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Sample records for eocene sanduo period

  1. Eocene Acritarchs of Taiwan

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    Cheng-Long Shaw

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new taxa (Multiplicisphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., Trichosphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., Tylosphaeridium taiwanianum C. L. Shaw sp. nov., and Cymatiosphaera taiwaniana C. L. Shaw sp. nov. of the fossil acritarchs obtained from Eocene sediments from offshore of the Keelung area in northern Taiwan are reported. They belong to two subgroups, four genera.

  2. Post-Eocene tectonics of the Central Taurus Mountains

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    Ergün AKAY

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available In post-Eocene time, the Central Taurus mountains have been subjected to four episodes of compression in probably Upper Eocene — Lower Oligocene, Langhian, Upper Tortonian, and Upper Pliocene to recent times. In the Upper Eocene — Lower Oligocene compressional period, Ecemiş, and Beyşehir conjugate faults which have both vertical and lateral components have been formed after an N - S compression. In the Langhian compression period, the Lycian nappes were emplaced from the NW to SE and this tectonic movement has also effected the Antalya and the Adana Miocene basins. In the Upper Tortonian compression period, firstly a WSW-ENE compression has resulted in the formation of Aksu thrust, Kırkkavak oblique reverse fault, Köprüçay syncline, Beşkonak anticline, Radyoring anticline, Taşağıl syncline and Kargı reverse faults. In this period a later phase of N — S compression has formed Çakallar folds, Gökçeler normal fault, the smooth anticline in Mut Karaman and the syncline in Ulukışla. In the latest compressional period from Upper Pliocene to recent, first on E — W compression which can be recognized by some mesoscopic faults has been developed and later a N — S compression resulted in the formation of the active faults on Ecemiş and Gökçeler faults, and the Antalya bay graben.

  3. A terrestrial Eocene stack: tying terrestrial lake ecology to marine carbon cycling through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

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    Grogan, D. S.; Whiteside, J. H.; Musher, D.; Rosengard, S. Z.; Vankeuren, M. A.; Pancost, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    The lacustrine Green River Formation is known to span ≥15 million years through the early-middle Eocene, and recent work on radioisotopic dating has provided a framework on which to build ties to the orbitally-tuned marine Eocene record. Here we present a spliced stack of Fischer assay data from drilled cores of the Green River Formation that span both an East-West and a North-South transect of the Uinta Basin of Utah. Detailed work on two cores demonstrate that Fischer assay measurements covary with total organic carbon and bulk carbon isotopes, allowing us to use Fisher assay results as a representative carbon cycling proxy throughout the stack. We provide an age model for this core record by combining radioisotopic dates of tuff layers with frequency analysis of Fischer assay measurements. Identification of orbital frequencies tied directly to magnetochrons through radioisotopic dates allows for a direct comparison of the terrestrial to the marine Eocene record. Our analysis indicates that the marker beds used to correlate the stack cores represent periods of enhanced lake productivity and extreme carbon burial; however, unlike the hyperthermal events that are clearly marked in the marine Eocene record, the hydrocarbon-rich "Mahogany Bed" period of burial does not correspond to a clear carbon isotope excursion. This suggests that the terrestrial realm may have experienced extreme ecological responses to relatively small perturbations in the carbon cycle during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. To investigate the ecological responses to carbon cycle perturbations through the hydrocarbon rich beds, we analyzed a suite of microbial biomarkers, finding evidence for cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, and potentially green sulfur bacteria. These taxa indicate fluctuating oxic/anoxic conditions in the lake during abrupt intervals of carbon burial, suggesting a lake biogeochemical regime with no modern analogues.

  4. Late Eocene impact events recorded in deep-sea sediments

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    Glass, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    Raup and Sepkoski proposed that mass extinctions have occurred every 26 Myr during the last 250 Myr. In order to explain this 26 Myr periodicity, it was proposed that the mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in cometary impacts. One method to test this hypothesis is to determine if there were periodic increases in impact events (based on crater ages) that correlate with mass extinctions. A way to test the hypothesis that mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in impact cratering is to look for evidence of impact events in deep-sea deposits. This method allows direct observation of the temporal relationship between impact events and extinctions as recorded in the sedimentary record. There is evidence in the deep-sea record for two (possibly three) impact events in the late Eocene. The younger event, represented by the North American microtektite layer, is not associated with an Ir anomaly. The older event, defined by the cpx spherule layer, is associated with an Ir anomaly. However, neither of the two impact events recorded in late Eocene deposits appears to be associated with an unusual number of extinctions. Thus there is little evidence in the deep-sea record for an impact-related mass extinction in the late Eocene.

  5. A middle Eocene carbon cycle conundrum

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    Sluijs, A.; Zeebe, R.; Bijl, P.K.; Bohaty, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) was an approximately 500,000-year-long episode of widespread ocean-atmosphere warming about 40 million years ago, superimposed on a long-term middle Eocene cooling trend. It was marked by a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, biotic changes and prolonged

  6. The palaeobiology of high latitude birds from the early Eocene greenhouse of Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada.

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    Stidham, Thomas A; Eberle, Jaelyn J

    2016-02-12

    Fossils attributable to the extinct waterfowl clade Presbyornithidae and the large flightless Gastornithidae from the early Eocene (~52-53 Ma) of Ellesmere Island, in northernmost Canada are the oldest Cenozoic avian fossils from the Arctic. Except for its slightly larger size, the Arctic presbyornithid humerus is not distinguishable from fossils of Presbyornis pervetus from the western United States, and the Gastornis phalanx is within the known size range of mid-latitude individuals. The occurrence of Presbyornis above the Arctic Circle in the Eocene could be the result of annual migration like that of its living duck and geese relatives, or it may have been a year-round resident similar to some Eocene mammals on Ellesmere and some extant species of sea ducks. Gastornis, along with some of the mammalian and reptilian members of the Eocene Arctic fauna, likely over-wintered in the Arctic. Despite the milder (above freezing) Eocene climate on Ellesmere Island, prolonged periods of darkness occurred during the winter. Presence of these extinct birds at both mid and high latitudes on the northern continents provides evidence that future increases in climatic warming (closer to Eocene levels) could lead to the establishment of new migratory or resident populations within the Arctic Circle.

  7. A structural intermediate between triisodontids and mesonychians (Mammalia, Acreodi) from the earliest Eocene of Portugal.

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    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Clavel, Julien; Antunes, Miguel Telles

    2011-02-01

    A new mammal, Mondegodon eutrigonus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Eocene locality of Silveirinha, Portugal. This species shows dental adaptations indicative of a carnivorous diet. M. eutrigonus is referred to the order Acreodi and considered, along with the early Paleocene North American species Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, as a morphological intermediate between two groups of ungulate-like mammals, namely, the triisodontids and mesonychians. Considering that triisodontids are early to early-late Paleocene North American taxa, Mondegodon probably belongs to a group that migrated from North America towards Europe during the first part of the Paleocene. Mondegodon could represent thus a relict genus, belonging to the ante-Eocene European mammalian fauna. The occurrence of such a taxon in Southern Europe may reflect a period of isolation of this continental area during the Paleocene/Eocene transition. In this context, the non-occurrence of closely allied forms of Mondegodon in the Eocene North European mammalian faunas is significant. This strengthens the hypothesis that the mammalian fauna from Southern Europe is characterized by a certain degree of endemism during the earliest Eocene. Mondegodon also presents some striking similarities with an unnamed genus from the early Eocene of India which could represent the first Asian known transitional form between the triisodontids and mesonychians.

  8. Asian monsoons in a late Eocene greenhouse world.

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    Licht, A; van Cappelle, M; Abels, H A; Ladant, J-B; Trabucho-Alexandre, J; France-Lanord, C; Donnadieu, Y; Vandenberghe, J; Rigaudier, T; Lécuyer, C; Terry, D; Adriaens, R; Boura, A; Guo, Z; Soe, Aung Naing; Quade, J; Dupont-Nivet, G; Jaeger, J-J

    2014-09-25

    The strong present-day Asian monsoons are thought to have originated between 25 and 22 million years (Myr) ago, driven by Tibetan-Himalayan uplift. However, the existence of older Asian monsoons and their response to enhanced greenhouse conditions such as those in the Eocene period (55-34 Myr ago) are unknown because of the paucity of well-dated records. Here we show late Eocene climate records revealing marked monsoon-like patterns in rainfall and wind south and north of the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen. This is indicated by low oxygen isotope values with strong seasonality in gastropod shells and mammal teeth from Myanmar, and by aeolian dust deposition in northwest China. Our climate simulations support modern-like Eocene monsoonal rainfall and show that a reinforced hydrological cycle responding to enhanced greenhouse conditions counterbalanced the negative effect of lower Tibetan relief on precipitation. These strong monsoons later weakened with the global shift to icehouse conditions 34 Myr ago.

  9. Eocene squalomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Antarctica

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    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A.; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    Rare remains of predominantly deep-water sharks of the families Hexanchidae, Squalidae, Dalatiidae, Centrophoridae, and Squatinidae are described from the Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which has yielded the most abundant chondrichthyan assemblage from the Southern Hemisphere to date. Previously described representatives of Hexanchus sp., Squalus weltoni, Squalus woodburnei, Centrophorus sp., and Squatina sp. are confirmed and dental variations are documented. Although the teeth of Squatina sp. differ from other Palaeogene squatinid species, we refrain from introducing a new species. A new dalatiid taxon, Eodalatias austrinalis gen. et sp. nov. is described. This new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic elasmobranchs but also allows assuming that favourable deep-water habitats were available in the Eocene Antarctic Ocean off Antarctica in the Eocene. The occurrences of deep-water inhabitants in shallow, near-coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula agrees well with extant distribution patterns.

  10. Eocene squalomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Antarctica.

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    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    Rare remains of predominantly deep-water sharks of the families Hexanchidae, Squalidae, Dalatiidae, Centrophoridae, and Squatinidae are described from the Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which has yielded the most abundant chondrichthyan assemblage from the Southern Hemisphere to date. Previously described representatives of Hexanchus sp., Squalus weltoni , Squalus woodburnei , Centrophorus sp., and Squatina sp. are confirmed and dental variations are documented. Although the teeth of Squatina sp. differ from other Palaeogene squatinid species, we refrain from introducing a new species. A new dalatiid taxon, Eodalatias austrinalis gen. et sp. nov. is described. This new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic elasmobranchs but also allows assuming that favourable deep-water habitats were available in the Eocene Antarctic Ocean off Antarctica in the Eocene. The occurrences of deep-water inhabitants in shallow, near-coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula agrees well with extant distribution patterns.

  11. Stratigraphy of Eocene Sediments in the Soutwest Thrace

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    Muhsin SÜMENGEN

    1991-06-01

    siltstone, mudstone, and conglomerate, which become thick bedded and coarser upward (Korudağ formation and fining upward sequences (Keşan formation. These are submarine fan deposits of turbiditic origin. The basin became shallower again towards the end of Upper Eocene. During this period, rock units made up of mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate were deposited. This sequence deposited in a deltaic environment has been named differently, the Kanlıbent formation in the Gelibolu peninsula and the Yenimuhacir formation between Keşan and Tekirdağ, due to its diverse local features. The basin as a whole became a continent during the Oligocene (? and alluvial deposits that consist of mudstone, sandstone, and conglomerate formed (Armuttepe formation.

  12. Early-middle Eocene birds from the Lillebaelt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    The marine Lillebaelt Clay Formation of central Denmark is of early-middle Eocene age (late Ypresian - middle Lutetian; microfossil zones NP 13-NP 15). Over 20 bird fossils collected by amateur palaeontologists have been acquired through the Danish national ‘Danekrae' fossil treasure trove...... Clay Formation deposits derive from just after the Early Eocene Climate Optimum, a period of global elevated temperatures resulting from rapid greenhouse warming. Comparison between this bird assemblage and the recently revised assemblage from the older (earliest Ypresian) Fur Formation of Denmark...

  13. Triggers and consequences of glacial expansion across the Eocene - Oligocene Transition

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    Houben, A.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The results described in this thesis provide a rather complex picture of climatic, environmental and biotic changes preceding and arising from the onset of Antarctic glaciation. This period is commonly known as the greenhouse to icehouse transition across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT, 34-33

  14. Astrochronology of extreme global warming events during the early Eocene greenhouse climate

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    Lauretano, V.

    2016-01-01

    The early Eocene represents an ideal case study to analyse the impact of enhanced global warming on the ocean-atmosphere system and the relationship between carbon cycling and climate. During this time interval, the Earth’s surface experienced a long-term warming trend that culminated in a period of

  15. Wet tropical climate in SE Tibet during the Late Eocene.

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    Sorrel, Philippe; Eymard, Ines; Leloup, Philippe-Herve; Maheo, Gweltaz; Olivier, Nicolas; Sterb, Mary; Gourbet, Loraine; Wang, Guocan; Jing, Wu; Lu, Haijian; Li, Haibing; Yadong, Xu; Zhang, Kexin; Cao, Kai; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Replumaz, Anne

    2017-08-10

    Cenozoic climate cooling at the advent of the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), ~33.7 Ma ago, was stamped in the ocean by a series of climatic events albeit the impact of this global climatic transition on terrestrial environments is still fragmentary. Yet archival constraints on Late Eocene atmospheric circulation are scarce in (tropical) monsoonal Asia, and the paucity of terrestrial records hampers a meaningful comparison of the long-term climatic trends between oceanic and continental realms. Here we report new sedimentological data from the Jianchuan basin (SE Tibet) arguing for wetter climatic conditions in monsoonal Asia at ~35.5 Ma almost coevally to the aridification recognized northwards in the Xining basin. We show that the occurrence of flash-flood events in semi-arid to sub-humid palustrine-sublacustrine settings preceded the development of coal-bearing deposits in swampy-like environments, thus paving the way to a more humid climate in SE Tibet ahead from the EOT. We suggest that this moisture redistribution possibly reflects more northern and intensified ITCZ-induced tropical rainfall in monsoonal Asia around 35.5 Ma, in accordance with recent sea-surface temperature reconstructions from equatorial oceanic records. Our findings thus highlight an important period of climatic upheaval in terrestrial Asian environments ~2-4 millions years prior to the EOT.

  16. Body size and premolar evolution in the early-middle eocene euprimates of Wyoming.

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    Jones, Katrina E; Rose, Kenneth D; Perry, Jonathan M G

    2014-01-01

    The earliest euprimates to arrive in North America were larger-bodied notharctids and smaller-bodied omomyids. Through the Eocene, notharctids generally continued to increase in body size, whereas omomyids generally radiated within small- and increasingly mid-sized niches in the middle Eocene. This study examines the influence of changing body size and diet on the evolution of the lower fourth premolar in Eocene euprimates. The P4 displays considerable morphological variability in these taxa. Despite the fact that most studies of primate dental morphology have focused on the molars, P4 can also provide important paleoecological insights. We analyzed the P4 from 177 euprimate specimens, representing 35 species (11 notharctids and 24 omomyids), in three time bins of approximately equal duration: early Wasatchian, late Wasatchian, and Bridgerian. Two-dimensional surface landmarks were collected from lingual photographs, capturing important variation in cusp position and tooth shape. Disparity metrics were calculated and compared for the three time bins. In the early Eocene, notharctids have a more molarized P4 than omomyids. During the Bridgerian, expanding body size range of omomyids was accompanied by a significant increase in P4 disparity and convergent evolution of the semimolariform condition in the largest omomyines. P4 morphology relates to diet in early euprimates, although patterns vary between families. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Laurent, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The Early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene fluvio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which...... corresponds to the middle Ypresian, Lower Eocene. Here we provide a detailed description of the avian remains that were preliminarily reported in a recent study of the vertebrate fauna from La Borie. A maxilla, a quadrate, cervical vertebrae, a femur and two tibiotarsi are assigned to the giant ground bird...... Gastornis parisiensis Hébert, 1855 (Gastornithidae). These new avian remains add to the fossil record of Gastornis, which is known from the Upper Paleocene to Middle Eocene of Europe, Early Eocene of Asia, and Early Eocene of North America. Gastornis parisiensis differs from the North American Gastornis...

  18. Late Eocene rings around the earth

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    King, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The suggestion of O'Keefe (1980) that the terminal Eocene event was caused by rings of tektite material encircling the earth is discussed. It is argued that the assumption that the tektites are of lunar volcanic origin is unwarranted and contrary to existing data, including the lack of lunar rocks of suitable composition, the lack of lunar rocks of the correct age, the lack of evidence that the North American tektites fell throughout a sedimentary rock column of a few million years, and the nondetection of a tektite with a measurable cosmic ray exposure age. Alternatively, it is suggested that the terminal Eocene event may be associated with volcanic ash, air-fall tuff and bentonite in the late Eocene. O'Keefe replies that the hypothesis of the terrestrial origin of the tektites conflicts with the laws of physics, for example in the glass structure and shaping of the tektites. Furthermore, evidence is cited for lunar rocks of the proper major-element composition and ages, and it is noted that the proposed solar Poynting-Robertson effect would account for the particle fall distributions and cosmic ray ages.

  19. Possible role of oceanic heat transport in early Eocene climate

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    Sloan, L. C.; Walker, J. C.; Moore, T. C. Jr

    1995-01-01

    Increased oceanic heat transport has often been cited as a means of maintaining warm high-latitude surface temperatures in many intervals of the geologic past, including the early Eocene. Although the excess amount of oceanic heat transport required by warm high latitude sea surface temperatures can be calculated empirically, determining how additional oceanic heat transport would take place has yet to be accomplished. That the mechanisms of enhanced poleward oceanic heat transport remain undefined in paleoclimate reconstructions is an important point that is often overlooked. Using early Eocene climate as an example, we consider various ways to produce enhanced poleward heat transport and latitudinal energy redistribution of the sign and magnitude required by interpreted early Eocene conditions. Our interpolation of early Eocene paleotemperature data indicate that an approximately 30% increase in poleward heat transport would be required to maintain Eocene high-latitude temperatures. This increased heat transport appears difficult to accomplish by any means of ocean circulation if we use present ocean circulation characteristics to evaluate early Eocene rates. Either oceanic processes were very different from those of the present to produce the early Eocene climate conditions or oceanic heat transport was not the primary cause of that climate. We believe that atmospheric processes, with contributions from other factors, such as clouds, were the most likely primary cause of early Eocene climate.

  20. The Paleocene and lower Eocene pollen flora of Guyana

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    Leidelmeyer, P.

    1966-01-01

    A description is given of a Paleocene and Lower Eocene pollen flora of two bore-holes in Guana. Some new species are described and some remarks are made on their stratigraphical significance. Pollen diagrams are presented, one probably representing the entire Paleocene and a part of the Eocene.

  1. Lower Eocene on Majevica north of Tuzla (NE Bosnia

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    Jernej Pavšič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In Lower Eocene marlstones on Mt. Majevica in northeastern Bosnia species Nummulites atacicus and N. robustus were determined, the latter first found on the Balkan Peninsula.In the beds occur next to Paleogene many redeposited Cretaceous nannoplankton species, an indication of the exposure of Cretaceous beds in Lower Eocene in the investigated area.

  2. Sensitivity of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum climate to cloud properties.

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    Kiehl, Jeffrey T; Shields, Christine A

    2013-10-28

    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a significant global warming event in the Earth's history (approx. 55 Ma). The cause for this warming event has been linked to increases in greenhouse gases, specifically carbon dioxide and methane. This rapid warming took place in the presence of the existing Early Eocene warm climate. Given that projected business-as-usual levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide reach concentrations of 800-1100 ppmv by 2100, it is of interest to study past climates where atmospheric carbon dioxide was higher than present. This is especially the case given the difficulty of climate models in simulating past warm climates. This study explores the sensitivity of the simulated pre-PETM and PETM periods to change in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and microphysical properties of liquid water clouds. Assuming lower levels of CCN for both of these periods leads to significant warming, especially at high latitudes. The study indicates that past differences in cloud properties may be an important factor in accurately simulating past warm climates. Importantly, additional shortwave warming from such a mechanism would imply lower required atmospheric CO2 concentrations for simulated surface temperatures to be in reasonable agreement with proxy data for the Eocene.

  3. The terrestrial hydro-climate of the Early Eocene: insights from the oxygen and clumped isotope composition of pedogenic siderite

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    van Dijk, J.; Fernandez, A.; Müller, I.; White, T. S.; Bernasconi, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Early Eocene (56 Ma) is the youngest period of Earth's history when CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere (600-1500 ppm) reached levels close to those predicted for future emission scenarios. Proxy-based climate reconstructions from this interval can therefore be used to gain insights on effects that anthropogenic emissions might have on the climate system. So far, Early Eocene climatic data is limited to the oceans, where proxies for temperature are abundant and relatively well understood. However, in order to get a complete picture of the Early Eocene climate, temperature and rainfall reconstructions on the continental paleo-surface are needed. Here, we present clumped and stable oxygen isotope measurements of siderite samples collected along a North-South transect in the North American Continent. These siderites formed in kaolinitic soils that developed globally under the extremely wet and warm conditions of the Early Eocene. They provide a record of both soil temperature and the δ18O composition of meteoric water, which can be used to unravel the regional paleo-precipitation rate. Both parameters were estimated using an elaborate in-house calibration constructed with synthetic siderite precipitated in the presence or absence of iron reducing bacteria. Measurements of δD on plant-derived N-alkanes present within the same soils align well with our δ18Owater data, confirming an Early Eocene meteoric water line similar to the present day. We provide an estimate of the meridional temperature gradient during the Early Eocene and offer constraints on the boundary conditions of the Earth's hydrologic cycle under high pCO2.

  4. Water isotopes and the Eocene. A tectonic sensitivity study

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    Legrande, A. N.; Roberts, C. D.; Tripati, A.; Schmidt, G. A.

    2009-04-01

    The early Eocene (54 Million years ago) is one of the warmest periods in the last 65 Million years. Its climate is postulated to have been the result of enhanced greenhouse gas concentration, with CO2 roughly 4 times pre-industrial and methane 7 times pre-industrial concentrations. One interesting feature of this period to emerge recently is the intermittent presence of fossilized Azolla, a type of freshwater fern, in the Arctic Ocean. Synchronous (within dating error) with this appearance were major changes in the restriction of the Arctic Ocean and the other global oceans. We investigate this time period using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE-R, a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model that incorporates water isotopes throughout the hydrologic cycle, making it an ideal model to test hypotheses of past climate change and to compare to paleoclimate proxy data. We assess the impact of tectonic variability by using minimal and maximal levels of restriction for the Arctic Ocean seaways. We find that the modulation of connectivity of these basins dramatically alters global salinity distribution, leading to large changes in ocean circulation. Greater restriction of the Arctic Basin is associated with fresh and relatively warmer conditions. The same mechanisms responsible for this redistribution of salt also change the global distribution of water isotopes, and can alias (water isotope) proxy climate signals of warmth.

  5. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

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    Estelle Bourdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene flu-vio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which corresponds to the middle Ypresian, early Eocene. Here we provide a detailed description of the avian remains that were preliminarily reported in a recent study of the vertebrate fauna from La Borie. A maxilla, a quadrate, cervical vertebrae, a femur and two tibiotarsi are assigned to the giant ground bird Gastornis parisiensis (Gastornithidae. These new avian remains add to the fossil record of Gastornis, which is known from the late Paleocene to middle Eocene of Europe, early Eocene of Asia and early Eocene of North America. Gastornis parisiensis differs from the North American Gastornis giganteus in several features, including the more ventral position of the narial openings and the slender orbital process of quadrate. Two tibiotarsi and one tarsometatarsus are assigned to a new genus and species of Geranoididae, Galligeranoides boriensis gen. et sp. nov. So far, this family was known only from the early and middle Eocene of North America. The fossils from La Borie constitute the first record of the Geranoididae in Europe. We show that Gastornis coexisted with the Geranoididae in the early Eocene of both Europe (La Borie and North America (Willwood Formation. The presence of Geranoididae and the large flightless bird Gastornis on either side of the present-day North Atlantic provides further evidence that a high-latitude land connection existed between Europe and North America in the early Eocene.

  6. Humidity estimate for the middle Eocene Arctic rain forest

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    Jahren, A. Hope; Silveira Lobo Sternberg, Leonel

    2003-05-01

    The exquisite preservation of fossilized Metasequoia trees that grew near 80°N latitude during the middle Eocene (ca. 45 Ma) in Nunavut, Canada, allowed for δD and δ18O analyses of cellulose, techniques previously restricted to wood <30,000 yr old. From the isotopic results, we determined that the middle Eocene Arctic atmosphere contained ˜2× the water found in the region's atmosphere today. This water vapor contributed to a middle Eocene greenhouse effect that insulated the polar region during dark polar winters.

  7. Mesozoic to Eocene ductile deformation of western Central Iran: From Cimmerian collisional orogeny to Eocene exhumation

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    Kargaranbafghi, Fariba; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Faghih, Ali; Kusky, Timothy

    2012-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the Mesozoic to Eocene tectonics and kinematics of basement units exposed in the south-western Central Iran plateau, this paper presents new structural and thermochronological data from the Chapedony metamorphic core complex and hangingwall units, particularly from the Posht-e-Badam complex. The overall Paleogene structural characteristics of the area are related to an oblique convergent zone. The Saghand area represents part of a deformation zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates, and can be interpreted to result from the Central Iran intracontinental deformation acting as a weak zone during Mesozoic to Paleogene times. Field and microstructural evidence reveal that the metamorphic and igneous rocks suffered a ductile shear deformation including mylonitization at the hangingwall boundary of the Eocene Chapedony metamorphic core complex. Comparison of deformation features in the mylonites and other structural features within the footwall unit leads to the conclusion that the mylonites were formed in a subhorizontal shear zone by NE-SW stretching during Middle to Late Eocene extensional tectonics. The Chapedony metamorphic core complex is characterized by amphibolite-facies metamorphism and development of S and S-L tectonic fabrics. The Posht-e-Badam complex was deformed by two stages during Cimmerian tectonic processes forming the Paleo-Tethyan suture.

