WorldWideScience

Sample records for eos moderate resolution

  1. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient for Downwelling Irradiance (KD) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  2. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Chlorophyll (CHL) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  3. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Land Reflectance Global Binned Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  4. Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) Global Binned Data, reprocesing v2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  5. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  6. Snow and Ice Products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Klein, Andrew G.

    2003-01-01

    Snow and sea ice products, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, flown on the Terra and Aqua satellites, are or will be available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The algorithms that produce the products are automated, thus providing a consistent global data set that is suitable for climate studies. The suite of MODIS snow products begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map that is then projected onto a sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to daily and 8-day composite climate-modeling grid (CMG) products at 0.05 resolution. A daily snow albedo product will be available in early 2003 as a beta test product. The sequence of sea ice products begins with a swath product at 1-km resolution that provides sea ice extent and ice-surface temperature (IST). The sea ice swath products are then mapped onto the Lambert azimuthal equal area or EASE-Grid projection to create a daily and 8-day composite sea ice tile product, also at 1 -km resolution. Climate-Modeling Grid (CMG) sea ice products in the EASE-Grid projection at 4-km resolution are planned for early 2003.

  7. Orbital evolution of colliding star and pulsar winds in 2D and 3D: effects of dimensionality, EoS, resolution, and grid size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.; Barkov, M. V.; Perucho, M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The structure formed by the shocked winds of a massive star and a non-accreting pulsar in a binary system suffers periodic and random variations of orbital and non-linear dynamical origins. The characterization of the evolution of the wind interaction region is necessary for understanding the rich phenomenology of these sources. Aims: For the first time, we simulate in 3 dimensions the interaction of isotropic stellar and relativistic pulsar winds along one full orbit, on scales well beyond the binary size. We also investigate the impact of grid resolution and size, and of different state equations: a γ̂-constant ideal gas, and an ideal gas with γ̂ dependent on temperature. Methods: We used the code PLUTO to carry out relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in 2 and 3 dimensions of the interaction between a slow dense wind and a mildly relativistic wind with Lorentz factor 2, along one full orbit in a region up to ~100 times the binary size. The different 2-dimensional simulations were carried out with equal and larger grid resolution and size, and one was done with a more realistic equation of state than in 3 dimensions. Results: The simulations in 3 dimensions confirm previous results in 2 dimensions, showing: a strong shock induced by Coriolis forces that terminates the pulsar wind also in the opposite direction to the star; strong bending of the shocked-wind structure against the pulsar motion; and the generation of turbulence. The shocked flows are also subject to a faster development of instabilities in 3 dimensions, which enhances shocks, two-wind mixing, and large-scale disruption of the shocked structure. In 2 dimensions, higher resolution simulations confirm lower resolution results, simulations with larger grid sizes strengthen the case for the loss of the general coherence of the shocked structure, and simulations with two different equations of state yield very similar results. In addition to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, discussed in

  8. National Land Imaging Requirements (NLIR) Pilot Project summary report: summary of moderate resolution imaging user requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadnais, Carolyn; Stensaas, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Under the National Land Imaging Requirements (NLIR) Project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing a functional capability to obtain, characterize, manage, maintain and prioritize all Earth observing (EO) land remote sensing user requirements. The goal is a better understanding of community needs that can be supported with land remote sensing resources, and a means to match needs with appropriate solutions in an effective and efficient way. The NLIR Project is composed of two components. The first component is focused on the development of the Earth Observation Requirements Evaluation System (EORES) to capture, store and analyze user requirements, whereas, the second component is the mechanism and processes to elicit and document the user requirements that will populate the EORES. To develop the second component, the requirements elicitation methodology was exercised and refined through a pilot project conducted from June to September 2013. The pilot project focused specifically on applications and user requirements for moderate resolution imagery (5–120 meter resolution) as the test case for requirements development. The purpose of this summary report is to provide a high-level overview of the requirements elicitation process that was exercised through the pilot project and an early analysis of the moderate resolution imaging user requirements acquired to date to support ongoing USGS sustainable land imaging study needs. The pilot project engaged a limited set of Federal Government users from the operational and research communities and therefore the information captured represents only a subset of all land imaging user requirements. However, based on a comparison of results, trends, and analysis, the pilot captured a strong baseline of typical applications areas and user needs for moderate resolution imagery. Because these results are preliminary and represent only a sample of users and application areas, the information from this report should only

  9. EOS developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindrilaru, Elvin A.; Peters, Andreas J.; Adde, Geoffray M.; Duellmann, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    CERN has been developing and operating EOS as a disk storage solution successfully for over 6 years. The CERN deployment provides 135 PB and stores 1.2 billion replicas distributed over two computer centres. Deployment includes four LHC instances, a shared instance for smaller experiments and since last year an instance for individual user data as well. The user instance represents the backbone of the CERNBOX service for file sharing. New use cases like synchronisation and sharing, the planned migration to reduce AFS usage at CERN and the continuous growth has brought EOS to new challenges. Recent developments include the integration and evaluation of various technologies to do the transition from a single active in-memory namespace to a scale-out implementation distributed over many meta-data servers. The new architecture aims to separate the data from the application logic and user interface code, thus providing flexibility and scalability to the namespace component. Another important goal is to provide EOS as a CERN-wide mounted filesystem with strong authentication making it a single storage repository accessible via various services and front- ends (/eos initiative). This required new developments in the security infrastructure of the EOS FUSE implementation. Furthermore, there were a series of improvements targeting the end-user experience like tighter consistency and latency optimisations. In collaboration with Seagate as Openlab partner, EOS has a complete integration of OpenKinetic object drive cluster as a high-throughput, high-availability, low-cost storage solution. This contribution will discuss these three main development projects and present new performance metrics.

  10. EOS Terra Validation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  11. Exploring the Influence of Topographic Correction and SWIR Spectral Information Inclusion on Burnt Scars Detection From High Resolution EO Imagery: A Case Study Using ASTER imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Yahia A.; Petropoulos, George; Srivastava, Prashant K.

    2014-05-01

    Information on burned area estimates is of key importance in environmental and ecological studies as well as in fire management including damage assessment and planning of post-fire recovery of affected areas. Earth Observation (EO) provides today the most efficient way in obtaining such information in a rapid, consistent and cost-effective manner. The present study aimed at exploring the effect of topographic correction to the burnt area delineation in conditions characteristic of a Mediterranean environment using ASTER high resolution multispectral remotely sensed imagery. A further objective was to investigate the potential added-value of the inclusion of the shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands in improving the retrievals of burned area cartography from the ASTER data. In particular the capability of the Maximum Likelihood (ML), the Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) classification techniques has been examined herein for the purposes of our study. As a case study is used a typical Mediterranean site on which a fire event occurred in Greece during the summer of 2007, for which post-fire ASTER imagery has been acquired. Our results indicated that the combination of topographic correction (ortho-rectification) with the inclusion of the SWIR bands returned the most accurate results in terms of burnt area mapping. In terms of image processing methods, OBIA showed the best results and found as the most promising approach for burned area mapping with least absolute difference from the validation polygon followed by SVM and ML. All in all, our study provides an important contribution to the understanding of the capability of high resolution imagery such as that from ASTER sensor and corroborates the usefulness particularly of the topographic correction as an image processing step when in delineating the burnt areas from such data. It also provides further evidence that use of EO technology can offer an effective practical tool for the

  12. Sharp or broad pulse peak for high resolution instruments? Choice of moderator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, M.; Watanabe, N.; Teshigawara, M.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate a concept how we should choose moderator performance to realize required performance for instruments. Neutron burst pulse can be characterized with peak intensity, peak width and tail. Those can be controllable by designing moderator, i.e. material, temperature, shape, decoupling, poisoning and having premoderator. Hence there are large number of variable parameters to be determined. Here we discuss the required moderator performance for some typical examples, i.e. high resolution powder instrument, chopper instrument, high resolution back scattering machine. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the data of vegetable covering using fraction images and multitemporal vegetation index, derived of orbital data of moderate resolution of the sensor MODIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo Mejia, Mario Humberto

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the data obtained by sensor MODIS onboard the EOS terra satellite land cover units. The study area is the republic of Colombia in South America. The methodology consisted of analyzing the multitemporal (vegetation, soil and shade-water) fraction images and vegetation indices (NDVI) apply the lineal spectral mixture model to products derived from derived images by sensor MODIS data obtained in years 2001 and 2003. The mosaics of the original and the transformed vegetation (soil and shade-water) bands were generated for the whole study area using SPRING 4. 0 software, developed by INPE then these mosaics were segmented, classified, mapped, and edited to obtain a moderate resolution land cover map. The results derived from MODIS analysis were compared with Landsat ETM+ data acquire for a single test site. The results of the project showed the usefulness of MODIS images for large-scale land cover mapping and monitoring studies

  14. Meeting Earth Observation Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring: An Evaluation of the Revisit Capabilities of Current and Planned Moderate Resolution Optical Earth Observing Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa K. Whitcraft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a highly dynamic process in space and time, with many applications requiring data with both a relatively high temporal resolution (at least every 8 days and fine-to-moderate (FTM < 100 m spatial resolution. The relatively infrequent revisit of FTM optical satellite observatories coupled with the impacts of cloud occultation have translated into a barrier for the derivation of agricultural information at the regional-to-global scale. Drawing upon the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM Initiative’s general satellite Earth observation (EO requirements for monitoring of major production areas, Whitcraft et al. (this issue have described where, when, and how frequently satellite data acquisitions are required throughout the agricultural growing season at 0.05°, globally. The majority of areas and times of year require multiple revisits to probabilistically yield a view at least 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95% clear within eight days, something that no present single FTM optical observatory is capable of delivering. As such, there is a great potential to meet these moderate spatial resolution optical data requirements through a multi-space agency/multi-mission constellation approach. This research models the combined revisit capabilities of seven hypothetical constellations made from five satellite sensors—Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS, Resourcesat-2 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (Resourcesat-2 AWiFS, Sentinel-2A Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI, and Sentinel-2B MSI—and compares these capabilities with the revisit frequency requirements for a reasonably cloud-free clear view within eight days throughout the agricultural growing season. Supplementing Landsat 7 and 8 with missions from different space agencies leads to an improved capacity to meet requirements, with Resourcesat-2 providing the largest

  15. Evaluating kriging as a tool to improve moderate resolution maps of forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Freeman; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2007-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program (FIA) recently produced a nationwide map of forest biomass by modeling biomass collected on forest inventory plots as nonparametric functions of moderate resolution satellite data and other environmental variables using Cubist software. Efforts are underway to develop methods to enhance this initial map. We...

  16. Variations of Global Terrestrial Primary Production Observed by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) From 2000 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Running, S.; Heinsch, F. A.

    2006-12-01

    Since the first Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra was launched in December 1999 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard Terra began to provide data in February 2000, we have had six-year MODIS global 1-km terrestrial Gross and Net Primary Production (GPP &NPP) datasets. In this article, we present the variations (seasonality and inter-annual variability) of global GPP/NPP from the latest improved Collection 4.8 (C4.8) MODIS datasets for the past six-year (2000 - 2005), as well as improvements of the algorithm, validations of GPP and NPP. Validation results show that the C4.8 data have higher accuracy and quality than the previous version. Analyses of the variations in GPP/NPP show that GPP not only can reflect strong seasonality of photosynthesis activities by plants in mid- and high-latitude, but importantly, can reveal enhanced growth of Amazon rainforests during dry season, consistent with the reports by Huete et al. (2006) on GRL. Spatially, plants over mid- and high-latitude (north to 22.5°N) are the major contributor of global GPP seasonality. Inter-annual variability of MODIS NPP for 2000 - 2005 reveals the negative effects of major droughts on carbon sequestration at the regional and continental scales. A striking phenomenon is that the severe drought in 2005 over Amazon reduced NPP, indicating water availability becomes the dominant limiting factor rather than solar radiation under normal conditions. GMAO and NCEP driven global total NPPs have the similar interannual anomalies, and they generally follow the inverted CO2 growth rate anomaly with correlation of 0.85 and 0.91, respectively, which are higher than the correlation of 0.7 found by Nemani et al. (2003) on Science. Though there are only 6 years of MODIS data, results show that global NPP decreased from 2000 to 2005, and spatially most decreased NPP areas are in tropic and south hemisphere.

  17. Monitoring Termite-Mediated Ecosystem Processes Using Moderate and High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, B. M.; Hanan, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Termites are considered dominant decomposers and prominent ecosystem engineers in the global tropics and they build some of the largest and architecturally most complex non-human-made structures in the world. Termite mounds significantly alter soil texture, structure, and nutrients, and have major implications for local hydrological dynamics, vegetation characteristics, and biological diversity. An understanding of how these processes change across large scales has been limited by our ability to detect termite mounds at high spatial resolutions. Our research develops methods to detect large termite mounds in savannas across extensive geographic areas using moderate and high resolution satellite imagery. We also investigate the effect of termite mounds on vegetation productivity using Landsat-8 maximum composite NDVI data as a proxy for production. Large termite mounds in arid and semi-arid Senegal generate highly reflective `mound scars' with diameters ranging from 10 m at minimum to greater than 30 m. As Sentinel-2 has several bands with 10 m resolution and Landsat-8 has improved calibration, higher radiometric resolution, 15 m spatial resolution (pansharpened), and improved contrast between vegetated and bare surfaces compared to previous Landsat missions, we found that the largest and most influential mounds in the landscape can be detected. Because mounds as small as 4 m in diameter are easily detected in high resolution imagery we used these data to validate detection results and quantify omission errors for smaller mounds.

  18. A behavioral economic reward index predicts drinking resolutions: moderation revisited and compared with other outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A; Roth, David L; Vignolo, Mary J; Westfall, Andrew O

    2009-04-01

    Data were pooled from 3 studies of recently resolved community-dwelling problem drinkers to determine whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons distinguished among moderation (n = 30), abstinent (n = 95), and unresolved (n = 77) outcomes. Moderation over 1- to 2-year prospective follow-up intervals was hypothesized to involve longer term behavior regulation processes than abstinence or relapse and to be predicted by more balanced preresolution monetary allocations between short-term and longer term objectives (i.e., drinking and saving for the future). Standardized odds ratios (ORs) based on changes in standard deviation units from a multinomial logistic regression indicated that increases on this "Alcohol-Savings Discretionary Expenditure" index predicted higher rates of abstinence (OR = 1.93, p = .004) and relapse (OR = 2.89, p moderation outcomes. The index had incremental utility in predicting moderation in complex models that included other established predictors. The study adds to evidence supporting a behavioral economic analysis of drinking resolutions and shows that a systematic analysis of preresolution spending patterns aids in predicting moderation.

  19. Cross-calibration of Medium Resolution Earth Observing Satellites by Using EO-1 Hyperion-derived Spectral Surface Reflectance from "Lunar Cal Sites"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, the Earth Observing-one (EO-1) Hyperion imaging spectrometer was used to slowly scan the lunar surface at a rate which results in up to 32X oversampling to effectively increase the SNR. Several strategies, including comparison against the USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) mode,l are being employed to estimate the absolute and relative accuracy of the measurement set. There is an existing need to resolve discrepancies as high as 10% between ROLO and solar based calibration of current NASA EOS assets. Although the EO-1 mission was decommissioned at the end of March 2017, the development of a well-characterized exoatmospheric spectral radiometric database, for a range of lunar phase angles surrounding the fully illuminated moon, continues. Initial studies include a comprehensive analysis of the existing 17-year collection of more than 200 monthly lunar acquisitions. Specific lunar surface areas, such as a lunar mare, are being characterized as potential "lunar calibration sites" in terms of their radiometric stability in the presence of lunar nutation and libration. Site specific Hyperion-derived lunar spectral reflectance are being compared against spectrographic measurements made during the Apollo program. Techniques developed through this activity can be employed by future high-quality orbiting imaging spectrometers (such as HyspIRI and EnMap) to further refine calibration accuracies. These techniques will enable the consistent cross calibration of existing and future earth observing systems (spectral and multi-spectral) including those that do not have lunar viewing capability. When direct lunar viewing is not an option for an earth observing asset, orbiting imaging spectrometers can serve as transfer radiometers relating that asset's sensor response to lunar values through near contemporaneous observations of well characterized stable CEOS test sites. Analysis of this dataset will lead to the development of strategies to ensure more

  20. Accurate atmospheric parameters at moderate resolution using spectral indices: Preliminary application to the marvels survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; Ge, Jian; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wang, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T eff , metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ∼ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T eff , 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test

  1. Accurate Atmospheric Parameters at Moderate Resolution Using Spectral Indices: Preliminary Application to the MARVELS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Cargile, Phillip; Ge, Jian; Pepper, Joshua; Wang, Ji; Paegert, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T eff, metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ~ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T eff, 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test was

  2. Smoke, Clouds and Radiation Brazil NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCARB_ER2_MAS data are Smoke, Clouds and Radiation Brazil (SCARB) NASA ER2 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS)...

  3. Building EOS capability for Malaysia - the options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subari, M. D.; Hassan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Earth observation satellite (EOS) is currently a major tool to monitor earth dynamics and increase human understanding of earth surface process. Since the early 80s, Malaysia has been using EOS images for various applications, such as weather forecasting, land use mapping, agriculture, environment monitoring and others. Until now, all EOS images were obtained from foreign satellite systems. Realising on the strategic need of having its own capability, Malaysia embarked into EOS development programs in the early 90s. Starting with TiungSAT-1, a micro-satellite carrying small camera, then followed by RazakSAT, a small satellite carrying 2.5 m panchromatic (PAN) medium-aperture-camera, the current satellite program development, the RazakSAT-2, designed to carry a 1.0 m high resolution PAN and 4.0m multi-spectral camera, would become a strategic initiative of the government in developing and accelerating the nation's capability in the area of satellite technology and its application. Would this effort continue until all needs of the remote sensing community being fulfilled by its own EOS? This paper will analyze the intention of the Malaysian government through its National Space Policy and other related policy documents, and proposes some policy options on this. Key factors to be considered are specific data need of the EOS community, data availability and the more subjective political motivations such as national pride.

  4. Terrestrial remote sensing science and algorithms planned for EOS/MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, S. W.; Justice, C.O.; Salomonson, V.V.; Hall, D.; Barker, J.; Kaufmann, Y. J.; Strahler, Alan H.; Huete, A.R.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Vanderbilt, V.; Wan, Z.; Teillet, P.; Carneggie, David M. Geological Survey (U.S.) Ohlen

    1994-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) will be the primary daily global monitoring sensor on the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, scheduled for launch on the EOS-AM platform in June 1998 and the EOS-PM platform in December 2000. MODIS is a 36 channel radiometer covering 0·415-14·235 μm wavelengths, with spatial resolution from 250 m to 1 km at nadir. MODIS will be the primary EOS sensor for providing data on terrestrial biospheric dynamics and process activity. This paper presents the suite of global land products currently planned for EOSDIS implementation, to be developed by the authors of this paper, the MODIS land team (MODLAND). These include spectral albedo, land cover, spectral vegetation indices, snow and ice cover, surface temperature and fire, and a number of biophysical variables that will allow computation of global carbon cycles, hydrologic balances and biogeochemistry of critical greenhouse gases. Additionally, the regular global coverage of these variables will allow accurate surface change detection, a fundamental determinant of global change.

  5. Moderate-resolution spectral standards from lambda 5600 to lambda 9000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lori E.; Strom, Karen M.

    1995-01-01

    We present a grid of stellar classification spectra of moderate resolution (R approximately 1500) in the range lambda lambda 5600-9000 A, compiled from high signal-to noise spectra of 275 stars, most in the open clusters Praesepe and M67. The grid covers dwarfs from types B8 through M5, giants from G8 through M7, and subgiants from F5 through K0. We catalog atomic and molecular absorption features useful for stellar classification, and demonstrate the use of luminosity-sensitive features to distinguish between late-type dwarf and giant stars. The entire database is made available in digital format on anonymous ftp and through the World Wide Web.

  6. Moderate Imaging Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval for Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmat, A.; Jalal, K. A.; Ahmad, N.

    2018-02-01

    The present study uses the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieved from Moderate Imaging Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for the period from January 2011 until December 2015 over an urban area in Kuching, Sarawak. The results show the minimum AOD value retrieved from MODIS is -0.06 and the maximum value is 6.0. High aerosol loading with high AOD value observed during dry seasons and low AOD monitored during wet seasons. Multi plane regression technique used to retrieve AOD from MODIS (AODMODIS) and different statistics parameter is proposed by using relative absolute error for accuracy assessment in spatial and temporal averaging approach. The AODMODIS then compared with AOD derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sunphotometer (AODAERONET) and the results shows high correlation coefficient (R2) for AODMODIS and AODAERONET with 0.93. AODMODIS used as an input parameters into Santa Barbara Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model to estimate urban radiative forcing at Kuching. The observed hourly averaged for urban radiative forcing is -0.12 Wm-2 for top of atmosphere (TOA), -2.13 Wm-2 at the surface and 2.00 Wm-2 in the atmosphere. There is a moderate relationship observed between urban radiative forcing calculated using SBDART and AERONET which are 0.75 at the surface, 0.65 at TOA and 0.56 in atmosphere. Overall, variation in AOD tends to cause large bias in the estimated urban radiative forcing.

  7. PVT modeling of reservoir fluids using PC-SAFT EoS and Soave-BWR EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Varzandeh, Farhad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2015-01-01

    non-cubic EoS models, such as the Perturbed Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) EoS and the Soave modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (Soave-BWR) EoS, may partly replace the roles of these classical cubic models in the upstream oil industry. Here, we attempt to make a comparative study...... for the four models. For PVT prediction, the non-cubic models show advantages in some high pressure high temperature (HPHT) fluids but no clear advantages in general, indicating the necessity for further improvement of the characterization procedure....

  8. EOS Inoovation Photo's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    What did four years of energy innovation bring the Netherlands? Which are the main lessons learned and what are the best opportunities for the market? The Energy Research Strategy programme (EOS) gave the answers to these questions for various topics in the form of images by means of so-called I nnovation Photos' on Biomass, Built Environment, Industrial Energy Efficiency, Smart Grids, Heat, Offshore Wind, and Solar PV. [nl

  9. Moderate resolution thermal mapping of mars: The channel terrain around the Chryse basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.R.; Kieffer, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Moderate resolution (approx.30 km) thermal inertia estimates have been made for several regions in the northern hemosphere of Mars. Examples of these maps are presented here for the region O 0 -45 0 N, O 0 -90 0 W. The thermal inertia of Kasei Vallis is found to be significantly higher than that of the surrounding terrain. The assumption of a uniform grain size surface gives maximum diameters of 1.0 mm inside and 0.05mm outside Kasei Vallis for the surface materials. high inertia regions are well correlated with low albedo (Aapprox.0.14) regions. Three large channels in the Oxia Palus quandrangle also have high inertia floors. There is some indication that the thermal inertia increases toward the mouth of one of these channels. The Chryse and Acidalia basins have uniform high inertia surfaces with no decrease in inertia as distance increases from the major channels. There are numerous craters in the region which have high inertia-low albedo features on the crater floor. This correlation has been observed for many other craters on Mars, both from Mariner 9 and Viking data. A possible explanation is the accumulation of coarse-grained, windblown material within the craters. Average grain sizes of these materials range from 0.5 to 1.1. mm, corresponding to medium to coarse sand. The Viking 1 landing site is located in the lowest inertia region within the area studied which met the latitude and elevation capabilities of that vehicle

  10. Scaling the EOS namespace

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Andreas J; Bitzes, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    EOS is the distributed storage system being developed at CERN with the aim of fulfilling a wide range of data storage needs, ranging from physics data to user home directories. Being in production since 2011, EOS currently manages around 224 petabytes of disk space and 1.4 billion files across several instances. Even though individual EOS instances routinely manage hundreds of disk servers, users access the contents through a single, unified namespace which is exposed by the head node (MGM), and contains the metadata of all files stored on that instance. The legacy implementation keeps the entire namespace in-memory. Modifications are appended to a persistent, on-disk changelog; this way, the in-memory contents can be reconstructed after every reboot by replaying the changelog. While this solution has proven reliable and effective, we are quickly approaching the limits of its scalability. In this paper, we present our new implementation which is currently in testing. We have designed and implemented QuarkD...

  11. High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express - a decade of PR/EO activities at Freie Universität Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthasar, Heike; Dumke, Alexander; van Gasselt, Stephan; Gross, Christoph; Michael, Gregory; Musiol, Stefanie; Neu, Dominik; Platz, Thomas; Rosenberg, Heike; Schreiner, Björn; Walter, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003 the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) experiment on the Mars Express mission is in orbit around Mars. First images were sent to Earth on January 14th, 2004. The goal-oriented HRSC data dissemination and the transparent representation of the associated work and results are the main aspects that contributed to the success in the public perception of the experiment. The Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin (FUB) offers both, an interactive web based data access, and browse/download options for HRSC press products [www.fu-berlin.de/planets]. Close collaborations with exhibitors as well as print and digital media representatives allows for regular and directed dissemination of, e.g., conventional imagery, orbital/synthetic surface epipolar images, video footage, and high-resolution displays. On a monthly basis we prepare press releases in close collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) [http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/en/geol/fachrichtungen/planet/press/index.html]. A release comprises panchromatic, colour, anaglyph, and perspective views of a scene taken from an HRSC image of the Martian surface. In addition, a context map and descriptive texts in English and German are provided. More sophisticated press releases include elaborate animations and simulated flights over the Martian surface, perspective views of stereo data combined with colour and high resolution, mosaics, and perspective views of data mosaics. Altogether 970 high quality PR products and 15 movies were created at FUB during the last decade and published via FUB/DLR/ESA platforms. We support educational outreach events, as well as permanent and special exhibitions. Examples for that are the yearly "Science Fair", where special programs for kids are offered, and the exhibition "Mars Mission and Vision" which is on tour until 2015 through 20 German towns, showing 3-D movies, surface models, and images of the HRSC

  12. A Behavioral Economic Reward Index Predicts Drinking Resolutions: Moderation Re-visited and Compared with Other Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Roth, David L.; Vignolo, Mary J.; Westfall, Andrew O.

    2014-01-01

    Data were pooled from three studies of recently resolved community-dwelling problem drinkers to determine whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons distinguished among moderation (n = 30), abstinent (n = 95), and unresolved (n = 77) outcomes. Moderation over 1-2 year prospective follow-up intervals was hypothesized to involve longer term behavior regulation processes compared to abstinence or relapse and to be predicted by more balanced pre-resolution monetary allocations between short- and longer-term objectives (i.e., drinking and saving for the future). Standardized odds ratios (OR) based on changes in standard deviation units from a multinomial logistic regression indicated that increases on this “Alcohol-Savings Discretionary Expenditure” index predicted higher rates of both abstinence (OR = 1.93, p = .004) and relapse (OR = 2.89, p moderation outcomes. The index had incremental utility in predicting moderation in complex models that included other established predictors. The study adds to evidence supporting a behavioral economic analysis of drinking resolutions and shows that a systematic analysis of pre-resolution spending patterns aids in predicting moderation. PMID:19309182

  13. Neutronic performance of decoupled poisoned and unpoisoned composite moderators for high resolution experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Teshigawara, Makoto; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    We studied decoupled poisoned and un-poisoned composite moderators consisting of 20 mm thick hydrogen and 30 mm thick light water. The neutron pulses from un-poisoned one were much broader with longer decay times than a simple decoupled hydrogen moderator in 50 mm thickness. It was also found that the poisoned composite moderator provides higher pulse peak intensities relative to the hydrogen moderator (poisoned at 20 mm) below several tens meV with no penalty of pulse width. (author)

  14. Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution burned area and active fire observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.

    2011-12-01

    In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of burned area products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m burned area observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to burned area and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m burn scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 burned area observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the burned area associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied burned area to active fire ratios derived solely from within burned area perimeters to active fires outside of burn perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m burned area estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of burned areas (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 burned areas increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of burn perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside burn scars, providing evidence for burn scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha area of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of burn perimeters. In our

  15. Cloud detection method for Chinese moderate high resolution satellite imagery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bo; Chen, Wuhan; Wu, Shanlong; Liu, Qinhuo

    2016-10-01

    Cloud detection of satellite imagery is very important for quantitative remote sensing research and remote sensing applications. However, many satellite sensors don't have enough bands for a quick, accurate, and simple detection of clouds. Particularly, the newly launched moderate to high spatial resolution satellite sensors of China, such as the charge-coupled device on-board the Chinese Huan Jing 1 (HJ-1/CCD) and the wide field of view (WFV) sensor on-board the Gao Fen 1 (GF-1), only have four available bands including blue, green, red, and near infrared bands, which are far from the requirements of most could detection methods. In order to solve this problem, an improved and automated cloud detection method for Chinese satellite sensors called OCM (Object oriented Cloud and cloud-shadow Matching method) is presented in this paper. It firstly modified the Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) method, which was developed for Landsat-7 data, to get an initial cloud map. The modified ACCA method is mainly based on threshold and different threshold setting produces different cloud map. Subsequently, a strict threshold is used to produce a cloud map with high confidence and large amount of cloud omission and a loose threshold is used to produce a cloud map with low confidence and large amount of commission. Secondly, a corresponding cloud-shadow map is also produced using the threshold of near-infrared band. Thirdly, the cloud maps and cloud-shadow map are transferred to cloud objects and cloud-shadow objects. Cloud and cloud-shadow are usually in pairs; consequently, the final cloud and cloud-shadow maps are made based on the relationship between cloud and cloud-shadow objects. OCM method was tested using almost 200 HJ-1/CCD images across China and the overall accuracy of cloud detection is close to 90%.

  16. Monitoring Powdery Mildew of Winter Wheat by Using Moderate Resolution Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingcheng; Pu, Ruiliang; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Jihua; Huang, Wenjiang; Yang, Guijun

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases that have a significant impact on the production of winter wheat. As an effective alternative to traditional sampling methods, remote sensing can be a useful tool in disease detection. This study attempted to use multi-temporal moderate resolution satellite-based data of surface reflectances in blue (B), green (G), red (R) and near infrared (NIR) bands from HJ-CCD (CCD sensor on Huanjing satellite) to monitor disease at a regional scale. In a suburban area in Beijing, China, an extensive field campaign for disease intensity survey was conducted at key growth stages of winter wheat in 2010. Meanwhile, corresponding time series of HJ-CCD images were acquired over the study area. In this study, a number of single-stage and multi-stage spectral features, which were sensitive to powdery mildew, were selected by using an independent t-test. With the selected spectral features, four advanced methods: mahalanobis distance, maximum likelihood classifier, partial least square regression and mixture tuned matched filtering were tested and evaluated for their performances in disease mapping. The experimental results showed that all four algorithms could generate disease maps with a generally correct distribution pattern of powdery mildew at the grain filling stage (Zadoks 72). However, by comparing these disease maps with ground survey data (validation samples), all of the four algorithms also produced a variable degree of error in estimating the disease occurrence and severity. Further, we found that the integration of MTMF and PLSR algorithms could result in a significant accuracy improvement of identifying and determining the disease intensity (overall accuracy of 72% increased to 78% and kappa coefficient of 0.49 increased to 0.59). The experimental results also demonstrated that the multi-temporal satellite images have a great potential in crop diseases mapping at a regional scale. PMID:24691435

  17. Winter Crop Mapping for Improving Crop Production Estimates in Argentina Using Moderation Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, M. L.; Copati, E.; Sanchez, A.; Sahajpal, R.; Puricelli, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate crop production data is fundamental for reducing uncertainly and volatility in the domestic and international agricultural markets. The Agricultural Estimates Department of the Buenos Aires Grain Exchange has worked since 2000 on the estimation of different crop production data. With this information, the Grain Exchange helps different actors of the agricultural chain, such as producers, traders, seed companies, market analyst, policy makers, into their day to day decision making. Since 2015/16 season, the Grain Exchange has worked on the development of a new earth observations-based method to identify winter crop planted area at a regional scale with the aim of improving crop production estimates. The objective of this new methodology is to create a reliable winter crop mask at moderate spatial resolution using Landsat-8 imagery by exploiting bi-temporal differences in the phenological stages of winter crops as compared to other landcover types. In collaboration with the University of Maryland, the map has been validated by photointerpretation of a stratified statistically random sample of independent ground truth data in the four largest producing provinces of Argentina: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, La Pampa, and Santa Fe. In situ measurements were also used to further investigate conditions in the Buenos Aires province. Preliminary results indicate that while there are some avenues for improvement, overall the classification accuracy of the cropland and non-cropland classes are sufficient to improve downstream production estimates. Continuing research will focus on improving the methodology for winter crop mapping exercises on a yearly basis as well as improving the sampling methodology to optimize collection of validation data in the future.

  18. Eos Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  19. Electrical overstress (EOS) devices, circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Overstress (EOS) continues to impact semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics.  This bookteaches the fundamentals of electrical overstress  and how to minimize and mitigate EOS failures. The text provides a clear picture of EOS phenomena, EOS origins, EOS sources, EOS physics, EOS failure mechanisms, and EOS on-chip and system design.  It provides an illuminating insight into the sources of EOS in manufacturing, integration of on-chip, and system level EOS protection networks, followed by examples in spe

  20. A Behavioral Economic Reward Index Predicts Drinking Resolutions: Moderation Revisited and Compared with Other Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Roth, David L.; Vignolo, Mary J.; Westfall, Andrew O.

    2009-01-01

    Data were pooled from 3 studies of recently resolved community-dwelling problem drinkers to determine whether a behavioral economic index of the value of rewards available over different time horizons distinguished among moderation (n = 30), abstinent (n = 95), and unresolved (n = 77) outcomes. Moderation over 1- to 2-year prospective follow-up…

  1. HDF-EOS Dump Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, U.; Rahabi, A.

    2001-05-01

    The following utilities developed for HDF-EOS format data dump are of special use for Earth science data for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS). This poster demonstrates their use and application. The first four tools take HDF-EOS data files as input. HDF-EOS Metadata Dumper - metadmp Metadata dumper extracts metadata from EOS data granules. It operates by simply copying blocks of metadata from the file to the standard output. It does not process the metadata in any way. Since all metadata in EOS granules is encoded in the Object Description Language (ODL), the output of metadmp will be in the form of complete ODL statements. EOS data granules may contain up to three different sets of metadata (Core, Archive, and Structural Metadata). HDF-EOS Contents Dumper - heosls Heosls dumper displays the contents of HDF-EOS files. This utility provides detailed information on the POINT, SWATH, and GRID data sets. in the files. For example: it will list, the Geo-location fields, Data fields and objects. HDF-EOS ASCII Dumper - asciidmp The ASCII dump utility extracts fields from EOS data granules into plain ASCII text. The output from asciidmp should be easily human readable. With minor editing, asciidmp's output can be made ingestible by any application with ASCII import capabilities. HDF-EOS Binary Dumper - bindmp The binary dumper utility dumps HDF-EOS objects in binary format. This is useful for feeding the output of it into existing program, which does not understand HDF, for example: custom software and COTS products. HDF-EOS User Friendly Metadata - UFM The UFM utility tool is useful for viewing ECS metadata. UFM takes an EOSDIS ODL metadata file and produces an HTML report of the metadata for display using a web browser. HDF-EOS METCHECK - METCHECK METCHECK can be invoked from either Unix or Dos environment with a set of command line options that a user might use to direct the tool inputs and output . METCHECK validates the inventory metadata in (.met file) using The

  2. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Terra satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a scientific instrument (radiometer) launched by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra satellite platform (a...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Aqua satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a scientific instrument (radiometer) launched by NASA in 2002 on board the Aqua satellite platform (a...

  4. Building EOS capability for Malaysia – the options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subari, M D; Hassan, A

    2014-01-01

    Earth observation satellite (EOS) is currently a major tool to monitor earth dynamics and increase human understanding of earth surface process. Since the early 80s, Malaysia has been using EOS images for various applications, such as weather forecasting, land use mapping, agriculture, environment monitoring and others. Until now, all EOS images were obtained from foreign satellite systems. Realising on the strategic need of having its own capability, Malaysia embarked into EOS development programs in the early 90s. Starting with TiungSAT-1, a micro-satellite carrying small camera, then followed by RazakSAT, a small satellite carrying 2.5 m panchromatic (PAN) medium-aperture-camera, the current satellite program development, the RazakSAT-2, designed to carry a 1.0 m high resolution PAN and 4.0m multi-spectral camera, would become a strategic initiative of the government in developing and accelerating the nation's capability in the area of satellite technology and its application. Would this effort continue until all needs of the remote sensing community being fulfilled by its own EOS? This paper will analyze the intention of the Malaysian government through its National Space Policy and other related policy documents, and proposes some policy options on this. Key factors to be considered are specific data need of the EOS community, data availability and the more subjective political motivations such as national pride

  5. EO-1 analysis applicable to coastal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Hsiao-hua K.; Misra, Bijoy; Hsu, Su May; Griffin, Michael K.; Upham, Carolyn; Farrar, Kris

    2003-09-01

    The EO-1 satellite is part of NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). It consists of three imaging sensors: the multi-spectral Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Hyperion and Atmospheric Corrector. Hyperion provides a high-resolution hyperspectral imager capable of resolving 220 spectral bands (from 0.4 to 2.5 micron) with a 30 m resolution. The instrument images a 7.5 km by 100 km land area per image. Hyperion is currently the only space-borne HSI data source since the launch of EO-1 in late 2000. The discussion begins with the unique capability of hyperspectral sensing to coastal characterization: (1) most ocean feature algorithms are semi-empirical retrievals and HSI has all spectral bands to provide legacy with previous sensors and to explore new information, (2) coastal features are more complex than those of deep ocean that coupled effects are best resolved with HSI, and (3) with contiguous spectral coverage, atmospheric compensation can be done with more accuracy and confidence, especially since atmospheric aerosol effects are the most pronounced in the visible region where coastal feature lie. EO-1 data from Chesapeake Bay from 19 February 2002 are analyzed. In this presentation, it is first illustrated that hyperspectral data inherently provide more information for feature extraction than multispectral data despite Hyperion has lower SNR than ALI. Chlorophyll retrievals are also shown. The results compare favorably with data from other sources. The analysis illustrates the potential value of Hyperion (and HSI in general) data to coastal characterization. Future measurement requirements (air borne and space borne) are also discussed.

  6. HDF-EOS Web Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A shell script has been written as a means of automatically making HDF-EOS-formatted data sets available via the World Wide Web. ("HDF-EOS" and variants thereof are defined in the first of the two immediately preceding articles.) The shell script chains together some software tools developed by the Data Usability Group at Goddard Space Flight Center to perform the following actions: Extract metadata in Object Definition Language (ODL) from an HDF-EOS file, Convert the metadata from ODL to Extensible Markup Language (XML), Reformat the XML metadata into human-readable Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Publish the HTML metadata and the original HDF-EOS file to a Web server and an Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeN-DAP) server computer, and Reformat the XML metadata and submit the resulting file to the EOS Clearinghouse, which is a Web-based metadata clearinghouse that facilitates searching for, and exchange of, Earth-Science data.

  7. Elicitation of State and Local User Needs for Future Moderate Resolution Earth Observations: The AmericaView Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, N. H. F.; Lawrence, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    AmericaView is a nationwide partnership of remote sensing scientists who support the use of Landsat and other public domain remotely sensed data through applied remote sensing research, K-12 and higher STEM education, workforce development, and technology transfer. The national AmericaView program currently has active university-lead members in 39 states, each of which has a "stateview" consortium consisting of some combination of university, agency, non-profit, and other members. This "consortium of consortia" has resulted in a strong and unique nationwide network of remote sensing practitioners. AmericaView has used this network to contribute to the USGS Requirements Capabilities & Analysis for Earth Observations. Participating states have conducted interviews of key remote sensing end users across the country to provide key input at the state and local level for the design and implementation of future U.S. moderate resolution Earth observations.

  8. On Application of Non-cubic EoS to Compositional Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Compositional reservoir simulation uses almost exclusively cubic equations of state (EoS) such as the SRK EoS and the PR EoS. This is in contrast with process simulation in the downstream industry where more recent and advanced thermodynamic models are quickly adopted. Many of these models are non-cubic...... EoS, such as the PC-SAFT EoS. A major reason for the use of the conventional cubic EoS in reservoir simulation is the concern over computation time. Flash computation is the most time consuming part in compositional reservoir simulation, and the extra complexity of the non-cubic EoS may significantly...... increase the time consumption. In addition to this, the non-cubic EoS also needs a C7+ characterization. The main advantage of the non-cubic EoS is that it provides for a more accurate descrition of fluid properties, and it is therefore of interest to investigate the computational aspects of using...

  9. The ASY-EOS Experiment at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. In the ASY-EOS experiment at the GSI laboratory, flows of neutrons and light charged particles were measured for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon. Flow results obtained for the Au+Au system, in comparison with predictions of the UrQMD transport model, confirm the moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy deduced from the earlier FOPI-LAND data.

  10. High spatial resolution satellite observations for validation of MODIS land products: IKONOS observations acquired under the NASA scientific data purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey T. Morisette; Jaime E. Nickeson; Paul Davis; Yujie Wang; Yuhong Tian; Curtis E. Woodcock; Nikolay Shabanov; Matthew Hansen; Warren B. Cohen; Doug R. Oetter; Robert E. Kennedy

    2003-01-01

    Phase 1I of the Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) has provided NASA investigators access to data from four different satellite and airborne data sources. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) land discipline team (MODLAND) sought to utilize these data in support of land product validation activities with a lbcus on tile EOS Land Validation Core Sites. These...

  11. EO system concepts in the littoral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Iersel, Miranda

    2007-04-01

    In recent years, operations executed by naval forces have taken place at many different locations. At present, operations against international terrorism and asymmetric warfare in coastal environments are of major concern. In these scenarios, the threat caused by pirates on-board of small surface targets, such as jetskis and fast inshore attack crafts, is increasing. In the littoral environment, the understanding of its complexity and the efficient use of the limited reaction time, are essential for successful operations. Present-day electro-optical sensor suites, also incorporating Infrared Search and Track systems, can be used for varying tasks as detection, classification and identification. By means of passive electro-optical systems, infrared and visible light sensors, improved situational awareness can be achieved. For long range capability, elevated sensor masts and flying platforms are ideally suited for the surveillance task and improve situational awareness. A primary issue is how to incorporate new electro-optical technology and signal processing into the new sensor concepts, to improve system performance. It is essential to derive accurate information from the high spatial-resolution imagery created by the EO sensors. As electro-optical sensors do not have all-weather capability, the performance degradation in adverse scenarios must be understood, in order to support the operational use of adaptive sensor management techniques. In this paper we discuss the approach taken at TNO in the design and assessment of system concepts for future IRST development. An overview of our maritime programme in future IRST and EO system concepts including signal processing is presented.

  12. Report of the EOS oceans panel to the payload panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mark R.; Freilich, Michael H.

    1992-11-01

    The atmosphere and the ocean are the two great fluids of the earth system. Changes in the coupling of these two fluids will have a profound impact on the Earth's climate and biogeochemical systems. Although changes in atmospheric composition and dynamics are the usual focus of global climate models, it is apparent that the ocean plays a critical role in modulating the magnitude and rate of these changes. The ocean is responsible for nearly half of the poleward heat flux as well as for a significant portion of the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, the processes governing the flux of materials and energy between the ocean atmosphere are poorly understood. Such processes include not only physical and chemical dynamics, but also biological processes which act to modify the chemical composition of the ocean as well as the trapping of solar energy as heat in the upper water column. Thus it is essential that the ocean be studied as a complete system of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Overlapping measurements must be made for at least 10-15 years to resolve critical low frequency fluctuations. The present EOS plan relies heavily on non-EOS entities to provide critical data sets for ocean studies. Although such partnerships are usually beneficial, there are risks that must be considered in terms of data coverage, quality, resolution, and availability. A simple replacement of an EOS sensor with a non-EOS sensor based on the fact that they both measure the same quantities will not guarantee that critical measurements will be made to address IPCC priorities in the area of ocean processes. EOS must continue to pursue appropriate methods to ensure that such partner — provided measurements meet scientific requirements. Such methods are analogous to contigencies applied in the area of schedules, cost, and performance for instrument projects. EOS must foster strong ties between US scientists and their foreign counterparts, in order to develop

  13. It Security and EO Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, M.

    2010-12-01

    One topic that is beginning to influence the systems that support these goals is that of Information Technology (IT) Security. Unsecure systems are vulnerable to increasing attacks and other negative consequences; sponsoring agencies are correspondingly responding with more refined policies and more stringent security requirements. These affect how EO systems can meet the goals of data and service interoperability and harmonization through open access, transformation and visualization services. Contemporary systems, including the vision of a system-of-systems (such as GEOSS, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems), utilize technologies that support a distributed, global, net-centric environment. These types of systems have a high reliance on the open systems, web services, shared infrastructure and data standards. The broader IT industry has developed and used these technologies in their business and mission critical systems for many years. Unfortunately, the IT industry, and their customers have learned the importance of protecting their assets and resources (computing and information) as they have been forced to respond to an ever increasing number and more complex illegitimate “attackers”. This presentation will offer an overview of work done by the CEOS WGISS organization in summarizing security threats, the challenges to responding to them and capturing the current state of the practice within the EO community.

  14. Limited Range Sesame EOS for Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeff, Carl William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crockett, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rudin, Sven Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burakovsky, Leonid [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-30

    A new Sesame EOS table for Ta has been released for testing. It is a limited range table covering T ≤ 26, 000 K and ρ ≤ 37.53 g/cc. The EOS is based on earlier analysis using DFT phonon calculations to infer the cold pressure from the Hugoniot. The cold curve has been extended into compression using new DFT calculations. The present EOS covers expansion into the gas phase. It is a multi-phase EOS with distinct liquid and solid phases. A cold shear modulus table (431) is included. This is based on an analytic interpolation of DFT calculations.

  15. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A2 (EOS/AMSU-A): EOS Software Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the results of the formal qualification test (FQT)/ Demonstration conducted on September 10, and 14, 1998 for the EOS AMSU-A2 instrument. The purpose of the report is to relate the results of the functional performance and interface tests of the software. This is the final submittal of the EOS/AMSU-A Software Test report.

  16. Integrating new Storage Technologies into EOS

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Andreas J; Rocha, Joaquim; Lensing, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The EOS[1] storage software was designed to cover CERN disk-only storage use cases in the medium-term trading scalability against latency. To cover and prepare for long-term requirements the CERN IT data and storage services group (DSS) is actively conducting R&D; and open source contributions to experiment with a next generation storage software based on CEPH[3] and ethernet enabled disk drives. CEPH provides a scale-out object storage system RADOS and additionally various optional high-level services like S3 gateway, RADOS block devices and a POSIX compliant file system CephFS. The acquisition of CEPH by Redhat underlines the promising role of CEPH as the open source storage platform of the future. CERN IT is running a CEPH service in the context of OpenStack on a moderate scale of 1 PB replicated storage. Building a 100+PB storage system based on CEPH will require software and hardware tuning. It is of capital importance to demonstrate the feasibility and possibly iron out bottlenecks and blocking issu...

