014 to 2015, 145 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus. Of these, we enrolled 138 patients who were followed up until renal recovery or for at least 3 months. We measured serum and urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels and evaluated prognostic factors affecting scrub typhus-associated AKI. Of the 138 patients, 25 had scrub typhus-associated AKI. The incidence of AKI was 18.1%; of which 11.6%, 4.3%, and 2.2% were classified as risk, injury, and failure, respectively, according to RIFLE criteria. Compared with patients in the non-AKI group, patients in the AKI group were older and showed higher total leukocyte counts and hypoalbuminemia or one or more comorbidities such as hypertension (72% vs 33%, pscrub typhus-associated AKI.

  19. Diagnostic evaluation of rapid tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-05-12

    Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is being described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. Differentiating scrub typhus from other endemic diseases like malaria, leptospirosis, dengue fever, typhoid, etc. is difficult due to overlapping clinical features and a lower positivity for eschars in Asian populations. Hence, the diagnosis heavily relies on laboratory tests. Costs and the need of technical expertise limit the wide use of indirect immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence assays, ELISA and PCR. The Weil-Felix test is the most commonly used and least expensive serological test, but lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Hence, the diagnosis of scrub typhus is often delayed or overlooked. With due consideration of the cost, rapidity, single test result and simplicity of interpretation, rapid diagnostic tests have come into vogue. However, evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed to justify or discourage their use. Research studies are needed to find the most suitable test in terms of the rapidity of the result, simplicity of the procedure, ease of interpretation and cost to be used in the Indian populace.

  20. Rapid increase of scrub typhus incidence in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Sun (Ye); Wei, Y.-H. (Yue-Hong); Yang, Y. (Yang); Ma, Y. (Yu); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); H.-W. Yao (Hong-Wu); Huang, Y. (Yong); Ma, M.-J. (Mai-Juan); K. Liu (Kun); Li, X.-N. (Xiao-Ning); X. Li (Xinlou); Zhang, W.-H. (Wen-Hui); Fang, L.-Q. (Li-Qun); Yang, Z.-C. (Zhi-Cong); Cao, W.-C. (Wu-Chun)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In the last decade, scrub typhus (ST) has been emerging or re-emerging in some areas of Asia, including Guangzhou, one of the most affected endemic areas of ST in China. Methods: Based on the data on all cases reported in Guangzhou from 2006 to 2014, we characterized the

  1. Diagnostic performance of serological tests to detect antibodies against acute scrub typhus infection in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Pote

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differentiating scrub typhus from other acute febrile illness is difficult due to non specificity of clinical symptoms and relative absence of eschar in Indian population. The diagnosis thus relies mainly on laboratory tests. Antibody based serological tests are mainstay of scrub typhus diagnosis. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of IgM ELISA, IgM IFA and ICT to detect antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi in acute serum of febrile patients. Methodology: The serum samples from 600 randomly selected patients suffering from acute undifferentiated fever were tested by all the three tests mentioned above. We used latent class analysis to generate unbiased results as all the tests for scrub typhus diagnosis are imperfect and none of them can be considered as reference standard. Results: We found that IgM ELISA with cutoff titer 0.5 OD has high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 99.9% and specificity 99.15 than IgM IFA (sensitivity 96.8% and specificity 99.7% for scrub typhus diagnosis. ICT used in our study had very high specificity 100% but low sensitivity (38% which would limit its use for acute serum samples. ICT being a screening or point of care test, has to be more sensitive while some compromise with specificity is affordable. Hence, optimal cutoff for ICT should be evaluated under different settings. Conclusion: IgM ELISA being simple and affordable could be an alternative diagnostic test to IgM IFA which is subjective and costly.

  2. [Spatial analysis of autumn-winter type scrub typhus in Shandong province, 2006-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Bi, Z W; Kou, Z Q; Zheng, L; Zhao, Z T

    2016-05-01

    To discuss the spatial-temporal distribution and epidemic trends of autumn-winter type scrub typhus in Shandong province, and provide scientific evidence for further study for the prevention and control of the disease. The scrub typhus surveillance data during 2006-2014 were collected from Shandong Disease Reporting Information System. The data was analyzed by using software ArcGIS 9.3(ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA), GeoDa 0.9.5-i and SatScan 9.1.1. The Moran' s I, log-likelihood ratio(LLR), relative risk(RR)were calculated and the incidence choropleth maps, local indicators of spatial autocorrelation cluster maps and space scaning cluster maps were drawn. A total of 4 453 scrub typhus cases were reported during 2006-2014, and the annual incidence increased with year. Among the 17 prefectures(municipality)in Shandong, 13 were affected by scrub typhus. The global Moran's I index was 0.501 5(Pscrub typhus in Shandong. Since 2006, the epidemic area of the disease has expanded and the number of high-risk areas has increased. Moreover, the eastward moving and periodically expanding trends of high-risk clusters were detected.

  3. Coagulation and inflammation in scrub typhus and murine typhusu-a prospective comparative study from Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paris, D. H.; Chansamouth, V.; Nawtaisong, P.; Löwenberg, E. C.; Phetsouvanh, R.; Blacksell, S. D.; Lee, S. J.; Dondorp, A. M.; van der Poll, T.; Newton, P. N.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Day, N. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus (caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi) and murine typhus (caused by Rickettsia typhi) cause up to 28% of febrile episodes in Thailand and Laos. The current understanding of coagulation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of these clinically very similar vasculotropic diseases is limited.

  4. Diagnostic performance of serological tests to detect antibodies against acute scrub typhus infection in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pote, Kiran; Narang, Rahul; Deshmukh, Pradeep

    2018-01-01

    Differentiating scrub typhus from other acute febrile illness is difficult due to non specificity of clinical symptoms and relative absence of eschar in Indian population. The diagnosis thus relies mainly on laboratory tests. Antibody based serological tests are mainstay of scrub typhus diagnosis. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of IgM ELISA, IgM IFA and ICT to detect antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi in acute serum of febrile patients. The serum samples from 600 randomly selected patients suffering from acute undifferentiated fever were tested by all the three tests mentioned above. We used latent class analysis to generate unbiased results as all the tests for scrub typhus diagnosis are imperfect and none of them can be considered as reference standard. We found that IgM ELISA with cutoff titer 0.5 OD has high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 99.9% and specificity 99.15) than IgM IFA (sensitivity 96.8% and specificity 99.7%) for scrub typhus diagnosis. ICT used in our study had very high specificity 100% but low sensitivity (38%) which would limit its use for acute serum samples. ICT being a screening or point of care test, has to be more sensitive while some compromise with specificity is affordable. Hence, optimal cutoff for ICT should be evaluated under different settings. IgM ELISA being simple and affordable could be an alternative diagnostic test to IgM IFA which is subjective and costly.

  5. Influence of solvent radiolysis on extraction, scrubbing and stripping of uranium and some fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlowska, W.; Nowak, M.

    1978-01-01

    Radiolytically degraded TBP-n-paraffins solvent was used in the laboratory flow-sheet to study the influence of radiation exposure on decontamination of uranium. The influence of accumulated doses on extraction, scrubbing and stripping of uranium and some fission products has been discussed. (author)

  6. Frequent contamination of nursing scrubs is associated with specific care activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Kerri A; Escobar, Daniel; Boutin, Mallory A; Zhan, Min; Harris, Anthony D; Johnson, J Kristie

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this article is to assess health care worker (HCW) and patient care factors associated with bacterial contamination of scrubs. We performed a cohort study of critical care HCWs. Participants were given 4 sets of new scrubs; each set was sampled 8 times during the 8-month study period on random days in the last 4 hours of the shift. Total colony counts and presence of prespecified pathogenic bacteria were assessed. Generalized estimating equation was used to identify factors associated with contamination. There were 720 samples obtained from 90 HCWs; 30% of samples were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Multivariate analysis showed that providing care for patients with wounds (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.62; P contamination. A second model showed the average log colony count of bacterial contamination of scrubs was higher when a bath was given (log colony count difference, 0.21; P = .05) but lower among HCWs assigned to care for at least 1 patient on contact precautions (log colony count difference, 0.28; P contaminated with bacteria. Providing care for patients with wounds or giving a bath were associated with scrub contamination by pathogenic bacteria. However, the amount of contamination was lower among HCWs who were assigned to care for patients on contact precautions. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Re-caching by Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica cannot be attributed to stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Thom

    Full Text Available Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica live double lives, storing food for the future while raiding the stores of other birds. One tactic scrub-jays employ to protect stores is "re-caching"-relocating caches out of sight of would-be thieves. Recent computational modelling work suggests that re-caching might be mediated not by complex cognition, but by a combination of memory failure and stress. The "Stress Model" asserts that re-caching is a manifestation of a general drive to cache, rather than a desire to protect existing stores. Here, we present evidence strongly contradicting the central assumption of these models: that stress drives caching, irrespective of social context. In Experiment (i, we replicate the finding that scrub-jays preferentially relocate food they were watched hiding. In Experiment (ii we find no evidence that stress increases caching. In light of our results, we argue that the Stress Model cannot account for scrub-jay re-caching.

  8. Scrub typhus masquerading as HELLP syndrome and puerperal sepsis in an asymptomatic malaria patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations.

  9. Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: analysis for residual replicating rickettsiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, G.H. Jr.; Osterman, J.V.; Stephenson, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Scrub thyphus immunogens that received inadequate gamma radiation contained residual, viable rickettsiae. The presence of these organisms in the host was masked by the rapid immune response elicited by the large number of inactivated rickettsiae. Transfer of homogenized spleen cells from immunized mice to normal syngeneic recipients provided a sensitive technique for the detection of these viable, replicating organisms

  10. Characteristics of coastal sage scrub in relation to fire history and use by California gnatcatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan L. Beyers; Ginger C. Pena

    1995-01-01

    Abstract: Plant cover and vegetation structure were examined at two inland coastal sage scrub sites differing in fire history and use by California gnatcatchers. Salvia mellifera and Eriogonum fasciculatum dominated one site; shrub cover on gnatcatcher occupied plots averaged 50 percent greater than on unoccupied plots. At the other site, gnatcatcher-occupied plots had...

  11. Determination of the common and rare alkalies in mineral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R.C.; Stevens, R.E.

    1934-01-01

    Methods are described which afford a determination of each member of the alkali group and are successful in dealing with the quantities of the rare alkalies found in rocks and minerals. The procedures are relatively rapid and based chiefly on the use of chloroplatinic acid, absolute alcohol and ether, and ammonium sulfate. The percentages of all the alkalies found in a number of minerals are given.

  12. Scrub typhus in rural Rajasthan and a review of other Indian studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Rupesh; Yadav, Ritesh; Purohit, Alok; Tomar, Balvir Singh

    2016-05-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness which has been reported from various parts of India with Rajasthan recently joining the list of affected states. To report a series of paediatric scrub typhus cases from rural Rajasthan. Retrospective review of children with scrub typhus admitted to the wards and paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary-care hospital. The study was undertaken over an 8-month period from May to December 2013. All patients with a clinical presentation and/or serological confirmation of scrub typhus who tested negative for malaria, enteric fever, dengue, leptospirosis and urinary tract infection (UTI) were included. A range of investigations were undertaken including IgM-ELISA for scrub typhus, followed by appropriate medical management. Thirty patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. The mean (SD, range) age of the patients was 8·56 (3·43, 3-16) years. The most common clinical features were fever (n = 30, 100%), headache (n = 20, 66%), myalgia (n = 15, 50%), hepatosplenomegaly (n = 18, 60%) and pallor (n = 5, 16%). Typical features such as eschar and rash were observed in only one (3·3%) and three (10%) patients, respectively; none had generalised lymphadenopathy or conjunctival congestion. IgM-ELISA for scrub typhus was positive in 28 patients (93·3%) and 27 responded to doxycycline within 24-72 hours. One of the three patients who required PICU support responded to intravenous chloramphenicol and, of the other two (6·6%), one died of acute respiratory distress syndrome and the other owing to acute renal failure. A high index of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis and prevention of complications in scrub typhus together with prompt referral from rural areas to a higher centre. Awareness of the disease manifestations may further help to prevent excessive investigations in patients presenting with non-specific febrile illness and reduce the economic burden to the family and society in resource

  13. Interaction of alkali metal nitrates with calcium carbonate and kyanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protsyuk, A.P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Karabanov, V.P.; Lebedeva, L.P.

    1978-01-01

    Thermographic, thermodynamic and X-ray phase studies have been made into the interaction of alkali metal nitrates with calcium carbonate and kyanite. Examined among other things was the effect of water vapor and carbon dioxide on the interaction between alkali metal nitrates and kyanite. The chemical mechanism of the occurring processes has been established. The interaction with calcium carbonates results in the formation of alkali metal carbonates and calcium oxide with liberation of nitrogen oxide and oxygen. The products of the interaction with kyanite are shown to be identical with the compounds forming when alkali metal carbonates are used

  14. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  15. Coprecipitation of alkali metal ions with calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Minoru; Kitano, Yasushi

    1986-01-01

    The coprecipitation of alkali metal ions Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + with calcium carbonate has been studied experimentally and the following results have been obtained: (1) Alkali metal ions are more easily coprecipitated with aragonite than with calcite. (2) The relationship between the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with aragonite and their ionic radii shows a parabolic curve with a peak located at Na + which has approximately the same ionic radius as Ca 2+ . (3) However, the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with calcite decrease with increasing ionic radius of alkali metals. (4) Our results support the hypothesis that (a) alkali metals are in interstitial positions in the crystal structure of calcite and do not substitute for Ca 2+ in the lattice, but (b) in aragonite, alkali metals substitute for Ca 2+ in the crystal structure. (5) Magnesium ions in the parent solution increase the amounts of alkali metal ions (Li + , Na + , K + and Rb + ) coprecipitated with calcite but decrease those with aragonite. (6) Sodium-bearing aragonite decreases the incorporation of other alkali metal ions (Li + , K + and Rb + ) into the aragonite. (author)

  16. EPA Principles for Greener Cleanups

    Science.gov (United States)

    A goal of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office and Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) and its many partners is to preserve and restore land by promoting and using protective waste management practices and by assessing and cleaning..

  17. GET SMART: EPA'S SMARTE INITIATIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA's Office of Research and Development with the assistance of the U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group and the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC), is developing Site-specific Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools (SMART) that will help stakeholders over...

  18. EPA's Benchmark Dose Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA developed the Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) as a tool to help Agency risk assessors facilitate applying benchmark dose (BMD) method’s to EPA’s human health risk assessment (HHRA) documents. The application of BMD methods overcomes many well know limitations ...

  19. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Sungman; Premaratna, Ranjan; Selvaraj, Stephen; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Sora; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Min Soo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Kwon, Soon-Hwan; Seo, Wonjun; Lee, Nam Taek; Kim, Seung-Han; Kang, Heui Keun; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus.

  20. Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi Kawasaki-related genotypes in Shandong Province, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Bi, Zhenwang; Kou, Zengqiang; Yang, Huili; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Shoufeng; Meng, Xiangpeng; Zheng, Li; Zhang, Meng; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zhongtang

    2015-03-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium and characterized by dramatic genetic diversity. To elucidate the genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi populating in patients in Shandong Province, a new epidemic zone in China, we sequenced partial of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene (TSA) and identified the genotypes of 43 O. tsutsugamushi samples from human patients confirmed with scrub typhus from 2010 to 2013. All of the 43 sequences are in the same clade, 39 of them are in one branch and the other four sequences, nominated as SH1002, SH1306, SH1309, and SH1307 are in four separate branches. To clarify the clinical characterizations caused by Kawasaki-related genotypes, we studied the clinical profiles of these 43 scrub typhus patients. Most patients (88.1%) were farmers lived in rural areas. They presented with fever (100.0%), headache (79.1%), dizziness (32.6%), generalized myalgia (48.8%), fatigue (53.5%), anorexia (53.5%), facial flushing (23.3%), conjunctival congestion (11.6%), skin rashes (58.1%) and lymphadenopathy (23.3%). Eschar (97.7%) was quite common in patients, which provided doctors with a luminous clue for diagnosis of scrub typhus. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 23.1% of patients, and three patients (7.0%) had bronchopneumonia. There was no death report in Shandong Province during the study period. The present study provides beneficial data for clinical, serological, and molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus infections, and also provides foundations for subsequent studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical significance of NGAL and KIM-1 for acute kidney injury in patients with scrub typhus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In O Sun

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 for acute kidney injury (AKI in patients with scrub typhus.From 2014 to 2015, 145 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus. Of these, we enrolled 138 patients who were followed up until renal recovery or for at least 3 months. We measured serum and urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels and evaluated prognostic factors affecting scrub typhus-associated AKI.Of the 138 patients, 25 had scrub typhus-associated AKI. The incidence of AKI was 18.1%; of which 11.6%, 4.3%, and 2.2% were classified as risk, injury, and failure, respectively, according to RIFLE criteria. Compared with patients in the non-AKI group, patients in the AKI group were older and showed higher total leukocyte counts and hypoalbuminemia or one or more comorbidities such as hypertension (72% vs 33%, p<0.01, diabetes (40% vs 14%, p<0.01, or chronic kidney disease (32% vs 1%, p<0.01. In addition, serum NGAL values (404± 269 vs 116± 78 ng/mL, P<0.001, KIM-1 values (0.80± 0.52 vs 0.33± 0.68 ng/mL, P<0.001, urine NGAL/creatinine values (371± 672 vs 27± 39 ng/mg, P<0.001 and urine KIM-1/creatinine values (4.04± 2.43 vs 2.38± 1.89 ng/mg, P<0.001 were higher in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group. By multivariate logistic regression, serum NGAL and the presence of chronic kidney disease were significant predictors of AKI.Serum NGAL might be an additive predictor for scrub typhus-associated AKI.