  8. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ellen; D’haenens, Simon; Speijer, Robert P.; Alegret, Laia

    2018-01-01

    The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma), linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian). Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa) and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi). Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana) were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the middle Ypresian

  9. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela J Arreguín-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma, linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian. Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi. Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the

  10. Early Eocene deep-sea benthic foraminiferal faunas: Recovery from the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum extinction in a greenhouse world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J; Thomas, Ellen; D'haenens, Simon; Speijer, Robert P; Alegret, Laia

    2018-01-01

    The early Eocene greenhouse world was marked by multiple transient hyperthermal events. The most extreme was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma), linked to the extinction of the globally recognised deep-sea benthic foraminiferal Velasco fauna, which led to the development of early Eocene assemblages. This turnover has been studied at high resolution, but faunal development into the later early Eocene is poorly documented. There is no widely accepted early Eocene equivalent of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Velasco fauna, mainly due to the use of different taxonomic concepts. We compiled Ypresian benthic foraminiferal data from 17 middle bathyal-lower abyssal ocean drilling sites in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, in order to characterise early Eocene deep-sea faunas by comparing assemblages across space, paleodepth and time. Nuttallides truempyi, Oridorsalis umbonatus, Bulimina trinitatensis, the Bulimina simplex group, the Anomalinoides spissiformis group, pleurostomellids, uniserial lagenids, stilostomellids and lenticulinids were ubiquitous during the early Eocene (lower-middle Ypresian). Aragonia aragonensis, the Globocassidulina subglobosa group, the Cibicidoides eocaenus group and polymorphinids became ubiquitous during the middle Ypresian. The most abundant early Ypresian taxa were tolerant to stressed or disturbed environments, either by opportunistic behavior (Quadrimorphina profunda, Tappanina selmensis, Siphogenerinoides brevispinosa) and/or the ability to calcify in carbonate-corrosive waters (N. truempyi). Nuttallides truempyi, T. selmensis and other buliminids (Bolivinoides cf. decoratus group, Bulimina virginiana) were markedly abundant during the middle Ypresian. Contrary to the long-lived, highly diverse and equitable Velasco fauna, common and abundant taxa reflect highly perturbed assemblages through the earliest Ypresian, with lower diversity and equitability following the PETM extinction. In contrast, the middle Ypresian

  11. Astronomical calibration of the middle Eocene Contessa Highway section (Gubbio, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovane, Luigi; Sprovieri, Mario; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Florindo, Fabio; Marsili, Andrea; Laskar, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    The Eocene climatic system experienced an important transition from warm Paleocene greenhouse to icehouse Oligocene conditions. This transition could first appear as a long-term cooling trend but, at an up-close look, this period is a complex combination of climatic events and, for most of them, causes and consequences are still not fully characterized. In this context, a study has been carried out on the middle Eocene sedimentary succession of the Contessa Highway section, central Italy, which is proposed as the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Lutetian/Bartonian boundary at the top of the Chron 19n, with an astronomically calibrated age of 41.23 Ma. Through a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the rhythmic sedimentary alternations and combination with the results of time series analysis of the proxy record, we provide an orbital tuning of the middle Eocene and astronomical calibration of the bio-magnetostratigraphic events (particularly for the C19n/C18r Chron boundary) recognized at the Contessa Highway section.

  12. A Possible Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Ocean Acidification Event Recoded in the Adriatic Carbonate Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A.; Martindale, R. C.; Kosir, A.; Oefinger, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) event ( 56.3 Ma) was a period of massive carbon release into the Earth system, resulting in significant shifts in ocean chemistry. It has been proposed that ocean acidification - a decrease in the pH and carbonate saturation state of the water as a result of dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water - occurred in both the shallow and deep marine realms. Ocean acidification would have had a devastating impact on the benthic ecosystem, and has been proposed as the cause of decreased carbonate deposition in marine sections and coral reef collapse during the late Paleocene. To date, however, the only physical evidence of Paleocene-Eocene ocean acidification has been shown for offshore sites (i.e., a shallow carbonate compensation depth), but isotope analysis (i.e. B, I/Ca) suggests that acidification occurred in the shallow shelves as well. Several sites in the Kras region of Slovenia, has been found to contain apparent erosion surfaces coeval with the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary. We have investigated these potentially acidified horizons using petrography, stable carbon isotopes, cathodoluminescence, and elemental mapping. These datasets will inform whether the horizons formed by seafloor dissolution in an acidified ocean, or are due to subaerial exposure, or burial diagenesis (i.e. stylotization). Physical erosion and diagenesis can easily be ruled out based on field relationships and petrography, but the other potential causes must be analyzed more critically.

  13. Intercontinental dispersal of giant thermophilic ants across the Arctic during early Eocene hyperthermals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, S Bruce; Johnson, Kirk R; Mathewes, Rolf W; Greenwood, David R

    2011-12-22

    Early Eocene land bridges allowed numerous plant and animal species to cross between Europe and North America via the Arctic. While many species suited to prevailing cool Arctic climates would have been able to cross throughout much of this period, others would have found dispersal opportunities only during limited intervals when their requirements for higher temperatures were met. Here, we present Titanomyrma lubei gen. et sp. nov. from Wyoming, USA, a new giant (greater than 5 cm long) formiciine ant from the early Eocene (approx. 49.5 Ma) Green River Formation. We show that the extinct ant subfamily Formiciinae is only known from localities with an estimated mean annual temperature of about 20°C or greater, consistent with the tropical ranges of almost all of the largest living ant species. This is, to our knowledge, the first known formiciine of gigantic size in the Western Hemisphere and the first reported cross-Arctic dispersal by a thermophilic insect group. This implies intercontinental migration during one or more brief high-temperature episodes (hyperthermals) sometime between the latest Palaeocene establishment of intercontinental land connections and the presence of giant formiciines in Europe and North America by the early middle Eocene.

  14. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian Indian Amber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Heinrichs

    Full Text Available Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea. We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  15. Eocene greenhouse climate revealed by coupled clumped isotope-Mg/Ca thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Sagoo, Navjit; Renema, Willem; Cotton, Laura J; Müller, Wolfgang; Todd, Jonathan A; Saraswati, Pratul Kumar; Stassen, Peter; Ziegler, Martin; Pearson, Paul N; Valdes, Paul J; Affek, Hagit P

    2018-02-06

    Past greenhouse periods with elevated atmospheric CO 2 were characterized by globally warmer sea-surface temperatures (SST). However, the extent to which the high latitudes warmed to a greater degree than the tropics (polar amplification) remains poorly constrained, in particular because there are only a few temperature reconstructions from the tropics. Consequently, the relationship between increased CO 2 , the degree of tropical warming, and the resulting latitudinal SST gradient is not well known. Here, we present coupled clumped isotope (Δ 47 )-Mg/Ca measurements of foraminifera from a set of globally distributed sites in the tropics and midlatitudes. Δ 47 is insensitive to seawater chemistry and therefore provides a robust constraint on tropical SST. Crucially, coupling these data with Mg/Ca measurements allows the precise reconstruction of Mg/Ca sw throughout the Eocene, enabling the reinterpretation of all planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca data. The combined dataset constrains the range in Eocene tropical SST to 30-36 °C (from sites in all basins). We compare these accurate tropical SST to deep-ocean temperatures, serving as a minimum constraint on high-latitude SST. This results in a robust conservative reconstruction of the early Eocene latitudinal gradient, which was reduced by at least 32 ± 10% compared with present day, demonstrating greater polar amplification than captured by most climate models.

  16. Intercontinental dispersal of giant thermophilic ants across the Arctic during early Eocene hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, S. Bruce; Johnson, Kirk R.; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Greenwood, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Early Eocene land bridges allowed numerous plant and animal species to cross between Europe and North America via the Arctic. While many species suited to prevailing cool Arctic climates would have been able to cross throughout much of this period, others would have found dispersal opportunities only during limited intervals when their requirements for higher temperatures were met. Here, we present Titanomyrma lubei gen. et sp. nov. from Wyoming, USA, a new giant (greater than 5 cm long) formiciine ant from the early Eocene (approx. 49.5 Ma) Green River Formation. We show that the extinct ant subfamily Formiciinae is only known from localities with an estimated mean annual temperature of about 20°C or greater, consistent with the tropical ranges of almost all of the largest living ant species. This is, to our knowledge, the first known formiciine of gigantic size in the Western Hemisphere and the first reported cross-Arctic dispersal by a thermophilic insect group. This implies intercontinental migration during one or more brief high-temperature episodes (hyperthermals) sometime between the latest Palaeocene establishment of intercontinental land connections and the presence of giant formiciines in Europe and North America by the early middle Eocene. PMID:21543354

  17. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian) Indian Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Bechteler, Julia; Lee, Gaik Ee; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Hedenäs, Lars; Singh, Hukam; Pócs, Tamás; Nascimbene, Paul C; Peralta, Denilson F; Renner, Matt; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea). We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  18. Integrated stratigraphy and astronomical tuning of Smirra cores, lower Eocene, Umbria-Marche basin, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretano, Vittoria; Turtù, Antonio; Hilgen, Frits; Galeotti, Simone; Catanzariti, Rita; Reichart, Gert Jan; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2016-04-01

    The early Eocene represents an ideal case study to analyse the impact of increase global warming on the ocean-atmosphere system. During this time interval, the Earth's surface experienced a long-term warming trend that culminated in a period of sustained high temperatures called the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). These perturbations of the ocean-atmosphere system involved the global carbon cycle and global temperatures and have been linked to orbital forcing. Unravelling this complex climatic system strictly depends on the availability of high-quality suitable geological records and accurate age models. However, discrepancies between the astrochronological and radioisotopic dating techniques complicate the development of a robust time scale for the early Eocene (49-54 Ma). Here we present the first magneto-, bio-, chemo- and cyclostratigraphic results of the drilling of the land-based Smirra section, in the Umbria Marche Basin. The sediments recovered at Smirra provide a remarkably well-preserved and undisturbed succession of the early Palaeogene pelagic stratigraphy. Bulk stable carbon isotope and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) scanning records are employed in the construction of an astronomically tuned age model for the time interval between ~49 and ~54 Ma based on the tuning to long-eccentricity. These results are then compared to the astronomical tuning of the benthic carbon isotope record of ODP Site 1263 to evaluate the different age model options and improve the time scale of the early Eocene by assessing the precise number of eccentricity-related cycles comprised in this critical interval.

  19. MECO Warming Changes Continental Rainfall Patterns in Eocene Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, K.; Mulch, A.; Fiebig, J.; Wacker, U.; Gerdes, A.; Graham, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Eocene hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an existing warm climate. They dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, but still remain among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. To evaluate the impacts of global warm periods on terrestrial temperature and rainfall records in continental interiors, we sampled a suite of middle Eocene ( 40 Ma) paleosols from a high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the hinterland of the North American Cordillera (Sage Creek Basin, Montana, USA) and integrated laser ablation U-Pb dating of pedogenic carbonate, stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records. Δ47 temperature data of soil carbonates progressively increase from 23 °C ±3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ±3 °C and subsequently drop to 21 °C ±2 °C and delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. This hyperthermal event is accompanied by large and rapid shifts towards low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic CaCO3 contents. U-Pb geochronology of the paleosol carbonate confirms a middle Eocene age for soil carbonate formation (39.5 ±1.4 Ma and 40.1 ±0.8 Ma). Based on U-Pb geochronology, magneto- and biostratigraphy we suggest that the recorded Δ47 temperature excursion reflects peak warming during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO). The MECO in continental western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions in this high-elevation site. Shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes and require modification of mid-latitude rainfall patterns, indicating a profound impact of the MECO on the hydrological cycle and consequently on atmospheric circulation patterns in the hinterland of the North American Cordillera.

  20. Evidence of Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene equatorial rain forest ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... influx of CO2 during early Cenozoic times (Kent and Muttoni. 2008), besides ... Palaeocene – Eocene lignite and coal deposits of India. .... journey of the Indian subcontinent and massive outpouring ..... ice age (Plana 2004).

  1. Eocene crabs (Crustacea, Brachyura) from Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.H.S.; Donovan, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Recently discovered crabs from the Middle to Upper Eocene of northern Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, include well-preserved carapaces of Montezumella rutteni Van Straelen, originally described from an incomplete holotype. The more comprehensive description of this species provided herein includes

  2. The Middle and Upper Eocene sections of the Omsk trough, West Siberian Platform: Palynological, stratigraphic, hydrologic, and climatic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaporozhets, N. I.; Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The thorough analysis and correlation of Middle-Upper Eocene sections in the Omsk trough (southern West Siberian Platform) recovered by Borehole 9 in its axial part near the Chistoozernoe Settlement (Novosibirsk region) and Borehole 8 on the southern limb near the Russkaya Polyana Settlement (southern Omsk region) revealed hiatuses at the base and top of the Russkaya Polyana Beds, a lithostratigraphic unit defined in the Lyulinvor Formation based on its substantially fine-grained composition and poor siliceous microplankton fossil remains. The overlying Tavda Formation (Middle-Upper Eocene) is traditionally accepted to consist of two subformations. The last formation was deposited in the West Siberian inner sea isolated from the Arctic basin. Particular attention is paid to eustatic sea level fluctuation especially during the period marked by accumulation of Azolla Beds under considerable desalination of surface waters in the basin. The curve of variations in the open sea factor based on the quantitative ratio between organic-walled phytoplankton fossils and higher plant palynomorphs is correlated with the modified version of the wellknown Vail curve. It is established that the West Siberian sea level experienced a brief rise in the terminal late Eocene prior to its complete desiccation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition because of global regression in response to glaciation in Antarctica.

  3. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  4. Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha: Sciaroidea in early Eocene Cambay amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Stebner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One new genus and three new species of Lygistorrhinidae in early Eocene Cambay amber from India are described, which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Eocene. Lygistorrhina indica n. sp. is the oldest fossil known from this extant genus. Indorrhina sahnii n. gen. et sp. shows morphological similarities to each of the two extant genera Lygistorrhina and Asiorrhina. Palaeognoriste orientale is the third species known from a group that has only been recorded from Eocene Baltic amber before. The latter finding reveals faunal links between Cambay amber and the probably slightly younger Baltic amber, adding further evidence that faunal exchange between Europe/Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber.

  5. Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha: Sciaroidea) in early Eocene Cambay amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Singh, Hukam; Rust, Jes; Grimaldi, David A

    2017-01-01

    One new genus and three new species of Lygistorrhinidae in early Eocene Cambay amber from India are described, which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Eocene. Lygistorrhina indica n. sp. is the oldest fossil known from this extant genus. Indorrhina sahnii n. gen. et sp. shows morphological similarities to each of the two extant genera Lygistorrhina and Asiorrhina . Palaeognoriste orientale is the third species known from a group that has only been recorded from Eocene Baltic amber before. The latter finding reveals faunal links between Cambay amber and the probably slightly younger Baltic amber, adding further evidence that faunal exchange between Europe/Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber.

  6. Eocene climate and Arctic paleobathymetry: A tectonic sensitivity study using GISS ModelE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. D.; Legrande, A. N.; Tripati, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    The early Paleogene (65-45 million years ago, Ma) was a ‘greenhouse’ interval with global temperatures warmer than any other time in the last 65 Ma. This period was characterized by high levels of CO2, warm high-latitudes, warm surface-and-deep oceans, and an intensified hydrological cycle. Sediments from the Arctic suggest that the Eocene surface Arctic Ocean was warm, brackish, and episodically enabled the freshwater fern Azolla to bloom. The precise mechanisms responsible for the development of these conditions remain uncertain. We present equilibrium climate conditions derived from a fully-coupled, water-isotope enabled, general circulation model (GISS ModelE-R) configured for the early Eocene. We also present model-data comparison plots for key climatic variables (SST and δ18O) and analyses of the leading modes of variability in the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic regions. Our tectonic sensitivity study indicates that Northern Hemisphere climate would have been very sensitive to the degree of oceanic exchange through the seaways connecting the Arctic to the Atlantic and Tethys. By restricting these seaways, we simulate freshening of the surface Arctic Ocean to ~6 psu and warming of sea-surface temperatures by 2°C in the North Atlantic and 5-10°C in the Labrador Sea. Our results may help explain the occurrence of low-salinity tolerant taxa in the Arctic Ocean during the Eocene and provide a mechanism for enhanced warmth in the north western Atlantic. We also suggest that the formation of a volcanic land-bridge between Greenland and Europe could have caused increased ocean convection and warming of intermediate waters in the Atlantic. If true, this result is consistent with the theory that bathymetry changes may have caused thermal destabilisation of methane clathrates in the Atlantic.

  7. Ironstone deposits hosted in Eocene carbonates from Bahariya (Egypt)-New perspective on cherty ironstone occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, A. M.; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Calvo, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper gives new insight into the genesis of cherty ironstone deposits. The research was centered on well-exposed, unique cherty ironstone mineralization associated with Eocene carbonates from the northern part of the Bahariya Depression (Egypt). The economically important ironstones occur in the Naqb Formation (Early Eocene), which is mainly formed of shallow marine carbonate deposits. Periods of lowstand sea-level caused extensive early dissolution (karstification) of the depositional carbonates and dolomitization associated with mixing zones of fresh and marine pore-water. In faulted areas, the Eocene carbonate deposits were transformed into cherty ironstone with preservation of the precursor carbonate sedimentary features, i.e. skeletal and non-skeletal grain types, thickness, bedding, lateral and vertical sequential arrangement, and karst profiles. The ore deposits are composed of iron oxyhydroxides, mainly hematite and goethite, chert in the form of micro- to macro-quartz and chalcedony, various manganese minerals, barite, and a number of subordinate sulfate and clay minerals. Detailed petrographic analysis shows that quartz and iron oxides were coetaneous and selectively replaced carbonates, the coarse dolomite crystals having been preferentially transformed into quartz whereas the micro-crystalline carbonates were replaced by the iron oxyhydroxides. A number of petrographic, sedimentological and structural features including the presence of hydrothermal-mediated minerals (e.g., jacobsite), the geochemistry of the ore minerals as well as the structure-controlled location of the mineralization suggest a hydrothermal source for the ore-bearing fluids circulating through major faults and reflect their proximity to centers of magmatism. The proposed formation model can contribute to better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of formation of banded iron formations (BIFs) that were abundant during the Precambrian.

  8. Review of the enigmatic Eocene shark genus Xiphodolamia (Chondrichthyes, Lamniformes) and description of a new species recovered from Angola, Iran and Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnet, S.; Hosseinzadeh, R.; Antunes, M. T.; Balbino, A. C.; Kozlov, V. A.; Cappetta, H.

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about the extinct Xiphodolamia, a peculiar lamnid shark which inhabited the Eocene seas. The reexamination of a large set of fossilized teeth specimens from the Ypresian of Kazakhstan has enabled the reconstitution of the tooth series of this enigmatic taxa of lamnid shark. Five distinct tooth morphologies seem to occur in X. ensis Leidy [Leidy, J., 1877. Description of vertebrate remains, chiefly from the phosphate beds of South Carolina. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 8, 209-261] species revealing a weak ontogenetic variation. Such specific variation in tooth shape means that the other described species may be their junior synonyms. Dental morphology perfectly conforms with a Lamniforme but does not prove the current attribution to the Lamnidae family due to some inconsistent dental features observed, such as the presence of symphysial teeth. This genus could be regarded as an old lineage branched from the stem group of Lamnidae, close to the Isuroids sharks. Several Xiphodolamia teeth, originating both from old collections and new acquisitions, are reported and illustrated in order to provide information about a new species described here: Xiphodolamia serrata nov. sp. This species, currently limited to deposits in Angola, Jordan and Iran and dated at the Late Eocene, is easily distinguishable from the Early-Middle Eocene material belonging to the genus by the presence of serrated cutting edges. Adding to the type species considered here as the only valid taxa during the Early-Middle Eocene period, the temporal range of this genus extends to the Late Eocene, thus setting its upper stratigraphic limit prior to its disappearance as enigmatic as its appearance in the Early Eocene was.

  9. Stratigraphic and climatic implications of clay mineral changes around the Paleocene/Eocene boundary of the northeastern US margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T.G.; Bybell, L.M.; Mason, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    Kaolinite usually is present in relatively small amounts in most upper Paleocene and lower Eocene neritic deposits of the northern US Atlantic Coastal Plain. However, there is a short period (less than 200,000 k.y.) in the latest Paleocene (upper part of calcareous nannoplankton Zone NP 9) when kaolinite-dominated clay mineral suites replaced the usual illite/smectite-dominated suites. During this time of global biotic and lithologic changes, kaolinite increased from less than 5% of the clay mineral suite to peak proportions of 50-60% of the suite and then returned to less than 5% in uppermost Paleocene/lowermost Eocene strata. This kaolinite pulse is present at numerous localities from southern Virginia to New Jersey. These sites represent both inner and middle neritic depositional environments and reflect input from several river drainage systems. Thus, it is inferred that kaolinite-rich source areas were widespread in the northeastern US during the latest Paleocene. Erosion of these source areas contributed the kaolinite that was transported and widely dispersed into shelf environments of the Salisbury embayment. The kaolinite increase, which occurred during a time of relatively high sea level, probably is the result of intensified weathering due to increased temperature and precipitation. The southern extent of the kaolinite pulse is uncertain in that uppermost Paleocene beds have not been identified in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain. The late Paleocene kaolinite pulse that consists of an increase to peak kaolinite levels followed by a decrease can be used for detailed correlation between more upbasin and more downbasin sections in the Salisbury embayment. Correlations show that more upbasin Paleocene/Eocene boundary sections are erosionally truncated. They have varying portions of the kaolinite increase and, if present at all, discontinuous portions of the subsequent kaolinite decrease. As these truncated sections are disconformably overlain by lower

  10. Tempo and scale of late Paleocene and early Eocene carbon isotope cycles: Implications for the origin of hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachos, James C.; McCarren, Heather; Murphy, Brandon; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The upper Paleocene and lower Eocene are marked by several prominent (> 1‰) carbon isotope (δ 13C) excursions (CIE) that coincide with transient global warmings, or thermal maxima, including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The CIE, which are recorded mainly in marine sedimentary sequences, have also been identified in continental sequences, occurred episodically, and yet appear to be paced or triggered by orbital forcing. To constrain the timing and scale of the CIE relative to long-term baseline variability, we have constructed a 4.52 million year (myr) long, high-resolution (~ 3 kyr) bulk sediment carbon isotope record spanning the lower Eocene to upper Paleocene (C25r-C24n) from a pelagic sediment section recovered at ODP Site 1262 in the southeast Atlantic. This section, which was orbitally-tuned utilizing high-resolution core log physical property and geochemical records, is the most stratigraphically complete upper Paleocene to lower Eocene sequence recovered to date. Time-series analysis of the carbon isotope record along with a high-resolution Fe intensity record obtained by XRF core scanner reveal cyclicity with variance concentrated primarily in the precession (21 kyr) and eccentricity bands (100 and 400-kyr) throughout the upper Paleocene-lower Eocene. In general, minima in δ 13C correspond with peaks in Fe (i.e., carbonate dissolution), both of which appear to be in phase with maxima in eccentricity. This covariance is consistent with excess oceanic uptake of isotopically depleted carbon resulting in lower carbonate saturation during periods of high eccentricity. This relationship includes all late Paleocene and early Eocene CIE confirming pacing by orbital forcing. The lone exception is the PETM, which appears to be out of phase with the 400-kyr cycle, though possibly in phase with the 100-kyr cycle, reinforcing the notion that a mechanism other than orbital forcing and/or an additional source of carbon is required to account for the

  11. Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Gibbs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are natural experiments ideal for exploring the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and biotic response. Here we quantify marine biotic variability through three million years of the early Eocene that include five hyperthermals, utilizing a method that allows us to integrate the records of different plankton groups through scenarios ranging from background to major extinction events. Our long time-series calcareous nannoplankton record indicates a scaling of biotic disruption to climate change associated with the amount of carbon released during the various hyperthermals. Critically, only the three largest hyperthermals, the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 and the I1 event, show above-background variance, suggesting that the magnitude of carbon input and associated climate change needs to surpass a threshold value to cause significant biotic disruption.

  12. Characterization of middle Eocene tide-influenced delta: a study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    42

    Running Title: Eocene tide-influenced delta in South Cambay Basin. Manuscript. Click here to view linked References. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 .... systematic documentation of the facies types to establish the depositional environment of the .... Hazad Member consists of a number of sandstone units separated by intervening ...

  13. Early Eocene rodents (Mammalia) from the Subathu Formation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997a, b). Most of the rodents from this stratigraphic level have been referred to a rather diverse family Cha- pattimyidae ... Herein we describe a new early Eocene rodent assemblage .... thick zone of brownish red shales that occur as a ..... 1997b;. Plate 3, figure 31). ...... northwestern Pakistan and remarks on the collision.