  17. Integrating new Storage Technologies into EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Andreas J.; van der Ster, Dan C.; Rocha, Joaquim; Lensing, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The EOS[1] storage software was designed to cover CERN disk-only storage use cases in the medium-term trading scalability against latency. To cover and prepare for long-term requirements the CERN IT data and storage services group (DSS) is actively conducting R&D and open source contributions to experiment with a next generation storage software based on CEPH[3] and ethernet enabled disk drives. CEPH provides a scale-out object storage system RADOS and additionally various optional high-level services like S3 gateway, RADOS block devices and a POSIX compliant file system CephFS. The acquisition of CEPH by Redhat underlines the promising role of CEPH as the open source storage platform of the future. CERN IT is running a CEPH service in the context of OpenStack on a moderate scale of 1 PB replicated storage. Building a 100+PB storage system based on CEPH will require software and hardware tuning. It is of capital importance to demonstrate the feasibility and possibly iron out bottlenecks and blocking issues beforehand. The main idea behind this R&D is to leverage and contribute to existing building blocks in the CEPH storage stack and implement a few CERN specific requirements in a thin, customisable storage layer. A second research topic is the integration of ethernet enabled disks. This paper introduces various ongoing open source developments, their status and applicability.

  18. Converting from XML to HDF-EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program recreates an HDF-EOS file from an Extensible Markup Language (XML) representation of the contents of that file. This program is one of two programs written to enable testing of the schemas described in the immediately preceding article to determine whether the schemas capture all details of HDF-EOS files.

  19. Constellation-X to Generation-X: evolution of large collecting area moderate resolution grazing incidence x-ray telescopes to larger area high-resolution adjustable optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul B.; Cameron, Robert A.; Cohen, Lester; Elvis, Martin; Gorenstein, Paul; Jerius, Diab; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William A.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Zhang, William W.

    2004-10-01

    Large collecting area x-ray telescopes are designed to study the early Universe, trace the evolution of black holes, stars and galaxies, study the chemical evolution of the Universe, and study matter in extreme environments. The Constellation-X mission (Con-X), planned for launch in 2016, will provide ~ 10^4 cm^2 collecting area with 15 arc-sec resolution, with a goal of 5 arc-sec. Future missions require larger collecting area and finer resolution. Generation-X (Gen-X), a NASA Visions Mission, will achieve 100 m^2 effective area at 1 keV and angular resolution of 0.1 arc-sec, half power diameter. We briefly describe the Con-X flowdown of imaging requirements to reflector figure error. To meet requirements beyond Con-X, Gen-X optics will be thinner and more accurately shaped than has ever been accomplished. To meet these challenging goals, we incorporate for the first time active figure control with grazing incidence optics. Piezoelectric material will be deposited in discrete cells directly on the back surface of the optical segments, with the strain directions oriented parallel to the surface. Differential strain between the two layers of the mirror causes localized bending in two directions, enabling local figure control. Adjusting figure on-orbit eases fabrication and metrology. The ability to make changes to mirror figure adds margin by mitigating risk due to launch-induced deformations and/or on-orbit degradation. We flowdown the Gen-X requirements to mirror figure and four telescope designs, and discuss various trades between the designs.

  20. EO2HEAVEN: mitigating environmental health risks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Rouw, Wouter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available EO2HEAVEN has the primary objective to contribute to a better understanding of the complex relationships between environmental changes and their impact on human health. To achieve this, the project followed a multidisciplinary and user...

  1. Starck Ta PTW strength model recommendation for use with SESAME 93524 EoS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, Sky K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prime, Michael Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-27

    The purpose of this document is to provide a calibration of the Preston-Tonks- Wallace (PTW) strength model for use with the new SESAME equation of state (EoS) 93524. The calibration data included in this t spans temperatures from 198 K to 673 K and strain rates from 0.001/s to 3200/s.

  2. Novel approaches to estimating the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate from low- and moderate-resolution velocity fluctuation time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wacławczyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose two approaches to estimating the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE dissipation rate, based on the zero-crossing method by Sreenivasan et al. (1983. The original formulation requires a fine resolution of the measured signal, down to the smallest dissipative scales. However, due to finite sampling frequency, as well as measurement errors, velocity time series obtained from airborne experiments are characterized by the presence of effective spectral cutoffs. In contrast to the original formulation the new approaches are suitable for use with signals originating from airborne experiments. The suitability of the new approaches is tested using measurement data obtained during the Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST airborne research campaign as well as synthetic turbulence data. They appear useful and complementary to existing methods. We show the number-of-crossings-based approaches respond differently to errors due to finite sampling and finite averaging than the classical power spectral method. Hence, their application for the case of short signals and small sampling frequencies is particularly interesting, as it can increase the robustness of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate retrieval.

  3. ASY-EOS experiment at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezzar K.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons in reactions of neutron rich Heavy-Ion at intermediate energies has been recently proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term in the nuclear equation of state (EOS at supra-saturation densities. The recent results obtained from the existing FOPI/LAND data for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon in comparison with the UrQMD model allowed a first estimate of the symmetry term of the EOS but suffer from a considerable statistical uncertainty. In order to obtain an improved data set for Au+Au collisions and to extend the study to other systems, a new experiment was carried out at the GSI laboratory by the ASY-EOS collaboration in May 2011.

  4. Remote sensing-based Information for crop monitoring: contribution of SAR and Moderate resolution optical data on Asian rice production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Mirco; Holectz, Francesco; Manfron, Giacinto; Collivignarelli, Francesco; Nelson, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Updated information on crop typology and status are strongly required to support suitable action to better manage agriculture production and reduce food insecurity. In this field, remote sensing has been demonstrated to be a suitable tool to monitor crop condition however rarely the tested system became really operative. The ones today available, such as the European Commission MARS, are mainly based on the analysis of NDVI time series and required ancillary external information like crop mask to interpret the seasonal signal. This condition is not always guarantied worldwide reducing the potentiality of the remote sensing monitoring. Moreover in tropical countries cloud contamination strongly reduce the possibility of using optical remote sensing data for crop monitoring. In this framework we focused our analysis on the rice production monitoring in Asian tropical area. Rice is in fact the staple food for half of the world population (FAO 2004), in Asia almost 90% of the world's rice is produced and consumed and Rice and poverty often coincide. In this contest the production of reliable rice production information is of extreme interest. We tried to address two important issue in terms of required geospatial information for crop monitoring: rice crop detection (rice map) and seasonal dynamics analysis (phenology). We use both SAR and Optical data in order to exploit the potential complementarity of this system. Multi-temporal ASAR Wide Swath data are in fact the best option to deal with cloud contamination. SAR can easily penetrate the clouds providing information on the surface target. Temporal analysis of archive ASAR data allowed to derived accurate map, at 100m spatial resolution, of permanent rice cultivated areas. On the other and high frequency revisiting optical data, in this case MODIS, have been used to extract seasonal information for the year under analysis. MOD09A1 Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m have been exploited to derive time series of

  5. Canadian Vehicle Protection Program (EO considerations)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    Leopard 2 • Protection of the vehicle and their occupants was always considered on top of the priority list. • Currently, industry can provide...arge s 19 High Power Laser Characterization Laboratory 20 Conclusion • EO technologies are evolving extremely fast and cost/size/ weight is going down

  6. Complementarity of EO and radar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Electro-optics (EO), including infrared, systems have matured in the last decades, allowing for a wider variation of applications. In particular, developments in detector capability and signal processing have resulted in autonomous detection systems as well as surveillance systems for situational

  7. Data links for the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.; Jones, R.; McParland, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and performance of high speed data links and slower configuration control links used between the EOS TPC detector and the data processing electronics. Data rates of 5 MBytes/link are maintained over 30m with optical isolation. Pedestal subtraction, hit detection, and data reordering are performed online

  8. Data links for the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.; Jones, R.; McParland, C.

    1990-10-01

    We report on the design and performance of high speed data links and slower configuration control links used between the EOS TPC detector and the data processing electronics. Data rates of 5MBytes/s/link are maintained over 30m with optical isolation. Pedestal subtraction, hit detection, and data reordering are performed online. 3 refs., 1 fig

  9. EO-Performance relationships in Reverse Internationalization by Chinese Global Startup OEMs: Social Networks and Strategic Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Tachia; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Fang, Kai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Yang, Dongjin; Liu, Ren-huai; Tsuei, Richard Ting Chang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the context-sensitive nature of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), it is imperative to in-depth explore the EO-performance mechanism in China at its critical, specific stage of economic reform. Under the context of “reverse internationalization” by Chinese global startup original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), this paper aims to manifest the unique links and complicated interrelationships between the individual EO dimensions and firm performance. Using structural equation modeling, we found that during reverse internationalization, proactiveness is positively related to performance; risk taking is not statistically associated with performance; innovativeness is negatively related to performance. The proactiveness-performance relationship is mediated by Strategic flexibility and moderated by social networking relationships. The dynamic and complex institutional setting, coupled with the issues of overcapacity and rising labor cost in China may explain why our distinctive results occur. This research advances the understanding of how contingent factors (social network relationships and strategic flexibility) facilitate entrepreneurial firms to break down institutional barriers and reap the most from EO. It brings new insights into how Chinese global startup OEMs draw on EO to undertake reverse internationalization, responding the calls for unraveling the heterogeneous characteristics of EO sub-dimensions and for more contextually-embedded treatment of EO-performance associations. PMID:27631368

  10. EO-Performance relationships in Reverse Internationalization by Chinese Global Startup OEMs: Social Networks and Strategic Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Tachia; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Fang, Kai; Zhu, Wenzhong; Yang, Dongjin; Liu, Ren-Huai; Tsuei, Richard Ting Chang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the context-sensitive nature of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), it is imperative to in-depth explore the EO-performance mechanism in China at its critical, specific stage of economic reform. Under the context of "reverse internationalization" by Chinese global startup original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), this paper aims to manifest the unique links and complicated interrelationships between the individual EO dimensions and firm performance. Using structural equation modeling, we found that during reverse internationalization, proactiveness is positively related to performance; risk taking is not statistically associated with performance; innovativeness is negatively related to performance. The proactiveness-performance relationship is mediated by Strategic flexibility and moderated by social networking relationships. The dynamic and complex institutional setting, coupled with the issues of overcapacity and rising labor cost in China may explain why our distinctive results occur. This research advances the understanding of how contingent factors (social network relationships and strategic flexibility) facilitate entrepreneurial firms to break down institutional barriers and reap the most from EO. It brings new insights into how Chinese global startup OEMs draw on EO to undertake reverse internationalization, responding the calls for unraveling the heterogeneous characteristics of EO sub-dimensions and for more contextually-embedded treatment of EO-performance associations.

  11. EO-1/Hyperion: Nearing Twelve Years of Successful Mission Science Operation and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Landis, David R.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Pollack, Nathan H.; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite is a technology demonstration mission that was launched in November 2000, and by July 2012 will have successfully completed almost 12 years of high spatial resolution (30 m) imaging operations from a low Earth orbit. EO-1 has two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments have served as prototypes for NASA's newer satellite missions, including the forthcoming (in early 2013) Landsat-8 and the future Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). As well, EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German satellite, EnMAP (2015). Here, we provide an overview of the mission, and highlight the capabilities of the Hyperion for support of science investigations, and present prototype products developed with Hyperion imagery for the HyspIRI and other space-borne spectrometers.

  12. Hot super-dense compact object with particular EoS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, E. P.; Pavlov, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    We show the possibility of existence of a self-gravitating spherically-symmetric equilibrium configuration for a neutral matter with neutron-like density, small mass M ≪ M_{⊙}, and small radius R ≪ R_{⊙}. We incorporate the effects of both the special and general theories of relativity. Such object may be formed in a cosmic cataclysm, perhaps an exotic one. Since the base equations of hydrostatic equilibrium are completed by the equation of state (EoS) for the matter of the object, we offer a novel, interpolating experimental data from high-energy physics, EoS which permits the existence of such compact system of finite radius. This EoS model possesses a critical state characterized by density ρc and temperature Tc. For such an object, we derive a radial distribution for the super-dense matter in "liquid" phase using Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for hydrostatic equilibrium. We demonstrate that a stable configuration is indeed possible (only) for temperatures smaller than the critical one. We derive the mass-radius relation (adjusted for relativistic corrections) for such small (M ≪ M_{⊙}) super-dense compact objects. The results are within the constraints established by both heavy-ion collision experiments and theoretical studies of neutron-rich matter.

  13. Radiometric cross-calibration of EO-1 ALI with L7 ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors using near-simultaneous desert observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Angal, Amit; Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    The Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite was launched on November 21, 2000, as part of a one-year technology demonstration mission. The mission was extended because of the value it continued to add to the scientific community. EO-1 has now been operational for more than a decade, providing both multispectral and hyperspectral measurements. As part of the EO-1 mission, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) sensor demonstrates a potential technological direction for the next generation of Landsat sensors. To evaluate the ALI sensor capabilities as a precursor to the Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM, or Landsat 8 after launch), its measured top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances were compared to the well-calibrated Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors in the reflective solar bands (RSB). These three satellites operate in a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit 705 km above the Earth's surface. EO-1 was designed to fly one minute behind L7 and approximately 30 minutes in front of Terra. In this configuration, all the three sensors can view near-identical ground targets with similar atmospheric, solar, and viewing conditions. However, because of the differences in the relative spectral response (RSR), the measured physical quantities can be significantly different while observing the same target. The cross-calibration of ALI with ETM+ and MODIS was performed using near-simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed by these sensors over four desert sites (Libya 4, Mauritania 2, Arabia 1, and Sudan 1). The differences in the measured TOA reflectances due to RSR mismatches were compensated by using a spectral band adjustment factor (SBAF), which takes into account the spectral profile of the target and the RSR of each sensor. For this study, the spectral profile of the target comes from the near-simultaneous EO-1

  14. Applications of SSAFT EOS for determination of the solubilities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of SSAFT EOS for determination of the solubilities of solid compounds in supercritical CO 2 . ... Using statistical thermodynamics such as Simplified SAFT equation of state (SSAFTEoS) for estimating phase equilibrium and fluid properties of different materials have been used widely. SSAFT EoS has been ...

  15. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Moderate-spectral-resolution Near-infrared Satellite Measurements: Methodology, Simulations, and Application to GOME-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Gaunter, L.; Lindstrot, R.; Voigt, M.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Yoshida, Y.; Frankenberg, C.

    2013-01-01

    Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2). The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0.5 deg × 0.5 deg

  16. Global monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence from moderate-spectral-resolution near-infrared satellite measurements: methodology, simulations, and application to GOME-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joiner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2. The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0

  17. A watershed model to integrate EO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Eduardo; Chambel-Leitao, Pedro; Carina, Almeida; Brito, David; Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Neves, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    MOHID LAND is a open source watershed model developed by MARETEC and is part of the MOHID Framework. It integrates four mediums (or compartments): porous media, surface, rivers and atmosphere. The movement of water between these mediums are based on mass and momentum balance equations. The atmosphere medium is not explicity simulated. Instead, it's used as boundary condition to the model through meteorological properties: precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed/direction, relative humidity and air temperature. The surface medium includes the overland runoff and vegetation growth processes and is simulated using a 2D grid. The porous media includes both the unsaturated (soil) and saturated zones (aquifer) and is simulated using a 3D grid. The river flow is simulated through a 1D drainage network. All these mediums are linked through evapotranspiration and flow exchanges (infiltration, river-soil growndwater flow, surface-river overland flow). Besides the water movement, it is also possible to simulate water quality processes and solute/sediment transport. Model setup include the definition of the geometry and the properties of each one of its compartments. After the setup of the model, the only continuous input data that MOHID LAND requires are the atmosphere properties (boundary conditions) that can be provided as timeseries or spacial data. MOHID LAND has been adapted the last 4 years under FP7 and ESA projects to integrate Earth Observation (EO) data, both variable in time and in space. EO data can be used to calibrate/validate or as input/assimilation data to the model. The currently EO data used include LULC (Land Use Land Cover) maps, LAI (Leaf Area Index) maps, EVTP (Evapotranspiration) maps and SWC (Soil Water Content) maps. Model results are improved by the EO data, but the advantage of this integration is that the model can still run without the EO data. This means that model do not stop due to unavailability of EO data and can run on a forecast mode

  18. Strange particle measurements from the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justice, M.

    1995-02-01

    A high statistics sample of Λ's produced in 2 GeV/nucleon 5 8Ni + nat Cu collisions has been obtained with the EOS Time Projection Chamber at the Bevalac. The coverage of the EOS TPC is essentially 100% for y > y cm and extends down to P T = 0 where interesting effects such as collective radial expansion may be important. In addition, the detection of a majority of the charged particles in the TPC, along with the presence of directed flow for protons and heavier fragments at this beam energy, allows for the correlation of A production with respect to the event reaction plane. Our preliminary analysis indicates the first observation of a sidewards flow signature for A's. Comparisons with the cascade code ARC are made

  19. Multivariate Analysis of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aerosol Retrievals and the Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS Parameters for Atlantic Hurricanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Kamal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aerosol retrievals over the North Atlantic spanning seven hurricane seasons are combined with the Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS parameters. The difference between the current and future intensity changes were selected as response variables. For 24 major hurricanes (category 3, 4 and 5 between 2003 and 2009, eight lead time response variables were determined to be between 6 and 48 h. By combining MODIS and SHIPS data, 56 variables were compiled and selected as predictors for this study. Variable reduction from 56 to 31 was performed in two steps; the first step was via correlation coefficients (cc followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA extraction techniques. The PCA reduced 31 variables to 20. Five categories were established based on the PCA group variables exhibiting similar physical phenomena. Average aerosol retrievals from MODIS Level 2 data in the vicinity of UTC 1,200 and 1,800 h were mapped to the SHIPS parameters to perform Multiple Linear Regression (MLR between each response variable against six sets of predictors of 31, 30, 28, 27, 23 and 20 variables. The deviation among the predictors Root Mean Square Error (RMSE varied between 0.01 through 0.05 and, therefore, implied that reducing the number of variables did not change the core physical information. Even when the parameters are reduced from 56 to 20, the correlation values exhibit a stronger relationship between the response and predictors. Therefore, the same phenomena can be explained by the reduction of variables.

  20. Cross-calibration of S-NPP VIIRS moderate-resolution reflective solar bands against MODIS Aqua over dark water scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Andrew M.; Hsu, N. Christina; Bettenhausen, Corey; Holz, Robert E.; Lee, Jaehwa; Quinn, Greg; Veglio, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is being used to continue the record of Earth Science observations and data products produced routinely from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. However, the absolute calibration of VIIRS's reflected solar bands is thought to be biased, leading to offsets in derived data products such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) as compared to when similar algorithms are applied to different sensors. This study presents a cross-calibration of these VIIRS bands against MODIS Aqua over dark water scenes, finding corrections to the NASA VIIRS Level 1 (version 2) reflectances between approximately +1 and -7 % (dependent on band) are needed to bring the two into alignment (after accounting for expected differences resulting from different band spectral response functions), and indications of relative trending of up to ˜ 0.35 % per year in some bands. The derived calibration gain corrections are also applied to the VIIRS reflectance and then used in an AOD retrieval, and they are shown to decrease the bias and total error in AOD across the mid-visible spectral region compared to the standard VIIRS NASA reflectance calibration. The resulting AOD bias characteristics are similar to those of NASA MODIS AOD data products, which is encouraging in terms of multi-sensor data continuity.

  1. Comparison of Coincident Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aerosol Optical Depths over Land and Ocean Scenes Containing Aerosol Robotic Network Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Wedad A.; Diner, David J.; Martonchik, John V.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Gaitley, Barbara J.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent

    2005-01-01

    The Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched on 18 December 1999 aboard the Terra spacecraft, are making global observations of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances. Aerosol optical depths and particle properties are independently retrieved from these radiances using methodologies and algorithms that make use of the instruments corresponding designs. This paper compares instantaneous optical depths retrieved from simultaneous and collocated radiances measured by the two instruments at locations containing sites within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). A set of 318 MISR and MODIS images, obtained during the months of March, June, and September 2002 at 62 AERONET sites, were used in this study. The results show that over land, MODIS aerosol optical depths at 470 and 660 nm are larger than those retrieved from MISR by about 35% and 10% on average, respectively, when all land surface types are included in the regression. The differences decrease when coastal and desert areas are excluded. For optical depths retrieved over ocean, MISR is on average about 0.1 and 0.05 higher than MODIS in the 470 and 660 nm bands, respectively. Part of this difference is due to radiometric calibration and is reduced to about 0.01 and 0.03 when recently derived band-to-band adjustments in the MISR radiometry are incorporated. Comparisons with AERONET data show similar patterns.

  2. Incremental Value of Plaque Enhancement in Patients with Moderate or Severe Basilar Artery Stenosis: 3.0 T High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanqian; Yang, Qi; Li, Debiao; Fan, Zhaoyang; Bi, Xiaoming; Du, Xiangying; Wu, Fang; Wu, Ye; Li, Kuncheng

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the clinical relevance of plaque's morphological characteristics and distribution pattern using 3.0 T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI) in patients with moderate or severe basilar artery (BA) atherosclerosis stenosis. Fifty-seven patients (33 symptomatic patients and 24 asymptomatic patients) were recruited for 3.0 T HRMRI scan; all of them had >50% stenosis on the BA. The intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), contrast-enhancement pattern, and distribution of BA plaques were compared between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Factors potentially associated with posterior ischemic stroke were calculated by multivariate analyses. Enhancement of BA plaque was more frequently observed in symptomatic than in asymptomatic patients (27/33, 81.8% versus 11/24, 45.8%; p 50%. Plaques were mainly distributed at the ventral site (39.3%) or involved more than two arcs (21.2%) in the symptomatic group but were mainly distributed at left (33.3%) and right (25.0%) sites in the asymptomatic group.

  3. Assessment of the Effects of Moderating Factors of Entrepreneurial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moderating Factors of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) on the performance of ... factors such as cultural orientation and organizational structure (internal factors), social economic factors and political and legal factors (external factors) have a ...

  4. Towards high temporal and moderate spatial resolutions in the remote sensing retrieval of evapotranspiration by combining geostationary and polar orbit satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, José Miguel; Ghilain, Nicolas; Arboleda, Alirio; Gellens-Meulenberghs, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    RS data containing information over vegetation parameters and captured by polar orbit spaceborne sensors. The first tested approach consisted in forcing the operational ET algorithm with RS measurements obtained from a moderate spatial resolution sensor. The variables with improved spatial resolution were leaf area index and albedo. Other variables of the model remained unchanged with respect to the operational version. In the second approach, a two phases procedure was implemented. Firstly, a preliminary approximation of ET was obtained as a function of solar radiation, air temperature and a vegetation index. The value was then statistically adjusted on the basis of the ET estimations by the operational algorithm. The results of implementing the different approaches were tested against eddy covariance ET derived from measurements in Fluxnet towers spread across Europe and representing different landscape characteristics. The analysis allowed the identification of pros and cons of the tested methodological approaches as well as their performance in different land cover arrangements.

  5. Bridging EO Research, Operations and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarth, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Building flexible and responsive processing and delivery systems is key to getting EO information used by researchers, policy agents and the public. There are typically three distinct processes we tackle to get product uptake: undertake research, operationalise the validated research, and deliver information and garner feedback in an appropriate way. In many cases however, the gaps between these process elements are large and lead to poor outcomes. Good research may be "lost" and not adopted, there may be resistance to uptake by government or NGOs of significantly better operational products based on EO data, and lack of accessibility means that there is no use of interactive science outputs to improve cross disciplinary science or to start a dialog with citizens. So one of the the most important tasks, if we wish to have broad uptake of EO information and accelerate further research, is to link these processes together in a formal but flexible way. One of the ways to operationalize research output is by building a platform that can take research code and scale it across much larger areas. In remote sensing, this is typically a system that has access to current and historical corrected imagery with a processing pipeline built over the top. To reduce the demand on high level scientific programmers and allowing cross disciplinary researchers to hack and play and refine, this pipeline needs to be easy to use, collaborative and link to existing tools to encourage code experimentation and reuse. It is also critical to have efficient, tight integration with information delivery and extension components so that the science relevant to your user is available quickly and efficiently. The rapid expansion of open data licensing has helped this process, but building top-down web portals and tools without flexibility and regard for end user needs has limited the use of EO information in many areas. This research reports on the operalization of a scale independent time series

  6. Using NASA EOS in the Arabian and Saharan Deserts to Examine Dust Particle Size and Spectral Signature of Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, J. C.; Keeton, T.; Barrick, B.; Cowart, K.; Cooksey, K.; Florence, V.; Herdy, C.; Luvall, J. C.; Vasquez, S.

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of airborne particulate matter can have adverse effects on the human respiratory system. Ground-based studies conducted in Iraq have revealed the presence of potential human pathogens in airborne dust. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), airborne particulate matter below 2.5μm (PM2.5) can cause long-term damage to the human respiratory system. Given the relatively high incidence of new-onset respiratory disorders experienced by US service members deployed to Iraq, this research offers a new glimpse into how satellite remote sensing can be applied to questions related to human health. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) can be used to determine spectral characteristics of dust particles, the depth of dust plumes, as well as dust particle sizes. Comparing dust particle size from the Sahara and Arabian Deserts gives insight into the composition and atmospheric transport characteristics of dust from each desert. With the use of NASA SeaWiFS DeepBlue Aerosol, dust particle sizes were estimated using Angström exponent. Brightness Temperature Difference (BTD) equation was used to determine the distribution of particle sizes, the area of the dust storm, and whether silicate minerals were present in the dust. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra satellite was utilized in calculating BTD. Minimal research has been conducted on the spectral characteristics of airborne dust in the Arabian and Sahara Deserts. Mineral composition of a dust storm that occurred 17 April 2008 near Baghdad was determined using imaging spectrometer data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library and EO-1 Hyperion data. Mineralogy of this dust storm was subsequently compared to that of a dust storm that occurred over the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara Desert on 7 June 2003.

  7. Probing a steep EoS for dark energy with latest observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Mariana; Macorra, Axel de la

    2018-01-01

    We present a parametrization for the Dark Energy Equation of State "EoS" which has a rich structure, performing a transition at pivotal redshift zT between the present day value w0 to an early time wi =wa +w0 ≡ w(z ≫ 0) with a steepness given in terms of q parameter. The proposed parametrization is w =w0 +wa(z /zT) q /(1 +(z /zT)) q , with w0, wi, q and zT constant parameters. It reduces to the widely used EoS w =w0 +wa(1 - a) for zT = q = 1 . This transition is motivated by scalar field dynamics such as for example quintessence models. We study if a late time transition is favored by BAO measurements combined with local determination of H0 and information from the CMB. We find that our dynamical DE model allows to simultaneously fit H0 from local determinations and Planck CMB measurements, alleviating the tension obtained in a ΛCDM model. We obtain a smaller χ2 in our DE model than in ΛCDM showing that a dynamical DE is preferred with a reduction of 4.8%, 20.2% and 42.8% using BAO + H0, BAO + CMB and BAO + CMB + H0 datasets, respectively. However due to the increased number of free parameters in the EoS information criteria favors ΛCDM over our DE model at this stage. Nevertheless it is crucial to obtain the dynamics of DE from the observational data to show the path for theoretical DE models based on fundamental physics.

  8. Mands for Information Using "How" Under EO-Absent and EO-Present Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingsburg, M Alice; Bowen, Crystal N; Valentino, Amber L

    2014-06-01

    The present study replicates and extends previous research on teaching "How?" mands for information to children with autism. The experimental preparation involved mand training in the context of completing preferred activities and included training and testing under conditions when the establishing operation (EO) was present and absent. Results show that two children with autism acquired mands for information using How? only in situations where information was valuable (i.e., the EO was present); they then consistently made use of the information provided in activity completion. Generalization to novel, untaught situations was assessed.

  9. Share Your Opinion With Other Eos Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2006-11-01

    Earlier this year, Robert Kitchen (Eos, 87(24), 235, 2006) drew attention to declining interest in Earth science education in public schools. The reason for a lack of interest in teaching Earth sciences in public schools may involve more than just the attitudes of parents who may wish for their children a better preparation for advanced placement courses later on. Part of the problem may lie with our present mind-set that technology can solve all the world's problems, from poverty, to better health, and to prosperity.

  10. The users, uses, and value of Landsat and other moderate-resolution satellite imagery in the United States-Executive report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly M.; Sexton, Natalie R.; Koontz, Lynne; Loomis, John; Koontz, Stephen R.; Hermans, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Moderate-resolution imagery (MRI), such as that provided by the Landsat satellites, provides unique spatial information for use by many people both within and outside of the United States (U.S.). However, exactly who these users are, how they use the imagery, and the value and benefits derived from the information are, to a large extent, unknown. To explore these issues, social scientists at the USGS Fort Collins Science Center conducted a study of U.S.-based MRI users from 2008 through 2010 in two parts: 1) a user identification and 2) a user survey. The objectives for this study were to: 1) identify and classify U.S.-based users of this imagery; 2) better understand how and why MRI, and specifically Landsat, is being used; and 3) qualitatively and quantitatively measure the value and societal benefits of MRI (focusing on Landsat specifically). The results of the survey revealed that respondents from multiple sectors use Landsat imagery in many different ways, as demonstrated by the breadth of project locations and scales, as well as application areas. The value of Landsat imagery to these users was demonstrated by the high importance placed on the imagery, the numerous benefits received from projects using Landsat imagery, the negative impacts if Landsat imagery was no longer available, and the substantial willingness to pay for replacement imagery in the event of a data gap. The survey collected information from users who are both part of and apart from the known user community. The diversity of the sample delivered results that provide a baseline of knowledge about the users, uses, and value of Landsat imagery. While the results supply a wealth of information on their own, they can also be built upon through further research to generate a more complete picture of the population of Landsat users as a whole.

  11. New RADIOM algorithm using inverse EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Sokolov, Igor; Klapisch, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    The RADIOM model, [1-2], allows one to implement non-LTE atomic physics with a very low extra CPU cost. Although originally heuristic, RADIOM has been physically justified [3] and some accounting for auto-ionization has been included [2]. RADIOM defines an ionization temperature Tz derived from electronic density and actual electronic temperature Te. LTE databases are then queried for properties at Tz and NLTE values are derived from them. Some hydro-codes (like FAST at NRL, Ramis' MULTI, or the CRASH code at U.Mich) use inverse EOS starting from the total internal energy Etot and returning the temperature. In the NLTE case, inverse EOS requires to solve implicit relations between Te, Tz, and Etot. We shall describe these relations and an efficient solver successively implemented in some of our codes. [4pt] [1] M. Busquet, Radiation dependent ionization model for laser-created plasmas, Ph. Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993).[0pt] [2] M. Busquet, D. Colombant, M. Klapisch, D. Fyfe, J. Gardner. Improvements to the RADIOM non-LTE model, HEDP 5, 270 (2009).[0pt] [3] M.Busquet, Onset of pseudo-thermal equilibrium within configurations and super-configurations, JQSRT 99, 131 (2006)

  12. The moderator's moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, G.K.

    1990-01-01

    A brief account is given of the development of graphite moderators for Magnox and advanced gas cooled reactors. The accident at Windscale in 1957 brought to worldwide attention the importance of irradiation damage in graphite and the consequent storage of Wigner energy. In spite of the Windscale setback, preparations for the civil programme of Magnox reactors went ahead apace. Some of the background to the disastrous Dungeness B tender is presented. In spite of all the difficulties and uncertainties, the graphite in UK reactors has performed well. In all cases, as far as the author is aware, the behaviour of the graphite moderators will not prevent design life being achieved. (author)

  13. Future Perspective and Long-Term Strategy of the Indian EO Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    EO technology development will continue to have profound effects on spatial information activities, as we are seeing it today - the changing demand of GIS technology to understanding processes around us and its representation as maps. In the longer term, information needs will drive further RS and GIS technological developments - creating stringent demands for technology solutions for spatial data capture, integration and representation. The emergence of Spatial Business from the highly volatile and dynamic synergy of information, technology and access will see a truly Spatial Society. EO will have a major impact on day-to-day life of nations, communities and even an individual. It will become the One-stop source for information - spatial information at that - thus enabling not only development oriented activities but also Business GIS, quality research and Info-savvy communities. Internationally, there will be a mix of Government and Commercial satellites vying to provide information services to a wide variety of users. EO satellites are also becoming smaller, efficient and less costlier. Almost 5-6 commercial systems will orbit around the Earth in the foreseeable future to generate massive, seamless archives of high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral images - almost reducing the need for aerial surveys for photography and mapping. Reaching resolution of cm level and covering narrower and more spectral bands, the trend is to IMAGE the Earth in its entirety and organize Image Infrastructures. The race will be to imaginatively capture the market with the fullest archive of the globe and cater to any imaging demand of users. One will also see efficient satellite operations that will enable imaging any part of the globe with minimum turn-around time - reaching concepts of IMAGING ON DEMAND. The need of the hour is looking forward now towards how the EO technology can adapt itself to the changing scenario and the steps to be taken to sustain use of EO data it in

  14. Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  15. Supernova constraints on neutrino oscillation and EoS for proto-neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-01

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We here discuss how to determine the neutrino temperatures and propose a method to determine still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ13, simultaneously. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with isotopic ratios of the light elements discovered in presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show that our method suggests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  16. Analytic EoS and PTW strength model recommendation for Starck Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, Sky K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prime, Michael Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an analytic EoS and PTW strength model for Starck Ta that can be consistently used between different platforms and simulations at three labs. This should provide a consistent basis for comparison of the results of calculations, but not the best implementation for matching a wide variety of experimental data. Another version using SESAME tables should follow, which will provide a better physical representation over a broader range of conditions. The data sets available at the time only include one Hopkinson bar at a strain rate of 1800/s; a broader range of high-rate calibration data would be preferred. The resulting fit gives the PTW parameter p = 0. To avoid numerical issues, p = 0:001 has been used in FLAG. The PTW parameters that apply above the maximum strain rate in the data use the values from the original publication.

  17. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

  18. Eos a Universal Verifiable and Coercion Resistant Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patachi, Stefan; Schürmann, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Authority. Eos uses two mixing phases with the goal to break the connection between the voter and vote, not to preserve vote privacy (which is given already) but to guarantee coercion resistance by making it (nearly) impossible for a coercer to follow their vote through the bulletin board. Eos...

  19. 21SSD: a new public 21-cm EoR database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Evan; Semelin, Benoît

    2018-05-01

    With current efforts inching closer to detecting the 21-cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), proper preparation will require publicly available simulated models of the various forms the signal could take. In this work we present a database of such models, available at 21ssd.obspm.fr. The models are created with a fully-coupled radiative hydrodynamic simulation (LICORICE), and are created at high resolution (10243). We also begin to analyse and explore the possible 21-cm EoR signals (with Power Spectra and Pixel Distribution Functions), and study the effects of thermal noise on our ability to recover the signal out to high redshifts. Finally, we begin to explore the concepts of `distance' between different models, which represents a crucial step towards optimising parameter space sampling, training neural networks, and finally extracting parameter values from observations.

  20. What We Have Learned with 16 Years of EO-1 Hyperion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth Observing-One (EO-1) satellite, launched in November of 2000, will complete its sixteenth and final year of operation at the end of calendar year 2016. Observations from the Hyperion Imaging Spectrometer on board EO-1 have contributed to hundreds of papers in refereed journals, conference proceeds and other presentations. The EO-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer is the first and longest operating instrument that provides visible to shortwave infrared science-grade data from orbit. Hyperion has been used to study a variety of natural and anthropogenic phenomena including hazards and catastrophes, agricultural health and productivity, ecological disturbance/development, and land use/land cover change. As an example, Hyperion has been used in hazard and catastrophe studies to monitor and assess effects of tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, mudslides, tornadoes, hurricanes, wild-fires (natural and human ignited), oil spills, and the aftermath of world trade center bombing. This presentation summarizes the current status of EO-1 Hyperion in terms of key scientific findings to date and presents future plans for exploiting the upward of 90,000 scenes expected to be archived at USGS EROS by the end of the mission. Hyperion serves as the heritage orbital spectrometer for future global platforms, including the proposed NASA Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) and the forthcoming German satellite, EnMAP. A key EO-1 mission goal was to evaluate the ability of satellite high spectral resolution imaging to characterize terrestrial surface state and processes at 30 m resolution. Researchers engaged in NASA's Terrestrial Ecology, Carbon Science, Land Use Change and other programs using the EO-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer have achieved results with accuracies far exceeding those reached with the current spaceborne fleet of multispectral sensors. Hyperion data provide several advantages over data from multispectral satellite systems: they inherently provide

  1. EOS Data Products Latency and Reprocessing Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Wanchoo, L.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) program has been processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data since the launch of Terra platform in 1999. The EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and Science-Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPSs) are generating over 5000 unique products with a daily average volume of 1.7 Petabytes. Initially EOSDIS had requirements to make process data products within 24 hours of receiving all inputs needed for generating them. Thus, generally, the latency would be slightly over 24 and 48 hours after satellite data acquisition, respectively, for Level 1 and Level 2 products. Due to budgetary constraints these requirements were relaxed, with the requirement being to avoid a growing backlog of unprocessed data. However, the data providers have been generating these products in as timely a manner as possible. The reduction in costs of computing hardware has helped considerably. It is of interest to analyze the actual latencies achieved over the past several years in processing and inserting the data products into the EOSDIS archives for the users to support various scientific studies such as land processes, oceanography, hydrology, atmospheric science, cryospheric science, etc. The instrument science teams have continuously evaluated the data products since the launches of EOS satellites and improved the science algorithms to provide high quality products. Data providers have periodically reprocessed the previously acquired data with these improved algorithms. The reprocessing campaigns run for an extended time period in parallel with forward processing, since all data starting from the beginning of the mission need to be reprocessed. Each reprocessing activity involves more data than the previous reprocessing. The historical record of the reprocessing times would be of interest to future missions, especially those involving large volumes of data and/or computational loads due to

  2. Processing EOS MLS Level-2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, W. Van; Wu, Dong; Read, William; Jiang, Jonathan; Wagner, Paul; Livesey, Nathaniel; Schwartz, Michael; Filipiak, Mark; Pumphrey, Hugh; Shippony, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    A computer program performs level-2 processing of thermal-microwave-radiance data from observations of the limb of the Earth by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The purpose of the processing is to estimate the composition and temperature of the atmosphere versus altitude from .8 to .90 km. "Level-2" as used here is a specialists f term signifying both vertical profiles of geophysical parameters along the measurement track of the instrument and processing performed by this or other software to generate such profiles. Designed to be flexible, the program is controlled via a configuration file that defines all aspects of processing, including contents of state and measurement vectors, configurations of forward models, measurement and calibration data to be read, and the manner of inverting the models to obtain the desired estimates. The program can operate in a parallel form in which one instance of the program acts a master, coordinating the work of multiple slave instances on a cluster of computers, each slave operating on a portion of the data. Optionally, the configuration file can be made to instruct the software to produce files of simulated radiances based on state vectors formed from sets of geophysical data-product files taken as input.

  3. The symmetry energy at suprasaturation density and the ASY-EOS experiment at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filippo E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI laboratory measured the direct and elliptic flow of neutrons and light charged particles in the reaction 197Au+197 Au at 400 A MeV incident energy. The ratio of elliptic flow of neutrons with respect to that of the light charged particles was used as main experimental observable to probe the density dependence of the symmetry energy term of the nuclear equation of state. Results, obtained by comparison of the experimental data with the UrQMD model predictions, strongly support a moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy at suprasaturation densities below 2ρ0.

  4. Conflict transformation: A longitudinal investigation of the relationships between different types of intragroup conflict and the moderating role of conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Jehn, K.A.; Mannix, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the authors examine the relationships between task, relationship, and process conflict over time. They also look at the role of conflict resolution in determining whether certain forms of intragroup conflict are related to the appearance of other forms of conflict over

  5. The Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel hydrogen battery. Information is given on the life evaluation test, cell characteristics, acceptance and characterization tests, and the battery system description.

  6. XML DTD and Schemas for HDF-EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Richard; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) document type definition (DTD) standard for the structure and contents of HDF-EOS files and their contents, and an equivalent standard in the form of schemas, have been developed.

  7. Energy Referencing in LANL HE-EOS Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiding, Jeffery Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Coe, Joshua Damon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Here, We briefly describe the choice of energy referencing in LANL's HE-EOS codes, HEOS and MAGPIE. Understanding this is essential to comparing energies produced by different EOS codes, as well as to the correct calculation of shock Hugoniots of HEs and other materials. In all equations after (3) throughout this report, all energies, enthalpies and volumes are assumed to be molar quantities.

  8. Earth Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available in the Dukuduku coastal forest Earth Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA) MA CHO, P DEBBA, R MATHIEU, A RAMOELO, L NAIDOO, H VAN DEVENTER, O MALAHLELA AND R MAIN CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, South Africa PO Box 395... Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA) programme is designed to enhance biodiversity assessment and conservation through the application of earth observation data, with particular focus on the African continent. MISSION To initiate and develop...

  9. EOS7R: Radionuclide transport for TOUGH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K.

    1995-11-01

    EOS7R provides radionuclide transport capability for TOUGH2. EOS7R extends the EOS7 module (water, brine, and optional air) to model water, brine, parent component, daughter component, and optional air and heat. The radionuclide components follow a first-order decay law, and may adsorb onto the solid grains. Volatilization of the decaying components is modeled by Henry's Law. The decaying components are normally referred to as radionuclides, but they may in fact by any trace components that decay, adsorb, and volatilize. The decay process need not be radioactive decay, but could be any process that follows a first-order decay law, such as biodegradation. EOS7R includes molecular diffusion for all components in gaseous and aqueous phases using a simplified binary diffusion model. When EOS7R is used with standard TOUGH2, transport occurs by advection and molecular diffusion in all phases. When EOS7R is coupled with the dispersion module T2DM, one obtains T2DMR, the radionuclide transport version of T2DM. T2DMR models advection, diffusion, and hydrodynamic dispersion in rectangular two-dimensional regions. Modeling of radionuclide transport requires input parameters specifying the half-life for first-order decay, distribution coefficients for each rock type for adsorption, and inverse Henry's constants for volatilization. Options can be specified in the input file to model decay in inactive grid blocks and to read from standard EOS7 INCON files. The authors present a number of example problems to demonstrate application and accuracy of TOUGH2/EOS7R. One-dimensional simulation results agree well with analytical solutions. For a two-dimensional salt-dome flow problem, the final distribution of daughter radionuclide component is complicated by the presence of weak recirculation caused by density effects due to salinity

  10. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter and Dissolved Organic Carbon from Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and MERIS Sensors: Case Study for the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Blake A. Schaeffer; Thomas S. Bianchi; Eurico J. D'Sa; Christopher L. Osburn; Nazanin Chaichi Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Empirical band ratio algorithms for the estimation of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and MERIS ocean color sensors were assessed and developed for the northern Gulf of Mexico. Match-ups between in situ measurements of CDOM absorption coefficients at 412 nm (aCDOM(412)) with that derived from SeaWiFS were examined using two previously reported r...

  11. Opacplot2: Enabling tabulated EoS and opacity compatibility for HEDLP simulations with the FLASH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laune, Jordan; Tzeferacos, Petros; Feister, Scott; Fatenejad, Milad; Yurchak, Roman; Flocke, Norbert; Weide, Klaus; Lamb, Donald

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic and opacity properties of materials are necessary to accurately simulate laser-driven laboratory experiments. Such data are compiled in tabular format since the thermodynamic range that needs to be covered cannot be described with one single theoretical model. Moreover, tabulated data can be made available prior to runtime, reducing both compute cost and code complexity. This approach is employed by the FLASH code. Equation of state (EoS) and opacity data comes in various formats, matrix-layouts, and file-structures. We discuss recent developments on opacplot2, an open-source Python module that manipulates tabulated EoS and opacity data. We present software that builds upon opacplot2 and enables easy-to-use conversion of different table formats into the IONMIX format, the native tabular input used by FLASH. Our work enables FLASH users to take advantage of a wider range of accurate EoS and opacity tables in simulating HELP experiments at the National Laser User Facilities.

  12. 76 FR 70927 - USACE's Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of...'' (E.O.), issued on January 18, 2011, directs Federal agencies to review existing significant... they are a significant rule warranting review pursuant to E.O. 13563. The E.O. further directs each...

  13. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  14. Global EOS: exploring the 300-ms-latency region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, L.; Jericho, D.; Hsu, C.-Y.

    2017-10-01

    EOS, the CERN open-source distributed disk storage system, provides the highperformance storage solution for HEP analysis and the back-end for various work-flows. Recently EOS became the back-end of CERNBox, the cloud synchronisation service for CERN users. EOS can be used to take advantage of wide-area distributed installations: for the last few years CERN EOS uses a common deployment across two computer centres (Geneva-Meyrin and Budapest-Wigner) about 1,000 km apart (∼20-ms latency) with about 200 PB of disk (JBOD). In late 2015, the CERN-IT Storage group and AARNET (Australia) set-up a challenging R&D project: a single EOS instance between CERN and AARNET with more than 300ms latency (16,500 km apart). This paper will report about the success in deploy and run a distributed storage system between Europe (Geneva, Budapest), Australia (Melbourne) and later in Asia (ASGC Taipei), allowing different type of data placement and data access across these four sites.

  15. Exponential 6 parameterization for the JCZ3-EOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, B.C.; Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.

    1998-07-01

    A database has been created for use with the Jacobs-Cowperthwaite-Zwisler-3 equation-of-state (JCZ3-EOS) to determine thermochemical equilibrium for detonation and expansion states of energetic materials. The JCZ3-EOS uses the exponential 6 intermolecular potential function to describe interactions between molecules. All product species are characterized by r*, the radius of the minimum pair potential energy, and {var_epsilon}/k, the well depth energy normalized by Boltzmann`s constant. These parameters constitute the JCZS (S for Sandia) EOS database describing 750 gases (including all the gases in the JANNAF tables), and have been obtained by using Lennard-Jones potential parameters, a corresponding states theory, pure liquid shock Hugoniot data, and fit values using an empirical EOS. This database can be used with the CHEETAH 1.40 or CHEETAH 2.0 interface to the TIGER computer program that predicts the equilibrium state of gas- and condensed-phase product species. The large JCZS-EOS database permits intermolecular potential based equilibrium calculations of energetic materials with complex elemental composition.

  16. The Development of Two Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics started the construction of a science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for processing data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which will launch on the Aura platform in mid 2004. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a contribution of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR) in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura mission. It will continue the Total Ozone Monitoring System (TOMS) record for total ozone and other atmospheric parameters related to ozone chemistry and climate. OMI measurements will be highly synergistic with the other instruments on the EOS Aura platform. The LTP previously developed the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Data Processing System (MODAPS), which has been in full operations since the launches of the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts in December, 1999 and May, 2002 respectively. During that time, it has continually evolved to better support the needs of the MODIS team. We now run multiple instances of the system managing faster than real time reprocessings of the data as well as continuing forward processing. The new OMI Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) was adapted from the MODAPS. It will ingest raw data from the satellite ground station and process it to produce calibrated, geolocated higher level data products. These data products will be transmitted to the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC) instance of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) for long term archive and distribution to the public. The OMIDAPS will also provide data distribution to the OMI Science Team for quality assessment, algorithm improvement, calibration, etc. We have taken advantage of lessons learned from the MODIS experience and software already developed for MODIS. We made some changes in the hardware system organization, database and

  17. Results from the MWA EoR Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rachel L.; MWA EoR Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The MWA EoR is one of a small handful of experiments designed to detect the statistical signal from the Epoch of Reionisation. Each of these experiments has reached a level of maturity, where the challenges, in particular of foreground removal, are being more fully understood. Over the past decade, the MWA EoR Collaboration has developed expertise and an understanding of the elements of the telescope array, the end-to-end pipelines, ionospheric conditions, and and the foreground emissions. Sufficient data has been collected to detect the theoretically predicted EoR signal. Limits have been published regularly, however we still several orders of magnitude from a possible detection. This paper outlines recent progress and indicates directions for future efforts.