  2. Development of a behavioural marker system for scrub practitioners' non-technical skills (SPLINTS system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George

    2013-04-01

    Adverse events still occur despite ongoing efforts to reduce harm to patients. Contributory factors to adverse events are often due to limitations in clinicians' non-technical skills (e.g. communication, situation awareness), rather than deficiencies in technical competence. We developed a behavioural rating system to provide a structured means for teaching and assessing scrub practitioners' (i.e. nurse, technician, operating department practitioner) non-technical skills. Psychologists facilitated focus groups (n = 4) with experienced scrub practitioners (n = 16; 4 in each group) to develop a preliminary taxonomy. Focus groups reviewed lists of non-technical-skill-related behaviours that were extracted from an interview study. The focus groups labelled skill categories and elements and also provided examples of good and poor behaviours for those skills. An expert panel (n = 2 psychologists; n = 1 expert nurse) then used an iterative process to individually and collaboratively review and refine those data to produce a prototype skills taxonomy. A preliminary taxonomy containing eight non-technical skill categories with 28 underlying elements was produced. The expert panel reduced this to three categories (situation awareness, communication and teamwork, task management), each with three underlying elements. The system was called the Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills system. A scoring system and a user handbook were also developed. A prototype behavioural rating system for scrub practitioners' non-technical skills was developed, to aid in teaching and providing formative assessment. This important aspect of performance is not currently explicitly addressed in any educational route to qualify as a scrub practitioner. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Non-technical skills of the operating theatre scrub nurse: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a report of a review to identify the non-technical (cognitive and social) skills used by scrub nurses. Recognition that failures in non-technical skills contributed to accidents in high-risk industries led to the development of research programmes to study the role of cognition and social interactions in operational safety. Recently, psychological research in operating theatres has revealed the importance of non-technical skills in safe and efficient performance. Most of the studies to date have focused on anaesthetists and surgeons. On-line sources and university library catalogues, publications of the Association for Perioperative Practice, National Association of Theatre Nurses and Association of Peri-Operative Registered Nurses were searched in 2007. Studies were included in the review if they presented data from scrub nurses on one or more of their non-technical skills. These findings were examined in relation to an existing medical non-technical skills framework with categories of communication, teamwork, leadership, situation awareness and decision-making. Of 424 publications retrieved, 13 were reviewed in detail. Ten concerned communication and eight of those also had data on teamwork. In 11 papers teamwork was examined, and one focused on nurses' situation awareness, teamwork and communication. None of the papers we reviewed examined leadership or decision-making by scrub nurses. Further work is needed to identify formally the non-technical skills which are important to the role of scrub nurse and then to design training in the identified non-technical skills during the education and development of scrub nurses.

  4. Bacterial Agents Andantibiogram of Most Common Isolated Organisms from Hands of Surgical Team Members after Scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS Mohseni- Meybodi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many post-surgical wound infections in hospitals cause morbidity and morality of patients and these are usually transmitted via hands of surgical personnel. The aim of the present study was to detect and antibiogram the bacterial agents following scrubbing of hands of surgical personnel before operation. Methods: Hands of 134 personnels of operation room were swabbed following scrubbing with antiseptic Betadine solution. Swab samples were inoculated on selective and differential media such as blood ager, McConky and manitol salt agar(MSA. Following incubation of media at 37c° for 24hr, bacterial species were identified using differential related tests. The isolated species were than antibiogramed and the results together with other data was analysed by SPSS software program. Results: Of the total of 134 cases, 81(60.4% were male and 53(39.6% female. The mean scrub time for each person was (206.1+/-103.2 seconds; 6 to 60 seconds base change. Increasing time of scrub was significantly correlated with decreasing rate of bacteria (P=0.003, (R=-0.254. Contamination was present in 129(96.3% cases following scrubbing. Maximum contamination was observed in nails (92.5%. Average number of bacteria for each individual was between 0 and 159. 62.6% of isolated bacteria were non- staphylococci and 7.7% were S. aureus. Vancomycin and ceftizoxim were the most sensitive, while penicillin was the least sensitive antibiotic. Conclusion: Results revealed that hand contamination was more than the expected standard level. Therefore, regarding the critical task of surgical personnel, training of all operation room staff is highly recommended to minimize the rate of contamination.

  5. ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS AS AN UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF SCRUB TYPHUS: A REPORT OF TWO CASES AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenphak, Sirima; Rattanawong, Pattara; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus rarely presents with acute cholecystitis. We present 2 cases of scrub typhus with cholecystitis. The first patient is a 62 year old female who presented to the hospital with fever and body aches for 1 week and right upper quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. She gave a history of an insect bite 2 weeks previously. She was diagnosed as having acute cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy. She continued with fever post-operatively and physical examination revealed an eschar. She had an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) performed that revealed a high IgM titer for Orientia tsutsugamushi. She was diagnosed as having scrub typhus, treated with doxycycline and she recovered completely. The second patient also presented to the hospital with a 1 week history of fever and upper quadrant abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with having cholecystitis. Her symptoms did not improve with intravenous antibiotics and further investigation revealed elevated titers for O. tsutsugamushi and Leptospira interrogans. She was diagnosed as having a co-infection of scrub typhus and leptospirosis and treated with doxycycline. She recovered completely. Patients from scrub typhus endemic regions who present with acute cholecystitis but do not respond to traditional treatment should be tested for scrub typhus and leptospirosis and should have a careful admission physical examination looking for eschar formation, since scrub typhus may present with acute cholecystitis.

  6. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas (ESA) in EPA Region I. ESAs were developed as part of an EPA headquarters initiative...

  7. U.S. EPA Metadata Editor (EME)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Metadata Editor (EME) allows users to create geospatial metadata that meets EPA's requirements. The tool has been developed as a desktop application that...

  8. EPA Linked Open Data: Substance Registry Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Substance Registry Services (SRS) is the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) central system for information about substances that are tracked or regulated by EPA...

  9. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  10. EPA's role in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

  11. Changes in the decontamination factor of cesium iodide on evaporation of a scrubbing solution in the Filtered Containment Venting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Young Su; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Sungil; Cho, Song-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    When the pressure in the containment building approaches a setting value, the FCVS(Filtered Containment Venting System) operates. The amount of steam and gas mixtures generated during a severe accident can be released into the FCVS. Non-condensable gases and fine aerosols can pass a scrubbing solution and the filters in the FCVS vessel. The decontaminated gases are finally discharged from the FCVS to the outside environment. Previous study observed that a scrubbing solution in the FCVS vessel was constantly evaporating owing to high-temperature steam released continuously from the containment building. A scrubbing solution in the FCVS vessel was completely evaporated at about 31 hours after the FCVS operation. Pool evaporation in the FCVS vessel can negatively affect the decontamination feature of the FCVS because it reduces the scrubbing depth for fission products in an aerosol form. This study carefully evaluated the decontamination factor of metal iodide aerosols especially cesium iodide (CsI), on a scrubbing solution in the FCVS. This paper summarizes the calculated results on the decontamination factor of CsI in the FCVS vessel, which was presented at the international OECD-NEA/NUGENIA-SARNET workshop. This study estimated the decontamination factor of CsI on a scrubbing solution in the FCVS. The MELCOR computer code simulated that an SBO occurred in the OPR 1000. The FCVS consists of a cylindrical vessel with a 3 m diameter and 6.5 m height, and it includes a scrubbing solution of 21 tons. Accumulated mass of CsI aerosol was calculated in a scrubbing solution and the atmosphere in the FCVS vessel and the outside environment. In the early FCVS operation, the decontamination factor of CsI aerosol rapidly increased owing to steam condensation in a scrubbing solution. When the temperature of a pool approached its saturation temperature, the decontamination factor of CsI aerosol started to decrease.

  12. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance : [tech transfer summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the test methods used to determine the : alkali content of fly ash. It also evaluated if high-alkali fly ash : exacerbates alkali-silica reaction in laboratory tests and field : concrete.

  13. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Sodium and potassium are the common alkalis present in fly ash. Excessive amounts of fly ash alkalis can cause efflorescence : problems in concrete products and raise concern about the effectiveness of the fly ash to mitigate alkali-silica reaction (...

  14. Alkali emissions of the PCFB-process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuivalainen, R.; Eriksson, T.; Koskinen, J.; Lehtonen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology has been developed by A. Ahlstrom Corporation since 1986. As a part of the development, a 10 MW PCFB Test Facility was constructed at Hans Ahlstrom Laboratory in Karhula, Finland in 1989. The Test Facility has been used for performance testing with different coal types through the years 1990-1994 in order to gain data for design and commercialization of the high-efficiency low- emission PCFB combustion technology. The project Y33 'Alkali emissions of the PCFB-process' was part of national LIEKKI 2 research program. The object of the project was to measure vapor phase Na and K concentrations in the PCFB flue gas after hot gas filter and investigate the effects of process conditions and sorbents on alkali release. The measured Na concentrations were between 0,03 and 0,21 ppm(w). The results of K were between 0,01 and 0,08 ppm(w). The accuracy of the results is about +-50 percent at this concentration range. The scatter of the data covers the effects of different process variables on the alkali emission . The measured emissions at 800-850 deg C are at the same order of magnitude as the guideline emission limits given by gas turbine manufacturers for flue gas at 1000-1200 deg C. The measurements and development of the analyses methods are planned to be continued during PcFB test runs in autumn 1995 in cooperation with laboratories of VTT Energy and Tampere University of Technology. (author)

  15. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  16. Possible applications of alkali-activated systems in construction

    OpenAIRE

    Boháčová, J.; Staněk, S.; Vavro, M. (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the possibilities of using alkali-activated systems in construction. This article summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of geopolymer in comparison to Portland cement, summarizes research and practical applications of alkali-activated materials in our country and abroad, and provides an overview of directions where these alternative inorganic binders can be in the future very well applied.

  17. Structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of bi-alkali ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The structural parameters, elastic constants, electronic and optical properties of the bi-alkali ... and efficient method for the calculation of the ground-state ... Figure 2. Optimization curve (E–V) of the bi-alkali antimonides: (a) Na2KSb, (b) Na2RbSb, (c) Na2CsSb, .... ical shape of the charge distributions in the contour plots.

  18. Thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxides: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of volatile alkali hydroxides as a result of high-temperature steam corrosion plays an important role in nuclear technology. For the modeling of the volatilization processes, reliable thermodynamic data are required. In the present paper recent physico-chemical experiments by the authors will be discussed and the thermochemical properties of the alkali hydroxide series will be evaluated. (orig.)

  19. Language and Style in Zaynab Alkali's The Stillborn | Azuike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the language and style of Zaynab Alkali's The Stillborn. Alkali's style in The Stillborn lies in her effective deployment of linguo-literary resources to tell the story. The study scrutinizes the nexus of figures of speech and linguistic artifacts, which link the events and characters that populate her novel and ...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660 Section 721.4660 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal sal...

  1. Alkali aggregate reactivity in concrete structures in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.R.; Empey, D.

    1989-01-01

    In several regions of Canada, particularly parts of Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime Provinces, research, testing and evaluation of aged concrete structures in the field has shown that alkali aggregate reactivity can give rise to pronounced concrete deterioration, particularly in hydraulic structures subjected to saturation or alternate wetting and drying such as locks, dams, canals, etc. Concrete deterioration is mainly caused by alkali-silica reactions and alkali-carbonate reactions, but a third type of deterioration involves slow/late expanding alkali-silicate/silica reactivity. The alkalies NaOH and KOH in the concrete pore solutions are mainly responsible for attack on expansive rocks and minerals in concrete. Methods for evaluating alkali-aggregate reaction potential in aggregates, and field and laboratory methods for detecting deterioration are discussed. Examples of alkali-aggregate reactions in structures is western Canada are detailed, including a water reservoir at Canadian Forces Base Chilliwack in British Columbia, the Oldman River diversion and flume, the Lundbreck Falls Bridge, and the St Mary's Reservoir spillway, all in southern Alberta. Mitigative measures include avoidance of use of suspect aggregates, but if this cannot be avoided it is recommended to keep the total alkalies in the concrete as low as possible and minimize opportunities for saturation of concrete by moisture. 16 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  2. Metal analyses of ash derived alkalis from banana and plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to determine the metal content of plantain and banana peels ash derived alkali and the possibility of using it as alternate and cheap source of alkali in soap industry. This was done by ashing the peels and dissolving it in de-ionised water to achieve the corresponding hydroxides with pH above ...

  3. [Raman spectra of endospores of Bacillus subtilis by alkali stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rong; Lu, Ming-qian; Li, Feng; Shi, Gui-yu; Huang, Shu-shi

    2013-09-01

    To research the lethal mechanism of spores stressed by alkali, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) combined with principal components analysis (PCA) was used to study the physiological process of single spore with alkali stress. The results showed that both spores and germinated spores had tolerance with alkali in a certain range, but the ability of spores was obviously lower than that of spores due to the release of their Ca2+ -DPA which plays a key role in spores resistance as well as spores resistance to many stresses; A small amount of Ca2+ -DPA of spores was observed to release after alkali stress, however, the behavior of release was different with the normal Ca2+ -DPA release behavior induced by L-alanine; The data before and after alkali stress of the spores and g. spores with PCA reflected that alkali mainly injured the membrane of spores, and alkali could be easily enter into the inner structure of spores to damage the structure of protein backbone and injure the nucleic acid of spores. We show that the alkali could result in the small amount of Ca2+ -DPA released by destroying the member channel of spores.

  4. Conduction bands and invariant energy gaps in alkali bromides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P.K. de; Groot, R.A. de

    1998-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations of the alkali bromides LiBr, NaBr, KBr, RbBr and CsBr are reported. It is shown that the conduction band has primarily bromine character. The size of the band gaps of bromides and alkali halides in general is reinterpreted.

  5. Formation of lysinoalanine in egg white under alkali treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the formation mechanism of lysinoalanine (LAL) in eggs during the alkali treatment process, NaOH was used for the direct alkali treatment of egg white, ovalbumin, and amino acids; in addition, the amount of LAL formed during the alkali treatment process was measured. The results showed that the alkali treatment resulted in the formation of LAL in the egg white. The LAL content increased with increasing pH and temperature, with the LAL content first increasing and then leveling off with increasing time. The amount of LAL formed in the ovalbumin under the alkali treatment condition accounted for approximately 50.51% to 58.68% of the amount of LAL formed in the egg white. Thus, the LAL formed in the ovalbumin was the main source for the LAL in the egg white during the alkali treatment process. Under the alkali treatment condition, free L-serine, L-cysteine, and L-cystine reacted with L-lysine to form LAL; therefore, they are the precursor amino acids of LAL formed in eggs during the alkali treatment process. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Density functional study of ferromagnetism in alkali metal thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thickness uniform jellium model (UJM), and it is argued that within LSDA or GGA, alkali metal thin films cannot be claimed to have an FM ground state. Relevance of these results to the experiments on transition metal-doped alkali metal thin films ...

  7. Surveillance of potential hosts and vectors of scrub typhus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Lee, Pei-Lung; Chen, Chun-Hsung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2015-12-01

    Scrub typhus is a lethal infectious disease vectored by larval trombiculid mites (i.e. chiggers) infected with Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) and recent decades have witnessed an emergence of scrub typhus in several countries. Identification of chigger species and their vertebrate hosts is fundamental for the assessment of human risks to scrub typhus under environmental changes, but intensive and extensive survey of chiggers and their hosts is still lacking in Taiwan. Chiggers were collected from shrews and rodents in nine counties of Taiwan and were assayed for OT infections with nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR products were further sequenced to reveal probable OT strains. Rodents were assessed for OT exposure by immunofluorescent antibody assay. Lastly, incidence rate of scrub typhus in each county was associated with loads and prevalence of chigger infestations, seropositivity rate in rodents, and OT positivity rate in chiggers. Rattus losea was the most abundant (48.7% of 1,285 individuals) and widespread (occurred in nine counties) small mammal species and hosted the majority of chiggers (76.4% of 128,520 chiggers). Leptotrombidium deliense was the most common (64.9% of all identified chiggers) and widespread (occurred in seven counties) chigger species but was replaced by Leptotrombidium pallidum or Leptotrombidium scutellare during the cold seasons in two counties (Matsu and Kinmen) where winter temperatures were lower than other study sites. Seropositivity rate for OT exposure in 876 assayed rodents was 43.0% and OT positivity rate in 347 pools of chiggers was 55.9%, with 15 OT strains identified in the 107 successfully sequenced samples. Incidence rate of scrub typhus was positively correlated with chigger loads, prevalence of chigger infestations, seropositivity rate but not OT positivity rate in chiggers. Our study reveals R. losea as the primary host for chiggers and there exists a geographical and seasonal variation in chigger species in

  8. Custom Search | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  9. Watershed Statistics | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  10. The utilization of alkali-treated melon husk by broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, S S; Amalime, A C; Akadiri, K C

    2002-09-01

    The effects of alkali treatment on chemical constituents of melon husk (MH) and performance characteristics of broilers fed alkali-treated MH (ATMH) diets were investigated. The chemical analysis showed that alkali treatment increased the ash content of MH (from 15.70% to 16.86%) and reduced the crude fibre content (from 29.00% to 14.00%). Result of feed intake was superior on 30% alkali diet with a value of 100.14 g/bird/day. Body weight gain decreased with increase in the level of ATMH in the diet. Highest dressing percentage of 66.33% and best meat/bone ratio of 2.57 were obtained on 10% and 20% alkali diets, respectively. Dietary treatments had significant effect (P poultry carcases and chicken meat with favourable shelf life.

  11. Electronic and atomic structures of liquid tellurium containing alkali elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakita, Yukinobu; Yao, Makoto; Endo, Hirohisa.

    1997-01-01

    The measurements of electrical conductivity σ, density, EXAFS and neutron scattering were carried out for liquid K-Te and Rb-Te mixtures. The conductivity σ decreases rapidly with alkali concentration and a metal-semiconductor transition occurs at about 10 at.% alkali. It is found that the compositional variation of σ is nearly independent of the alkali species. The Te-Te bond length deduced from EXAFS and neutron scattering measurements is 2.8 A and changes little with alkali concentrations. The average distances from K and Rb atom to Te atoms are 3.6 A and 3.8 A, respectively. Two kinds of relaxation processes are observed in quasielastic neutron scattering for K 20 Te 80 . Upon the addition of alkali the interaction between the neighbouring Te chains, which is responsible for the metallic conduction, weaken considerably. (author)

  12. IRMPD Action Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal Cation-Cytosine Complexes: Effects of Alkali Metal Cation Size on Gas Phase Conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Wu, R.R.; Polfer, N.C.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both

  13. The alkali halide disk technique in infra-red spectrometry : Anomalous behaviour of some samples dispersed in alkali halide disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolk, A.