  14. Warm ocean processes and carbon cycling in the Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Eleanor H; Pearson, Paul N; Coxall, Helen K; Birch, Heather; Wade, Bridget S; Foster, Gavin L

    2013-10-28

    Sea surface and subsurface temperatures over large parts of the ocean during the Eocene epoch (55.5-33.7 Ma) exceeded modern values by several degrees, which must have affected a number of oceanic processes. Here, we focus on the effect of elevated water column temperatures on the efficiency of the biological pump, particularly in relation to carbon and nutrient cycling. We use stable isotope values from exceptionally well-preserved planktonic foraminiferal calcite from Tanzania and Mexico to reconstruct vertical carbon isotope gradients in the upper water column, exploiting the fact that individual species lived and calcified at different depths. The oxygen isotope ratios of different species' tests are used to estimate the temperature of calcification, which we converted to absolute depths using Eocene temperature profiles generated by general circulation models. This approach, along with potential pitfalls, is illustrated using data from modern core-top assemblages from the same area. Our results indicate that, during the Early and Middle Eocene, carbon isotope gradients were steeper (and larger) through the upper thermocline than in the modern ocean. This is consistent with a shallower average depth of organic matter remineralization and supports previously proposed hypotheses that invoke high metabolic rates in a warm Eocene ocean, leading to more efficient recycling of organic matter and reduced burial rates of organic carbon.

  15. Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, S.J.; Bown, P.R.; Murphy, B.H.; Sluijs, A.; Edgar, K.M.; Pälike, H.; Bolton, C.T.; Zachos, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are

  16. Icacinaceae from the eocene of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sarah E; Stull, Gregory W; Manchester, Steven R

    2015-05-01

    The Icacinaceae are a pantropical family of trees, shrubs, and climbers with an extensive Paleogene fossil record. Our improved understanding of phylogenetic relationships within the family provides an excellent context for investigating new fossil fruit and leaf material from the Eocene of western North America. We examined fossils from early and middle Eocene sediments of western Wyoming, northeastern Utah, northwestern Colorado, and Oregon and compared them with extant species of Iodes and other icacinaceous genera as well as previously described fossils of the family. Three new fossil species are described, including two based on endocarps (Iodes occidentalis sp. nov. and Icacinicaryites lottii sp. nov.) and one based on leaves (Goweria bluerimensis sp. nov.). The co-occurrence of I. occidentalis and G. bluerimensis suggests these might represent detached organs of a single species. A new genus, Biceratocarpum, is also established for morphologically distinct fossil fruits of Icacinaceae previously placed in Carpolithus. Biceratocarpum brownii gen. et comb. nov. resembles the London Clay species "Iodes" corniculata in possessing a pair of subapical protrusions. These fossils increase our knowledge of Icacinaceae in the Paleogene of North America and highlight the importance of the Northern Hemisphere in the early diversification of the family. They also document interchange with the Eocene flora of Europe and biogeographic connections with modern floras of Africa and Asia, where Icacinaceae are diverse today. The present-day restriction of this family to tropical regions offers ecological implications for the Eocene floras in which they occur. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Ultimate Eocene (Priabonian) Chondrichthyans (Holocephali, Elasmobranchii) of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriwet, Jürgen; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo; Pfaff, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    The Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, is known for its remarkable wealth of fossil remains of chondrichthyans and teleosts. Chondrichthyans seemingly were dominant elements in the Antarctic Paleogene fish fauna, but decreased in abundance from middle to late Eocene, during which time remains of bony fishes increase. This decline of chondrichthyans at the end of the Eocene generally is related to sudden cooling of seawater, reduction in shelf area, and increasing shelf depth due to the onset of the Antarctic thermal isolation. The last chondrichthyan records known so far include a chimeroid tooth plate from TELM 6 (Lutetian) and a single pristiophorid rostral spine from TELM 7 (Priabonian). Here, we present new chondrichthyan records of Squalus , Squatina , Pristiophorus , Striatolamia , Palaeohypotodus , Carcharocles , and Ischyodus from the upper parts of TELM 7 (Priabonian), including the first record of Carcharocles sokolovi from Antarctica. This assemblage suggests that chondrichthyans persisted much longer in Antarctic waters despite rather cool sea surface temperatures of approximately 5°C. The final disappearance of chondrichthyans at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary concurs with abrupt ice sheet formation in Antarctica. Diversity patterns of chondrichthyans throughout the La Meseta Formation appear to be related to climatic conditions rather than plate tectonics.

  18. High bat (Chiroptera) diversity in the Early Eocene of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham

    2007-12-01

    The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.

  19. Towards a robust and consistent middle Eocene astronomical timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Slah; Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; De Vleeschouwer, David; Laskar, Jacques; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Pälike, Heiko; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Sexton, Philip F.; Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula

    2018-03-01

    Until now, the middle Eocene has remained a poorly constrained interval of efforts to produce an astrochronological timescale for the entire Cenozoic. This has given rise to a so-called "Eocene astronomical timescale gap" (Vandenberghe et al., 2012). A high-resolution astrochronological calibration for this interval has proven to be difficult to realize, mainly because carbonate-rich deep-marine sequences of this age are scarce. In this paper, we present records from middle Eocene carbonate-rich sequences from the North Atlantic Southeast Newfoundland Ridge (IODP Exp. 342, Sites U1408 and U1410), of which the cyclical sedimentary patterns allow for an orbital calibration of the geologic timescale between ∼38 and ∼48 Ma. These carbonate-rich cyclic sediments at Sites U1408 and U1410 were deposited as drift deposits and exhibit prominent lithological alternations (couplets) between greenish nannofossil-rich clay and white nannofossil ooze. The principal lithological couplet is driven by the obliquity of Earth's axial tilt, and the intensity of their expression is modulated by a cyclicity of about 173 kyr. This cyclicity corresponds to the interference of secular frequencies s3 and s6 (related to the precession of nodes of the Earth and Saturn, respectively). This 173-kyr obliquity amplitude modulation cycle is exceptionally well recorded in the XRF (X-ray fluorescence)-derived Ca/Fe ratio. In this work, we first demonstrate the stability of the (s3-s6) cycles using the latest astronomical solutions. Results show that this orbital component is stable back to at least 50 Ma, and can thus serve as a powerful geochronometer in the mid-Eocene portion of the Cenozoic timescale. We then exploit this potential by calibrating the geochronology of the recovered middle Eocene timescale between magnetic polarity Chrons C18n.1n and C21n. Comparison with previous timescales shows similarities, but also notable differences in durations of certain magnetic polarity chrons. We

  20. Seasonal variability in Arctic temperatures during the early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, J. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, H.

    2009-12-01

    As a deep time analog for today’s rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (~53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (~79° N.) preserve evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions that at present, quantitative estimates of Eocene Arctic climate are rare. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we provide estimates of early Eocene Arctic temperature, including mean annual temperature (MAT) of ~ 8° C, mean annual range in temperature (MART) of ~ 16.5° C, warm month mean temperature (WMMT) of 16 - 19° C, and cold month mean temperature (CMMT) of 0 - 1° C. Our seasonal range in temperature is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, unusually high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and sea surface temperature (SST) by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and marine Crenarchaeota fall within our range of WMMT, suggesting a bias towards summer values. Consequently, caution should be taken when using these methods to infer MAT and SST that, in turn, are used to constrain climate models. From a paleontologic perspective, our temperature estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round temperatures. Although in both of these reptiles, past temperature tolerances were greater than in their living descendants.

  1. Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K; Bendle, James A P; Bohaty, Steven M; Pross, Jörg; Schouten, Stefan; Tauxe, Lisa; Stickley, Catherine E; McKay, Robert M; Röhl, Ursula; Olney, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2013-06-11

    The warmest global temperatures of the past 85 million years occurred during a prolonged greenhouse episode known as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (52-50 Ma). The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica from 34 Ma onward. Whereas early studies attributed the Eocene transition from greenhouse to icehouse climates to the tectonic opening of Southern Ocean gateways, more recent investigations invoked a dominant role of declining atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (e.g., CO2). However, the scarcity of field data has prevented empirical evaluation of these hypotheses. We present marine microfossil and organic geochemical records spanning the early-to-middle Eocene transition from the Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctica. Dinoflagellate biogeography and sea surface temperature paleothermometry reveal that the earliest throughflow of a westbound Antarctic Counter Current began ~49-50 Ma through a southern opening of the Tasmanian Gateway. This early opening occurs in conjunction with the simultaneous onset of regional surface water and continental cooling (2-4 °C), evidenced by biomarker- and pollen-based paleothermometry. We interpret that the westbound flowing current flow across the Tasmanian Gateway resulted in cooling of Antarctic surface waters and coasts, which was conveyed to global intermediate waters through invigorated deep convection in southern high latitudes. Although atmospheric CO2 forcing alone would provide a more uniform middle Eocene cooling, the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway better explains Southern Ocean surface water and global deep ocean cooling in the apparent absence of (sub-) equatorial cooling.

  2. Astronomically forced paleoclimate change from middle Eocene to early Oligocene: continental conditions in central China compared with the global marine isotope record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    The early Eocene climatic optimum ended with a long interval of global cooling that began in the early Middle Eocene and ended at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. During this long-term cooling, a series of short-term warming reversals occurred in the marine realm. Here, we investigate corresponding continental climate conditions as revealed in the Qianjiang Formation of the Jianghan Basin in central China, which consists of more than 4000 m of saline lake sediments. The Qianjiang Formation includes, in its deepest sections, a halite-rich rhythmic sediment succession with dark mudstone, brownish-white siltstone and sandstone, and greyish-white halite. Alternating fresh water (humid/cool)—saline water (dry/hot) deposits reflect climate cycles driven by orbital forcing. High-resolution gamma ray (GR) logging from the basin center captures these pronounced lithological rhythms throughout the formation. Several halite-rich intervals are interpreted as short-term warming events within the middle Eocene to early Oligocene, and could be expressions of coeval warming events in the global marine oxygen isotope record, for example, the middle Eocene climate optimum (MECO) event around 41 Ma. The Eocene-Oligocene boundary is distinguished by a radical change from halite-rich to clastic sediments, indicating a dramatic climate change from warm to cool conditions. Power spectral analysis of the GR series indicates strong short (~100 kyr) eccentricity cycling during the warm/hot episodes. Amplitude modulation of the short eccentricity in the GR series occurs with a strong 405 kyr periodicity. This cycling is calibrated to the La2004 orbital eccentricity model. A climate reversal occurs at 36.5 Ma within the long-term marine cooling trend following MECO, which is reflected also in the Qianjiang GR series, with the latter indicating several brief warm/dry reversals within the trend. A ~2.6 Myr halite-rich warm interval occurs in the latest Eocene in the continental record; both

  3. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.; Woltering, M.; Brinkhuis, H.; Damste, J.S.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Huber, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; Stein, R.; Matthiessen, J.; Lourens, L.J.; Pedentchouk, N.; Backman, J.; Moran, K.; Clemens, S.; Cronin, T.; Eynaud, F.; Gattacceca, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Jordan, R.; Kaminski, M.; King, J.; Koc, N.; Martinez, N.C.; McInroy, D.; Moore, T.C.; O'Regan, M.; Onodera, J.; Palike, H.; Rea, B.; Rio, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Smith, D.C.; St John, K.E.K.; Suto, I.; Suzuki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Watanabe, M. E.; Yamamoto, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, ???55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming, that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input. Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition. We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ???18??C to over 23??C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations, but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10??C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms-perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing-to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. Global warming and ocean acidification through halted weathering feedback during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, R.; Selby, D. S.; Cramwinckel, M.; Bohaty, S. M.; Sluijs, A.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) represents a 500 kyr period of global warming 40 million years ago associated with a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but its cause remains enigmatic. Moreover, on the timescale of the MECO, an increase in silicate weathering rates on the continents is expected to balance carbon input and restore the alkalinity of the oceans, but this is in sharp disagreement with observations of extensive carbonate dissolution. Here we show, based on osmium isotope ratios of marine sediments from three different sites, that CO2 rise and warming did not lead to enhanced continental weathering during the MECO, in contrast to expectations from carbon cycle theory. Remarkably, a minor shift to lower, more unradiogenic osmium isotope ratios rather indicates an episode of increased volcanism or reduced continental weathering. This disproves silicate weathering as a geologically constant feedback to CO2 variations. Rather, we suggest that global Early and Middle Eocene warmth diminished the weatherability of continental rocks, ultimately leading to CO2 accumulation during the MECO, and show the plausibility of this scenario using carbon cycle modeling simulations. We surmise a dynamic weathering feedback might explain multiple enigmatic phases of coupled climate and carbon cycle change in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic.

  5. Agerinia smithorum sp. nov., a new early Eocene primate from the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femenias-Gual, Joan; Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    The new species Agerinia smithorum (Adapiformes, Primates) from the early Eocene of the Iberian Peninsula is erected in this work. An emended diagnosis of the genus is provided, together with a broad description of the new species and comparisons with other samples assigned to Agerinia and other similar medium-sized cercamoniines. The new species is based on the most complete specimen of this genus published to date, a mandible preserving the alveoli of the canine and P1 , the roots of the P2 and all teeth from P3 to M3 . It was found in Casa Retjo-1, a new early Eocene locality from Northeastern Spain. The studied specimen is clearly distinguishable from other cercamoniines such as Periconodon, Darwinius, and Donrussellia, but very similar to Agerinia roselli, especially in the similar height of P3 and P4 and the general morphology of the molars, therefore allowing the allocation to the same genus. However, it is undoubtedly distinct from A. roselli, having a less molarized P4 and showing a larger paraconid in the M1 and a tiny one in the M2 , among other differences. The body mass of A. smithorum has also been estimated, ranging from 652 to 724 g, similar to that of A. roselli. The primitive traits shown by A. smithorum (moderately molarized P4 , large paraconid in the M1 and small but distinct in the M2 ) suggest that it could be the ancestor of A. roselli. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A new miniaturized lizard from the late Eocene of France and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolet, Arnau; Augé, Marc

    2014-03-01

    We report here a new lizard genus and species shared by two late Eocene localities situated at both versants of the present Pyrenees (South-Western Europe), one located in France (Escamps, MP19), and the other in Catalonia, Spain (Sossís, MP17a). The recovered specimens are remarkable because of their small size and peculiar morphology. Features of the dentary are interpreted as adaptations to a fossorial or semi-fossorial lifestyle, although such modifications obscure the exact phylogenetic relationships of the new taxon. We suggest that it might represent a further example of scincoid lizard that independently achieved adaptations for burrowing or surface-dwelling. This taxon reinforces the hypotheses that link the Southern Pyrenean assemblages to those from France rather than to those of the rest of the Iberian Peninsula, which are supposed to be somehow isolated and endemic to a certain degree during the middle and late Eocene, forming part of the so-called Western Iberian Bioprovince. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Palaeointensity determinations and magnetic properties on Eocene rocks from Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc (IODP Exp. 352)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, C.; Camps, P.; Sager, W. W.; Poidras, T.

    2017-09-01

    IODP Expedition 352 cored igneous rocks from the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc crust. Cores from Sites U1440 and U1441 recovered Eocene basalts and related rocks and cores from Sites U1439 and U1442 recovered Eocene boninites and related rocks. We selected samples from Holes U1439C, U1440B and U1442A for palaeointensity measurements. Hysteresis measurements and high and low-temperature magnetization curves show that samples from Hole U1440B undergo magneto-chemical changes when heated and are mostly composed of single-domain (SD) or pseudo-single-domain (PSD) titanomaghemite. In contrast, the same measurements show that most selected samples from Holes U1439C and U1442A are thermally stable and are composed of either SD or PSD titanomagnetite with very little titanium content, or SD ferromagnetic grains with a large paramagnetic contribution. Thellier-Thellier palaeointensity experiments carried out on U1439C and U1442A samples give a good success rate of 25/60 and Virtual Dipole Moment (VDM) values between 1.3 and 3.5 × 1022 Am2. Multispecimen palaeointensity experiments with the domain-state corrected method carried out on 55 samples from Hole U1440B (divided into four groups) and 20 from Hole U1439C gave poor quality results, but indicated a VDM around 4-6 × 1022 Am2 in Hole U1440B forearc basalts. These results are in agreement with the few, low VDM values previously measured on Eocene rocks. However, they do not support an inverse relationship between field intensity and reversal rate for this period of time, since the Eocene reversal rate was low.

  8. High resolution cyclostratigraphy of the early Eocene – new insights into the origin of the Cenozoic cooling trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Westerhold

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a high-resolution cyclostratigraphy based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF core scanning data from a new record retrieved from the tropical western Atlantic (Demerara Rise, ODP Leg 207, Site 1258. The Eocene sediments from ODP Site 1258 cover magnetochrons C20 to C24 and show well developed cycles. This record includes the missing interval for reevaluating the early Eocene part of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS, also providing key aspects for reconstructing high-resolution climate variability during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO. Detailed spectral analysis demonstrates that early Eocene sedimentary cycles are characterized by precession frequencies modulated by short (100 kyr and long (405 kyr eccentricity with a generally minor obliquity component. Counting of both the precession and eccentricity cycles results in revised estimates for the duration of magnetochrons C21r through C24n. Our cyclostratigraphic framework also corroborates that the geochronology of the Eocene Green River Formation (Wyoming, USA is still questionable mainly due to the uncertain correlation of the "Sixth tuff" to the GPTS.

    Right at the onset of the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend the dominant eccentricity-modulated precession cycles of ODP Site 1258 are interrupted by strong obliquity cycles for a period of ~800 kyr in the middle of magnetochron C22r. These distinct obliquity cycles at this low latitude site point to (1 a high-latitude driving mechanism on global climate variability from 50.1 to 49.4 Ma, and (2 seem to coincide with a significant drop in atmospheric CO2 concentration below a critical threshold between 2- and 3-times the pre-industrial level (PAL. The here newly identified orbital configuration of low eccentricity in combination with high obliquity amplitudes during this ~800-kyr period and the crossing of a critical pCO2 threshold may have led to the formation of the first ephemeral

  9. Impact ejecta at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Morgan F; Fung, Megan K; Wright, James D; Katz, Miriam E; Kent, Dennis V

    2016-10-14

    Extraterrestrial impacts have left a substantial imprint on the climate and evolutionary history of Earth. A rapid carbon cycle perturbation and global warming event about 56 million years ago at the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary (the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum) was accompanied by rapid expansions of mammals and terrestrial plants and extinctions of deep-sea benthic organisms. Here, we report the discovery of silicate glass spherules in a discrete stratigraphic layer from three marine P-E boundary sections on the Atlantic margin. Distinct characteristics identify the spherules as microtektites and microkrystites, indicating that an extraterrestrial impact occurred during the carbon isotope excursion at the P-E boundary. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Asian Eocene monsoons as revealed by leaf architectural signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Robert A.; Yang, Jian; Herman, Alexei B.; Kodrul, Tatiana; Maslova, Natalia; Spicer, Teresa E. V.; Aleksandrova, Galina; Jin, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    The onset and development of the Asian monsoon systems is a topic that has attracted considerable research effort but proxy data limitations, coupled with a diversity of definitions and metrics characterizing monsoon phenomena, have generated much debate. Failure of geological proxies to yield metrics capable of distinguishing between rainfall seasonality induced by migrations of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) from that attributable to topographically modified seasonal pressure reversals has frustrated attempts to understand mechanisms underpinning monsoon development and dynamics. Here we circumvent the use of such single climate parameter metrics in favor of detecting directly the distinctive attributes of different monsoon regimes encoded in leaf fossils. Leaf form adapts to the prevailing climate, particularly under the extreme seasonal stresses imposed by monsoons, so it is likely that fossil leaves carry a unique signature of past monsoon regimes. Leaf form trait spectra obtained from fossils from Eocene basins in southern China were compared with those seen in modern leaves growing under known climate regimes. The fossil leaf trait spectra, including those derived from previously published fossil floras from northwestern India, were most similar to those found in vegetation exposed to the modern Indonesia-Australia Monsoon (I-AM), which is largely a product of seasonal migrations of the ITCZ. The presence of this distinctive leaf physiognomic signature suggests that although a monsoon climate existed in Eocene time across southern Asia the characteristics of the modern topographically-enhanced South Asia Monsoon had yet to develop. By the Eocene leaves in South Asia had become well adapted to an I-AM type regime across many taxa and points to the existence of a pervasive monsoon climate prior to the Eocene. No fossil trait spectra typical of exposure to the modern East Asia monsoon were seen, suggesting the effects of this system in southern

  11. Continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G. N.; Collinson, M. E.; Riegel, W.; Wilde, V.; Farnsworth, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Robson, B.; Scott, A. C.; Lenz, O.; Pancost, R.

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the marine realm, our understanding of terrestrial temperature change during greenhouse climates is poorly constrained. Recently, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) have been used to successfully reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, despite the potential to provide new insights into terrestrial climate, the application of this proxy in lignite and coal deposits is still limited. Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany ( 48°N), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of Early Eocene lignites and associated marine interbeds. Branched GDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences in these distributions between lignites and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed sediments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the Early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26°C and those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds always exceed 20°C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude palaeoclimate proxy records which indicate enhanced early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section, warming is recorded in both the lignites ( 2°C) and nearshore marine interbeds ( 2-3°C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this trend is relatively well established in marginal marine sediments within the SW Pacific, it has rarely been shown in other regions or terrestrial settings. Using a suite of new climate model simulations, our warming trend is consistent with a doubling of CO2 (from 560ppmv to 1120ppmv) which broadly agrees with proxy

  12. Eocene volcanism and the origin of horizon A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T.G.; Towe, K.M.

    1971-01-01

    A series of closely time-equivalent deposits that correlate with seismic reflector horizon A exists along the coast of eastern North America. These sediments of Late-Early to Early-Middle Eocene age contain an authigenic mineral suite indicative of the alteration of volcanic glass. A volcanic origin for these siliceous deposits onshore is consistent with a volcanic origin for the cherts of horizon A offshore.

  13. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae from North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack L Conrad

    Full Text Available A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma. Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America.

  14. Webspinners in Early Eocene amber from western India (Insecta, Embiodea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Engel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Scelembiidae (Neoembiodea: Embiomorpha: Archembioidea is recorded from Asia for the first time, based on two individuals preserved in Early Eocene amber from the Cambay Basin, western India. Kumarembia hurleyi Engel & Grimaldi, gen. n. et sp. n., is described, figured, and distinguished from other archembioid genera. The genus shares male genitalic features with scelembiids, otherwise known from South America and Africa.

  15. A small galliform bird from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation, northwestern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Dyke, Gareth John

    2007-01-01

    A pair of fossilized imprints of feet represent the first published galliform (landfowl) specimen from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of northwest Denmark. The specimen is referable to Galliformes due to the presence of a distinctly asymmetric trochlea metatarsi III. The specimen appears distinct...... from previously described Eocene Galliformes (e.g. Gallinuloididae, Quercymegapodiidae and Paraortygidae) and may represent a new taxon of Galliformes, increasing the diversity of this group in the Lower Eocene....

  16. Lytostratigraphy of the eocene sediments in the Serbian-Macedonian Massif, Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanova, Violeta; Petrov, Gose; Sijakova-Ivanova, Tena

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the lithostratography of the eocene sedimentary series in the Serbian Macedonian massif on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Sediments of Eocene age in the Serbian Macedonian massif are represented in the Delchevo, Deve Bair and Strumi ca basin, with the orientation of NW-SE to S-J. With lithostratigraphic studies of eocene sediments in the basins in SMM, 3 superposition lithostratigraphic units (lithozones) were isolated:...

  17. Multiple states in the late Eocene ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatsen, M. L. J.; von der Heydt, A. S.; Kliphuis, M.; Viebahn, J.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) marks a major step within the Cenozoic climate in going from a greenhouse into an icehouse state, with the formation of a continental-scale Antarctic ice sheet. The roles of steadily decreasing CO2 concentrations versus changes in ocean circulation at the EOT are still debated and the threshold for Antarctic glaciation is obscured by uncertainties in global geometry. Here, a detailed study of the late Eocene ocean circulation is carried out using an ocean general circulation model under two slightly different geography reconstructions of the middle-to-late Eocene (38 Ma). Using the same atmospheric forcing, both geographies give a profoundly different equilibrium ocean circulation state. The underlying reason for this sensitivity is the presence of multiple equilibria characterised by either North or South Pacific deep water formation. A possible shift from a southern towards a northern overturning circulation would result in significant changes in the global heat distribution and consequently make the Southern Hemisphere climate more susceptible for significant cooling and ice sheet formation on Antarctica.

  18. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  19. First South American Agathis (Araucariaceae), Eocene of Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Escapa, Ignacio H; Cúneo, N Rubén; Kooyman, Robert M; Johnson, Kirk R; Iglesias, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Agathis is an iconic genus of large, ecologically important, and economically valuable conifers that range over lowland to upper montane rainforests from New Zealand to Sumatra. Exploitation of its timber and copal has greatly reduced the genus's numbers. The early fossil record of Agathis comes entirely from Australia, often presumed to be its area of origin. Agathis has no previous record from South America. We describe abundant macrofossils of Agathis vegetative and reproductive organs, from early and middle Eocene rainforest paleofloras of Patagonia, Argentina. The leaves were formerly assigned to the New World cycad genus Zamia. Agathis zamunerae sp. nov. is the first South American occurrence and the most complete representation of Agathis in the fossil record. Its morphological features are fully consistent with the living genus. The most similar living species is A. lenticula, endemic to lower montane rainforests of northern Borneo. Agathis zamunerae sp. nov. demonstrates the presence of modern-aspect Agathis by 52.2 mya and vastly increases the early range and possible areas of origin of the genus. The revision from Zamia breaks another link between the Eocene and living floras of South America. Agathis was a dominant, keystone element of the Patagonian Eocene floras, alongside numerous other plant taxa that still associate with it in Australasia and Southeast Asia. Agathis extinction in South America was an integral part of the transformation of Patagonian biomes over millions of years, but the living species are disappearing from their ranges at a far greater rate.