  18. Using Moderate-Resolution Temporal NDVI Profiles for High-Resolution Crop Mapping in Years of Absent Ground Reference Data: A Case Study of Bole and Manas Counties in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Hao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most methods used for crop classification rely on the ground-reference data of the same year, which leads to considerable financial and labor cost. In this study, we presented a method that can avoid the requirements of a large number of ground-reference data in the classification year. Firstly, we extracted the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series profiles of the dominant crops from MODIS data using the historical ground-reference data in multiple years (2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010. Artificial Antibody Network (ABNet was then employed to build reference NDVI time series for each crop based on the historical NDVI profiles. Afterwards, images of Landsat and HJ were combined to obtain 30 m image time series with 15-day acquisition frequency in 2011. Next, the reference NDVI time series were transformed to Landsat/HJ NDVI time series using their linear model. Finally, the transformed reference NDVI profiles were used to identify the crop types in 2011 at 30 m spatial resolution. The result showed that the dominant crops could be identified with overall accuracy of 87.13% and 83.48% in Bole and Manas, respectively. In addition, the reference NDVI profiles generated from multiple years could achieve better classification accuracy than that from single year (such as only 2007. This is mainly because the reference knowledge from multiple years contains more growing conditions of the same crop. Generally, this approach showed potential to identify crops without using large number of ground-reference data at 30 m resolution.

  19. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  20. The role of serial casting in early-onset scoliosis (EOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulesh, David M; Huh, Jeannie; Judkins, Timothy; Garg, Sumeet; Miller, Nancy H; Erickson, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Serial casting has demonstrated efficacy for idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (EOS). Results of casting in nonidiopathic (syndromic and congenital) EOS patients have not previously been well described. A total of 53 patients underwent serial casting for EOS from 2005 to 2010 at a single institution. Deformity was classified as idiopathic or nonidiopathic. Diagnosis, time in cast, number of casts, use of bracing, complications, and outcomes were recorded. Radiographic measures included Cobb angle and thoracic height (T1-T12). Thoracic height velocity was calculated and compared with established norms. A total of 36 patients, 19 idiopathic and 17 nonidiopathic (14 syndromic, 3 congenital), completed cast treatment and had >6-month follow-up and were therefore included. Of those, 17% (6/36) experienced resolution of their deformity, 53% (19/26) are currently in braces, and 31% (11/36) had undergone surgery. Surgery occurred on average at age 5.6 years and was delayed by an average of 2.1 years from time of first cast. A 19% complication was observed. There was no statistical difference in the rate of resolution of deformity between idiopathic (5/19) and nonidiopathic (1/17) patients (P=0.182), although there exists a trend toward greater curve correction in idiopathic patients. Surgery occurred in fewer patients (2/19) in the idiopathic group compared with the nonidiopathic group (9/17) (P=0.006). Significant improvements in Cobb angle was observed in the idiopathic group (12.2 degrees) during casting (P=0.003). Nonidiopathic patients did not maintain the correction gained during casting at the time of final follow-up. T1-T12 height increased across all study patients regardless of etiology during the period of casting at similar velocity to established norms of 1.4 cm/y for this age group. Serial casting offers modest deformity correction in idiopathic deformities compared with nonidiopathic deformities. Thoracic height growth continued throughout the casting period

  1. Occupational and patient exposure as well as image quality for full spine examinations with the EOS imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damet, J.; Fournier, P.; Monnin, P.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F. R.; Baechler, S.; Ceroni, D.; Zand, T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: EOS (EOS imaging S.A, Paris, France) is an x-ray imaging system that uses slot-scanning technology in order to optimize the trade-off between image quality and dose. The goal of this study was to characterize the EOS system in terms of occupational exposure, organ doses to patients as well as image quality for full spine examinations. Methods: Occupational exposure was determined by measuring the ambient dose equivalents in the radiological room during a standard full spine examination. The patient dosimetry was performed using anthropomorphic phantoms representing an adolescent and a five-year-old child. The organ doses were measured with thermoluminescent detectors and then used to calculate effective doses. Patient exposure with EOS was then compared to dose levels reported for conventional radiological systems. Image quality was assessed in terms of spatial resolution and different noise contributions to evaluate the detector's performances of the system. The spatial-frequency signal transfer efficiency of the imaging system was quantified by the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Results: The use of a protective apron when the medical staff or parents have to stand near to the cubicle in the radiological room is recommended. The estimated effective dose to patients undergoing a full spine examination with the EOS system was 290μSv for an adult and 200 μSv for a child. MTF and NPS are nonisotropic, with higher values in the scanning direction; they are in addition energy-dependent, but scanning speed independent. The system was shown to be quantum-limited, with a maximum DQE of 13%. The relevance of the DQE for slot-scanning system has been addressed. Conclusions: As a summary, the estimated effective dose was 290μSv for an adult; the image quality remains comparable to conventional systems

  2. Occupational and patient exposure as well as image quality for full spine examinations with the EOS imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damet, J., E-mail: jerome.damet@chuv.ch; Fournier, P.; Monnin, P.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F. R.; Baechler, S. [Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne 1007 (Switzerland); Ceroni, D. [Department of Paediatrics, Division of paediatric orthopaedic, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva 1205 (Switzerland); Zand, T. [Department of Radiology, Division of paediatric radiology, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva 1205 (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: EOS (EOS imaging S.A, Paris, France) is an x-ray imaging system that uses slot-scanning technology in order to optimize the trade-off between image quality and dose. The goal of this study was to characterize the EOS system in terms of occupational exposure, organ doses to patients as well as image quality for full spine examinations. Methods: Occupational exposure was determined by measuring the ambient dose equivalents in the radiological room during a standard full spine examination. The patient dosimetry was performed using anthropomorphic phantoms representing an adolescent and a five-year-old child. The organ doses were measured with thermoluminescent detectors and then used to calculate effective doses. Patient exposure with EOS was then compared to dose levels reported for conventional radiological systems. Image quality was assessed in terms of spatial resolution and different noise contributions to evaluate the detector's performances of the system. The spatial-frequency signal transfer efficiency of the imaging system was quantified by the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Results: The use of a protective apron when the medical staff or parents have to stand near to the cubicle in the radiological room is recommended. The estimated effective dose to patients undergoing a full spine examination with the EOS system was 290μSv for an adult and 200 μSv for a child. MTF and NPS are nonisotropic, with higher values in the scanning direction; they are in addition energy-dependent, but scanning speed independent. The system was shown to be quantum-limited, with a maximum DQE of 13%. The relevance of the DQE for slot-scanning system has been addressed. Conclusions: As a summary, the estimated effective dose was 290μSv for an adult; the image quality remains comparable to conventional systems.

  3. Research topics on EO systems for maritime platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.; Bijl, P.; Broek, S.P. van den; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Our world is constantly changing, and this has its effect on worldwide military operations. For example, there is a change from conventional warfare into a domain that contains asymmetric threats as well. The availability of high-quality imaging information from Electro-Optical (EO) sensors is of

  4. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.

  5. EoW criteria for waste-derived aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjelmar, O.; Sloot, van der H.A.; Comans, R.N.J.; Wahlstrom, H.

    2013-01-01

    Waste-derived aggregates are being considered as possible candidates for development of End-of-Waste (EoW) criteria at European Union (EU) level in accordance with Article 6 (1) of the EU Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) as a means of increasing the recovery of resources from waste. If a

  6. Three phase carbon EOS model with electronic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Thiel, M.; Ree, F.H.; Grover, R.

    1987-07-01

    A simple and rapid way for computing EOS data of multiphase solids with a liquid phase is described with emphasis on carbon. The method uses a scaling model for the liquid phase and includes a provision for electronic effects. The free energy minimum determines the stable phase

  7. 76 FR 31892 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ..., Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On January 18, 2011... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Chapter III [Docket No. SSA-2011-0042] Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for information. SUMMARY: In...

  8. EOS Operations Systems: EDOS Implemented Changes to Reduce Operations Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Guy R.; Gomez-Rosa, Carlos; McLemore, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe in this paper the progress achieved to-date with the reengineering of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System (EDOS), the experience gained in the process and the ensuing reduction of ground systems operations costs. The reengineering effort included a major methodology change, applying to an existing schedule driven system, a data-driven system approach.

  9. Fusion of Radar and EO-sensors for Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, L.J.H.M.; Theil, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fusion of radar and EO-sensors is investigated for the purpose of surveillance in littoral waters is. All sensors are considered to be co-located with respect to the distance, typically 1 to 10 km, of the area under surveillance. The sensor suite is a coherent polarimetric radar in combination with

  10. Recent disruption of an asteroid from the Eos family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, B.; Tsirvoulis, G.

    2014-07-01

    A key difficulty with searching for partially differentiated asteroids arises from the fact that a crust covers the exterior of the body, and, consequently, should hide the melted interior. This motivates an alternative approach of examining members of asteroid families, i.e., fragments of single large bodies, many of which were in the size regime capable of igneous differentiation, that have been disrupted by catastrophic collisions. Such families could provide a stratigraphic cross section across the interior of the parent asteroid [1]. With more than 10,000 known members, the Eos dynamical family is one of the most numerous and earliest recognized asteroid families [2]. Interestingly, the estimated ˜220-km-diameter parent body [3] is well within the size range capable of differentiation. Thus, existing family members should contain fragments of the deep interior. The Eos family has the highest diversity of taxonomic classes than any other known family [4]. Many members are of K spectral type, which is uncommon outside the family, and is similar to the spectra of CV, CK, CO, and CR carbonaceous chondrites [5]. This diversity leads to the suggestion that the Eos parent body was partially differentiated [4,6]. Thus, the Eos family may not only be a remnant of a partially differentiated parent body, but it could be the source of the CV-CK meteorite group. Here we report the discovery of a young subfamily of the Eos asteroid family. It may help understanding the mineralogical nature of the Eos asteroid family and of its parent body. By applying the hierarchical clustering method [7], we find an extremely compact 16-body cluster within the borders of the Eos family. We name the cluster (6733) 1992 EF, after its largest member. The statistical significance of this new cluster is estimated to be above 99%, indicating that its members share a common origin. All members of the cluster are found to be dynamically stable over long timescales. Backward numerical orbital

  11. Utilizing NASA EOS Data for Fire Management in el Departmento del Valle del Cauco, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, J. C.; Bledsoe, N.; Alabdouli, K.

    2012-12-01

    In the last few years, fire incidence in Colombian wild areas has increased, damaging pristine forests into savannas and sterile lands. Fire poses a significant threat to biodiversity, rural communities and established infrastructure. These events issue an urgent need to address this problem. NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) can play a significant role in the monitoring fires and natural disasters. SERVIR, the Regional Visualization and Monitoring Network, constitutes a platform for the observation, forecasting and modeling of environmental processes in Central America. A project called "The GIS for fire management in Guatemala (SIGMA-I)" has been already conducted to address the same problem in another Latin American country, Guatemala. SIGMA-I was developed by the Inter-agency work among the National protected areas council (CONAP), National Forestry Institution (INAB), the National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction / National Forest Fire Prevention and Control System (CONRED/SIPECIF), and the Ministry of the Environment and National Resources (MARN) in Guatemala under the guidance and assistance of SERVIR. With SIGMA-I as an example, we proposed to conduct a similar project for the country of Colombia. First, a pilot study in the area of the watershed of the Cali River, Colombia was conducted to ensure that the data was available and that the maps and models were accurate. The proposed study will investigate the technical resources required: 1.) A fire map with a compilation of ignition data (hot spots) utilizing Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products MOD14 and MYD14 2.) A map of fire scars derived from medium resolution satellite data (ASTER) during the period 2003-2011 for the entire country, and a map of fire scar recurrence and statistics derived from the datasets produced. 3.) A pattern analysis and ignition cause model derived from a matrix of variables

  12. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Children and Adolescents with Abdominal Pain: Comparison with EoE-Dysphagia and Functional Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Thirumazhisai; Prabhakar, Gautham; Schwartz, Alan; Gorla, Kiranmai; Gupta, Sandeep; Berman, James

    2016-01-01

    Aim. Compare EoE-AP with EoE-D for clinical, endoscopy (EGD), histology and outcomes and also with FAP-N. Method. Symptoms, physical findings, EGD, histology, symptom scores, and treatments were recorded for the three groups. Cluster analysis was done. Results. Dysphagia and abdominal pain were different in numbers but not statistically significant between EoE-AP and EoE-D. EGD, linear furrows, white exudates were more in the EoE-D and both combined were significant (p < 0.05). EoE-D, peak and mean eosinophils (p  0.06) and eosinophilic micro abscesses (p  0.001) were higher. Follow-Up. Based on single symptom, EoE-AP had 30% (p  0.25) improvement, EoE-D 86% (p < 0.001) and similar with composite score (p  0.57 and <0.001, resp.). Patients who had follow-up, EGD: 42.8% with EoE-AP and 77.8% with EoE-D, showed single symptom improvement and the eosinophil count fell from 38.5/34.6 (peak and mean) to 31.2/30.4 (p  0.70) and from 43.6/40.8 to 25.2/22.8 (p < 0.001), respectively. FAP-N patients had similar symptom improvement like EoE-D. Cluster Analysis. EoE-AP and FAP-N were similar in clinical features and response to treatment, but EoE-D was distinctly different from EoE-AP and FAP-N. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that EoE-AP and EoE-D have different histology and outcomes. In addition, EoE-AP has clinical features similar to the FAP-N group.

  13. Rigorous theoretical constraint on constant negative EoS parameter [Formula: see text] and its effect for the late Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgazli, Alvina; Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    In this paper, we consider the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At these scales, the Universe is filled with inhomogeneously distributed discrete structures (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies). Supposing that the Universe contains also the cosmological constant and a perfect fluid with a negative constant equation of state (EoS) parameter [Formula: see text] (e.g., quintessence, phantom or frustrated network of topological defects), we investigate scalar perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics due to inhomogeneities. Our analysis shows that, to be compatible with the theory of scalar perturbations, this perfect fluid, first, should be clustered and, second, should have the EoS parameter [Formula: see text]. In particular, this value corresponds to the frustrated network of cosmic strings. Therefore, the frustrated network of domain walls with [Formula: see text] is ruled out. A perfect fluid with [Formula: see text] neither accelerates nor decelerates the Universe. We also obtain the equation for the nonrelativistic gravitational potential created by a system of inhomogeneities. Due to the perfect fluid with [Formula: see text], the physically reasonable solutions take place for flat, open and closed Universes. This perfect fluid is concentrated around the inhomogeneities and results in screening of the gravitational potential.

  14. Check-Up of Planet Earth at the Turn of the Millennium: Contribution of EOS-Terra to a New Phase in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram

    1999-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. In 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution of few kilometers on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical developments that brought to the Terra mission, its objectives and example of application to biomass burning.

  15. The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI: Constraining the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. In the ASY-EOS experiment at the GSI laboratory, flows of neutrons and light charged particles were measured for 197Au+197Au, 96Zr+96Zr and 96Ru+96Ru collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon with the Large Area Neutron Detector LAND as part of a setup with several additional detection systems used for the event characterization. Flow results obtained for the Au+Au system, in comparison with predictions of the UrQMD transport model, confirm the moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy deduced from the earlier FOPI-LAND data.

  16. The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI: investigating symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy-ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. The results obtained from the existing FOPI/LAND data for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon in comparison with the UrQMD model simulations favoured a moderately soft symmetry term, but suffer from a considerable statistical uncertainty. These results have been confirmed by an independent analysis based on the Tübingen QMD simulations. In order to obtain an improved data set for Au+Au collisions and to extend the study to other systems, a new experiment was carried out at the GSI laboratory by the ASY-EOS collaboration. The present status of the data analysis is reported

  17. Western Eos Chaos on Mars: A Potential Site for Future Landing and Returning Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif Iqbal Kakkassery; Rajesh, V. J.

    2018-04-01

    Introducing Eos Chaos as a potential area for collecting samples. Eos Chaos contains a number of aqueous minerals. We have detected zoisite — a least reported low-grade metamorphic mineral from this area.

  18. MIRANDA: The EO-sensor Performance Tool Powered by EOSTAR-PRO - poster (Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammel, S.H.; Tsintikidis, D.; Adonidis, M.; Degache, M.A.C.; Lange, D.J.J. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades, considerable efforts have been made to assess the impact of theenvironment on EM and EO propagation. While encouraging progress has been made in the EM domain, few, if any, operational tools are available for the EO domain. As a consequence, no EO operational software,

  19. 77 FR 3211 - USACE's Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Extension..., ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review'' (E.O.), issued on January 18, 2011, directs federal agencies to... Regulatory mission; thus, USACE believes they are a significant rule warranting review pursuant to E.O. 13563...

  20. Moderate Bravery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to act in a purposeful and effective way amid institutional tensions and paradoxes is, right now, a highly prized quality in public leadership. The purpose of this chapter is to qualify moderately brave acts as a learning format that combines the analytical and performative...

  1. The EOS and neutrino interactions in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, M; Reddy, S [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The deleptonization and cooling times of a newly born neutron star depend on the equation of state (EOS) and neutrino opacities in dense matter. Through model calculations we show that effects of Pauli blocking and many-body correlations due to strong interactions reduce both the neutral and charged current neutrino cross sections by large factors compared to the case in which these effects are ignored. (orig.)

  2. Tactical EO/IE System for Ground Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    this thesis is based on these ideas. We will give the guidelines to a project manager or to a beginner in EW research about EO/IR system acquisition...1982 Syria vs Israel Syria: 1 Syria 5+ By Syria: 89 by 96+ Sparrow AIM-9G/L PYTHON Korea: 1 B- Kamchatka 1983 Korea vs USSR 0 0 747(KAL-(07) by AA-3 or

  3. Studies on EOS of shock-generated argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fanhou; Jing Fuqian

    2001-01-01

    The equation of state for argon plasma, covering the thermodynamic states of 10000-30000 K in temperature and 0.0133-0.166 GPa in pressure, is computed using the Saha model and Debye-Huckel correction. Comparisons of the measured EOS with the calculated ones demonstrate the Saha model and Debye-Huckel correction can be used to well describe the essential behavior of argon plasma under the thermodynamic condition above-mentioned

  4. Spin states of asteroids in the Eos collisional family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Delbo', M.; Alí-Lagoa, V.; Bolin, B.; Jedicke, R.; Ďurech, J.; Cibulková, H.; Pravec, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Behrend, R.; Marchis, F.; Antonini, P.; Arnold, L.; Audejean, M.; Bachschmidt, M.; Bernasconi, L.; Brunetto, L.; Casulli, S.; Dymock, R.; Esseiva, N.; Esteban, M.; Gerteis, O.; de Groot, H.; Gully, H.; Hamanowa, Hiroko; Hamanowa, Hiromi; Krafft, P.; Lehký, M.; Manzini, F.; Michelet, J.; Morelle, E.; Oey, J.; Pilcher, F.; Reignier, F.; Roy, R.; Salom, P. A.; Warner, B. D.

    2018-01-01

    Eos family was created during a catastrophic impact about 1.3 Gyr ago. Rotation states of individual family members contain information about the history of the whole population. We aim to increase the number of asteroid shape models and rotation states within the Eos collision family, as well as to revise previously published shape models from the literature. Such results can be used to constrain theoretical collisional and evolution models of the family, or to estimate other physical parameters by a thermophysical modeling of the thermal infrared data. We use all available disk-integrated optical data (i.e., classical dense-in-time photometry obtained from public databases and through a large collaboration network as well as sparse-in-time individual measurements from a few sky surveys) as input for the convex inversion method, and derive 3D shape models of asteroids together with their rotation periods and orientations of rotation axes. We present updated shape models for 15 asteroids and new shape model determinations for 16 asteroids. Together with the already published models from the publicly available DAMIT database, we compiled a sample of 56 Eos family members with known shape models that we used in our analysis of physical properties within the family. Rotation states of asteroids smaller than ∼ 20 km are heavily influenced by the YORP effect, whilst the large objects more or less retained their rotation state properties since the family creation. Moreover, we also present a shape model and bulk density of asteroid (423) Diotima, an interloper in the Eos family, based on the disk-resolved data obtained by the Near InfraRed Camera (Nirc2) mounted on the W.M. Keck II telescope.

  5. Management approach recommendations. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Management analyses and tradeoffs were performed to determine the most cost effective management approach for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) Phase C/D. The basic objectives of the management approach are identified. Some of the subjects considered are as follows: (1) contract startup phase, (2) project management control system, (3) configuration management, (4) quality control and reliability engineering requirements, and (5) the parts procurement program.

  6. The use of EOS for studies of atmospheric physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gille, J G; Visconti, G [eds.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is paid to the atmosphere and how the understanding of its behavior could be facilitated by the observations and modeling of these interacting processes planned within the framework of the EOS (Earth Observing System) program. The Enrico Fermi School on which the book is based, was organized in such a way that general introductory lectures were followed by reviews of the planned EOS instruments and observational strategy to study specific components and processes in the earth atmosphere system. The contents are divided into four parts. Part 1 is an overview of the EOS concept and provides a general introduction to earth system science. Part 2 deals with the troposphere and includes a comprehensive introduction to the problems of tropospheric chemistry. The more traditional view of the troposphere as the stage for dynamics and meteorology is also dealt with. The climate system is discussed in detail in part 3, and includes the most important advances made in recent years in understanding some of these processes which have come from satellite observations. The final part deals with the middle atmosphere. The interest in ozone has made this region of the atmosphere the most closely studied in the last few years, in an attempt to establish how much of the changes in its composition may be attributable to natural variability and how much to anthropogenic influence

  7. Application of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) Water Column Component (WC) to data derived by the Naval Research Lab (NRL) Automated Processing System (APS) modeling of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Imagery from the Aqua Earth Orbiting Satellite (EOS) PM in the Northern Gulf of Mexico from 2005-01 to 2009-12 (NODC Accession 0094007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite-derived data for sea surface temperature, salinity, chlorophyll; euphotic depth; and modeled bottom to surface temperature differences were evaluated to...

  8. Vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium of binary and multicomponent systems with MEG modeling with the CPA EoS and an EoS/G(E) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2006-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) EoS is applied to multicomponent multiphase equilibria of systems containing MEG as a hydrate inhibitor. It is shown that the model provides very satisfactory prediction of the phase behavior for the systems tested. A more conventional engineering model for handling...

  9. Evaluation, Calibration and Comparison of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) National Hydrologic Model (NHM) Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) Gridded Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, P. A., II; Haj, A. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey is currently developing a National Hydrologic Model (NHM) to support and facilitate coordinated and consistent hydrologic modeling efforts at the scale of the continental United States. As part of this effort, the Geospatial Fabric (GF) for the NHM was created. The GF is a database that contains parameters derived from datasets that characterize the physical features of watersheds. The GF was used to aggregate catchments and flowlines defined in the National Hydrography Dataset Plus dataset for more than 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRUs), and to establish initial parameter values for input to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). Many parameter values are adjusted in PRMS using an automated calibration process. Using these adjusted parameter values, the PRMS model estimated variables such as evapotranspiration (ET), potential evapotranspiration (PET), snow-covered area (SCA), and snow water equivalent (SWE). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of parameter calibration, and model performance in general, several satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) gridded datasets including ET, PET, SCA, and SWE were compared to PRMS-simulated values. The MODIS and SNODAS data were spatially averaged for each HRU, and compared to PRMS-simulated ET, PET, SCA, and SWE values for each HRU in the Upper Missouri River watershed. Default initial GF parameter values and PRMS calibration ranges were evaluated. Evaluation results, and the use of MODIS and SNODAS datasets to update GF parameter values and PRMS calibration ranges, are presented and discussed.

  10. SenSyF Experience on Integration of EO Services in a Generic, Cloud-Based EO Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Nuno; Catarino, Nuno; Gutierrez, Antonio; Grosso, Nuno; Andrade, Joao; Caumont, Herve; Goncalves, Pedro; Villa, Guillermo; Mangin, Antoine; Serra, Romain; Johnsen, Harald; Grydeland, Tom; Emsley, Stephen; Jauch, Eduardo; Moreno, Jose; Ruiz, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    SenSyF is a cloud-based data processing framework for EO- based services. It has been pioneer in addressing Big Data issues from the Earth Observation point of view, and is a precursor of several of the technologies and methodologies that will be deployed in ESA's Thematic Exploitation Platforms and other related systems.The SenSyF system focuses on developing fully automated data management, together with access to a processing and exploitation framework, including Earth Observation specific tools. SenSyF is both a development and validation platform for data intensive applications using Earth Observation data. With SenSyF, scientific, institutional or commercial institutions developing EO- based applications and services can take advantage of distributed computational and storage resources, tailored for applications dependent on big Earth Observation data, and without resorting to deep infrastructure and technological investments.This paper describes the integration process and the experience gathered from different EO Service providers during the project.

  11. Comparison of GERG-2008 and simpler EoS models in calculation of phase equilibrium and physical properties of natural gas related systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Yan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Accurate description of thermodynamic properties of natural gas systems is of great significance in the oil and gas industry. For this application, non-cubic equations of state (EoSs) are advantageous due to their better density and compressibility description. Among the non-cubic models, GERG-2008...... is a new wide-range EoS for natural gases and other mixtures of 21 natural gas components. It is considered as a standard reference equation suitable for natural gas applications where highly accurate thermodynamic properties are required. Soave's modification of Benedict-Webb-Rubin (Soave-BWR) Eo......S is another model that despite its empirical nature, provides accurate density description even around the critical point. It is much simpler than GERG-2008 and easier to handle and generalize to reservoir oil fluids. This study presents a comprehensive comparison between GERG-2008 and other cubic (SRK and PR...

  12. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing Software. Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perun, Vincent S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Wagner, Paul A.; Cofield, Richard E., IV; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Vuu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This software is an improvement on Version 2, which was described in EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), p. 34. It accepts the EOS MLS Level 0 science/engineering data, and the EOS Aura spacecraft ephemeris/attitude data, and produces calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. This version makes the code more robust, improves calibration, provides more diagnostics outputs, defines the Galactic core more finely, and fixes the equator crossing. The Level 1 processing software manages several different tasks. It qualifies each data quantity using instrument configuration and checksum data, as well as data transmission quality flags. Statistical tests are applied for data quality and reasonableness. The instrument engineering data (e.g., voltages, currents, temperatures, and encoder angles) is calibrated by the software, and the filter channel space reference measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement with the interpolates being differenced from the measurements. Filter channel calibration target measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement, and are used to compute radiometric gain. The total signal power is determined and analyzed by each digital autocorrelator spectrometer (DACS) during each data integration. The software converts each DACS data integration from an autocorrelation measurement in the time domain into a spectral measurement in the frequency domain, and estimates separately the spectrally, smoothly varying and spectrally averaged components of the limb port signal arising from antenna emission and scattering effects. Limb radiances are also calibrated.

  13. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter and Dissolved Organic Carbon from Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and MERIS Sensors: Case Study for the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake A. Schaeffer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical band ratio algorithms for the estimation of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC for Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and MERIS ocean color sensors were assessed and developed for the northern Gulf of Mexico. Match-ups between in situ measurements of CDOM absorption coefficients at 412 nm (aCDOM(412 with that derived from SeaWiFS were examined using two previously reported reflectance band ratio algorithms. Results indicate better performance using the Rrs(510/Rrs(555 (Bias = −0.045; RMSE = 0.23; SI = 0.49, and R2 = 0.66 than the Rrs(490/Rrs(555 reflectance band ratio algorithm. Further, a comparison of aCDOM(412 retrievals using the Rrs(488/Rrs(555 for MODIS and Rrs(510/Rrs(560 for MERIS reflectance band ratios revealed better CDOM retrievals with MERIS data. Since DOC cannot be measured directly by remote sensors, CDOM as the colored component of DOC is utilized as a proxy to estimate DOC remotely. A seasonal relationship between CDOM and DOC was established for the summer and spring-winter with high correlation for both periods (R2~0.9. Seasonal band ratio empirical algorithms to estimate DOC were thus developed using the relationships between CDOM-Rrs and seasonal CDOM-DOC for SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS. Results of match-up comparisons revealed DOC estimates by both MODIS and MERIS to be relatively more accurate during summer time, while both of them underestimated DOC during spring-winter time. A better DOC estimate from MERIS in comparison to MODIS in spring-winter could be attributed to its similarity with the SeaWiFS band ratio CDOM algorithm.

  14. MMA-EoS: A Computational Framework for Mineralogical Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chust, T. C.; Steinle-Neumann, G.; Dolejš, D.; Schuberth, B. S. A.; Bunge, H.-P.

    2017-12-01

    We present a newly developed software framework, MMA-EoS, that evaluates phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of multicomponent systems by Gibbs energy minimization, with application to mantle petrology. The code is versatile in terms of the equation-of-state and mixing properties and allows for the computation of properties of single phases, solution phases, and multiphase aggregates. Currently, the open program distribution contains equation-of-state formulations widely used, that is, Caloric-Murnaghan, Caloric-Modified-Tait, and Birch-Murnaghan-Mie-Grüneisen-Debye models, with published databases included. Through its modular design and easily scripted database, MMA-EoS can readily be extended with new formulations of equations-of-state and changes or extensions to thermodynamic data sets. We demonstrate the application of the program by reproducing and comparing physical properties of mantle phases and assemblages with previously published work and experimental data, successively increasing complexity, up to computing phase equilibria of six-component compositions. Chemically complex systems allow us to trace the budget of minor chemical components in order to explore whether they lead to the formation of new phases or extend stability fields of existing ones. Self-consistently computed thermophysical properties for a homogeneous mantle and a mechanical mixture of slab lithologies show no discernible differences that require a heterogeneous mantle structure as has been suggested previously. Such examples illustrate how thermodynamics of mantle mineralogy can advance the study of Earth's interior.

  15. Mission operations update for the restructured Earth Observing System (EOS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita Castro; Chang, Edward S.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) will provide a comprehensive long term set of observations of the Earth to the Earth science research community. The data will aid in determining global changes caused both naturally and through human interaction. Understanding man's impact on the global environment will allow sound policy decisions to be made to protect our future. EOS is a major component of the Mission to Planet Earth program, which is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. EOS consists of numerous instruments on multiple spacecraft and a distributed ground system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the major ground system developed to support EOS. The EOSDIS will provide EOS spacecraft command and control, data processing, product generation, and data archival and distribution services for EOS spacecraft. Data from EOS instruments on other Earth science missions (e.g., Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)) will also be processed, distributed, and archived in EOSDIS. The U.S. and various International Partners (IP) (e.g., the European Space Agency (ESA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)) participate in and contribute to the international EOS program. The EOSDIS will also archive processed data from other designated NASA Earth science missions (e.g., UARS) that are under the broad umbrella of Mission to Planet Earth.

  16. A European Collaborative EO Summer School for the Education of Undergraduate and Masters Level Students- FORMAT-EO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Rosemarie; Remedios, John; Tramutoli, Valerio; Gil, Artur; Cuca, Branka

    2014-05-01

    An Erasmus intensive programme has been successfully funded to run a Europe-lead summer school in Earth Observation for the years 2013 and 2014. The summer school, FORMAT-EO (FORmation of Multi-disciplinary Approaches to Training in Earth Observation) has been proposed and implemented by a consortium of eight partner institutions from five European countries. The consortium was facilitated through the NEREUS network. In the summer of 2013, 21 students from seven European institutions took part in the two week intensive course which involved a total of 28 teachers from six institutions. Students were from a variety of backgrounds including aeronautical engineering MSc students and PhD students in the areas of marine biology, earthquake engineering and measurement of trace gases in the atmosphere. The aims of FORMAT-EO were: To give students exposure to the wider applications of Earth Observation To highlight the interdisciplinary, collaborative and international nature of Earth Observation To offer an intensive course to better equip students with specialist skills required for a career in this field To provide expert advice on the development of careers in the EO market Partners were invited not only to recruit students for the course but to also teach at the school based on their specific area of expertise. This approach to the teaching provided a timetable which was wide-ranging and covered topics from EU policies for Earth Observation to fire detection from space and an introduction to interaction between radiation and matter. An important aspect of the course was the interactive nature of much of the teaching. A topic was introduced to the students through a lecture followed by an interactive tutorial providing students with hands-on experience of working with EO data and specialist software. The final days of the summer school were spent on group project work which required students to use all of the skills that they acquired during the course to challenge a

  17. Advancements in medium and high resolution Earth observation for land-surface imaging: Evolutions, future trends and contributions to sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Yashon O.

    2016-01-01

    Technologies for imaging the surface of the Earth, through satellite based Earth observations (EO) have enormously evolved over the past 50 years. The trends are likely to evolve further as the user community increases and their awareness and demands for EO data also increases. In this review paper, a development trend on EO imaging systems is presented with the objective of deriving the evolving patterns for the EO user community. From the review and analysis of medium-to-high resolution EO-based land-surface sensor missions, it is observed that there is a predictive pattern in the EO evolution trends such that every 10-15 years, more sophisticated EO imaging systems with application specific capabilities are seen to emerge. Such new systems, as determined in this review, are likely to comprise of agile and small payload-mass EO land surface imaging satellites with the ability for high velocity data transmission and huge volumes of spatial, spectral, temporal and radiometric resolution data. This availability of data will magnify the phenomenon of ;Big Data; in Earth observation. Because of the ;Big Data; issue, new computing and processing platforms such as telegeoprocessing and grid-computing are expected to be incorporated in EO data processing and distribution networks. In general, it is observed that the demand for EO is growing exponentially as the application and cost-benefits are being recognized in support of resource management.

  18. Using EO-1 Hyperion to Simulate HyspIRI Products for a Coniferous Forest: The Fraction of PAR Absorbed by Chlorophyll (fAPAR(sub chl)) and Leaf Water Content(LWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents development of prototype products for terrestrial ecosystems in preparation for the future imaging spectrometer planned for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission. We present a successful demonstration example in a coniferous forest of two product prototypes: fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by chlorophyll of a canopy (fAPARchl) and leaf water content (LWC), for future HyspIRI implementation at 60-m spatial resolution. For this, we used existing 30-m resolution imaging spectrometer data available from the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion satellite to simulate and prototype the level one radiometrically corrected radiance (L1R) images expected from the HyspIRI visible through shortwave infrared spectrometer. The HyspIRIlike images were atmospherically corrected to obtain surface reflectance and spectrally resampled to produce 60-m reflectance images for wavelength regions that were comparable to all seven of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land bands. Thus, we developed MODIS-like surface reflectance in seven spectral bands at the HyspIRI-like spatial scale, which was utilized to derive fAPARchl and LWC with a coupled canopy-leaf radiative transfer model (PROSAIL2) for the coniferous forest. With this paper, we provide additional evidence that the fAPARchl product is more realistic in describing the physiologically active canopy than the traditional fAPAR parameter for the whole canopy (fAPARcanopy), and thus, it should replace it in ecosystem process models to reduce uncertainties in terrestrial carbon cycle and ecosystem studies.

  19. Using EO-1 Hyperion to Simulate HyspIRI Products for a Coniferous Forest: The Fraction of PAR Absorbed by Chlorophyll (fAPAR(sub chl)) and Leaf Water Content (LWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2011-01-01

    This study presents development of prototype products for terrestrial ecosystems in preparation for the future imaging spectrometer planned for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission. We present a successful demonstration example in a coniferous forest of two product prototypes: fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) absorbed by chlorophyll of a canopy (fAPAR(sub chl)) and leaf water content (LWC), for future HyspIRI implementation at 60 m spatial resolution. For this, we used existing 30 m resolution imaging spectrometer data available from the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion satellite to simulate and prototype the level one radiometrically corrected radiance (L1R) images expected from the HyspIRI visible through shortwave infrared spectrometer. The HyspIRI-like images were atmospherically corrected to obtain surface reflectance, and spectrally resampled to produce 60 m reflectance images for wavelength regions that were comparable to all seven of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land bands. Thus, we developed MODIS-like surface reflectance in seven spectral bands at the HyspIRI-like spatial scale, which was utilized to derive fAPARchl and LWC with a coupled canopy-leaf radiative transfer model (PROSAIL2) for the coniferous forest[1]. With this study, we provide additional evidence that the fAPARchl product is more realistic for describing the physiologically active canopy than the traditional fAPAR parameter for the whole canopy (fAPAR(sub canopy)), and thus should replace it in ecosystem process models to reduce uncertainties in terrestrial carbon cycle studies and ecosystem studies.

  20. The Chelyabinsk superbolide: a fragment of asteroid 2011 EO40?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2013-11-01

    Bright fireballs or bolides are caused by meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere at high speed. Some have a cometary origin, a few may have originated within the Venus-Earth-Mars region as a result of massive impacts in the remote past but a relevant fraction is likely the result of the break-up of asteroids. Disrupted asteroids produce clusters of fragments or asteroid families and meteoroid streams. Linking a bolide to a certain asteroid family may help to understand its origin and pre-impact dynamical evolution. On 2013 February 15, a superbolide was observed in the skies near Chelyabinsk, Russia. Such a meteor could be the result of the decay of an asteroid and here we explore this possibility applying a multistep approach. First, we use available data and Monte Carlo optimization (validated using 2008 TC3 as template) to obtain a robust solution for the pre-impact orbit of the Chelyabinsk impactor (a = 1.62 au, e = 0.53, i = 3.82°, Ω = 326.41° and ω = 109.44°). Then, we use this most probable orbit and numerical analysis to single out candidates for membership in, what we call, the Chelyabinsk asteroid family. Finally, we perform N-body simulations to either confirm or reject any dynamical connection between candidates and impactor. We find reliable statistical evidence on the existence of the Chelyabinsk cluster. It appears to include multiple small asteroids and two relatively large members: 2007 BD7 and 2011 EO40. The most probable parent body for the Chelyabinsk superbolide is 2011 EO40. The orbits of these objects are quite perturbed as they experience close encounters not only with the Earth-Moon system but also with Venus, Mars and Ceres. Under such conditions, the cluster cannot be older than about 20-40 kyr.

  1. An Observation Capability Metadata Model for EO Sensor Discovery in Sensor Web Enablement Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuli Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and fine-grained discovery by diverse Earth observation (EO sensors ensures a comprehensive response to collaborative observation-required emergency tasks. This discovery remains a challenge in an EO sensor web environment. In this study, we propose an EO sensor observation capability metadata model that reuses and extends the existing sensor observation-related metadata standards to enable the accurate and fine-grained discovery of EO sensors. The proposed model is composed of five sub-modules, namely, ObservationBreadth, ObservationDepth, ObservationFrequency, ObservationQuality and ObservationData. The model is applied to different types of EO sensors and is formalized by the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Model Language 1.0. The GeosensorQuery prototype retrieves the qualified EO sensors based on the provided geo-event. An actual application to flood emergency observation in the Yangtze River Basin in China is conducted, and the results indicate that sensor inquiry can accurately achieve fine-grained discovery of qualified EO sensors and obtain enriched observation capability information. In summary, the proposed model enables an efficient encoding system that ensures minimum unification to represent the observation capabilities of EO sensors. The model functions as a foundation for the efficient discovery of EO sensors. In addition, the definition and development of this proposed EO sensor observation capability metadata model is a helpful step in extending the Sensor Model Language (SensorML 2.0 Profile for the description of the observation capabilities of EO sensors.

  2. Understanding (Galactic) Foreground Emission: A Road To Success For The LOFAR-EoR Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelic, Vibor; Lofar Eor Team, [Unknown

    The LOFAR-EoR experiment will use the innovative technology and capabilities of the radio telescope LOFAR to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). However, feeble cosmological radiation is swamped by the prominent foreground emission of our Galaxy and other extragalactic radio sources. This

  3. Promoting Strategic STEM Education Outreach Programming Using a Systems-Based STEM-EO Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Annmarie R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a STEM Education Outreach (STEM-EO) Model for promoting strategic university outreach programming at Penn State University to the benefit of university, school district and community stakeholders is described. The model considers STEM-EO as a complex system involving overarching learning goals addressed within four outreach domains…

  4. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 A Appendix A to Part 9 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT..., App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Decision-making Process for E.O. 11988 EC02FE91.074 ...

  5. High-mass twins & resolution of the reconfinement, masquerade and hyperon puzzles of compact star interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, David; Alvarez-Castillo, David E.

    2016-01-01

    We aim at contributing to the resolution of three of the fundamental puzzles related to the still unsolved problem of the structure of the dense core of compact stars (CS): (i) the hyperon puzzle: how to reconcile pulsar masses of 2 M ⊙ with the hyperon softening of the equation of state (EoS); (ii) the masquerade problem: modern EoS for cold, high density hadronic and quark matter are almost identical; and (iii) the reconfinement puzzle: what to do when after a deconfinement transition the hadronic EoS becomes favorable again? We show that taking into account the compositeness of baryons (by excluded volume and/or quark Pauli blocking) on the hadronic side and confining and stiffening effects on the quark matter side results in an early phase transition to quark matter with sufficient stiffening at high densities which removes all three present-day puzzles of CS interiors. Moreover, in this new class of EoS for hybrid CS falls the interesting case of a strong first order phase transition which results in the observable high mass twin star phenomenon, an astrophysical observation of a critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram

  6. EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services (KES-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, J.; Busto, J.; Torguet, R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper recovers and describes a number of major statements with respect to the vision, mission and technological approaches of the Technological Research Project (TRP) "EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services" (project acronym KES-B), which is currently under development at the European Space Research Institute (ESRIN) under contract "16397/02/I- SB". Resulting from the on-going R&D activities, the KES-B project aims are to demonstrate with a prototype system the feasibility of the application of innovative knowledge-based technologies to provide services for easy, scheduled and controlled exploitation of EO resources (e.g.: data, algorithms, procedures, storage, processors, ...), to automate the generation of products, and to support users in easily identifying and accessing the required information or products by using their own vocabulary, domain knowledge and preferences. The ultimate goals of KES-B are summarized in the provision of the two main types of KES services: 1st the Search service (also referred to as Product Exploitation or Information Retrieval; and 2nd the Production service (also referred to as Information Extraction), with the strategic advantage that they are enabled by Knowledge consolidated (formalized) within the system. The KES-B system technical solution approach is driven by a strong commitment for the adoption of industry (XML-based) language standards, aiming to have an interoperable, scalable and flexible operational prototype. In that sense, the Search KES services builds on the basis of the adoption of consolidated and/or emergent W3C semantic-web standards. Remarkably the languages/models Dublin Core (DC), Universal Resource Identifier (URI), Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Ontology Web Language (OWL), and COTS like Protege [1] and JENA [2] are being integrated in the system as building bricks for the construction of the KES based Search services. On the other hand, the Production KES services builds on top of

  7. ASSESSING THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN EO-BASED SEMI-AUTOMATED LANDSLIDE MAPS WITH FUZZY MANUAL LANDSLIDE DELINEATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Albrecht

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslide mapping benefits from the ever increasing availability of Earth Observation (EO data resulting from programmes like the Copernicus Sentinel missions and improved infrastructure for data access. However, there arises the need for improved automated landslide information extraction processes from EO data while the dominant method is still manual delineation. Object-based image analysis (OBIA provides the means for the fast and efficient extraction of landslide information. To prove its quality, automated results are often compared to manually delineated landslide maps. Although there is awareness of the uncertainties inherent in manual delineations, there is a lack of understanding how they affect the levels of agreement in a direct comparison of OBIA-derived landslide maps and manually derived landslide maps. In order to provide an improved reference, we present a fuzzy approach for the manual delineation of landslides on optical satellite images, thereby making the inherent uncertainties of the delineation explicit. The fuzzy manual delineation and the OBIA classification are compared by accuracy metrics accepted in the remote sensing community. We have tested this approach for high resolution (HR satellite images of three large landslides in Austria and Italy. We were able to show that the deviation of the OBIA result from the manual delineation can mainly be attributed to the uncertainty inherent in the manual delineation process, a relevant issue for the design of validation processes for OBIA-derived landslide maps.

  8. Assessing the Agreement Between Eo-Based Semi-Automated Landslide Maps with Fuzzy Manual Landslide Delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, F.; Hölbling, D.; Friedl, B.

    2017-09-01

    Landslide mapping benefits from the ever increasing availability of Earth Observation (EO) data resulting from programmes like the Copernicus Sentinel missions and improved infrastructure for data access. However, there arises the need for improved automated landslide information extraction processes from EO data while the dominant method is still manual delineation. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) provides the means for the fast and efficient extraction of landslide information. To prove its quality, automated results are often compared to manually delineated landslide maps. Although there is awareness of the uncertainties inherent in manual delineations, there is a lack of understanding how they affect the levels of agreement in a direct comparison of OBIA-derived landslide maps and manually derived landslide maps. In order to provide an improved reference, we present a fuzzy approach for the manual delineation of landslides on optical satellite images, thereby making the inherent uncertainties of the delineation explicit. The fuzzy manual delineation and the OBIA classification are compared by accuracy metrics accepted in the remote sensing community. We have tested this approach for high resolution (HR) satellite images of three large landslides in Austria and Italy. We were able to show that the deviation of the OBIA result from the manual delineation can mainly be attributed to the uncertainty inherent in the manual delineation process, a relevant issue for the design of validation processes for OBIA-derived landslide maps.

  9. Data processing and in-flight calibration systems for OMI-EOS-Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, G. H. J.; Dobber, M.; van de Vegte, J.; van der Neut, I.; Som de Cerff, W.; Rozemeijer, N. C.; Schenkelaars, V.; ter Linden, M.

    2006-08-01

    The OMI instrument that flies on the EOS Aura mission was launched in July 2004. OMI is a UV-VIS imaging spectrometer that measures in the 270 - 500 nm wavelength range. OMI provides daily global coverage with high spatial resolution. Every orbit of 100 minutes OMI generates about 0.5 GB of Level 0 data and 1.2 GB of Level 1 data. About half of the Level 1 data consists of in-flight calibration measurements. These data rates make it necessary to automate the process of in-flight calibration. For that purpose two facilities have been developed at KNMI in the Netherlands: the OMI Dutch Processing System (ODPS) and the Trend Monitoring and In-flight Calibration Facility (TMCF). A description of these systems is provided with emphasis on the use for radiometric, spectral and detector calibration and characterization. With the advance of detector technology and the need for higher spatial resolution, data rates will become even higher for future missions. To make effective use of automated systems like the TMCF, it is of paramount importance to integrate the instrument operations concept, the information contained in the Level 1 (meta-)data products and the inflight calibration software and system databases. In this way a robust but also flexible end-to-end system can be developed that serves the needs of the calibration staff, the scientific data users and the processing staff. The way this has been implemented for OMI may serve as an example of a cost-effective and user friendly solution for future missions. The basic system requirements for in-flight calibration are discussed and examples are given how these requirements have been implemented for OMI. Special attention is paid to the aspect of supporting the Level 0 - 1 processing with timely and accurate calibration constants.