    1961-01-01

    Some difficulties encountered in the application of the alkali halide disk technique in infra-red spectrometry are discussed. Complications due to interaction of the sample with the alkali halide have been studied experimentally. It was found that the anomalous behaviour of benzoic acid, succinic

  14. Outbreak of scrub typhus in the North East Himalayan region-Sikkim: An emerging threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gurung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness that is known to be endemic in the South East Asian countries and the Western Pacific region. We here report an outbreak in the tiny Himalayan state of Sikkim. Patients with pyrexia of unknown origin were evaluated. They were screened by Weil-Felix test and the rapid immunochromatographic method. Samples that were positive by either Weil-Felix agglutination test or by rapid immunochromatography were confirmed by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A total 204 samples were screened. Sixty-three patients were confirmed positive among which 42 were male and 21 were female. Effective management and early administration of antibiotics will help prevent the complications and mortality associated with scrub typhus.

  15. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jian

    2015-06-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster virus and Orientia tsutsugamushi were found in the literature. In the described case, scrub typhus probably induced sufficient stress to reactivate the varicella zoster virus. Early recognition of this problem is imperative for prompt and appropriate management, as misdiagnosis can lead to long-term urinary dysfunction. It is important that a diagnosis of herpes zoster be considered, especially in patients with sudden onset urinary retention.

  16. Increased level and interferon-γ production of circulating natural killer cells in patients with scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Ji; Jin, Hye-Mi; Cho, Young-Nan; Kim, Seong Eun; Kim, Uh Jin; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Jang, Hee-Chang; Jung, Sook-In; Kee, Seung-Jung; Park, Yong-Wook

    2017-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are essential immune cells against several pathogens. Not much is known regarding the roll of NK cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Thus, this study aims to determine the level, function, and clinical relevance of NK cells in patients with scrub typhus. This study enrolled fifty-six scrub typhus patients and 56 health controls (HCs). The patients were divided into subgroups according to their disease severity. A flow cytometry measured NK cell level and function in peripheral blood. Circulating NK cell levels and CD69 expressions were significantly increased in scrub typhus patients. Increased NK cell levels reflected disease severity. In scrub typhus patients, tests showed their NK cells produced higher amounts of interferon (IFN)-γ after stimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 relative to those of HCs. Meanwhile, between scrub typhus patients and HCs, the cytotoxicity and degranulation of NK cells against K562 were comparable. CD69 expressions were recovered to the normal levels in the remission phase. This study shows that circulating NK cells are activated and numerically increased, and they produced more IFN-γ in scrub typhus patients.

  17. Increased level and interferon-γ production of circulating natural killer cells in patients with scrub typhus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Ji Kang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are essential immune cells against several pathogens. Not much is known regarding the roll of NK cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Thus, this study aims to determine the level, function, and clinical relevance of NK cells in patients with scrub typhus.This study enrolled fifty-six scrub typhus patients and 56 health controls (HCs. The patients were divided into subgroups according to their disease severity. A flow cytometry measured NK cell level and function in peripheral blood. Circulating NK cell levels and CD69 expressions were significantly increased in scrub typhus patients. Increased NK cell levels reflected disease severity. In scrub typhus patients, tests showed their NK cells produced higher amounts of interferon (IFN-γ after stimulation with interleukin (IL-12 and IL-18 relative to those of HCs. Meanwhile, between scrub typhus patients and HCs, the cytotoxicity and degranulation of NK cells against K562 were comparable. CD69 expressions were recovered to the normal levels in the remission phase.This study shows that circulating NK cells are activated and numerically increased, and they produced more IFN-γ in scrub typhus patients.

  18. Etiologies of Acute Undifferentiated Fever and Clinical Prediction of Scrub Typhus in a Non-Tropical Endemic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Chul; Chon, Sung-Bin; Oh, Won Sup; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus usually presents as acute undifferentiated fever. This cross-sectional study included adult patients presenting with acute undifferentiated fever defined as any febrile illness for ≤ 14 days without evidence of localized infection. Scrub typhus cases were defined by an antibody titer of a ≥ fourfold increase in paired sera, a ≥ 1:160 in a single serum using indirect immunofluorescence assay, or a positive result of the immunochromatographic test. Multiple regression analysis identified predictors associated with scrub typhus to develop a prediction rule. Of 250 cases with known etiology of acute undifferentiated fever, influenza (28.0%), hepatitis A (25.2%), and scrub typhus (16.4%) were major causes. A prediction rule for identifying suspected cases of scrub typhus consisted of age ≥ 65 years (two points), recent fieldwork/outdoor activities (one point), onset of illness during an outbreak period (two points), myalgia (one point), and eschar (two points). The c statistic was 0.977 (95% confidence interval = 0.960–0.994). At a cutoff value ≥ 4, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.7% (79.0–98.1%) and 90.9% (86.0–94.3%), respectively. Scrub typhus, the third leading cause of acute undifferentiated fever in our region, can be identified early using the prediction rule. PMID:25448236

  19. Integrating Science & Management: Florida Scrub-Jay Conservation along the Central Florida's Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David R.

    2018-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays are a species listed under the Endangered Species Act. The NASA Ecology program has been a partner for conservation, recovery, and translocation across the species range. The objectives of this talk are to update members of the Archie Carr Working Group recovery, conservation, and translocation activities and describe how the Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge and nearby conservation lands relate to species recovery actions.

  20. An Intradermal Inoculation Mouse Model for Immunological Investigations of Acute Scrub Typhus and Persistent Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Soong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative bacterium that is transmitted to mammalian hosts during feeding by Leptotrombidium mites and replicates predominantly within endothelial cells. Most studies of scrub typhus in animal models have utilized either intraperitoneal or intravenous inoculation; however, there is limited information on infection by the natural route in murine model skin or its related early host responses. Here, we developed an intradermal (i.d. inoculation model of scrub typhus and focused on the kinetics of the host responses in the blood and major infected organs. Following ear inoculation with 6 x 104 O. tsutsugamushi, mice developed fever at 11-12 days post-infection (dpi, followed by marked hypothermia and body weight loss at 14-19 dpi. Bacteria in blood and tissues and histopathological changes were detected around 9 dpi and peaked around 14 dpi. Serum cytokine analyses revealed a mixed Th1/Th2 response, with marked elevations of MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and IL-10 at 9 dpi, followed by increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, G-CSF, RANTES/CCL5, KC/CCL11, IL-1α/β, IL-2, TNF-α, GM-CSF, as well as modulatory cytokines (IL-9, IL-13. Cytokine levels in lungs had similar elevation patterns, except for a marked reduction of IL-9. The Orientia 47-kDa gene and infectious bacteria were detected in several organs for up to 84 dpi, indicating persistent infection. This is the first comprehensive report of acute scrub typhus and persistent infection in i.d.-inoculated C57BL/6 mice. This is a significant improvement over current murine models for Orientia infection and will permit detailed studies of host immune responses and infection control interventions.

  1. Q Fever, Scrub Typhus, and Rickettsial Diseases in Children, Kenya, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Alice N; Farris, Christina M; Odhiambo, Antony; Jiang, Ju; Laktabai, Jeremiah; Armstrong, Janice; Holland, Thomas; Richards, Allen L; O'Meara, Wendy P

    2016-05-01

    To increase knowledge of undifferentiated fevers in Kenya, we tested paired serum samples from febrile children in western Kenya for antibodies against pathogens increasingly recognized to cause febrile illness in Africa. Of patients assessed, 8.9%, 22.4%, 1.1%, and 3.6% had enhanced seroreactivity to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group rickettsiae, typhus group rickettsiae, and scrub typhus group orientiae, respectively.

  2. Use of face masks by non-scrubbed operating room staff: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Croger, Sarah; Lister, Carolyn; Doidge, Michelle; Terry, Michael J; Jones, Ian

    2010-03-01

    Ambiguity remains about the effectiveness of wearing surgical face masks. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact on surgical site infections (SSIs) when non-scrubbed operating room staff did not wear surgical face masks. Eight hundred twenty-seven participants undergoing elective or emergency obstetric, gynecological, general, orthopaedic, breast or urological surgery in an Australian tertiary hospital were enrolled. Complete follow-up data were available for 811 patients (98.1%). Operating room lists were randomly allocated to a 'Mask group' (all non-scrubbed staff wore a mask) or 'No Mask group' (none of the non-scrubbed staff wore masks). The primary end point, SSI was identified using in-patient surveillance; post discharge follow-up and chart reviews. The patient was followed for up to six weeks. Overall, 83 (10.2%) surgical site infections were recorded; 46/401 (11.5%) in the Masked group and 37/410 (9.0%) in the No Mask group; odds ratio (OR) 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 1.21), p = 0.151. Independent risk factors for surgical site infection included: any pre-operative stay (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.43 (95% CI, 0.20; 0.95), high BMI aOR, 0.38 (95% CI, 0.17; 0.87), and any previous surgical site infection aOR, 0.40 (95% CI, 0.17; 0.89). Surgical site infection rates did not increase when non-scrubbed operating room personnel did not wear a face mask.

  3. Nuclear ventilation installations. Method of control of the scrubbing coefficient of iodine trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The present standard aims at defining a method to control the scrubbing coefficient of radioactive iodine trapping systems, used in nuclear ventilation installations. It applies to the installations where the trapping, efficiency of radioactive iodine has to be known, tested and compared to a reference value generally included in the safety reports. It applies to the installations where the absolute pressure of the air in the ventilation systems is above 1,4. 10 5 Pa (1,4 Bar) [fr

  4. Determination of cutoff of ELISA and immunofluorescence assay for scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015 were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA for immunoglobulin M (IgM (Fuller Labs, USA with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA. Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  5. Characterisation of plastic microbeads in facial scrubs and their estimated emissions in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Pui Kwan; Fok, Lincoln

    2017-10-01

    Plastic microbeads are often added to personal care and cosmetic products (PCCPs) as an abrasive agent in exfoliants. These beads have been reported to contaminate the aquatic environment and are sufficiently small to be readily ingested by aquatic organisms. Plastic microbeads can be directly released into the aquatic environment with domestic sewage if no sewage treatment is provided, and they can also escape from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) because of incomplete removal. However, the emissions of microbeads from these two sources have never been estimated for China, and no regulation has been imposed on the use of plastic microbeads in PCCPs. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to estimate the annual microbead emissions in Mainland China from both direct emissions and WWTP emissions. Nine facial scrubs were purchased, and the microbeads in the scrubs were extracted and enumerated. The microbead density in those products ranged from 5219 to 50,391 particles/g, with an average of 20,860 particles/g. Direct emissions arising from the use of facial scrubs were estimated using this average density number, population data, facial scrub usage rate, sewage treatment rate, and a few conservative assumptions. WWTP emissions were calculated by multiplying the annual treated sewage volume and estimated microbead density in treated sewage. We estimated that, on average, 209.7 trillion microbeads (306.9 tonnes) are emitted into the aquatic environment in Mainland China every year. More than 80% of the emissions originate from incomplete removal in WWTPs, and the remaining 20% are derived from direct emissions. Although the weight of the emitted microbeads only accounts for approximately 0.03% of the plastic waste input into the ocean from China, the number of microbeads emitted far exceeds the previous estimate of plastic debris (>330 μm) on the world's sea surface. Immediate actions are required to prevent plastic microbeads from entering the aquatic environment

  6. Clinical profile and improving mortality trend of scrub typhus in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, George M; Trowbridge, Paul; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Thomas, Kurien; Peter, John V; Mathews, Prasad; Abraham, Ooriapadickal C; Kavitha, M L

    2014-06-01

    Scrub typhus, a bacterial zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, may cause multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and is associated with significant mortality. This study was undertaken to document the clinical and laboratory manifestations and complications and to study time trends and factors associated with mortality in patients with scrub typhus infection. This retrospective study, done at a university teaching hospital, included 623 patients admitted between 2005 and 2010 with scrub typhus. The diagnosis was established by a positive IgM ELISA and/or pathognomonic eschar with PCR confirmation where feasible. The clinical and laboratory profile, course in hospital, and outcome were documented. Factors associated with mortality were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (100%), nausea/vomiting (54%), shortness of breath (49%), headache (46%), cough (38%), and altered sensorium (26%). An eschar was present in 43.5% of patients. Common laboratory findings included elevated transaminases (87%), thrombocytopenia (79%), and leukocytosis (46%). MODS was seen in 34% of patients. The overall case-fatality rate was 9.0%. Features of acute lung injury were observed in 33.7%, and 29.5% required ventilatory support. On multivariate analysis, shock requiring vasoactive agents (relative risk (RR) 10.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-25.7, p<0.001), central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction (RR 5.1, 95% CI 2.4-10.7, p<0.001), and renal failure (RR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.5, p=0.001) were independent predictors of mortality. Over 4 years, a decreasing trend was observed in the mortality rate. Scrub typhus can manifest with potentially life-threatening complications such as lung injury, shock, and meningoencephalitis. MODS occurred in a third of our patients. The overall case-fatality rate was 9%, with shock, renal failure, and CNS associated with a higher mortality. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  7. Differences in agricultural activities related to incidence of scrub typhus between Korea and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jin Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to establish a basis for improving or strengthening the preventive strategy against scrub typhus in Korea by comparing and analyzing the difference of prevention behaviors contributing to the occurrence of scrub typhus in Japan and Korea. METHODS The survey was carried out in Jeollabuk-do, which is a high risk and high incidence area, and Fukuoka Prefecture, which is a high risk and low incidence area. The study included 406 Korean farmers and 216 Japanese farmers. Data were collected through face-to-face surveys by interviewers who had completed standardized education. RESULTS Korean farmers have a higher percentage of agricultural working posture that involved contact with weeds than Japanese farmers (p<0.05. The frequency and proportion of weeding were lower in Korean farmers than in Japanese farmers (p<0.05. The level of knowledge about scrub typhus was significantly higher among Korean farmers than among Japanese farmers (p<0.05. Mostly, the behavior of agriculture work was more appropriate for Japanese farmers than for Korean farmers (p<0.05. The total average level of agricultural work was lower in Korea than in Japan, lower in men than women, and lower in part-time farmers than full-time farmers (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that it is reasonable to develop and provide a program that can improve the level of preventive behavior taking into consideration the characteristics of the subject in order to reduce the incidence of diseases in high-risk areas for scrub typhus.

  8. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Quantification issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourson, M.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The quantitative procedures associated with noncancer risk assessment include reference dose (RfD), benchmark dose, and severity modeling. The RfD, which is part of the EPA risk assessment guidelines, is an estimation of a level that is likely to be without any health risk to sensitive individuals. The RfD requires two major judgments: the first is choice of a critical effect(s) and its No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL); the second judgment is choice of an uncertainty factor. This paper discusses major assumptions and limitations of the RfD model.

  9. Structure and electrical resistivity of alkali-alkali and lithium-based liquid binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.K.; Mukherjee, K.K.

    1990-01-01

    Harmonic model potential, developed and used for simple metals is applied here to evaluate hardsphere diameters, which ensure minimum interionic pair potential for alkali-alkali (Na-K, Na-Rb, Na-Cs, K-Rb, K-Cs) and lithium-based (Li-Na, Li-Mg, Li-In, Li-Tl) liquid binary alloys as a function of composition for use in the determination of their partial structure factors. These structure factors are then used to calculate electrical resistivities of alloys considered. The computed values of electrical resistivity as a function of composition agree both, in magnitude and gradient reasonably well with experimental values in all cases except in Cs systems, where the disagreement is appreciable. (author)

  10. Clinical Predictors of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndromes in Pediatric patients with Scrub Typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongying; Zhang, Yongjun; Yin, Zhaoqing; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Defeng; Zhou, Qun

    2017-06-01

    Scrub typhus can produce multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Early recognition of the patients at risk of MODS would be helpful in providing timely management and reducing the mortality. In all, 449 children with scrub typhus were enrolled at three hospitals in Yunnan, China from January 2010 to January 2015. The patients' clinical status of organ system dysfunction was evaluated on the day of discharge from hospital by using standard criteria. The patients were classified into MODS present (64 cases, 14.3%) or MODS absent (385 cases, 85.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the prognostic factors for MODS included skin rash (odds ratio, OR = 3.3, p = 0.037), time interval form treatment to defervescence (OR = 1.2, p = 0.035), hemoglobin (OR = 0.54, p = 0.041), platelet counts (OR = 0.06, p scrub typhus, our study provides clinicians with important information to improve the clinical monitoring and prognostication of MODS. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Scrub Typhus in Northeastern Thailand: Eschar Distribution, Abnormal Electrocardiographic Findings, and Predictors of Fatal Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thipmontree, Wilawan; Tantibhedhyangkul, Wiwit; Silpasakorn, Saowaluk; Wongsawat, Ekkarat; Waywa, Duangdao; Suputtamongkol, Yupin

    2016-10-05

    Scrub typhus is endemic in Thailand. Of the 495 patients with acute undifferentiated fever studied in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, from June 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012, 146 patients (29.5%) had confirmed scrub typhus. The majority of cases were male, farmers, with the mean (±standard deviation) age of 54.1 ± 15.2 years. A total of 59 patients (40.4%) had eschar lesion. The commonest sites for an eschar in male patients were the perineum, inguinal, and buttock area; whereas in females, it was the head and neck area. Abnormal electrocardiogram was found in 39 of 79 patients (49.4%) with sinus tachycardia being the most frequent finding (17, 21.5%). A total of 73 patients (50%) had at least one complication. Myocarditis was the cause of complete heart block in a scrub typhus patient, and he fully recovered after receiving intravenous chloramphenicol treatment. The case fatality rate was 6.2% (nine deaths).The independent predictors for fatal outcome were age over 65 years (odds ratio [OR] = 14.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-166.44, P = 0.03), acute kidney injury (OR = 12.75, 95% CI = 1.77-92.07, P = 0.01), and hyperbilirubinemia (OR = 24.82, 95% CI = 2.12-286.61, P = 0.01). Early diagnosis and prompt appropriate treatment can improve the patient's outcome. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Scrub Typhus: A Clinico-Laboratory Differentiation of Children with and without Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Nowneet Kumar; Pandita, Neerul; Saini, Manju; Dhar, Minakshi; Ahmed, Sohaib; Shirazi, Nadia; Wasim, Sanober; Shirke, Rupali; Chandar, Vipan

    2016-06-01

    Neurological involvement in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis, although well documented in scrub typhus, has not been extensively studied in the pediatric population. We report the clinical and laboratory profile of 96 children with scrub typhus and compared those with and without meningitis. Twenty seven (28%) children had clinical and laboratory evidence of meningitis. The most frequent presenting features were fever (100%), meningeal signs (66.6%), nausea and vomiting (56.3%), seizures (55.5%) and altered sensorium (51.8%). The children with meningitis presented early and had significantly lower respiratory and renal impairments when compared with the non-meningitis group. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed elevated total leukocyte count (86.73 ± 94.50 cells/mm(3)), mononuclear pleocytosis (lymphocyte percentage of 76.85 ± 15.86), elevated proteins (108.33 ± 52.63 mg%) and normal CSF glucose (64.18 ± 15.92 mg%). We conclude that meningitis is a common and early complication of childhood scrub typhus. The CSF reveals a lymphocytic pleocytosis, raised proteins and a normal glucose level. These children respond promptly to appropriate antibiotics as do children without meningitis. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A case-control study of risk factors associated with scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanning Lyu

    Full Text Available To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56 were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of 3.7 (1.1-11.9, 8.2 (1.4-49.5, and 17.2 (5.1-57.9, respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China.