  20. Eocene diversification of crown group rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-R, Juan C; Gibb, Gillian C; Trewick, Steve A

    2014-01-01

    Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves.

  1. Passifloraceae seeds from the late Eocene of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Camila

    2017-12-01

    The plant fossil record for the neotropics is still sparse and temporally discontinuous. The location and description of new fossil material are fundamental for understanding evolutionary and biogeographic patterns of lineages. A new fossil record of Passifloraceae from the late Eocene of Colombia is described in this study. Plant fossils were collected from a new locality from the Eocene Esmeraldas Formation. Eighteen fossil seeds were selected, described, and compared with fossil and extant angiosperm seeds based on the literature and herbarium collections. Taxonomic affinities of the fossil seeds within Passifloraceae s.l. were evaluated by comparing morphological characters of the seeds in a phylogenetic context. Stratigraphic information associated with the fossil locality was used to interpret the environment and taphonomic processes associated with fossil deposition. A new seed fossil genus and species, Passifloroidesperma sogamosense gen. and sp. nov., is described and associated with the subfamily Passifloroideae based on the presence of a foveolate seed surface, ruminate endosperm, and a seed coat with prismatic palisade cells. The depositional environment of the locality is described as a floodplain associated with river channels. A detailed review of the Passifloraceae fossil record indicates that P. sogamosense is the oldest confirmed record of Passifloraceae. Its late Eocene age provides a minimum age that can be used as a calibration point for the crown Passifloroideae node in future dating analyses that together with its neotropical geographic location can shed light on the origin and diversification of the subfamily. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  2. New Eocene damselflies and first Cenozoic damsel-dragonfly of the isophlebiopteran lineage (Insecta: Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André

    2015-10-09

    The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera.

  3. Extinction vs. Rapid Radiation: The Juxtaposed Evolutionary Histories of Coelotine Spiders Support the Eocene-Oligocene Orogenesis of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhe; Li, Shuqiang

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary biology has long been concerned with how changing environments affect and drive the spatiotemporal development of organisms. Coelotine spiders (Agelenidae: Coelotinae) are common species in the temperate and subtropical areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Their long evolutionary history and the extremely imbalanced distribution of species richness suggest that Eurasian environments, especially since the Cenozoic, are the drivers of their diversification. We use phylogenetics, molecular dating, ancestral area reconstructions, diversity, and ecological niche analyses to investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of 286 coelotine species from throughout the region. Based on eight genes (6.5 kb) and 2323 de novo DNA sequences, analyses suggest an Eocene South China origin for them. Most extant, widespread species belong to the southern (SCG) or northern (NCG) clades. The origin of coelotine spiders appears to associate with either the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or the hot period in early Eocene. Tibetan uplifting events influenced the current diversity patterns of coelotines. The origin of SCG lies outside of the Tibetan Plateau. Uplifting in the southeastern area of the plateau blocked dispersal since the Late Eocene. Continuous orogenesis appears to have created localized vicariant events, which drove rapid radiation in SCG. North-central Tibet is the likely location of origin for NCG and many lineages likely experienced extinction owing to uplifting since early Oligocene. Their evolutionary histories correspond with recent geological evidence that high-elevation orographical features existed in the Tibetan region as early as 40-35 Ma. Our discoveries may be the first empirical evidence that links the evolution of organisms to the Eocene-Oligocene uplifting of the Tibetan Plateau. [Tibet; biogeography; ecology; molecular clock; diversification.]. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic

  4. Short-term fluctuations in vegetation and phytoplankton during the Middle Eocene greenhouse climate: a 640-kyr record from the Messel oil shale (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Olaf K.; Wilde, Volker; Riegel, Walter

    2011-11-01

    The Palaeogene was the most recent greenhouse period on Earth. Especially for the Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene, several superimposed short-term hyperthermal events have been described, including extremes such as the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Major faunal and floral turnovers in the marine and terrestrial realms were recorded in association with these events. High-resolution palynological analysis of the early Middle Eocene maar lake sediments at Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany, provides an insight into the dynamics of a climax vegetation during the Middle Eocene greenhouse climate in a time span without significant climatic excursions. Numerical techniques like detrended correspondence analysis and wavelet analysis have been applied to recognize cyclic fluctuations and long-term trends in the vegetation through a time interval of approximately 640 kyr. Based on the numerical zoning of the pollen diagram, three phases in the development of the vegetation may be distinguished. Throughout these phases, the climax vegetation did not change substantially in qualitative composition, but a trend towards noticeably less humid conditions probably in combination with a drop of the water level in the lake may be recognized. A shift in algal population from the freshwater dinoflagellate cyst Messelodinium thielepfeifferae to a dominance of Botryococcus in the uppermost part of the core is interpreted as a response to changes in acidity and nutrient availability within the lake. Time series analyses of pollen assemblages show that variations in the Milankovitch range of eccentricity, obliquity and precession can be distinguished. In addition, fluctuations in the sub-Milankovitch range are indicated. This demonstrates that floral changes during steady depositional conditions in the Middle Eocene of Messel were controlled by orbital forcing.

  5. The Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary record in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Implications for climate and sea-level changes on the western Atlantic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P.; Wade, B.S.; Kontny, A.; ,

    2009-01-01

    A multidisciplinary investigation of the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eyreville core from the Chesapeake Bay impact basin was conducted in order to document environmental changes and sequence stratigraphic setting. Planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy indicate that the Eyreville core includes an expanded upper Eocene (Biozones E15 to E16 and NP19/20 to NP21, respectively) and a condensed Oligocene-Miocene (NP24-NN1) sedimentary sequence. The Eocene-Oligocene contact corresponds to a =3-Ma-long hiatus. Eocene- Oligocene sedimentation is dominated by great diversity and varying amounts of detrital and authigenic minerals. Four sedimentary intervals are identified by lithology and mineral content: (1) A 30-m-thick, smectite- and illite-rich interval directly overlies the Exmore Formation, suggesting long-term reworking of impact debris within the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. (2) Subsequently, an increase in kaolinite content suggests erosion from soils developed during late Eocene warm and humid climate in agreement with data derived from other Atlantic sites. However, the kaolinite increase may also be explained by change to a predominant sediment input from outside the Chesapeake Bay impact structure caused by progradation of more proximal facies belts during the highstand systems tract of the late Eocene sequence E10.Spectral analysis based on gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility logs suggests infl uence of 1.2 Ma low-amplitude oscillation of the obliquity period during the late Eocene. (3) During the latest Eocene (Biozones NP21 and E16), several lithological contacts (clay to clayey silt) occur concomitant with a prominent change in the mineralogical composition with illite as a major component: This lithological change starts close to the Biozone NP19/20-NP21 boundary and may correspond to sequence boundary E10-E11 as observed in

  6. The Eocene Arctic Azolla phenomenon: species composition, temporal range and geographic extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Margaret; Barke, Judith; van der Burgh, Johan; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna; Pearce, Martin; Bujak, Jonathan; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2010-05-01

    and high latitude environmental conditions were suitable for simultaneous widespread proliferation of several Azolla species. This episode coincides with the termination of a period known as the 'Early Eocene Climatic Optimum' (EECO). Both field data and general circulation/climate model experiments invoke high precipitation conditions for the EECO and these might have aided in the onset of massive Azolla proliferation in the Northern Hemisphere.

  7. Influence of Large Lakes on Methane Greenhouse Forcing in the Early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, J. H.; Granberg, D. L.; Kasprak, A. H.; Taylor, K. W.; Pancost, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Long-duration elevated global temperatures and increased atmospheric pCO2 levels (~1000-2000 ppm) characterized the earliest portion of the Eocene (Ypressian; ~55 to 49 Ma). This extended period of global warmth was also punctuated by a series of short (sub-precessional) hyperthermal events in which atmospheric CO2 (>2000 ppm) and global temperatures rose with unprecedented and (as of yet) unexplained rapidity. This interval is perhaps the best temporal analog for assessing contemporary response of the biosphere and global carbon cycle to increased CO2 emissions. Although these hyperthermals appear paced by 100 Ka and 1 Ma scale orbital (eccentricity) cycles in the marine realm, high frequency forcing processes have not yet been examined, and long continental records have yet to be explored for their expression. To identify sub-eccentricity (Messel Shale, (Darmstadt, Germany.) We demonstrate that in addition to the expected 100 Ka eccentricity cycle, the 40 Ka cycle of obliquity is also an important component of climate variability as reflected in the lacustrine carbon cycle and hence a potential driver of global carbon cycling. We further investigated carbon cycle dynamics by examining biomarker evidence for changes in the terrestrial methane cycle during this time interval. Due to their increased volumes (>60,000 km2), highly stratified and cyclically anoxic lakes of the Eocene could have provided enough methane to alter global radiative forcing. This is consistent with our data, which demonstrate that the GRF and Messel Shale both exhibit strongly reducing conditions as well as abundant methanogen and methanotroph biomarkers. Further, the GRF lacustrine environment was highly stratified with, at times, euxinic waters extending into the photic zone, as inferred from the presence of isorenieratene derivatives. Thus, the GRF was likely an area of elevated methanogenic activity during this time. Increasing input of terrestrial matter into the GRF correlates with

  8. Paleocene–Eocene warming and biotic response in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.; Iakovleva, A.I.; Reichart, G.-J.; Aleksandrova, G.N.; Gnibidenko, Z.N.; Schouten, S.; Sluijs, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a Paleocene–Eocene (ca. 60–52 Ma) sea-surface temperature record from sediments deposited in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea. TEX86 paleothermometry indicates long-term late Paleocene (~17 °C ca. 59 Ma) to early Eocene (26 °C at 52 Ma) sea-surface warming, consistent with trends

  9. Warm and wet conditions in the Arctic region during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Donders, T.H.; Schoon, P.L.; Röhl, U.; Reichart, G.-J.; Sangiorgi, F.; Kim, J.-H.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several episodes of abrupt and transient warming, each lasting between 50,000 and 200,000 years, punctuated the long-term warming during the Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene (58 to 51 Myr ago) epochs1,2. These hyperthermal events, such as the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (EMT2) that took place about

  10. Early to Middle Eocene vegetation dynamics at the Wilkes Land Margin (Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P.K.; Koutsodendris, A.; Raine, J.I.; van de Schootbrugge, B.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    The early Eocene epoch was characterized by extreme global warmth, which in terrestrial settings was characterized by an expansion of near-tropical vegetation belts into the high latitudes. During the middle to late Eocene, global cooling caused the retreat of tropical vegetation to lower latitudes.

  11. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  12. Paleoceanographic, and paleoclimatic constraints on the global Eocene diatom and silicoflagellate record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Stickley, Catherine E.; Bukry, David

    2015-01-01

    Eocene diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy are summarized and correlated with the most recent geologic time scale as well as with the global oxygen isotope and eustatic sea level curves. The global distribution of Eocene diatom/silicoflagellate-bearing sediments varies considerably, reflecting changing oceanic gateways and paleoceanography with changing patterns that are punctuated by four major depositional events.

  13. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, P.M.J.; Affek, H.P.; Ivany, L.C.; Houben, A.J.P.; Sijp, W.P.; Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at

  14. Paleocene-Eocene warming and biotic response in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338017909; Iakovleva, Alina I.; Reichart, Gert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165599081; Aleksandrova, Galina N.; Gnibidenko, Zinaida N.; Schouten, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Sluijs, Appy|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474748

    2014-01-01

    We present a Paleocene-Eocene (ca. 60-52 Ma) sea-surface temperature record from sediments deposited in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea. TEX86 paleothermometry indicates long-term late Paleocene (~17 °C ca. 59 Ma) to early Eocene (26 °C at 52 Ma) sea-surface warming, consistent with trends

  15. Revision of Eocene Antarctic carpet sharks (Elasmobranchii, Orectolobiformes) from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, was once called the 'Rosetta Stone' of Southern Hemisphere palaeobiology, because this small island provides the most complete and richly fossiliferous Palaeogene sequence in Antarctica. Among fossil marine vertebrate remains, chondrichthyans seemingly were dominant elements in the Eocene Antarctic fish fauna. The fossiliferous sediments on Seymour Island are from the La Meseta Formation, which was originally divided into seven stratigraphical levels, TELMs 1-7 (acronym for Tertiary Eocene La Meseta) ranging from the upper Ypresian (early Eocene) to the late Priabonian (late Eocene). Bulk sampling of unconsolidated sediments from TELMs 5 and 6, which are Ypresian (early Eocene) and Lutetian (middle Eocene) in age, respectively, yielded very rich and diverse chondrichthyan assemblages including over 40 teeth of carpet sharks representing two new taxa, Notoramphoscyllium woodwardi gen. et sp. nov. and Ceolometlaouia pannucae gen. et sp. nov. Two additional teeth from TELM 5 represent two different taxa that cannot be assigned to any specific taxon and thus are left in open nomenclature. The new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic selachian faunas but also allows two previous orectolobiform records to be re-evaluated. Accordingly, Stegostoma cf. faciatum is synonymized with Notoramphoscyllium woodwardi gen. et sp. nov., whereas Pseudoginglymostoma cf. brevicaudatum represents a nomen dubium . The two new taxa, and probably the additional two unidentified taxa, are interpreted as permanent residents, which most likely were endemic to Antarctic waters during the Eocene and adapted to shallow and estuarine environments.

  16. Earliest record of the fossil snake Palaeophis from the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Viborg; Cuny, Gilles; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. – The earliest record of Palaeophis ever found in Denmark is here based on vertebrae described from the Paleocene/Eocene Stolleklint Clay of the Isle of Mors (northern Denmark). Although much smaller, they appear quite similar to the Eocene vertebra described from the Fur Formation...

  17. Dispersal of thermophilic beetles across the intercontinental Arctic forest belt during the early Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Adam J; Chatzimanolis, Stylianos; Metscher, Brian D; Wolf-Schwenninger, Karin; Solodovnikov, Alexey

    2017-10-11

    Massive biotic change occurred during the Eocene as the climate shifted from warm and equable to seasonal and latitudinally stratified. Mild winter temperatures across Arctic intercontinental land bridges permitted dispersal of frost-intolerant groups until the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, while trans-Arctic dispersal in thermophilic groups may have been limited to the early Eocene, especially during short-lived hyperthermals. Some of these lineages are now disjunct between continents of the northern hemisphere. Although Eocene climate change may have been one of the most important drivers of these ancient patterns in modern animal and plant distributions, its particular events are rarely implicated or correlated with group-specific climatic requirements. Here we explored the climatic and geological drivers of a particularly striking Neotropical-Oriental disjunct distribution in the rove beetle Bolitogyrus, a suspected Eocene relict. We integrated evidence from Eocene fossils, distributional and climate data, paleoclimate, paleogeography, and phylogenetic divergence dating to show that intercontinental dispersal of Bolitogyrus ceased in the early Eocene, consistent with the termination of conditions required by thermophilic lineages. These results provide new insight into the poorly known and short-lived Arctic forest community of the Early Eocene and its surviving lineages.

  18. Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sluijs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief (~150 kyr period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE. Biotic responses include a global abundance peak (acme of the subtropical dinoflagellate Apectodinium. Here we identify the PETM in a marine sedimentary sequence deposited on the East Tasman Plateau at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 1172 and show, based on the organic paleothermometer TEX86, that southwest Pacific sea surface temperatures increased from ~26 °C to ~33°C during the PETM. Such temperatures before, during and after the PETM are >10 °C warmer than predicted by paleoclimate model simulations for this latitude. In part, this discrepancy may be explained by potential seasonal biases in the TEX86 proxy in polar oceans. Additionally, the data suggest that not only Arctic, but also Antarctic temperatures may be underestimated in simulations of ancient greenhouse climates by current generation fully coupled climate models. An early influx of abundant Apectodinium confirms that environmental change preceded the CIE on a global scale. Organic dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest a local decrease in the amount of river run off reaching the core site during the PETM, possibly in concert with eustatic rise. Moreover, the assemblages suggest changes in seasonality of the regional hydrological system and storm activity. Finally, significant variation in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages during the PETM indicates that southwest Pacific climates varied significantly over time scales of 103 – 104 years during this event, a finding comparable to similar studies of PETM successions from the New Jersey Shelf.

  19. High Arctic Forests During the Middle Eocene Supported by ~400 ppm Atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxbauer, D. P.; Royer, D. L.; LePage, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Fossils from Paleogene High Arctic deposits provide some of the clearest evidence for greenhouse climates and offer the potential to improve our understanding of Earth system dynamics in a largely ice-free world. One of the most well-known and exquisitely-preserved middle Eocene (47.9-37.8 Myrs ago) polar forest sites, Napartulik, crops out on eastern Axel Heiberg Island (80 °N), Nunavut, Canada. An abundance of data from Napartulik suggest mean annual temperatures of up to 30 °C warmer than today and atmospheric water loads 2× above current levels. Despite this wealth of paleontological and paleoclimatological data, there are currently no direct constraints on atmospheric CO2 levels for Napartulik or any other polar forest site. Here we apply a new plant gas-exchange model to Metasequoia (dawn redwood) leaves to reconstruct atmospheric CO2 from six fossil forests at Napartulik. Individual reconstructions vary between 405-489 ppm with a site mean of 437 ppm (337-564 ppm at 95% confidence). These estimates represent the first direct constraints on CO2 for polar fossil forests and suggest that the temperate conditions present at Napartulik during the middle Eocene were maintained under CO2 concentrations ~1.6× above pre-industrial levels. Our results strongly support the case that long-term climate sensitivity to CO2 in the past was sometimes high, even during largely ice-free periods, highlighting the need to better understand the climate forcing and feedback mechanisms responsible for this amplification.

  20. Profundal sideritic mudstone from an Eocene lake in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sideritic lacustrine mudstone was found in drill core from a uranium deposit in the Death Valley area in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The precursor sediments for this rock were deposited in an unusual iron-meromictic Eocene lake, herein named Lake Tubutulik, which occupied part of the Boulder Creek basin, a graben that is probably a southern extension of the larger Death Valley basin. The Boulder Creek basin is bounded on the west by granite of the Upper Cretaceous Darby pluton and on the east by Precambrian to Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The lake basin was formed by basaltic flows that dammed the valley of the ancestral Tubutulik River in early Eocene time. The lake sediments included a nearshore facies of fine-grained organic mud and an offshore facies of laminated sideritic mud. The offshore (profundal) laminated mudstone consists of alternating layers of authigenic siderite and detrital grains, mostly quartz and clay minerals. Both lacustrine facies contain turbidites. The lacustrine rocks graded laterally into an onshore facies of colluvial and fluvial sandstone, paludal mudstone, and coal. The ancient lake occupied a small, deep basin in a tectonically active area of high relief. Meromixis was apparently stabilized by reduced iron and bicarbonate dissolved in the monimolimnion. The intensity of meromixis decreased as the lake became shallower from sediment filling. The source of the dissolved iron in the monoimolimnion was probably the Eocene basalt. Carbon isotope analysis of the siderite suggests that the dissolved bicarbonate in the profundal facies was largely inorganic. Sideritic carbon in one sample from the onshore paludal facies has an isotopic signature (δ 13 C = +16.9) consistent with residual carbonate formed during methanogenic fermentation

  1. Natural product terpenoids in Eocene and Miocene conifer fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Angelika; White, James D; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-08-30

    Numerous saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, but not polar compounds, originating from plants and microorganisms (biomarkers) have been reported in sediments, coals, and petroleum. Here we describe natural product terpenoids found in two fossil conifers, Taxodium balticum (Eocene) and Glyptostrobus oregonensis (Miocene). A similar terpenoid pattern is also observed in extant Taxodium distichum. The preservation of characteristic terpenoids (unaltered natural products) in the fossil conifers supports their systematic assignment to the Cypress family (Cupressaceae sensu lato). The results also show that fossil conifers can contain polar terpenoids, which are valuable markers for (paleo)chemosystematics and phylogeny.

  2. Climatic conditions governing extensive Azolla bloom during the Middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Rolande; Speelman, Eveline N.; Barke, Judith; Konijnendijk, Tiuri; Sinninge Damste, Jaap S.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    Enormous amounts of intact mega- and microspores from the free floating aquatic fern Azolla were found in sediments recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program expedition 302, indicating that Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Eocene Arctic Ocean. In general, the Early/Middle Eocene is characterized by enhanced greenhouse conditions with elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Arctic (~10°C), while tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were only a little warmer than today (with a mean annual temperature (MAT) of 32-34 °C) (Pearson et al., 2007). The consequently reduced temperature gradient between the equator and the poles and the presence of freshwater at the North Pole as indicated by the presence of the freshwater fern Azolla (Brinkhuis et al., 2006) provide important boundary conditions for understanding the hydrological cycle and latent heat transport during this interval. Here we reconstruct variations in SST and mean annual air temperature using the TEX86 and MBT temperature proxies for the Azolla interval. Sediments from around the Arctic Basin have been analyzed, including samples from Alaska, the Mackenzie Basin, Greenland (IODP core 913b), and Denmark. Furthermore, a high resolution sea surface temperature record for the Azolla interval has been constructed from sediment samples from the Lomonosov Ridge, showing a cyclic signal. Model experiments have shown that the here confirmed low equator-to-pole temperature gradient modulated the hydrological cycle. Since the growth of Azolla is restricted to low salinity conditions, changes in the hydrological cycle are proposed to coincide with the cyclic occurrence of Azolla throughout the interval. To confirm the overlapping presence of high quantities of Azolla and increased precipitation, changes in the hydrogen cycle are reconstructed by creating a high resolution hydrogen isotope record throughout the interval. By performing compound specific analyses (δD) on terrestrial derived

  3. A new burmagomphid dragonfly from the Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián F. Petrulevičius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new burmagomphid anisopteran, Satelitala soberana gen. et sp. nov. is described from the lower Eocene of Laguna del Hunco, Patagonia, Argentina. The new genus is characterised by hindwing characters such as the subdiscoidal triangle not elongated; anal loop divided longitudinally; paranal cell divided longitudinally; five terminal cells between RP and MA; five terminal cells between MP and CuA; and obtuse angle between PsA and CuP+AA. Burmagomphid dragonflies were represented so far only by one specimen from the middle Cretaceous of Southeast Asia. This new record extends the distribution to Patagonia, to the Cenozoic, and also to paleolake deposits.

  4. Paralic parasequences associated with Eocene sea-level oscillations in an active margin setting: Trihueco Formation of the Arauco Basin, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. P.; Elgueta, Sara

    1997-06-01

    The Eocene Trihueco Formation is one of the best exposed successions of the Arauco Basin in Chile. It represents a period of marine regression and transgression of second-order duration, during which barrier island complexes developed on a muddy shelf. The strata are arranged in classical shoaling-upward parasequences of shoreface and beach facies capped by coal-bearing, back-barrier lagoon deposits. These fourth-order cycles are superimposed upon third-order cycles which caused landward and seaward shifts of the coastal facies belts. The final, punctuated rise in sea level is represented by shelf mudrocks with transgressive incised shoreface sandstones. Relative sea-level oscillations as revealed in the stratigraphy of the Trihueco Formation show a reasonable correlation with published Eocene eustatic curves.

  5. New early Eocene vertebrate assemblage from western India reveals a mixed fauna of European and Gondwana affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ypresian Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan and Mangrol lignite mines in Gujarat, western India, has yielded a rich vertebrate fauna with numerous taxa of European affinities. Here we report a new, approximately contemporary vertebrate assemblage from two fossiliferous layers in the nearby mine of Tadkeshwar. These layers have yielded a similar mammal fauna with the co-occurrence of the perissodactyl-like cambaytheriid Cambaytherium thewissi, the adapoid primates Marcgodinotius indicus and cf. Asiadapis cambayensis, and the hyaenodontid Indohyaenodon raoi. The presence of these species in both Vastan and Tadkeshwar mines and at different levels suggests that the deposits between the two major lignite seams represent a single land mammal age. Apart from the aforementioned species there is a new, smaller species of Cambaytherium, and a new genus and species of esthonychid tillodont. This fauna also contains the first large early Eocene vertebrates from India, including an unidentified Coryphodon-like pantodont, a dyrosaurid crocodyliform and a new giant madtsoiid snake. Among the Tadkeshwar vertebrates several taxa are of Gondwana affinities, such as Pelomedusoides turtles, dyrosaurids, and large madtsoiids, attesting that the early Eocene was a crucial period in India during which Laurasian taxa of European affinities co-existed with relict taxa from Gondwana before the India-Asia collision. Our results suggest that terrestrial faunas could have dispersed to or from Europe during episodes of contact between the Indian subcontinent and different island blocks along the northern margin of the Neotethys, such as the Kohistan–Ladakh island-arc system. Gondwana taxa might represent remnants of ghost lineages shared with Madagascar, which reached the Indian subcontinent during the late Cretaceous; alternatively they might have come from North Africa and passed along the southern margin of the Neotethys to reach the Indian subcontinent. These

  6. Micron-scale intra-ring analyses of δ13C in early Eocene Arctic wood from Ellesmere Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.; Eberle, J.; Sternberg, L.