  10. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Type Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2, or when the range of scattering angles observed is reduced by solar geometry, even though the quality of the AOD retrieval itself is much less sensitive to these factors. This presentation will review a series of studies aimed at assessing the capabilities, as well as the limitations, of MISR aerosol type retrievals involving wildfire smoke, desert dust, volcanic ash, and urban pollution, in specific cases where suborbital validation data are available. A synthesis of results, planned upgrades to the MISR Standard aerosol algorithm to improve aerosol type retrievals, and steps toward the development of an aerosol type quality flag for the Standard product, will also be covered.

  11. EOS MLS Level 2 Data Processing Software Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Nathaniel J.; VanSnyder, Livesey W.; Read, William G.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Lambert, Alyn; Santee, Michelle L.; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Froidevaux, Lucien; wang, Shuhui; Manney, Gloria L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This software accepts the EOS MLS calibrated measurements of microwave radiances products and operational meteorological data, and produces a set of estimates of atmospheric temperature and composition. This version has been designed to be as flexible as possible. The software is controlled by a Level 2 Configuration File that controls all aspects of the software: defining the contents of state and measurement vectors, defining the configurations of the various forward models available, reading appropriate a priori spectroscopic and calibration data, performing retrievals, post-processing results, computing diagnostics, and outputting results in appropriate files. In production mode, the software operates in a parallel form, with one instance of the program acting as a master, coordinating the work of multiple slave instances on a cluster of computers, each computing the results for individual chunks of data. In addition, to do conventional retrieval calculations and producing geophysical products, the Level 2 Configuration File can instruct the software to produce files of simulated radiances based on a state vector formed from a set of geophysical product files taken as input. Combining both the retrieval and simulation tasks in a single piece of software makes it far easier to ensure that identical forward model algorithms and parameters are used in both tasks. This also dramatically reduces the complexity of the code maintenance effort.

  12. La edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    Las familias de asteroides son el producto de la disrupción colisional de objetos destruídos por impactos ocurridos en el cinturón principal. Las colisiones posteriores han modificado los tamaños y las órbitas de los miembros de estas familias, por lo que las distribuciones que vemos hoy en día pueden ser muy diferentes de aquellas producidas inmediatamente después de la fragmentación del objeto original. En esta hipótesis, puede ser difícil reconstruir la evolución colisional de la familia basándose sólo en las actuales distribuciones y puede ser necesario hacer ciertas suposiciones para obtener información sobre las condiciones iniciales. En este trabajo se deriva una estimación de la edad de las familias Eos, Themis y Koronis obtenida de una simulación de la evolución colisional de un cuerpo original teórico para cada familia usando un modelo de distribución para el cinturón propuesto por Gil-Hutton (1996).

  13. Mechanism of growth retardation of the adenocarcinoma EO 771

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassukas, I.D.; Maurer-Schultze, B.

    1987-01-01

    Growth retardation of tumors has been predominantly described by an increase of the ''cell loss factor'' Φ. However, this cell loss factor alone merely reflects the growth deceleration without giving information on the mechanism that causes growth retardation. In the present study a quantitative analysis of the mechanism causing growth retardation of the adenocarcinoma EO 771 has been carried out by determining separately the components of the cell loss factor Φ, namely the cell production rate and the cell loss rate of the tumor cell population. For this purpose the alteration of the histology of the tumor (proportion of necrotic tumor tissue, tumor cell density) and the proliferative capacity of the tumor cell population as a function of the tumor size was studied by applying morphometric and cell kinetic methods. The results show that growth deceleration is due to a decrease of the cell production rate k p and a simultaneous increase of the cell rate k l . Both processes contribute to about the same extent to the growth deceleration of the tumor cell population. In early tumor growth deceleration is mainly due to a prolongation of the cycle time of the tumor cells, in later phases of tumor growth to an increasing probability of the tumor cells to decycle leading to a decrease of the growth fraction GF and an increase of the cell loss rate k l . (orig.)

  14. Addressing EO-1 Spacecraft Pulsed Plasma Thruster EMI Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzwski, C. M.; Davis, Mitch; Sarmiento, Charles; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. Results from PPT unit level radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests led to concerns about potential interference problems with other spacecraft subsystems. Initial plans to address these concerns included firing the PPT at the spacecraft level both in atmosphere, with special ground support equipment. and in vacuum. During the spacecraft level tests, additional concerns where raised about potential harm to the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). The inadequacy of standard radiated emission test protocol to address pulsed electromagnetic discharges and the lack of resources required to perform compatibility tests between the PPT and an ALI test unit led to changes in the spacecraft level validation plan. An EMI shield box for the PPT was constructed and validated for spacecraft level ambient testing. Spacecraft level vacuum tests of the PPT were deleted. Implementation of the shield box allowed for successful spacecraft level testing of the PPT while eliminating any risk to the ALI. The ALI demonstration will precede the PPT demonstration to eliminate any possible risk of damage of ALI from PPT operation.

  15. Molecular Solid EOS based on Quasi-Harmonic Oscillator approximation for phonons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-02

    A complete equation of state (EOS) for a molecular solid is derived utilizing a Helmholtz free energy. Assuming that the solid is nonconducting, phonon excitations dominate the specific heat. Phonons are approximated as independent quasi-harmonic oscillators with vibrational frequencies depending on the specific volume. The model is suitable for calibrating an EOS based on isothermal compression data and infrared/Raman spectroscopy data from high pressure measurements utilizing a diamond anvil cell. In contrast to a Mie-Gruneisen EOS developed for an atomic solid, the specific heat and Gruneisen coefficient depend on both density and temperature.

  16. Distribution of MEG and methanol in well-defined hydrocarbon and water systems: Experimental measurement and modeling using the CPA EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Yussuf, Mustafe A.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    + water. These data are satisfactorily correlated (binaries) and predicted (ternaries) using Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). CPA is also applied to binary LLE of aromatic hydrocarbon + water and VLE of methane + methanol. Finally the distribution of water and inhibitors (methanol...... and MEG) in various phases is modeled using CPA. The hydrocarbon phase consists of mixture-1 (methane, ethane, n-butane) or mixture-2 (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-heptane, toluene and n-decane). CPA can satisfactorily predict the water content in the gas phase of the multicomponent systems...

  17. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD and Electrical Overstress (EOS: The state of the art in components to systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Voldman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic Discharge (ESD, Electrical Overstress (EOS and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC continue to impact semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics. The range of concern for components include semiconductor components, magnetic recording industry, MEMs, and for products from disk drives, cell phones, notebooks, tablets, laptops, and desktop computers. The objective of this lecture is to address the state of the art of electrostatic discharge (ESD and electrical overstress (EOS in today’s electronic components and systems. The tutorial provides a clear picture of ESD, EOS and EMC phenomena, sources, physics, failure mechanisms, testing and qualification of components and systems. The conclusion of this talk is that ESD and EOS continue to be a concern in technologies from micro-electronics to nano-structures, and will remain a reliability and quality issue in the future.

  18. EOS Aura Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP (Boulder, CO) April 13, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.; Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation reflects EOS Aura mission status, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage, orbit maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment events, orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  19. EOS Aqua Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP April 13, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reflects the EOS Aqua mission status, spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, orbital maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment high interest events, ground track error, spacecraft orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  20. System testing software deployments using Docker and Kubernetes in gitlab CI: EOS + CTA use case

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    It needs to be seamlessly integrated with `EOS`, which has become the de facto disk storage system at CERN. `CTA` and `EOS` integration requires parallel development of features in both software that needs to be **synchronized and systematically tested** on a specific distributed development infrastructure for each commit in the code base. This presentation describes the full gitlab continuous integration work flow that builds, tests, deploys and run system tests of the full software stack in docker containers on our specific kubernetes infrastructure.

  1. EOS suspension test for the assessment of spinal flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Caroline; Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of spinal flexibility is essential for the planning of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. Various radiographic methods have been used but none of them has shown any superiority. The new low-dose stereography system EOS (EOS imaging, Paris, France) captures whole body images in a single scan without vertical distortion. EOS is now used in routine clinical use for AIS follow-up. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and the reproducibility of a new suspension test during the EOS imaging for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. Fifty AIS patients scheduled for surgery were prospectively included. For each patient, a standard EOS radiograph was obtained, then a suspension test in the EOS and a classic traction test on the cotrel frame were performed. The examinations were compared in terms of radiation exposure, tolerance, mean traction force, and Cobb angle reduction for each curve. Axial and sagittal reductions during suspension were analyzed on three-dimensional EOS reconstructions. The tolerance of the suspension test was lower than the traction test but it was less operator dependent. Radiation exposure was 7 times lower during the suspension test. Cobb angle reductions achieved in the proximal and main curves by the two tests were similar. The traction test achieved greater reduction of the distal curve. Flexibility in the axial plane and in the sagittal plane was analyzed with the suspension test. The reduction in apical rotation was not correlated with the reduction in Cobb angle. The EOS suspension test can be used for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. It gives a global vision of the deformity with new flexibility indices in the axial and sagittal planes.

  2. EOS MLS Lessons Learned: Design Ideas for Safer and Lower Cost Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dominick

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a complex instrument with a front end computer and 32 subsystem computers. MLS is one of four instruments on NASA's EOS Aura spacecraft With almost 8 years in orbit, MLS has a few lessons learned which can be applied during the design phase of future instruments to effect better longevity, more robust operations and a significant cost benefit during operations phase.

  3. Prospective study of irradiation and magnification on a pelvic imaging: EOS system versus conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, Loic

    2015-01-01

    The pelvic x-ray is essential for the orthopedic practise. Recently, EOS system has been developed with technology to limit irradiation and theoretically not create magnification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the EOS system realizing a pelvic x-ray. All patients who underwent hip replacement between September 2014 and April 2015 have benefited pelvis radiograph with the 2 techniques, after surgery. The size of the head was measured with both techniques and compared to the established size. Irradiation of each technique was listed. A correlation study was carried out with the body mass index (BMI) of the patient. Irradiation was significantly greater with conventional radiography than with the EOS system: PDS of conventional radiography = 15.0 (10.5; 25.2) against the EOS system PDS = 8.2 (7.1; 9.7), p ≤0.0001. It was found a significant correlation between BMI and irradiation, particularly with conventional radiography. About expansion, the EOS system not create any except in 4 cases, unlike the conventional radiograph. The EOS system significantly decreases irradiation in all patients, compared to the conventional radiography, and it do not create magnification when realizing a pelvic x-ray, even in overweight patients [fr

  4. Flexibility analysis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis on side-bending images using the EOS imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, C; Ilharreborde, B; Mazda, K

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of preoperative flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is essential to classify the curves, determine their structurality, and select the fusion levels during preoperative planning. Side-bending x-rays are the gold standard for the analysis of preoperative flexibility. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and performance of side-bending images taken in the standing position using the EOS imaging system. All patients who underwent preoperative assessment between April 2012 and January 2013 for AIS were prospectively included in the study. The work-up included standing AP and lateral EOS x-rays of the spine, standard side-bending x-rays in the supine position, and standing bending x-rays in the EOS booth. The irradiation dose was measured for each of the tests. Two-dimensional reducibility of the Cobb angle was measured on both types of bending x-rays. The results were based on the 50 patients in the study. No significant difference was demonstrated for reducibility of the Cobb angle between the standing side-bending images with the EOS imaging system and those in the supine position for all types of Lenke deformation. The irradiation dose was five times lower during the EOS bending imaging. The standing side-bending images in the EOS device contributed the same results as the supine images, with five times less irradiation. They should therefore be used in clinical routine. 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiation of eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells into eosinophils induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Aki; Kaneko, Motoko; Sugeno, Hiroki; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Hong, JangJa; Zee, OkPyo; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2007-03-06

    EoL-1 cells differentiate into eosinophils in the presence of n-butyrate, but the mechanism has remained to be elucidated. Because n-butyrate can inhibit histone deacetylases, we hypothesized that the inhibition of histone deacetylases induces the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils. In this study, using n-butyrate and two other histone deacetylase inhibitors, apicidin and trichostatin A, we have analyzed the relationship between the inhibition of histone deacetylases and the differentiation into eosinophils in EoL-1 cells. It was demonstrated that apicidin and n-butyrate induced a continuous acetylation of histones H4 and H3, inhibited the proliferation of EoL-1 cells without attenuating the level of FIP1L1-PDGFRA mRNA, and induced the expression of markers for mature eosinophils such as integrin beta7, CCR1, and CCR3 on EoL-1 cells, while trichostatin A evoked a transient acetylation of histones and induced no differentiation into eosinophils. These findings suggest that the continuous inhibition of histone deacetylases in EoL-1 cells induces the differentiation into mature eosinophils.

  6. Mechanism for the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Motoko; Ishihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Aki; Hong, Jangja; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Zee, Okpyo; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    EoL-1 cells have a FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene which causes the transformation of eosinophilic precursor cells into leukemia cells. Recently, we suggested that the induction of differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils by the HDAC inhibitors apicidin and n-butyrate is due to the continuous inhibition of HDACs. However, neither apicidin nor n-butyrate inhibited the expression of FIP1L1-PDGFRA mRNA, although both these inhibitors suppressed cell proliferation. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed whether the levels of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein and phosphorylated-Stat5 involved in the signaling for the proliferation of EoL-1 cells are attenuated by HDAC inhibitors. EoL-1 cells were incubated in the presence of apicidin, TSA or n-butyrate. FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha and phosphorylated-Stat5 were detected by Western blotting. Treatment of EoL-1 cells with apicidin at 100 nM or n-butyrate at 500 microM decreased the levels of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein and phosphorylated-Stat5, while that with trichostatin A at 30 nM did not. The decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein caused by apicidin and n-butyrate might be one of the mechanisms by which EoL-1 cells are induced to differentiate into eosinophils by these HDAC inhibitors.

  7. Eos and the Youth: A Case of Inverted Roles in Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipla, Anthi

    This article examines scenes of Eos pursuing/abducting youths on 5th-century Athenian vases. Eos, the personification of Dawn, is the only woman assuming the role of a pursuer in rape. The theme strangely becomes very popular with vase painters to a degree comparable to ephebes pursuing a woman. The iconography of the scenes is systematically analysed and evaluated. All theories explaining the popularity of the theme from its presumable use as a parable for death are considered. Eos is moreover compared to other winged figures in pursuit that are popular in the same period, especially Sphinx and Eros. Conversely, it is illustrated how Eos' pursuits of youths are thoroughly coined on the same model as ephebe rape scenes. These may have been so popular because they expressed prevalent social notions about how women, like animals,would need subduing/taming by the ephebe, future citizen hunters, before they could assume their appropriate place in society. With Eos the hunter becomes the prey of a wild woman, who has transgressed the control limits set by the social system. Eos is promoted as the ultimate model of what a woman should not be.

  8. Towards an EO-based Landslide Web Mapping and Monitoring Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölbling, Daniel; Weinke, Elisabeth; Albrecht, Florian; Eisank, Clemens; Vecchiotti, Filippo; Friedl, Barbara; Kociu, Arben

    2017-04-01

    National and regional authorities and infrastructure maintainers in mountainous regions require accurate knowledge of the location and spatial extent of landslides for hazard and risk management. Information on landslides is often collected by a combination of ground surveying and manual image interpretation following landslide triggering events. However, the high workload and limited time for data acquisition result in a trade-off between completeness, accuracy and detail. Remote sensing data offers great potential for mapping and monitoring landslides in a fast and efficient manner. While facing an increased availability of high-quality Earth Observation (EO) data and new computational methods, there is still a lack in science-policy interaction and in providing innovative tools and methods that can easily be used by stakeholders and users to support their daily work. Taking up this issue, we introduce an innovative and user-oriented EO-based web service for landslide mapping and monitoring. Three central design components of the service are presented: (1) the user requirements definition, (2) the semi-automated image analysis methods implemented in the service, and (3) the web mapping application with its responsive user interface. User requirements were gathered during semi-structured interviews with regional authorities. The potential users were asked if and how they employ remote sensing data for landslide investigation and what their expectations to a landslide web mapping service regarding reliability and usability are. The interviews revealed the capability of our service for landslide documentation and mapping as well as monitoring of selected landslide sites, for example to complete and update landslide inventory maps. In addition, the users see a considerable potential for landslide rapid mapping. The user requirements analysis served as basis for the service concept definition. Optical satellite imagery from different high resolution (HR) and very high

  9. 3D-modeling of the spine using EOS imaging system: Inter-reader reproducibility and reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Rehm

    Full Text Available To retrospectively assess the interreader reproducibility and reliability of EOS 3D full spine reconstructions in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS.73 patients with mean age of 17 years and a moderate AIS (median Cobb Angle 18.2° obtained low-dose standing biplanar radiographs with EOS. Two independent readers performed "full spine" 3D reconstructions of the spine with the "full-spine" method adjusting the bone contour of every thoracic and lumbar vertebra (Th1-L5. Interreader reproducibility was assessed regarding rotation of every single vertebra in the coronal (i.e. frontal, sagittal (i.e. lateral, and axial plane, T1/T12 kyphosis, T4/T12 kyphosis, L1/L5 lordosis, L1/S1 lordosis and pelvic parameters. Radiation exposure, scan-time and 3D reconstruction time were recorded.Interclass correlation (ICC ranged between 0.83 and 0.98 for frontal vertebral rotation, between 0.94 and 0.99 for lateral vertebral rotation and between 0.51 and 0.88 for axial vertebral rotation. ICC was 0.92 for T1/T12 kyphosis, 0.95 for T4/T12 kyphosis, 0.90 for L1/L5 lordosis, 0.85 for L1/S1 lordosis, 0.97 for pelvic incidence, 0.96 for sacral slope, 0.98 for sagittal pelvic tilt and 0.94 for lateral pelvic tilt. The mean time for reconstruction was 14.9 minutes (reader 1: 14.6 minutes, reader 2: 15.2 minutes, p<0.0001. The mean total absorbed dose was 593.4μGy ±212.3 per patient.EOS "full spine" 3D angle measurement of vertebral rotation proved to be reliable and was performed in an acceptable reconstruction time. Interreader reproducibility of axial rotation was limited to some degree in the upper and middle thoracic spine due the obtuse angulation of the pedicles and the processi spinosi in the frontal view somewhat complicating their delineation.

  10. Use of the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite for the Namibia SensorWeb Flood Early Warning Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Handy, Matthew; Policelli, Fritz; Katjizeu, McCloud; Van Langenhove, Guido; Aube, Guy; Saulnier, Jean-Francois; Sohlberg, Rob; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in November 2000 as a one year technology demonstration mission for a variety of space technologies. After the first year, it was used as a pathfinder for the creation of SensorWebs. A SensorWeb is the integration of variety of space, airborne and ground sensors into a loosely coupled collaborative sensor system that automatically provides useful data products. Typically, a SensorWeb is comprised of heterogeneous sensors tied together with a messaging architecture and web services. Disasters are the perfect arena to use SensorWebs. One SensorWeb pilot project that has been active since 2009 is the Namibia Early Flood Warning SensorWeb pilot project. The Pilot Project was established under the auspices of the Namibian Ministry of Agriculture Water and Forestry (MAWF)/Department of Water Affairs, the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS)/Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) and moderated by the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER). The effort began by identifying and prototyping technologies which enabled the rapid gathering and dissemination of both space-based and ground sensor data and data products for the purpose of flood disaster management and water-borne disease management. This was followed by an international collaboration to build small portions of the identified system which was prototyped during that past few years during the flood seasons which occurred in the February through May timeframe of 2010 and 2011 with further prototyping to occur in 2012. The SensorWeb system features EO-1 data along with other data sets from such satellites as Radarsat, Terra and Aqua. Finally, the SensorWeb team also began to examine the socioeconomic component to determine the impact of the SensorWeb technology and how best to assist in the infusion of this technology in lesser affluent areas with low levels of basic

  11. Correlation of High-Resolution Manometric Findings with Symptoms of Dysphagia and Endoscopic Features in Adults with Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arnim, Ulrike; Kandulski, Arne; Weigt, Jochen; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) presents with dysphagia, but data about motility patterns using high-resolution manometry (HRM) are rare. We aimed at evaluating esophageal motility patterns in EoE and their correlation to endoscopic and dysphagia scores. Twenty-six EoE patients and 23 controls were included after 4 weeks of treatment with proton pump inhibitors. Dysphagia and endoscopic scores were evaluated before performing HRM. EoE patients were classified to have fibrostenotic (FS) or inflammatory (IF) type. HRM analysis was performed according to the Chicago classification (CC) system. According to the CC, the HRM findings in EoE and controls were normal in 11 (42%) and 20 (88.5%), p dysphagia scores in EoE subtypes. HRM findings in EoE are often diagnostic, but they are non-specific and do not correlate with the severity of dysphagia or endoscopic appearance. The clinical impact of HRM in EoE needs further evaluation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Recent trends in application of multivariate curve resolution approaches for improving gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Parastar, Hadi

    2011-08-15

    Essential oils (EOs) are valuable natural products that are popular nowadays in the world due to their effects on the health conditions of human beings and their role in preventing and curing diseases. In addition, EOs have a broad range of applications in foods, perfumes, cosmetics and human nutrition. Among different techniques for analysis of EOs, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is the most important one in recent years. However, there are some fundamental problems in GC-MS analysis including baseline drift, spectral background, noise, low S/N (signal to noise) ratio, changes in the peak shapes and co-elution. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) approaches cope with ongoing challenges and are able to handle these problems. This review focuses on the application of MCR techniques for improving GC-MS analysis of EOs published between January 2000 and December 2010. In the first part, the importance of EOs in human life and their relevance in analytical chemistry is discussed. In the second part, an insight into some basics needed to understand prospects and limitations of the MCR techniques are given. In the third part, the significance of the combination of the MCR approaches with GC-MS analysis of EOs is highlighted. Furthermore, the commonly used algorithms for preprocessing, chemical rank determination, local rank analysis and multivariate resolution in the field of EOs analysis are reviewed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Delivering on the Dream, Today and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Johnson, Patricia; Case, Warren F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the successful operations of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites over the past 10 years and the plans for the future. Excellent operations performance has been a key factor in the overall success of EOS. The EOS Program was conceived in the 1980s and began to take shape in the early 1990s. EOS consists of a series of satellites that study the Earth as an interrelated system. It began with the launch of Terra in December 1999, followed by Aqua in May 2002, and Aura in July 2004. A key EOS goal is to provide a long-term continuous data set to enable the science community to develop a better understanding of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes and their interactions. EOS has produced unprecedented amounts of data which are used all over the world free of charge. Mission operations have resulted in data recovery for Terra, Aqua, and Aura that have consistently exceeded mission requirements. The paper describes the ground systems and organizations that control the EOS satellites, capture the raw data, and distribute the processed science data sets. The paper further describes how operations have evolved since 1999. Examples of this evolution include (a) the implementation of new mission safety requirements for orbital debris monitoring; (b) technology upgrades to keep facilities at the state of the art; (c) enhancements to meet changing security requirements; and (d) operations management of the 2 international Earth Observing Constellations of 11 satellites known as the "Morning Constellation" and the "A-Train". The paper concludes with a view into the future based on the latest spacecraft status, lifetime projections, and mission plans.

  14. Transitioning NPOESS Data to Weather Offices: The SPoRT Paradigm with EOS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Real-time satellite information provides one of many data sources used by NWS weather forecast offices (WFOs) to diagnose current weather conditions and to assist in short-term forecast preparation. While GOES satellite data provides relatively coarse spatial resolution coverage of the continental U.S. on a 10-15 minute repeat cycle, polar orbiting imagery has the potential to provide snapshots of weather conditions at high-resolution in many spectral channels. Additionally, polar orbiting sounding data can provide additional information on the thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere in data sparse regions of at asynoptic observation times. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project has demonstrated the utility of polar orbiting MODIS and AIRS data on the Terra and Aqua satellites to improve weather diagnostics and short-term forecasting on the regional and local scales. SPoRT scientists work directly forecasters at selected WFOS in the Southern Region (SR) to help them ingest these unique data streams into their AWIPS system, understand how to use the data (through on-site and distance learn techniques), and demonstrate the utility of these products to address significant forecast problems. This process also prepares forecasters for the use of similar observational capabilities from NPOESS operational sensors. NPOESS environmental data records (EDRs) from the Visible 1 Infrared Imager I Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrlS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) instruments and additional value-added products produced by NESDIS will be available in near real-time and made available to WFOs to extend their use of NASA EOS data into the NPOESS era. These new data streams will be integrated into the NWs's new AWIPS II decision support tools. The AWIPS I1 system to be unveiled in WFOs in 2009 will be a JAVA-based decision support system which preserves the functionality of the existing systems and

  15. Breaking the EOS-gravity degeneracy with masses and pulsating frequencies of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Weikang; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen; Wen, De-Hua; Xu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of many astrophysical phenomena associated with compact objects requires reliable knowledge about both the equation of state (EOS) of super-dense nuclear matter and the theory of strong-field gravity simultaneously because of the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Currently, variations of the neutron star (NS) mass–radius correlation from using alternative gravity theories are much larger than those from changing the NS matter EOS within known constraints. At least two independent observables are required to break the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Using model EOSs for hybrid stars and a Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, we investigate both the mass–radius correlation and pulsating frequencies of NSs. While the maximum mass of NSs increases, the frequencies of the f, p 1 , p 2 , and w I pulsating modes are found to decrease with the increasing strength of the Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, providing a useful reference for future determination simultaneously of both the strong-field gravity and the supranuclear EOS by combining data of x-ray and gravitational wave emissions of NSs. (paper)

  16. End-of-life (EoL) mobile phone management in Hong Kong households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen-Jing; Giesy, John P; So, C S; Zheng, Hai-Long

    2017-09-15

    A questionnaire survey and interviews were conducted in households and end-of-life (EoL) mobile phone business centres in Hong Kong. Widespread Internet use, combined with the rapid evolution of modern social networks, has resulted in the more rapid obsolescence of mobile phones, and thus a tremendous increase in the number of obsolete phones. In 2013, the volume of EoL mobile phones generated in Hong Kong totalled at least 330 tonnes, and the amount is rising. Approximately 80% of electronic waste is exported to Africa and developing countries such as mainland China or Pakistan for recycling. However, the material flow of the large number of obsolete phones generated by the territory's households remains unclear. Hence, the flow of EoL mobile phones in those households was analysed, with the average lifespan of a mobile phone in Hong Kong found to be just under two years (nearly 23 months). Most EoL mobile phones are transferred to mainland China for disposal. Current recycling methods are neither environmentally friendly nor sustainable, with serious implications for the environment and human health. The results of this analysis provide useful information for planning the collection system and facilities needed in Hong Kong and mainland China to better manage EoL mobile phones in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance of novel moderator for pulsed neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.E.; Granada, J.R.; Dawidowski, J.; Gillette, V.H.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of neutron pulse time-width and intensity have been carried out on grids of small moderators placed side by side and decoupled by cadmium strips. This moderator concept had been introduced at ICANS-10. The present measurements explore greater moderator thicknesses than those previously attained, yielding information on thickness optimization, while confirming the previous results on resolution which make this moderator a favourable choice in front of the conventional sandwich set-up. (author)

  18. Thermodynamic Database for the Terrestrial and Planetary Mantle Studies: Where we stand, and some future directions involving experimental studies, numerical protocol for EoS and atomistic calculations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Tirone, M.; Sorcar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Reliable thermodynamic databases for rock forming minerals are essential for petrological and geodynamic studies. While the available databases (1-3) represent laudable efforts, none seems to be completely satisfactory. We show inter-comparison of phase diagrams computed from different databases and also their comparisons with experimental phase diagrams in complex systems. The results show good agreement and also significant disagreements in some P-T-X regimes; resolution of these disagreements via new experimental and thermodynamic data is needed to sort out the problems and make further progress. Two of the main challenges in the development of databases (4) seem to be (a) appropriate formulation of an EoS for solids that is suitable for studies of Earth and planetary interiors and (b) relatively simple formulations of thermodynamic mixing properties of mantle minerals that perform well within the compositional space of interest. While work on EoS formulation continues, we present a semi-empirical numerical approach that creates a consistent set of material properties (α, K, Cp, Cv) up to very high P-T conditions by satisfying certain physical constraints. Adequate experimental data are not available to constrain the mixing properties of several minerals that would be valid over the compositional range of interest in the natural environments. We have, thus, pursued an alternative approach on the basis of physical and crystal-chemical data. It is found that combination of elastic mixing energy, incorporating the effect of multi-atom interactions (5, 6), and crystal-field (CF) energy of mixing provide enthalpy of mixing in binary solid solutions that are in good agreement with experimental and calorimetric data. The CF-splitting vs. composition in a solid solution involving transition metal ion may be approximated by a semi-empirical relation using mean metal-oxygen bond-distance when such data are not available from spectroscopic studies. We also discuss the

  19. Efficient Cryosolid Positron Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    table layout Figure 21 shows the integration of the IR spectroscopy optics with the positron Moderation and Annihilation vacuum chambers on the...Characterization of Cryogenic Moderators The application of Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy (MIS) to characterizing cryogenic solid positron ...Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy capability into our Positron Moderation apparatus, which enables spectroscopic characterization of the cryogenic

  20. Application of the PFV EoS correlation to excess molar volumes of (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate + alkanols) at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deenadayalu, N.; Sen, S.; Sibiya, P.N.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental densities for the binary systems of an ionic liquid and an alkanol {1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate [EMIM] + [EtSO 4 ] - + methanol or 1-propanol or 2-propanol} were determined at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K. The excess molar volumes for the above systems were then calculated from the experimental density values for each temperature. The Redlich-Kister smoothing polynomial was used to fit the experimental results and the partial molar volumes were determined from the Redlich-Kister coefficients. For all the systems studied, the excess molar volume results were negative over the entire composition range for all the temperatures. The excess molar volumes were correlated with the pentic four parameter virial (PFV) equation of state (EoS) model

  1. The EOS imaging system: Workflow and radiation dose in scoliosis examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo; Torfing, Trine; Jespersen, Stig

    Introduction The EOS imaging system is a biplane slot beam scanner capable of full body scans at low radiation dose and without geometrical distortion. It was implemented in our department primo 2012 and all scoliosis examinations are now performed in EOS. The system offers improved possibility...... to measure rotation of individual vertebrae and vertebral curves can be assessed in 3D. Leg length Discrepancy measurements are performed in one exposure without geometrical distortion and no stitching. Full body scans for sagittal balance are also performed with the equipment after spine surgery. Purpose...... The purpose of the study was to evaluate workflow defined as scheduled time pr. examination and radiation dose in scoliosis examinations in EOS compared to conventional x-ray evaluation. Materials and Methods: The Dose Area Product (DAP) was measured with a dosimeter and a comparison between conventional X...

  2. Polystyrene Foam EOS as a Function of Porosity and Fill Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulford, Roberta; Swift, Damian

    2009-06-01

    An accurate EOS for polystyrene foam is necessary for analysis of numerous experiments in shock compression, inertial confinement fusion, and astrophysics. Plastic to gas ratios vary between various samples of foam, according to the density and cell-size of the foam. A matrix of compositions has been investigated, allowing prediction of foam response as a function of the plastic-to-air ratio. The EOS code CHEETAH allows participation of the air in the decomposition reaction of the foam, Differences between air-filled, nitrogen-blown, and CO2-blown foams are investigated, to estimate the importance of allowing air to react with plastic products during decomposition. Results differ somewhat from the conventional EOS, which are generated from values for plastic extrapolated to low densities.

  3. Tree Canopy Characterization for EO-1 Reflective and Thermal Infrared Validation Studies: Rochester, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The tree canopy characterization presented herein provided ground and tree canopy data for different types of tree canopies in support of EO-1 reflective and thermal infrared validation studies. These characterization efforts during August and September of 2001 included stem and trunk location surveys, tree structure geometry measurements, meteorology, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. Measurements were also collected on thermal and reflective spectral properties of leaves, tree bark, leaf litter, soil, and grass. The data presented in this report were used to generate synthetic reflective and thermal infrared scenes and images that were used for the EO-1 Validation Program. The data also were used to evaluate whether the EO-1 ALI reflective channels can be combined with the Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal infrared channel to estimate canopy temperature, and also test the effects of separating the thermal and reflective measurements in time resulting from satellite formation flying.

  4. Design of a nickel-hydrogen battery simulator for the NASA EOS testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Zvi; Mang, Xuesi; Patil, Ashok R.; Sable, Dan M.; Cho, Bo H.; Lee, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    The hardware and software design of a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery simulator (BS) with application to the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) satellite is presented. The battery simulator is developed as a part of a complete testbed for the EOS satellite power system. The battery simulator involves both hardware and software components. The hardware component includes the capability of sourcing and sinking current at a constant programmable voltage. The software component includes the capability of monitoring the battery's ampere-hours (Ah) and programming the battery voltage according to an empirical model of the nickel-hydrogen battery stored in a computer.

  5. Guidance, navigation, and control subsystem for the EOS-AM spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, David M.; Tolek, Joseph T.; Lombardo, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary design of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) subsystem for the EOS-AM spacecraft and specifically focuses on the GN&C Normal Mode design. First, a brief description of the EOS-AM science mission, instruments, and system-level spacecraft design is provided. Next, an overview of the GN&C subsystem functional and performance requirements, hardware, and operating modes is presented. Then, the GN&C Normal Mode attitude determination, attitude control, and navigation systems are detailed. Finally, descriptions of the spacecraft's overall jitter performance and Safe Mode are provided.

  6. Optimized collection of EoL electronic products for Circular economy: A techno-economic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angouria-Tsorochidou, Elisavet; Cimpan, Ciprian; Parajuly, Keshav

    2018-01-01

    The relevance of a circular model is widely accepted for the lifecycle management of electrical and electronic products (e-products), given the low recovery rates of valuable resources in current end-of-life (EoL) practices focused on recycling. However, missing insight into the technical...... and business potential for alternative EoL options (reuse, repair and remanufacturing) holds stakeholders from implementing circular strategies. In this context, our study first mapped by means of material flow analysis (MFA) the life cycle stages of e-products in Denmark and then performed a preliminary...

  7. Trend report Energy Research Subsidy programme (2005-2008). A report on the most important trends and effects since the start of the Energy Research Subsidy (EOS) programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimman, J.; Soeriowardojo, E.; Witte, F.; Nijdam, J.

    2009-07-01

    In 2005 the Energy Research Subsidy programme (EOS) was launched in the Netherlands. In four years' time about 500 projects were realized thanks to contributions from EOS. This report provides an overview of the main trends and effects of EOS in the period 2005-2008. One of the main conclusions is that a number of technologies have developed from invention level to market-ready level thanks to the EOS programme. The main trends since the start of EOS are: Increasing confidence of investors in EOS spearheads; increasing activity in EOS spearheads; Spearheads shifting to investment and exploitation schemes; EOS contributes to a solid patent position of Dutch parties; EOS contributes to European research. [nl

  8. A Reference Implementation of the OGC CSW EO Standard for the ESA HMA-T project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Vitale, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    This work was developed in the context of the ESA Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility (HMA) project, whose main objective is to involve the stakeholders, namely National space agencies, satellite or mission owners and operators, in an harmonization and standardization process of their ground segment services and related interfaces. Among HMA objectives was the specification, conformance testing, and experimentation of two Extension Packages (EPs) of the ebRIM Application Profile (AP) of the OGC Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) specification: the Earth Observation Products (EO) EP (OGC 06-131) and the Cataloguing of ISO Metadata (CIM) EP (OGC 07-038). Our contributions have included the development and deployment of Reference Implementations (RIs) for both the above specifications, and their integration with the ESA Service Support Environment (SSE). The RIs are based on the GI-cat framework, an implementation of a distributed catalog service, able to query disparate Earth and Space Science data sources (e.g. OGC Web Services, Unidata THREDDS) and to expose several standard interfaces for data discovery (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP). Following our initial planning, the GI-cat framework has been extended in order to expose the CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO interfaces, and to distribute queries to CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO data sources. We expected that a mapping strategy would suffice for accommodating CIM, but this proved to be unpractical during implementation. Hence, a model extension strategy was eventually implemented for both the CIM and EO EPs, and the GI-cat federal model was enhanced in order to support the underlying ebRIM AP. This work has provided us with new insights into the different data models for geospatial data, and the technologies for their implementation. The extension is used by suitable CIM and EO profilers (front-end mediator components) and accessors (back-end mediator components), that relate ISO 19115 concepts to EO and CIM ones. Moreover

  9. Discrimination of Sedimentary Lithologies Through Unmixing of EO-1 Hyperion Data: Melville Island, Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    The use of remote-sensing techniques in the discrimination of rock and soil classes in northern regions can help support a diverse range of activities including environmental characterization, mineral exploration, and the study of Quaternary paleoenvironments. Images of low spectral resolution can commonly be used in the mapping of lithological classes possessing distinct spectral characteristics, but hyperspectral databases offer greater potential for discrimination of materials distinguished by more subtle reflectance properties. Orbiting sensors offer an especially flexible and cost-effective means for acquisition of data to workers unable to conduct airborne surveys. In an effort to better constrain the utility of hyperspectral datasets in northern research, this study undertook to investigate the effectiveness of EO-1 Hyperion data in the discrimination and mapping of surface classes at a study area on Melville Island, Nunavut. Bedrock units in the immediate study area consist of late-Paleozoic clastic and carbonate sequences of the Sverdrup Basin. Weathered and frost-shattered felsenmeer, predominantly taking the form of boulder- to pebble-sized clasts that have accumulated in place and that mantle parent bedrock units, is the most common surface material in the study area. Hyperion data were converted from at-sensor radiance to reflectance, and were then linearly unmixed on the basis of end-member spectra measured from field samples. Hyperion unmixing results effectively portray the general fractional cover of six end members, although the fraction images of several materials contain background values that in some areas overestimate surface exposure. The best separated end members include the snow, green vegetation, and red-weathering sandstone classes, whereas the classes most negatively affected by elevated fraction values include the mudstone, limestone, and 'other' sandstone classes. Local overestimates of fractional cover are likely related to the

  10. SensorWeb Evolution Using the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite as a Test Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Ly, Vuong; Handy, Matthew; Chien, Steve; Grossman, Robert; Tran, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in November 2000 as a one year technology demonstration mission for a variety of space technologies. After the first year, in addition to collecting science data from its instruments, the EO-1 mission has been used as a testbed for a variety of technologies which provide various automation capabilities and which have been used as a pathfinder for the creation of SensorWebs. A SensorWeb is the integration of variety of space, airborne and ground sensors into a loosely coupled collaborative sensor system that automatically provides useful data products. Typically, a SensorWeb is comprised of heterogeneous sensors tied together with a messaging architecture and web services. This paper provides an overview of the various technologies that were tested and eventually folded into normal operations. As these technologies were folded in, the nature of operations transformed. The SensorWeb software enables easy connectivity for collaboration with sensors, but the side benefit is that it improved the EO-1 operational efficiency. This paper presents the various phases of EO-1 operation over the past 12 years and also presents operational efficiency gains demonstrated by some metrics.

  11. Assimilated ozone from EOS-Aura: Evaluation of the tropopause region and tropospheric columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stajner, I.; Wargan, K.; Pawson, S.; Hayashi, H.; Chang, L.-P.; Hudman, R.C.; Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N.J.; Levelt, P.F.; Thompson, A.M.; Tarasick, D.W.; Stübi, R.; Andersen, S.B.; Yela, M.; König-Langlo, G.; Schmidlin, F.J.; Witte, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Retrievals from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS-Aura were included in the Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 (GEOS-4) ozone data assimilation system. The distribution and daily to seasonal evolution of ozone in the stratosphere and troposphere

  12. Mission Status for Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting at KSC: EOS Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    This will be presented at the Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group (MOWG) meeting at KSC (Kennedy Space Center) in December 2017 to discus EOS (Earth Observing System) Aura status. Reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO (Earth Sciences Mission Operations) Deputy Project Manager.

  13. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE: an emerging disease in childhood - Review of diagnostic and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Amil Dias

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is a chronic immune/antigen mediated inflammatory disease of the esophagus. It comprises a separate entity of increasing incidence and prevalence in children and adults. The disease is characterized by histological evidence of dense esophageal tissue eosinophilia in the presence of a variety of upper GI symptoms including vomiting, dysphagia, food impaction and odynophagia. Cornerstone of treatment is dietary intervention and/or the off-label use of swallowed topical corticosteroids. New drug therapies are under investigation. In this review we focus on the diagnostic approach and the currently available treatment strategies. Keywords: Eosinophilic esophagitis, oral viscous budesonide, fluticasone propionate, oral steroids, amino acid-based formula, empiric elimination diet, targeted elimination dietKey points:1.A trial with antisecretory medication is necessary to exclude GERD and PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia and to fulfil the diagnostic criteria of EoE. 2.Elimination diet and/or off-label use of topical corticosteroids are effective measures for treating EoE. 3.Elimination diet is the first line treatment in atopic children. 4.Systemic corticosteroids are reserved for patients with severe disease requiring immediate relief, or when other treatments have failed. 5.Cromolyn sodium (sodium cromoglycate and leukotriene receptor antagonists, are not currently recommended for treating EoE, due to lack of solid evidence of benefit.6.Immunosuppressive drugs and biologics have shown some value but effect has been limited and therefore not yet recommended as standard therapy.

  14. Language Attitudes of Asturian Students in the Area of Navia-Eo (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Riaño, Xosé; Hevia-Artime, Isabel; Fernández-Costales, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a pioneering study that approaches the sociolinguistic and educational reality of the area of Navia-Eo, a region in the western part of Asturias (Spain). This research aims to provide an insight into the language attitudes and the sociolinguistic awareness of students in the final year of primary education. Using…

  15. Maximizing the use of EO products: how to leverage the potential of open geospatial service architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usländer, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The demand for the rapid provision of EO products with well-defined characteristics in terms of temporal, spatial, image-specific and thematic criteria is increasing. Examples are products to support near real-time damage assessment after a natural disaster event, e.g. an earthquake. However, beyond the organizational and economic questions, there are technological and systemic barriers to enable a comfortable search, order, delivery or even combination of EO products. Most portals of space agencies and EO product providers require sophisticated satellite and product knowledge and, even worse, are all different and not interoperable. This paper gives an overview about the use cases and the architectural solutions that aim at an open and flexible EO mission infrastructure with application-oriented user interfaces and well-defined service interfaces based upon open standards. It presents corresponding international initiatives such as INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community), GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) and HMA (Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility) and their associated infrastructure approaches. The paper presents a corresponding analysis and design methodology and two examples how such architectures are already successfully used in early warning systems for geo-hazards and toolsets for environmentallyinduced health risks. Finally, the paper concludes with an outlook how these ideas relate to the vision of the Future Internet.

  16. Template-Independent Enzymatic Oligonucleotide Synthesis (TiEOS): Its History, Prospects, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michael A; Davis, Ronald W

    2018-03-27

    There is a growing demand for sustainable methods in research and development, where instead of hazardous chemicals, an aqueous medium is chosen to perform biological reactions. In this Perspective, we examine the history and current methodology of using enzymes to generate artificial single-stranded DNA. By using traditional solid-phase phosphoramidite chemistry as a metric, we also explore criteria for the method of template-independent enzymatic oligonucleotide synthesis (TiEOS). As its key component, we delve into the biology of one of the most enigmatic enzymes, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). As TdT is found to exponentially increase antigen receptor diversity in the vertebrate immune system by adding nucleotides in a template-free manner, researchers have exploited this function as an alternative to the phosphoramidite synthesis method. Though TdT is currently the preferred enzyme for TiEOS, its random nucleotide incorporation presents a barrier in synthesis automation. Taking a closer look at the TiEOS cycle, particularly the coupling step, we find it is comprised of additions > n+1 and deletions. By tapping into the physical and biochemical properties of TdT, we strive to further elucidate its mercurial behavior and offer ways to better optimize TiEOS for production-grade oligonucleotide synthesis.

  17. Heavy ion reaction measurements with the EOS TPC (looking for central collisions with missing energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, H.H.

    1994-05-01

    The EOS TPC was constructed for complete event measurement of heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac. We report here on the TPC design and some preliminary measurements of conserved event quantities such as total invariant mass, total momentum, total A and Z

  18. 77 FR 59567 - Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... #0;notices is to give interested persons an opportunity to participate in #0;the rule making prior to... Immigration Review 8 CFR Parts 1003, 1103, 1208, 1211, 1212, 1215, 1216, 1235 [EOIR No. 178] RIN 1125-AA71 Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Executive Office for Immigration Review, Department of...

  19. Thirty Years with EoS/GE Models - What Have We Learned?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Coutsikos, Philippos

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years of research and the use of EoS/GE mixing rules in cubic equations of state are reviewed. The most popular approaches are presented both from the derivation and application points of view and they are compared to each other. It is shown that all methods have significant capabilities b...

  20. Relationship between molecular structure and supramolecular morphology of DODA-EO2-biotin and related lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huetz, P.; van Neuren, S.; Ringler, P.; Kremer, F.; van Breemen, J.F.L.; Wagenaar, A.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Fraaije, J.G E M; Brisson, A.

    1997-01-01

    We have recently reported that a biotinylated lipid molecule, called DODA-EO2-biotin, forms tubular lipid structures upon hydration, which act as a matrix for the formation of ordered helical arrays of streptavidin as well as for secondary macromolecular recognition reactions involving biotinylated

  1. 76 FR 47527 - Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Chapter VII [Docket No. 110711380-1379-01] RIN 0694-XA37 Retrospective Regulatory Review Under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of inquiry. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS...

  2. 76 FR 13931 - Department of State Retrospective Review under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE 22 CFR Chapter I 28 CFR Chapter XI [Public Notice: 7351] Department of State Retrospective Review under E.O. 13563 AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Request for information and comment. SUMMARY: As part of its implementation of Executive Order 13563, ``Improving Regulation and Regulatory...

  3. 76 FR 78183 - Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13579

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Parole Commission 28 CFR Part 2 [Docket No. USPC-2011-01] Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13579 AGENCY: United States Parole Commission, Justice. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Parole Commission is asking for comments on its preliminary plan...

  4. An evaluation of the EOS X-ray imaging system in pelvimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmann, M.H.; Runge, M.; Peyron, C.; Delabrousse, E.; Riethmuller, D.; Aubry, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate the reliability of the EOS imaging system in measuring the internal diameters of the bony pelvis. Materials and methods: A prospective study comparing the results of the pelvimetry of 18 dry pelvises carried out on the EOS imaging system to measurements taken manually and using the two current gold standard CT methods. Pelvi-metric measurements of each pelvic bone were obtained using four methods and compared: direct manual measurements, spiral and sequential CT pelvimetry, and 2D-3D low-dose bi-planar X-rays. The various obstetric diameters were measured to the millimetre and compared. Results: There was no significant difference in the different diameters assessed, with the exception of the inter-spinous diameter. There was a highly significant correlation (P < 0.001) between the values measured manually and by EOS for the Magnin index (Pearson = 0.98), the obstetric conjugate diameter (Pearson = 0.99), and the median transverse diameter (Pearson = 0.87). Conclusion: The EOS imaging system allows for an ex vivo determination of the obstetrical diameters that is reliable enough to estimate obstetric prognosis, producing comparable measurements to CT. In view of concerns about protection from radiation, this low-dose imaging technique could become, after in vivo prospective validation, the new gold standard for pelvimetry and therefore a good alternative to CT. (authors)

  5. Beyond GIS with EO4V is Trails: a geospatio-temporal scientific workflow environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available be accommodated at once. The scientific workflows approach has other advantages to such as provenance, repeatability and collaboration. The paper presents EO4VisTrails as an example of such a scientific workflows approach to integration and discusses the benefit...