  14. Clinical significance of hypoalbuminemia in outcome of patients with scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Keun-Sang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to investigate the clinical significance of hypoalbuminemia as a marker of severity and mortality in patients with Scrub typhus. Methods The patients with scrub typhus were divided into two groups based on the serum albumin levels; Group I (serum albumin Results Of the total 246 patients who underwent the study, 84 patients (34.1% were categorized as Group I and 162 patients were (65.9% as Group II. Group I showed significantly higher incidence of confusion (24.6% vs. 5.3%, p p = 0.002, pleural effusion (22.8% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.03, arrhythmia (12.3% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.008 and non-oliguric acute renal failure (40.4% vs. 11.1%, p p p = 0.012, and higher hospital cost compared to Group II. Conclusions This study showed hypoalbuminemia in scrub typhus was closely related to the frequency of various complication, longer hospital stay, consequently the higher medical cost, necessitating more efficient management of patients, including medical resources.

  15. Physico-Chemical Properties of Personal Care Products Containing Guava Scrub Granules as Exfoliating Agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahariah Ismail; Mohd Fadlly Jumadi; Nurdiyana Mohamed Johari

    2015-01-01

    Treated guava scrub granules (GSG) as an exfoliating agent were obtained from the decanter waste at Sime Darby Food and Beverages, Sungai Wangi, Perak (SDFB). The treated GSG and tocotrienol were the main active ingredients incorporated in a basic formulation containing 87 % palm-based derivatives. Guava body scrub (GBS) and guava facial scrub (GFS) lotions were developed at skin pH 5.5 and pH 5.6 respectively. Both products were found to be stable for three years due to the liquid crystalline structure in the emulsion system , having small particle size (490 nm and 880 nm) and high zeta potential values (-54 mv and -39 mv). The rheological properties showed that the GBS lotion had a viscosity at 900 Pas and a yield value at 98 Pa, whereas the GFS lotion 60 Pas and 6 Pa viscosity and yield values respectively. The formulations were designed to be soft and flowable, with the firmness force indicated at 111 g and 66 g for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. Efficacy testing on 20 healthy subjects showed a significant decrease of 21 % and 22 % in skin sebum removal for GBS lotion and GFS lotion respectively. (author)

  16. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil

  17. A Review of Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi and Related Organisms: Then, Now, and Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Luce-Fedrow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus and the rickettsial diseases represent some of the oldest recognized vector-transmitted diseases, fraught with a rich historical aspect, particularly as applied to military/wartime situations. The vectors of Orientia tsutsugamushi were once thought to be confined to an area designated as the Tsutsugamushi Triangle. However, recent reports of scrub typhus caused by Orientia species other than O. tsutsugamushi well beyond the limits of the Tsutsugamushi Triangle have triggered concerns about the worldwide presence of scrub typhus. It is not known whether the vectors of O. tsutsugamushi will be the same for the new Orientia species, and this should be a consideration during outbreak/surveillance investigations. Additionally, concerns surrounding the antibiotic resistance of O. tsutsugamushi have led to considerations for the amendment of treatment protocols, and the need for enhanced public health awareness in both the civilian and medical professional communities. In this review, we discuss the history, outbreaks, antibiotic resistance, and burgeoning genomic advances associated with one of the world’s oldest recognized vector-borne pathogens, O. tsutsugamushi.

  18. Increased endothelial and macrophage markers are associated with disease severity and mortality in scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterdal, Kari; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Astrup, Elisabeth; Ueland, Thor; Prakash, John A J; Lekva, Tove; Abraham, O C; Thomas, Kurien; Damås, Jan Kristian; Mathews, Prasad; Mathai, Dilip; Aukrust, Pål; Varghese, George M

    2014-11-01

    Scrub typhus is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high even with treatment, and further knowledge of the immune response during this infection is needed. This study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of monocyte/macrophage and endothelial related inflammatory markers in patients and controls in South India and to explore a possible correlation to disease severity and clinical outcome. Plasma levels of ALCAM, VCAM-1, sCD163, sCD14, YKL-40 and MIF were measured in scrub typhus patients (n = 129), healthy controls (n = 31) and in infectious disease controls (n = 31), both in the acute phase and after recovery, by enzyme immunoassays. Patients had markedly elevated levels of all mediators in the acute phase, differing from both healthy and infectious disease controls. During follow-up levels of ALCAM, VCAM-1, sCD14 and YKL-40 remained elevated compared to levels in healthy controls. High plasma ALCAM, VCAM-1, sCD163, sCD14, and MIF, and in particular YKL-40 were all associated with disease severity and ALCAM, sCD163, MIF and especially YKL-40, were associated with mortality. Our findings show that scrub typhus is characterized by elevated levels of monocyte/macrophage and endothelial related markers. These inflammatory markers, and in particular YKL-40, may contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus: an analysis of 160 cases occurred in Ulsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Oh, Dong Heon; Kim, Ki Sung; Woo, Je Ho; Kwon, Jung Hyeok [Dong Kang General Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Scrub typhus (Tsutsugamushi disease) is an acute febrile systemic illness caused by Rickettsia Tsutsugamushi that is transmitted to humans by the bite of larval-stage trombiculid mites (chiggers). The authors analyzed chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus in 160 patients in Ulsan area. One hundred and eight (67.5%) of 160 patients showed abnormal findings which included lung lesions in 108 patients (67.5%), cardiomegaly in 37 patients (23.1%), lymphadenopathy in 25 patients (15.6%) and pleural effusion in 11 patients (6.9%). Among the lung lesions, interstitial patterns were seen in 107 patients (66.9%), mostly fine or medium reticulonodular, and air-space patterns in 14 patients (8.8%) and combined interstitial and air-space patterns in 13 patients (8.1%). Sixty-four patients (40%) had combined chest radiographic findings. The typical chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus would be helpful in evaluation of the causes of acute febrile illness that occur during late fall in the endemic area.

  20. Chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus: an analysis of 160 cases occurred in Ulsan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Oh, Dong Heon; Kim, Ki Sung; Woo, Je Ho; Kwon, Jung Hyeok

    1993-01-01

    Scrub typhus (Tsutsugamushi disease) is an acute febrile systemic illness caused by Rickettsia Tsutsugamushi that is transmitted to humans by the bite of larval-stage trombiculid mites (chiggers). The authors analyzed chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus in 160 patients in Ulsan area. One hundred and eight (67.5%) of 160 patients showed abnormal findings which included lung lesions in 108 patients (67.5%), cardiomegaly in 37 patients (23.1%), lymphadenopathy in 25 patients (15.6%) and pleural effusion in 11 patients (6.9%). Among the lung lesions, interstitial patterns were seen in 107 patients (66.9%), mostly fine or medium reticulonodular, and air-space patterns in 14 patients (8.8%) and combined interstitial and air-space patterns in 13 patients (8.1%). Sixty-four patients (40%) had combined chest radiographic findings. The typical chest radiographic findings of scrub typhus would be helpful in evaluation of the causes of acute febrile illness that occur during late fall in the endemic area

  1. Differences in agricultural activities related to incidence of scrub typhus between Korea and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chang-Jin; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Kang, Gong-Unn; Lee, Jeong Mi; Lee, Da-Un; Nam, Hae-Sung; Ryu, So Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a basis for improving or strengthening the preventive strategy against scrub typhus in Korea by comparing and analyzing the difference of prevention behaviors contributing to the occurrence of scrub typhus in Japan and Korea. The survey was carried out in Jeollabuk-do, which is a high risk and high incidence area, and Fukuoka Prefecture, which is a high risk and low incidence area. The study included 406 Korean farmers and 216 Japanese farmers. Data were collected through face-to-face surveys by interviewers who had completed standardized education. Korean farmers have a higher percentage of agricultural working posture that involved contact with weeds than Japanese farmers (pwork was more appropriate for Japanese farmers than for Korean farmers (pwork was lower in Korea than in Japan, lower in men than women, and lower in part-time farmers than full-time farmers (p<0.05). This study suggests that it is reasonable to develop and provide a program that can improve the level of preventive behavior taking into consideration the characteristics of the subject in order to reduce the incidence of diseases in high-risk areas for scrub typhus.

  2. Temperature impact on SO2 removal efficiency by ammonia gas scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Boshu; Zheng Xianyu; Wen Yan; Tong Huiling; Chen Meiqian; Chen Changhe

    2003-01-01

    Emissions reduction in industrial processes, i.e. clean production, is an essential requirement for sustainable development. Fossil fuel combustion is the main emission source for gas pollutants, such as NO X , SO 2 and CO 2 , and coal is now a primary energy source used worldwide with coal combustion being the greatest atmospheric pollution source in China. This paper analyzes flue gas cleaning by ammonia scrubbing (FGCAS) for power plants to remove gaseous pollutants, such as NO X , SO 2 and CO 2 , and presents the conceptual zero emission design for power plants. The byproducts from the FGCAS process can be used in agriculture or for gas recovery. Experimental results presented for SO 2 removal from the simulated flue gas in a continuous flow experiment, which was similar to an actual flue gas system, showed that the effectiveness of the ammonia injection or scrubbing depends on the temperature. The FGCAS process can effectively remove SO 2 , but the process temperature should be below 60 deg. C or above 80 deg. C for SO 2 reduction by NH 3 scrubbing

  3. Maternal exposure to alkali, alkali earth, transition and other metals: Concentrations and predictors of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinwood, A.L.; Stasinska, A.; Callan, A.C.; Heyworth, J.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children. - This study has demonstrated exposure to alkali, alkali earth and transition metals in pregnant women with factors such as breastfeeding, fish oil use and diet affecting exposures

  4. Volcanic Origin of Alkali Halides on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The recent observation of NaCl (gas) on Io confirms our earlier prediction that NaCl is produced volcanically. Here we extend our calculations by modeling thermochemical equilibrium of O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, and I as a function of temperature and pressure in a Pele-like volcanic gas with O/S/Na/Cl/K = 1.518/1/0.05/0.04/0.005 and CI chondritic ratios of the other (as yet unobserved) alkalis and halogens. For reference, the nominal temperature and pressure for Pele is 1760 plus or minus 210 K and 0.01 bars based on Galileo data and modeling.

  5. Closed N-shell alkali spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.G.; Curtis, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    Term values and ionization potentials have been calculated for several ions in the promethium (N = 61) isoelectronic sequence. As the nuclear charge is increased, the ground configuration changes from 4f 13 5s 2 to 4f 14 5s giving the upper portion of the sequence an alkali-like character. According to our most recent Hartree-Fock calculations with first-order relativistic corrections, the ground term is 5s 2 S for Z > 77 (Ir XVII) and the first excited term is 5p 2 P 0 for Z > 84 (P 0 XXIV). Comparisons are made with calculations of Cowan in W XIV. The prospects for observation of these spectra in fast ion beams are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Existence of hexachlorocerates (4) of alkali metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, Yu.M.; Filatov, I.Yu.; Popov, A.I.; Goryachenkova, S.A.; Martynenko, L.I.; Spitsyn, V.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1985-01-01

    A possibility has been studied to prepare alkali metal hexachlorocerates (4) of the composition M/sub 2/CeCl/sub 6/ (M=Li, Na, K, Rb) according to the reaction 2MX + fH/sub 2/CeCl/sub 6/'' ..-->.. 2HX + M/sub 2/CeCl/sub 6/ (X=Cl/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/). Using X-ray phase analysis and low-temperature hTA it has been shown, that under experimental conditions (-65 deg C) the rubidium-cerium chlorocomplex is formed, in which Ce is present in the form of Ce(4). The complex is unstable at approximately 20 deg C and under the effect of moisture gets hydrolyzed with the formation of Ce(3) derivatives. Isomorphism of Rb and Cs hexachlorocerates (4) is established. According to the data of the low-temperature DTA, the authors failed to prepare Li, Na, K hexachlorocerates (4).

  7. Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, V.J.; Chandratillake, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    By far the most thoroughly investigated group of compounds in solid-state radiation chemistry are the alkali halides. Some of the reasons are undoubtedly practical: large single crystals of high purity are readily prepared. The crystals are transparent over a wide range of wavelengths. They are more sensitive to radiation damage than most other ionic solids. The crystals have simple well-defined structures, and the products of radiolysis have also in many cases been clearly identified by a variety of experimental techniques, the most important being optical methods and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In recent years the application of pulse techniques-radiolysis and laser photolysis-has yielded a wealth of information concerning the mechanisms of the primary processes of radiation damage, on the one hand, and of thermal and photolytic reactions that the radiolysis products undergo, on the other

  8. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

    2012-09-11

    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  9. Alkali elemental and potassium isotopic compositions of Semarkona chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of K isotope ratios in 28 Semarkona chondrules with a wide range of petrologic types and bulk compositions as well as the compositions of CPX-mesostasis pairs in 17 type I Semarkona chondrules, including two chondrules with radial alkali zonation and 19 type II chondrules. Despite the wide range in K/Al ratios, no systematic variations in K isotopic compositions were found. Semarkona chondrules do not record a simple history of Rayleigh-type loss of K. Experimentally determined evaporation rates suggest that considerable alkali evaporation would have occurred during chondrule formation. Nevertheless, based on Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients, the alkali contents of the cores of most chondrules in Semarkona were probably established at the time of final crystallization. However, Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients also show that alkali zonation in type I Semarkona chondrules was produced by entry of alkalis after solidification, probably during parent body alteration. This alkali metasomatism may have gone to completion in some chondrules. Our preferred explanation for the lack of systematic isotopic enrichments, even in alkali depleted type I chondrule cores, is that they exchanged with the ambient gas as they cooled. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2005.

  10. Concrete alkali-silica reaction and nuclear radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneki

    2008-01-01

    The deterioration of concrete by alkali-silica reaction of aggregates (ASR) and the effect of nuclear radiations on the ASR have been reviewed based on our studies on the mechanism of ASR and the effect of nuclear radiations on the resistivity of minerals to alkaline solution. It has been found that the ASR is initiated by the attack of alkaline solution in concrete to silicious aggregates to convert them into hydrated alkali silicate. The consumption of alkali hydroxide by the aggregates induces the dissolution of Ca 2+ ions into the solution. The alkali silicate surrounding the aggregates then reacts with Ca 2+ ions to convert to insoluble tight and rigid reaction rims. The reaction rim allows the penetration of alkaline solution but prevents the leakage of viscous alkali silicate, so that alkali silicate generated afterward is accumulated in the aggregate to give an expansive pressure enough for cracking the aggregate and the surrounding concrete. The effect of nuclear radiation on the reactivity of quartz and plagioclase, a part of major minerals composing volcanic rocks as popular aggregates, to alkaline solution has been examined for clarifying whether nuclear radiations accelerates the ASR. It has been found that the irradiation of these minerals converts them into alkali-reactive amorphous ones. The radiation dose for plagioclase is as low as 10 8 Gy, which suggests that the ASR of concrete surrounding nuclear reactors is possible to be accelerated by nuclear radiation. (author)

  11. Radiation damage in the alkali halide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diller, K.M.

    1975-10-01

    A general review is given of the experimental data on radiation damage in the alkali halide crystals. A report is presented of an experimental investigation of irradiation produced interstitial dislocation loops in NaCl. These loops are found to exhibit the usual growth and coarsening behaviour during thermal annealing which operates by a glide and self-climb mechanism. It is shown that the recombination of defects in these crystals is a two stage process, and that the loss of interstitials stabilized at the loops is caused by extrinsic vacancies. The theoretical techniques used in simulating point defects in ionic crystals are described. Shell model potentials are derived for all the alkali halide crystals by fitting to bulk crystal data. The fitting is supplemented by calculations of the repulsive second neighbour interactions using methods based on the simple electron gas model. The properties of intrinsic and substitutional impurity defects are calculated. The HADES computer program is used in all the defect calculations. Finally the report returns to the problems of irradiation produced interstitial defects. The properties of H centres are discussed; their structure, formation energies, trapping at impurities and dimerization. The structure, formation energies and mobility of the intermediate and final molecular defects are then discussed. The thermodynamics of interstitial loop formation is considered for all the alklai halide crystals. The nucleation of interstitial loops in NaCl and NaBr is discussed, and the recombination of interstitial and vacancy defects. The models are found to account for all the main features of the experimental data. (author)

  12. Renal Manifestation in Scrub Typhus during a Major Outbreak in Central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedhain, A; Bhattarai, G R

    2017-01-01

    Renal involvement and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common clinical manifestations seen in scrub typhus, a vector-borne tropical disease. There are no data on renal manifestation in scrub typhus in Nepal. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the incidence, urinary abnormalities, course, severity, outcome, and the predictors of AKI in patients with scrub typhus during a major outbreak in Central Nepal. Total 1398 patients admitted with acute febrile illness were subjected for Scrub Typhus Detect™ Immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, of which 502 (35.90%) patients tested positive and were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 30.37 ± 18.81 years (range, 1-79 years) with 26.29% in the pediatric age group. Female-to-male ratio was 1.26:1. Mean duration of fever was 6.8 ± 3.1 days. Mean IgM ELISA value for scrub typhus was 2.17 ± 1.70 without difference in AKI and non-AKI groups (2.17 ± 1.76 vs. 2.16 ± 1.62; P = 0.94). Urinary abnormalities were seen in 42.3% of patients. Mean serum creatinine was 1.37 ± 0.69 mg/dl with significant difference in two groups (1.85 ± 0.87 vs. 1.03 ± 0.17; P = 0.003). AKI was seen in 35.8% of patients with majority having Stage 1 AKI (68.3%) followed by Stage 2 (34.1%) and Stage 3 (1.2%). Hemodialysis was required for 3.94% of patients. In 54% of patients, AKI occurred in fifth and sixth day of fever. ICU admission was required for 18.73% of patients and 8.57% required ventilator support. Mortality rate was 1.79%, which was higher among patients with AKI (2.96% vs. 1.0%; P = 0.106). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of pneumonia, shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome predicted the development of AKI.