    2009-12-01

    Early Eocene (ca. 53 Ma) fossil assemblages on Ellesmere Island (75 oN paleolatitude), provide rich information about the plant and animal life of the lush polar ecosystems of the time. Fossil wood recovered from Ellesmere Island is abundant and not permineralized; however, morphological features such as growth rings and resin canals have been obliterated by compression. We report on exceptionally high-resolution intra-ring analyses of δ13C within fossil wood, sampled at ~30 micron intervals across several centimeters of wood sample. Clear patterns in systematic seasonal increases and decreases in wood δ13C allowed us to identify at least 5 annual cycles in the wood. The patterns of increase and decrease in δ13C were consistent with patterns observed for evergreen wood, and distinct from the deciduous patterns we have observed for Metasequoia fossil wood from the middle Eocene (ca. 45 Ma) Arctic site on Axel Heiberg Island. We believe that the high point in the δ13C value of wood seen in each cycle corresponds to the highest environmental temperatures during the annual cycle, as has been seen for modern evergreens (e.g., Barbour et al., 2002). Modern studies have also noted that high temperature periods are correlated with the highest vapor-pressure and soil-water deficits of the annual cycle; these environmental factors would cause the plant to change its discrimination during photosynthesis. We will discuss the relatively low amplitude of δ13C fluctuations (0.5-1.0 ‰) clearly defined by Ellesmere fossil wood, in comparison to observations on modern common evergreens (2.0-4.0 ‰), and speculate that this difference implies greatly dampened seasonal temperature fluctuations in Eocene polar environments, relative to today. Barbour M.M., Walcroft A.S., Farquhar G.D., 2002, Seasonal variation in δ13C and δ18O of cellulose from growth rings of Pinus radiata. Plant, Cell and Environment: v. 25, p. 1483-1499.

  7. Synchronizing early Eocene deep-sea and continental records - cyclostratigraphic age models for the Bighorn Basin Coring Project drill cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Wilkens, Roy H.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Clyde, William C.; Wing, Scott L.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Kraus, Mary J.

    2018-03-01

    A consistent chronostratigraphic framework is required to understand the effect of major paleoclimate perturbations on both marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Transient global warming events in the early Eocene, at 56-54 Ma, show the impact of large-scale carbon input into the ocean-atmosphere system. Here we provide the first timescale synchronization of continental and marine deposits spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and the interval just prior to the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2). Cyclic variations in geochemical data come from continental drill cores of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP, Wyoming, USA) and from marine deep-sea drilling deposits retrieved by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Both are dominated by eccentricity-modulated precession cycles used to construct a common cyclostratigraphic framework. Integration of age models results in a revised astrochronology for the PETM in deep-sea records that is now generally consistent with independent 3He age models. The duration of the PETM is estimated at ˜ 200 kyr for the carbon isotope excursion and ˜ 120 kyr for the associated pelagic clay layer. A common terrestrial and marine age model shows a concurrent major change in marine and terrestrial biota ˜ 200 kyr before ETM-2. In the Bighorn Basin, the change is referred to as Biohorizon B and represents a period of significant mammalian turnover and immigration, separating the upper Haplomylus-Ectocion Range Zone from the Bunophorus Interval Zone and approximating the Wa-4-Wa-5 land mammal zone boundary. In sediments from ODP Site 1262 (Walvis Ridge), major changes in the biota at this time are documented by the radiation of a second generation of apical spine-bearing sphenolith species (e.g., S. radians and S. editus), the emergence of T. orthostylus, and the marked decline of D. multiradiatus.

  8. A Phororhacoid bird from the Eocene of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Mahboubi, M'hammed; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-10-01

    The bird fossil record is globally scarce in Africa. The early Tertiary evolution of terrestrial birds is virtually unknown in that continent. Here, we report on a femur of a large terrestrial new genus discovered from the early or early middle Eocene (between ˜52 and 46 Ma) of south-western Algeria. This femur shows all the morphological features of the Phororhacoidea, the so-called Terror Birds. Most of the phororhacoids were indeed large, or even gigantic, flightless predators or scavengers with no close modern analogs. It is likely that this extinct group originated in South America, where they are known from the late Paleocene to the late Pleistocene (˜59 to 0.01 Ma). The presence of a phororhacoid bird in Africa cannot be explained by a vicariant mechanism because these birds first appeared in South America well after the onset of the mid-Cretaceous Gondwana break up (˜100 million years old). Here, we propose two hypotheses to account for this occurrence, either an early dispersal of small members of this group, which were still able of a limited flight, or a transoceanic migration of flightless birds from South America to Africa during the Paleocene or earliest Eocene. Paleogeographic reconstructions of the South Atlantic Ocean suggest the existence of several islands of considerable size between South America and Africa during the early Tertiary, which could have helped a transatlantic dispersal of phororhacoids.

  9. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-08-25

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given.

  10. How many upper Eocene microspherule layers: More than we thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Joseph E.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific controversy over the origin of upper Eocene tektites, microtektites and other microspherules cannot be logically resolved until it is determined just how many events are involved. The microspherule-bearing beds in marine sediments have been dated using standard biozonal techniques. Although a powerful stratigraphic tool, zonal biostratigraph has its limitations. One is that if an event, such as a microspherule occurrence, is observed to occur in a zone at one locality and then a similar event observed in the same zone at another locality, it still may be unwarranted to conclude that these events exactly correlate. To be in a zone a sample only need be between the fossil events that define the zone boundaries. It is often very difficult to accurately determine where within a zone one might be. Further, the zone defining events do not everywhere occur at the same points in time. That is, the ranges of the defining taxa are not always filled. Thus, the length of time represented by a zone (but not, of course, its chronozone) can vary from place to place. These problems can be offset by use of chronostratigraphic modelling techniques such as Graphic Correlation. This technique was used to build a Cretaceous and Cenozoic model containing fossil, magnetopolarity, and other events. The scale of the model can be demonstrated to be linear with time. This model was used to determine the chronostratigraphic position of upper Eocene microspherule layers.

  11. Eocene Podocarpium (Leguminosae) from South China and its biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Qiu, Jue; Zhou, Zhekun; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger is one of the most common legumes in the Neogene of Eurasia, including fossil fruits, seeds, leaves, and possible flower and pollen grains. This genus is not completely consistent with any extant genera according to gross morphological characters and poorly preserved cuticular structures reported in previous studies. The fossil pods collected from the coal-bearing series of the Changchang Basin of Hainan Island and Maoming Basin of Guangdong, South China, are examined by morphologically comparative work, with special reference to venation patterns and placental position. These distinctive features, as well as the ovule development of pods from different developmental stages and the epidermal structure of the pods, as distinguished from previous records lead to the conclusion that these fossils can be recognized as a new species of Podocarpium, P. eocenicum sp. nov. This new discovery indicates that Podocarpium had arrived in South China by the Eocene. Investigation on the fossil records of this extinct genus shows that P. eocenicum is the earliest and lowest latitude fossil data. The possible occurrence pattern of this genus is revealed as follows: Podocarpium had distributed in the South China at least in the middle Eocene, and then migrated to Europe during the Oligocene; in the Miocene this genus reached its peak in Eurasia, spreading extensively across subtropical areas to warm temperate areas; finally, Podocarpium shrank rapidly and became extinct in Eurasia during the Pliocene.

  12. Diachronous ranges of benthonic Foraminifera in the Eocene of Alabama and South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, G.D.; Fallaw, W.C.; Snipes, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    Seventeen species of benthonic Foraminifera reported by Bandy (1949) from the Eocene of Little Stave Creek in Clarke County, Alabama were identified from the middle eocene Santee Limestone and the upper Eocene Dry Branch Formation in Aiken and Barnwell counties, South Carolina. Of the 17 species, seven occurred in South Carolina stratigraphically above or below the ranges listed by Bandy. Bandy made a detailed study of Foraminifera from the Claibornian and Jacksonian Tallahatta, Lisbon, Gosport, Moodys Branch, and Yazoo formations exposed on Little Stave Creek and plotted the stratigraphic ranges within the section of numerous species. The authors' samples came from well cores at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Of 13 species from the middle Eocene Santee and also reported by Bandy, four are stratigraphically below the lowest occurrence listed by Bandy, and one is stratigraphically above the highest occurrence. Of four species from the upper Eocene Dry Branch Formation and also listed by Bandy, two are stratigraphically above his highest occurrence. Dockery and Nystrom (1992) and Campbell (1993) have described diachroneity among mollusks in the Eocene of South Carolina. Caution should be used in relying on a small number of species in correlating Eocene deposits in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains

  13. First Record of Eocene Bony Fishes and Crocodyliforms from Canada’s Western Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Gottfried, Michael D.; Hutchison, J. Howard; Brochu, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada’s High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early – middle Eocene (∼53–50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada’s easternmost Arctic – Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada’s westernmost Arctic Island – Banks Island, Northwest Territories – they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. Principal Findings We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower – middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Conclusions/Significance These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early – middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  14. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J; Gottfried, Michael D; Hutchison, J Howard; Brochu, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence time between the two extant alligatorid lineages Alligator

  15. Eocene relatives of cod icefishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) from Seymour Island, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, Małgorzata; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Møller, Peter Rask

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentary skull bones and vertebra from the Upper Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour (Marambio) Island, Antarctic Peninsula have been described as gadiform fishes, informally named “Mesetaichthys”. Here we describe jaws as Mesetaichthys jerzmanskae n. g. and n. sp., and refer this taxon...... to the perciform suborder Notothenioidei. This group is almost unknown as fossils. Similarities to the living, ‘primitive’ nototheniid Dissostichus eleginoides are indicated in the dentition. Gadiform evolution in the Paleocene-Eocene, and the possibility of a correlation between the origin and evolution...... of notothenioids in connection with the deterioration of the climate in Antarctica during the Late Eocene-Oligocene is discussed....

  16. Eocene antiquity of the European nyctitheriid euarchontan mammal Darbonetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry J. Hooker

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Until now Darbonetus was represented by only one valid species, the type species D. aubrelongensis from the early Oligocene of the Quercy region, France. A late appearance of this genus and of its closest relative Amphidozotherium have been thought to result from dispersal from outside western Europe, rather than a local ancestry earlier in the late Eocene. Here, a new species, Darbonetus sigei sp. nov., is described from the middle Priabonian site of La Débruge, France. Although clearly closely related to D. aubrelongensis, D. sigei shows less reduction of its p2, p3, and m3 than in the more derived type species. The early age of D. sigei suggests that its origins were within the still isolated central European island and that it is unnecessary to invoke dispersal from another continent.

  17. Discovery of Eocene adakites in Primor'e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chashchin, A. A.; Nechaev, V. P.; Nechaeva, E. V.; Blokhin, M. G.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the first results of petrochemical and geochemical studies (by the ICP-MS technique) of adakites comprising a small extrusive body in the Ilistaya River basin (West Primor'e). Based on the data of radioisotopic dating (K-Ar method), the age of adakites corresponds to the Middle Eocene (45.52 ± 1.1 Ma). In terms of the content of most microelements and the value of the Sr/Y ratio, the discussed rocks are close to Paleogene adakites from northwest China, the Kitakami massif in Japan, and the northwestern margin of North America; these rocks are attributed to gaps in the subducted plate (slab windows). Additionally, the adakites found in Primor'e significantly differ from adakite-like rocks found in Tibet formed during melting of bottoms of the superthickened continental crust. Thus, this discovery proves the hypothesis about formation of slab windows at the Paleogene stage of the region's evolution.

  18. Geologic History of Eocene Stonerose Fossil Beds, Republic, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Eocene lakebed sediments at Stonerose Interpretive Center in Republic, Washington, USA are one of the most important Cenozoic fossil sites in North America, having gained international attention because of the abundance and diversity of plant, insect, and fish fossils. This report describes the first detailed geologic investigation of this unusual lagerstätten. Strata are gradationally divided into three units: Siliceous shale that originated as diatomite, overlain by laminated mudstone, which is in turn overlain by massive beds of lithic sandstone. The sedimentary sequence records topographic and hydrologic changes that caused a deep lake to become progressively filled with volcaniclastic detritus from earlier volcanic episodes. The location of the ancient lake within an active graben suggests that displacements along the boundary faults were the most likely trigger for changes in depositional processes.

  19. Orbitally-forced Azolla blooms and middle Eocene Arctic hydrology; clues from palynology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barke, Judith; Abels, Hemmo A.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Greenwood, David R.; Sweet, Arthur R.; Donders, Timme; Lotter, Andre F.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2010-05-01

    The presence of high abundances of the freshwater fern Azolla in the early Middle Eocene central Arctic Ocean sediments recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge during IODP Expedition 302, have been related to the presence of a substantial freshwater cap. Azolla massulae, belonging to the newly described Eocene species Azolla arctica Collinson et al., have been found over at least a ~4 m-thick interval. There are strong indications that Azolla has bloomed and reproduced in situ in the Arctic Ocean for several hundreds of thousands of years. Possible causes for the sudden demise of Azolla at ~48.1 Ma include salinity changes due to evolving oceanic connections or sea-level change. Distinct cyclic fluctuation in the Azolla massulae abundances have previously been related to orbitally forced climate changes. In this study, we evaluate the possible underlying forcing mechanisms for these freshwater cycles and for the eventual demise of Azolla in an integrated palynological and cyclostratigraphical approach. Our results show two clear periodicities of ~1.3 and ~0.7 m in all major aquatic and terrestrial palynomorph associations, which we can relate to obliquity (41 ka) and precession (~21 ka), respectively. Cycles in the abundances of Azolla, freshwater-tolerant dinoflagellate cysts, and swamp vegetation pollen show co-variability in the obliquity domain. Their strong correlation suggests periods of enhanced rainfall and runoff during Azolla blooms, possibly associated with increased summer season length and insolation during obliquity maxima. Cycles in the angiosperm pollen record are in anti-phase with the Azolla cycles. We interpret this pattern as edaphically drier conditions on land and reduced associated runoff during Azolla lows, possibly corresponding to obliquity minima. The precession signal is distinctly weaker than that for obliquity, and is mainly detectable in the cold-temperate Larix and bisaccate conifer pollen abundances, which is interpreted as a response to

  20. Tracing the Eocene-Oligocene transition: A case study from North Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvaček, Z.; Teodoridis, V.; Mach, K.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Dvořák, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2014), s. 21-66 ISSN 1214-1119 Keywords : boundary * climate * Early Oligocene * fauna * flora * Late Eocene * vegetation Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2014

  1. A late Eocene palynological record of climate change and Tibetan Plateau uplift (Xining Basin, China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Straathof, J.; Abels, H.A.; Xu, Y.; Utescher, T.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models suggest that Asian paleoenvironments, monsoons and continental aridification were primarily governed by tectonic uplift and sea retreat since the Eocene with potential contribution of global climate changes. However, the cause and timing of these paleoenvironmental changes remain

  2. Fossil palm beetles refine upland winter temperatures in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, S Bruce; Morse, Geoffrey E; Greenwood, David R; Mathewes, Rolf W

    2014-06-03

    Eocene climate and associated biotic patterns provide an analog system to understand their modern interactions. The relationship between mean annual temperatures and winter temperatures-temperature seasonality-may be an important factor in this dynamic. Fossils of frost-intolerant palms imply low Eocene temperature seasonality into high latitudes, constraining average winter temperatures there to >8 °C. However, their presence in a paleocommunity may be obscured by taphonomic and identification factors for macrofossils and pollen. We circumvented these problems by establishing the presence of obligate palm-feeding beetles (Chrysomelidae: Pachymerina) at three localities (a fourth, tentatively) in microthermal to lower mesothermal Early Eocene upland communities in Washington and British Columbia. This provides support for warmer winter Eocene climates extending northward into cooler Canadian uplands.

  3. Eocene Antarctic seasonality inferred from high-resolution stable isotope profiles of fossil bivalves and driftwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, E. J.; Ivany, L. C.; Miklus, N. M.; Uveges, B. T.; Junium, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Eocene Epoch was a time of large-scale global climate change, experiencing both the warmest temperatures of the Cenozoic and the onset of southern hemisphere glaciation. The record of average global temperatures throughout this transition is reasonably well constrained, however considerably less is known about the accompanying changes in seasonality. Seasonally resolved temperature data provide a wealth of information not readily available from mean annual temperature data alone. These data are particularly important in the climatically sensitive high latitudes, as they can elucidate the means by which climate changes and the conditions necessary for the growth of ice sheets. Several recent studies, however, have suggested the potential for monsoonal precipitation regimes in the early-middle Eocene high latitudes, which complicates interpretation of seasonally resolved oxygen isotope records in shallow nearshore marine settings. Seasonal precipitation and runoff could create a brackish, isotopically depleted lens in these environments, depleting summertime δ18Ocarb and thereby inflating the inferred mean and range of isotope-derived temperatures. Here, we assess intra-annual variations in temperature in shallow nearshore Antarctic waters during the middle and late Eocene, inferred from high-resolution oxygen isotope profiles from accretionary bivalves of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctica. To address concerns related to precipitation and runoff, we also subsample exceptionally preserved fossil driftwood from within the formation and use seasonal differences in δ13Corg values to estimate the ratio of summertime to wintertime precipitation. Late Eocene oxygen isotope profiles exhibit strongly attenuated seasonal amplitudes and more enriched mean annual values in comparison with data from the middle Eocene. Preliminary fossil wood data are not indicative of a strongly seasonal precipitation regime, implying that intra-annual variation in oxygen

  4. Monophyly and extensive extinction of advanced eusocial bees: Insights from an unexpected Eocene diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced eusociality sometimes is given credit for the ecological success of termites, ants, some wasps, and some bees. Comprehensive study of bees fossilized in Baltic amber has revealed an unsuspected middle Eocene (ca. 45 million years ago) diversity of eusocial bee lineages. Advanced eusociality arose once in the bees with significant post-Eocene losses in diversity, leaving today only two advanced eusocial tribes comprising less than 2% of the total bee divers...

  5. CRUSTOSE CORALLINE ALGAL PAVEMENTS FROM LATE EOCENE COLLI BERICI OF NORTHERN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    BASSI, DAVIDE

    2017-01-01

    The Eocene from the Prealpine region records the first phase of the crustose coralline algae flourishing in the Cenozoic. These algae are very frequent in the Marne di Priabona Formation (Late Eocene). This palaeoecological research involves ourcrop at Barbarano Vicentino(Vicenza) in the Colli Berici which is well known for its Paleogene stratigraphy. The coralline unit consists of a floatstone bank 6 m thick with rhodoliths and laminar crusts; it lies between macroforaminifer dominated limes...

  6. Cretaceous and Eocene Adakites in the Sikhote-Alin area (Russian Far East) and their correlation with adakitic rocks in the East Asia continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T. J.; Jahn, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Adakitic rocks of the Sikhote-Alin area were emplaced during two main periods: the Cretaceous (132-98 Ma) and Eocene (46-39 Ma). These rocks primarily occur in the Khanka Block and, less commonly, in the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt. The adakitic rocks record the following chemical compositions: SiO2 = 57-74%, Al2O3 = 15-18%, Na2O = 3.5-6.1%, K2O = 0.7-3.2%, Na2O/K2O = 1.1-3.9, Sr/Y = 33-145, and (La/Yb)N = 11-53. The HREE and HFSE in these rocks are remarkably depleted. The Early Cretaceous adakites record ɛNd(T) = -1.0 to +3.2 and ISr = 0.7040-0.7090, and the Eocene adakitic rocks record Nd(T) = -2.0 to +2.2 and ISr = 0.7042-0.7058. Adakitic features suggest different modes of magma generation; a comparison of the Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios and geochemical data on Harker diagrams between the two periods of adakitic rocks reveals differences in their petrogenesis. The Cretaceous adakites may have been generated by the partial melting of meta-basic rocks in a subduction zone, accompanied by the emplacement of volcanic arc granitoids. Therefore, the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate beneath the Sikhote-Alin was probably initiated during this time. The Eocene rocks, which record increasing adakitic features with increasing silica content, are most likely the product of andesite that underwent fractionation of mineral assemblage including clinopyoxene, orthopyroxene, garnet and amphibole. These rocks and associated basalts and rhyolite were formed after Cretaceous arc magmatism in the Sikhote-Alin area and were most likely generated by rollback of the subducting Pacific Plate after the Eocene. Abundant adakitic granitoids of Early Cretaceous and Eocene age occur in the Kitakami and Abukuma Mountains of NE Japan. Consequently, it is highly probable that a geological correlation existed between Sikhote-Alin and North Japan, particularly before the opening of the Japan Sea.

  7. Development of the Philippine Mobile Belt in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Peña, Rolando E.; Tam, Tomas A.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Usui, Mayumi; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The origin of the Philippine Archipelago is characterized by the combination of the oceanic Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) and the Palawan Continental Block (PCB). This paper is focused on the geologic evolution of the PMB in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene. The study areas (northern Luzon) are situated in the central part of the PMB which is occupied by its typical components made up of a pre-Paleocene ophiolitic complex, Eocene successions, Eocene to Oligocene igneous complex and late Oligocene to Pliocene successions. Facies analysis of the middle Eocene and late Oligocene to early Pliocene successions was carried out to understand the depositional environment of their basins. Modal sandstone compositions, which reflect the basement geology of the source area, were analyzed. Major element geochemistry of sediments was considered to reconstruct the tectonic settings. The following brief history of the PMB is deduced. During the middle Eocene, the PMB was covered by mafic volcanic rocks and was a primitive island arc. In late Eocene to late Oligocene time, the intermediate igneous complex was added to the mafic PMB crust. By late Oligocene to early Miocene time, the PMB had evolved into a volcanic island arc setting. Contributions from alkalic rocks are detected from the rock fragments in the sandstones and chemical composition of the Zigzag Formation. During the middle Miocene to Pliocene, the tectonic setting of the PMB remained as a mafic volcanic island arc.

  8. A redescription of Lithornis vulturinus (Aves, Palaeognathae) from the Early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Lindow, Bent

    2015-10-20

    The extinct Lithornithidae include several genera and species of flying palaeognathous birds of controversial affinities known from the Early Paleogene of North America and Europe. An almost complete, articulated skeleton from the Early Eocene marine deposits of the Fur Formation (Denmark) was recently assigned to Lithornis vulturinus Owen, 1840. This study provides a detailed redescription and comparison of this three-dimensionally preserved specimen (MGUH 26770), which is one of the best preserved representatives of the Lithornithidae yet known. We suggest that some new features might be diagnostic of Lithornis vulturinus, including a pterygoid fossa shallower than in other species of Lithornis and the presence of a small caudal process on the os palatinum. We propose that Lithornis nasi (Harrison, 1984) is a junior synonym of Lithornis vulturinus and we interpret minor differences in size and shape among the specimens as intraspecific variation. To date, Lithornis vulturinus is known with certainty from the latest Paleocene-earliest Eocene to Early Eocene of the North Sea Basin (Ølst, Fur and London Clay Formations). Among the four species of the genus Lithornis, the possibility that Lithornis plebius Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is conspecific with either Lithornis vulturinus or Lithornis promiscuus Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is discussed. The presence of closely related species of Lithornis on either side of the North Atlantic in the Early Eocene reflects the existence of a high-latitude land connection between Europe and North America at that time.

  9. The Rise of Flowering Plants and Land Surface Physics: The Cretaceous and Eocene Were Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, G. R.; Feild, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Cretaceous and Eocene have served as the poster children of past greenhouse climates. One difference between the two time periods is that angiosperms (flowering plants) underwent a major diversification and rise to dominance during the mid-Cretaceous to Paleocene. Flowering plants differ from all other living and fossil plants in having significantly higher rates of transpiration and photosynthesis, which in modern leaves correlate with the density of venation (Dv), a feature that can be measured directly from fossils. This increase in Dv, coupled with an increase in the abundance of angiosperms, is thought to have had major impact on the climate system. This is, in part, because transpiration plays an important role in determining the ratio of sensible to latent heat flux from the land surface and in determining precipitation rate in regions such as the equatorial rainforest. Analysis of Dv in fossil leaves indicates two phases of increase in transpiration rate for angiosperms during the Cretaceous-Paleocene. The oldest known angiosperms (Aptian-early Albian) have a low Dv characteristic of extant and fossil ferns and gymnosperms. At this time angiosperms are low-stature plants of minor importance in terms of relative abundance and diversity (ferns, and maximum Dv reaches levels characteristic of many trees from the temperate zone. This first phase coincides with the first local dominance of angiosperms, the first occurrence of moderate to large angiosperm trees (up to 1 m in diameter) , and the first common occurrence of angiosperms in the Arctic. The second phase of Dv increase occurs during the Maastrichtian to Paleocene, where average Dv reaches levels characteristic of modern tropical forests and maximum Dv reaches the level found in highly productive modern vegetation. This second phase coincides with the rise to dominance of angiosperms in regional vegetation, a corresponding decline of conifers and ferns, and the modernization of hydraulic architecture

  10. Oxygen and Hydrogen Stable Isotope Composition of Eocene ( ~45 million year old) Fossil Tree Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, H.