  6. Grooved cold moderator tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Iwasa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Ikeda, S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Ishikawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We performed some grooved cold moderator experiments for methane at 20 K by using the Hokkaido University linac to obtain information to be used in the planning of the KENS-I' project. Cold neutron gains, spatial distribution of emitted beams and time distribution of the neutrons in the grooved cold moderator were measured. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of the grooved cold moderator on the performances of the spectrometers presently installed at the KENS-I cold source. We concluded that the grooved cold moderator benefited appreciably the performances of the spectrometers

  7. Climate Change Adaptation Challenges and EO Business Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bansal, Rahul; Del Rey, Maria; Mohamed, Ebrahim; Ruiz, Paz; Signes, Marcos

    Climate change is one of the defining challenges of the 21st century, but is no longer a matter of just scientific concern. It encompasses economics, sociology, global politics as well as national and local politics, law, health and environmental security, etc. The challenge of facing the impacts of climate change is often framed in terms of two potential paths that civilization might take: mitigation and adaptation. On the one hand, mitigation involves reducing the magnitude of climate change itself and is composed of emissions reductions and geoengineering. On the other hand and by contrast, adaptation involves efforts to limit our vulnerability to climate change impacts through various measures. It refers to our ability to adjust ourselves to climate change -including climate variability and extremes, to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. Therefore, we are now faced with a double challenge: next to deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, we also need to adapt to the changing climate conditions. The use of satellites to monitor processes and trends at the global scale is essential in the context of climate change. Earth Observation has the potential to improve our predictive vision and to advance climate models. Space sciences and technologies constitute a significant issue in Education and Public Awareness of Science. Space missions face the probably largest scientific and industrial challenges of humanity. It is thus a fact that space drives innovation in the major breakthrough and cutting edge technological advances of mankind (techniques, processes, new products, … as well as in markets and business models). Technology and innovation is the basis of all space activities. Space agencies offer an entire range of space-related activities - from space science and environmental monitoring to industrial competitiveness and end-user services. More specifically, Earth Observation satellites have a unique

  8. Implementation of the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Karen; Murphy, Kevin; Lowe, Dawn; Masuoka, Edward; Vollmer, Bruce; Tilmes, Curt; Teague, Michael; Ye, Gang; Maiden, Martha; Goodman, H. Michael; hide

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near real-time data from satellite sensors. Applications have demonstrated the utility of timely data in a number of areas ranging from numerical weather prediction and forecasting, to monitoring of natural hazards, disaster relief, agriculture and homeland security. As applications mature, the need to transition from prototypes to operational capabilities presents an opportunity to improve current near real-time systems and inform future capabilities. This paper presents NASA s effort to implement a near real-time capability for land and atmosphere data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) instruments on the Terra, Aqua, and Aura satellites. Index Terms- Real time systems, Satellite applications

  9. Entrepreneurial orientation and international performance: the moderating effect of decision-making rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Deligianni, I.; Dimitratos, P.; Petrou, A.; Aharoni, Y.

    2016-01-01

    This research examines how entrepreneurial orientation (EO) influences international performance (IP) of the firm taking into account the moderating effect of decision-making rationality (DR) on the EO–IP association. Such an investigation is significant because it considers the interplay of strategic decision-making processes supported by the bounded rationality concept in the entrepreneurship field. Drawing from a study on activities of 216 firms in the United States and United Kingdom, the...

  10. The first observation of EO transitions from negative parity states in even-even nucleus 160Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    In even-even deformed nuclei up to now EO-transitions were found only between the states of the same spin belonging to Κ π = O + rotational bands. There is no forbidenness for EO-transitions between states belonging to bands with any other quantum number Κ provided both initial and final states have the same J π Κ values. EO-transitions may depopulate odd-parity states. In odd nuclei β-vibrational states are identified by transition with EO-components. Here transitions also proceed between states with the same J π K numbers. Even-even nuclide 160 Dy is the first nucleus where the EO-transitions between odd-parity states have been found

  11. Moderation for Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Moderation is put forward as they key strategy for improving the reliability of teacher assessment. However, for many teachers the word "moderation" conjures up ideas of uncomfortable situations in which marking is being checked by others and there are prolonged arguments about tiny features of individual work. In this article, the…

  12. Methane pellet moderator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Schechter, D.E.; Carpenter, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A methane pellet moderator assembly consisting of a pelletizer, a helium cooled sub-cooling tunnel, a liquid helium cooled cryogenic pellet storage hopper and a 1.5L moderator cell has been constructed for the purpose demonstrating a system for use in high-power spallation sources. (orig.)

  13. Global and Seasonal Distributions of CHOCHO and HCHO Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on EOS Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, T. P.; Fu, T.; Volkamer, R.; Millet, D. B.; Chance, K.

    2006-12-01

    Over the two years since its launch in July 2004, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura has demonstrated the capability to routinely monitor the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO). OMI's daily global coverage and spatial resolution as high as 13x24 km provides a unique data set of these molecules for the study of air quality from space. We present the first study of global seasonal distributions of CHOCHO from space, derived from a year of OMI observations. CHOCHO distributions are compared to simultaneous retrievals of HCHO from OMI, providing a first indication of seasonally resolved ratios of these VOCs on a global scale. Satellite retrievals are compared to global simulations of HCHO and CHOCHO, based on current knowledge of sources and sinks, using the GEOS-Chem global chemistry and transport model. Formaldehyde is both directly emitted and also produced from the oxidation of many VOCs, notably biogenic isoprene, and is removed by photolysis and oxidation. Precursors of glyoxal include isoprene, monoterpenes, and aromatics from anthropogenic, biogenic, and biomass burning emissions; it is removed by photolysis, oxidation by OH, dry/wet deposition, and aerosol uptake. As a case study, satellite observations will also be compared to ground-based measurements taken during the Pearl River Delta 2006 field campaign near Guangzhou, China, where high glyoxal concentrations are frequently observed from space.

  14. Moderator for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, M.S.; Dunn, J.T.; Hart, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a moderator for a nuclear reactor and more specifically, to a composite moderator. A moderator is designed to slow down, or thermalize, neutrons which are released during nuclear reactions in the reactor fuel. Pure or almost pure materials like light water, heavy water, beryllium or graphite are used singly as moderators at present. All these materials, are used widely. Graphite has a good mechanical strength at high temperatures encountered in the nuclear core and therefore is used as both the moderator and core structural material. It also exhibits a low neutron-capture cross section and high neutron scattering cross section. However, graphite is susceptible to attach by carbon dioxide and/or oxygen where applicable, and releases stress energy under certain circumstances, although under normal operating conditions these reactions can be controlled. (author). 1 tab

  15. Resolution propositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To put a resolution to the meeting in relation with the use of weapons made of depleted uranium is the purpose of this text. The situation of the use of depleted uranium by France during the Gulf war and other recent conflicts will be established. This resolution will give the most strict recommendations face to the eventual sanitary and environmental risks in the use of these kind of weapons. (N.C.)

  16. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Infrared and Electro-Optic Signals for High Resolution Night Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Lawrence

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic (EO image sensors exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level at daytime, but they do not work in dark environments. Infrared (IR image sensors exhibit poor resolution and cannot separate objects with similar temperature. Therefore, we propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge from EO images, which improves the resolution of IR images and helps us distinguish objects at night. Our framework superimposing/blending the edges of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image improves their resolution. In this framework, we adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF proposed by Hardie et al. for the IR image, which has the modulation transfer function (MTF of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we design an inverse filter for the proposed PSF and use it for the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps: (1 inverse filter-based IR image transformation; (2 EO image edge detection; (3 registration; and (4 blending/superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results show both blended and superimposed IR images, and demonstrate that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images. Additionally, based on the same steps, simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available.

  17. High efficiency positron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taqqu, D.

    1990-01-01

    A new positron moderation scheme is proposed. It makes use of electric and magnetic fields to confine the β + emitted by a radioactive source forcing them to slow down within a thin foil. A specific arrangement is described where an intermediary slowed-down beam of energy below 10 keV is produced. By directing it towards a standard moderator optimal conversion into slow positrons is achieved. This scheme is best applied to short lived β + emitters for which a 25% moderation efficiency can be reached. Within the state of the art technology a slow positron source intensity exceeding 2 x 10 10 e + /sec is achievable. (orig.)

  18. Interviewing the moderator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2004-01-01

    There has been an upsurge of academic interest in using focus groups (FGs) as a main or stand-alone qualitative method. In this article, the authors introduce a recently developed ancillary method to FGs called interviewing the moderator. The method is employed immediately after an FG and consists...... of a one-on-one interview with the FG moderator by another member of the research team. The authors argue, with reference to a specific study, that interviewing the moderator adds a new and valuable dimension to group interviews used in research. They describe how this method came about and provide...

  19. Mesoscopic Simulations of the Phase Behavior of Aqueous EO 19 PO 29 EO 19 Solutions Confined and Sheared by Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hongyi; Li, Yan; Krause, Wendy E.; Pasquinelli, Melissa A.; Rojas, Orlando J.

    2012-01-01

    The MesoDyn method is used to investigate associative structures in aqueous solution of a nonionic triblock copolymer consisting of poly(propylene oxide) capped on both ends with poly(ethylene oxide) chains. The effect of adsorbing (hydrophobic) and nonadsorbing (hydrophilic) solid surfaces in contact with aqueous solutions of the polymer is elucidated. The macromolecules form self-assembled structures in solution. Confinement under shear forces is investigated in terms of interfacial behavior and association. The formation of micelles under confinement between hydrophilic surfaces occurs faster than in bulk aqueous solution while layered structures assemble when the polymers are confined between hydrophobic surfaces. Micelles are deformed under shear rates of 1 μs -1 and eventually break to form persistent, adsorbed layered structures. As a result, surface damage under frictional forces is prevented. Overall, this study indicates that aqueous triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) (Pluronics, EO mPO nEO m) act as a boundary lubricant for hydrophobic surfaces but not for hydrophilic ones. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Mesoscopic Simulations of the Phase Behavior of Aqueous EO 19 PO 29 EO 19 Solutions Confined and Sheared by Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hongyi

    2012-01-25

    The MesoDyn method is used to investigate associative structures in aqueous solution of a nonionic triblock copolymer consisting of poly(propylene oxide) capped on both ends with poly(ethylene oxide) chains. The effect of adsorbing (hydrophobic) and nonadsorbing (hydrophilic) solid surfaces in contact with aqueous solutions of the polymer is elucidated. The macromolecules form self-assembled structures in solution. Confinement under shear forces is investigated in terms of interfacial behavior and association. The formation of micelles under confinement between hydrophilic surfaces occurs faster than in bulk aqueous solution while layered structures assemble when the polymers are confined between hydrophobic surfaces. Micelles are deformed under shear rates of 1 μs -1 and eventually break to form persistent, adsorbed layered structures. As a result, surface damage under frictional forces is prevented. Overall, this study indicates that aqueous triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) (Pluronics, EO mPO nEO m) act as a boundary lubricant for hydrophobic surfaces but not for hydrophilic ones. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Integrating High-Resolution Taskable Imagery into a Sensorweb for Automatic Space-Based Monitoring of Flooding in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Mclaren, David; Doubleday, Joshua; Tran, Daniel; Tanpipat, Veerachai; Chitradon, Royol; Boonya-aroonnet, Surajate; Thanapakpawin, Porranee; Mandl, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Several space-based assets (Terra, Aqua, Earth Observing One) have been integrated into a sensorweb to monitor flooding in Thailand. In this approach, the Moderate Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data from Terra and Aqua is used to perform broad-scale monitoring to track flooding at the regional level (250m/pixel) and EO-1 is autonomously tasked in response to alerts to acquire higher resolution (30m/pixel) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) data. This data is then automatically processed to derive products such as surface water extent and volumetric water estimates. These products are then automatically pushed to organizations in Thailand for use in damage estimation, relief efforts, and damage mitigation. More recently, this sensorweb structure has been used to request imagery, access imagery, and process high-resolution (several m to 30m), targetable asset imagery from commercial assets including Worldview-2, Ikonos, Radarsat-2, Landsat-7, and Geo-Eye-1. We describe the overall sensorweb framework as well as new workflows and products made possible via these extensions.

  2. EoR imaging with the SKA: the challenge of foreground removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldi, Anna

    2018-05-01

    21-cm observations of the Cosmic dawn (CD) and Epoch of Reionization (EoR) are one of the high priority science objectives for SKA Low. One of the most difficult aspects of the 21-cm measurement is the presence of foreground emission, due to our Galaxy and extragalactic sources, which is about four orders of magnitude brighter than the cosmological signal. While end-to-end simulations are being produced to investigate in details the foreground subtraction strategy, it is useful to complement this thorough but time-consuming approach with simpler, quicker ways to evaluate performance and identify possible critical steps. In this work, I present a forecast method, based on Bonaldi et al. (2015), Bonaldi & Ricciardi (2011), to understand the level of residual contamination after a component separation step, and its impact on our ability to investigate CD and EoR.

  3. Current Status of the LOFAR EoR Key Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, L. V. E.; LOFAR EoR KSP Team

    2018-05-01

    A short status update on the LOFAR Epoch of Reionization (EoR) Key Science Project (KSP) is given, regarding data acquisition, data processing and analysis, and current power-spectrum limits on the redshifted 21-cm signal of neutral hydrogen at redshifts z = 8 - 10. With caution, we present a preliminary astrophysical analysis of ~60 hr of processed LOFAR data and their resulting power spectrum, showing that potentially already interesting limits on X-ray heating during the Cosmic Dawn can already be gained. This is by no means the final analysis of this sub-set of data, but illustrates the future potential when all nearly 3000 hr of data in hand on two EoR windows will have been processed.

  4. Sustained lasing of HHG-seeded FEL by using EOS-based timing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Okayasu, Yuichi; Togashi, Tadashi; Hara, Toru; Tomizawa, Hiromitsu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Aoyama, Makoto; Yamakawa, Koichi; Iwasaki, Atsushi; Ohwada, Shigeki; Sato, Takahiro; Yamauchi, Kaoru; Otake, Yuji; Ohshima, Takashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Togawa, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Takashi; Takahashi, Eiji; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Yabashi, Makina; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    High-harmonic-generation (HHG) based seeded FEL experiments were demonstrated at SCSS, SPring-8. Seeded FEL has advantageous features against SASE such that there is no intrinsic nature of shot-noise fluctuation and output FEL pulses are in principle fully coherent in both transverse and longitudinal axes. In practical user experiments, however, an overlap between electron bunches and seed laser pulses in six-dimensional phase space needs to be precisely maintained for securing the stable lasing. Otherwise, the overlap could be quickly lost and the lasing is no more sustained. For the stable lasing, we have developed an EO (electro-optic) based timing control system, which enables to observe a timing drift between electron bunches and laser pulses, and compensate for it. Experimental results of the seeded FEL with and without the EO timing control are compared, and the effectiveness of the timing system is discussed. (author)

  5. Expanding NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Diane; Michael, Karen; Masuoka, Ed; Ye, Gang; Schmaltz, Jeffrey; Harrison, Sherry; Ziskin, Daniel; Durbin, Phil B; Protack, Steve; Rinsland, Pamela Livingstone; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) is a virtual system that provides near real-time EOS data and imagery to meet the needs of scientists and application users interested in monitoring a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena in near real-time. Over the last year: near real-time data and imagery from MOPITT, MISR, OMPS and VIIRS (Land and Atmosphere), the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) has been updated and LANCE has begun the process of integrating the Global NRT flood, and Black Marble products. In addition, following the AMSU-A2 instrument anomaly in September 2016, AIRS-only products have replaced the NRT level 2 AIRS+AMSU products. This presentation provides a brief overview of LANCE, describes the new products that are recently available and contains a preview of what to expect in LANCE over the coming year.

  6. Organ dose and effective dose with the EOS scanner in spine deformity surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide Pedersen, Peter; Petersen, Asger Greval; Eiskjær, Søren Peter

    2016-01-01

    Organ dose and effective dose with the EOS scanner in spine deformity surgery. A study on anthropomorphic phantoms describing patient radiation exposure in full spine examinations. Authors: Peter Heide Pedersen, Asger Greval Petersen, Søren Peter Eiskjær. Background: Ionizing radiation potentially...... quality images while at the same time reducing radiation dose. At our institution we use the EOS for pre- and postoperative full spine examinations. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to make first time organ dose and effective dose evaluations with micro-dose settings in full spine examinations. Our...... hypothesis is that organ dose and effective doses can be reduced 5-10 times compared to standard settings, without too high image-quality trade off, resulting in a theoretical reduction of radiation induced cancer. Methods: Patient dosimetry is performed on anthropomorphic child phantoms, representing a 5...

  7. An interpretation of the behavior of EoS/GE models for asymmetric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Panayiotis, Vlamos

    2000-01-01

    or zero pressure or at other conditions (system's pressure, constant volume packing fraction). In a number of publications over the last years, the achievements and the shortcomings of the various EoS/G(E) models have been presented via phase equilibrium calculations. This short communication provides...... an explanation of several literature EoSIGE models, especially those based on zero-reference pressure (PSRK, MHV1, MHV2), in the prediction of phase equilibria for asymmetric systems as well as an interpretation of the LCVM and kappa-MHV1 models which provide an empirical - yet as shown here theoretically...... justified - solution to these problems. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Does EO NDVI seasonal metrics capture variations in species composition and biomass due to grazing in semi-arid grassland savannas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. L.; Miehe, S.; Ceccato, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Most regional scale studies of vegetation in the Sahel have been based on Earth observation (EO) imagery due to the limited number of sites providing continuous and long term in situ meteorological and vegetation measurements. From a long time series of coarse resolution normalized difference...... vegetation index (NDVI) data a greening of the Sahel since the 1980s has been identified. However, it is poorly understood how commonly applied remote sensing techniques reflect the influence of extensive grazing (and changes in grazing pressure) on natural rangeland vegetation. This paper analyses the time...... exclosures as compared to grazed areas, substantially exceeding the amount of biomass expected to be ingested by livestock for this area. The seasonal integrated NDVI (NDVI small integral; capturing only the signal inherent to the growing season recurrent vegetation), derived using absolute thresholds...

  9. Evaluation of software based redundancy algorithms for the EOS storage system at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Andreas-Joachim; Sindrilaru, Elvin Alin; Zigann, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    EOS is a new disk based storage system used in production at CERN since autumn 2011. It is implemented using the plug-in architecture of the XRootD software framework and allows remote file access via XRootD protocol or POSIX-like file access via FUSE mounting. EOS was designed to fulfill specific requirements of disk storage scalability and IO scheduling performance for LHC analysis use cases. This is achieved by following a strategy of decoupling disk and tape storage as individual storage systems. A key point of the EOS design is to provide high availability and redundancy of files via a software implementation which uses disk-only storage systems without hardware RAID arrays. All this is aimed at reducing the overall cost of the system and also simplifying the operational procedures. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of redundancy by hardware (most classical storage installations) in comparison to redundancy by software. The latter is implemented in the EOS system and achieves its goal by spawning data and parity stripes via remote file access over nodes. The gain in redundancy and reliability comes with a trade-off in the following areas: • Increased complexity of the network connectivity • CPU intensive parity computations during file creation and recovery • Performance loss through remote disk coupling An evaluation and performance figures of several redundancy algorithms are presented for dual parity RAID and Reed-Solomon codecs. Moreover, the characteristics and applicability of these algorithms are discussed in the context of reliable data storage systems.

  10. Prediction of detonation and JWL eos parameters of energetic materials using EXPLO5 computer code

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peter, Xolani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic Organization Cape Town, South Africa 27-29 September 2016 1 PREDICTION OF DETONATION AND JWL EOS PARAMETERS OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS USING EXPLO5 COMPUTER CODE X. Peter*, Z. Jiba, M. Olivier, I.M. Snyman, F.J. Mostert and T.J. Sono.... Nowadays many numerical methods and programs are being used for carrying out thermodynamic calculations of the detonation parameters of condensed explosives, for example a BKW Fortran (Mader, 1967), Ruby (Cowperthwaite and Zwisler, 1974) TIGER...

  11. Segmented fuel and moderator rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous segmented fuel and moderator rod for use with a water cooled and moderated nuclear fuel assembly. The rod comprises: a lower fuel region containing a column of nuclear fuel; a moderator region, disposed axially above the fuel region. The moderator region has means for admitting and passing the water moderator therethrough for moderating an upper portion of the nuclear fuel assembly. The moderator region is separated from the fuel region by a water tight separator

  12. Web Monitoring of EOS Front-End Ground Operations, Science Downlinks and Level 0 Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Guy R.; Wilkinson, Chris; McLemore, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the efforts undertaken and the technology deployed to aggregate and distribute the metadata characterizing the real-time operations associated with NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS) high-rate front-end systems and the science data collected at multiple ground stations and forwarded to the Goddard Space Flight Center for level 0 processing. Station operators, mission project management personnel, spacecraft flight operations personnel and data end-users for various EOS missions can retrieve the information at any time from any location having access to the internet. The users are distributed and the EOS systems are distributed but the centralized metadata accessed via an external web server provide an effective global and detailed view of the enterprise-wide events as they are happening. The data-driven architecture and the implementation of applied middleware technology, open source database, open source monitoring tools, and external web server converge nicely to fulfill the various needs of the enterprise. The timeliness and content of the information provided are key to making timely and correct decisions which reduce project risk and enhance overall customer satisfaction. The authors discuss security measures employed to limit access of data to authorized users only.

  13. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perun, Vincent; Jarnot, Robert; Pickett, Herbert; Cofield, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Wagner, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A computer program performs level- 1B processing (the term 1B is explained below) of data from observations of the limb of the Earth by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), which is an instrument aboard the Aura spacecraft. This software accepts, as input, the raw EOS MLS scientific and engineering data and the Aura spacecraft ephemeris and attitude data. Its output consists of calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. [This software is one of several computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing EOS MLS data. Starting from level 0 (representing the aforementioned raw data, the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (e.g., 1B and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing.] At the time of this reporting, this software is at version 2.2 and incorporates improvements over a prior version that make the code more robust, improve calibration, provide more diagnostic outputs, improve the interface with the Level 2 PGE, and effect a 15-percent reduction in file sizes by use of data compression.

  14. Modification of Peng Robinson EOS for modelling (vapour + liquid) equilibria with electrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseri, Hadi; Lotfollahi, Mohammad Nader

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Extended PR-EOS was presented for VLE of H 2 O/Salt/CO 2 systems at high pressure. → The proposed EPR-EOS is based upon contributions to the Helmholtz energy. → Born, Margules, and Debye-Huckel or mean spherical approximation terms were used. → Two different mixing rules Panagiotopoulos and Reid and Kwak and Mansoori (KM) were used. → A combination of KM mixing rule with DH term results more accurate VLE results. - Abstract: A modification of the extended Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) is presented to describe the (vapour + liquid) equilibria of systems containing water and salts. The modification employs three additional terms including a Born term, a Margules term and two terms separately used for estimation of the long-range electrostatic interactions (the Debye-Huckel (DH) or the mean spherical approximation (MSA) terms). Effects of two mixing rules, first, the Panagiotopoulos and Reid mixing rule (PR) and, second, the Kwak and Mansoori mixing rule (KM), on the final values of VLE calculations are also investigated. The results show that the KM mixing rule is more appropriate than the PR mixing rule. The proposed equation of state is used to calculate the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) of the systems containing (water + sodium sulphate + carbon dioxide) and (water + sodium chloride + carbon dioxide) at high pressure. The comparison of calculated results with the experimental data shows that a combination of KM mixing rule with the DH term results a more accurate VLE values.

  15. The effect of tributyltin on human eosinophilic [correction of eosinophylic] leukemia EoL-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Jolanta; Włosiak, Przemysław; Wilk, Anna; Antonik, Justyna; Czyz, Jarosław; Madeja, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Organotin compounds are chemicals that are widely used in industry and agriculture as plastic stabilizers, catalysts and biocides. Many of them, including tributyltin (TBT), have been detected in human food and, as a consequence, detectable levels have been found in human blood. As organotin compounds were shown to possess immunotoxic activity, we focused our attention on the effect of TBT on the basic determinants of the function of eosinophils, i.e. cell adhesiveness and motility. We used human eosinophylic leukemia EoL-1 cells, a common in vitro cellular model of human eosinophils. Here, we demonstrate that TBT causes a dose-dependent decrease in the viability of EoL-1 cells. When administered at sub-lethal concentrations, TBT significantly decreases the adhesion of EoL-1 cells to human fibroblasts (HSFs) and inhibits their migration on fibroblast surfaces. Since the basic function of eosinophils is to invade inflamed tissues, our results indicate that TBT, and possibly other organotin compounds, may affect major cellular properties involved in the determination of in vivo eosinophil function.

  16. EOS as the present and future solution for data storage at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, AJ; Adde, G

    2015-01-01

    EOS is an open source distributed disk storage system in production since 2011 at CERN. Development focus has been on low-latency analysis use cases for LHC(1) and non- LHC experiments and life-cycle management using JBOD(2) hardware for multi PB storage installations. The EOS design implies a split of hot and cold storage and introduced a change of the traditional HSM(3) functionality based workflows at CERN.The 2015 deployment brings storage at CERN to a new scale and foresees to breach 100 PB of disk storage in a distributed environment using tens of thousands of (heterogeneous) hard drives. EOS has brought to CERN major improvements compared to past storage solutions by allowing quick changes in the quality of service of the storage pools. This allows the data centre to quickly meet the changing performance and reliability requirements of the LHC experiments with minimal data movements and dynamic reconfiguration. For example, the software stack has met the specific needs of the dual computing centre set-...

  17. Earth Observing System (EOS)/ Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Special Test Equipment. Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the functional, performance, and interface requirements for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) Special Test Equipment (STE) software used in the test and integration of the instruments.

  18. Berkeley Lab's Saul Perlmutter wins E.O. Lawrence Award; scientist's work on supernovae reveals accelerating Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Saul Perlmutter, from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Physics Division and leader of the Supernova Cosmology Project based there, has won the DOE's 2002 E.O. Lawrence Award in the physics category (2 pages).

  19. Cold moderators at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, upgrading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  20. Coupled moderator neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    Optimizing the neutronic performance of a coupled-moderator system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source is a new and challenging area for the spallation target-system designer. For optimal performance of a neutron source, it is essential to have good communication with instrument scientists to obtain proper design criteria and continued interaction with mechanical, thermal-hydraulic, and materials engineers to attain a practical design. A good comprehension of the basics of coupled-moderator neutronics will aid in the proper design of a target system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source

  1. SU-E-I-15: Comparison of Radiation Dose for Radiography and EOS in Adolescent Scoliosis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, B; Walz-Flannigan, A [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate patient radiation dose for whole spine imaging using EOS, a new biplanar slot-scanning radiographic system and compare with standard scoliosis radiography. Methods: The EOS imaging system (EOS Imaging, Paris, France) consists of two orthogonal x-ray fan beams which simultaneously acquire frontal and lateral projection images of a standing patient. The patient entrance skin air kerma was measured for each projection image using manufacturer-recommended exposure parameters for spine imaging. Organ and effective doses were estimated using a commercially-available Monte Carlo simulation program (PCXMC, STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland) for a 15 year old mathematical phantom model. These results were compared to organ and effective dose estimated for scoliosis radiography using computed radiography (CR) with standard exposure parameters obtained from a survey of pediatric radiographic projections. Results: The entrance skin air kerma for EOS was found to be 0.18 mGy and 0.33 mGy for posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral projections, respectively. This compares to 0.76 mGy and 1.4 mGy for CR, PA and lateral projections. Effective dose for EOS (PA and lateral projections combined) is 0.19 mSv compared to 0.51 mSv for CR. Conclusion: The EOS slot-scanning radiographic system allows for reduced patient radiation dose in scoliosis patients as compared to standard CR radiography.

  2. MODIST_L3m_DAY_nFLH_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  3. MODIST_L3m_SCWI_nFLH_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  4. MODISA_L3m_MO_NSST_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  5. MODISA_L3m_SNSP_PIC_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  6. MODIST_L3m_SCSP_RRS_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  7. MODIST_L3b_SNSP_CHL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  8. MODISA_L3m_MO_CDOM_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  9. MODISA_L3b_MO_CDOM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  10. MODISA_L3b_SCWI_RRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  11. MODISA_L3b_SNSU_PIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  12. MODIST_L3m_SCWI_CHL_chlor_a_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  13. MODIST_L3m_CU_POC_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  14. MODIST_L3m_MC_SST_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  15. MODISA_L3b_SCWI_CDOM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  16. MODIST_L3m_SNWI_FLH_ipar_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  17. MODISA_L3m_SNAU_NSST_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  18. MODISA_L3m_SCSP_RRS_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  19. MODISA_L3m_CU_PAR_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  20. MODIST_L3m_MC_POC_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  1. MODIST_L3m_SNSU_KD490_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  2. MODIST_L3m_SCSP_KD490_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  3. MODIST_L3b_SNSP_KD490

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  4. MODISA_L3m_CU_RRS_angstrom_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  5. MODISA_L3m_SNWI_KD490_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  6. MODIST_L3b_CU_SST4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  7. MODISA_L2_LAC_SST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  8. MODISA_L3b_SCSP_PAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  9. MODIST_L3m_YR_FLH_ipar_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  10. MODIST_L3m_DAY_PAR_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  11. MODIST_L3m_8D_nFLH_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  12. MODIST_L3b_YR_RRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  13. MODIST_L3b_SNSP_RRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  14. MODISA_L3m_SNSP_RRS_aot_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  15. MODISA_L3b_SCWI_PAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  16. MODISA_L3m_SNSU_PIC_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  17. MODISA_L3b_SCSP_CDOM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  18. MODISA_L3m_SCAU_SST_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  19. MODISA_L3b_R32_PAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  20. MODISA_L3m_SCSP_RRS_angstrom_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  1. MODIST_L3b_CU_PIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  2. MODISA_L3b_SNSP_SST4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  3. MODISA_L3m_SNAU_RRS_aot_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  4. MODISA_L3b_R32_KD490

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  5. MODISA_L3b_CU_SST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  6. MODISA_L3m_YR_RRS_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  7. MODIST_L3m_8D_SST_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  8. MODIST_L3m_YR_NSST_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  9. MODISA_L3b_SCSU_PAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  10. MODISA_L3m_SCSU_POC_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  11. MODISA_L3m_MC_FLH_ipar_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  12. MODISA_L3m_SCSU_RRS_aot_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  13. MODIST_L3b_SNWI_SST4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  14. MODISA_L3m_SCSU_CHL_chlor_a_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  15. MODIST_L3m_SNAU_KD490_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  16. MODIST_L3m_DAY_KD490_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  17. MODIST_L3m_SCAU_RRS_aot_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  18. MODIST_L3b_CU_FLH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  19. MODISA_L3b_SNAU_CDOM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  20. MODIST_L3b_8D_POC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  1. MODISA_L3m_SCAU_nFLH_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  2. MODISA_L3b_DAY_KD490

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  3. MODIST_L3m_DAY_RRS_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  4. MODISA_L3b_SCAU_CDOM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  5. MODIST_L3b_SNSP_POC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  6. MODISA_L3b_8D_PAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  7. MODIST_L3b_SNAU_KD490

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  8. MODIST_L3m_SNSP_PAR_9km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  9. MODISA_L3m_SNSU_RRS_4km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  10. Moderator Chemistry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation

  11. Den moderate revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bøje

    "normale" industrivirksomheder, men den er absolut set begrænset. Årsagerne til denne kun "moderate revolution" af organisationsformerne diskuteres: Er det fordi klassisk organisation og social nærkontakt er nødvendig i den nye økonomi, eller er det manglende fantasi og tryghedsbehov? Begge muligheder...

  12. Cryogenic moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplock, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the present design of the two cold moderators to be built for the Spallation Neutron Source. It discusses the reasons behind a number of the design features and highlights several problem areas requiring solutions before a final design can be constructed

  13. In Everything Moderation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    For many people, drinking alcohol is a regular part of social occasions, but moderation is important. Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to serious health and social problems. A recent report found that binge drinking is common among women and girls. In this podcast, Dr. Dafna Kanny discusses the dangers of binge drinking.

  14. The Global Structure of UTLS Ozone in GEOS-5: A Multi-Year Assimilation of EOS Aura Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargan, Krzysztof; Pawson, Steven; Olsen, Mark A.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Douglass, Anne R.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Strahan, Susan E.; Nielsen, J. Eric

    2015-01-01

    Eight years of ozone measurements retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Microwave Limb Sounder, both on the EOS Aura satellite, have been assimilated into the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system. This study thoroughly evaluates this assimilated product, highlighting its potential for science. The impact of observations on the GEOS-5 system is explored by examining the spatial distribution of the observation-minus-forecast statistics. Independent data are used for product validation. The correlation coefficient of the lower-stratospheric ozone column with ozonesondes is 0.99 and the bias is 0.5%, indicating the success of the assimilation in reproducing the ozone variability in that layer. The upper-tropospheric assimilated ozone column is about 10% lower than the ozonesonde column but the correlation is still high (0.87). The assimilation is shown to realistically capture the sharp cross-tropopause gradient in ozone mixing ratio. Occurrence of transport-driven low ozone laminae in the assimilation system is similar to that obtained from the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) above the 400 K potential temperature surface but the assimilation produces fewer laminae than seen by HIRDLS below that surface. Although the assimilation produces 5 - 8 fewer occurrences per day (up to approximately 20%) during the three years of HIRDLS data, the interannual variability is captured correctly. This data-driven assimilated product is complementary to ozone fields generated from chemistry and transport models. Applications include study of the radiative forcing by ozone and tracer transport near the tropopause.

  15. EOS simulation and GRNN modeling of the constant volume depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsharkawy, A.M.; Foda, S.G. [Kuwait University, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    1998-03-01

    Currently, two approaches are being used to predict the changes in retrograde gas condensate composition and estimate the pressure depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs. The first approach uses the equation of states whereas the second uses empirical correlations. Equations of states (EOS) are poor predictive tools for complex hydrocarbon systems. The EOS needs adjustment against phase behavior data of reservoir fluid of known composition. The empirical correlation does not involve numerous numerical computations but their accuracy is limited. This study presents two general regression neural network (GRNN) models. The first model, GRNNM1, is developed to predict dew point pressure and gas compressibility at dew point using initial composition of numerous samples while the second model, GRNNM2, is developed to predict the changes in well stream effluent composition at any stages of pressure depletion. GRNNM2 can also be used to determine the initial reservoir fluid composition using dew point pressure, gas compressibility at dew point, and reservoir temperature. These models are based on analysis of 142 sample of laboratory studies of constant volume depletion (CVD) for gas condensate systems forming a total of 1082 depletion stages. The database represents a wide range of gas condensate systems obtained worldwide. The performance of the GRNN models has been compared to simulation results of the equation of state. The study shows that the proposed general regression neural network models are accurate, valid, and reliable. These models can be used to forecast CVD data needed for many reservoir engineering calculations in case laboratory data is unavailable. The GRNN models save computer time involved in EOS calculations. The study also show that once these models are properly trained they can be used to cut expenses of frequent sampling and laborious experimental CVD tests required for gas condensate reservoirs. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Enhanced Formation Flying for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) New Millennium Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Quinn, David

    1997-01-01

    With scientific objectives for Earth observation programs becoming more ambitious and spacecraft becoming more autonomous, the need for new technical approaches on the feasibility of achieving and maintaining formations of spacecraft has come to the forefront. The trend to develop small low cost spacecraft has led many scientists to recognize the advantage of flying several spacecraft in formation, an example of which is shown in the figure below, to achieve the correlated instrument measurements formerly possible only by flying many instruments on a single large platform. Yet, formation flying imposes additional complications on orbit maintenance, especially when each spacecraft has its own orbit requirements. However, advances in automation proposed by GSFC Codes 550 and 712 allow more of the burden in maneuver planning and execution to be placed onboard the spacecraft, mitigating some of the associated operational concerns. The purpose of this analysis is to develop the fundamentals of formation flying mechanics, concepts for understanding the relative motion of free flying spacecraft, and an operational control theory for formation maintenance of the Earth Observing-1 (EO-l) spacecraft that is part of the New Millennium. Results of this development can be used to determine the appropriateness of formation flying for a particular case as well as the operational impacts. Applications to the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Earth Observing System (EOS) and New Millennium (NM) were highly considered in analysis and applications. This paper presents the proposed methods for the guidance and control of the EO-1 spacecraft to formation fly with the Landsat-7 spacecraft using an autonomous closed loop three axis navigation control, GPS, and Cross link navigation support. Simulation results using various fidelity levels of modeling, algorithms developed and implemented in MATLAB, and autonomous 'fuzzy logic' control using AutoCon will be presented. The results of these

  17. L4 Milestone Report for MixEOS 2016 experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, Eric Nicholas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, Paul Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Merritt, Elizabeth Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Denne, Patrick Hagen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Accurate simulations of fluid and plasma flows require accurate thermodynamic properties of the fluids or plasmas. This thermodynamic information is represented by the equations of state of the materials. For pure materials, the equations of state may be represented by analytical models for idealized circumstances, or by tabular means, such as the Sesame tables. However, when a computational cell has a mixture of two or more fluids, the equations of state are not well understood, particularly under the circumstances of high energy densities. This is a particularly difficult issue for Eulerian codes, wherein mixed cells arise simply due to the advection process. LANL Eulerian codes typically assume an “Amagat’s Law” (or Law of Partial Volumes) for the mixture in which the pressures and temperatures of fluids are at an equilibrium that is consistent with the fluids being segregated within the cell. However, for purposes of computing other EOS properties, e.g., bulk modulus, or sound speed, the fluids are considered to be fully “mixed”. LANL has also been investigating implementing instead “Dalton’s Law” in which the total pressure is considered to be the sum of the partial pressures within the cell. For ideal gases, these two laws give the same result. Other possibilities are nonpressure- temperature-equilibrated approaches in which the two fluids are not assumed to “mix” at all, and the EOS properties of the cell are computed from, say, volume-weighted averages of the individual fluid properties. The assumption of the EOS properties within a mixed cell can have a pronounced effect on the behavior of the cell, resulting in, for example, different shock speeds, pressures, temperatures and densities within the cell. There is no apparent consensus as to which approach is best under HED conditions, though we note that under typical atmospheric and near atmospheric conditions the differences may be slight.

  18. Building A Collaborative And Distributed E&O Program For EarthScope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Wallace, M. K.; Boyd, T.; Richard, G.; Ellins, K.; Meertens, C.; Semken, S.; Taber, J.; Benthien, M.; Wald, L.; Marvinney, R.

    2003-12-01

    EarthScope's education and outreach (E&O) mission is to ensure that the EarthScope experiment creates as its legacy a public more knowledgeable and understanding of the scientific and societal contributions made by the EarthScope experiment and Earth science. It will fulfill this commitment by developing and disseminating programs and products that utilize the data, models, technology and discoveries of EarthScope. The EarthScope Education and Outreach Network (EON), consisting of local EON alliances, the EarthScope facilities, partner organizations and a coordinating office, will facilitate this E&O mission. The local EON alliances, which will vary in size and purpose to respond quickly and to meet the specific needs in a region, will carry out the bulk of the effort. Thus, EarthScope EON can provide customized services that engage culturally, economically and geographically diverse audiences at the national and local scales. The EarthScope facilities and research community will provide access to data, models, and visualization tools for educational purposes. Partnerships with other national and local science education and outreach programs at colleges, universities, research facilities and professional societies within the EarthScope community as well as relevant programs at museums and parks, state geologic surveys and emergency management agencies, and K-12 schools are critical to EON's success. These partnerships will allow EON to use existing resources, networks and expertise to gear up quickly and efficiently. As EON develops, it will reciprocate by contributing new resources and expertise to the partnerships that help improve public understanding of Earth systems overall and promote effective application of EarthScope discoveries. In this presentation, we will outline major programs and products envisioned for EarthScope, plans for evaluating those programs locally and nationally, and mechanisms for collaborating with existing E&O programs.

  19. Relativistic nuclear collisions from the EOS experiment at the Bevalac: collective observables and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insolia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The EOS Collaborations has completed an exclusive study of relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac using a variety of projectile, target and beam energy combinations. We report here results on directed sidewards flow in Au+Au between 0.25 AGeV and 1.2 AGeV, using a standard in-plane transverse momentum analysis. We also report on projectile fragmentation of Au in C at 1 AGeV. An analysis of fluctuations and critical exponents for small systems seems to support the idea that the multifragmentation regime is associated with a liquid gas phase transition in nuclear matter. (authors)

  20. Enhanced EOS photovoltaic power system capability with InP solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program which opens a new era in international cooperation to study the Earth's environment. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit, two by NASA, two by ESA, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing five micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the advanced photovoltaic solar array the payload savings approaches 12 percent.

  1. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  2. [Moderately haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotsenko, Iu A; Doronina, N V; Li, Ts D; Reshetnikov, A S

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic methylobacteria utilizing oxidized and substituted methane derivatives as carbon and energy sources are widespread in nature and involved in the global carbon cycle, being a unique biofilter on the path of these C1 compounds from different ecosystems to the atmosphere. New data on the biological features of moderately halophilic, neutrophilic, and alkaliphilic methylobacteria isolated from biotopes with higher osmolarity (seas, saline and soda lakes, saline soils, and deteriorating marble) are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the latest advances in the study of the mechanisms of osmoadaptation of aerobic moderately haloalkaliphilic methylobacteria: formation of osmolytes, in particular, molecular and genetic aspects of biosynthesis of the universal bioprotectant ectoine. The prospects for further studies of the physiological and biochemical principles of haloalkalophily and for the application of haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylobacteria in biosynthesis and biodegradation are discussed.

  3. Cold moderator scattering kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    New thermal-scattering-law files in ENDF format have been developed for solid methane, liquid methane liquid ortho- and para-hydrogen, and liquid ortho- and para-deuterium using up-to-date models that include such effects as incoherent elastic scattering in the solid, diffusion and hindered vibration and rotations in the liquids, and spin correlations for the hydrogen and deuterium. These files were generated with the new LEAPR module of the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System. Other modules of this system were used to produce cross sections for these moderators in the correct format for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code (MCNP) being used for cold-moderator-design calculations at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE). 20 refs., 14 figs

  4. Asymmetry in dentition and shape of pharyngeal arches in the clonal fish Chrosomus eos-neogaeus: Phenotypic plasticity and developmental instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Leung

    Full Text Available The effect of the environment may result in different developmental outcomes. Extrinsic signals can modify developmental pathways and result in alternative phenotypes (phenotypic plasticity. The environment can also be interpreted as a stressor and increase developmental instability (developmental noise. Directional and fluctuating asymmetry provide a conceptual background to discriminate between these results. This study aims at assessing whether variation in dentition and shape of pharyngeal arches of the clonal fish Chrosomus eos-neogaeus results from developmental instability or environmentally induced changes. A total of 262 specimens of the Chrosomus eos-neogaeus complex from 12 natural sites were analysed. X-ray microcomputed tomography (X-ray micro-CT was used to visualize the pharyngeal arches in situ with high resolution. Variation in the number of pharyngeal teeth is high in hybrids in contrast to the relative stability observed in both parental species. The basal dental formula is symmetric while the most frequent alternative dental formula is asymmetric. Within one lineage, large variation in the proportion of individuals bearing basal or alternative dental formulae was observed among sites in the absence of genetic difference. Both dentition and arch shape of this hybrid lineage were explained significantly by environmental differences. Only individuals bearing asymmetric dental formula displayed fluctuating asymmetry as well as directional left-right asymmetry for the arches. The hybrids appeared sensitive to environmental signals and intraspecific variation on pharyngeal teeth was not random but reflects phenotypic plasticity. Altogether, these results support the influence of the environment as a trigger for an alternative developmental pathway resulting in left-right asymmetry in dentition and shape of pharyngeal arches.

  5. Land, Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) AMSR2 Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Harrison, S.; Lin, H.; Flynn, S.; Nair, M.; Conover, H.; Graves, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) system was initiated to ensure the availability of NASA satellite data products to those partners who have grown to rely upon near real-time (NRT) data for their decision support systems. The LANCE Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) system was able to address the needs of the NRT community in areas such as weather prediction and forecasting, monitoring of natural hazards, disaster relief, agriculture, and homeland security for nearly one year before the instrument failed in 2011. The timely launch of Global Change Observation Mission -Water 1 (GCOM-W1) and the AMSR2 instrument by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in 2012 was very important to continue the time series of AMSR instruments. The LANCE element for AMSR2 was able to leverage the LANCE AMSR-E system architecture, using modified AMSR-E standard product algorithms in order to make preliminary data products available to NRT users before US AMSR2 standard product algorithms were available. This presentation will describe the five AMSR2 NRT product suites available from LANCE - Sea Ice, Snow, Rain/Ocean, and Soil Moisture. We will also discuss future plans for LANCE AMSR2.

  6. Femoral anteversion assessment: Comparison of physical examination, gait analysis, and EOS biplanar radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, David E; Wack, Linda I; Davis, Roy B; Hardin, James W

    2018-05-01

    Multiple measurement methods are available to assess transverse plane alignment of the lower extremity. This study was performed to determine the extent of correlation between femoral anteversion assessment using simultaneous biplanar radiographs and three-dimensional modeling (EOS imaging), clinical hip rotation by physical examination, and dynamic hip rotation assessed by gait analysis. Seventy-seven patients with cerebral palsy (GMFCS Level I and II) and 33 neurologically typical children with torsional abnormalities completed a comprehensive gait analysis with same day biplanar anterior-posterior and lateral radiographs and three-dimensional transverse plane assessment of femoral anteversion. Correlations were determined between physical exam of hip rotation, EOS imaging of femoral anteversion, and transverse plane hip kinematics for this retrospective review study. Linear regression analysis revealed a weak relationship between physical examination measures of hip rotation and biplanar radiographic assessment of femoral anteversion. Similarly, poor correlation was found between clinical evaluation of femoral anteversion and motion assessment of dynamic hip rotation. Correlations were better in neurologically typical children with torsional abnormalities compared to children with gait dysfunction secondary to cerebral palsy. Dynamic hip rotation cannot be predicted by physical examination measures of hip range of motion or from three-dimensional assessment of femoral anteversion derived from biplanar radiographs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and EO-1 ALI sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Meyer, D.J.; Helder, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) Mission, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) demonstrates a potential technological direction for Landsat Data Continuity Missions. To evaluate ALI's capabilities in this role, a cross-calibration methodology has been developed using image pairs from the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and EO-1 (ALI) to verify the radiometric calibration of ALI with respect to the well-calibrated L7 ETM+ sensor. Results have been obtained using two different approaches. The first approach involves calibration of nearly simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed simultaneously by the two sensors. The second approach uses vicarious calibration techniques to compare the predicted top-of-atmosphere radiance derived from ground reference data collected during the overpass to the measured radiance obtained from the sensor. The results indicate that the relative sensor chip assemblies gains agree with the ETM+ visible and near-infrared bands to within 2% and the shortwave infrared bands to within 4%.