  13. Renal manifestation in scrub typhus during a major outbreak in central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sedhain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal involvement and acute kidney injury (AKI are common clinical manifestations seen in scrub typhus, a vector-borne tropical disease. There are no data on renal manifestation in scrub typhus in Nepal. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the incidence, urinary abnormalities, course, severity, outcome, and the predictors of AKI in patients with scrub typhus during a major outbreak in Central Nepal. Total 1398 patients admitted with acute febrile illness were subjected for Scrub Typhus Detect™ Immunoglobulin M (IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test, of which 502 (35.90% patients tested positive and were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 30.37 ± 18.81 years (range, 1–79 years with 26.29% in the pediatric age group. Female-to-male ratio was 1.26:1. Mean duration of fever was 6.8 ± 3.1 days. Mean IgM ELISA value for scrub typhus was 2.17 ± 1.70 without difference in AKI and non-AKI groups (2.17 ± 1.76 vs. 2.16 ± 1.62; P = 0.94. Urinary abnormalities were seen in 42.3% of patients. Mean serum creatinine was 1.37 ± 0.69 mg/dl with significant difference in two groups (1.85 ± 0.87 vs. 1.03 ± 0.17; P = 0.003. AKI was seen in 35.8% of patients with majority having Stage 1 AKI (68.3% followed by Stage 2 (34.1% and Stage 3 (1.2%. Hemodialysis was required for 3.94% of patients. In 54% of patients, AKI occurred in fifth and sixth day of fever. ICU admission was required for 18.73% of patients and 8.57% required ventilator support. Mortality rate was 1.79%, which was higher among patients with AKI (2.96% vs. 1.0%; P = 0.106. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of pneumonia, shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome predicted the development of AKI.

  14. Scrub typhus point-of-care testing: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Saraswati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing scrub typhus clinically is difficult, hence laboratory tests play a very important role in diagnosis. As performing sophisticated laboratory tests in resource-limited settings is not feasible, accurate point-of-care testing (POCT for scrub typhus diagnosis would be invaluable for patient diagnosis and management. Here we summarise the existing evidence on the accuracy of scrub typhus POCTs to inform clinical practitioners in resource-limited settings of their diagnostic value.Studies on POCTs which can be feasibly deployed in primary health care or outpatient settings were included. Thirty-one studies were identified through PubMed and manual searches of reference lists. The quality of the studies was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2. About half (n = 14/31 of the included studies were of moderate quality. Meta-analysis showed the pooled sensitivity and specificity of commercially available immunochromatographic tests (ICTs were 66.0% (95% CI 0.37-0.86 and 92.0% (95% CI 0.83-0.97, respectively. There was a significant and high degree of heterogeneity between the studies (I2 value = 97.48%, 95% CI 96.71-98.24 for sensitivity and I2 value = 98.17%, 95% CI 97.67-98.67 for specificity. Significant heterogeneity was observed for total number of samples between studies (p = 0.01, study design (whether using case-control design or not, p = 0.01, blinding during index test interpretation (p = 0.02, and QUADAS-2 score (p = 0.01.There was significant heterogeneity between the scrub typhus POCT diagnostic accuracy studies examined. Overall, the commercially available scrub typhus ICTs demonstrated better performance when 'ruling in' the diagnosis. There is a need for standardised methods and reporting of diagnostic accuracy to decrease between-study heterogeneity and increase comparability among study results, as well as development of an affordable and accurate antigen-based POCT to tackle the

  15. Properties of Hooked Steel Fibers Reinforced Alkali Activated Material Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Faris M. A.; Abdullah Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Ismail Khairul Nizar; Muniandy Ratnasamy; Mahmad Nor Aiman; Putra Jaya Ramadhansyah; Waried Wazien A. Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, alkali activated material was produced by using Class F fly ash from Manjung power station, Lumut, Perak, Malaysia. Fly ash then was activated by alkaline activator which is consisting of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Hooked end steel fibers were added into the alkali activated material system with percentage vary from 0 % – 5 %. Chemical compositions of fly ash were first analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF). All hardened alkali activated materia...

  16. Control of alkali species in gasification systems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turn, S.; Kinoshita, C.; Ishimura, D. Zhou, J.; Hiraki, T.; Masutani, S.

    2000-07-13

    Gas-phase alkali metal compounds contribute to fouling, slagging, corrosion, and agglomeration problems in energy conversion facilities. One mitigation strategy applicable at high temperature is to pass the gas stream through a fixed bed sorbent or getter material, which preferentially absorbs alkali via physical adsorption or chemisorption. This report presents results of an experimental investigation of high-temperature alkali removal from a hot filtered gasifier product gas stream using a packed bed of sorbent material. Two getter materials, activated bauxite and emathlite, were tested at two levels of space time by using two interchangeable reactors of different internal diameters. The effect of getter particle size was also investigated.

  17. Prevalence of scrub typhus in pyrexia of unknown origin and assessment of interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma levels in scrub typhus-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Meher; Sultan, Asfia; Chowdhry, Madhav; Azam, Mohd; Khan, Fatima; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Haris M

    2018-01-01

    Scrub typhus is lesser known cause of fever of unknown origin in India. Even if there have been reports documenting the prevalence of scrub typhus in different parts of India, it is still an unknown entity, and clinicians usually do not consider it as differential diagnosis. The present study was performed to document the prevalence of scrub typhus among febrile patients in western part of Uttar Pradesh and to assess the clinical profile of infected patients on the one hand and knowledge, attitude, and practices among clinicians on the other. A total of 357 adult patients with fever of more than 5-day duration were recruited. All patients underwent complete physical examination, and detailed clinical history was elicited as per predesigned pro forma. After primary screening to rule out malaria, enteric fever, and leptospirosis infection, secondary screening for scrub typhus was done by rapid screen test and IgM ELISA. Scrub typhus infection was positive in 91 (25.5%) cases. The most common symptoms among the patients were fever (100%), pain in abdomen (79.1%), pedal edema 56 (61.5%), rash 44 (48.3%), headache 44 (48.3%), vomiting 42 (46.1%), constipation 33 (36.2%), cough 28 (30.7%), and lymphadenopathy 20 (21.9%). The median values of interleukin-8, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in healthy controls were 15.54 pg/ml, 7.77 pg/ml, and 54.1 pg/ml, respectively, while the median values of these cytokines in scrub typhus-positive patients were 21.04 pg/ml, 8.74 pg/ml, and 73.8 pg/ml, respectively. Our results highlight that scrub typhus infection is an important cause of pyrexia of unknown origin, and active surveillance is necessary to assess the exact magnitude and distribution of the disease.

  18. US EPA Region 4 RMP Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve public health and the environment, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) collects information about facilities, sites, or places subject to environmental regulation or of environmental interest. Through the Geospatial Data Download Service, the public is now able to download the EPA Geodata shapefile containing facility and site information from EPA's national program systems. The file is Internet accessible from the Envirofacts Web site (http://www.epa.gov/enviro). The data may be used with geospatial mapping applications. (Note: The shapefile omits facilities without latitude/longitude coordinates.) The EPA Geospatial Data contains the name, location (latitude/longitude), and EPA program information about specific facilities and sites. In addition, the file contains a Uniform Resource Locator (URL), which allows mapping applications to present an option to users to access additional EPA data resources on a specific facility or site.

  19. (e, 2e) triple differential cross sections of alkali and alkali earth atoms: Na, K and Mg, Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitawala, U; Purohit, G; Sud, K K

    2008-01-01

    Recently low-energy measurements have been reported for alkali targets Na and K and alkali earth targets Mg and Ca in coplanar symmetric geometry. We report the results of our calculation of triple differential cross section (TDCS) for electron impact single ionization (i.e. (e, 2e) processes) of alkali atoms Na, K and alkali earth atoms Mg, Ca in coplanar symmetric geometry. We have performed the present calculations using the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) formalism at intermediate incident electron energies used in the recently performed experiments. Ionization takes place from the valence shell for all the targets investigated and the outgoing electrons share the excess energy equally. We have also considered the effect of target polarization in our DWBA calculations which may be an important quantity at incident electron energies used in the present investigation. We find that the DWBA formalism is able to reproduce most of the trend of experimental data and may provide a future direction for further investigation of ionization process on alkali and alkali earth metals. It is also observed that the second-order effects are more important to understand the collision dynamics of (e, 2e) processes on alkali earth targets

  20. [Spatio-temporal distribution of scrub typhus and related influencing factors in coastal beach area of Yancheng, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y Z; Li, F; Xu, H; Huang, L C; Gu, Z G; Sun, Z Y; Yan, G J; Zhu, Y J; Tang, C

    2016-02-01

    In order to provide better programs on monitoring, early warning and prevention of Scrub Typhus in the coastal beach area, temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of scrub typhus were summarized. Relationships between temporal-spatial clustering of Scrub Typhus, meteorological factors, rodent distribution and the biological characteristics in coastal beach area of Yancheng city, were studied. Reports on network-based Scrub Typhus epidemics and information on population, weather situation through monitoring those stations, from 2005 to 2014 were collected and processed, in the coastal beach area of Yancheng city. Distribution, density of the population concerned and seasonal fluctuation on rodents were monitored in coastal beach area, from April 2011 to December, 2013. METHODS as descriptive statistics, space-time permutation scantistics, autocorrelation and Cross-correlation analysis etc, were used to analyze the temporal-spatial distribution of Scrub Typhus and correlation with rodent distribution, density fluctuation and meteorological indexes. Zero-inflated Pearson (ZIP) regression model was contributed according to the distribution of related data. All methods were calculated under Excel 2003, SPSS 16.0, Mapinfo 11.0, Satscan 9.0 and Stata/SE 10.0 softwares. (1) The incidence of Scrub Typhus was gradually increasing and the highest incidence of the year was seen in 2014, as 5.81/10 million. There was an autumn peak of Scrub typhus, with the highest incidence rate as 12.02/10 million in November. The incidence rate of Scrub typhus appeared high in Binhai, Dafeng and Xiangshui, with the average incidence rates appeared as 3.30/10 million, 3.21/10 million and 2.79/10 million, respectively. There were 12 towns with high incidence rates in the coastal beach area, with incidence rate showed between 4.41/10 and 10.03/10 million. (2) There were three incidence clusters of Scrub typhus seen in 25 towns, between October 2012 and November 2012 in Dongtai, Dafeng

  1. Comments on EPA's LLW preproposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littleton, B.K.; Weinstock, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing standards for the management, storage, and disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW). The Atomic Energy Act delegated EPA, among other provisions, the authority to establish generally applicable standards for the disposal of radioactive waste to ensure that the public and the environment are adequately protected from potential radiation impacts. As an initial effort to open communications on a standard for LLW, the Agency developed a preproposal draft (Preproposal Draft of 40 CFR Part 193 - 30 Nov 94) and circulated it to interested parties for review and comment. The extended comment period ended April 12, 1995. A summary of the comments received and analyzed to date follows. After all comments have been analyzed, the rule will undergo an Agency clearance process and be sent to the Office of Management and Budget for review. After that review, the formal process of publication of the proposed rule in the Federal Register and the formal public comment period will begin

  2. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  3. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas (Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents point equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas in EPA New England. This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally...

  4. Cytokine Network in Scrub Typhus: High Levels of Interleukin-8 Are Associated with Disease Severity and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Elisabeth; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Otterdal, Kari; Ueland, Thor; Prakash, John A. J.; Lekva, Tove; Strand, Øystein A.; Abraham, O. C.; Thomas, Kurien; Damås, Jan Kristian; Mathews, Prasad; Mathai, Dilip; Aukrust, Pål; Varghese, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high if untreated, and even with treatment as high as 10–20%, further knowledge of the immune response during scrub typhus is needed. The current study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of a variety of inflammatory mediators in scrub typhus patients and controls in South India in order to map the broader cytokine profile and their relation to disease severity and clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined plasma levels of several cytokines in scrub typhus patients (n = 129) compared to healthy controls (n = 31) and infectious disease controls (n = 31), both in the acute phase and after recovery, by multiplex technology and enzyme immunoassays. Scrub typhus patients were characterized by marked changes in the cytokine network during the acute phase, differing not only from healthy controls but also from infectious disease controls. While most of the inflammatory markers were raised in scrub typhus, platelet-derived mediators such as RANTES were markedly decreased, probably reflecting enhanced platelet activation. Some of the inflammatory markers, including various chemokines (e.g., interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) and downstream markers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3), were also associated with disease severity and mortality during follow-up, with a particular strong association with interleukin-8. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that scrub typhus is characterized by a certain cytokine profile that includes dysregulated levels of a wide range of mediators, and that this enhanced inflammation could contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome. PMID:24516677

  5. Increased Nucleosomes and Neutrophil Activation Link to Disease Progression in Patients with Scrub Typhus but Not Murine Typhus in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Daniel H; Stephan, Femke; Bulder, Ingrid; Wouters, Diana; van der Poll, Tom; Newton, Paul N; Day, Nicholas P J; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is essential in protection against rickettsial illnesses, but the role of neutrophils in these intracellular vasculotropic infections remains unclear. This study analyzed the plasma levels of nucleosomes, FSAP-activation (nucleosome-releasing factor), and neutrophil activation, as evidenced by neutrophil-elastase (ELA) complexes, in sympatric Lao patients with scrub typhus and murine typhus. In acute scrub typhus elevated nucleosome levels correlated with lower GCS scores, raised respiratory rate, jaundice and impaired liver function, whereas neutrophil activation correlated with fibrinolysis and high IL-8 plasma levels, a recently identified predictor of severe disease and mortality. Nucleosome and ELA complex levels were associated with a 4.8-fold and 4-fold increased risk of developing severe scrub typhus, beyond cut off values of 1,040 U/ml for nucleosomes and 275 U/ml for ELA complexes respectively. In murine typhus, nucleosome levels associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and the duration of illness, while ELA complexes correlated strongly with inflammation markers, jaundice and increased respiratory rates. This study found strong correlations between circulating nucleosomes and neutrophil activation in patients with scrub typhus, but not murine typhus, providing indirect evidence that nucleosomes could originate from neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) degradation. High circulating plasma nucleosomes and ELA complexes represent independent risk factors for developing severe complications in scrub typhus. As nucleosomes and histones exposed on NETs are highly cytotoxic to endothelial cells and are strongly pro-coagulant, neutrophil-derived nucleosomes could contribute to vascular damage, the pro-coagulant state and exacerbation of disease in scrub typhus, thus indicating a detrimental role of neutrophil activation. The data suggest that increased neutrophil activation relates to disease progression and severe complications, and

  6. Cytokine network in scrub typhus: high levels of interleukin-8 are associated with disease severity and mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Astrup

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high if untreated, and even with treatment as high as 10-20%, further knowledge of the immune response during scrub typhus is needed. The current study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of a variety of inflammatory mediators in scrub typhus patients and controls in South India in order to map the broader cytokine profile and their relation to disease severity and clinical outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined plasma levels of several cytokines in scrub typhus patients (n = 129 compared to healthy controls (n = 31 and infectious disease controls (n = 31, both in the acute phase and after recovery, by multiplex technology and enzyme immunoassays. Scrub typhus patients were characterized by marked changes in the cytokine network during the acute phase, differing not only from healthy controls but also from infectious disease controls. While most of the inflammatory markers were raised in scrub typhus, platelet-derived mediators such as RANTES were markedly decreased, probably reflecting enhanced platelet activation. Some of the inflammatory markers, including various chemokines (e.g., interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β and downstream markers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3, were also associated with disease severity and mortality during follow-up, with a particular strong association with interleukin-8. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that scrub typhus is characterized by a certain cytokine profile that includes dysregulated levels of a wide range of mediators, and that this enhanced inflammation could contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome.

  7. Cytokine network in scrub typhus: high levels of interleukin-8 are associated with disease severity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Elisabeth; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Otterdal, Kari; Ueland, Thor; Prakash, John A J; Lekva, Tove; Strand, Øystein A; Abraham, O C; Thomas, Kurien; Damås, Jan Kristian; Mathews, Prasad; Mathai, Dilip; Aukrust, Pål; Varghese, George M

    2014-02-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high if untreated, and even with treatment as high as 10-20%, further knowledge of the immune response during scrub typhus is needed. The current study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of a variety of inflammatory mediators in scrub typhus patients and controls in South India in order to map the broader cytokine profile and their relation to disease severity and clinical outcome. We examined plasma levels of several cytokines in scrub typhus patients (n = 129) compared to healthy controls (n = 31) and infectious disease controls (n = 31), both in the acute phase and after recovery, by multiplex technology and enzyme immunoassays. Scrub typhus patients were characterized by marked changes in the cytokine network during the acute phase, differing not only from healthy controls but also from infectious disease controls. While most of the inflammatory markers were raised in scrub typhus, platelet-derived mediators such as RANTES were markedly decreased, probably reflecting enhanced platelet activation. Some of the inflammatory markers, including various chemokines (e.g., interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) and downstream markers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3), were also associated with disease severity and mortality during follow-up, with a particular strong association with interleukin-8. Our findings suggest that scrub typhus is characterized by a certain cytokine profile that includes dysregulated levels of a wide range of mediators, and that this enhanced inflammation could contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome.

  8. Magnetic properties of free alkali and transition metal clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, W. de; Milani, P.; Chatelain, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Stern-Gerlach deflections of small alkali clusters (N<6) and iron clusters (10< N<500) show that the paramagnetic alkali clusters always have a nondeflecting component, while the iron clusters always deflect in the high field direction. Both of these effects appear to be related to spin relaxation however in the case of alkali clusters it is shown that they are in fact caused by avoided level crossing in the Zeeman diagram. For alkali clusters the relatively weak couplings cause reduced magnetic moments where levels cross. For iron clusters however the total spin is strongly coupled to the molecular framework. Consequently this coupling is responsible for avoided level crossing which ultimately cause the total energy of the cluster to decrease with increasing magnetic field so that the iron clusters will deflect in one direction when introduced in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Experiment and theory are discussed for both cases. (orig.)