    2001-05-01

    I report on \\delta18O and \\deltaD values gained from unusually old tree fossils, collected on Axel Heiberg Island of the Canadian High Arctic. A variety of workers have measured the δ ^{18}O value of cellulose and the δ D value of cellulose nitrate isolated from modern trees and compared it to various environmental parameters (esp. Epstein et al., 1977: 14 tree species sampled at 16 sites ranging from 18 \\deg to 62 \\deg North latitude; \\delta18O of cellulose ranged from +20 to +33 \\permil; \\deltaD of cellulose nitrate ranged from -181 to +18). To date the paleoenvironmental interpretations resulting from these studies have been restricted to application in recent and Quaternary earth history due to the lack of sufficiently preserved cellulose and tree ring structure in older tree fossils. An exception to this generalization are the middle Eocene (\\sim45 my old) fossil forests of Axel Heiberg Island, which contain abundant stumps, branches, twigs, cones and leaves of Metasequoia trees in exquisite preservational condition. These deciduous trees grew at a paleolatitude of 80 ° North, and endured prolonged periods of continuous daylight in the summer and continuous darkness in the winter, making the ecosystem completely unlike any forest community existing today. Fossil wood samples from the site have been slightly compressed, but otherwise exhibit minimal alteration: %C and % cellulose (by mass) are similar to modern Metasequoia wood. δ ^{18}O analyses on cellulose isolated from 14 fossil individuals has yielded the following results: range = +17 to +20 ‰ ; mean = +19 ‰ ; variability within an individual = 0.5 to 1.0 ‰ . In presentation, I will complement these results with δ D determinations on cellulose nitrate isolated from the same individuals, as well as from small plants presently growing in the arctic. I will also discuss the surprising result that Axel Heiberg fossil trees appear to have stable isotope composition as low or lower than trees

  11. Mechanistic modelling of Middle Eocene atmospheric carbon dioxide using fossil plant material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Michaela; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Wilde, Volker; Konrad, Wilfried; Utescher, Torsten

    2010-05-01

    Various proxies (such as pedogenic carbonates, boron isotopes or phytoplankton) and geochemical models were applied in order to reconstruct palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide, partially providing conflicting results. Another promising proxy is the frequency of stomata (pores on the leaf surface used for gaseous exchange). In this project, fossil plant material from the Messel Pit (Hesse, Germany) is used to reconstruct atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in the Middle Eocene by analyzing stomatal density. We applied the novel mechanistic-theoretical approach of Konrad et al. (2008) which provides a quantitative derivation of the stomatal density response (number of stomata per leaf area) to varying atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. The model couples 1) C3-photosynthesis, 2) the process of diffusion and 3) an optimisation principle providing maximum photosynthesis (via carbon dioxide uptake) and minimum water loss (via stomatal transpiration). These three sub-models also include data of the palaeoenvironment (temperature, water availability, wind velocity, atmospheric humidity, precipitation) and anatomy of leaf and stoma (depth, length and width of stomatal porus, thickness of assimilation tissue, leaf length). In order to calculate curves of stomatal density as a function of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, various biochemical parameters have to be borrowed from extant representatives. The necessary palaeoclimate data are reconstructed from the whole Messel flora using Leaf Margin Analysis (LMA) and the Coexistence Approach (CA). In order to obtain a significant result, we selected three species from which a large number of well-preserved leaves is available (at least 20 leaves per species). Palaeoclimate calculations for the Middle Eocene Messel Pit indicate a warm and humid climate with mean annual temperature of approximately 22°C, up to 2540 mm mean annual precipitation and the absence of extended periods of drought. Mean relative air

  12. Mass extinction in tetraodontiform fishes linked to the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila, Dahiana; Tyler, James C

    2017-11-15

    Integrative evolutionary analyses based upon fossil and extant species provide a powerful approach for understanding past diversification events and for assessing the tempo of evolution across the Tree of Life. Herein, we demonstrate the importance of integrating fossil and extant species for inferring patterns of lineage diversification that would otherwise be masked in analyses that examine only one source of evidence. We infer the phylogeny and macroevolutionary history of the Tetraodontiformes (triggerfishes, pufferfishes and allies), a group with one of the most extensive fossil records among fishes. Our analyses combine molecular and morphological data, based on an expanded matrix that adds newly coded fossil species and character states. Beyond confidently resolving the relationships and divergence times of tetraodontiforms, our diversification analyses detect a major mass-extinction event during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), followed by a marked increase in speciation rates. This pattern is consistently obtained when fossil and extant species are integrated, whereas examination of the fossil occurrences alone failed to detect major diversification changes during the PETM. When taking into account non-homogeneous models, our analyses also detect a rapid lineage diversification increase in one of the groups (tetraodontoids) during the middle Miocene, which is considered a key period in the evolution of reef fishes associated with trophic changes and ecological opportunity. In summary, our analyses show distinct diversification dynamics estimated from phylogenies and the fossil record, suggesting that different episodes shaped the evolution of tetraodontiforms during the Cenozoic. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. The crazy hollow formation (Eocene) of central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M.P.; Warner, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    The Late Eocene Crazy Hollow Formation is a fluviatile and lacustrine unit that was deposited locally in the southwest arm of Lake Uinta during and after the last stages of the lake the deposited the Green River Formation. Most exposures of the Crazy Hollow are located in Sanpete and Sevier Counties. The unit is characterized by a large variety of rock types, rapid facies changes within fairly short distances, and different lithofacies in the several areas where outcrops of the remnants of the formation are concentrated. Mudstone is dominant, volumetrically, but siltstone, shale, sandstone, conglomerate and several varieties of limestone are also present. The fine-grained rocks are mostly highly colored, especially in shades of yellow, orange and red. Sand grains, pebbles and small cobbles of well-rounded black chert are widespread, and "salt-and-pepper sandstone" is the conspicuous characteristic of the Crazy Hollow. The salt-and-pepper sandstone consists of grains of black chert, white chert, quartz and minor feldspar. The limestone beds and lenses are paludal and lacustrine in origin; some are fossiliferous, and contain the same fauna found in the Green River Formation. With trivial exceptions, the Crazy Hollow Formation lies on the upper, limestone member of the Green River Formation, and the beds of the two units are always accordant in attitude. The nature of the contact differs locally: at some sites there is gradation from the Green River to the Crazy Hollow; at others, rocks typical of the two units intertongue; elsewhere there is a disconformity between the two. A variety of bedrock units overlie the Crazy Hollow at different sites. In the southeasternmost districts it is overlain by the late Eocene formation of Aurora; in western Sevier County it is overlain by the Miocene-Pliocene Sevier River Formation; in northernmost Sanpete County it is overlain by the Oligocene volcanics of the Moroni Formation. At many sites bordering Sanpete and Sevier Valleys

  14. Arctic Ocean circulation during the anoxic Eocene Azolla event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Eveline; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap; März, Christian; Brumsack, Hans; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    The Azolla interval, as encountered in Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean, is characterized by organic rich sediments ( 4wt% Corg). In general, high levels of organic matter may be caused by increased productivity, i.e. extensive growth of Azolla, and/or enhanced preservation of organic matter, or a combination of both. Anoxic (bottom) water conditions, expanded oxygen minimum zones, or increased sedimentation rates all potentially increase organic matter preservation. According to plate tectonic, bathymetric, and paleogeographic reconstructions, the Arctic Ocean was a virtually isolated shallow basin, with one possible deeper connection to the Nordic Seas represented by a still shallow Fram Strait (Jakobsson et al., 2007), hampering ventilation of the Arctic Basin. During the Azolla interval surface waters freshened, while at the same time bottom waters appear to have remained saline, indicating that the Arctic was highly stratified. The restricted ventilation and stratification in concert with ongoing export of organic matter most likely resulted in the development of anoxic conditions in the lower part of the water column. Whereas the excess precipitation over evaporation maintained the freshwater lid, sustained input of Nordic Sea water is needed to keep the deeper waters saline. To which degree the Arctic Ocean exchanged with the Nordic Seas is, however, still largely unknown. Here we present a high-resolution trace metal record (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) for the expanded Early/Middle Eocene section capturing the Azolla interval from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302 (ACEX) drilled on the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean. Euxinic conditions throughout the interval resulted in the efficient removal of redox sensitive trace metals from the water column. Using the sedimentary trace metal record we also constrained circulation in the Arctic Ocean by assessing the relative importance of trace metal input sources (i.e. fluvial, eolian, and

  15. Sea surface salinity of the Eocene Arctic Azolla event using innovative isotope modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, E. N.; Sewall, J. O.; Noone, D.; Huber, M.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Reichart, G. J.

    2009-04-01

    With the realization that the Eocene Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the free floating freshwater fern Azolla, new questions regarding Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. Our present research focuses on constraining the actual salinity of, and water sources for, the Eocene Arctic basin through the application of stable water isotope tracers. Precipitation pathways potentially strongly affect the final isotopic composition of water entering the Arctic Basin. Therefore we use the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3), developed by NCAR, combined with a recently developed integrated isotope tracer code to reconstruct the isotopic composition of global Eocene precipitation and run-off patterns. We further addressed the sensitivity of the modeled hydrological cycle to changes in boundary conditions, such as pCO2, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice formation. In this way it is possible to assess the effect of uncertainties in proxy estimates of these parameters. Overall, results of all runs with Eocene boundary conditions, including Eocene topography, bathymetry, vegetation patterns, TEX86 derived SSTs and pCO2 estimates, show the presence of an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation in the Arctic region. Enriched, precipitation weighted, isotopic values of around -120‰ are reported for the Arctic region. Combining new results obtained from compound specific isotope analyses (δD) on terrestrially derived n-alkanes extracted from Eocene sediments, and model outcomes make it possible to verify climate reconstructions for the middle Eocene Arctic. Furthermore, recently, characteristic long-chain mid-chain ω20 hydroxy wax constituents of Azolla were found in ACEX sediments. δD values of these C32 - C36 diols provide insight into the isotopic composition of the Eocene Arctic surface water. As the isotopic signature of the runoff entering the Arctic is modelled, and the final isotopic composition of

  16. New tropical carcharhinids (chondrichthyes, carcharhiniformes) from the late Eocene early Oligocene of Balochistan, Pakistan: Paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnet, S.; Antoine, P.-O.; Hassan Baqri, S. R.; Crochet, J.-Y.; Marivaux, L.; Welcomme, J.-L.; Métais, G.

    2007-04-01

    New selachians (sharks and rays) have been collected from several late Eocene and early Oligocene marine localities in the Bugti Hills (Balochistan, Pakistan). Two new species of Requiem sharks (close to the Recent "Bull shark") are described : Carcharhinus balochensis and Carcharhinus perseus. The rest of the fauna is notable for the strong representation of Carcharhiniformes. These selachian faunas represent a unique tropical association for the Oligocene period and one of the first modern tropical selachian faunas, with modern taxa such as the two new species of "Bull sharks", Negaprion sp. and one of the first occurrences of Sphyrna sp. Moreover, these faunas permit paleoenvironmental interpretation of adjacent land masses. The relatively modern aspect of these faunas, compared with other contemporaneous and younger selachian associations from Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, suggests biogeographic isolation of selachian communities living in eastern and western parts of the Tethys before its final closure during the early-middle Miocene.

  17. Middle Eocene seagrass facies from Apennine carbonate platforms (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Laura; Benedetti, Andrea; Brandano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Two stratigraphic sections located in the Latium-Abruzzi (Monte Porchio, Central Apennines, Central Italy) and in the Apulian carbonate platform (S. Cesarea-Torre Tiggiano, Salento, Southern Italy) were measured and sampled to document the sedimentological characteristic and the faunistic assemblages of Middle Eocene seagrass deposits. The faunistic assemblages are dominated by porcellaneous foraminifera Orbitolites, Alveolina, Idalina, Spiroloculina, Quinqueloculina, Triloculina and abundant hooked-shaped gypsinids, associated with hooked red algae and green algae Halimeda. Fabiania, rotaliids and textulariids as well as nummulitids are subordinated. The samples were assigned to Lutetian (SBZ13-16) according to the occurrence of Nummulites cf. lehneri, Alveolina ex. gr. elliptica, Idalina berthelini, Orbitolites complanatus, Slovenites decastroi and Medocia blayensis. At Santa Cesarea reticulate nummulites occur in association with Alveolina spp. and Halkyardia minima marking the lower Bartonian (SBZ17). Three main facies associations have been recognised: I) larger porcellaneous foraminiferal grainstones with orbitolitids and alveolinids deposited into high-energy shallow-water settings influenced by wave processes that reworked the sediments associated with a seagrass; II) grainstone to packstone with small porcellaneous foraminifera and abundant permanently-attached gypsinids deposited in a more protected (e.g., small embayment) in situ vegetated environment; III) bioclastic packstone with parautochthonous material reworked from the seagrass by rip currents and accumulated into rip channels in a slightly deeper environment. The biotic assemblages suggest that the depositional environment is consistent with tropical to subtropical vegetated environments within oligotrophic conditions.

  18. A new brontothere from the Eocene of South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Averianov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper Eocene Youganwo Formation in Maoming Province, Guangdong Province, China, produced abundant remains of turtles and crocodiles, but mammalian remains are rare. The previously found mammals from Youganwo Formation include a nimravid carnivore and an amynodontid perissodactyl. Here we report on a new brontotheriid perissodactyl from the Youganwo Formation. Maobrontops paganus gen. et sp. nov. is described based on a maxillary fragment with P4 and M1–2 (SYSU-M-4. Maobrontops paganus gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by the combination of a simple P4 without a hypocone with derived molars having large molar fossae and large anterolingual cingular cusp. A parsimony implied weighting character analysis places Maobrontops gen. nov. in the clade Embolotheriita as a sister taxon to the terminal subclade containing Nasamplus, Protembolotherium, and Embolotherium. Maobrontops paganus gen. et sp. nov. is one of the largest Asian brontotheres. The brontotheriid fauna of South China is endemic and includes at least three valid taxa: Dianotitan from Brontotheriita and Pygmaetitan and Maobrontops gen. nov. from Embolotheriita.

  19. METALLOGENY OF EOCENE SYNCOLLISIONAL GRANITES OF MOTAJICA AND PROSARA MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The geological setting is dominated by Eocene (48.7 Ma syncollisional granitoids in the form of a small pluton in the Motajica Mt. and in the form of numerous sills and dykes in the Prosara Mt. Microelement paragenesis of these magmatites, pegmatites, greisens and quartz veins are distinguished by U, Th, Ce, Y, P, Nb, Ta, B, Li, F, Be, Sn, Mo, W, Fe, Cu, Pb. These elements and 87Sr/86Sr and 18O isotopic values indicate the mantle origin of magma contaminated by relatively sterile lithospheric rocks. The most probable hypothesis of such a hybrid magma formation is the "slab break-off model". Deep erosion of Motajica granitoid pluton opened its acrobatholitic and epibatholitic level with numerous, but small pegmatite deposits (beryllites, tourmalinites, emeraldites and sylexites with piezoelectric quartz. Greisenization marked by strong silicification and muscovitization affected less than 1% of pluton. It is characterized by minor and accessory molybdenite, wolframite, huebnerite, scheelite, fluorite. Hydrothermal occurrences, galena and Fe minerals have only a mineralogical significance. Economically significant are numerous autochthonous kaolin deposits formed in Pliocene-Pleistocene time. Prosara apomagmatic granitoids, exclusively granite dykes are metallogenetically sterile.

  20. Seawater calcium isotope ratios across the Eocene-Oligocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E.M.; Paytan, A.; Eisenhauer, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Thomas, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT, ca. 34 Ma), Earth's climate cooled significantly from a greenhouse to an icehouse climate, while the calcite (CaCO3) compensation depth (CCD) in the Pacific Ocean increased rapidly. Fluctuations in the CCD could result from various processes that create an imbalance between calcium (Ca) sources to, and sinks from, the ocean (e.g., weathering and CaCO3 deposition), with different effects on the isotopic composition of dissolved Ca in the oceans due to differences in the Ca isotopic composition of various inputs and outputs. We used Ca isotope ratios (??44/40Ca) of coeval pelagic marine barite and bulk carbonate to evaluate changes in the marine Ca cycle across the EOT. We show that the permanent deepening of the CCD was not accompanied by a pronounced change in seawater ??44/40Ca, whereas time intervals in the Neogene with smaller carbonate depositional changes are characterized by seawater ??44/40Ca shifts. This suggests that the response of seawater ??44/40Ca to changes in weathering fluxes and to imbalances in the oceanic alkalinity budget depends on the chemical composition of seawater. A minor and transient fluctuation in the Ca isotope ratio of bulk carbonate may reflect a change in isotopic fractionation associated with CaCO3 precipitation from seawater due to a combination of factors, including changes in temperature and/or in the assemblages of calcifying organisms. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  1. The oldest African bat from the early Eocene of El Kohol (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-05-01

    The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.

  2. Biostratigraphy of a Paleocene–Eocene Foreland Basin boundary in southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiao Wan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Paleocene–Eocene boundary within a foreland basin of southern Tibet, which was dominated by a carbonate ramp depositional environment, documents more complex environmental conditions than can be derived from studies of the deep oceanic environment. Extinction rates for larger foraminiferal species in the Zongpu-1 Section apply to up to 46% of the larger foraminiferal taxa. The extinction rate in southern Tibet is similar to rates elsewhere in the world, but it shows that the Paleocene fauna disappeared stepwise through the Late Paleocene, with Eocene taxa appearing abruptly above the boundary. A foraminifera turnover was identified between Members 3 and 4 of the Zongpu Formation—from the Miscellanea–Daviesina assemblage to an Orbitolites–Alveolina assemblage. The Paleocene and Eocene boundary is between the SBZ 4 and SBZ 5, where it is marked by the extinction of Miscellanea miscella and the first appearance of Alveolina ellipsodalis and a large number of Orbitolites. Chemostratigraphically, the δ13C values from both the Zongpu-1 and Zongpu-2 Sections show three negative excursions in the transitional strata, one in Late Paleocene, one at the boundary, and one in the early Eocene. The second negative excursion of δ13C, which is located at the P–E boundary, coincides with larger foraminifera overturn. These faunal changes and the observed δ13C negative excursions provide new evidence on environmental changes across the Paleocene–Eocene boundary in Tibet.

  3. Evidence of late Palaeocene-early Eocene equatorial rain forest refugia in southern Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V; Farooqui, A; Tripathi, S K M; Garg, R; Thakur, B

    2009-11-01

    Equatorial rain forests that maintain a balance between speciation and extinction are hot-spots for studies of biodiversity. Western Ghats in southern India have gained attention due to high tropical biodiversity and endemism in their southern most area. We attempted to track the affinities of the pollen fl ora of the endemic plants of Western Ghat area within the fossil palynoflora of late Palaeocene-early Eocene (approximately 55-50 Ma) sedimentary deposits of western and northeastern Indian region. The study shows striking similarity of extant pollen with twenty eight most common fossil pollen taxa of the early Palaeogene. Widespread occurrences of coal and lignite deposits during early Palaeogene provide evidence of existence of well diversified rain forest community and swampy vegetation in the coastal low lying areas all along the western and northeastern margins of the Indian subcontinent. Prevalence of excessive humid climate during this period has been seen as a result of equatorial positioning of Indian subcontinent, superimposed by a long term global warming phase (PETM and EECO) during the early Palaeogene. The study presents clear evidence that highly diversifi ed equatorial rain forest vegetation once widespread in the Indian subcontinent during early Palaeogene times, are now restricted in a small area as a refugia in the southernmost part of the Western Ghat area. High precipitation and shorter periods of dry months seem to have provided suitable environment to sustain lineages of ancient tropical vegetation in this area of Western Ghats in spite of dramatic climatic changes subsequent to the post India-Asia collision and during the Quaternary and Recent times.

  4. Upper Eocene Spherules at ODP Site 1090B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Kyte, F. T.; Glass, B. P.; Gersonde, R.

    2000-01-01

    Our two labs independently discovered upper Eocene microtektites and microkrystites at ODP Site 1090, a new South Atlantic locality near the Agulhus Ridge. This is a significant new data point for the strewn fields of these spherules, which were recently extended into the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean when they were reported at ODP Site 689 on the Maude Rise. The microtektites have been regarded as related to North American tektites and the microkrystites as belonging to the clinopyroxene-bearing (cpx) spherule strewn field. Initial reports indicate that Site 1090 contains a complete sequence of upper Eocene sediments composed of diatom and nannofossil oozes. The magneto- and bio-stratigraphy indicate that impact-age sediments should occur in core 30X of Hole 1090B. One of us (FTK) took 2 cc samples at 10 cm intervals over 600 cm of core for Ir analyses and the senior author (SL) took 3 cc samples at 20 cm intervals to search for spherules. Both studies proved successful and additional samples were obtained to confirm initial results and better define the Ir anomaly and spherule abundances. Peak Ir concentrations of 0.97 ng/g were found at 1090B-30X-5, 105-106cm and 0.78 ng/g at 115-116 cm. Anomalous Ir concentrations (greater than 0.1 ng/g) extend over about 100 cm of core. Preliminary results indicate that the excess Ir at this site is about 25 ng per sq cm. About 380 microtektites (>63 pm) and 2492 microkrystites (>63 pm) were recovered over a 1.8 m interval with a peak abundance of microtektites (106/gram) and microkrystites (562/gram) at 1090B-30X- 5, 114-115 cm. The largest microtektite is approximately 960 x 1140 micron in size. About 55 % are spherical, and the rest are disc, cylinder, dumbbell, teardrop, or fragments. Most of the microtektites are transparent colorless, but a few are transparent pale brown or green. Preliminary data indicate that the microtektites at Site 1090 have similar major oxide compositions to those at Site 689. About 50% of

  5. Isotopic evidence of a rapid cooling and continuous sedimentation across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary of Wagapadhar and Waior, Kutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarangi, S.; Sarkar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Ray, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution oxygen isotope analysis of samples from two different Eocene Oligocene Boundary (EOB) sections of Wagapadhar and Waior of Kutch area and their correlation with DSDP sites indicate continuity of sedimentation at these sites. A rapid cooling of ∼ 6 degC across the EOB, synchronous with extinction of Eocene larger benthic foraminifera is also observed. (author)

  6. Lepidological review on the fish fauna of the Kučlín locality (Upper Eocene, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 67, 3/4 (2011), s. 149-156 ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fossil fish fauna * Osteichthyes * scales * morphology * Paleogene * Upper Eocene * Upper Eocene (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.nm.cz/publikace/archiv-en.php?id=4&rok=67&kcislu=3-4&f_=Show

  7. WEATHERING PROCESS IN EOCENE FLYSCH IN REGION OF SPLIT (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Miščević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene flysh in the region of Split (Dalmatia, Croatia is char¬acterized by the presence of layers with different characteristics. It mainly includes thin-layered marls, clayey marls, calcareous marls, clastic lay¬ered limestones, calcarenites and breccias. Those parts that can be de¬scribed as the soft rocks or hard clays by the mechanical means, exposed to weathering reduce the durability within "an engineering time scale". The paper deals with the factors that influence the weathering process. The analyzed weathering is a combination of processes acting simulta¬neously. Most of these processes depend on the change of the water con¬tent, thus the weathering process mainly develops when a material is subjected to the wetting-drying process, On the base of these results form of degradation process is modeled. The weathering process can be main¬ly described as physical weathering combined with chemical weathering on the free surfaces and on the cracks walls. Erosion as a result of weath¬ering, is the dominant geomorphic process on analyzed flysch terrain. According to the analysis, as the most appropriate due to the characteris¬tics the tests are chosen as index properties. Some of these tests are modified in order to adapt them to the determined characteristics of ma¬terials from flysch layers. The correlations between the measured values are used as the basis for the classification proposal of the analyzed mate¬rial, according to its resistance to weathering processes. Roughly, three main groups of samples are recognizable: the first one with carbonate content more then 90% is not weathered at the engineers time scale; the second group with carbonate content from 75% to 90% include samples susceptible to weathering in engineers time scale; the third group with carbonate content less then 75% include samples in which the weather¬ing occurs immediately after the exposition to the weathering factors.

  8. Frequency modulation reveals the phasing of orbital eccentricity during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event II and the Eocene hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Jiří; Meyers, Stephen R.; Galeotti, Simone; Lanci, Luca

    2016-05-01

    Major advances in our understanding of paleoclimate change derive from a precise reconstruction of the periods, amplitudes and phases of the 'Milankovitch cycles' of precession, obliquity and eccentricity. While numerous quantitative approaches exist for the identification of these astronomical cycles in stratigraphic data, limitations in radioisotopic dating, and instability of the theoretical astronomical solutions beyond ∼50 Myr ago, can challenge identification of the phase relationships needed to constrain climate response and anchor floating astrochronologies. Here we demonstrate that interference patterns accompanying frequency modulation (FM) of short eccentricity provide a robust basis for identifying the phase of long eccentricity forcing in stratigraphic data. One- and two-dimensional models of sedimentary distortion of the astronomical signal are used to evaluate the veracity of the FM method, and indicate that pristine eccentricity FM can be readily distinguished in paleo-records. Apart from paleoclimatic implications, the FM approach provides a quantitative technique for testing and calibrating theoretical astronomical solutions, and for refining chronologies for the deep past. We present two case studies that use the FM approach to evaluate major carbon-cycle perturbations of the Eocene and Late Cretaceous. Interference patterns in the short-eccentricity band reveal that Eocene hyperthermals ETM2 ('Elmo'), H2, I1 and ETM3 (X; ∼52-54 Myr ago) were associated with maxima in the 405-kyr cycle of orbital eccentricity. The same eccentricity configuration favored regional anoxic episodes in the Mediterranean during the Middle and Late Cenomanian (∼94.5-97 Myr ago). The initial phase of the global Oceanic Anoxic Event II (OAE II; ∼93.9-94.5 Myr ago) coincides with maximum and falling 405-kyr eccentricity, and the recovery phase occurs during minimum and rising 405-kyr eccentricity. On a Myr scale, the event overlaps with a node in eccentricity

  9. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  10. Monophyly and extensive extinction of advanced eusocial bees: insights from an unexpected Eocene diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M S

    2001-02-13

    Advanced eusociality sometimes is given credit for the ecological success of termites, ants, some wasps, and some bees. Comprehensive study of bees fossilized in Baltic amber has revealed an unsuspected middle Eocene (ca. 45 million years ago) diversity of eusocial bee lineages. Advanced eusociality arose once in the bees with significant post-Eocene losses in diversity, leaving today only two advanced eusocial tribes comprising less than 2% of the total bee diversity, a trend analogous to that of hominid evolution. This pattern of changing diversity contradicts notions concerning the role of eusociality for evolutionary success in insects.