  8. Expanding NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D.; Michael, K.; Masuoka, E.; Ye, G.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Harrison, S.; Ziskin, D.; Durbin, P. B.; Protack, S.; Rinsland, P. L.; Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F. S.; Olsina, O.; Fu, G.; Ederer, G. A.; Ding, F.; Braun, J.; Gumley, L.; Prins, E. M.; Davidson, C. C.; Wong, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) is a virtual system that provides near real-time EOS data and imagery to meet the needs of scientists and application users interested in monitoring a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena in near real-time. Over the last year: near real-time products and imagery from MOPITT, MISR, OMPS and VIIRS (Land and Atmosphere) have been added; the Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) has been updated and LANCE has begun the process of integrating the Global NRT flood product. In addition, following the AMSU-A2 instrument anomaly in September 2016, AIRS-only products have replaced the NRT level 2 AIRS+AMSU products. This presentation provides a brief overview of LANCE, describes the new products that are recently available and contains a preview of what to expect in LANCE over the coming year. For more information visit: https://earthdata.nasa.gov/lance

  9. On-orbit test results from the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jenifer B.; Digenis, Constantine J.; Gibbs, Margaret D.; Hearn, David R.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Welsh, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is the primary instrument flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1), launched on November 21, 2000. It was developed under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The NMP mission objective is to flight-validate advanced technologies that will enable dramatic improvements in performance, cost, mass, and schedule for future, Landsat-like, Earth Science Enterprise instruments. ALI contains a number of innovative features designed to achieve this objective. These include the basic instrument architecture which employs a push-broom data collection mode, a wide field of view optical design, compact multi-spectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. During the first ninety days on orbit, the instrument performance was evaluated by collecting several Earth scenes and comparing them to identical scenes obtained by Landsat7. In addition, various on-orbit calibration techniques were exercised. This paper will present an overview of the EO-1 mission activities during the first ninety days on-orbit, details of the ALI instrument performance and a comparison with the ground calibration measurements.

  10. Design for LTE EOS and opacity experiments using supersonic radiation waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, T. E.; Peterson, R. R.; Tierney, H. E.

    2007-11-01

    Opacity and EOS at 100-200 eV are important physical parameters in ICF experiments. We describe an experiment design that uses the supersonic propagation of hohlraum radiation in foams to isochorically heat samples. Laser and Z-pinch experiments frequently use 150 to 220-eV quasi-blackbody emission from hohlraums to drive physics experiments. A foam target encapsulated in a gold-wall cylinder is placed next to the hohlraum. The low density and opacity foam captures some hohlraum emission and generates a supersonically-propagating radiation wave. The material heated by the wave is cooler towards the high-albedo gold wall. Modeling and past measurements show that core regions of the foam have small thermal gradients. We place a small, thin sample (e.g., Al, Si, or Fe) in the thermally-uniform region. X-ray emission of tracers and the sample as well as quasi-continuum x-ray absorption will be measured using time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The foam's EOS can be measured to ±5% by blast waves with a well characterized drive. This experiment could use the OMEGA, Z-Beamlet, and/or ZR facilities to explore temperature-dependent conditions.

  11. Lekens alternativa geografi. Om Zacharias Topelius bidrag i Eos på 1850-talet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widhe, Olle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the history of Nordic children’s literature the Swedish speaking Finnish author Zacharias Topelius (1818–1898 is not only recognized for developing a new form of realism but also for his fictional rascal, Walter. His eight stories about the mischievous Walter, “Walters Äfwentyr” (1855–1856, originally published in the Finnish magazine Eos, is thus considered to be the first children’s stories in Swedish that articulate the child as an unruly but good-hearted character. This essay, however, shows that the development of Topelian realism, and the emergence of the rascal and villain in the Nordic literature for children during the 1850s, is closely connected to the depiction of children’s play. In many of the stories published in Eos Topelius returns to the portrayal of young boys playing soldiers. In this way he positions the spirited fantasy of children in opposition to the adult world of order and seriousness. This alternative geography of play creates a space for the child’s perspective, and does it in a mode that resembles the realism of the forerunner Olof Fryxell (1806–1900. Topelius’ representation of play nevertheless seems to stand in opposition to the adult world in a more explicit way. It conveys the imaginings of unruly and playful boyhood masculinity as a means to achieve the seriousness of the adult middle-class male.

  12. Modeling and performance assessment in QinetiQ of EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John W.; Potter, Gary E.

    2002-11-01

    QinetiQ are the technical authority responsible for specifying the performance requirements for the procurement of airborne reconnaissance systems, on behalf of the UK MoD. They are also responsible for acceptance of delivered systems, overseeing and verifying the installed system performance as predicted and then assessed by the contractor. Measures of functional capability are central to these activities. The conduct of these activities utilises the broad technical insight and wide range of analysis tools and models available within QinetiQ. This paper focuses on the tools, methods and models that are applicable to systems based on EO and IR sensors. The tools, methods and models are described, and representative output for systems that QinetiQ has been responsible for is presented. The principle capability applicable to EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems is the STAR (Simulation Tools for Airborne Reconnaissance) suite of models. STAR generates predictions of performance measures such as GRD (Ground Resolved Distance) and GIQE (General Image Quality) NIIRS (National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scales). It also generates images representing sensor output, using the scene generation software CAMEO-SIM and the imaging sensor model EMERALD. The simulated image 'quality' is fully correlated with the predicted non-imaging performance measures. STAR also generates image and table data that is compliant with STANAG 7023, which may be used to test ground station functionality.

  13. A Preliminary Review on Economies of Scale (EOS Towards Industrialized Building System (IBS Manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Ariffin Syazwana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized Building System (IBS is a potential technology to improve productivity of construction industry. Controlled production and minimum generation of construction waste are some of the benefits that can be achieved by replacing conventional construction with IBS. In business, IBS is giving a huge opportunity for manufacturer and supplier to expand their business while contributing to construction development. However, bad strategies will put the company in high risk due to higher initial capital for machines and equipment. Therefore, strategic planning for company’s growth, profit maximization, and enhancement of productivity is undeniable to ensure the success of business in construction industry. This preliminary paper is exploring associated factors that affect Economy of Scale (EOS and their relationships in catalyzing the IBS manufacturer especially precast concrete as the scope of study to continue their business in the construction industry. Thus, a framework of EOS is proposed to assist IBS manufacturers to ensure their company’s growth and stability, competitiveness in term of monopoly or an oligopoly, increasing productivity, leading constant returns to scale, and finally increasing the firm’s efficiency. The refined EOS’s conceptual framework is an important turning point to support the development of decision making tools for IBS manufacturer towards their stability and survival in this highly competitive industry.

  14. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  15. House dust mite induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in EoL-1 human eosinophilic leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Byoung Chul; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2007-10-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is considered to be the most common indoor allergen associated with bronchial asthma. In this study, we investigated whether crude extract of the HDM Dermatophagoides farinae could activate human eosinophilic leukemic cells (EoL-1) to induce upregulation of cell-surface adhesion molecules. When EoL-1 cells were incubated with D. farinae extract, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) significantly increased on the cell surfaces compared to cells incubated with medium alone. In contrast, surface expression of CD11b and CD49d in EoL-1 cells was not affected by D. farinae extract. In addition, pretreatment of cells with NF-kappaB inhibitor (MG-132) or JNK inhibitor (SP600125) significantly inhibited ICAM-1 expression promoted by HDM extract. However, neither p38 MAP kinase inhibitor nor MEK inhibitor prevented HDM-induced ICAM-1 expression in EoL-1 cells. These results suggest that crude extract of D. farinae induces ICAM-1 expression in EoL-1 cells through signaling pathways involving both NF-kappaB and JNK.

  16. The long periodicity phase (LPP) controversy part I: The influence of a natural-like ratio of the CER[EOS] analogue [EOS]-br in a CER[NP]/[AP] based stratum corneum modelling system: A neutron diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Lange, Stefan; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Demé, Bruno; Langner, Andreas; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2018-06-18

    This study used neutron diffraction to investigate a ceramide-[NP] C24/[AP] C24 /[EOS]-br C30/cholesterol/lignoceric acid (0.6: 0.3: 0.1: 0.7: 1) based stratum corneum modelling system. By adding specifically deuterated ceramides-[NP]-D 3 , [AP]-D 3 , and [EOS]-br-D 3 , detailed information on the lamellar and the nanostructure of the system was obtained. For the short periodicity phase a natural-like lamellar repeat distance of 5.47 ± 0.02 nm was observed, similar to the [NP]/[AP] base system without the [EOS]-br. Unlike in this system the ceramides here were slightly tilted, hinting towards a slightly less natural arrangement. Due to the deuteration it was possible to observe that the long ceramide chains were overlapping in the lamellar mid-plane. This is considered to be an important feature for the natural stratum corneum. Despite the presence of a ceramide [EOS] analogue - able to form a long phase arrangement - no distinct long periodicity phase was formed, despite a slightly higher than natural ω-acyl ceramide ratio of 10 mol%. The deuterated variant of this ceramide determined that the very long ceramide was integrated into the short periodicity phase, spanning multiple layers instead. The - compared to the base system - unchanged repeat distance highlights the stability of this structure. Furthermore, the localisation of the very long ceramide in the short periodicity phase indicates the possibility of a crosslinking effect and thus a multilayer stabilizing role for the ceramide [EOS]. It can be concluded, that additionally to the mere presence of ceramide-[EOS] more complex conditions have to be met in order to form this long phase. This has to be further investigated in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hügle, Th.; Mocko, M.; Hartl, M.A.; Daemen, L.L.; Muhrer, G.

    2014-01-01

    New challenges in neutron scattering result in an increased demand in novel moderator concepts. The most direct way to address the problem would be to change the moderator material itself. However the range of available neutron moderator materials is small. In this paper, we discuss triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material especially promising for cold neutron moderator applications. Our investigations include a parallel experimental and theoretical approach ranging from cross-section measurements and inelastic neutron spectroscopy to molecular modeling. -- Highlights: • Triphenylmethane as a potential moderator material is discussed. • Parallel theoretical and experimental approach. • Possibly very useful for cold neutrons

  18. Moderation of neutron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlatt, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor system having a nuclear reactor which has a core including fuel assemblies, means for transmitting through the core a coolant, the coolant having a predetermined neutron-energy moderating property, sealed tubes in the core, each tube containing a material having a different neutron-energy moderating property than the coolant, means, when actuated, to engage at least certain of the tubes, for opening certain of the tubes to permit the coolant to replace the material in the tubes thereby to change the energy spectrum of the neutrons in the reactor, hydraulic means, connected to the opening means, for actuating the opening means to engage certain of the tubes to open the tubes. A device, external to the reactor, connected to the hydraulic means controlls the actuation of the opening means, the opening means being so set with reference to the tubes that only certain of the tubes are opened at any time as the opening means is advanced towards the tubes by the hydraulic means

  19. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, YunJae

    2015-12-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.

  1. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  2. How do people define moderation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EOS microdose protocol for the radiological follow-up of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilharreborde, Brice; Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Alison, Marianne; Mazda, Keyvan

    2016-02-01

    Imaging plays a key role in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) to determine the prognosis and accordingly define the best therapeutic strategy to follow. Conventional radiographs with ionizing radiation have been associated with 1-2 % increased lifetime risk of developing cancer in children, and physicians, therefore, need a sensitive but harmless way to explore patients at risk, according to the "as low as reasonably achievable" concept. The EOS system (EOS imaging, Paris, France) is available in routine clinical use since 2007, and allows 3D reconstructions of the trunk in standing position with significant radiation reduction. With recent technical advances, further dose reduction can be obtained, but at the cost of image quality that might alter the reliability of 3D reconstructions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the reproducibility of a "microdose" protocol, and evaluate its use in clinical practice. 32 consecutive patients followed for AIS were prospectively included. Biplanar radiographs were obtained with the EOS system according to the new microdose protocol. From the microdose images obtained, three experienced operators performed 3D reconstructions, two times for each subject in a random order (total, 192 reconstructions). The intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility were evaluated, as recommended by the International Organization for Standardization, for the most clinically relevant 3D radiological parameters. The identification of the required anatomical landmarks for the "fast spine" reconstruction process was possible in all cases. None of the patients required a second acquisition for 3D analysis. Mean time for reconstruction was 5 ± 2 min. The intraoperator repeatability was better than interoperator reproducibility for all parameters, with values ranging between 3° and 8° for frontal and sagittal spinal parameters, and between 1° and 8° for pelvic measurements. The agreement was very good for all clinical

  4. Heterogeneous access and processing of EO-Data on a Cloud based Infrastructure delivering operational Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, F.; Appel, F.; Bach, H.; de la Mar, J.; Schirpke, B.; Dutting, K.; Rucker, G.; Leimbach, D.

    2015-04-01

    To address the challenges of effective data handling faced by Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) a cloud-based infrastructure for accessing and processing of Earth Observation(EO)-data has been developed within the project APPS4GMES(www.apps4gmes.de). To gain homogenous multi mission data access an Input Data Portal (IDP) been implemented on this infrastructure. The IDP consists of an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) conformant catalogue, a consolidation module for format conversion and an OGC-conformant ordering framework. Metadata of various EO-sources and with different standards is harvested and transferred to an OGC conformant Earth Observation Product standard and inserted into the catalogue by a Metadata Harvester. The IDP can be accessed for search and ordering of the harvested datasets by the services implemented on the cloud infrastructure. Different land-surface services have been realised by the project partners, using the implemented IDP and cloud infrastructure. Results of these are customer ready products, as well as pre-products (e.g. atmospheric corrected EO data), serving as a basis for other services. Within the IDP an automated access to ESA's Sentinel-1 Scientific Data Hub has been implemented. Searching and downloading of the SAR data can be performed in an automated way. With the implementation of the Sentinel-1 Toolbox and own software, for processing of the datasets for further use, for example for Vista's snow monitoring, delivering input for the flood forecast services, can also be performed in an automated way. For performance tests of the cloud environment a sophisticated model based atmospheric correction and pre-classification service has been implemented. Tests conducted an automated synchronised processing of one entire Landsat 8 (LS-8) coverage for Germany and performance comparisons to standard desktop systems. Results of these tests, showing a performance improvement by the factor of six, proved the high flexibility and

  5. EOS analysis of lower extremity segmental torsion in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumétou, E; Quijano, S; Ilharreborde, B; Presedo, A; Thoreux, P; Mazda, K; Skalli, W

    2014-02-01

    Lower limb torsion varies substantially among healthy children during growth. Values reported in the literature to date have been obtained using semi-quantitative clinical or 2D measurement methods. Quantitative 3D measurement would help determine the physiological range of lower limb torsion. Low-dose stereoradiography with 3D reconstruction provides a good alternative. Its use increases in pediatrics because of radiation minimization. Previous studies have shown accurate and reproducible results of lower limbs reconstruction in adults and children but the torsional parameters haven't been measured yet. The present study reports the values of lower limb segmental torsion and its course during growth in a cohort of healthy children and young adults using the EOS low-dose biplanar X-ray. EOS 3D reconstruction is an accurate and reproducible method to measure the torsional parameters in children. Femoral torsion (FT) and tibial torsion (TT) were studied on 114 volunteers (228 lower limbs) from 6 to 30 years of age divided by age into 5 groups. The EOS™ acquisitions were obtained in subjects standing with their feet offset. Mean FT decreased during growth, passing from 21.6° to 18°, whereas mean TT increased from 26.8° to 34.7°. There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 extreme age groups, but no difference was found between any other age groups. The ICC for intra-observer reproducibility was 0.96 and 0.95 for FT and TT for the first operator, and 0.79 and 0.83 for the second operator respectively. The ICC for inter-observer reproducibility was 0.84 and 0.82 respectively. The course of lower limb segmental torsion observed was consistent with literature reports based upon clinical and 2D measurements. 3D reconstruction of EOS low-dose biplanar imaging appears to be a safe and reliable tool for lower limbs measurements, especially for investigating lower limb segmental torsion in children and adults. Level IV. Copyright © 2013. Published by

  6. Moderator Configuration Options for ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanini, L.; Batkov, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2016-01-01

    The current, still evolving status of the design and the optimization work for the moderator configuration for the European Spallation Source is described. The moderator design has been strongly driven by the low-dimensional moderator concept recently proposed for use in spallation neutron sources...... or reactors. Quasi-two dimensional, disc- or tube-shaped moderators,can provide strong brightness increase (factor of 3 or more) with respect to volume para-H2moderators, which constitute the reference, state-of-the-art technology for high-intensity coupled moderators. In the design process other, more...... conventional, principles were also considered,such as the importance of moderator positioning, of the premoderator, and beam extraction considerations. Different design and configuration options are evaluated and compared with the reference volume moderator configuration described in the ESS Technical Design...

  7. Spallation neutron source moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes various aspects of the spallation neutron source (SNS) moderator design. Included are the effects of varying the moderator location, interaction effects between moderators, and the impact on neutron output when various reflector materials are used. Also included is a study of the neutron output from composite moderators, where it is found that a combination of liquid H 2 O and liquid H 2 can produce a spectrum very similar to liquid methane (L-CH 4 ). (orig.)

  8. SNS moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    The pulsed-neutron source SNS facility will start operation at 1 MW. A later upgrade to 5 MW is planned. The facility consists of a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and a target station. The protons from the accumulator ring will be injected into the target station at 1 GeV. The subsequent spallation process will then produce low-energy thermal neutrons that may be used for a wide variety of experiments. In this paper the authors discuss neutronic calculations which address various aspects of the moderate design. The computer codes HETC and MCNP were used for these calculations with the former code performing the high-energy transport. Neutrons which fell in energy to 20 MeV or less were then passed to MCNP for further transport

  9. FLUID MODERATED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1957-10-22

    A reactor which utilizes fissionable fuel elements in rod form immersed in a moderator or heavy water and a means of circulating the heavy water so that it may also function as a coolant to remove the heat generated by the fission of the fuel are described. In this design, the clad fuel elements are held in vertical tubes immersed in heavy water in a tank. The water is circulated in a closed system by entering near the tops of the tubes, passing downward through the tubes over the fuel elements and out into the tank, where it is drawn off at the bottom, passed through heat exchangers to give up its heat and then returned to the tops of the tubes for recirculation.

  10. Steps Toward an EOS-Era Aerosol Air Mass Type Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2012-01-01

    We still have a way to go to develop a global climatology of aerosol type from the EOS-era satellite data record that currently spans more than 12 years of observations. We have demonstrated the ability to retrieve aerosol type regionally, providing a classification based on the combined constraints on particle size, shape, and single-scattering albedo (SSA) from the MISR instrument. Under good but not necessarily ideal conditions, the MISR data can distinguish three-to-five size bins, two-to-four bins in SSA, and spherical vs. non-spherical particles. However, retrieval sensitivity varies enormously with scene conditions. So, for example, there is less information about aerosol type when the mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) is less that about 0.15 or 0.2.

  11. High patient-parent satisfaction with magnetically controlled growing rod treatment in EOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Simon Toftgaard; Bünger, Cody

    .8 (range 9-10) in favor of MCGR, considering this method most gentle to their child (0 conventional most gentle, 10 MCGR most gentle). Conclusion: We found a uniform high overall satisfaction, and the parents with experience from other growth instrumentation would choose MCGR again if it was an option...... evolution in distraction based growth instrumentation. MCGR is a new treatment with high initial costs(=implant costs), financing in a public health care system may be a challenge despite reports on cost-benefit. Surgeons and patients/families both seemed pleased with the treatment. Our aim...... was to investigate the stress experienced by the patients and their families, and the patient satisfaction. Methods: A consecutive series of patients receiving MCGR treatment between Sept. 2014 and June 2016 for EOS, receiving 3-month interval distraction. All the patients had prior unsedated MCGR...

  12. Supporting the Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia with EO Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Nuno; Patinha, Carla; Sainkhuu, Tserendash; Bataa, Mendbayar; Doljinsuren, Nyamdorj

    2016-08-01

    The work presented here shows the results from the project "Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia", included in the EOTAP (Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia Pacific) initiative, a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), developed in cooperation with the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia.The EO services developed within this EOTAP project primarily aimed at enriching the existing environmental database maintained by the National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) in Mongolia and sustaining the collaborative pasture management practices introduced by the teams within the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia. The geographic area covered by the EOTAP services is Bayankhongor province, in western Mongolia region, with two main services: drought monitoring at the provincial level for the year 2014 and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) and changes mapping for three districts of this province (Buutsagaan, Dzag and Khureemaral) for the years 2013, 2014.

  13. A terahertz EO detector with large dynamical range, high modulation depth and signal-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinjian; Cai, Yi; Zeng, Xuanke; Zheng, Shuiqin; Li, Jingzhen; Xu, Shixiang

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents a novel design for terahertz (THz) free-space time domain electro-optic (EO) detection where the static birefringent phases of the two balanced arms are set close to zero but opposite to each other. Our theoretical and numerical analyses show this design has much stronger ability to cancel the optical background noise than both THz ellipsometer and traditional crossed polarizer geometry (CPG). Its optical modulation depth is about twice as high as that of traditional CPG, but about ten times as high as that of THz ellipsometer. As for the dynamical range, our improved design is comparable to the THz ellipsometer but obviously larger than the traditional CPG. Some experiments for comparing our improved CPG with traditional CPG agree well with the corresponding theoretical predictions. Our experiments also show that the splitting ratio of the used non-polarization beam splitter is critical for the performance of our design.

  14. Assessing heat fluxes and water quality trends in subalpine lakes from EO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Elli, Chiara; Valerio, Giulia; Pilotti, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Lakes play a fundamental role in providing ecosystem services such as water supplying, hydrological regulation, climate change mitigation, touristic recreation (Schallenberg et al., 2013). Preserving and improving of quality of lakes waters, which is a function of either both natural and human influences, is therefore an important action to be considered. Remote Sensing techniques are spreading as useful instrument for lakes, by integrating classical in situ limnological measurements to frequent and synoptic monitoring capabilities. Within this study, Earth Observation data are exploited for understanding the temporal changes of water quality parameters over a decade, as well as for measuring the surface energy fluxes in recent years in deep clear lakes in the European subalpine ecoregion. According to Pareth et al. (2016), subalpine lakes are showing a clear response to climate change with an increase of 0.017 °C /year of lake surface temperature, whilst the human activities contribute to produce a large impact (agriculture, recreation, industry, fishing and drinking) on these lakes. The investigation is focused on Lake Iseo, which has shown a significant deterioration of water quality conditions since the seventies, and on Lake Garda, the largest Italian lake where EO data have been widely used for many purposes and applications (Giardino et al., 2014). Available ENVISAT-MERIS (2002-2012) and Landsat-8-OLI (2013-on going) imagery has been exploited to produce chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration maps, while Landsat-8-TIRS imagery has been used for estimating lake surface temperatures. MERIS images were processed through a neural network (namely the C2R processor, Doerffer et al., 2007), to correct the atmospheric effects and to retrieve water constituents concentration in optically complex deep waters. With regard to L8's images, some atmospheric correctors (e.g. ACOLITE and 6SV) were tested and validated to indentify, for each of the two lakes, the more accurate

  15. Advantage of hyperspectral EO-1 Hyperion over multispectral IKONOS, GeoEye-1, WorldView-2, Landsat ETM+, and MODIS vegetation indices in crop biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Michael T.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.

    2015-01-01

    alfalfa (R2 = 0.81); 722 and 732 nm for cotton (R2 = 0.97); and 529 and 895 nm for maize (R2 = 0.94). The higher spectral resolution of the EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral sensor and the ability of users to choose distinct HNBs for improved crop biomass estimation outweigh the benefits that come with higher spatial resolution of MSBBs.

  16. Spinal penetration index assessment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using EOS low-dose biplanar stereoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilharreborde, Brice; Dubousset, Jean; Skalli, Wafa; Mazda, Keyvan

    2013-11-01

    The spinal penetration index (SPI) quantifies the portion of the rib cage occupied by vertebrae. When measured by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging, SPI can only be determined in the reclining position, which modifies spinal and thoracic morphology. CT results in high radiation exposure. The authors studied rib cage and spinal morphology using low-dose biplanar stereoradiography and their impact on respiratory function in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). In eighty thoracic AIS patients, a slot-scanning radiologic device allowing simultaneous acquisition of orthogonal images and 3D reconstructions with low exposure to radiation (EOS) was used to determine thoracic volume, mean spinal penetration index (SPIm), apical spinal penetration index (SPIa), main thoracic (MT) curve Cobb angle, T4-T12 kyphosis, and apical vertebral rotation (AVR). Thoracic volume was correlated with thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.31, p = 0.006), but not with SPI, MT Cobb angle, or AVR. SPIm and SPIa were negatively correlated with thoracic kyphosis. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were significantly lower in the hypokyphotic patients (p = 0.04, p = 0.03, respectively) and correlated with thoracic volume and T4-T12 kyphosis. No correlation was found between spinal penetration indices and pulmonary function tests, but SPIm was significantly greater in patients with obstructive syndrome (p = 0.01). With little radiation exposure, EOS biplanar stereoradiography permits routine imaging is a functional standing position. Hypokyphotic patients had significantly decreased FEV1 and FVC. SPIm was significantly higher in patients with obstructive syndrome.

  17. SENTINEL-2 Services Library - efficient way for exploration and exploitation of EO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcinski, Grega; Batic, Matej; Kadunc, Miha; Kolaric, Primoz; Mocnik, Rok; Repse, marko

    2017-04-01

    With more than 1.5 million scenes available covering over 11 billion sq. kilometers of area and containing half a quadrillion of pixels, Sentinel-2 is becoming one of the most important MSI datasets in the world. However, the vast amount of data makes it difficult to work with. This is certainly an important reason, why the number of Sentinel based applications is not as high as it could be at this point. We will present a Copernicus Award [1] winning service for archiving, processing and distribution of Sentinel data, Sentinel Hub [2]. It makes it easy for anyone to tap into global Sentinel archive and exploit its rich multi-sensor data to observe changes in the land. We will demonstrate, how one is able not just to observe imagery all over the world but also to create its own statistical analysis in a matter of seconds, performing comparison of different sensors through various time segments. The result can be immediately observed in any GIS tool or exported as a raster file for post-processing. All of these actions can be performed on a full, worldwide, S-2 archive (multi-temporal and multi-spectral). To demonstrate the technology, we created a publicly accessible web application, called "Sentinel Playground" [3], which makes it possible to query Sentinel-2 data anywhere in the world, and experts-oriented tool "EO Browser" [4], where it is also possible to observe land changes through longer period by using historical Landsat data as well. [1] http://www.copernicus-masters.com/index.php?anzeige=press-2016-03.html [2] http://www.sentinel-hub.com [3] http://apps.sentinel-hub.com/sentinel-playground/ [4] http://apps.eocloud.sentinel-hub.com/eo-browser/

  18. An Algorithm For Climate-Quality Atmospheric Profiling Continuity From EOS Aqua To Suomi-NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    We will present results from an algorithm that is being developed to produce climate-quality atmospheric profiling earth system data records (ESDRs) for application to hyperspectral sounding instrument data from Suomi-NPP, EOS Aqua, and other spacecraft. The current focus is on data from the S-NPP Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) instruments as well as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on EOS Aqua. The algorithm development at Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) has common heritage with the optimal estimation (OE) algorithm operationally processing S-NPP data in the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), but the ESDR algorithm has a flexible, modular software structure to support experimentation and collaboration and has several features adapted to the climate orientation of ESDRs. Data record continuity benefits from the fact that the same algorithm can be applied to different sensors, simply by providing suitable configuration and data files. The radiative transfer component uses an enhanced version of optimal spectral sampling (OSS) with updated spectroscopy, treatment of emission that is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), efficiency gains with "global" optimal sampling over all channels, and support for channel selection. The algorithm is designed for adaptive treatment of clouds, with capability to apply "cloud clearing" or simultaneous cloud parameter retrieval, depending on conditions. We will present retrieval results demonstrating the impact of a new capability to perform the retrievals on sigma or hybrid vertical grid (as opposed to a fixed pressure grid), which particularly affects profile accuracy over land with variable terrain height and with sharp vertical structure near the surface. In addition, we will show impacts of alternative treatments of regularization of the inversion. While OE algorithms typically implement regularization by using background estimates from

  19. Quantifying the non-Gaussianity in the EoR 21-cm signal through bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Suman; Pritchard, Jonathan R.; Mondal, Rajesh; Watkinson, Catherine A.; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Mellema, Garrelt

    2018-05-01

    The epoch of reionization (EoR) 21-cm signal is expected to be highly non-Gaussian in nature and this non-Gaussianity is also expected to evolve with the progressing state of reionization. Therefore the signal will be correlated between different Fourier modes (k). The power spectrum will not be able capture this correlation in the signal. We use a higher order estimator - the bispectrum - to quantify this evolving non-Gaussianity. We study the bispectrum using an ensemble of simulated 21-cm signal and with a large variety of k triangles. We observe two competing sources driving the non-Gaussianity in the signal: fluctuations in the neutral fraction (x_{H I}) field and fluctuations in the matter density field. We find that the non-Gaussian contribution from these two sources varies, depending on the stage of reionization and on which k modes are being studied. We show that the sign of the bispectrum works as a unique marker to identify which among these two components is driving the non-Gaussianity. We propose that the sign change in the bispectrum, when plotted as a function of triangle configuration cos θ and at a certain stage of the EoR can be used as a confirmative test for the detection of the 21-cm signal. We also propose a new consolidated way to visualize the signal evolution (with evolving \\bar{x}_{H I} or redshift), through the trajectories of the signal in a power spectrum and equilateral bispectrum i.e. P(k) - B(k, k, k) space.

  20. Thermodynamic model for predicting equilibrium conditions of clathrate hydrates of noble gases + light hydrocarbons: Combination of Van der Waals–Platteeuw model and sPC-SAFT EoS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolala, Mostafa; Varaminian, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Applying sPC-SAFT for phase equilibrium calculations. • Determining Kihara potential parameters for hydrate formers. • Successful usage of the model for systems with hydrate azeotropes. - Abstract: In this communication, equilibrium conditions of clathrate hydrates containing mixtures of noble gases (Argon, Krypton and Xenon) and light hydrocarbons (C 1 –C 3 ), which form structure I and II, are modeled. The thermodynamic model is based on the solid solution theory of Van der Waals–Platteeuw combined with the simplified Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory equation of state (sPC-SAFT EoS). In dispersion term of sPC-SAFT EoS, the temperature dependent binary interaction parameters (k ij ) are adjusted; taking advantage of the well described (vapor + liquid) phase equilibria. Furthermore, the Kihara potential parameters are optimized based on the P–T data of pure hydrate former. Subsequently, these obtained parameters are used to predict the binary gas hydrate dissociation conditions. The equilibrium conditions of the binary gas hydrates predicted by this model agree well with experimental data (overall AAD P ∼ 2.17)

  1. ASI-Volcanic Risk System (SRV): a pilot project to develop EO data processing modules and products for volcanic activity monitoring, first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, M.; Musacchio, M.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Dini, L.

    2009-04-01

    shows good technical characteristics for the prevention phase is the ASTER sensor (90 m pixel) on NASA satellite TERRA. The product regarding the Crisis phase is mainly finalized to the estimation of the effusion rate for active lava flows, the algorithms for this product are well consolidated and could be applied to the low spatial resolution space sensors (eg. AVHRR, MODIS) and to high spatial resolution space sensors (eg. Hyperion, ASTER). A further class of products regards the analysis of degassing plumes and eruptive clouds. The analysis of the emitted gas species from degassing plume is usually performed trough ground networks of instruments based on the spectral behaviour of the gas species, although many volcanoes in the world do not have such permanent networks. The SRV system will produce information on the concentration and flux of sulphur dioxide (SO2) water vapour and volcanic aerosol optical thickness by means of ASTER, MODIS and HYPERION data on Etna test site. The analysis of ash clouds will be made by means of already consolidated procedures which uses low spatial resolution sensors with an high revisit time (eg. AVHRR, MSG, MODIS). For the Post Crisis phase the required products will be obtained through classification algorithms and spectral analysis operated by the scientific personnel of INGV and introduced in the system repository after the use of modules. The processing modules for EO RADAR sensors data for ground deformation measurement via Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) techniques is performed by IREA-CNR. The selected test sites are Etna, Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei caldera. In particular, ground deformation time series will be generated by using ERS and ENVISAT SAR data and via the application of the Small BAeline Subset (SBAS) technique. This algorithm has the advantage of being both simple and very effective; moreover, it allows an easy combination of multiplatform data, provided that the acquisition geometries of both platform are

  2. The EO-1 hyperion and advanced land imager sensors for use in tundra classification studies within the Upper Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Brown, Mary

    The heterogeneity of Arctic vegetation can make land cover classification vey difficult when using medium to small resolution imagery (Schneider et al., 2009; Muller et al., 1999). Using high radiometric and spatial resolution imagery, such as the SPOT 5 and IKONOS satellites, have helped arctic land cover classification accuracies rise into the 80 and 90 percentiles (Allard, 2003; Stine et al., 2010; Muller et al., 1999). However, those increases usually come at a high price. High resolution imagery is very expensive and can often add tens of thousands of dollars onto the cost of the research. The EO-1 satellite launched in 2002 carries two sensors that have high specral and/or high spatial resolutions and can be an acceptable compromise between the resolution versus cost issues. The Hyperion is a hyperspectral sensor with the capability of collecting 242 spectral bands of information. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is an advanced multispectral sensor whose spatial resolution can be sharpened to 10 meters. This dissertation compares the accuracies of arctic land cover classifications produced by the Hyperion and ALI sensors to the classification accuracies produced by the Systeme Pour l' Observation de le Terre (SPOT), the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors. Hyperion and ALI images from August 2004 were collected over the Upper Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska. Image processing included the stepwise discriminant analysis of pixels that were positively classified from coinciding ground control points, geometric and radiometric correction, and principle component analysis. Finally, stratified random sampling was used to perform accuracy assessments on satellite derived land cover classifications. Accuracy was estimated from an error matrix (confusion matrix) that provided the overall, producer's and user's accuracies. This research found that while the Hyperion sensor produced classfication accuracies that were

  3. Degradation and plant uptake of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four contrasting agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestroem, A.E.; Collins, C.D.; Smith, S.R.; Shaw, G.

    2008-01-01

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are surfactants found ubiquitously in the environment due to widespread industrial and domestic use. Biodegradation of NPEOs produces nonylphenol (NP), an endocrine disruptor. Sewage sludge application introduces NPEOs and NP into soils, potentially leading to accumulation in soils and crops. We examined degradation of NP and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four soils. NP12EO degraded rapidly (initial half time 0.3-5 days). Concentrations became undetectable within 70-90 days, with a small increase in NP concentrations after 30 days. NP initially degraded quickly (mean half time 11.5 days), but in three soils a recalcitrant fraction of 26-35% remained: the non-degrading fraction may consist of branched isomers, resistant to biodegradation. Uptake of NP by bean plants was also examined. Mean bioconcentration factors for shoots and seeds were 0.71 and 0.58, respectively. Removal of NP from the soil by plant uptake was negligible (0.01-0.02% of initial NP). Root concentrations were substantially higher than shoot and seed concentrations. - Degradation curves of nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol-12-ethoxylate (NP12EO) in four soils indicate that 26-35% of NP is recalcitrant, with minor NP ingrowth from NP12EO breakdown

  4. 77 FR 61473 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Voluntary Customer Surveys To Implement E.O. 12862...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Voluntary Customer Surveys To Implement E.O. 12862 Coordinated by the Corporate Planning and Performance... required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently... Coordinated by [[Page 61474

  5. A low-cost transportable ground station for capture and processing of direct broadcast EOS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don; Bennett, Toby; Short, Nicholas M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), part of a cohesive national effort to study global change, will deploy a constellation of remote sensing spacecraft over a 15 year period. Science data from the EOS spacecraft will be processed and made available to a large community of earth scientists via NASA institutional facilities. A number of these spacecraft are also providing an additional interface to broadcast data directly to users. Direct broadcast of real-time science data from overhead spacecraft has valuable applications including validation of field measurements, planning science campaigns, and science and engineering education. The success and usefulness of EOS direct broadcast depends largely on the end-user cost of receiving the data. To extend this capability to the largest possible user base, the cost of receiving ground stations must be as low as possible. To achieve this goal, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a prototype low-cost transportable ground station for EOS direct broadcast data based on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) components and pipelined, multiprocessing architectures. The targeted reproduction cost of this system is less than $200K. This paper describes a prototype ground station and its constituent components.

  6. Berkeley Lab's Saul Perlmutter wins E.O. Lawrence Award scientist's work on supernovae reveals accelerating universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Saul Perlmutter, a member of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Physics Division and leader of the international Supernova Cosmology Project based there, has won the Department of Energy's 2002 E.O. Lawrence Award in the physics category" (1/2 page).

  7. NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO Coatings on Gold Sensors—a QCM Study of Hemocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank K. Gehring

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of implantable blood sensors is often hampered by unspecific adsorption of plasma proteins and blood cells. This not only leads to a loss of sensor signal over time, but can also result in undesired host vs. graft reactions. Within this study we evaluated the hemocompatibility of isocyanate conjugated star shaped polytheylene oxide—polypropylene oxide co-polymers NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO when applied to gold surfaces as an auspicious coating material for gold sputtered blood contacting sensors. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensors were coated with ultrathin NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO films and compared with uncoated gold sensors. Protein resistance was assessed by QCM measurements with fibrinogen solution and platelet poor plasma (PPP, followed by quantification of fibrinogen adsorption. Hemocompatibility was tested by incubation with human platelet rich plasma (PRP. Thrombin antithrombin-III complex (TAT, β-thromboglobulin (β-TG and platelet factor 4 (PF4 were used as coagulation activation markers. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to visualize platelet adhesion to the sensor surfaces. Compared to uncoated gold sensors, NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO coated sensors revealed significant better resistance against protein adsorption, lower TAT generation and a lower amount of adherent platelets. Moreover, coating with ultrathin NCO-sP(EO-stat-PO films creates a cell resistant hemocompatible surface on gold that increases the chance of prolonged sensor functionality and can easily be modified with specific receptor molecules.

  8. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Europe receives pipeline gas from various sources, the long supply chains and inflexibility of European... INFORMATION: Background Eos is a Delaware limited liability company with its principal place of business in... commitment conforms to the requirements of 10 CFR 590.202(b), which calls upon applicants to supply...

  9. Modeling gas solubilities in imidazolium based ionic liquids with the [Tf2N] anion using the GC-EoS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereda, Selva; Raeissi, Sonia; Andreatta, A.E. (Alfonsina); Bottini, Susana B.; Kroon, Maaike; Peters, Cor

    2016-01-01

    The group contribution equation of state (GC-EoS) is extended to model gas solubilities in the homologous 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide family. The gases considered in this work are CO2, CO, H2, CH4, and C2H6. The model parameters were estimated on the basis of 1400

  10. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  11. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrumentation interface control document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) defines the specific details of the complete accomodation information between the Earth Observing System (EOS) PM Spacecraft and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A)Instrument. This is the first submittal of the ICN: it will be updated periodically throughout the life of the program. The next update is planned prior to Critical Design Review (CDR).

  12. CONSTRAINING POLARIZED FOREGROUNDS FOR EoR EXPERIMENTS. I. 2D POWER SPECTRA FROM THE PAPER-32 IMAGING ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S. A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Moore, D. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nunhokee, C. D.; Bernardi, G. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown (South Africa); Pober, J. C. [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Ali, Z. S.; DeBoer, D. R.; Parsons, A. R. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bradley, R. F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); Gugliucci, N. E. [Saint Anselm College, Manchester, NH (United States); Jacobs, D. C. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Klima, P. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); MacMahon, D. H. E. [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Manley, J. R.; Walbrugh, W. P. [SKA South Africa, Pinelands (South Africa); Stefan, I. I., E-mail: saulkohn@sas.upenn.edu [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    Current generation low-frequency interferometers constructed with the objective of detecting the high-redshift 21 cm background aim to generate power spectra of the brightness temperature contrast of neutral hydrogen in primordial intergalactic medium. Two-dimensional (2D) power spectra (power in Fourier modes parallel and perpendicular to the line of sight) that formed from interferometric visibilities have been shown to delineate a boundary between spectrally smooth foregrounds (known as the wedge ) and spectrally structured 21 cm background emission (the EoR window ). However, polarized foregrounds are known to possess spectral structure due to Faraday rotation, which can leak into the EoR window. In this work we create and analyze 2D power spectra from the PAPER-32 imaging array in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. These allow us to observe and diagnose systematic effects in our calibration at high signal-to-noise within the Fourier space most relevant to EoR experiments. We observe well-defined windows in the Stokes visibilities, with Stokes Q, U, and V power spectra sharing a similar wedge shape to that seen in Stokes I. With modest polarization calibration, we see no evidence that polarization calibration errors move power outside the wedge in any Stokes visibility to the noise levels attained. Deeper integrations will be required to confirm that this behavior persists to the depth required for EoR detection.

  13. Thermal neutron moderating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigami, Hiroyuki.

    1995-01-01

    In a thermal neutron moderating device, superconductive coils for generating magnetic fields capable of applying magnetic fields vertical to the longitudinal direction of a thermal neutron passing tube, and superconductive coils for magnetic field gradient for causing magnetic field gradient in the longitudinal direction of the thermal neutron passing tube are disposed being stacked at the outside of the thermal neutron passing tube. When magnetic field gradient is present vertically to the direction of a magnetic moment, thermal neutrons undergo forces in the direction of the magnetic field gradient in proportion to the magnetic moment. Then, the magnetic moment of the thermal neutrons is aligned with the direction vertical to the passing direction of the thermal neutrons, to cause the magnetic field gradient in the passing direction of the thermal neutrons. The speed of the thermal neutrons can be optionally selected and the wavelength can freely be changed by applying forces to the thermal neutrons and changing the extent and direction of the magnetic field gradient. Superconductive coils are used as the coils for generating magnetic fields and the magnetic field gradient in order to change extremely high energy of the thermal neutrons. (N.H.)

  14. Toward a Moderate Autoethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Stahlke Wall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autoethnography is an avant-garde method of qualitative inquiry that has captured the attention of an ever-increasing number of scholars from a variety of disciplines. Personal experience methods can offer a new and unique vantage point from which to make a contribution to social science yet, autoethnography has been criticized for being self-indulgent, narcissistic, introspective, and individualized. Methodological discussions about this method are polarized. As an autoethnographer and qualitative methodologist with an interest in personal experience methods, I have had the opportunity to review several autoethnographic manuscripts over the years. As my reviews accumulated, I began to see themes in my responses and it became apparent that I was advocating for an approach to autoethnography that lies in contrast to the frequently offered methodological polemics from philosophically divergent scholars. In this article, I draw from the reviews I have done to address topics such as applications and purposes for autoethnography, the degree of theory and analysis used within the method, data sources and dissemination of findings, and ethical issues. I then connect the concerns I see in the reviewed manuscripts to examples in the autoethnographic literature. Ultimately, I propose a moderate and balanced treatment of autoethnography that allows for innovation, imagination, and the representation of a range of voices in qualitative inquiry while also sustaining confidence in the quality, rigor, and usefulness of academic research.

  15. In view of the Sixth Framework Programme. An analysis of the EoIs submitted by Dutch entities. Thematic Priority Area Sustainable development, global change and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Mierlo, K.

    2002-01-01

    The FP6 (Sixth Framework Program of the European Union) team of PricewaterhouseCoopers has analysed the EoIs (Expression of Interest) submitted by Dutch parties, as published on the Internet (http://www.cordis.lu/). These 'Dutch EoIs' give a reliable indication of the focus of the Dutch research community, and its participation in pan-European research initiatives. Furthermore, it gives the Dutch submitters of EoIs the opportunity to see what other Dutch parties are involved in their relevant area of research (or in terms of FP6 - Thematic Priority Area (TPA)). The analysis of the Dutch EoIs has been carried out in the first week of October 2002. Considering the dynamics of the EoI database, results from this analysis can vary slightly with searches carried out later in this database

  16. Earth Observing System/Meteorological Satellite (EOS/METSAT). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Contamination Control Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, M.

    1998-01-01

    This Contamination Control Plan is submitted in response the Contract Document requirements List (CDRL) 007 under contract NAS5-32314 for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A). In response to the CDRL instructions, this document defines the level of cleanliness and methods/procedures to be followed to achieve adequate cleanliness/contamination control, and defines the required approach to maintain cleanliness/contamination control through shipping, observatory integration, test, and flight. This plan is also applicable to the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) except where requirements are identified as EOS-specific. This plan is based on two key factors: a. The EOS/METSAT AMSU-A Instruments are not highly contamination sensitive. b. Potential contamination of other EOS Instruments is a key concern as addressed in Section 9/0 of the Performance Assurance Requirements for EOS/METSAT Integrated Programs AMSU-A Instrument (MR) (NASA Specification S-480-79).

  17. The roles of MCP-1 and protein kinase C delta activation in human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Sook; Yang, Eun Ju; Kim, In Sik

    2009-12-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilc syndrome is a disorder associated with clonally eosinophilic proliferation. The importance of FIP1-like-1-platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (FIP1L1-PDGFRA) in the pathogenesis and classification of HES has been recently reported. In this study, we investigated the contribution of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 to chemotactic activity and protein kinase C delta (PKC delta in the human eosinophilic leukemia cell line EoL-1. These cells express CCR2 protein among the CC chemokine receptors (CCR1-5). MCP-1 induces strong migration of EoL-1 cells and the chemotaxis signal in response to MCP-1 involves a G(i)/G(o) protein, phospholipase C (PLC), PKC delta, p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB. MCP-1 activates p38 MAPK via G(i)/G(o) protein, PLC and PKC delta cascade. MCP-1 also induces NF-kappaB translocation and the activation is inhibited by PKC delta activation. The increase in the basal expression and activity of PKC delta in EoL-1 cells, compared to normal eosinophils, inhibits apoptosis in EoL-1 cells. Anti-apoptotic mechanism of PKC delta is related to inhibition of caspase 3 and caspase 9, but not to FIP1L1-PDGFRA. PKC delta functions as an anti-apoptotic molecule, and is involved in EoL-1 cell movement stimulated by MCP-1. This study contributes to an understanding of MCP-1 in eosinophil biology and pathogenic mechanism of eosinophilic disorders.

  18. Patient-family EoL communication and its predictors: Reports from caregivers of Latino patients in the rural U.S.-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunjeong; Lee, Jaehoon; Ramirez, Carlos; Lopez, Denicka; Martinez, Stephanie

    2017-10-26

    Family caregivers play an important role in end-of-life (EoL) decision making when the patient is unable to make his/her own decisions. While communication about EoL care between patients and family is perhaps a first step toward advance care planning (ACP)/EoL decisions, not every culture puts great value on open communication about this topic. The aims of the present study were to explore EoL communication and the aspects of communication among caregivers of Latino patients in the rural United States (U.S.)-Mexico border region. This study analyzed data from a hospice needs assessment collected from 189 family caregivers of Latino patients at a home health agency in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region. Bivariate tests and logistic regression were used to address our aims. About half of the family caregivers (n = 96, 50.8%) reported to have ever engaged in EoL discussion with patients. Significant predictors of EoL discussion included life-sustaining treatment preference (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44, p EoL communication. Also, caregivers who worried that physicians might want to stop treatments (i.e., "pull the plug") too soon were less likely to do so. Conversely, caregivers who had knowledge about ADs were more likely to engage in EoL communication. EoL communication is a complex process influenced by individual, social, and cultural values and the beliefs of both the patient and his/her family. Inclusion of family caregivers in the ACP process and facilitating culturally tailored EoL communication between patients and family caregivers is important.