  9. Saccharification of gamma-ray and alkali pretreated lignocellulosics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, A.; Choudhury, N.

    1988-01-01

    Enzymic saccharification of gamma ray and alkali pretreated sawdust, rice straw, and sugar cane bagasse showed higher release of reducing sugar from pretreated substrates. By gamma ray treatment alone (500 kGy) reducing sugar release of 2.8, 9.2, and 10 g/l was obtained from 7.5% (w/v) sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse and the same substrates showed reducing sugar release of 4.2, 30, and 20 g/l respectively when treated with alkali (0.1 g/g). Combination of gamma ray with alkali treatment further increased the reducing sugar release to 10.2, 33, and 36 g/l from sawdust, rice straw, and bagasse respectively. The effects of gamma ray and alkali treatment on saccharification varied with the nature of the substrate

  10. Reaction of alkali nitrates with PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, T.; Ohuchi, K.; Takahashi, K.; Fujino, T.

    1990-01-01

    Improvement of solubility of plutonium dioxide (PuO 2 ) in acid solution is important to establish the nuclear fuel reprocessing technique for uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels. If insoluble PuO 2 can be converted into any soluble plutonium compounds, problems arising from the fuel dissolution process will be reduced to a great extent. Alkali metal plutonates and alkaline-earth plutonates are known to have enhanced solubility in mineral acids. However, the reaction conditions to form such plutonates and characterization thereof are not well elucidated. Then the reactivity and reaction conditions to form lithium and sodium plutonates from their nitrates and PuO 2 were studied at temperatures between 500 and 900 degree C and alkali metal to plutonium atom ratios between 0.5 and 6 by means of thermogravimetry as well as X-ray diffraction technique. The reaction behavior of alkali plutonates will be discussed in comparison with corresponding alkali uranates

  11. Dipole-dipole van der Waals interaction in alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, B.N.; Thakur, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    Values of van der Waals dipole-dipole constants and interaction energetics of alkali halides are reported using the recent data. The values obtained are somewhat larger than those of earlier workers. (orig.) [de

  12. Alkali-bonded ceramics with hierarchical tailored porosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landi, E.; Medri, V.; Papa, E.; Dědeček, Jiří; Klein, Petr; Benito, P.; Vaccari, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 73, SI (2013), s. 56-64 ISSN 0169-1317 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : alkali-bonded ceramics * metalcaolin * geopolymerization parameters Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.703, year: 2013

  13. Mineralization dynamics of metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaudan, Juan Pablo; Campbell, Kate M.; Kane, Tyler; Shoemaker, Richard K.; Srubar, Wil V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the early-age dynamics of mineral formation in metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements. The effects of silica availability and alkali content on mineral formation were investigated via X-ray diffraction and solid-state 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days. Silica availability was controlled by using either liquid- (immediate) or solid-based (gradual) sodium silicate supplements. Mineral (zeolitic) and amorphous microstructural characteristics were correlated with observed changes in bulk physical properties, namely shrinkage, density, and porosity. Results demonstrate that, while alkali content controls the mineralization in immediately available silica systems, alkali content controls the silica availability in gradually available silica systems. Immediate silica availability generally leads to a more favorable mineral formation as demonstrated by correlated improvements in bulk physical properties.

  14. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1995-01-01

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  15. Mineralization dynamics of metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevaudan, Juan Pablo; Campbell, Kate M.; Kane, Tyler J.; Shoemaker, Richard K.; Srubar, Wil V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the early-age dynamics of mineral formation in metakaolin-based alkali-activated cements. The effects of silica availability and alkali content on mineral formation were investigated via X-ray diffraction and solid-state 29 Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 2, 7, 14, and 28 days. Silica availability was controlled by using either liquid- (immediate) or solid-based (gradual) sodium silicate supplements. Mineral (zeolitic) and amorphous microstructural characteristics were correlated with observed changes in bulk physical properties, namely shrinkage, density, and porosity. Results demonstrate that, while alkali content controls the mineralization in immediately available silica systems, alkali content controls the silica availability in gradually available silica systems. Immediate silica availability generally leads to a more favorable mineral formation as demonstrated by correlated improvements in bulk physical properties.

  16. Kinetics of molybdenite oxidizing leaching in alkali medium by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, A.S.; Sokratova, N.B.; Litman, I.V.; Zelikman, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of investigation of the process kinetics proposed is a model of oxidizing leaching of molybdenite in alkali medium while ozonization of the solution by ozoneair mixture. A kinetic equation is derived, that describes experimental data satisfactorily

  17. Dislocation unpinning model of acoustic emission from alkali halide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper reports the dislocation unpinning model of acoustic emis- sion (AE) from ... Acoustic emission; dislocation; alkali halide crystals; plastic deformation. ..... [5] T Nishimura, A Tahara and T Kolama, Jpn. Metal Inst. 64, 339 (2000).

  18. Dedolomitization and Alkali Reactions in Ohio-sourced Dolstone Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Concrete samples produced using NW-Ohio sourced aggregates were evaluated for susceptibility to degradation and premature failure due to cracks formed by the volume expansion during hydration of silica gels produced by alkali-silica reactions between...

  19. The 4843 Alkali Metal Storage Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The 4843 AMSF has been used primarily to provide a centralized building to receive and store dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste, including sodium and lithium, which has been generated at the Fast Flux Test Facility and at various other Hanford Site operations that used alkali metals. Most of the dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste received consists of retired equipment from liquid sodium processes. The unit continues to store material. In general, only solid alkali metal waste that is water reactive is stored at the 4843 AMSF. The 4843 AMSF will be closed in a manner consistent with Ecology guidelines and regulations (WAC 173-303-610). The general closure procedure is detailed as follows

  20. Photoemission spectroscopy study of a multi-alkali photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Ettema, A R H

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a photoemission study of the highest core levels of the elements and the electron escape barrier (work function) in a multi-alkali photocathode are presented. The core levels indicate that the alkali atoms are in an oxidized state and therefore the compound Na sub 2 KSb can be regarded as an ionic semiconductor. The measured escape barrier of the Cs sub 2 O surface layer is determined as 2.3 eV.

  1. Alkali promotion of N-2 dissociation over Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    Using self-consistent density functional calculations, we show that adsorbed Na and Cs lower the barrier for dissociation of N2 on Ru(0001). Since N2 dissociation is a crucial step in the ammonia synthesis reaction, we explain in this way the experimental observation that alkali metals promote th...... the ammonia synthesis reaction over Ru catalysts. We also show that the origin of this effect is predominantly a direct electrostatic attraction between the adsorbed alkali atoms and the dissociating molecule....

  2. Charge transfer in gold--alkali-metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.; Weinert, M.

    1994-01-01

    Based on conventional electronegativity arguments, gold--alkali-metal compounds are expected to be among the most ''ionic'' of metallic compounds. The concepts of ionicity and charge transfer are difficult to quantify. However, the changes in bonding in the 50/50 Au--alkali-metal systems between the elemental metals and the compounds are so severe that observations can readily be made concerning their character. The results, as obtained from self-consistent electronic-structure calculations, lead to the apparently odd observation that the electron density at the alkali-metal sites in the compound increases significantly and this involves high l componennts in the charge density. This increase, however, can be attributed to Au-like orbitals spatially overlapping the alkali-metal sites. In a chemical sense, it is reasonable to consider the alkali-metal transferring charge to these Au orbitals. While normally the difference in heats of formation between muffin-tin and full-potential calculations for transition-metal--transition-metal and transition-metal--main-group (e.g., Al) compounds having high site symmetry are small, for the gold--alkali-metal systems, the changes in bonding in the compounds cause differences of ∼0.5 eV/atom between the two classes of potential. Any serious estimate of the electronic structure in these systems must account for these aspherical bonding charges. The origin of the semiconducting behavior of the heavy-alkali-metal Au compounds is shown to arise from a combination of the Au-Au separations and the ionic character of the compounds; the light-alkali-metal Au compounds, with their smaller Au-Au separations, do not have a semiconducting gap. Core-level shifts and isomer shifts are also briefly discussed

  3. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a

  4. Alkali-slag cements for the immobilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, C.; Day, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Alkali-slag cements consist of glassy slag and an alkaline activator and can show both higher early and later strengths than Type III Portland cement, if a proper alkaline activator is used. An examination of microstructure of hardened alkali-slag cement pastes with the help of XRD and SEM with EDAX shows that the main hydration product is C-S-H (B) with low C/S ratio and no crystalline substances exist such as Ca(OH) 2 , Al (OH) 3 and sulphoaluminates. Mercury intrusion tests indicate that hardened alkali-slag cement pastes have a lower porosity than ordinary Portland cement, and contain mainly gel pores. The fine pore structure of hardened alkali-slag cement pastes will restrict the ingress of deleterious substances and the leaching of harmful species such as radionuclides. The leachability of Cs + from hardened alkali-slag cement pastes is only half of that from hardened Portland cement. From all these aspects, it is concluded that alkali-slag cements are a better solidification matrix than Portland cement for radioactive wastes

  5. Two-phase alkali-metal experiments in reduced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1986-06-01

    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. A literature search of relevant experiments in reduced gravity is reported on here, and reveals a paucity of data for such correlations. The few ongoing experiments in reduced gravity are noted. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. A similar situation exists regarding two-phase alkali-metal flow and heat transfer, even in normal gravity. Existing data are conflicting and indequate for the task of modeling a space reactor using a two-phase alkali-metal coolant. The major features of past experiments are described here. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from the two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Analyses undertaken here give every expectation that the correlations developed from this data base will provide a valid representation of alkali-metal heat transfer and pressure drop in reduced gravity

  6. The influence of alkali promoters on coadsorbed molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, E.

    1986-01-01

    A model has been suggested recently based on the results of an extensive study of the coadsorbate system CO + K on Ru(001). It is introduced and discussed in this article based on previous results and on results obtained very recently for a similar coadsorbate system, CO + K/Ni(111). This model is in competition with a variety of differing or similar ideas and interpretations which are mostly based on similar experimental results. Some of these other models postulate a lying-down, or strongly tilted, molecule in the presence of alkali atoms, at least at low coverages. The CO molecule is usually considered to be attached to the substrate and to be closely coadsorbed to the alkali neighbor(s) but sometimes even a vertical or horizontal adsorption on top of the alkali layer has been suggested. The interaction between alkali and CO has been described as indirect via the substrate or direct by forming a ''π''-bond between adjacent alkalis and CO molecules or even by forming an ionic K/sub x/-CO/sub y/ complex. Some authors prefer a model in which the main (or exclusive) interaction comes from a charge transfer from the donating alkali into the 2π orbital of the coadsorbed CO, thus, enhancing the C- metal and reducing the C-O bond strength

  7. Vibrations of alkali metal overlayers on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusina, G G; Eremeev, S V; Borisova, S D; Echenique, P M; Chulkov, E V; Benedek, G

    2008-01-01

    We review the current progress in the understanding of vibrations of alkalis adsorbed on metal surfaces. The analysis of alkali vibrations was made on the basis of available theoretical and experimental results. We also include in this discussion our recent calculations of vibrations in K/Pt(111) and Li(Na)/Cu(001) systems. The dependence of alkali adlayer localized modes on atomic mass, adsorption position and coverage as well as the dependence of vertical vibration frequency on the substrate orientation is discussed. The square root of atomic mass dependence of the vertical vibration energy has been confirmed by using computational data for alkalis on the Al(111) and Cu(001) substrates. We have confirmed that in a wide range of submonolayer coverages the stretch mode energy remains nearly constant while the energy of in-plane polarized modes increases with the increase of alkali coverage. It was shown that the spectrum of both stretch and in-plane vibrations can be very sensitive to the adsorption position of alkali atoms and substrate orientation

  8. Ionic interactions in alkali-aluminium tetrafluoride clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Cicek, Z.; Karaman, A.; Pastore, G.; Tosi, M.P.

    1999-08-01

    Complex anion structures ((AlF 4 ) - , (AlF 5 ) 2- and (AlF 6 ) 3- ) coexist in liquid mixtures of aluminium trifluoride and alkali fluorides in composition-dependent relative concentrations and are known to interact with the alkali counterions. We present a comparative study of the static and vibrational structures of MAlF 4 molecules (with M = any alkali), with the aim of developing and testing a refined model of the ionic interactions for applications to the Al-M fluoride mixtures. We find that, whereas an edge-bridged coordination is strongly favoured for Li in LiAIF 4 , edge-bridging and face-bridging of the alkali ion become energetically equivalent as one moves from Na to the heavier alkalis. This result is sensitive to the inclusion of alkali polarizability and may be interpreted as implying (for M = K, Rb or Cs) almost free relative rotations of the M + and (AlF 4 ) - partners at temperatures of relevance to experiment. The consistency of such a viewpoint with electron diffraction data on vapours and with Raman spectra on melts is discussed. (author)

  9. High alkali-resistant basalt fiber for reinforcing concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, Ya.V.; Gutnikov, S.I.; Manylov, M.S.; Zhukovskaya, E.S.; Lazoryak, B.I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Doping of basalt fiber with ZrSiO 4 increased its alkali resistance. • Alkali treatment results in formation of protective surface layer on fibers. • Morphology and chemical composition of surface layer were investigated. • Mechanical properties of fibers were analyzed by a Weibull distribution. • Zirconia doped basalt fibers demonstrate high performance in concrete. - Abstract: Basalt glasses and fibers with zirconia content in the range from 0 to 7 wt% were obtained using ZrSiO 4 as a zirconium source. Weight loss and tensile strength loss of fibers after refluxing in alkali solution were determined. Basalt fiber with 5.7 wt% ZrO 2 had the best alkali resistance properties. Alkali treatment results in formation of protective surface layer on fibers. Morphology and chemical composition of surface layer were investigated. It was shown that alkali resistance of zirconia doped basalt fibers is caused by insoluble compounds of Zr 4+ , Fe 3+ and Mg 2+ in corrosion layer. Mechanical properties of initial and leached fibers were evaluated by a Weibull distribution. The properties of basalt fibers with ZrSiO 4 were compared with AR-glass fibers. The performance of concrete with obtained fibers was investigated

  10. Alkali and heavy metal emissions of the PCFB-process; Alkali- ja raskasmetallipaeaestoet PCFB-prosessista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuivalainen, R; Eriksson, T; Lehtonen, P [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Karhula (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) combustion technology has been developed in Karhula R and D Center since 1986. As part of the development, 10 MW PCFB test facility was built in 1989. The test facility has been used for performance testing with different coal types through the years 1990-1995 in order to gain data for design and commercialization of the high-efficiency low-emission PCFB combustion technology. The main object of the project was to measure vapor phase Na and K concentrations in the PCFB flue gas after hot gas filter and investigate the effects of process conditions and sorbents on alkali release. The measurements were performed using plasma assisted method of TUT Laboratory of Plasma Technology and wet absorption method of VTT Energy. The measurements were carried out during three test campaigns at PCFB Test Facility in Karhula. In autumn 1995 both VTT and TUT methods were used. The measurements of the following test period in spring 1996 were performed by VTT, and during the last test segment in autumn 1996 TUT method was in use. During the last test period, the TUT instrument was used as semi-continuous (3 values/minute) alkali analyzer for part of the time. The measured Na concentrations were below 30 ppb(w) in all measured data points. The results of K were below 10 ppb(w). The accuracies of the both methods are about +50 % at this concentration range. The scatter of the data covers the effects of different process variables on the alkali emission. The measured emissions are at the same order of magnitude as the guideline emission limits estimated by gas turbine manufacturers

  11. Relation between the electroforming voltage in alkali halide-polymer diodes and the bandgap of the alkali halide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jingxin; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Gomes, Henrique L.; De Leeuw, Dago M.

    2014-01-01

    Electroforming of indium-tin-oxide/alkali halide/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes has been investigated by bias dependent reflectivity measurements. The threshold voltages for electrocoloration and electroforming are independent of layer thickness and correlate with the bandgap of the alkali halide. We argue that the origin is voltage induced defect formation. Frenkel defect pairs are formed by electron–hole recombination in the alkali halide. This self-accelerating process mitigates injection barriers. The dynamic junction formation is compared to that of a light emitting electrochemical cell. A critical defect density for electroforming is 10 25 /m 3 . The electroformed alkali halide layer can be considered as a highly doped semiconductor with metallic transport characteristics

  12. Epidemic characteristics and spatio-temporal patterns of scrub typhus during 2006-2013 in Tai'an, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Yang, H-L; Bi, Z-W; Kou, Z-Q; Zhang, L-Y; Zhang, A-H; Yang, L; Zhao, Z-T

    2015-08-01

    Tai'an, a famous cultural tourist district, is a new endemic foci of scrub typhus in northern China. Frequent reports of travel-acquired cases and absence of effective vaccine indicated a significant health problem of scrub typhus in Tai'an. Thus, descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial-temporal scan statistics were used to describe the epidemic characteristics and detect the significant clusters of the high incidence of scrub typhus at the town level in Tai'an. Results of descriptive epidemiological analysis showed a total of 490 cases were reported in Tai'an with the annual average incidence ranging from 0·48 to 2·27/100 000 during 2006-2013. Females, the elderly and farmers are the high-risk groups. Monthly changes of scrub typhus cases indicated an obvious epidemic period in autumn. Spatial-temporal distribution analysis, showed significant clusters of high incidence mainly located in eastern and northern Tai'an. Our study suggests that more effective, targeted measures for local residents should be implemented in the eastern and northern areas of Tai'an in autumn. Meanwhile, it may prove beneficial for health policy makers to advise travellers to take preventive measures in order to minimize the risk of infection of scrub typhus in Tai'an.

  13. The Correlation of Endoscopic Findings and Clinical Features in Korean Patients with Scrub Typhus: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi-induced systemic vasculitis, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract and the endoscopic findings associated with scrub typhus are not well understood. We performed a prospective study and recommend performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for all possible scrub typhus patients, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms, endoscopic findings and clinical severity based on organ involvement and ICU admission were analyzed. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in up to 76.4% of scrub typhus patients. The major endoscopic findings were ulcers (43/127, 33.9%). Interestingly, 7.1% (9/127) of the patients presented with esophageal candidiasis. There was no correlation between the presence or absence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the endoscopic grade (P = 0.995). However, there was a positive correlation between the clinical severity and the endoscopic findings (P = 0.001). Sixty-three percent of the patients presented with erosion or ulcers on prospectively performed endoscopic evaluations, irrespective of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms did not reflect the need for endoscopy. Scrub typhus patients could have significant endoscopic abnormalities even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms.