  11. Eocene and miocene rocks off the northeastern coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, T.G.

    1965-01-01

    A grab sample from a depth of 1675 m at a point south of Cape Cod contains early Eocene planktonic Foraminifera and is correlated with the Globorotalia rex zone of Trinidad. The assemblage indicates a depth comparable to that existing today. Regional relations suggest that the Cretaceous and Eocene deposits deepen to the west toward New Jersey. Two mollusk-bearing blocks dredged from the northern side of Georges Bank are correlative with the Miocene Yorktown Formation. Rocks from two other stations are probably Miocene. Benthonic Foraminifera in one sample indicate deposition in cool temperate waters of less than 60 m depth. ?? 1965.

  12. Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

    1987-01-01

    Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

  13. The sponge genus Ephydatia from the high-latitude middle Eocene: environmental and evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisera, Andrzej; Manconi, Renata; Siver, Peter A; Wolfe, Alexander P

    2016-01-01

    The freshwater sponge species Ephydatia cf. facunda Weltner, 1895 (Spongillida, Spongillidae) is reported for the first time as a fossil from middle Eocene lake sediments of the Giraffe kimberlite maar in northern Canada. The sponge is represented by birotule gemmuloscleres as well as oxea megascleres. Today, E. facunda inhabits warm-water bodies, so its presence in the Giraffe locality provides evidence of a warm climate at high latitudes during the middle Eocene. The morphological similarity of the birotules to modern conspecific forms suggests protracted morphological stasis, comparable to that reported for other siliceous microfossils from the same locality.

  14. Benthic foraminiferal and isotopic patterns during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (Aktulagay section, Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Arne; Tesseur, Steven; Stassen, Peter; D'haenens, Simon; Steurbaut, Etienne; King, Christopher; Claeys, Philippe; Speijer, Robert P.

    2015-04-01

    The early Eocene is characterized by long-term global warming culminating in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). During this time interval, the Peri-Tethys was connected to the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans by north-south and east-west trending seaways. The Aktulagay section in Kazakhstan provides an expanded record of the middle Ypresian (NP11-13, ~54-50 Ma; King et al., 2013), including the EECO. The marl sequence features a series of sapropel beds, observed throughout the Peri-Tethys, indicative of basin-wide episodic hypoxic events. In order to unravel paleoenvironmental changes, we carried out quantitative faunal studies and stable isotopic (C, O) investigations on excellently preserved foraminiferal assemblages. The period from 54 to 52.5 Ma (NP11 to lower NP12; Alashen Formation) is characterized by a diverse assemblage of deep outer neritic (~200-250 m) benthic foraminifera, with common Pulsiphonina prima and Paralabamina lunata. The initially (54 Ma) well-ventilated oligo- to mesotrophic seafloor conditions gradually changed to more eutrophic and oxygen-limited. These conditions were more permanent in the sapropel-bearing unit at 52.5-52 Ma (middle NP12; Aktulagay B1 unit). This observation is based on the dominance of Anomalinoides acutus and Bulimina aksuatica and the lower diversity. Also the upward migration of endobenthic species, as suggested by rising δ13Cendobenthic, supports this interpretation. These low-oxygen conditions might have been caused by a transgression, flooding lowlands. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages dominated by Epistominella minuta at ~52-50 Ma (top NP12-NP13; Aktulagay B2 unit) suggest an oligotrophic environment, with transient pulses of phytodetritus. Dinoflagellate blooms and Acarinina isotope values at ~50.5 Ma indicate lower salinity (lower δ18O) and higher productivity (higher δ13C), possibly due to riverine input. Large river plumes, episodically reaching the area, in a monsoonal climate context, might explain this

  15. Transient dwarfism of soil fauna during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jon J; Hasiotis, Stephen T; Kraus, Mary J; Woody, Daniel T

    2009-10-20

    Soil organisms, as recorded by trace fossils in paleosols of the Willwood Formation, Wyoming, show significant body-size reductions and increased abundances during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Paleobotanical, paleopedologic, and oxygen isotope studies indicate high temperatures during the PETM and sharp declines in precipitation compared with late Paleocene estimates. Insect and oligochaete burrows increase in abundance during the PETM, suggesting longer periods of soil development and improved drainage conditions. Crayfish burrows and molluscan body fossils, abundant below and above the PETM interval, are significantly less abundant during the PETM, likely because of drier floodplain conditions and lower water tables. Burrow diameters of the most abundant ichnofossils are 30-46% smaller within the PETM interval. As burrow size is a proxy for body size, significant reductions in burrow diameter suggest that their tracemakers were smaller bodied. Smaller body sizes may have resulted from higher subsurface temperatures, lower soil moisture conditions, or nutritionally deficient vegetation in the high-CO(2) atmosphere inferred for the PETM. Smaller soil fauna co-occur with dwarf mammal taxa during the PETM; thus, a common forcing mechanism may have selected for small size in both above- and below-ground terrestrial communities. We predict that soil fauna have already shown reductions in size over the last 150 years of increased atmospheric CO(2) and surface temperatures or that they will exhibit this pattern over the next century. We retrodict also that soil fauna across the Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundary events show significant size decreases because of similar forcing mechanisms driven by rapid global warming.

  16. Transient dwarfism of soil fauna during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.J.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Kraus, M.J.; Woody, D.T.

    2009-01-01

    Soil organisms, as recorded by trace fossils in paleosols of the Willwood Formation, Wyoming, show significant body-size reductions and increased abundances during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Paleobotanical, paleopedologic, and oxygen isotope studies indicate high temperatures during the PETM and sharp declines in precipitation compared with late Paleocene estimates. Insect and oligochaete burrows increase in abundance during the PETM, suggesting longer periods of soil development and improved drainage conditions. Crayfish burrows and molluscan body fossils, abundant below and above the PETM interval, are significantly less abundant during the PETM, likely because of drier floodplain conditions and lower water tables. Burrow diameters of the most abundant ichnofossils are 30-46% smaller within the PETM interval. As burrow size is a proxy for body size, significant reductions in burrow diameter suggest that their tracemakers were smaller bodied. Smaller body sizes may have resulted from higher subsurface temperatures, lower soil moisture conditions, or nutritionally deficient vegetation in the high-CO2 atmosphere inferred for the PETM. Smaller soil fauna co-occur with dwarf mammal taxa during the PETM; thus, a common forcing mechanism may have selected for small size in both above- and below-ground terrestrial communities. We predict that soil fauna have already shown reductions in size over the last 150 years of increased atmospheric CO2 and surface temperatures or that they will exhibit this pattern over the next century. We retrodict also that soil fauna across the Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundary events show significant size decreases because of similar forcing mechanisms driven by rapid global warming.

  17. TEST FUSION IN ADULT FORAMINIFERA: A REVIEW WITH NEW OBSERVATIONS OF AN EARLY EOCENE NUMMULITES SPECIMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferràndez-Cañadell, Carles; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Wöger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In foraminifera, so-called “double tests” usually arise due to abnormal growth originating mainly from twinning, but may also be caused by irregularities in the early chambers and by regeneration after test injury that modifies the direction of growth. A fourth cause of double tests has only rarely been reported: the fusion of the tests of two adult individuals. We studied an early Eocene Nummulites double test consisting of two adult individuals that fused after an extended period of independent growth. The specimen was studied using computed tomography with micrometric resolution (micro-CT) that allowed bi- and three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure. Before fusion each individual test had 30–36 chambers, which, by comparison with growth rates in recent nummulitids, implies at least three months of independent growth. After fusion, the compound test grew in two spirals that fused after about one whorl and then continued in a single spiral. To fuse their tests, either adult individuals have to be forced to do so or the allorecognition (ability to distinguish between self and another individual) mechanisms must fail. A possible explanation for the merged Nummulites tests in this study is forced fusion in attached individuals after surviving ingestion and digestion by a metazoan. Alternatively, environmental stress could lead to a failure of allorecognition mechanisms and/or foraminiferal motility. Once fused, subsequent growth seems to be determined mainly by the relative orientation of individual tests. In any case, the frequency in which adult fusion occurs remains unknown. PMID:26166916

  18. Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Tordrillo Mountains, Alaska: Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction, decreasing relief, and late Neogene faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Jeff A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Layer, Paul W.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Wallace, Wes K.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic development inboard of the continental margin is a predicted response to ridge subduction. New thermochronology results from the western Alaska Range document ridge subduction related orogenesis. K-feldspar thermochronology (KFAT) of bedrock samples from the Tordrillo Mountains in the western Alaska Range complement existing U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and AFT (apatite fission track) data to provide constraints on Paleocene pluton emplacement, and cooling as well as Late Eocene to Miocene vertical movements and exhumation along fault-bounded blocks. Based on the KFAT analysis we infer rapid exhumation-related cooling during the Eocene in the Tordrillo Mountains. Our KFAT cooling ages are coeval with deposition of clastic sediments in the Cook Inlet, Matanuska Valley and Tanana basins, which reflect high-energy depositional environments. The Tordrillo Mountains KFAT cooling ages are also the same as cooling ages in the Iliamna Lake region, the Kichatna Mountains of the western Alaska Range, and Mt. Logan in the Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, thus rapid cooling at this time encompasses a broad region inboard of, and parallel to, the continental margin extending for several hundred kilometers. We infer these cooling events and deposition of clastic rocks are related to thermal effects that track the eastward passage of a slab window in Paleocene-Eocene time related to the subduction of the proposed Resurrection-Kula spreading ridge. In addition, we conclude that the reconstructed KFATmax negative age-elevation relationship is likely related to a long period of decreasing relief in the Tordrillo Mountains.

  19. A morphological intermediate between eosimiiform and simiiform primates from the late middle Eocene of Tunisia: Macroevolutionary and paleobiogeographic implications of early anthropoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Essid, El Mabrouk; Marzougui, Wissem; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Adnet, Sylvain; Marandat, Bernard; Merzeraud, Gilles; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Yans, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Although advanced anthropoid primates (i.e., Simiiformes) are recorded at the end of the Eocene in North Africa (Proteopithecidae, Parapithecidae, and Oligopithecidae), the origin and emergence of this group has so far remained undocumented. The question as to whether these primates are the result of a monophyletic radiation of endemic anthropoids in Africa, or several Asian clades colonizing Africa, is a current focus of paleoprimatology. In this article, we report the discovery of a new anthropoid from Djebel el Kébar in central Tunisia, dating from the late middle Eocene (Bartonian). This taxon, Amamria tunisiensis, new genus and species, currently known by only one isolated upper molar, is among the most ancient anthropoids to be recorded in Africa thus far. Amamria displays a suite of dental features that are primarily observed in Eosimiiformes (stem Anthropoidea). However, it is not allocated to any known family of that group (i.e., Asian Eosimiidae and Afro-Asian Afrotarsiidae) inasmuch as it develops some dental traits that are unknown among eosimiiforms, but can be found in African simiiform anthropoids such as proteopithecids and oligopithecids. With such a mosaic of dental traits, Amamria appears to be a structural intermediate, and as such it could occupy a key position, close to the root of the African simiiforms. Given its antiquity and its apparent pivotal position, the possibility exists that Amamria could have evolved in Africa from Asian eosimiiform or Asian "proto"-simiiform ancestors, which would have entered Africa sometime during the middle Eocene. Amamria could then represent one of the earliest offshoots of the African simiiform radiation. This view would then be rather in favor of the hypothesis of a monophyletic radiation of endemic simiiform anthropoids in Africa. Finally, these new data suggest that there must have been at least two Asian anthropoid colonizers of Africa: the afrotarsiids and the ancestor of Amamria. © 2014 Wiley

  20. Evolution of sedimentary architecture in retro-foreland basin: Aquitaine basin example from Paleocene to lower Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Carole; Lasseur, Eric; Guillocheau, François; Serrano, Olivier; Malet, David

    2017-04-01

    The Aquitaine basin located in south western Europe, is a Pyrenean retro-foreland basin. Two main phases of compression are recorded in this retro-foreland basin during the Pyrenean orogeny. A first upper Cretaceous phase corresponding to the early stage of the orogeny, and a second one usually related to a Pyrenean paroxysmal phase during the middle Eocene. During Paleocene to lower Eocene deformations are less pronounced, interpreted as a tectonically quiet period. The aim of the study is to better constrain the sedimentary system of the Aquitaine basin during this period of Paleocene-lower Eocene, in order to discuss the evolution of the sedimentary architecture in response of the Pyrenean compression. This work is based on a compilation of a large set of subsurface data (wells logs, seismic lines and cores logs) represented by isopachs and facies map. Three main cycles were identified during this structural quiet period: (1) The Danian cycle, is recorded by the aggradation of carbonate reef-rimmed platform. This platform is characterized by proximal facies (oncoid carbonate and mudstone with thalassinoides) to the north, which leads to distal deposit facies southern (pelagic carbonate with globigerina and slump facies) and present a significant thickness variation linked to the platform-slope-basin morphology. (2) The upper Selandian-Thanetian cycle follows a non-depositional/erosional surface associated with a Selandian hiatus. The base of this cycle marked the transition between the last reef rimmed platform and a carbonate ramp. The transgressive cycle is characterized by proximal lagoon facies to the north that leads southward to distal hemipelagic facies interfingered by turbiditic Lowstand System Tracks (LST). The location of these LST is strongly controlled by inherited Danian topography. The regressive cycle ends with a major regression associated with an erosional surface. This surface is linked with a network of canyons in the north, an important

  1. Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment of the Danish Eocene Azolla event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Claus; Beyer, Claus; Snowball, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Spores (massulae and megaspores) of the freshwater fern Azolla are recorded in several Danish Eocene outcrops and boreholes. The Azolla-bearing interval is 0.5 - ca. 3 m thick and occurs within the L2 Bed, a unit in the lower part of the hemipelagic, bathyal Lillebælt Clay Formation deposited in the central and eastern parts of the North Sea Basin. Intervals of organic-rich clay, usually including two distinctive, black sapropels, are present in the lower part of Bed L2, indicating a generally reduced oxygen content in the bottom waters during this time, with at least two episodes of severe, basinwide stagnation. The oxygen-deficit points to reduced circulation and/or enhanced marine productivity in the North Sea Basin. Azolla occurs in the upper part of this mainly organic-rich interval. The frequency of Azolla spores relative to marine dinoflagellate cysts fluctuates within the interval. The Azolla interval has previously been correlated to levels near the Ypresian/Lutetian transition in Belgium, based on dinoflagellate stratigraphy. Calibration of a new magnetostratigraphic study of the lower Lillebælt Clay with the dinoflagellate biostratigraphy suggests that Bed L2 spans the upper part of Chron 22r, C22n and lower part of C21r. The Azolla pulse spans the upper part of C22n and lowermost part of C21r. The combined bio-magnetostratigraphy from Denmark allows a detailed comparison with published data from the northern part of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea (ODP Hole 913B). The correlation confirms earlier assumptions, which were based on biostratigraphy alone, that the marine Azolla pulse in the two areas, and therefore probably over the whole Norwegian-Greenland Sea - North Sea region, is of the same age. An ongoing palynological study of the L2 Bed has so far revealed no indication for freshwater episodes or brackish waters in the basin during the Azolla pulse, except perhaps for Azolla itself. It is, therefore, suggested that the Azolla spores were transported

  2. Tropical and Holarctic Ants in Late Eocene Ambers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkovsky E. E.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on representative collections, the ratio of tropical and Holarctic ant species in Priabonian (Late Eocene Baltic, Bitterfeld (Saxonian, Danish and Rovno ambers is analyzed for the first time. In surveyed representative collections of Baltic amber, the ratios of Holarctic and tropical ant species are from 1.1 to 1.5; with 10 Holarctic and 9 tropical species (out of 31 in the PIN-964 collection, and 9 and 5 species (out of 29 in the Giecewicz collection; the ratio in the representative collection of Saxonian amber is 0.9, 11 Holarctic species vs. 12 tropical species (out of 55; in the representative collection of Rovno amber it is 0.65, 15 vs. 23 species (out of 79; and in the representative collection of Danish amber it is 0.64, 7 vs. 11 species (out of 36. Hence, in representative collections of Baltic amber, Holarctic species clearly prevail not just in terms of the share of their specimens (by 9.8 to 19.6 times, but also by the number of species. In Bitterfeld amber, Holarctic species are somewhat less numerous than tropical ones, but their specimens are 6 times greater. In representative collections of Rovno and Danish ambers, the number of Holarctic species is 1.5 to 1.7 times smaller than that of tropical species, but the number of their specimens is 4.9 to 6.9 times greater. The numbers of tropical and Holarctic species represented by more than one specimen is similar in Priabonian ambers, 25 versus 22, but Holarctic species include four dominants or subdominants. The abundance of temperate elements in the Priabonian amber ant fauna along with the relatively small number of tropical elements greatly distinguishes it from the Middle European Lutetian ant faunas of Messel and Eckfeld in shale, which do not have temperate elements at all. Formica phaethusa Wheeler, Glaphyromyrmex oligocenicus Wheeler, Plagiolepis squamifera Mayr, Proceratium eocenicum Dlussky, Hypoponera atavia (Mayr, Ponera lobulifera Dlussky, Aphaenogaster mersa

  3. Palaeoceanographic and biotic response during early Eocene extreme global warming events. Geologica Ultraiectina (328)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Studying past intervals of abrupt global warming and massive carbon release can improve our knowledge in ways relevant to understanding future climate change. Possible paleo-analogues for future climate change are the early Paleogene hyperthermal events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

  4. Orbitally forced Azolla blooms and Middle Eocene Arctic hydrology: Clues from palynology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Abels, H.A.; Sangiorgi, F.; Greenwood, D.R.; Sweet, A.R.; Donders, T.; Reichart, G.-J.; Lotter, A.F.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early-Middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface-water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  5. Reinterpretation of Azolla primaeva (Azollaceae, Eocene, Canada) using electron microscopy and X-ray tomographic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collinson, Margaret E.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H.A.; Marone, Federica; Brain, Anthony P.R.

    Azolla primaeva (Penhallow) Arnold fertile whole plants from the lower Eocene of Driftwood Creek, Canada have been examined using LM, SEM, TEM and SRXTM methods on hand specimens and sieved residues. The new data have resulted in an emended diagnosis. The megaspore is partly covered by filosum and

  6. Coeval Eocene blooms of the freshwater fern Azolla in and around Arctic and Nordic seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Burgh, A.H.P. van der; Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. van; Collinson, M.E.; Pearce, M.A.; Bujak, J.; Heilman-Clausen, C.; Lotter, A.F.; Speelman, E.N.; Kempen, M.M.L. van; Reichart, G.-J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    For a short time interval (c. 1.2 Myr) during the early middle Eocene (~ 49 Myr), the central Arctic Ocean was episodically densely covered by the freshwater fern Azolla, implying sustained freshening of surface waters. Coeval Azolla fossils in neighboring Nordic seas were thought to have been

  7. Palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological implications of the Eocene Northern Hemisphere Azolla phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.

    2010-01-01

    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  8. Orbitally forced Azolla blooms And Middle Eocene Arctic hydrology: Clues from palynology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Abels, H.A.; Sangiorgi, F.; Greenwood, D.R.; Sweet, A.R.; Donders, T.; Reichart, G.-J.; Lotter, A.F.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early-Middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface-water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and

  9. Eocene rotation of Sardinia, and the paleogeography of the western Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Advokaat, Eldert; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624; Maffione, M.; Langereis, C.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073584223; Vissers, R.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068789203; Cherchi, A.; Schroeder, R.; Madani, H.; Columbu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Key to understanding the complex Mediterranean subduction history is the kinematic reconstruction of its paleogeography after Jurassic extension between Iberia, Eurasia, and Africa. While post-Eocene Liguro-Provençal back-arc extension, and associated Miocene ~50° counterclockwise (ccw) rotation of

  10. Justitia Holthuis, 1946 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palinuridea) from the Middle Eocene of Verona and Vicenza (northern Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garassino, Alessandro; Angeli, De Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Beschin et al. (2001) have described two specimens of palinurids, discovered at Chiampo (“Albanello” quarry, Vicenza, northern Italy). Preserved three dimensionally, these were collected from limestones of Lutetian (middle Eocene) age. The peculiar ornament of the dorsal carapace surface,

  11. A new raninid crab, Pseudorogueus Rangiferus (Decapoda, Crustacea, from the Eocene of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraaye, R. H.B.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available new genus and species of raninid crab, Pseudorogueus rangiferus, is described from the Lower Eocene of Catalunya, Spanish Pyrenees.Se describe un nuevo género y especie de cangrejo Raninidae, Pseudorogueus rangiferus, proveniente del Eoceno inferior de los Pirineos Catalanes (Cataluña, España.

  12. Some new Eocene elasmobranch reports from the outer Western Carpathians (Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Skupien, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2013), s. 113-123 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Elasmobranchii * Leidybatis jugossus * Centrophorus * Eocene * Western Carpathian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2013

  13. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.; Huurdeman, Emiel; Rem, Charlotte; Donders, T.H.; Pross, Jorg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy; Gallagher, Stephen; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the

  14. A review of the platanaceous woods from the Eocene paratropical rainforest of south-east England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poole, I.J.; Davies, Kevin L.; Wilkinson, Hazel P.

    2002-01-01

    Small diameter pyritized axes, commonly referred to as ‘twigs’, of fossil platanaceous wood are described from the Lower Eocene London Clay Formation of south-east England. These twigs are characterized by solitary vessels with scalariform perforation plates, opposite intervessel pits, and tall,

  15. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Opening of the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Duncan, Robert A.; Swisher, III, Carl C.

    2007-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) has been attributed to a sudden release of carbon dioxide and/or methane. 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show that the Danish Ash-17 deposit, which overlies the PETM by about 450,000 years in the Atlantic, and the Skraenterne Formation Tuff, representing ...

  16. Emplacement and geochemical evolution of eocene plutonic rocks in the Colville batholith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Eocene plutonic rocks in the Colville batholith are divided on the basis of field evidence and chemical composition into, in order of decreasing age, (1) several calc-alkalic biotite-hornblende monzodiorite to granodiorite intrusions referred to as the Devils Elbow suite, and (2) compositionally variable calc-alkalic to alkali-calcic intrusions referred to as the Herron Creek suite. These Eocene suites are distinct from older, more voluminous, leucocratic granite and granodiorite intrusions, designated the Keller Butte suite, which are calcic and characteristically lack hornblende. Results of qualitative and computer modeling of major element variation and quantitative models of trace element variation in the chemically coherent Bridge Creek intrusions, a member of the Herron Creek suite, are compatible with fractionation of plagioclase feldspar + hornblende + biotite + magnetite + apatite from a parent magma of andesitic composition to account for the observed variation. Strongly curved variation trends preclude mixing as the primary mechanism for the observed variation. It is suggested that parallel variation trends in the other Eocene intrusions are also the result of crystal fractionation. Lateral chemical variations including a decrease in silica saturation suggest the chemical characteristics of these rocks reflect those of parental magmas derived from the mantle, with an unknown amount of crustal contribution. Rotated and angular xenoliths, discordant contacts, and temporal and spatial proximity to graben structures indicate that the Eocene plutons were passively implaced into the upper crust along graben-bounding faults during graben formation, the earlier stages of which appear to have been contemporaneous with regional mylonitic deformation

  17. Diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy for the late Eocene: ODP 1090 (sub-Antarctic Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David B.; Gersonde, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Abundant and well-preserved diatoms and silicofl agellate assemblages are documented through a complete late Eocene sequence, ODP Hole 1090B, recovered from the southern Agulhas Ridge in the sub-Antarctic South Atlantic. A sequence of Cestodiscus (diatom) species occurrence events involving C. pulchellus var. novazealandica, C. fennerae, C. antarcticus, C. convexus, C. trochus, and C. robustus is tied with paleomagnetic stratigraphy and provides the basis of proposing a new diatom zonation for the latest middle Eocene to early Oligocene (~37.6–33.4 Ma) of the sub-Antarctic South Atlantic. Comparison with previously published diatom occurrence charts suggested this zonation should be applicable throughout the low latitude regions of the world’s oceans. Silicofl agellates belong to the Dictyocha hexacantha and the overlying Corbisema apiculata Zones. The late Eocene succession of silicofl agellate species is dominated by Naviculopsis (20–60%). Naviculopsis constricta and N. foliacea dominate the D. hexacantha Zone, followed by the N. constricta, then N. biapiculata in the C. apiculata Zone. Cold-water Distephanus is most abundant in the latest Eocene along with N. biapiculata. The tops of zonal guide fossils Dictyocha hexacantha and Hannaites quadria (both 36.6 Ma) and Dictyocha spinosa (37.1 Ma) are tied with paleomagnetic stratigraphy.