  19. Multi-Sensor Approach to Mapping Snow Cover Using Data From NASA's EOS Aqua and Terra Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Over the past several decades both optical and passive microwave satellite data have been utilized for snow mapping at the regional to global scale. For the period 1978 to 2002, we have shown earlier that both passive microwave and visible data sets indicate a similar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are, depending on season, less than those provided by the visible satellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. Snow mapping using optical data is based on the magnitude of the surface reflectance while microwave data can be used to identify snow cover because the microwave energy emitted by the underlying soil is scattered by the snow grains resulting in a sharp decrease in brightness temperature and a characteristic negative spectral gradient. Our previous work has defined the respective advantages and disadvantages of these two types of satellite data for snow cover mapping and it is clear that a blended product is optimal. We present a multi-sensor approach to snow mapping based both on historical data as well as data from current NASA EOS sensors. For the period 1978 to 2002 we combine data from the NOAA weekly snow charts with passive microwave data from the SMMR and SSM/I brightness temperature record. For the current and future time period we blend MODIS and AMSR-E data sets. An example of validation at the brightness temperature level is provided through the comparison of AMSR-E with data from the well-calibrated heritage SSM/I sensor over a large homogeneous snow-covered surface (Dome C, Antarctica). Prototype snow cover maps from AMSR-E compare well with maps derived from SSM/I. Our current blended product is being developed in the 25 km EASE-Grid while the MODIS data being used are in the Climate Modelers Grid (CMG) at approximately 5 km

  20. What A Long Strange Trip It's Been: Lessons Learned From NASA EOS, LTER, NEON, CZO And On To The Future With Sustainable Research Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    The traditional, small-scale, incremental approach to environmental science is changing as researchers embrace a more integrated and multi-disciplinary approach to understanding how our natural systems work today and how they may respond in the future to forcings such as climate change. In situ networks are evolving in response to these challenges so as to provide the appropriate measurements to develop high-resolution spatial and temporal data sets across a wide range of platforms from microbial measurements to remote sensing. These large programs provide a unique set of challenges when compared to more traditional programs. Here I provide insights learned from my participation in a number of large programs, including NASA EOS, LTER, CZO, NEON, and WSC and how those experiences in environmental science can help us move forward towards more applied applications of environmental science, including sustainability initiatives. I'll chat about the importance of managerial and management skills, which most of us scientists prefer to avoid. I'll also chat about making decisions about what long-term measurements to make and when to stop. Data management is still the weakest part of environmental networks; what needs to be done. We have learned that these networks provide an important knowledge base that can lead to informed decisions leading to environmental, energy, social and cultural sustainability.

  1. A new MesosphEO dataset of temperature profiles from 35 to 85 km using Rayleigh scattering at limb from GOMOS/ENVISAT daytime observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauchecorne, A.; Blanot, L.; Wing, R., Jr.; Keckhut, P.; Khaykin, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The scattering of sunlight by the Earth atmosphere above the top of the stratospheric layer, about 30-35 km altitude, is only due to Rayleigh scattering by atmospheric molecules. Its intensity is then directly proportional to the atmospheric density. It is then possible to retrieve a temperature profile in absolute value using the hydrostatic equation and the perfect gas law, assuming that the temperature is known from a climatological model at the top of the density profile. This technique is applied to Rayleigh lidar observations since more than 35 years (Hauchecorne and Chanin, 1980). The GOMOS star occultation spectrometer observed the sunlight scattering at limb during daytime to remove it from the star spectrum. In the frame of the ESA funded MesosphEO project, GOMOS Rayleigh scattering profiles in the spectral range 400-460 nm have been used to retrieve temperature profiles from 35 to 85 km with a 2-km vertical resolution. A dataset of more than 310 thousands profiles from 2002 to 2012 is available for climatology and atmospheric dynamics studies. The validation of this dataset using NDACC Rayleigh lidars and MLS-AURA and SABER-TIMED will be presented. Preliminary results on the variability of the upper stratosphere and the mesosphere will be shown. We propose to apply this technique in the future to ALTIUS observations. The Rayleigh scattering technique can be applied to any sounder observing the day-time limb on the near-UV and visible spectrum.

  2. The insurance industry and public-private collaborations as a vector to develop and spread EO technologies and techniques in the domain of Food Security: The Swiss Re case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Ragaz, M.; Mäder, D.; Hammer, P.; Andriesse, M.; Güttinger, U.; Feyen, H.

    2017-12-01

    The insurance industry has been contributing to the resilient development of agriculture in multiple regions of the globe since the beginning of the 19th Century. It also has from the very beginning of the development of EO Sciences, kept a very close eye on the development of technologies and techniques in this domain. Recent advances in this area such as increased satellite imagery resolution, faster computation time and Big Data management combined with the ground-based knowledge from the insurance industry have offered farmers not only tools permitting better crop management, but also reliable and live yield coverage. This study presents several of these applications at different scales (industrial farming and micro-farming) and in different climate regions, with an emphasis on the limit of current products. Some of these limits such as lack of access of to ground data, R&D efforts or understanding of ground needs could be quickly overcome through closer public-private or private-private collaborations. However, despite a clear benefit for the Food Security nexus and potential win-win situations, those collaborations are not always simple to develop. We present here successful but also disappointing collaboration cases based on the Swiss Re experience, as a global insurance leader. As a conclusion, we highlight how academia, NGOs, governmental organization, start-ups and the insurance industry can get together to foster the development of EO in the domain of Food Security, and bring cutting-edge science to game changing industrial applications.

  3. Recent research on stishovite: Hugoniot and partial release Z experiments and DFT EOS calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnish, Michael; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael; Fei, Yingwei

    2017-06-01

    We have conducted a series of ride-along experiments on the Z facility to ascertain the Hugoniot of silica centered in the stishovite phase over a range 0.4 - 1.0 TPa, together with partial release states produced at the interface between the sample and a fused silica window. The stishovite samples were synthesized in a large-volume multi-anvil press at 15 GPa and 1773 K, with an initial density of 4.29 gm/cc. The new Z experiments on stishovite fill in a gap between gas gun experiments and NIF experiments. The states are compared with the Hugoniots of quartz and fused silica for inferences as to EOS. They are generally consistent with Sesame 7360 predictions. Sound speed constraints from these data are discussed. The new Hugoniot data cross over the melting curve of stishovite, providing insight into the properties of solid and liquid under extreme conditions in conjunction with predictions from density-functional theory modeling. These data are fundamentally important for understanding the interior of silicate-based super-Earths. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Recent research on stishovite: Hugoniot and partial release Z experiments and DFT EOS calculations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael D.; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael; Fei, Yingwei

    2018-04-01

    We have conducted a series of ride-along experiments on the Z facility to ascertain the Hugoniot of silica centered in the stishovite phase over a range 0.4 - 1.0 TPa, together with partial release states produced at the interface between the sample and a fused silica window. The stishovite samples were synthesized in a large-volume multi-anvil press at 15 GPa and 1773 K, with an initial density of 4.29 gm/cc. The new Z experiments on stishovite fill in a gap between gas gun experiments and NIF experiments. The states are compared with the Hugoniots of quartz and fused silica for inferences as to EOS. They are generally consistent with Sesame 7360 predictions. Sound speed constraints from these data are discussed. The new Hugoniot data cross over the melting curve of stishovite; together with the partial-release data and predictions from density-functional theory modeling, they provide insights into the properties of solid and liquid under extreme conditions. These data are fundamentally important for understanding the interior of silicate-based super-Earths.

  5. Support of an Active Science Project by a Large Information System: Lessons for the EOS Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Gary L.; Skiles, J. W.; Popovici, Lidia Z.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of large information systems to support the changing data requirements of active science projects is being tested in a NASA collaborative study. This paper briefly profiles both the active science project and the large information system involved in this effort and offers some observations about the effectiveness of the project support. This is followed by lessons that are important for those participating in large information systems that need to support active science projects or that make available the valuable data produced by these projects. We learned in this work that it is difficult for a large information system focused on long term data management to satisfy the requirements of an on-going science project. For example, in order to provide the best service, it is important for all information system staff to keep focused on the needs and constraints of the scientists in the development of appropriate services. If the lessons learned in this and other science support experiences are not applied by those involved with large information systems of the EOS (Earth Observing System) era, then the final data products produced by future science projects may not be robust or of high quality, thereby making the conduct of the project science less efficacious and reducing the value of these unique suites of data for future research.

  6. Enhancements to NASA's Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K.; Davies, D. K.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Boller, R. A.; Mauoka, E.; Ye, G.; Vermote, E.; Harrison, S.; Rinsland, P. L.; Protack, S.; Durbin, P. B.; Justice, C. O.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) supports application users interested in monitoring a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena. Near Real-Time (NRT) data and imagery from the AIRS, AMSR2, MISR, MLS, MODIS, OMI and VIIRS instruments are available much quicker than routine processing allows. Most data products are available within 3 hours from satellite observation. NRT imagery are generally available 3-5 hours after observation. This article describes LANCE and enhancements made to LANCE over the last year. These enhancements include: the addition of MISR L1 Georeferenced Radiance and L2 Cloud Motion Vector products, AMSR2 Unified L2B Half-Orbit 25 km EASE-Grid Surface Soil Moisture products and VIIRS VIIRS Day/Night Band, Land Surface Reflectance and Corrected Surface reflectance products. In addition, the selection of LANCE NRT imagery that can be interactively viewed through Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) has been expanded. LANCE is also working to ingest and process data from OMPS.

  7. Forest tree species discrimination in western Himalaya using EO-1 Hyperion

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rajee; Padalia, Hitendra; Kushwaha, S. P. S.

    2014-05-01

    The information acquired in the narrow bands of hyperspectral remote sensing data has potential to capture plant species spectral variability, thereby improving forest tree species mapping. This study assessed the utility of spaceborne EO-1 Hyperion data in discrimination and classification of broadleaved evergreen and conifer forest tree species in western Himalaya. The pre-processing of 242 bands of Hyperion data resulted into 160 noise-free and vertical stripe corrected reflectance bands. Of these, 29 bands were selected through step-wise exclusion of bands (Wilk's Lambda). Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms were applied to the selected bands to assess their effectiveness in classification. SVM was also applied to broadband data (Landsat TM) to compare the variation in classification accuracy. All commonly occurring six gregarious tree species, viz., white oak, brown oak, chir pine, blue pine, cedar and fir in western Himalaya could be effectively discriminated. SVM produced a better species classification (overall accuracy 82.27%, kappa statistic 0.79) than SAM (overall accuracy 74.68%, kappa statistic 0.70). It was noticed that classification accuracy achieved with Hyperion bands was significantly higher than Landsat TM bands (overall accuracy 69.62%, kappa statistic 0.65). Study demonstrated the potential utility of narrow spectral bands of Hyperion data in discriminating tree species in a hilly terrain.

  8. EoC Study Update to Examine the Cost, Schedule and Technical Changes to NASA Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitten, Bob; Emmons, Debra; Shinn, Stephen; Scolese, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The original National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Explanation of Change (EoC) study was conducted in 2010 to understand the underlying causes of cost and schedule growth. The first study consisted of 25 missions launched from 2000 to 2010 and looked at the events that led to growth. These events were categorized into different bins that were rolled up to quantify whether the growth was due to internal planning, or internal execution, or from external forces and found that the growth was evenly distributed among those three categories. The result of the study presented nine considerations focused at reducing growth due to project external events and internal planning events. Although no one 'magic bullet' consideration was discovered in the previous work, the nine considerations taken as a whole were postulated to help reduce cost and schedule change in future NASA missions. A recent update was conducted that included investigating 8 missions developed since the previous study to determine if the results were different. Cost, schedule, and mass increases were analyzed from the start of Phase B through Preliminary Design Review and Critical Design Review to Launch. As shown in this paper, the results are better with overall cost and schedule growth being reduced. The paper will show a comparison of the previous results to the updated results to show specific reductions and provide an explanation of which recommendations were followed.

  9. A VidEo-Based Intelligent Recognition and Decision System for the Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phacoemulsification surgery is one of the most advanced surgeries to treat cataract. However, the conventional surgeries are always with low automatic level of operation and over reliance on the ability of surgeons. Alternatively, one imaginative scene is to use video processing and pattern recognition technologies to automatically detect the cataract grade and intelligently control the release of the ultrasonic energy while operating. Unlike cataract grading in the diagnosis system with static images, complicated background, unexpected noise, and varied information are always introduced in dynamic videos of the surgery. Here we develop a VidEo-Based Intelligent Recognitionand Decision (VEBIRD system, which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for automatically tracking the operation process and classifying the cataract grade in microscope videos of the phacoemulsification cataract surgery. VEBIRD comprises a robust eye (iris detector with randomized Hough transform to precisely locate the eye in the noise background, an effective probe tracker with Tracking-Learning-Detection to thereafter track the operation probe in the dynamic process, and an intelligent decider with discriminative learning to finally recognize the cataract grade in the complicated video. Experiments with a variety of real microscope videos of phacoemulsification verify VEBIRD’s effectiveness.

  10. Ethical, political, and social aspects of high-technology medicine: Eos and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamperetti, Nereo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Dan, Maurizio; Ronco, Claudio

    2006-06-01

    We discuss biosocial aspects of high-technology medicine (HTM) to provide a global view of the current model of medicine in the developed world and its consequences. We analyze changes in the concept of death and in the use and cost of HTM. The consequences of HTM on the delivery of basic medical care within and among countries are discussed. Concepts derived from Greek mythology are used to illustrate the problems associated with HTM. HTM can be extremely effective in individual cases, but it poses important bioethical and biosocial problems. A major problem is related to the possibility of manipulating the process of dying and the consequent alteration in the social concept of death, which, if not carefully regulated, risks transforming medicine into an expensive way of pursuing pointless dreams of immortality (myth of Eos). Another problem is related to the extraordinary amount of resources necessary for HTM. This model of medicine (which is practiced daily) has limited sustainability, can work only in highly developed countries, may contribute to unequal access to health care, and has negligible positive impact on global health and survival. HTM poses very important biosocial questions that need to be addressed in a wider and transparent debate, in the best interest of society and HTM as well.

  11. A Collaboration in Support of LBA Science and Data Exchange: Beija-flor and EOS-WEBSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. L.; Gentry, M. J.; Keller, M.; Rhyne, T.; Moore, B.

    2001-12-01

    The University of New Hampshire (UNH) has developed a Web-based tool that makes data, information, products, and services concerning terrestrial ecological and hydrological processes available to the Earth Science community. Our WEB-based System for Terrestrial Ecosystem Research (EOS-WEBSTER) provides a GIS-oriented interface to select, subset, reformat and download three main types of data: selected NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) remotely sensed data products, results from a suite of ecosystem and hydrological models, and geographic reference data. The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia Project (LBA) has implemented a search engine, Beija-flor, that provides a centralized access point to data sets acquired for and produced by LBA researchers. The metadata in the Beija-flor index describe the content of the data sets and contain links to data distributed around the world. The query system returns a list of data sets that meet the search criteria of the user. A common problem when a user of a system like Beija-flor wants data products located within another system is that users are required to re-specify information, such as spatial coordinates, in the other system. This poster describes methodology by which Beija-flor generates a unique URL containing the requested search parameters and passes the information to EOS-WEBSTER, thus making the interactive services and large diverse data holdings in EOS-WEBSTER directly available to Beija-flor users. This "Calling Card" is used by EOS-WEBSTER to generate on-demand custom products tailored to each Beija-flor request. Through a collaborative effort, we have demonstrated the ability to integrate project-specific search engines such as Beija-flor with the products and services of large data systems such as EOS-WEBSTER, to provide very specific information products with a minimal amount of additional programming. This methodology has the potential to greatly facilitate research data exchange by

  12. Use of alternative dispute resolution--HHS. Notice of interim policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-27

    The Department has developed an interim policy to address the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) as required by the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (ADR Act), Public Law No. 101-552. This interim policy also responds to the Negotiated Rulemaking Act, Public Law No. 101-648, and relevant elements of the Executive Order on Civil Justice Reform (E.O. 12778). The Department is adopting an interim policy because we need a baseline of experience and knowledge from our own pilot activities and those of other agencies before finalizing a policy.

  13. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  14. Status of Foreground and Instrument Challenges for 21cm EoR experiments - Design Strategies for SKA and HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan

    2018-05-01

    Direct detection of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) via redshifted 21 cm line of H i will reveal the nature of the first stars and galaxies as well as revolutionize our understanding of a poorly explored evolutionary phase of the Universe. Projects such as the MWA, LOFAR, and PAPER commenced in the last decade with the promise of high significance statistical detection of the EoR, but have so far only weakly constrained models owing to unforeseen challenges from bright foreground sources and instrument systematics. It is essential for next generation instruments like the HERA and SKA to have these challenges addressed. I present an analysis of these challenges - wide-field measurements, antenna beam chromaticity, reflections in the instrument, and antenna position errors - along with performance specifications and design solutions that will be critical to designing successful next-generation instruments in enabling the first detection and also in placing meaningful constraints on reionization models.

  15. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  16. Thermal-hydraulic experiments and analyses for cold moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2003-01-01

    Cold moderators using liquid hydrogen are one of the key components in a MW-scale target system working as a spallation neutron source. The cold moderators directly affect the neutronic performance both in intensity and resolution. Cold moderator vessels are designed to be flat and cylindrical type vessels, which are required to realize and uniform temperature distribution in the vessel to obtain better neutronic performance. Velocity distributions in the moderator vessels, affecting the temperature distributions, were measured by using moderator models under water flowing conditions. In the experiments, jet-induced flows such as recirculation flows and stagnant regions were observed. For the flat type moderator vessel, the analytical results of velocity distributions using a standard k-ε turbulence model agreed well with experimental results obtained with a PIV system. However, for the cylindrical type moderator vessel, especially predicted heat transfer coefficients on a bottom of the vessel were much lower than the experimental results, which gave conservative analytical result of temperature. (author)

  17. New impressive capabilities of SE-workbench for EO/IR real-time rendering of animated scenarios including flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Alain; Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2015-10-01

    To provide technical assessments of EO/IR flares and self-protection systems for aircraft, DGA Information superiority resorts to synthetic image generation to model the operational battlefield of an aircraft, as viewed by EO/IR threats. For this purpose, it completed the SE-Workbench suite from OKTAL-SE with functionalities to predict a realistic aircraft IR signature and is yet integrating the real-time EO/IR rendering engine of SE-Workbench called SE-FAST-IR. This engine is a set of physics-based software and libraries that allows preparing and visualizing a 3D scene for the EO/IR domain. It takes advantage of recent advances in GPU computing techniques. The recent past evolutions that have been performed concern mainly the realistic and physical rendering of reflections, the rendering of both radiative and thermal shadows, the use of procedural techniques for the managing and the rendering of very large terrains, the implementation of Image- Based Rendering for dynamic interpolation of plume static signatures and lastly for aircraft the dynamic interpolation of thermal states. The next step is the representation of the spectral, directional, spatial and temporal signature of flares by Lacroix Defense using OKTAL-SE technology. This representation is prepared from experimental data acquired during windblast tests and high speed track tests. It is based on particle system mechanisms to model the different components of a flare. The validation of a flare model will comprise a simulation of real trials and a comparison of simulation outputs to experimental results concerning the flare signature and above all the behavior of the stimulated threat.

  18. Informing future NRT satellite distribution capabilities: Lessons learned from NASA's Land Atmosphere NRT capability for EOS (LANCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D.; Murphy, K. J.; Michael, K.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) provides data and imagery from Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites in less than 3 hours from satellite observation, to meet the needs of the near real-time (NRT) applications community. This article describes the architecture of the LANCE and outlines the modifications made to achieve the 3-hour latency requirement with a view to informing future NRT satellite distribution capabilities. It also describes how latency is determined. LANCE is a distributed system that builds on the existing EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) capabilities. To achieve the NRT latency requirement, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems have been made more efficient without compromising the quality of science data processing. The EOS Data and Operations System (EDOS) processes the NRT stream with higher priority than the science data stream in order to minimize latency. In addition to expediting transfer times, the key difference between the NRT Level 0 products and those for standard science processing is the data used to determine the precise location and tilt of the satellite. Standard products use definitive geo-location (attitude and ephemeris) data provided daily, whereas NRT products use predicted geo-location provided by the instrument Global Positioning System (GPS) or approximation of navigational data (depending on platform). Level 0 data are processed in to higher-level products at designated Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). The processes used by LANCE have been streamlined and adapted to work with datasets as soon as they are downlinked from satellites or transmitted from ground stations. Level 2 products that require ancillary data have modified production rules to relax the requirements for ancillary data so reducing processing times. Looking to the future, experience gained from LANCE can provide valuable lessons on

  19. Membrane receptor-mediated apoptosis and caspase activation in the differentiated EoL-1 eosinophilic cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rabia, Mohammed W; Blaylock, Morgan G; Sexton, Darren W; Walsh, Garry M

    2004-06-01

    Caspases are key molecules in the control of apoptosis, but relatively little is known about their contribution to eosinophil apoptosis. We examined caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in receptor ligation-dependent apoptosis induction in the differentiated human eosinophilic cell line EoL-1. Differentiated EoL-1 exhibited bi-lobed nuclei, eosinophil-associated membrane receptors, and basic granule proteins. Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate binding to EoL-1 revealed significant (PEoL-1 but had no effect on constitutive (baseline) apoptosis at 16 and 20 h. Caspase activity was analyzed using the novel CaspaTag trade mark technique and flow cytometry. EoL-1 treated with pan-CD45, CD45RA, CD45RB, and CD95 mAb exhibited caspase-3 and -9 activation at 12 h post-treatment, which increased at 16 and 20 h. Activated caspase-8 was detected 12 and 16 h after ligation with CD45, CD45RA, CD45RB, and CD95 mAb followed by a trend toward basal levels at 20 h. CD69 ligation resulted in caspase-3 activation, a modest but significant activation of caspase-8, and a loss in mitochondrial transmembrane potential but had no significant effect on activation of caspase-9. Thus, the intrinsic and extrinsic caspase pathways are involved in controlling receptor ligation-mediated apoptosis induction in human eosinophils, findings that may aid the development of a more targeted, anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma.

  20. Application of EoEP principle with variable heat transfer coefficient in minimizing entropy production in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkan, F.

    2005-01-01

    A more realistic application of the entropy minimization principle EoEP is presented. This principle dictates uniform local entropy generations along the heat exchanger in order to minimize the total entropy generation rate due only to heat transfer. For a certain heat duty and area of an existing exchanger, this is done by changing the temperatures of one fluid while the temperatures of the other fluid are held constant. Since the heat duty is fixed, the change in the temperatures of the fluid after the change, however, may sometimes cause a drastic change in its flow rate. This may cause considerable changes in the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and, consequently, in the entropy generation rate. Depending on the choice of the fluid for changing, the new entropy generation rates may be higher or lower than those based on constant U as is the case in papers recently published. So, the classical application of the EoEP principle needs to be modified to achieve more realistic entropy generation rates. In this study, the principle of EoEP with variable U is applied to some cases of heat exchange, and a simple method is presented as a criterion for the proper choice of the fluid to be changed

  1. EOS9nT: A TOUGH2 module for the simulation of flow and solute/colloid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.J.; Wu, Y.S.; Pruess, K.

    1998-04-01

    EOS9nT is a new TOUGH2 module for the simulation of flow and transport of an arbitrary number n of tracers (solutes and/or colloids) in the subsurface. The module first solves the flow-related equations, which are comprised of (a) the Richards equation and, depending on conditions, may also include (b) the flow equation of a dense brine or aqueous suspension and/or (c) the heat equation. A second set of transport equations, corresponding to the n tracers, are then solved sequentially. The low concentrations of the n tracers are considered to have no effect on the liquid phase, thus making possible the decoupling of their equations. The first set of equations in EOS9nT provides the flow regime and account for fluid density variations due to thermal and/or solute concentration effects. The n tracer transport equations account for sorption, radioactive decay, advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, molecular diffusion, as well as filtration (for colloids only). EOS9nT can handle gridblocks or irregular geometry in three-dimensional domains. Preliminary results from four 1-D verification problems show an excellent agreement between the numerical predictions and the known analytical solutions

  2. Moderate Secularism and Multicultural Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    Tariq Modood argues that European states are only ‘moderately secular' and that this kind of secularism is compatible with public accommodation of religious groups and provides a model of Muslim integration appropriate for European states. Although attention to the fact of moderate secularism...... provides a response to a prominent argument against multicultural accommodation of religious minorities, what is really at stake in discussions of multiculturalism and secularism are political principles. Modood's case for accommodation of Muslims along the lines of moderate secularism presupposes...

  3. Doing statistical mediation and moderation

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, conversational style, this book offers a hands-on approach to statistical mediation and moderation for both beginning researchers and those familiar with modeling. Starting with a gentle review of regression-based analysis, Paul Jose covers basic mediation and moderation techniques before moving on to advanced topics in multilevel modeling, structural equation modeling, and hybrid combinations, such as moderated mediation. User-friendly features include numerous graphs and carefully worked-through examples; ""Helpful Suggestions"" about procedures and pitfalls; ""Knowled

  4. Aquapath-Soil: Supporting farmers with hydrologic models and EO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambel-Leitao, Pedro; Almeida, Carina; Jauch, Eduardo; Rosado, Hugo; Rocha, António; Leitão, José; Neves, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    developers are able to implement and test their applications, and then tap into a distributed pool of cloud resources when ready for the exploitation phase. This project will allow for the development and testing of new processing chains and methods for Sentinel and GMES contributing mission data on a continuous basis, and the delivery of higher-level products and services complementing the information provided by the (pre-)operational services. This system will be based on a dynamic parallel processing infrastructure, where the capabilities of grid computing applied to Sentinel data processing can be exploited and demonstrated. The sandbox model furnishes a test environment very similar to the space agencies operational environments, where the applications are ran against large EO series of datasets, and where the "time- to-market" understood as the applications maturity and readiness for production can be streamlined. The distributed processing services are bridging the exploitation gap by offering access to EO data and processing power, and bringing the processors and applications closer to the data. By using the same model behind the European Space Agency (ESA) Grid Processing on-Demand environment, the SenSyF project will enable the collaborative sharing of data and processing power from commercial or/and private clouds. The SenSyF project will provide an infrastructure where SME and scientists can develop and deploy Earth Science application with a lower overall cost of data and infrastructure setup and maintenance. On top of the Synergy Framework being proposed, a selected set of demonstrative services were selected, which will 1) demonstrate the system's potential, 2) provide valuable development feedback for the framework improvement, and 3) prove the overall concept by addressing specific services needs within the European and global setting. Aquapath-Soil is one of the services to be included in SenSyF Framework.

  5. Empowering the rural poor through EO products and services—An impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, P. G.; Ranganath, B. K.; Gowrisankar, D.; Jayaraman, V.

    2008-07-01

    With the advent of technology in the form of space-based imaging, network-based computation and information technology, the focus has shifted to how these technologies could change the livelihoods of rural community and put them on the path of developmental processes. Many rural villages in India do not have right kind of infrastructure and connectivity, which makes it difficult for any developmental program to perform successfully. This makes them more vulnerable and further cut off from the mainstream developmental programs in the country. There are large tracts of arid and semi-arid lands in many parts of the country, which requires scientific inputs and improved farming practices for sustenance of poor communities under tough conditions. Unless some simple and cost-effective methods are evolved and taken to the field level, it is difficult to see positive developments in such areas and stop people from migrating to different areas for livelihood options. Integrated watershed development program with innovative practices and holistic approach could bring about positive changes in such poverty stricken areas that host vulnerable groups who experience the hardship due to poor local natural resources conditions and living standards. An optimal combination of space technology and information technology has been successfully used, through participatory methods, to empower the rural poor in realizing better livelihood possibilities. An attempt is made in this paper to find solutions for such problematic areas with some innovative tools and techniques that involve user-friendly delivery of EO products and services for the benefit of the rural community and help them in decision making at local level.

  6. The Seeds Left in Italy by the E&O Program of the Andrill Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, M.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main purposes of the ARISE program, the educational initiative by the ANDRILL research, was to “integrate polar geoscience content into a range of learning environments”. In the range of this program, an Italian science teacher created and developed through 2006 and 2007 a specific project called progettosmilla.it (www.progettosmilla.it). With the services consequently created, this initiative managed to involve more then 2000 students and 100 teachers across the Italian territory. Though, what is left of that experience four years later? This contribution focuses on the description of the long-term effects of that event on the earth system science education in Italy. It offers the chance to analyze some of the most significant educational projects rooted in the network of (local and national) institutions which supported the progettosmilla.it-ANDRILL program. Among these: - the Ortles project: an E&O initiative developed in the range of an international paleoclimatic research on the biggest ice-cap of the Eastern Alps (by Italian and U.S. universities and centers of research); - the I-CLEEN (Inquiring on Climate & ENergy) project: an information gateway collecting educational resources, which promotes an enquiry-based approach and is managed by science teachers (by the Natural Science Museum of Trento- Italy); - the SPEs (Summer Polar School for Teachers): a summer class where research, researchers and teachers illustrate polar themes and lectures to be introduced in scholastic programs (by the National Museum of Antarctica- Italy); - the first European edition of IESO (International Earth Science Olympiad), initiative to be held in Italy in 2011 (by University of Modena and Reggio Emilia - Italy). Through the analysis of these projects it will be possible to gain useful clues and answer more complex questions, such as: Which are the key factors for the success of such a project, aimed to the cooperation between scientists and teachers? Why an

  7. Flow and spectra for light fragments from Au+Au collisions in the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisa, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    We study the effects of the collective motion (flow) on distributions and yields of light fragments produced in heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac/SIS energy range. p, d, t, 3 He and α fragments emitted from Au+Au collisions at 0.25 - 1.15 AGeV bombarding energy were measured with the EOS TPC. The TPC has high and seamless acceptance in the forward hemisphere of the CM system, and excellent particle identification for light fragments. Analyses of the sidewards flow, squeeze-out, and radial flow signals are presented as a function of bombarding energy and centrality of the collision. The fragment mass systematics of the flow signals are seen to be consistent with a simple coalescence picture for the light particles studied. A unifying framework for describing many of the systematic features of the different types of flow (e.g. the p T dependence of squeeze-out) in terms of 3 parameters is discussed. Consistent with previous studies, the parameter describing squeeze-out is seen to be most sensitive to the Equation of State within a Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model. The effect on extracted temperature of various radial flow profiles is discussed. Finally, a preliminary study of light particle yields in terms of the Quantum Statistical Model (QSM) is presented. It is found that the beam energy dependence of the 'chemical' temperature obtained from the yields tracks with the 'kinetic' temperature obtained from the spectral fits, if one accounts for a flow profile. However, discrepancies between different implementations (computer codes) of the QSM must be resolved before drawing final conclusions about agreement. (authors)

  8. The EOS 2D/3D X-ray imaging system: A cost-effectiveness analysis quantifying the health benefits from reduced radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Rita; McKenna, Claire; Wade, Ros; Yang, Huiqin; Woolacott, Nerys; Sculpher, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the EOS ® 2D/3D X-ray imaging system compared with standard X-ray for the diagnosis and monitoring of orthopaedic conditions. Materials and methods: A decision analytic model was developed to quantify the long-term costs and health outcomes, expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the UK health service perspective. Input parameters were obtained from medical literature, previously developed cancer models and expert advice. Threshold analysis was used to quantify the additional health benefits required, over and above those associated with radiation-induced cancers, for EOS ® to be considered cost-effective. Results: Standard X-ray is associated with a maximum health loss of 0.001 QALYs, approximately 0.4 of a day in full health, while the loss with EOS ® is a maximum of 0.00015 QALYs, or 0.05 of a day in full health. On a per patient basis, EOS ® is more expensive than standard X-ray by between £10.66 and £224.74 depending on the assumptions employed. The results suggest that EOS ® is not cost-effective for any indication. Health benefits over and above those obtained from lower radiation would need to double for EOS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: No evidence currently exists on whether there are health benefits associated with imaging improvements from the use of EOS ® . The health benefits from radiation dose reductions are very small. Unless EOS ® can generate additional health benefits as a consequence of the nature and quality of the image, comparative patient throughput with X-ray will be the major determinant of cost-effectiveness

  9. The EOS 2D/3D X-ray imaging system: A cost-effectiveness analysis quantifying the health benefits from reduced radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Rita, E-mail: rita.nevesdefaria@york.ac.uk [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); McKenna, Claire [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Wade, Ros; Yang, Huiqin; Woolacott, Nerys [Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Sculpher, Mark [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the EOS{sup ®} 2D/3D X-ray imaging system compared with standard X-ray for the diagnosis and monitoring of orthopaedic conditions. Materials and methods: A decision analytic model was developed to quantify the long-term costs and health outcomes, expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the UK health service perspective. Input parameters were obtained from medical literature, previously developed cancer models and expert advice. Threshold analysis was used to quantify the additional health benefits required, over and above those associated with radiation-induced cancers, for EOS{sup ®} to be considered cost-effective. Results: Standard X-ray is associated with a maximum health loss of 0.001 QALYs, approximately 0.4 of a day in full health, while the loss with EOS{sup ®} is a maximum of 0.00015 QALYs, or 0.05 of a day in full health. On a per patient basis, EOS{sup ®} is more expensive than standard X-ray by between £10.66 and £224.74 depending on the assumptions employed. The results suggest that EOS{sup ®} is not cost-effective for any indication. Health benefits over and above those obtained from lower radiation would need to double for EOS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: No evidence currently exists on whether there are health benefits associated with imaging improvements from the use of EOS{sup ®}. The health benefits from radiation dose reductions are very small. Unless EOS{sup ®} can generate additional health benefits as a consequence of the nature and quality of the image, comparative patient throughput with X-ray will be the major determinant of cost-effectiveness.

  10. Enhancing Spatial Resolution of Remotely Sensed Imagery Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. M.; Bridges, S.; Collins, C.; Rushing, J.; Graves, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers at the Information Technology and Systems Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville are using Deep Learning with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to develop a method for enhancing the spatial resolutions of moderate resolution (10-60m) multispectral satellite imagery. This enhancement will effectively match the resolutions of imagery from multiple sensors to provide increased global temporal-spatial coverage for a variety of Earth science products. Our research is centered on using Deep Learning for automatically generating transformations for increasing the spatial resolution of remotely sensed images with different spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. One of the most important steps in using images from multiple sensors is to transform the different image layers into the same spatial resolution, preferably the highest spatial resolution, without compromising the spectral information. Recent advances in Deep Learning have shown that CNNs can be used to effectively and efficiently upscale or enhance the spatial resolution of multispectral images with the use of an auxiliary data source such as a high spatial resolution panchromatic image. In contrast, we are using both the spatial and spectral details inherent in low spatial resolution multispectral images for image enhancement without the use of a panchromatic image. This presentation will discuss how this technology will benefit many Earth Science applications that use remotely sensed images with moderate spatial resolutions.

  11. Neutron moderation theory with thermal motion of the moderator nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusov, V.D.; Tarasov, V.A.; Chernezhenko, S.A.; Kakaev, A.A.; Smolyar, V.P. [Odessa National Polytechnic University, Department of Theoretical and Experimental Nuclear Physics, Odessa (Ukraine)

    2017-09-15

    In this paper we present the analytical expression for the neutron scattering law for an isotropic source of neutrons, obtained within the framework of the gas model with the temperature of the moderating medium as a parameter. The obtained scattering law is based on the solution of the general kinematic problem of elastic scattering of neutrons on nuclei in the L-system. Both the neutron and the nucleus possess arbitrary velocities in the L-system. For the new scattering law we obtain the flux densities and neutron moderation spectra as functions of temperature for the reactor fissile medium. The expressions for the moderating neutrons spectra allow reinterpreting the physical nature of the underlying processes in the thermal region. (orig.)

  12. La salle de cinéma comme attraction spectacle : le cas Captain Eo à Disneyland Paris The Movie theater as attraction: The Case of Captain Eo at Disneyland Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Massuet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour ambition d’interroger le rapport du public à une salle de cinéma précise, au cœur du parc Disneyland Paris à Marne-La-Vallée. Cette salle projette à nouveau depuis juin 2010 l’attraction Captain Eo, film de science-fiction en 3D relief réalisé par Francis Ford Coppola en 1986, avec Michael Jackson dans le rôle-titre. Remplacé depuis 1998 par une autre attraction, Captain Eo fait son retour un an après le décès de la star, et implique dès lors un rapport très particulier à son public, par son statut d’hommage post-mortem. Il s’agira de comprendre la façon dont l’attraction structure son public, et la façon dont celui-ci peut construire à son tour le sens du film qu’il est en train de voir. C’est donc une approche sémio-pragmatique que nous convoquons ici, en nous référant à Roger Odin, afin d’envisager, à partir du film lui-même et de son mode de diffusion, ce que l’attraction Captain Eo révèle théoriquement du lien entre le spectateur et l’image d’une star comme Michael Jackson, qui plus est un an après son décès. Il s’agira de comprendre de quelle manière le film de Coppola ainsi que son contexte de diffusion – le parc d’attraction Disneyland Paris – permettent de penser ou d’interroger un type de pratique spectatorielle différent de celles engendrées par d'autres salles de cinéma.This article tries to question the link between the public and a precise movie theater, in Disneyland Paris Marne-La-Vallée, proposing again since june 2010 the attraction Captain Eo, science-fiction 3D movie by Francis Ford Coppola in 1986, starring Michael Jackson. Replaced since 1998 by another attraction, Captain Eo comes back one year after the death of the star, and implies un specific link with its public, being a post-mortem tribute. We have to understand the way the attraction builds its public, and the way this one can build the movie signification in return. We have

  13. Preliminary experience with SpineEOS, a new software for 3D planning in AIS surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Mazda, Keyvan; Simon, Anne-Laure; Ilharreborde, Brice

    2018-04-24

    Preoperative planning of scoliosis surgery is essential in the effective treatment of spine pathology. Thus, precontoured rods have been recently developed to avoid iatrogenic sagittal misalignment and rod breakage. Some specific issues exist in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), such as a less distal lower instrumented level, a great variability in the location of inflection point (transition from lumbar lordosis to thoracic kyphosis), and sagittal correction is limited by both bone-implant interface. Since 2007, stereoradiographic imaging system is used and allows for 3D reconstructions. Therefore, a software was developed to perform preoperative 3D surgical planning and to provide rod's shape and length. The goal of this preliminary study was to assess the feasibility, reliability, and the clinical relevance of this new software. Retrospective study on 47 AIS patients operated with the same surgical technique: posteromedial translation through posterior approach with lumbar screws and thoracic sublaminar bands. Pre- and postoperatively, 3D reconstructions were performed on stereoradiographic images (EOS system, Paris, France) and compared. Then, the software was used to plan the surgical correction and determine rod's shape and length. Simulated spine and rods were compared to postoperative real 3D reconstructions. 3D reconstructions and planning were performed by an independent observer. 3D simulations were performed on the 47 patients. No difference was found between the simulated model and the postoperative 3D reconstructions in terms of sagittal parameters. Postoperatively, 21% of LL were not within reference values. Postoperative SVA was 20 mm anterior in 2/3 of the cases. Postoperative rods were significantly longer than precontoured rods planned with the software (mean 10 mm). Inflection points were different on the rods used and the planned rods (2.3 levels on average). In this preliminary study, the software based on 3D stereoradiography low

  14. Spatial Variability Mapping of Crop Residue Using Hyperion (EO-1 Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrazak Bannari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil management practices that maintain crop residue cover and reduce tillage improve soil structure, increase organic matter content in the soil, positively influence water infiltration, evaporation and soil temperature, and play an important role in fixing CO2 in the soil. Consequently, good residue management practices on agricultural land have many positive impacts on soil quality, crop production quality and decrease the rate of soil erosion. Several studies have been undertaken to develop and test methods to derive information on crop residue cover and soil tillage using empirical and semi-empirical methods in combination with remote sensing data. However, these methods are generally not sufficiently rigorous and accurate for characterizing the spatial variability of crop residue cover in agricultural fields. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential of hyperspectral Hyperion (Earth Observing-1, EO-1 data and constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (CLSMA for percent crop residue cover estimation and mapping. Hyperion data were acquired together with ground-reference measurements for validation purposes at the beginning of the agricultural season (prior to spring crop planting in Saskatchewan (Canada. At this time, only bare soil and crop residue were present with no crop cover development. In order to extract the crop residue fraction, the images were preprocessed, and then unmixed considering the entire spectral range (427 nm–2355 nm and the pure spectra (endmember. The results showed that the correlation between ground-reference measurements and extracted fractions from the Hyperion data using CLMSA showed that the model was overall a very good predictor for crop residue percent cover (index of agreement (D of 0.94, coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.73 and root mean square error (RMSE of 8.7% and soil percent cover (D of 0.91, R2 of 0.68 and RMSE of 10.3%. This performance of Hyperion is mainly due to the

  15. A physics-based algorithm for retrieving land-surface emissivity and temperature from EOS/MODIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Z.; Li, Z.L.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NEΔT) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4--0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10--12.5 microm IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2--3 K

  16. Thermal-hydraulic experiments and analyses on cold moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsushi; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    A cold moderator using supercritical hydrogen is one of the key components in a MW-scale spallation target system, which directly affects the neutronic performance both in intensity and resolution. Since a hydrogen temperature rise in the moderator vessel affects the neutronic performance, it is necessary to suppress the local temperature rise within 3 K. In order to develop the conceptual design of the moderator structure in progress, the flow patterns were measured using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimeter) system under water flow conditions using a flat model that simulated a moderator vessel. From these results, the flow patterns (such as recirculation flows, stagnant flows etc.) were clarified. The hydraulic analytical results obtained using the STAR-CD code agreed well with experimental results. Thermal-hydraulic analyses in the moderator vessel were carried out using the STAR-CD code. Based on these results, we clarified the possibility of suppressing the local temperature rise to within 3 K under 2 MW operating conditions. In order to achieve the cost decreasing of the hydrogen loop, it is necessary to operate it reducing the hydrogen flow rate and the whole hydrogen mass. Then improved moderator concept using blowholes and a twisted tape was proposed, and we have tried to examine the effect of the blowing flow from the inlet pipe. From the experimental and analytical results, the blowing flow could be feasible for the suppression of the stagnant region. (author)

  17. Performance of Cubic Eos At High Pressures Performance des équations d'état cubiques à hautes pressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamataki S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of cubic equations of state in the prediction of the phase behavior of hyperbaric mixtures. It points out a number of problems that should be resolved in a cooperative way. Items related to EoS parameter definitions such as interaction coefficients, critical properties of hydrocarbon compounds and volume translation are investigated. VLE experimental data, isothermal flash compositional and volumetric data up to 4000 bar as well as PVT data up to 2000 bar for binary mixtures and synthetic multicomponent systems have been considered in this study. Correlation and prediction results are presented with the translated and modified Peng-Robinson (t-mPR EoS. It is shown that serious problems are encountered at high pressure, when extrapolated interaction coefficients are used. Prediction of saturation pressures of gas condensates is more satisfactory when binary interaction parameters are obtained from high pressure dew point correlations. Compositional and volumetric predictions are remarkable under the assumption that definition of the EoS parameters is based on high pressure VLE binary data. Contradictory results are obtained with different methods for estimating the critical properties of high molecular weight hydrocarbons. Generalized expressions for the volume translation appear to be very efficient even at very high temperatures and pressures (up to 2000 bar. Cet article présente une évaluation des performances des équations d'états (EoS cubiques pour la prévision des comportements de phases des mélanges hyperbares. Il met en évidence un certain nombre de problèmes auxquels il devrait être répondu d'une manière coopérative. Les points relatifs à la définition des paramètres des EoS, tels que les coefficients d'interaction, les propriétés critiques des composants hydrocarbonés et la translation de volume sont examinés. Plusieurs types d'informations ont été pris en compte

  18. Acute emesis: moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Rapoport, Bernardo; Warr, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recommendations for the prophylaxis of acute emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy as concluded at the third Perugia Consensus Conference, which took place in June 2009. The review will focus on new studies appearing since the Second consensus conference...... receiving multiple cycles of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy will be reviewed. Consensus statements are given, including optimal dose and schedule of serotonin(3) receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and neurokinin(1) receptor antagonists. The most significant recommendations (and changes since the 2004...... version of the guidelines) are as follows: the best prophylaxis in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (not including a combination of an anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide) is the combination of palonosetron and dexamethasone on the day of chemotherapy, followed by dexamethasone...

  19. Graphite moderated 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    The thorium molten salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a 252 Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the 252 Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. (Author)

  20. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...

  1. Radicals versus Moderates: A Critique of Gyekye's Moderate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The communitarian conception of person is a widely accepted view in African thought. Kwame Gyekye thinks there is a distinction between what he calls radical communitarianism and his own version of moderate communitarianism. He is of the view that radical communitarianism is faced with insurmountable problems and ...

  2. Integrating EO data for applying the Nexus of water, energy and agriculture to monitor SDG Indicators within transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalidis, G.; Kavvada, A.; Crisman, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NEXUS of water, energy and agriculture is widely recognized as an integrated approach for innovative management solutions and actions to protect natural resources. Soil Spectral Libraries (SSL) implement the NEXUS approach by combining Earth Observation (EO) and Geospatial Information (GI) data and tools to extract information on soil attributes rapidly, reliably and cost effectively. NEXUS approach for soil resources at large scales- across landscapes or regions- remains a challenge however, especially for stakeholders, and in regards to promoting the concept, disseminating the methodology, and discussing potential benefits at both local and transboundary river basin levels. The CEOS Data Cube is an excellent tool for collecting, processing and disseminating EO data, and providing `Analysis Ready Data' utilized both as a management tool for policy makers, and a tool boosting economic activity and supporting end-users. Thus, it helps supporting the tracking of, and reporting on, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and promoting targeted approaches to address specific SDG Indicators. Although several European projects in the Balkan transboundary river basin areas focus on existing/potential ties to specific SDG Indicators under the leadership of i-BEC, data are lacking for some regions, and there is an exigent need for country/region - specific case studies. A case study in Albania, the 3rd for CEOS and the 1st for Europe, will seek to build synergies between different sectors and activities (water, energy, food) and natural resources, while also accounting for ecosystem climate- regulating functions. This will contribute to the global expansion of the Data Cube initiative, while adding high quality datasets in GEOSS. Engagement of EO ecosystem stakeholders, together with National Statistical Offices, regionally and globally, should exploit the networking capacities of multipliers, maximizing the impact and reach of SSL. The H2020 project GEOCRADLE has

  3. Online sequential condition prediction method of natural circulation systems based on EOS-ELM and phase space reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hanying; Gao, Puzhen; Tan, Sichao; Tang, Jiguo; Yuan, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An online condition prediction method for natural circulation systems in NPP was proposed based on EOS-ELM. •The proposed online prediction method was validated using experimental data. •The training speed of the proposed method is significantly fast. •The proposed method can achieve good accuracy in wide parameter range. -- Abstract: Natural circulation design is widely used in the passive safety systems of advanced nuclear power reactors. The irregular and chaotic flow oscillations are often observed in boiling natural circulation systems so it is difficult for operators to monitor and predict the condition of these systems. An online condition forecasting method for natural circulation system is proposed in this study as an assisting technique for plant operators. The proposed prediction approach was developed based on Ensemble of Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (EOS-ELM) and phase space reconstruction. Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) is an online sequential learning neural network algorithm and EOS-ELM is the ensemble method of it. The proposed condition prediction method can be initiated by a small chunk of monitoring data and it can be updated by newly arrived data at very fast speed during the online prediction. Simulation experiments were conducted on the data of two natural circulation loops to validate the performance of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the proposed predication model can successfully recognize different types of flow oscillations and accurately forecast the trend of monitored plant variables. The influence of the number of hidden nodes and neural network inputs on prediction performance was studied and the proposed model can achieve good accuracy in a wide parameter range. Moreover, the comparison results show that the proposed condition prediction method has much faster online learning speed and better prediction accuracy than conventional neural network model.