  14. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus among Hospitalized Patients with Acute Undifferentiated Fever in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Sugihiro; Cuong, Ngo Chi; Tra, Doan Thu; Doan, Yen Hai; Shimizu, Kenta; Tuan, Nguyen Quang; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Mai, Le Quynh; Duc-Anh, Dang; Ando, Shuji; Arikawa, Jiro; Parry, Christopher M.; Ariyoshi, Koya; Thuy, Pham Thanh

    2015-01-01

    A descriptive study on rickettsiosis was conducted at the largest referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of specific rickettsiosis. Between March 2001 and February 2003, we enrolled 579 patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF), excluding patients with malaria, dengue fever, and typhoid fever, and serologically tested for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi. Of the patients, 237 (40.9%) and 193 (33.3%) had scrub and murine typhus, respectively, and 149 (25.7%) had neither of them (non–scrub and murine typhus [non-ST/MT]). The proportion of murine typhus was highest among patients living in Hanoi whereas that of scrub typhus was highest in national or regional border areas. The presence of an eschar, dyspnea, hypotension, and lymphadenopathy was significantly associated with a diagnosis of scrub typhus (OR = 46.56, 10.90, 9.01, and 7.92, respectively). Patients with murine typhus were less likely to have these findings but more likely to have myalgia, rash, and relative bradycardia (OR = 1.60, 1.56, and 1.45, respectively). Scrub typhus and murine typhus were shown to be common causes of AUF in northern Vietnam although the occurrence of spotted fever group rickettsiae was not determined. Clinical and epidemiological information may help local clinicians make clinical diagnosis of specific rickettsioses in a resource-limited setting. PMID:25778504

  15. Molecular characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes causing scrub typhus outbreak in southern region of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, K; Kumar, E; Kalawat, Usha; Kumar, B Siddhartha; Chaudhury, A; Gopal, D V R Sai

    2016-10-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by Orientiatsutsugamushi. Local epidemiology of the circulating serotypes of scrub typhus is not available from most parts of India. We conducted this study for the diagnosis of scrub typhus using IgM ELISA and to detect O. tsutsugamushi serotypes circulating in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. Samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus and were subjected to IgM ELISA to measure IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed targeting strain-specific regions in ELISA-positive samples. Of a total of 663 samples, 258 (38.91%) were found to be positive by IgM ELISA. Serotypes could be detected in 230 (34.69%) samples only. Only two serotypes, Karp and Kawasaki, were found in the serum samples, with the former being predominant. The dual infection of Karp and Kawasaki serotypes was found in seven patients. Other serotypes such as Gilliam, Kuroki and Kato were not detected in the samples. The nested PCR products proved useful in presumptively identifying the endemic O. tsutsugamushi serotypes. The present study could be significant in understanding scrub typhus epidemiology in this region.

  16. Human factors related to time-dependent infection control measures: "Scrub the hub" for venous catheters and feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, Lindsay; Epstein, Elizabeth; Blackman, Amy; Jin, Li; Kaufman, David A

    2017-06-01

    The use of catheter hub decontamination protocols is a common practice to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections. However, few data exist on the most effective disinfection procedure prior to hub access accounting for human factors and time-dependent practices in real time in the clinical setting. An observational design with a multimodal intervention was used in this study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Direct observations on nurse compliance of scrub times with decontamination when accessing of venous catheter and feeding tube hubs were conducted during 3 phases: (1) baseline period prior to any interventions; (2) during an educational intervention phase; and (3) during a timer intervention period when using a timing device, either an actual timer or music button. Overall, both education and the timing device interventions increased the mean scrub time ± SD of venous catheter hubs. Mean baseline scrub times of 10 ± 5 seconds were lower compared with 23 ± 12 seconds after educational intervention (P music button use (P observed with scrub times of feeding tubes. Time-based infection control measures, such as scrubbing the hub, must be implemented with aids that qualify specific times to account for human factors, to ensure adherence to time-dependent measures aimed at decreasing nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Assessment of Fission Product Scrubbing in Sodium Pools Following a Core Damage Event in a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, M.; Farmer, M.; Grabaskas, D.

    2017-06-26

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated that mechanistic source term (MST) calculations are expected to be required as part of the advanced reactor licensing process. A recent study by Argonne National Laboratory has concluded that fission product scrubbing in sodium pools is an important aspect of an MST calculation for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). To model the phenomena associated with sodium pool scrubbing, a computational tool, developed as part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program, was utilized in an MST trial calculation. This tool was developed by applying classical theories of aerosol scrubbing to the decontamination of gases produced as a result of postulated fuel pin failures during an SFR accident scenario. The model currently considers aerosol capture by Brownian diffusion, inertial deposition, and gravitational sedimentation. The effects of sodium vapour condensation on aerosol scrubbing are also treated. This paper provides details of the individual scrubbing mechanisms utilized in the IFR code as well as results from a trial mechanistic source term assessment led by Argonne National Laboratory in 2016.

  18. Hispanos en la EPA: Grace Robiou

    Science.gov (United States)

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.

  19. Hispanos en la EPA: Fabiola Estrada

    Science.gov (United States)

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.

  20. Perfiles de hispanos en la EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente de todos.

  1. Hispanos en la EPA: Nadtya Y. Hong

    Science.gov (United States)

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.

  2. Hispanos en la EPA: Matthew Tejada

    Science.gov (United States)

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.

  3. Hispanos en la EPA: Joel Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.

  4. EPA Scientific Knowledge Management Assessment and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of activities have been conducted by a core group of EPA scientists from across the Agency. The activities were initiated in 2012 and the focus was to increase the reuse and interoperability of science software at EPA. The need for increased reuse and interoperability ...

  5. EPA Regulation of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    All pesticides must be registered by EPA before being sold and used in the U.S., other than those that rely on a limited set of active ingredients (so-called minimum risk pesticides). EPA reviews for safety and effectiveness.

  6. 40 CFR 73.52 - EPA recordation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA recordation. 73.52 Section 73.52... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Transfers § 73.52 EPA recordation. (a) General recordation. Except as provided in...) following receipt of an allowance transfer request pursuant to § 73.50, by moving each allowance from the...

  7. EPA perspective on federal facility agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundler, C.

    1988-01-01

    Although DOE's image with Congress and the media concerning environmental compliance may be poor, EPA sees the Department's recent attitude toward the environment as good. DOE and EPA must continue to move forward. In particular, EPA would like to emphasize less study of a problem and more clean-up. Strong, enforceable agreements will allow this goal to be met by letting EPA take more risks in its decision making. Currently EPA is developing an enforcement strategy for Federal facilities. This strategy will address identifying Federal facilities of concern, increasing enforcement and compliance monitoring activities at those facilities, implementing the model agreements, resource planning, and the establishment of an Agency Management System for Federal facilities. There are over 1000 Federal facilities which are listed on the EPA compliance docket. Over 200 Federal facilities are expected to be included on the NPL. Increased EPA attention may increase the ability of the various Federal agencies to obtain the necessary funding. Another subject being addressed by EPA is the liability of government contractors under the environmental statutes. The Agency is developing a GoCo enforcement strategy. In the hazardous waste enforcement program, three criteria are being considered for determining when to proceed against a contractor: Degree of contractor control over the hazardous waste management activity. Who is actually performing the work, and Degree of Departmental cooperation

  8. Elastic modulus of the alkali-silica reaction rim in a simplified calcium-alkali-silicate system determined by nano-indentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Kunpeng; Lukovic, M.; De Schutter, Geert; Ye, G.; Taerwe, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at providing a better understanding of the mechanical properties of the reaction rim in the alkali-silica reaction. The elastic modulus of the calcium alkali silicate constituting the reaction rim, which is formed at the interface between alkali silicate and Ca(OH)2 in a

  9. Magnetoelectric Jones spectroscopy of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernushkin, V V; Mironova, P V; Ovsiannikov, V D

    2008-01-01

    The Jones effect in a medium of free atoms exposed to static electric and magnetic fields is a useful tool for determining details of an atomic structure. For atoms in their nS ground states irradiated by a monochromatic wave in resonance with a single-photon transition to an n' D state, the bilinear Jones effect is not shaded by the quadratic Kerr and Cotton-Mouton effects, nor by the linear in magnetic field Faraday effect. The position and shape of the amplitude resonance may provide information on spectroscopic properties of atomic levels. We generalize equations for the Jones-effect amplitude to the case of a doublet structure of energy levels and calculate corresponding parameters for alkali atoms. General equations are derived for the amplitude dependence on the relative orientation of the static electric and magnetic fields and on the angle between the static field and the major axis of the wave polarization vector. These equations demonstrate explicitly that the three bilinear-in-static-fields optical birefringence effects-(i) the Jones birefringence (in parallel fields), (ii) the linear birefringence and (iii) the directional birefringence (the last two in perpendicular fields)-correspond to particular cases of the bilinear-in-static-fields correction to the amplitude of Rayleigh forward scattering

  10. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    by onepot sol–gel method. All catalysts were characterized by BET, XRPD and NH3-TPD. Initial SCR activities of 8 out of 9 catalysts showed higher NO conversion at least at one temperature in the temperature range 300–500 ◦C compared to the conventional V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. After potassium poisoning (100......Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts were prepared using three different supports ZrO2, TiO2 and Mordenite zeolite. The majority of the catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a commercial support, with vanadium, copper or iron precursor, one catalyst was prepared......–130 µmol of K/g of catalyst) the relative drop in SCR activity and acidity was lower for all the alternative catalysts compared to the industrial V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. Furthermore, Cu/MOR and Nano-V2O5/Sul-TiO2 catalysts showed 8–16 times higher SCR activities than the conventional even after high...

  11. Structured alkali halides for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, B.; Fuchs, M.; Hell, E.; Knuepfer, W.; Hackenschmied, P.; Winnacker, A.

    2002-01-01

    Image plates based on storage phosphors are a major application of radiation defects in insulators. Storage phosphors absorb X-ray quanta creating trapped electron-hole pairs in the material. Optical stimulation of the electron causes recombination leading to light emission. Application of image plates requires an optimal compromise between resolution (represented by the modulation transfer function (MTF)) and sensitivity. In our paper we present a new solution of the problem of combining a high MTF with a high sensitivity by structuring the image plates in form of thin needles acting as light guides. This suppresses the lateral spread of light which is detrimental to resolution. As doped CsBr, e.g. CsBr:Ga [Physica Medica XV (1999) 301], can pose a good storage phosphor evaporated layers are of interest in computed radiography. Needle structured CsI:Tl is used as scintillator in direct radiography [IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45 (3) (1998)]. CsBr layers have been produced by evaporation in vacuum and in inert gas atmosphere varying pressure and temperature. The resulting structures are of fibrous or columnar nature being in good agreement with the zone model of Thornton [Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7 (1977) 239]. A zone model for CsBr has been developed. Measurements on doped alkali halide image plates having needle structure show good MTF at high sensitivity making a significant progress in image plate technology

  12. Dissemination of Orientia tsutsugamushi and inflammatory responses in a murine model of scrub typhus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Keller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central aspects in the pathogenesis of scrub typhus, an infection caused by Orientia (O. tsutsugamushi, have remained obscure. Its organ and cellular tropism are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetics of bacterial dissemination and associated inflammatory responses in infected tissues in an experimental scrub typhus mouse model, following infection with the human pathogenic strain Karp. We provide a thorough analysis of O. tsutsugamushi infection in inbred Balb/c mice using footpad inoculation, which is close to the natural way of infection. By a novel, highly sensitive qPCR targeting the multi copy traD genes, we quantitatively monitored the spread of O. tsutsugamushi Karp from the skin inoculation site via the regional lymph node to the internal target organs. The highest bacterial loads were measured in the lung. Using confocal imaging, we also detected O. tsutsugamushi at the single cell level in the lung and found a predominant macrophage rather than endothelial localization. Immunohistochemical analysis of infiltrates in lung and brain revealed differently composed lesions with specific localizations: iNOS-expressing macrophages were frequent in infiltrative parenchymal noduli, but uncommon in perivascular lesions within these organs. Quantitative analysis of the macrophage response by immunohistochemistry in liver, heart, lung and brain demonstrated an early onset of macrophage activation in the liver. Serum levels of interferon (IFN-γ were increased during the acute infection, and we showed that IFN-γ contributed to iNOS-dependent bacterial growth control. Our data show that upon inoculation to the skin, O. tsutsugamushi spreads systemically to a large number of organs and gives rise to organ-specific inflammation patterns. The findings suggest an essential role for the lung in the pathogenesis of scrub typhus. The model will allow detailed studies on host-pathogen interaction and provide further

  13. A rapid, sensitive and reliable diagnostic test for scrub typhus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lijuan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the performances for detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to Orientia. tsutsugamushi (Ot using a gold conjugate-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT. Materials and Methods: The RDT employing mixture recombinant 56-kDa proteins of O. tsutsugamushi and the mIFA assay was performed on 33 patients from Fujian and Yunnan province respectively and 94 positive sera (36 from Hainan province and 58 from Jiangsu province from convalescent stages of the patients with scrub typhus respectively and 82 negative sera from healthy farmers from Anhui province and Beijing City respectively in 2009. A comparison of the RDT and mIFA assay was performed by using the c2 test and the P level of ≤0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Among these 94 positive sera from convalescent stages of the illness and 82 sera from control farmers, the specificity of RDT was 100% for both IgM and IgG tests. In 33 cases with scrub typhus, 5 cases were positively detected earlier by RDT than by mIFA for the IgM test, and 2 cases were positive for the IgG test. The sensitivities of RDT were 93.9% and 90.9% for IgM and IgG, respectively. Considering IgM and IgG together, the sensitivity was 100%. The geometric mean titre (GMT of IFA and the RDT assay in diluted sera from confirmed cases were 1:37 versus 1:113 respectively (P<0.001 for IgM test and 1:99 versus 1:279 respectively (P<0.016 for IgG. Conclusions: The RDT was more sensitive than the traditional IFA for the early diagnosis of scrub typhus and was particularly suitable for use in rural areas.

  14. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  15. Scrub typhus in South India: clinical and laboratory manifestations, genetic variability, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, George M; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Trowbridge, Paul; Peter, John V; Prakash, John A J; Sathyendra, Sowmya; Thomas, Kurien; David, Thambu S; Kavitha, M L; Abraham, Ooriapadickal C; Mathai, Dilip

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to document the clinical and laboratory manifestations, genetic variability, and outcomes of scrub typhus, an often severe infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, in South India. Patients admitted to a large teaching hospital with IgM ELISA-confirmed scrub typhus were evaluated. Clinical examination with a thorough search for an eschar, laboratory testing, chest X-ray, and outcome were documented and analyzed. Additionally, a 410-bp region of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene of O. tsutsugamushi was sequenced and compared with isolates from other regions of Asia. Most of the 154 patients evaluated presented with fever and non-specific symptoms. An eschar was found in 86 (55%) patients. Mild hepatic involvement was seen in most, with other organ involvement including respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal. Multi-organ dysfunction was noted in 59 (38.3%), and the fatality rate was 7.8%. Hypotension requiring vasoactive agents was found to be an independent predictor of mortality (p<0.001). The phylogeny of 26 samples showed 17 (65%) clustering with the Kato-like group and eight (31%) with the Karp-like group. The presentation of scrub typhus can be variable, often non-specific, but with potentially severe multi-organ dysfunction. Prompt recognition is key to specific treatment and good outcomes. Further study of the circulating strains is essential for the development of a successful vaccine and sensitive point-of-care testing. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An outbreak investigation of scrub typhus in Western Province, Solomon Islands, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the etiology and risk factors of undifferentiated fever in a cluster of patients in Western Province, Solomon Islands, May 2014. Methods: An outbreak investigation with a case control study was conducted. A case was defined as an inpatient in one hospital in Western Province, Solomon Islands with high fever (> 38.5 °C and a negative malaria microscopy test admitted between 1 and 31 May 2014. Asymptomatic controls matched with the cases residentially were recruited in a ratio of 1:2. Serum samples from the subjects were tested for rickettsial infections using indirect micro-immunofluorescence assay. Results: Nine cases met the outbreak case definition. All cases were male. An eschar was noted in five cases (55%, and one developed pneumonitis. We did not identify any environmental factors associated with illness. Serum samples of all five follow-up cases (100% had strong-positive IgG responses to scrub typhus. All but one control (10% had a moderate response against scrub typhus. Four controls had low levels of antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsia, and only one had a low-level response to typhus group rickettsia. Discussion: This outbreak represents the first laboratory-confirmed outbreak of scrub typhus in the Western Province of Solomon Islands. The results suggest that rickettsial infections are more common than currently recognized as a cause of an acute febrile illness. A revised clinical case definition for rickettsial infections and treatment guidelines were developed and shared with provincial health staff for better surveillance and response to future outbreaks of a similar kind.

  17. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material

  18. On-chip fabrication of alkali-metal vapor cells utilizing an alkali-metal source tablet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, K; Hirai, Y; Sugano, K; Tsuchiya, T; Tabata, O; Ban, K; Mizutani, N

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel on-chip microfabrication technique for the alkali-metal vapor cell of an optically pumped atomic magnetometer (OPAM), utilizing an alkali-metal source tablet (AMST). The newly proposed AMST is a millimeter-sized piece of porous alumina whose considerable surface area holds deposited alkali-metal chloride (KCl) and barium azide (BaN 6 ), source materials that effectively produce alkali-metal vapor at less than 400 °C. Our experiments indicated that the most effective pore size of the AMST is between 60 and 170 µm. The thickness of an insulating glass spacer holding the AMST was designed to confine generated alkali metal to the interior of the vapor cell during its production, and an integrated silicon heater was designed to seal the device using a glass frit, melted at an optimum temperature range of 460–490 °C that was determined by finite element method thermal simulation. The proposed design and AMST were used to successfully fabricate a K cell that was then operated as an OPAM with a measured sensitivity of 50 pT. These results demonstrate that the proposed concept for on-chip microfabrication of alkali-metal vapor cells may lead to effective replacement of conventional glassworking approaches. (paper)

  19. Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: broad-spectrum immunity with combinations of rickettsial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, G.H. Jr.; Osterman, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Scrub typhus immunogens were prepared from Rickettsia tsutsugamushi strains Karp, Kato, Gilliam, Kostival, and Buie by exposing frozen infected yolk sac suspensions to 300 krad of gamma radiation. Mouse protection tests showed that each of the irradiated immunogens protected C3H/HeDub mice against high challenge levels of Karp and Gilliam, but that none of these single-strain immunogens were capable of protecting against all five of the challenge strains. Broad-spectrum protection was achieved by using combinations of three strains of irradiated rickettsiae in a vaccination regimen of three injections at 5-day intervals

  20. Enhancement of the SPARC90 code to pool scrubbing events under jet injection regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, C., E-mail: ceberes@iie.upv.es [Instituto de Ingeniería Energética, Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Escrivá, A.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L. [Instituto de Ingeniería Energética, Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research Division of Nuclear Fission, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Review of the most recent literature concerning submerged jets. • Emphasize all variables and processes occurring along the jet region. • Highlight the gaps of knowledge still existing related to submerged jets. • Enhancement of SPARC90-Jet to estimate aerosol removal under jet injection regime. • Validation of the SPARC90-Jet results against pool scrubbing experimental data. - Abstract: Submerged gaseous jets may have an outstanding relevance in many industrial processes and may be of particular significance in severe nuclear accident scenarios, like in the Fukushima accident. Even though pool scrubbing has been traditionally associated with low injection velocities, there are a number of potential scenarios in which fission product trapping in aqueous ponds might also occur under jet injection regime (like SGTR meltdown sequences in PWRs and SBO ones in BWRs). The SPARC90 code was developed to determine the fission product trapping in pools during severe accidents. The code assumes that carrier gas arrives at the water ponds at low or moderate velocities and it forms a big bubble that eventually detaches from the injection pipe. However, particle laden gases may enter the water at very high velocities resulting in a submerged gas jet instead. This work presents the fundamentals, major hypotheses and changes introduced into the code in order to estimate particle removal during gas injection in pools under the jet regime (SPARC90-Jet). A simplified and reliable approach to submerged jet hydrodynamics has been implemented on the basis of updated equations for jet hydrodynamics and aerosol removal, so that gas–liquid and droplet-particles interactions are described. The code modifications have been validated as far as possible. However, no suitable hydrodynamic tests have been found in the literature, so that an indirect validation has been conducted through comparisons against data from pool scrubbing experiments. Besides, this validation

  1. Enhancement of the SPARC90 code to pool scrubbing events under jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, C.; Escrivá, A.; Muñoz-Cobo, J.L.; Herranz, L.E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of the most recent literature concerning submerged jets. • Emphasize all variables and processes occurring along the jet region. • Highlight the gaps of knowledge still existing related to submerged jets. • Enhancement of SPARC90-Jet to estimate aerosol removal under jet injection regime. • Validation of the SPARC90-Jet results against pool scrubbing experimental data. - Abstract: Submerged gaseous jets may have an outstanding relevance in many industrial processes and may be of particular significance in severe nuclear accident scenarios, like in the Fukushima accident. Even though pool scrubbing has been traditionally associated with low injection velocities, there are a number of potential scenarios in which fission product trapping in aqueous ponds might also occur under jet injection regime (like SGTR meltdown sequences in PWRs and SBO ones in BWRs). The SPARC90 code was developed to determine the fission product trapping in pools during severe accidents. The code assumes that carrier gas arrives at the water ponds at low or moderate velocities and it forms a big bubble that eventually detaches from the injection pipe. However, particle laden gases may enter the water at very high velocities resulting in a submerged gas jet instead. This work presents the fundamentals, major hypotheses and changes introduced into the code in order to estimate particle removal during gas injection in pools under the jet regime (SPARC90-Jet). A simplified and reliable approach to submerged jet hydrodynamics has been implemented on the basis of updated equations for jet hydrodynamics and aerosol removal, so that gas–liquid and droplet-particles interactions are described. The code modifications have been validated as far as possible. However, no suitable hydrodynamic tests have been found in the literature, so that an indirect validation has been conducted through comparisons against data from pool scrubbing experiments. Besides, this validation

  2. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Jian

    2015-01-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster...

  3. A coupled channel study on a binding mechanism of positronic alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihiro; Kino, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the binding mechanism of weakly bound states of positronic alkali atoms, we calculate the energies and wavefunctions using the Gaussian expansion method (GEM) where a positronium (Ps)-alkali ion channel and a positron-alkali atom channel are explicitly introduced. The energies of the bound states are updated using a model potential that reproduces well the observed energy levels of alkali atoms. The binding mechanism of the positronic alkali atom is analyzed by the wavefunctions obtained. The structure of the positronic alkali atom has been regarded as a Ps cluster orbiting the alkali ion, which is described by the Ps-alkali ion channel. We point out that the fraction having the positron-alkali atom configuration is small but plays an indispensable role for the weakly bound system

  4. Purchasing Supplies, Equipment and Services Under EPA Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this guidance to help ensure you meet EPA requirements when making such necessary purchases. With very few exceptions, you must follow a competitive process when you use EPA grant funds to acquire equipment and professional services.

  5. Extraction, Scrub, and Strip Test Results for the Salt Waste Processing Facility Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges. This revision was created to correct an error. The previous revision used an incorrect set of temperature correction coefficients which resulted in slight deviations from the correct D(Cs) results.

  6. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the salt waste processing facility caustic side solvent extraction solvent example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.9, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  7. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Orientia tsutsugamushi from patients with scrub typhus in 3 regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, George M; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Mahajan, Sanjay K; Tariang, David; Trowbridge, Paul; Prakash, John A J; David, Thambu; Sathendra, Sowmya; Abraham, O C

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, an acute febrile illness that is widespread in the Asia-Pacific region, is caused by the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which displays high levels of antigenic variation. We conducted an investigation to identify the circulating genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi in 3 scrub typhus-endemic geographic regions of India: South India, Northern India, and Northeast India. Eschar samples collected during September 2010-August 2012 from patients with scrub typhus were subjected to 56-kDa type-specific PCR and sequencing to identify their genotypes. Kato-like strains predominated (61.5%), especially in the South and Northeast, followed by Karp-like strains (27.7%) and Gilliam and Ikeda strains (2.3% each). Neimeng-65 genotype strains were also observed in the Northeast. Clarifying the genotypic diversity of O. tsutsugamushi in India enhances knowledge of the regional diversity among circulating strains and provides potential resources for future region-specific diagnostic studies and vaccine development.

  8. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXXII. Ixodid ticks on scrub hares in the Transvaal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; Spickett, A M; Braack, L E; Penzhorn, B L

    1993-09-01

    A total of 264 scrub hares (Lepus saxatilis) were examined for ixodid ticks at various localities in the Kruger National Park, eastern Transvaal Lowveld. Thirteen tick species were recovered from these hares. The seasonal abundances of the immature stages of Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus simus and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis and all stages of a Rhipicephalus sp. (near R. pravus) were determined. Three scrub hares, examined in the north-western Transvaal Bushveld, were infested with five ixodid tick species. Ten hares examined in the eastern Transvaal Highveld harboured three species. A total of 15 ixodid tick species were recovered from the scrub hares examined in the three regions of the Transvaal. No haematozoa were found in blood smears made from the hares examined in the southern region of the Kruger National Park.

  9. Tricky typhus ticks two: A report of two sisters from North India presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is emerging as an important cause of acute febrile illness in Northern India. This is a report of two sisters presenting concurrently with acute respiratory distress syndrome. A diagnosis of scrub typhus was made in both the patients, and they were successfully treated with doxycycline.

  10. EPA requirements for the uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The draft Environmental Statement issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States in preparation for Proposed Rulemaking Action concerning 'Environmental radiation protection requirements for normal operations of activities in the uranium fuel cycle' is summarized and discussed. The standards proposed by the EPA limit the annual dose equivalents to any member of the public, and also the releases of radionuclides to the 'general environment' for each gigawatt year of electrical energy produced. These standards were based on cost effectiveness arguements and levels and correspond to the ICRP recommendation to keep all exposures as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. They should be clearly distinguished from dose limits, although the EPA does not make this at all clear. The EPA seems to have shown an unexpected lack of understanding of the recommendations of ICRP Publication 9 (1965) and an apparent unawareness of ICRP Publication 22 (1973), and has therefore wrongly presented the new standards as a significant change in policy. The EPA has reviewed the information on the likely level of dose equivalents to members of the public and the likely cost reductions, thereby quantifying existing principles as applied to the fuel cycle as a whole. The EPA has stated that its proposals could be achieved as a cost in the region of Pound100,000 per death (or major genetic defect). It is pointed out that the EPA's use of the term 'waste' to exclude liquid and gaseous effluents may cause confusion. (U.K.)

  11. Production of adsorbent from palm shell for radioactive iodine scrubbing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Ku Halim Ku Hamid; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Abdul Halim Badaruddin; Mohammad Nizammudin Abd Aziz; Muhd Ridwan Abdul Rahim

    2010-01-01

    The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industry. According to the statistic of year 2004, Malaysia produced 40 million tones per year of biomass which 30 million tones of biomass originated from the oil palm industries. Therefore, the biomass waste such as palm kernel shell can be used to produce granular adsorbent for radioactive materials. For that reason, a newly system, called Rocking Kiln - Fluidized Bed (RK - FB) was developed to utilize large amount of the biomass to produce high value added product. Charcoal or chemically produced activated carbon could be produced by using the kiln. Washing process was introduced to remove particles, minerals and volatile matters from charcoal produced and then would create more surface area in the adsorbent by creating more active sites. In this research, the adsorbent produced was used to scrub iodine 131. In nuclear power reactor, iodine isotope 131 is produced during nuclear fission, and this elementary radioactive iodine may pollute exhaust air streams that could cause thyroid cancer. For removal of radioactive iodine, normally a potassium iodide - impregnated activated carbon (KI - AC) is used. Thus, a process will be developed to produce KI - AC and this product will be used to calculate the efficiency to remove the radioactive iodine 131.The results obtain show that adsorbent produced has a high potential to be used in radioactive adsorbing and likely more economics. This paper will elaborate further the experimental set-up of in Kiln - Fluidized Bed (RK - FB), adsorbent quality and radioactive scrubbing process. (author)

  12. POSSIBILITY OF BENEFICIATION OF SILICA SAND FROM THE CROATIAN DEPOSITS USING ATTRITION SCRUBBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sobota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To meet high quality requirements defined for specific industrial applications, the raw sand often has to be subjected to extensive physical and chemical processing. The possibility of achieving silica sand concentrate of required quality depends mostly on raw sand properties, primarily mineral impurity types and contents, and features of applied beneficiation methods. When the impurities occur in the form of oxide coatings on the surfaces of the single sand grains, attriton scrubbing is applied. By reducing the proportion of oxide coatings on the grains, the quality of sand can be improved. With the aim to determine the possibilities of the beneficiation of silica sand from significant Croatian deposits (“Vrtlinska”, “Štefanac” and “Španovica” and achieve concentrate grade complying with the requirements of domestic industry, laboratory tests were conducted on three raw sand samples with different SiO2 and impurity contents. Grain size distribution, chemical and mineral composition of raw sand samples, and the possibility of their quality improvement by applying the washing, classification and attrition scrubbing were defined by analysis of test results (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  14. Utilization of Mineral Wools as Alkali-Activated Material Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Yliniemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW and glass wool (GW were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated with a sodium aluminate solution. Compressive strengths of up to 30.0 MPa and 48.7 MPa were measured for RW and GW, respectively, with high flexural strengths measured for both (20.1 MPa for RW and 13.2 MPa for GW. The resulting alkali-activated matrix was a composite-type in which partly-dissolved fibers were dispersed. In addition to the amorphous material, sodium aluminate silicate hydroxide hydrate and magnesium aluminum hydroxide carbonate phases were identified in the alkali-activated RW samples. The only crystalline phase in the GW samples was sodium aluminum silicate. The results of this study show that mineral wool is a very promising raw material for alkali activation.

  15. Long term mechanical properties of alkali activated slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Zheng, W. Z.; Xu, Z. Z.; Leng, Y. F.; Qin, C. Z.

    2018-01-01

    This article reports a study on the microstructural and long-term mechanical properties of the alkali activated slag up to 180 days, and cement paste is studied as the comparison. The mechanical properties including compressive strength, flexural strength, axis tensile strength and splitting tensile strength are analyzed. The results showed that the alkali activated slag had higher compressive and tensile strength, Slag is activated by potassium silicate (K2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions for attaining silicate modulus of 1 using 12 potassium silicate and 5.35% sodium hydroxide. The volume dosage of water is 35% and 42%. The results indicate that alkali activated slag is a kind of rapid hardening and early strength cementitious material with excellent long-term mechanical properties. Single row of holes block compressive strength, single-hole block compressive strength and standard solid brick compressive strength basically meet engineering requirements. The microstructures of alkali activated slag are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration products of alkali-activated slag are assured as hydrated calcium silicate and hydrated calcium aluminate.

  16. Binding of chloride and alkalis in Portland cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Erik P.; Herfort, Duncan; Geiker, Mette R.

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for describing the binding of chloride and alkalis in hydrated Portland cement pastes has been developed. The model is based on the phase rule, which for cement pastes in aggressive marine environment predicts multivariant conditions, even at constant temperature and pressure. The effect of the chloride and alkalis has been quantified by experiments on cement pastes prepared from white Portland cements containing 4% and 12% C 3 A, and a grey Portland cement containing 7% C 3 A. One weight percent calcite was added to all cements. The pastes prepared at w/s ratio of 0.70 were stored in solutions of different Cl (CaCl 2 ) and Na (NaOH) concentrations. When equilibrium was reached, the mineralogy of the pastes was investigated by EDS analysis on the SEM. A well-defined distribution of chloride was found between the pore solution, the C-S-H phase, and an AFm solid solution phase consisting of Friedel's salt and monocarbonate. Partition coefficients varied as a function of iron and alkali contents. The lower content of alkalis in WPC results in higher chloride contents in the C-S-H phase. High alkali contents result in higher chloride concentrations in the pore solution

  17. Mechanisms of Retinal Damage after Ocular Alkali Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Zhou, Chengxin; Lei, Fengyang; Scott, Nathan; Kapoulea, Vassiliki; Robert, Marie-Claude; Vavvas, Demetrios; Dana, Reza; Chodosh, James; Dohlman, Claes H

    2017-06-01

    Alkali burns to the eye constitute a leading cause of worldwide blindness. In recent case series, corneal transplantation revealed unexpected damage to the retina and optic nerve in chemically burned eyes. We investigated the physical, biochemical, and immunological components of retinal injury after alkali burn and explored a novel neuroprotective regimen suitable for prompt administration in emergency departments. Thus, in vivo pH, oxygen, and oxidation reduction measurements were performed in the anterior and posterior segment of mouse and rabbit eyes using implantable microsensors. Tissue inflammation was assessed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. The experiments confirmed that the retinal damage is not mediated by direct effect of the alkali, which is effectively buffered by the anterior segment. Rather, pH, oxygen, and oxidation reduction changes were restricted to the cornea and the anterior chamber, where they caused profound uveal inflammation and release of proinflammatory cytokines. The latter rapidly diffuse to the posterior segment, triggering retinal damage. Tumor necrosis factor-α was identified as a key proinflammatory mediator of retinal ganglion cell death. Blockade, by either monoclonal antibody or tumor necrosis factor receptor gene knockout, reduced inflammation and retinal ganglion cell loss. Intraocular pressure elevation was not observed in experimental alkali burns. These findings illuminate the mechanism by which alkali burns cause retinal damage and may have importance in designing therapies for retinal protection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alkali release and sorption during combustion and gasification of coal under pressure; Freisetzung und Einbindung von Alkalien bei der Verbrennung und Vergasung von Kohle unter Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffin, C.R.; Wanzl, W.; Heek, K.H. van [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich FuelTec - Kokerei- und Brennstofftechnik

    1999-09-01

    Investigations and model calculations have shown that water-soluble alkaline substances (in German coal, mostly NaCl) are released by a desorption process rather than a purely physical evaporation process. Sorption takes place in the presence of reactive oxygen species (H{sub 2}O or O{sub 2}), but only the reaction with water vapour is applicable to technical processes. Soorption is preferred to desorption at low temperatures both kinetically and thermodynamically. Metakaolin has a high alkali sorption capacity and potential depending significantly on the chemical properties of the clay mineral. With increasing basicity, the sorption potential decreases drastically, which has a significant effect in terms of fuel selection and mode of operation of the process of coal dust combustion under pressure. A fuel with low alkali emissions would be a coal grade with a small fraction of water-soluble alkalis and a high fraction of acid clay minerals. Intensive scrubbing in a wet chemical treatment stage may serve to reduce the water-soluble alkalis. [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen und Modellrechnungen haben gezeigt, dass die Freisetzung der wasserloeslichen Alkalien, was in deutschen Steinkohlen hauptsaechlich NaCl ist, ein Desorptionsmechanismus zugrunde liegt und die Vorstellung eines rein physikalischen Verdampfungsprozesses verworfen werden muss. Die Einbindung der Alkalien findet unter Teilnahme reaktiver Sauerstoffspezies (H{sub 2}O oder O{sub 2}) statt, wobei aber nur die Reaktion mit Wasserdampf auch auf technische Prozesse uebertragbar ist. Die Einbindung ist gegenueber der Desorption bei niedrigen Temperaturen kinetisch und thermodynamisch bevorzugt. Metakaolin besitzt eine hohe Kapazitaet und ein hohes Potential zur Einbindung von Alkalien, wobei die Faehigkeit zur Einbindung ganz entscheidend von den chemischen Eigenschaften des Tonminerals abhaengig ist. Mit steigender Basizitaet nimmt das Einbindungspotential der Mineralsubstanz drastisch ab. Das hat auch

  19. Properties of Hooked Steel Fibers Reinforced Alkali Activated Material Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, alkali activated material was produced by using Class F fly ash from Manjung power station, Lumut, Perak, Malaysia. Fly ash then was activated by alkaline activator which is consisting of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Hooked end steel fibers were added into the alkali activated material system with percentage vary from 0 % – 5 %. Chemical compositions of fly ash were first analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF. All hardened alkali activated material samples were tested for density, workability, and compression after 28 days. Results show a slight increase of density with the addition of steel fibers. However, the workability was reduced with the addition of steel fibers content. Meanwhile, the addition of steel fibers shows the improvement of compressive strength which is about 19 % obtained at 3 % of steel fibers addition.

  20. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study.