  4. Análisis de los impactos ambientales generados por parques eólicos. Caso práctico

    OpenAIRE

    Avilés, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    De conformidad con el Anexo II del Decreto -ley 5/2014, de 22 de abril, de medidas normativas para reducir las trabas administrativas para las empresas, los parques eólicos si tienen más de 6 aerogeneradores o 10 MW de potencia instalada, requieren una Autorización Ambiental Unificada ordinaria (AAU). Dicha autorización exige la redacción de un Estudio de Impacto Ambiental que analice y cuantifique los principales impactos a lo largo de las distintas fases del proyecto y establezca la...

  5. OMPS Near Real-time Products Available Through NASA LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near Real-time Capability for EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, A.; Durbin, P. B.; Cechini, M. F.; Masuoka, E.

    2017-12-01

    Near real-time (NRT) images from the NASA Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) for sulfur dioxide, total column ozone and aerosol index products are now available through NASA's online Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) system. Color palettes, image dimensions and data ranges have been aligned with the corresponding OMI products, allowing for direct comparison of OMPS NRT images with OMI NRT images already available in NASA Worldview. The images are delivered to LANCE within hours of satellite observation. LANCE NRT imagery can be interactively viewed through Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS).

  6. SU(2 color NJL model and EOS of quark-hadron matter at finite temperature and density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Wolfram

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the NJL model with the Polyakov loop in the SU(2-color case for the EOS of quark-hadron matter at finite temperature and density. We consider the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and the diquark condensation together with the behavior of the Polyakov loop for the phase diagram of quark-hadron matter. We discuss the spectrum of mesons and diquark baryons (boson at finite temperature and density.We derive also the linear sigma model Lagrangian for diquark baryon and mesons.

  7. Moderator circulation in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, H.E.S.; Hussein, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional computer code that is capable of predicting the moderator flow and temperature distribution inside CANDU calandria is presented. The code uses a new approach to simulate the calandria tube matrix by blocking the cells containing the tubes in the finite difference mesh. A jet momentum-dominant flow pattern is predicted in the nonisothermal case, and the effect of the buoyancy force, resulting from nuclear heating, is found to enhance the speed of circulation. Hot spots are located in low-velocity areas at the top of the calandria and below the inlet jet level between the fuel channels. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effect of moderator inlet velocity,moderator inlet nozzle location, and geometric scaling. The results indicate that decreasing the moderator inlet velocity has no significant influence on the general features of the flow pattern (i.e., momentum dominant); however, too many high-temperature hot spots appear within the fuel channels

  8. Local Assessment Moderation in SEPUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lily; And Others

    Assessment moderation is a procedure in which scorers or raters meet to achieve a consensus on scores assigned to student work. In the Science Education for Public Understanding Program (SEPUP), local teams of teachers met regularly at six sites nationwide to score student work, review methods of assigning scores, discuss and resolve discrepancies…

  9. Practice Pattern Variation in Pediatric Eosinophilic Esophagitis in the Carolinas EoE Collaborative: A Research Model in Community and Academic Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kevin Z; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Chen, Hannah X; Landes, Lisa E; McConnell, Kristen A; Almond, M Angie; Johnston, Douglas T; Durban, Raquel; Jobe, Laura; Frost, Carrie; Donnelly, Sarah; Antonio, Brady; Safta, Anca M; Quiros, J Antonio; Markowitz, Jonathan E; Dellon, Evan S

    2018-06-01

    Differences in the initial management of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) by practice setting have not been well characterized. We aimed to characterize these differences for sites in the Carolinas EoE Collaborative (CEoEC), a multicenter network of academic and community practices. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pediatric EoE patients at five CEoEC sites: University of North Carolina (UNC) Hospital, Charlotte Asthma and Allergy Specialists, Greenville Health Systems, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, and the Medical University of South Carolina Hospital. Cases of EoE were defined by consensus guidelines. Data were extracted from electronic medical records. We tested for differences among sites and used a multinomial model (polytomous regression) to assess associations between treatment and site, adjusting on patient factors. We identified 464 children with EoE across the CEoEC sites. The median age was highest at Wake Forest (11.4 years), the median eosinophil count was highest at UNC (69 eos/hpf), and UNC had the most male patients (82%). UNC used topical steroids for initial treatment in 86% of cases, compared with <1% in Greenville ( P < 0.01). Greenville used dietary elimination more frequently than UNC (81% vs 2%, P < 0.01). Differences in treatment approach held after adjusting for potential baseline confounders. There was no significant association between patient factors and initial treatment approach. Significant differences in EoE patient factors and treatment approaches were identified across CEoEC sites and were not explained by patient or practice factors. This suggests that institutional or provider preferences drive initial treatment approaches, and that more data are needed to drive best practice decisions.

  10. Modelling (vapour + liquid) and (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria of {water (H2O) + methanol (MeOH) + dimethyl ether (DME) + carbon dioxide (CO2)} quaternary system using the Peng-Robinson EoS with Wong-Sandler mixing rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Kongmeng; Freund, Hannsjoerg; Sundmacher, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Phase behaviour modelling of H 2 O-MeOH-DME under pressurized CO 2 (anti-solvent) using PRWS. → PRWS-UNIFAC-PSRK has better performance than PRWS-UNIFAC-Lby in general. → Reliable to extend the VLE and VLLE phase behaviour from binary to multicomponent systems. → Successful prediction of the VLE and VLLE of binary, ternary, and quaternary systems. → Potential to apply the model for designing new DME separation process. - Abstract: The (vapour + liquid) equilibria (VLE) and (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria (VLLE) binary data from literature were correlated using the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EoS) with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule (WS). Two group contribution activity models were used in the PRWS: UNIFAC-PSRK and UNIFAC-Lby. The systems were successfully extrapolated from the binary systems to ternary and quaternary systems. Results indicate that the PRWS-UNIFAC-PSRK generally displays a better performance than the PRWS-UNIFAC-Lby.

  11. UrtheCast: The System of Systems for Dynamic EO Monitoring Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyropoulos, N.

    2015-01-01

    UrtheCast is a multinational industrial initiative that tasks, downloads, processes and commercially exploits a medium resolution multispectral sensor and high-resolution wide area motion colorful video camera. UrtheCast's Earth Observation imaging system includes a pair of multispectral color cameras installed on the ISS. The High-Resolution Camera (HRC-Iris) is mounted on a pointing platform and captures 1 m-class high-definition (HD), full color motion imagery of areas measuring approximately 5.5x3.6 km 2 . The nadir pointing, push-broom Medium- Resolution Camera (MRC-Theia) produces a continuous ribbon of 4-channel, multispectral 6 m-class imagery. The acquired data are downlinked to a global network of antennas and backhauled to the UrtheCast cloud-based processing system and dissemination services. The resulting imagery and video are streamed in near-real time to the UrtheCast web platform or delivered to customers as special order products. UrtheCast daily MRC collection capability is ∼29 million km 2 while the HRC capacity is envisaged to generate approximately 2.5 terabytes of data per day, the equivalent of about 270 full resolution ∼90 second movies. The UrtheCast new Generation cameras include a dual Optical sensor (video and pushbroom focal planes) and dual-band (X and L) Synthetic Aperture Radar payload. Video will be of half-metre colour (0.40 m after super-imposition) and push-broom will be 1 m of 6-band multispectral. SAR payload will simultaneously record in both L and X bands, with the L-band in full quad pole (HH, HV, VH, VV, at 5 m) and the X-band in single pole (HH or VV, at 1.5 m or at <1 m in spotlight mode). The new system will be installed at NASA's Node 3 segment in late 2016. ISS is flying at 400 km, orbiting the earth 15 times/day and covering areas fallen into a geographic zone from 51.5 degrees north to 51.5 degrees south. (author)

  12. Establishment and analysis of a High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of the water-energy cycle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Wen, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    For better prediction and understanding of land-atmospheric interaction, in-situ observed meteorological data acquired from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) were assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the monthly Green Vegetation Coverage (GVF) data, which was calculated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the Earth Observing System Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) system. Furthermore, the WRF model produced a High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of the water-energy cycle in China (HRADC). This dataset has a horizontal resolution of 25 km for near surface meteorological data, such as air temperature, humidity, wind vectors and pressure (19 levels); soil temperature and moisture (four levels); surface temperature; downward/upward short/long radiation; 3-h latent heat flux; sensible heat flux; and ground heat flux. In this study, we 1) briefly introduce the cycling 3D-Var assimilation method and 2) compare results of meteorological elements, such as 2 m temperature and precipitation generated by the HRADC with the gridded observation data from CMA, and surface temperature and specific humidity with Global LandData Assimilation System (GLDAS) output data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). We found that the satellite-derived GVF from MODIS increased over southeast China compared with the default model over the whole year. The simulated results of soil temperature, net radiation and surface energy flux from the HRADC are improved compared with the control simulation and are close to GLDAS outputs. The values of net radiation from HRADC are higher than the GLDAS outputs, and the differences in the simulations are large in the east region but are smaller in northwest China and on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The spatial distribution of the sensible heat flux and the ground

  13. Nuclear data generation for cryogenic moderators and high temperature moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petriw, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    The commonly used processing codes for nuclear data only allow the generation of cross section data for a limited number of materials and physical conditions.At present, one of the most used computer codes for the generation of neutron cross sections is N J O Y, which is based on a phonon expansion of the scattering function starting from the frequency spectrum.Therefore, the information related to the system's density of states is crucial to produce the required data of interest. In this work the formalism of the Synthetic Model for Molecular Solids (S M M S) was implemented, which is in turn based on the Synthetic Frequency Spectrum (S F S) concept.The synthetic spectrum is central in the present work, and it is built from simple, relevant parameters of the moderator, thus conforming an alternative tool when no information on the actual frequency spectrum of the moderator material is available.S F S 's for several material of interest where produced in this work, for both cryogenic and high temperature moderators.We studied some materials of special interest, like solid methane, ice, methyl clathrate and two which are of special interest in the nuclear industry: graphite and beryllium.The libraries generated in the present work for the materials considered, in spite of their synthetic origin, are able to produce results that are even in better agreement with available information [es

  14. Neutronic performance issues for the Spallation Neutron Source moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, E.B.; Murphy, B.D.

    2001-01-01

    We continue to develop the neutronic models of the Spallation Neutron Source target station and moderators in order to better predict the neutronic performance of the system as a whole and in order to better optimize that performance. While we are not able to say that every model change leads to more intense neutron beams being predicted, we do feel that such changes are advantageous in either performance or in the accuracy of the prediction of performance. We have computationally and experimentally studied the neutronics of hydrogen-water composite moderators such as are proposed for the SNS Project. In performing these studies, we find that the composite moderator, at least in the configuration we have examined, does not provide performance characteristics desirable for the instruments proposed and being designed for this neutron scattering facility. The pulse width as a function of energy is significantly broader than for other moderators, limiting attainable resolution-bandwidth combinations. Furthermore, there is reason to expect that higher-energy (0.1-1 eV) applications will be significantly impacted by bimodal pulse shapes requiring enormous effort to parameterize. As a result of these studies, we have changed the SNS design, and will not use a composite moderator at this time. We have analyzed the depletion of a gadolinium poison plate in a hydrogen moderator at the Spallation Neutron Source, and found that conventional poison thicknesses will be completely unable to last the desired component lifetime of three operational years. A poison plate 300-600 μm thick will survive for the required length of time, but will somewhat degrade the intensity (by as much as 15% depending on neutron energy) and the consistency of the neutron source performance. Our results should scale fairly easily to other moderators on this or any other spallation source. While depletion will be important for all highly-absorbing materials in high-flux regions, we feel it likely that

  15. Development of a cryogenic EOS capability for the Z Pulsed Radiation Source: Goals and accomplishments of FY97 LDRD project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.L.; Johnston, R.R.; Asay, J.R.

    1998-03-01

    Experimental cryogenic capabilities are essential for the study of ICF high-gain target and weapons effects issues involving dynamic materials response at low temperatures. This report describes progress during the period 2/97-11/97 on the FY97 LDRD project ''Cryogenic EOS Capabilities on Pulsed Radiation Sources (Z Pinch)''. The goal of this project is the development of a general purpose cryogenic target system for precision EOS and shock physics measurements at liquid helium temperatures on the Z accelerator Z-pinch pulsed radiation source. Activity during the FY97 LDRD phase of this project has focused on development of a conceptual design for the cryogenic target system based on consideration of physics, operational, and safety issues, design and fabrication of principal system components, construction and instrumentation of a cryogenic test facility for off-line thermal and optical testing at liquid helium temperatures, initial thermal testing of a cryogenic target assembly, and the design of a cryogenic system interface to the Z pulsed radiation source facility. The authors discuss these accomplishments as well as elements of the project that require further work

  16. 佳能EOS系列广告策略分析%Analysis of Canon EOS Advertisement Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丹阳

    2015-01-01

    文章主要研究佳能EOS系列相机的广告策略问题,运用文献分析和实证分析的方法,结合其广告效果,从广告市场策略,产品策略,媒介策略,表现策略等方面入手,对相机业巨头佳能旗下EOS系列的广告策略进行分析评价。通过对广告策略的分析,探讨其广告战略的成功之处,为我国企业的广告营销提供借鉴经验。%The article mainly talks about the advertisement strategies of Canon EOS. Using the method of document research and empirical analysis and combining with the advertising effect to analyze the advertisement strategies of Canon EOS from the aspects of advertising market strategy, product strategy, media strategy and performance strategy. According to the analysis to conclude its success and provides experience for corporations' advertising marketing in China.

  17. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of hydrocarbons in glycols: Experimental data and thermodynamic modeling with the GCA-EoS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Prieto, Mariana; Williams-Wynn, Mark D.; Bahadur, Indra; Sánchez, Francisco A.; Mohammadi, Amir H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental infinite dilution activity coefficients of hydrocarbons in glycols. • Inverse gas-liquid chromatography technique. • Solutes investigated include n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, and cycloalkanes. • Highly non-ideal systems are modeled with the GCA-EoS. - Abstract: The infinite dilution activity coefficients for 12 non-polar hydrocarbon solutes in the solvents, monoethylene and diethylene glycol, were measured using the gas-liquid chromatography technique. Pre-saturation of the carrier gas was required to avoid solvent loss from the chromatographic column during the measurements that were carried out at T = (303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K for monoethylene glycol and at T = (304.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K for diethylene glycol. The solutes investigated include n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, and cycloalkanes. The new data are compared with the highly scattered data that is available in the open literature. Finally, these highly non-ideal systems are modeled with the GCA-EoS.

  18. Anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing activities of the green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, H L; Ip, W K; Wong, C K; Mak, N K; Chen, Z Y; Leung, K N

    2002-12-06

    A novel approach for the treatment of leukemia is the differentiation therapy in which immature leukemia cells are induced to attain a mature phenotype when exposed to differentiation inducers, either alone or in combinations with other chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive drugs. Over the past decade, numerous studies indicated that green tea catechins (GTC) could suppress the growth and induce apoptosis on a number of human cancer cell lines. However, the differentiation-inducing activity of GTC on human tumors remains poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of the major GTC epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the proliferation and differentiation of a human eosinophilc leukemic cell line, EoL-1, was examined. Our results showed that EGCG suppressed the proliferation of the EoL-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an estimated IC(50) value of 31.5 microM. On the other hand, EGCG at a concentration of 40 microM could trigger the EoL-1 cells to undergo morphological differentiation into mature eosinophil-like cells. Using RT-PCR and flow cytometry, it was found that EGCG upregulated the gene and protein expression of two eosinophil-specific granule proteins, the major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), in EoL-1 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that EGCG can exhibit anti-leukemic activity on a human eosinophilic cell line EoL-1 by suppressing the proliferation and by inducing the differentiation of the leukemia cells.

  19. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Target-moderator-reflector optimization for JAERI 5 MW pulsed spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Noboru; Teshigawara, Makoto; Kai, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    Optimization studies on the target-moderator-reflector neutronics for the projected intense pulsed-spallation-neutron-source in JAERI are reported. In order to obtain the highest possible performance of the source a new target-moderator-reflector system has been proposed and effects of various parameters, such as material and the shape/dimensions of the target, the profile/distribution of the proton beam, material and dimensions of the reflector, the coupling scheme of the target-moderator, moderator parameters, etc., on slow neutron performance and energy deposition in cryogenic moderators have extensively been studied by neutronic calculations. A cold neutron moderator for high-resolution together with high-intensity experiments has newly been proposed. It was found that, by adopting a flat target with a flat beam profile, the slow neutron intensities from the moderators could be rather insensitive to the target/beam dimensions, providing more flexibility to the engineering design of the target and the moderators. The moderator position relative to the target is another important issue to be optimized. It was confirmed that the proposed target-moderator-reflector layout made it possible to put all the moderators almost at the best position (It has not been possible so far), resulting in a higher performance. The predicted performance obtained with nearly optimized parameters was compared with those of similar projects in the world to justify the present concept. (author)

  1. IPNS grooved, solid methane moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.; Schulke, A.W.; Scott, T.L.; Wozniak, D.G.; Benson, B.E.; Leyda, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    There are two motives for using cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources, to provide higher fluxes of long-wavelength neutrons, and to extend the epithermal range with its short pulse structure to lower energies. For both these purposes solid methane, operated at the lowest possible temperatures, is the best material we know of. Two problems accompany the use of solid methane in high power sources, namely heat transport in view of the low thermal conductivity of solid methane, and deterioration due to radiation damage. We have designed a system suitable to operate in IPNS, subject to nuclear heating of about 25 W, which incorporates an aluminum foam matrix to conduct the heat from within the moderator. We report the results of the first few months' operation and of a few tests that we have performed

  2. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Reysen; Iva Katzarska-Miller

    2013-01-01

    In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week), moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week), high (reciprocating attraction five days a week), or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation). Participants then rated thei...

  3. Cryogenic moderator simulations: confronting reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a spallation neutron source dedicated to materials research. Its three cryogenic methane moderators provide twelve neutron beams to fourteen instruments and test facilities. This report concerns ongoing activities for benchmarking our Monte Carlo model of the IPNS neutron generation system. This paper concentrates on the techniques (both experimental and calculational) used in such benchmarking activities

  4. Reflector-moderated critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, H.C.; Jarvis, G.A.; Byers, C.C.

    1975-07-01

    Experiments with reflector-moderated critical assemblies were part of the Rover Program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). These assemblies were characterized by thick D 2 O or beryllium reflectors surrounding large cavities that contained highly enriched uranium at low average densities. Because interest in this type of system has been revived by LASL Plasma Cavity Assembly studies, more detailed descriptions of the early assemblies than had been available in the unclassified literature are provided. (U.S.)

  5. Fault failure with moderate earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J. S.; Linde, A. T.; Gladwin, M. T.; Borcherdt, R. D.

    1987-12-01

    High resolution strain and tilt recordings were made in the near-field of, and prior to, the May 1983 Coalinga earthquake ( ML = 6.7, Δ = 51 km), the August 4, 1985, Kettleman Hills earthquake ( ML = 5.5, Δ = 34 km), the April 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake ( ML = 6.1, Δ = 55 km), the November 1984 Round Valley earthquake ( ML = 5.8, Δ = 54 km), the January 14, 1978, Izu, Japan earthquake ( ML = 7.0, Δ = 28 km), and several other smaller magnitude earthquakes. These recordings were made with near-surface instruments (resolution 10 -8), with borehole dilatometers (resolution 10 -10) and a 3-component borehole strainmeter (resolution 10 -9). While observed coseismic offsets are generally in good agreement with expectations from elastic dislocation theory, and while post-seismic deformation continued, in some cases, with a moment comparable to that of the main shock, preseismic strain or tilt perturbations from hours to seconds (or less) before the main shock are not apparent above the present resolution. Precursory slip for these events, if any occurred, must have had a moment less than a few percent of that of the main event. To the extent that these records reflect general fault behavior, the strong constraint on the size and amount of slip triggering major rupture makes prediction of the onset times and final magnitudes of the rupture zones a difficult task unless the instruments are fortuitously installed near the rupture initiation point. These data are best explained by an inhomogeneous failure model for which various areas of the fault plane have either different stress-slip constitutive laws or spatially varying constitutive parameters. Other work on seismic waveform analysis and synthetic waveforms indicates that the rupturing process is inhomogeneous and controlled by points of higher strength. These models indicate that rupture initiation occurs at smaller regions of higher strength which, when broken, allow runaway catastrophic failure.

  6. Moderate Psoriasis: A Proposed Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Velasco, M; de la Cueva, P; Notario, J; Martínez-Pilar, L; Martorell, A; Moreno-Ramírez, D

    2017-12-01

    The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) is the most widely used scale for assessing the severity of psoriasis and for therapeutic decision making. On the basis of the PASI score, patients have been stratified into 2 groups: mild disease and moderate-to-severe disease. To draft a proposal for the definition and characterization of moderate psoriasis based on PASI and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. A group of 6 dermatologists with experience in the treatment of psoriasis undertook a critical review of the literature and a discussion of cases to draft a proposal. In order of priority, PASI, DLQI, and body surface area (BSA) are the parameters to be used in daily practice to classify psoriasis as mild, moderate, or severe. Severity should be assessed on the basis of a combined evaluation and interpretation of the PASI and DLQI. And 3, PASI and DLQI should carry equal weight in the determination of disease severity. On this basis, psoriasis severity was defined using the following criteria: mild, PASI15, independently of the DLQI score. A more precise classification of psoriasis according to disease severity will improve the risk-benefit assessment essential to therapeutic decision making in these patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  8. Backscatter Mosaic used to identify, delineate and classify moderate-depth benthic habitats around St. John, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 2x2 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the moderate-depth portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St....

  9. Bathymetry Surface Layer used to identify, delineate and classify moderate-depth benthic habitats around St. John, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 2x2 meter resolution bathymetry surface of the moderate-depth portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St....

  10. Proposed upgrade of the lower tier water moderators for the LANSE 1L MARK-III upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhrer, G.; Pitcher, E.J.; Russell, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    We will show in this article the proposed upgrade for the lower tier water moderators for the LANSCE 1L Mark-III design. This proposal will include the introduction of pre-moderators for the high intensity moderators and a change of the decoupler from Cadmium to Gadolinium on all lower tier water moderators. We will present the influence of these changes on the integrated thermal flux and the time distribution of these moderators. As part of the upgrade of the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center target (1L target) the goal was to increase the integrated thermal flux of the lower high intensity and the high resolution moderator by 20%. We will show in this paper that this goal can be achieved by introducing a pre-moderator concept on the high resolution moderators and by changing the decoupling scheme on all three moderators. Furthermore we will show that this goal can be achieved without jeopardizing the time of flight resolution of these moderators. For the all these calculations we used the radiation transport code MCNPX, which is most commonly used for this type of calculations.

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the indoloquinone EO-9 (NSC 382 459) against human small cell carcinoma of the lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, H; Aabo, K; Vindeløv, L

    1989-01-01

    As the indoloquinone EO-9 has previously shown activity in several tumor model systems it was evaluated against four human small cell lung cancer cell lines by the clonogenic assay. In two cell lines (Nyh and Tol), exponential dose-response curves were achieved with both 1 h and continuous exposure......, whereas no cell kill was obtained in the other two cell lines (69 and 592) when tested with 1 h incubation up to 0.25 microgram/ml. When the cells were exposed to drug in vitro, flow cytometric DNA analysis showed perturbations in the cell cycle distribution of the most sensitive cell line (Tol......) at a lower EO-9 concentration than in the less sensitive cel line (592). This in vitro predicted difference in EO-9 sensitivity between two of the cell lines (592 and Tol) was confirmed when the cell lines were heterotransplanted to nude mice....

  12. All-trans-retinoic acid enhances apoptosis induction by tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the eosinophilic leukemia-derived EoL-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Carine; Apàti, Agota; Chomienne, Christine; Papp, Béla

    2008-02-01

    Imatinib and retinoids induce apoptosis in FIP1L1/PDGFRalpha-positive EoL-1 leukemia cells. Although imatinib induces complete remission in most FIP1L1/PDGFRalpha-positive patients, response to imatinib is sometimes suboptimal. In order to enhance the potency of the molecularly targeted therapy of eosinophilic leukemia, we investigated the effect of retinoids combined with tyrosine kinase inhibitors on EoL-1 cells. We demonstrate that retinoids combined with tyrosine kinase inhibitors lead to enhanced apoptosis induction in EoL-1 cells. Our results suggest that tyrosine kinase inhibitors combined with retinoids may constitute a valuable therapeutic approach for sensitive neoplasias that may display enhanced anti-leukemic potency when compared to single drug treatments.

  13. Estimation of improved resolution soil moisture in vegetated areas using passive AMSR-E data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradizadeh, Mina; Saradjian, Mohammad R.

    2018-03-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for soil parameter retrievals. Therefore, various soil parameters estimation models have been developed using brightness temperature (BT) measured by passive microwave sensors. Due to the low resolution of satellite microwave radiometer data, the main goal of this study is to develop a downscaling approach to improve the spatial resolution of soil moisture estimates with the use of higher resolution visible/infrared sensor data. Accordingly, after the soil parameters have been obtained using Simultaneous Land Parameters Retrieval Model algorithm, the downscaling method has been applied to the soil moisture estimations that have been validated against in situ soil moisture data. Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS BT data in Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 region in the south and north of Oklahoma have been used to this end. Results illustrated that the soil moisture variability is effectively captured at 5 km spatial scales without a significant degradation of the accuracy.

  14. The influence of the non-ionic tensioactive NP4EO on macrobiotic activity in activated sludge; Influencia del tensioactivo no ionico (NP4EO) sobre la actividad de la microbiotica de losfangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coello Oviedo, M.D.; Sales Marquez, D.; Quiroga Alonso, J.M. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    1998-12-01

    A study was made of the influence of a non-ionic tensioactive, a nonyl phenol with four ethoxylated units, on the microbiota of activated sludge in a laboratory scale unit. Both traditional monitoring processes (solids in suspension and COD) and specific techniques (dehydrogenase activity and specific breathing rate) were used to measure the microbian activity and their results compared. It was found that specific breathing rate is the simplest and quickest parameter for routine monitoring of the activated sludge unit`s activity. However dehydrogenase activity is a more suitable measure for exhaustive monitoring. NP4EO does not inhibit the microbiota at concentrations of 5 ppm, although the results are different at 10 ppm. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  16. Towards Improving our Understanding on the Retrievals of Key Parameters Characterising Land Surface Interactions from Space: Introduction & First Results from the PREMIER-EO Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Gareth; North, Matthew R.; Petropoulos, George P.; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Hodges, Crona

    2015-04-01

    Acquiring accurate information on the spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture content (SM) and evapotranspiration (ET) is of key importance to extend our understanding of the Earth system's physical processes, and is also required in a wide range of multi-disciplinary research studies and applications. The utility and applicability of Earth Observation (EO) technology provides an economically feasible solution to derive continuous spatio-temporal estimates of key parameters characterising land surface interactions, including ET as well as SM. Such information is of key value to practitioners, decision makers and scientists alike. The PREMIER-EO project recently funded by High Performance Computing Wales (HPCW) is a research initiative directed towards the development of a better understanding of EO technology's present ability to derive operational estimations of surface fluxes and SM. Moreover, the project aims at addressing knowledge gaps related to the operational estimation of such parameters, and thus contribute towards current ongoing global efforts towards enhancing the accuracy of those products. In this presentation we introduce the PREMIER-EO project, providing a detailed overview of the research aims and objectives for the 1 year duration of the project's implementation. Subsequently, we make available the initial results of the work carried out herein, in particular, related to an all-inclusive and robust evaluation of the accuracy of existing operational products of ET and SM from different ecosystems globally. The research outcomes of this project, once completed, will provide an important contribution towards addressing the knowledge gaps related to the operational estimation of ET and SM. This project results will also support efforts ongoing globally towards the operational development of related products using technologically advanced EO instruments which were launched recently or planned be launched in the next 1-2 years. Key Words: PREMIER-EO

  17. A Moderate Redshift Supernova Search Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. T.; Wheeler, J. C.; Ward, M.; Wren, W. R.; Schmidt, B. P.

    1995-12-01

    We report on a recently initiated supernova (SN) search program using the McDonald Observatory 0.76m telescope and Prime Focus Camera (PFC). This SN search program takes advantage of the PFC's 42.6 x 42.6 arcmin FOV to survey moderate redshift Abell clusters in single Kron-Cousins R-band images. Our scientific goal is to discover and provide quality BVRI photometric follow-up, to R \\ +21, for a significant SNe sample at 0.03 group (Perlmutter et al 1995, ApJ, 440, L41), and the High Redshift SN Search Team (Schmidt et al 1995, Aiguiblava NATO ASI Proceedings). The McDonald SN search program includes a sample of the Abell clusters used by Lauer and Postman (1994, ApJ, 425, 418) to analyze Local Group motion. SNe discovered in these clusters contribute to the resolution of the Local Group motion controversy. We present an overview of the McDonald Observatory supernova search program, and discuss recent results.

  18. Integrating Chlorophyll fapar and Nadir Photochemical Reflectance Index from EO-1/Hyperion to Predict Cornfield Daily Gross Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Kustas, William P.; Russ, Andrew L.; Prueger, John H.; Yao, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The concept of light use efficiency (Epsilon) and the concept of fraction of photosynthetically active ration (PAR) absorbed for vegetation photosynthesis (PSN), i.e., fAPAR (sub PSN), have been widely utilized to estimate vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). It has been demonstrated that the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is empirically related to e. An experimental US Department of Agriculture (USDA) cornfield in Maryland was selected as our study field. We explored the potential of integrating fAPAR(sub chl) (defined as the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll) and nadir PRI (PRI(sub nadir)) to predict cornfield daily GPP. We acquired nadir or near-nadir EO-1/Hyperion satellite images that covered the cornfield and took nadir in-situ field spectral measurements. Those data were used to derive the PRI(sub nadir) and fAPAR (sub chl). The fAPAR (sub chl) is retrieved with the advanced radiative transfer model PROSAIL2 and the Metropolis approach, a type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation procedure. We define chlorophyll light use efficiency Epsilon (sub chl) as the ratio of vegetation GPP as measured by eddy covariance techniques to PAR absorbed by chlorophyll (Epsilon(sub chl) = GPP/APAR (sub chl). Daily Epsilon (sub chl) retrieved with the EO-1 Hyperion images was regressed with a linear equation of PRI (sub nadir) Epsilon (sub chl) = Alpha × PRI (sub nadir) + Beta). The satellite Epsilon(sub chl- PRI (sub nadir) linear relationship for the cornfield was implemented to develop an integrated daily GPP model [GPP = (Alpha × PRI(sub nadir) + Beta) × fAPAR (sub chl) × PAR], which was evaluated with fAPAR (sub chl) and PRI (sub nadir) retrieved from field measurements. Daily GPP estimated with this fAPAR (sub chl-) PRI (nadir) integration model was strongly correlated with the observed tower in-situ daily GPP (R(sup 2) = 0.93); with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.71 g C mol-(sup -1) PPFD and coefficient of variation (CV) of 16

  19. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report no. 3: Design/cost tradeoff studies. Appendix D: EOS configuration design data. Part 2: Data management system configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) data management system (DMS) is discussed. The DMS is composed of several subsystems or system elements which have basic purposes and are connected together so that the DMS can support the EOS program by providing the following: (1) payload data acquisition and recording, (2) data processing and product generation, (3) spacecraft and processing management and control, and (4) data user services. The configuration and purposes of the primary or high-data rate system and the secondary or local user system are explained. Diagrams of the systems are provided to support the systems analysis.

  20. A target-moderator-reflector concept of the JAERI 5 MW pulsed spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Noboru; Teshigawara, Makoto; Aizawa, Kazuya; Suzuki, Jyunichi; Oyama, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute the construction of a 5 MW (short) pulsed spallation neutron source is under planning using a projected high power superconducting proton (or H - ) linac of 8 MW in total beam power. In the present paper we report our consideration on target-moderator-reflector concept, based on the layout of the tentative neutron instruments for the assumed neutron scattering experiments in future. The choice of cold neutron moderators for high resolution and high intensity experiments, thermal and epithermal neutron moderators for high resolution uses was discussed and a reference layout of target-moderator-reflector system was proposed for detailed neutronic calculation and optimization. The proposed system was designed like that it can provide, at least, 30 beam lines for more than 40 instruments. (author)

  1. Learning and the Great Moderation

    OpenAIRE

    Bullard, James B.; Singh, Aarti

    2009-01-01

    We study a stylized theory of the volatility reduction in the U.S. after 1984 - the Great Moderation - which attributes part of the stabilization to less volatile shocks and another part to more difficult inference on the part of Bayesian households attempting to learn the latent state of the economy. We use a standard equilibrium business cycle model with technology following an unobserved regime-switching process. After 1984, according to Kim and Nelson (1999a), the variance of U.S. macroec...

  2. High-resolution Kendrick Mass Defect Analysis of Poly(ethylene oxide)-based Non-ionic Surfactants and Their Degradation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Shimada, Haruo; Maeno, Katsuyuki; Ito, Kanako; Ozeki, Yuka; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-09-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and the recently introduced high-resolution Kendrick mass defect (HRKMD) analysis are combined to thoroughly characterize non-ionic surfactants made of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) core capped by esters of fatty acids. A PEO monostearate surfactant is first analyzed as a proof of principle of the HRKMD analysis conducted with a fraction of EO as the base unit (EO/X with X being an integer) in lieu of EO for a regular KMD analysis. Data visualization is greatly enhanced and the distributions detected in the MALDI mass spectrum are assigned to a pristine (H, OH)-PEO as well as mono- and di-esterified PEO chains with palmitate and stearate end-groups in HRKMD plots computed with EO/45. The MALDI-HRMS/HRKMD analysis is then successfully applied to the more complex case of ethoxylated hydrogenated castor oil (EHCO) found to contain a large number of hydrogenated ricinoleate moieties (up to 14) in its HRKMD plot computed with EO/43, departing from the expected triglyceride structure. The exhaustiveness of the MALDI-HRMS/HRKMD strategy is validated by comparing the so-obtained fingerprints with results from alternative techniques (electrospray ionization MS, size exclusion and liquid adsorption chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry). Finally, aged non-ionic surfactants formed upon hydrolytic degradation are analyzed by MALDI-HRMS/HRKMD to easily assign the degradation products and infer the associated degradation routes. In addition to the hydrolysis of the ester groups observed for EHCO, chain scissions and new polar end-groups are observed in the HRKMD plot of PEO monostearate arising from a competitive oxidative ageing.

  3. Granulocytic Sarcoma by AML M4eo (inv16 after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation without Bone Marrow Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Zaenker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma (GS represents a rare type of extramedullar manifestation from the acute myeloid leukaemia (AML. We report the case of a patient with recurrences of AML M4eo leukaemia in the uterus and the small intestine at 3 and 5 years, respectively, after matched related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT. The patient underwent the withdrawal of immunosuppression, hysterectomy, and local irradiation at first relapse, as well as systemic chemotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusions at second recurrence, inducing a second and third complete remission, respectively. At year six after transplantation, the patient experienced disease progression by meningeosis leukaemia to which she succumbed despite intrathecal chemotherapy. Following allogeneic stem cell transplantation, awareness for atypical manifestations of granulocytic sarcoma appears prudent, the cellular immunotherapy should aim at immunological disease control.

  4. Ethernet over SDH (EoS): Summary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cost effective way to support data customers. Use of integrated Ethernet eliminates the need for costly WAN interfaces (E1/E3/STM-1) on routers connecting to SDH/SONET; WAN bandwidth can be provided directly from customers' Ethernet switches, potentially eliminating routers at customer sites ...

  5. Bouncing solutions from generalized EoS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, F. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Matematicas, Santiago (Chile); Cruz, N.; Palma, G. [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-12-15

    We present an exact analytical bouncing solution for a closed universe filled with only one exotic fluid with negative pressure, obeying a generalized equation of state (GEoS) of the form p(ρ) = Aρ+Bρ{sup λ}, where A, B and λ are constants. In our solution A = -1/3, λ = 1/2, and B < 0 is kept as a free parameter. For particular values of the initial conditions, we find that our solution obeys the null energy condition (NEC), which allows us to reinterpret the matter source as that of a real scalar field, φ, with a positive kinetic energy and a potential V(φ). We numerically compute the scalar field as a function of time as well as its potential V(φ), and we find an analytical function for the potential that fits very accurately with the numerical data obtained. The shape of this potential can be well described by a Gaussian-type of function, and hence there is no spontaneous symmetry minimum of V(φ). We show numerically that the bouncing scenario is structurally stable in a small vicinity of the value A = -1/3. We also include the study of the evolution of the linear fluctuations due to linear perturbations in the metric. These perturbations show an oscillatory behavior near the bouncing and approach a constant at large scales. (orig.)

  6. Utilizing NASA EOS to Assist in Determining Suitable Planting Locations for Bottomland Hardwood Trees in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, R. R.; Arguelles, M.; Ewing, M.; Kelly, C.; Strong, E.

    2012-12-01

    St. Bernard Parish, located in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have focused not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for restoring coastal forests. Using NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of bottomland hardwood trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using Digital Elevation Models derived from LIDAR data, and determining existing land cover in the study area from classified Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data from a single low-altitude swath was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou La Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was also mapped using aerial photos collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated yet another application of NASA EOS in the rebuilding and monitoring of coastal ecosystems in

  7. Adaptation and Mitigation in Agriculture: A Review of Synergies and Tradeoffs and How EO Could Improve Understanding and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, L.; Wollenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    We present a review of the published literature on agricultural adaptation and mitigation, and report on the current evidence as to whether changes in agricultural practices meant to achieve mitigation or adaptation goals can be dual purpose: simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and helping to facilitate adaptation. We characterize the spatio-temporal and system trends in how adaptation and mitigation outcomes are being achieved, and report on the current technical and knowledge gaps that exist and where Earth observations (EO) could improve our understanding. Agriculture contributes 12% GHG emissions globally, roughly one third from the developing world. Nearly 70% of the technical mitigation potential in agriculture sector occurs in these countries, however, while the mitigation potential is high, agricultural productivity also relies heavily on climate factors. With climate change, agricultural systems already, and will increasingly, need to adapt to extreme events and variability in temperatures and precipitation. This underscores the importance of implementing agricultural practices that can both reduce GHG emissions and help facilitate adaptation. Until recently, these objectives have been treated separately, but policy makers are increasingly calling for a joint approach to improve synergies, and avoid tradeoffs. There remain many complications in considering a joint approach: lack of clear conceptual frameworks, knowledge gaps in scientific understanding and evidence associated with adaptation and mitigation outcomes, and the abilities and motivations of stakeholders to consider both objectives. We review 56 peer-reviewed publications and present results from an in-depth analysis to answer two major concerns: to what extent is evidence provided for claims of synergistic outcomes, and what uncertainty surrounds this evidence. Our results show that only 21% of studies empirically measured both mitigation and adaptation outcomes, and claims

  8. Towards a Comprehensive Dynamic-chemistry Assimilation for Eos-Chem: Plans and Status in NASA's Data Assimilation Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, Steven; Lin, Shian-Jiann; Rood, Richard B.; Stajner, Ivanka; Nebuda, Sharon; Nielsen, J. Eric; Douglass, Anne R.

    2000-01-01

    In order to support the EOS-Chem project, a comprehensive assimilation package for the coupled chemical-dynamical system is being developed by the Data Assimilation Office at NASA GSFC. This involves development of a coupled chemistry/meteorology model and of data assimilation techniques for trace species and meteorology. The model is being developed using the flux-form semi-Lagrangian dynamical core of Lin and Rood, the physical parameterizations from the NCAR Community Climate Model, and atmospheric chemistry modules from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics branch at NASA GSFC. To date the following results have been obtained: (i) multi-annual simulations with the dynamics-radiation model show the credibility of the package for atmospheric simulations; (ii) initial simulations including a limited number of middle atmospheric trace gases reveal the realistic nature of transport mechanisms, although there is still a need for some improvements. Samples of these results will be shown. A meteorological assimilation system is currently being constructed using the model; this will form the basis for the proposed meteorological/chemical assimilation package. The latter part of the presentation will focus on areas targeted for development in the near and far terms, with the objective of Providing a comprehensive assimilation package for the EOS-Chem science experiment. The first stage will target ozone assimilation. The plans also encompass a reanalysis (ReSTS) for the 1991-1995 period, which includes the Mt. Pinatubo eruption and the time when a large number of UARS observations were available. One of the most challenging aspects of future developments will be to couple theoretical advances in tracer assimilation with the practical considerations of a real environment and eventually a near-real-time assimilation system.

  9. Interrelations between EOS parameters and cohesive energy of transition metals: Thermostatistical approach, ab initio calculations and analysis of ;universality; features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Dalía S.; Ramos, Susana B.; Guillermet, Armando Fernández

    2017-08-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the equation of state (EOS) of metals using a quasi-harmonic Einstein model with a dimensionless cohesive energy versus distance function (F(z)) involving the Wigner-Seitz radius and a material-dependent scaling length, as suggested in classical works by Rose, Ferrante, Smith and collaborators. Using this model, and "universal" values for the function and its first and second derivatives at the equilibrium distance (z=0), three general interrelations between EOS parameters and the cohesive energy are obtained. The first correlation involves the bulk modulus, and the second, the thermal expansion coefficient. In order to test these results an extensive database is developed, which involves available experimental data, and results of current ab initio density-functional-theory calculations using the VASP code. In particular, the 0 K values for volume, bulk modulus, its pressure derivative, and the cohesive energy of 27 elements belonging to the first (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), second (Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd) and third (Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au) transition row of the Periodic Table are calculated ab initio and used to test the present results. The third correlation obtained, allows an evaluation of the third derivative of F(z) at z=0 for the current elements. With this new information, a discussion is presented of the possibility of finding a "universal" F(z) versus z function able to account accurately for the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus of the transition elements.

  10. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  11. LIGHT WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, R.F.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1957-09-17

    A uranium fuel reactor designed to utilize light water as a moderator is described. The reactor core is in a tank at the bottom of a substantially cylindrical cross-section pit, the core being supported by an apertured grid member and comprised of hexagonal tubes each containing a pluralily of fuel rods held in a geometrical arrangement between end caps of the tubes. The end caps are apertured to permit passage of the coolant water through the tubes and the fuel elements are aluminum clad to prevent corrosion. The tubes are hexagonally arranged in the center of the tank providing an amulus between the core and tank wall which is filled with water to serve as a reflector. In use, the entire pit and tank are filled with water in which is circulated during operation by coming in at the bottom of the tank, passing upwardly through the grid member and fuel tubes and carried off near the top of the pit, thereby picking up the heat generated by the fuel elements during the fission thereof. With this particular design the light water coolant can also be used as the moderator when the uranium is enriched by fissionable isotope to an abundance of U/sup 235/ between 0.78% and 2%.

  12. Empirical water depth predictions in Dublin Bay based on satellite EO multispectral imagery and multibeam data using spatially weighted geographical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteys, Xavier; Harris, Paul; Caloca, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The coastal shallow water zone can be a challenging and expensive environment within which to acquire bathymetry and other oceanographic data using traditional survey methods. Dangers and limited swath coverage make some of these areas unfeasible to survey using ship borne systems, and turbidity can preclude marine LIDAR. As a result, an extensive part of the coastline worldwide remains completely unmapped. Satellite EO multispectral data, after processing, allows timely, cost efficient and quality controlled information to be used for planning, monitoring, and regulating coastal environments. It has the potential to deliver repetitive derivation of medium resolution bathymetry, coastal water properties and seafloor characteristics in shallow waters. Over the last 30 years satellite passive imaging methods for bathymetry extraction, implementing analytical or empirical methods, have had a limited success predicting water depths. Different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water column to varying depths. They can provide acceptable results up to 20 m but become less accurate in deeper waters. The study area is located in the inner part of Dublin Bay, on the East coast of Ireland. The region investigated is a C-shaped inlet covering an area of 10 km long and 5 km wide with water depths ranging from 0 to 10 m. The methodology employed on this research uses a ratio of reflectance from SPOT 5 satellite bands, differing to standard linear transform algorithms. High accuracy water depths were derived using multibeam data. The final empirical model uses spatially weighted geographical tools to retrieve predicted depths. The results of this paper confirm that SPOT satellite scenes are suitable to predict depths using empirical models in very shallow embayments. Spatial regression models show better adjustments in the predictions over non-spatial models. The spatial regression equation used provides realistic results down to 6 m below the water surface, with

  13. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure......, where the parent company holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at its operating financial subsidiaries. This would facilitate a ‘single point of entry’ resolution procedure, minimising the risk of creditor runs and destructive ring-fencing by national regulators....

  14. Demand Moderation in Military Communication Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackmore, Perry

    2002-01-01

    .... Demand moderation is the term used to encompass the array of mechanisms aimed at achieving this end. Integrated Defence networks of the future should benefit enormously from demand moderation mechanisms.

  15. HUD Low and Moderate Income Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on the U.S. Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) low to moderate income areas. The term Low to Moderate Income,...

  16. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  17. Low to moderate temperature nanolaminate heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, J Del [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Hau-Riege, Stefan [Fremont, CA; Walton, Chris [Oakland, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2011-01-11

    A low to moderate temperature heat source comprising a high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures wherein the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is positioned between two thin pieces to form a close contact sheath. In one embodiment the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is a nanolaminate multilayer foil of reactive materials that produces a heating level of less than 200.degree. C.

  18. Cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources and provides details of the performance of different cold moderator materials and configurations. Analytical forms are presented which describe wavelength spectra and emission time distributions. Several types of cooling arrangements used in pulsed source moderators are described. Choices of materials are surveyed. The author examines some of the radiation damage effects in cold moderators, including the phenomenon of ''burping'' in irradiated cold solid methane. 9 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Some concluding remarks about cold moderator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is the transcription of remarks made at the conclusion of the Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources held at the Los Angeles National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, March 5--7, 1990. Areas of interest include the following: scattering functions; cold moderator materials; radiation mixing of chemical composition; comparison of some pulsed moderator spectra; hydrogen mixtures; premoderators and shields; composite reflectors; exotic moderator materials; deuterated methanes; mixed moderator materials; and test facility availabilities. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.