  18. New euprimate postcrania from the early Eocene of Gujarat, India, and the strepsirrhine-haplorhine divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Rachel H; Rose, Kenneth D; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The oldest primates of modern aspect (euprimates) appear abruptly on the Holarctic continents during a brief episode of global warming known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, at the beginning of the Eocene (∼56 Ma). When they first appear in the fossil record, they are already divided into two distinct clades, Adapoidea (basal members of Strepsirrhini, which includes extant lemurs, lorises, and bushbabies) and Omomyidae (basal Haplorhini, which comprises living tarsiers, monkeys, and apes). Both groups have recently been discovered in the early Eocene Cambay Shale Formation of Vastan lignite mine, Gujarat, India, where they are known mainly from teeth and jaws. The Vastan fossils are dated at ∼54.5 Myr based on associated dinoflagellates and isotope stratigraphy. Here, we describe new, exquisitely preserved limb bones of these Indian primates that reveal more primitive postcranial characteristics than have been previously documented for either clade, and differences between them are so minor that in many cases we cannot be certain to which group they belong. Nevertheless, the small distinctions observed in some elements foreshadow postcranial traits that distinguish the groups by the middle Eocene, suggesting that the Vastan primates-though slightly younger than the oldest known euprimates-may represent the most primitive known remnants of the divergence between the two great primate clades. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A new sawshark, Pristiophorus laevis, from the Eocene of Antarctica with comments on Pristiophorus lanceolatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The highly fossiliferous Eocene deposits of the Antarctic Peninsula are among the most productive sites for fossil remains in the Southern Hemisphere and offer rare insights into high-latitude faunas during the Palaeogene. Chondrichthyans, which are represented by abundant isolated remains, seemingly dominate the marine assemblages. Eocene Antarctic sawsharks have only been known from few isolated rostral spines up to now, that were assigned to Pristiophorus lanceolatus . Here, we present the first oral teeth of a sawshark from the Eocene of Seymour Island and a re-evaluation of previously described Pristiophorus remains from Gondwana consisting exclusively of rostral spines. The holotype of Pristiophorus lanceolatus represents a single, abraded and insufficiently illustrated spine from the Oligocene of New Zealand. All other Cenozoic rostral spines assigned to this species are morphologically very indistinct and closely resemble those of living taxa. Consequently, we regard this species as dubious and introduce a new species, Pristiophorus laevis , based on oral teeth. The combination of dental characteristics of the new species makes it unique compared to all other described species based on oral teeth. Rostral spines from the Eocene of Seymour Island are assigned to this new species whereas those from other Cenozoic Gondwana localities remain ambiguous.

  20. Two new parrots (Psittaciformes) from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waterhouse, David; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Zelenkov, Nikita

    2008-01-01

    Two new fossil psittaciform birds from the Lower Eocene ‘Mo Clay' (Fur Formation) of Denmark (c. 54 Ma) are described. An unnamed specimen is assigned to the extinct avian family of stem-group parrots, Pseudasturidae (genus and species incertae sedis), while a second (Mopsitta tanta gen. et sp. nov...

  1. Paleocene-Eocene Sediments Interbedded With Volcanics Within the Lycian Nappes: Faralya Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Şenel

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The presumably allochthonous structural units in the Southwestern Turkey between the Menderes massif and Beydağları autochthon are known as the Lycian nappes. Some of these units particularly beneath the ophiolite nappe end up with the Faralya formation of Paleocene-Lutetian age. The striking feature of this formation which includes micrite, clayey micrite, claystone, sandstone and conglomerate, is the presence of basic volcanite interbeds of Eocene age, This volcanite bearing formation exhibits a strong similarity to those of the other formations in Southwestern Turkey most of which include similar basic volcanites. Eocene basic volcanites are also known in the Akseki autochthon to the south of Seydişehir (Geyikdağ unit in broad sense. Similar extensive lateral movements (Eocene mountain building processes developed over the Faralya formation are seen over the volcanite bearing formations to the south of Menderes massif as well as to the north of Isparta angle and the Akseki autochthon. These features indicate that the area between the Menderes massif and Akseki autochthon (Geyikdağ unit reflects common basinal characters in terms of depositional conditions, volcanism and the traces of Eocene mountain building process.

  2. Eocene to Oligocene benthic foraminiferal isotopic record in the Bay of Biscay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.G.; Curry, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic records of Eocene to Oligocene benthic foraminifera from two Bay of Biscay Deep Sea Drilling Project sites are presented. The delta 18 O figures for benthic foraminifera are significantly higher than those previously reported from deeper North Atlantic sites, the differences arising it is believed from diagenetic alteration of the sediments in the deeper-buried sites. (U.K.)

  3. Exploration potential of the Eocene deposits in central Romanian block sea off shore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambrea, D; Raileanu, A; Barbuliceanu, N; Borosi, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:The study area comprises the Eocene Istria Depression bounded by Peceneaga- Camena and Heracleea faults, in front of North Dobrogea Orogene and Central Dobrogea, in the Romanian Black Sea offshore. The analysis of 100 two- dimensional (2D) seismic lines and two- three dimensional (3D) seismic surveys and well data has permitted to outline that the geo dynamic evolution of Eocene basins has led to the deposition of carbonate- sliciclastic turbidity, porous carbonate shelf margin reservoir deposits, and muddy carbonate turbiditic source rocks that present new Eocene petroleum targets. The main Eocene sub basin located in Iris-Venus area is deep, rhombic shaped, del imitated by normal faults, and may be connected with the strike-slip deformation component of Peceneaga- Camena fault. The next sub basin, located on West Lebeda area may be considered a cross- fault extensional zone. In the following sub basin East Lebada- Minerva area, normal faults generated a tectonic corridor characterized by high subsidence rate and local submarine/sub aerial intra slope topographic high. The last sub basin localized in Histria is a ponded one and captured highly organic matter rich muddly carbonate turgidities. In all sub basins, there is a progression from structure control to sediment control deposition

  4. Taphonomy and abundance of birds from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyke, Gareth; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    to quantify the shape of this radiation, but have largely been lacking. Here we report on a large collection of fossil birds from the Lower Eocene of Denmark (ca. 54 Ma) that includes three-dimensionally preserved, articulated specimens from carbonate concretions as well as skeletal imprints and feathers...

  5. Fission track dating of tuffaceous eocene formations of the North Bakony Mountains (Transdanubia, Hungary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkl, I.

    1990-01-01

    Fission track dating was performed in accessory minerals of strongly altered, clay mineralized tuffite strata lying in the upper part of the Eocene sequence of the North Bakony Mountains. The homogeneity of the fission track (FT) ages measured on apatite and zircon refers only to insignificant redeposition, no remarkable mingling of the detrital matter vould be stated. The average of the FT-ages falls to the Bartonian, into the time interval determined by nannoplankton guide horizons for the volcanic activity (41.9 ± 4.1 Ma). As to their biostratigraphic age the Middle Eocene samples show an FT-average of 44.2 ± 3.4 Ma, the average of the Upper Eocene group is 39.9 ± 4.1 Ma. The difference between the two groups refers to the two phases of the volcanic activity. The first maximum of volcanism generated the Upper Lutetian to Bartonian glauconitic sequence while the second maximum at the Bartonian-Priabonian boundary produced the tuff strata. The strata in the neighbouring areas relate to continuous volcanism in the Upper Eocene, in the studied area, however, the upper part of the Priabonian was eroded. (author) 51 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  6. Earth Pressure at rest of Søvind Marl – a highly overconsolidated Eocene clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated earth pressure at rest, K0, in highly overconsolidated Eocene clay called Søvind Marl, which exhibits extremely high plasticity indices of up to 300%, a highly fissured structure, and preconsolidation stresses up to 6,800 kPa. Continuous Loading Oedometer (CLO) tests...

  7. An antarctic stratigraphic record of stepwise ice growth through the eocene-oligocene transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, Sandra; Ciarletta, Daniel J.; Miriagos, Triantafilo E.; Bijl, Peter K.; Bohaty, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    Earth's current icehouse phase began ~34 m.y. ago with the onset of major Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Changes in ocean circulation and a decline in atmospheric greenhouse gas levels were associated with stepwise cooling and ice growth at southern high latitudes. The

  8. A diverse snake fauna from the early Eocene of Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rage, J.C.; Folie, A.; Rana, R.S.; Singh, H.; Rose, K.D.; Smith, T. [Museum National Historical Nature, Paris (France)

    2008-09-15

    The early Eocene (Ypresian) Cambay Formation of Vastan Lignite Mine in Gujarat, western India, has produced a diverse assemblage of snakes including at least ten species that belong to the Madtsoiidae, Palaeophiidae (Palaeophis and Pterosphenus), Boidae, and several Caenophidia. Within the latter taxon, the Colubroidea are represented by Russellophis crassus sp. nov. (Russellophiidae) and by Procerophis sahnii gen. et sp. nov. Thaumastophis missiaeni gen. et sp. nov. is a caenophidian of uncertain family assignment. At least two other forms probably represent new genera and species, but they are not named; both appear to be related to the Caenophidia. The number of taxa that represent the Colubroidea or at least the Caenophidia, i.e., advanced snakes, is astonishing for the Eocene. This is consistent with the view that Asia played an important part in the early history of these taxa. The fossils come from marine and continental levels; however, no significant difference is evident between faunas from these levels. The fauna from Vastan Mine includes highly aquatic, amphibious, and terrestrial snakes. All are found in the continental levels, including the aquatic palaeophiids, whereas the marine beds yielded only two taxa. Vastan Mine is only the second locality in which the palaeophiids Palaeophis and Pterosphenus co-occur. The composition of the fauna from Vastan is on the whole similar to that of the early Eocene of Europe; however, comparisons with early Eocene faunas of other continents are not possible because they are poorly known or unknown.

  9. Early Eocene climatic optimum: Environmental impact on the North Iberian continental margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Payros, A.; Ortiz, S.; Millán, I.; Arostegi, J.; Orue-Etxebarria, X.; Apellaniz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The early Eocene climatic optimum, which constituted the peak of the long-term early Cenozoic global warming, had a significant impact on the environmental evolution of terrestrial and oceanic areas. Surprisingly, however, its influence on continental margins is poorly known. New insights are

  10. New stalked and sessile cirripedes from the Eocene Mo Clay, northwest Jutland (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriol, René-Pierre; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Jakobsen, Sten Lennart

    2016-01-01

    New taxa of thoracican cirripedes are recorded from the Eocene Mo Clay of northwest Jutland, Denmark, namely Stipilepas molerensis Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a scalpelliform gooseneck barnacle, and Plesiobrachylepas jutlandica Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a brachylepadomorph sessile form. This material...

  11. Synchronous turnover of flora, fauna, and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jimin; Ni, Xijun; Bi, Shundong; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie; Meng, Jin; Windley, Brian F

    2014-12-12

    The Eocene-Oligocene Boundary (~34 million years ago) marks one of the largest extinctions of marine invertebrates in the world oceans and of mammalian fauna in Europe and Asia in the Cenozoic era. A shift to a cooler climate across this boundary has been suggested as the cause of this extinction in the marine environment, but there is no manifold evidence for a synchronous turnover of flora, fauna and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in a single terrestrial site in Asia to support this hypothesis. Here we report new data of magnetostratigraphy, pollen and climatic proxies in the Asian interior across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary; our results show that climate change forced a turnover of flora and fauna, suggesting there was a change from large-size perissodactyl-dominant fauna in forests under a warm-temperate climate to small rodent/lagomorph-dominant fauna in forest-steppe in a dry-temperate climate across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary. These data provide a new terrestrial record for this significant Cenozoic environmental event.

  12. Diachronous seawater retreat from the southwestern margin of the Tarim Basin in the late Eocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Jimin; Windley, Brian F.; Zhang, Zhiliang; Fu, Bihong; Li, Shihu|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411296248

    In contrast to the present hyper-arid inland basin surrounded by the high mountains of Central Asia, the western Tarim Basin was once connected with the Tajik Basin at least in the late Eocene, when an epicontinental sea extended from the western Tarim Basin to Europe. Western Tarim is a key site

  13. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  14. Tectonic Reorganization and the Cause of Paleocene and Eocene pCO2 Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austermann, Jacqueline; Carter, Laura B.; Middleton, Jennifer; Stellmann, Jessica; Pyle, Lacey

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen isotope records reveal that deep-sea temperatures were relatively stable in the early and mid Paleocene before they rose by approx. 4°C to peak in the early Eocene. This Early Eocene Climate Optimum was followed by a 17 Myr cooling trend that led to the onset of Antarctic glaciation at the end of the Eocene. Several studies have examined the potential influence of perturbations to the sinks and sources of atmospheric carbon as mechanisms for the temperature drawdown over the Eocene. Examination of the changing magnitude of carbon sinks has focused on the importance of increased weathering associated with the uplift of the Tibetan plateau (Raymo and Ruddiman, 1992), the continental drift of basaltic provinces through the equatorial humid belt (Kent and Muttoni, 2013), or the emplacement of ophiolites during arc-continent collision in the face of a closing Tethys ocean (Jagoutz et al., 2016). With respect to carbon sources, the shutdown of Tethys subduction and related arc volcanism has been argued to significantly decrease carbon emissions and consequently global temperatures (Hoareau et al., 2015). In this study, we re-assess and quantify proposed atmospheric carbon sinks and sources to obtain an integrated picture of carbon flux changes over the Paleocene and Eocene and to estimate the relative importance of different mechanisms. To constrain carbon sources, we attempt to calculate the outgassing associated with large igneous provinces, mid-ocean ridges and volcanic arcs. We use plate reconstructions to track changes in length and divergence / convergence rates at plate boundaries as well as account for the onset and extinction of volcanic arcs. To constrain carbon sinks, we account for the sequestering of carbon due to silicate weathering and organic carbon burial. We again make use of plate reconstructions to trace highly weatherable arc systems and basaltic extrusions through the tropical humid belt and to assess the interplay between warmer Eocene

  15. Identification of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in coastal strata in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Huurdeman, Emiel P.; Rem, Charlotte C. M.; Donders, Timme H.; Pross, Jörg; Bohaty, Steven M.; Holdgate, Guy R.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; McGowran, Brian; Bijl, Peter K.

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, stratigraphically well-constrained environmental reconstructions are available for Paleocene and Eocene strata at a range of sites in the southwest Pacific Ocean (New Zealand and East Tasman Plateau; ETP) and Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site U1356 in the south of the Australo-Antarctic Gulf (AAG). These reconstructions have revealed a large discrepancy between temperature proxy data and climate models in this region, suggesting a crucial error in model, proxy data or both. To resolve the origin of this discrepancy, detailed reconstructions are needed from both sides of the Tasmanian Gateway. Paleocene-Eocene sedimentary archives from the west of the Tasmanian Gateway have unfortunately remained scarce (only IODP Site U1356), and no well-dated successions are available for the northern sector of the AAG. Here we present new stratigraphic data for upper Paleocene and lower Eocene strata from the Otway Basin, southeast Australia, on the (north)west side of the Tasmanian Gateway. We analyzed sediments recovered from exploration drilling (Latrobe-1 drill core) and outcrop sampling (Point Margaret) and performed high-resolution carbon isotope geochemistry of bulk organic matter and dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) and pollen biostratigraphy on sediments from the regional lithostratigraphic units, including the Pebble Point Formation, Pember Mudstone and Dilwyn Formation. Pollen and dinocyst assemblages are assigned to previously established Australian pollen and dinocyst zonations and tied to available zonations for the SW Pacific. Based on our dinocyst stratigraphy and previously published planktic foraminifer biostratigraphy, the Pebble Point Formation at Point Margaret is dated to the latest Paleocene. The globally synchronous negative carbon isotope excursion that marks the Paleocene-Eocene boundary is identified within the top part of the Pember Mudstone in the Latrobe-1 borehole and at Point Margaret. However, the high abundances of the

  16. Atmospheric pCO2 reconstructed across five early Eocene global warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Schubert, Brian A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals, occurred during the early Eocene (56-52 Ma). Five of these events - the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM1), H1 (or ETM2), H2, I1, and I2 - are marked by a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within both marine and terrestrial sediments. The magnitude of CIE, which is a function of the amount and isotopic composition of carbon added to the ocean-atmosphere system, varies significantly between marine versus terrestrial substrates. Here we use the increase in carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased pCO2 to reconcile this difference and reconstruct a range of background pCO2 and peak pCO2 for each CIE, provided two potential carbon sources: methane hydrate destabilization and permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation. Although the uncertainty on each pCO2 estimate using this approach is low (e.g., median uncertainty = + 23% / - 18%), this work highlights the potential for significant systematic bias in the pCO2 estimate resulting from sampling resolution, substrate type, diagenesis, and environmental change. Careful consideration of each of these factors is required especially when applying this approach to a single marine-terrestrial CIE pair. Given these limitations, we provide an upper estimate for background early Eocene pCO2 of 463 +248/-131 ppmv (methane hydrate scenario) to 806 +127/-104 ppmv (permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation scenario). These results, which represent the first pCO2 proxy estimates directly tied to the Eocene hyperthermals, demonstrate that early Eocene warmth was supported by background pCO2 less than ∼3.5× preindustrial levels and that pCO2 > 1000 ppmv may have occurred only briefly, during hyperthermal events.

  17. Mid-latitude continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gordon N.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Riegel, Walter; Wilde, Volker; Farnsworth, Alexander; Lunt, Daniel J.; Valdes, Paul; Robson, Brittany E.; Scott, Andrew C.; Lenz, Olaf K.; Naafs, B. David A.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2017-02-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are increasingly used to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, the application of this proxy in coal deposits is limited and brGDGTs have only been detected in immature coals (i.e. lignites). Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany (∼48°N palaeolatitude), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of early Eocene lignites and associated interbeds. BrGDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences between lignites - representing peat-forming environments - and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed depositional environments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration (MATmr) developed for soils, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26 °C while those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds exceed 20 °C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude environments and model simulations, indicating enhanced mid-latitude, early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section studied, warming is recorded in both the lignites (∼2 °C) and nearshore marine interbeds (∼2-3 °C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this long-term warming trend is relatively well established in the marine realm, it has rarely been shown in terrestrial settings. Using a suite of model simulations we show that the magnitude of warming at Schöningen is broadly consistent with a doubling of CO2, in agreement with late Paleocene and early Eocene pCO2 estimates.

  18. Analysis of Benthic Foraminiferal Size Change During the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, W.; Keating-Bitonti, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition is a significant global cooling event with the first growth of continental ice on Antarctica. In the geologic record, the size of fossils can be used to indirectly observe how organisms respond to climate change. For example, organisms tend to be larger in cooler environments as a physiological response to temperature. This major global cooling event should influence organism physiology, resulting in significant size trends observed in the fossil record. Benthic foraminifera are protists and those that grow a carbonate shell are both well-preserved and abundant in marine sediments. Here, we used the foraminiferal fossil record to study the relationship between their size and global cooling. We hypothesize that cooler temperatures across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary promoted shell size increase. To test this hypothesis, we studied benthic foraminifera from 10 deep-sea cores drilled at Ocean Drilling Program Site 744, located in the southern Indian Ocean. We washed sediment samples over a 63-micron sieve and picked foraminifera from a 125-micron sieve. We studied the benthic foraminiferal genus Cibicidoides and its size change across this cooling event. Picked specimens were imaged and we measured the diameter of their shells using "imageJ". Overall, we find that Cibicidoides shows a general trend of increasing size during this transition. In particular, both the median and maximum sizes of Cibicidoides increase from the Eocene into the Oligocene. We also analyzed C. pachyderma and C. mundulus for size trends. Although both species increase in median size across the boundary, only C. pachyderma shows a consistent trend of increasing maximum, median, and minimum shell diameter. After the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, we observe that shell diameter decreases following peak cooling and that foraminiferal sizes remain stable into the early Oligocene. Therefore, the Eocene-Oligocene cooling event appears to have strong influence on shell size.

  19. Persistent near-tropical warmth on the Antarctic continent during the early Eocene epoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Jörg; Contreras, Lineth; Bijl, Peter K; Greenwood, David R; Bohaty, Steven M; Schouten, Stefan; Bendle, James A; Röhl, Ursula; Tauxe, Lisa; Raine, J Ian; Huck, Claire E; van de Flierdt, Tina; Jamieson, Stewart S R; Stickley, Catherine E; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2012-08-02

    The warmest global climates of the past 65 million years occurred during the early Eocene epoch (about 55 to 48 million years ago), when the Equator-to-pole temperature gradients were much smaller than today and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels were in excess of one thousand parts per million by volume. Recently the early Eocene has received considerable interest because it may provide insight into the response of Earth's climate and biosphere to the high atmospheric carbon dioxide levels that are expected in the near future as a consequence of unabated anthropogenic carbon emissions. Climatic conditions of the early Eocene 'greenhouse world', however, are poorly constrained in critical regions, particularly Antarctica. Here we present a well-dated record of early Eocene climate on Antarctica from an ocean sediment core recovered off the Wilkes Land coast of East Antarctica. The information from biotic climate proxies (pollen and spores) and independent organic geochemical climate proxies (indices based on branched tetraether lipids) yields quantitative, seasonal temperature reconstructions for the early Eocene greenhouse world on Antarctica. We show that the climate in lowland settings along the Wilkes Land coast (at a palaeolatitude of about 70° south) supported the growth of highly diverse, near-tropical forests characterized by mesothermal to megathermal floral elements including palms and Bombacoideae. Notably, winters were extremely mild (warmer than 10 °C) and essentially frost-free despite polar darkness, which provides a critical new constraint for the validation of climate models and for understanding the response of high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems to increased carbon dioxide forcing.

  20. The Early Eocene equable climate problem: can perturbations of climate model parameters identify possible solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoo, Navjit; Valdes, Paul; Flecker, Rachel; Gregoire, Lauren J

    2013-10-28

    Geological data for the Early Eocene (56-47.8 Ma) indicate extensive global warming, with very warm temperatures at both poles. However, despite numerous attempts to simulate this warmth, there are remarkable data-model differences in the prediction of these polar surface temperatures, resulting in the so-called 'equable climate problem'. In this paper, for the first time an ensemble with a perturbed climate-sensitive model parameters approach has been applied to modelling the Early Eocene climate. We performed more than 100 simulations with perturbed physics parameters, and identified two simulations that have an optimal fit with the proxy data. We have simulated the warmth of the Early Eocene at 560 ppmv CO2, which is a much lower CO2 level than many other models. We investigate the changes in atmospheric circulation, cloud properties and ocean circulation that are common to these simulations and how they differ from the remaining simulations in order to understand what mechanisms contribute to the polar warming. The parameter set from one of the optimal Early Eocene simulations also produces a favourable fit for the last glacial maximum boundary climate and outperforms the control parameter set for the present day. Although this does not 'prove' that this model is correct, it is very encouraging that there is a parameter set that creates a climate model able to simulate well very different palaeoclimates and the present-day climate. Interestingly, to achieve the great warmth of the Early Eocene this version of the model does not have a strong future climate change Charney climate sensitivity. It produces a Charney climate sensitivity of 2.7(°)C, whereas the mean value of the 18 models in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) is 3.26(°)C±0.69(°)C. Thus, this value is within the range and below the mean of the models included in the AR4.

  1. Porosity and sonic velocity depth trends of Eocene chalk in Atlantic Ocean: Influence of effective stress and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to relate changes in porosity and sonic velocity data, measured on water-saturated Eocene chalks from 36 Ocean Drilling Program drill sites in the Atlantic Ocean, to vertical effective stress and thermal maturity. We considered only chalk of Eocene age to avoid possible influence...... not show or at least it is difficult to define a clear pore-stiffening contact cementation trend as the Ontong Java Plateau chalk. Mechanical compaction is the principal cause of porosity reduction (at shallow depths) in the studied Eocene chalk, at least down to about 5MPa Terzaghi׳s effective stress...

  2. The Paleogene Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, N.; Hilgen, F.J.; Speijer, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT All Paleocene stages (i.e., Danian, Selandian and Thanetian) have formally ratified definitions, and so have the Ypresian and Lutetian Stages in the Eocene, and the Rupelian Stage in the Oligocene. The Bartonian, Priabonian and Chattian Stages are not yet formally defined. After the global

  3. A newly isolated Haloalkaliphilic bacterium from middle-late Eocene halite formed in salt lakes in China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meng, F. W.; Wang, X.-Q.; Ni, P.; Kletetschka, Günther; Li, Y-P.; Yang, Ch.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2015), s. 321-330 ISSN 0891-2556 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : ancient microorganism * primary fluid inclusion * halite * Eocene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.440, year: 2015

  4. A Model-Model and Data-Model Comparison for the Early Eocene Hydrological Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Matthew J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Huber, Matthew; Heinemann, Malte; Kiehl, Jeffrey; LeGrande, Allegra; Loptson, Claire A.; Roberts, Chris D.; Sagoo, Navjit; Shields, Christine

    2016-01-01

    A range of proxy observations have recently provided constraints on how Earth's hydrological cycle responded to early Eocene climatic changes. However, comparisons of proxy data to general circulation model (GCM) simulated hydrology are limited and inter-model variability remains poorly characterised. In this work, we undertake an intercomparison of GCM-derived precipitation and P - E distributions within the extended EoMIP ensemble (Eocene Modelling Intercomparison Project; Lunt et al., 2012), which includes previously published early Eocene simulations performed using five GCMs differing in boundary conditions, model structure, and precipitation-relevant parameterisation schemes. We show that an intensified hydrological cycle, manifested in enhanced global precipitation and evaporation rates, is simulated for all Eocene simulations relative to the preindustrial conditions. This is primarily due to elevated atmospheric paleo-CO2, resulting in elevated temperatures, although the effects of differences in paleogeography and ice sheets are also important in some models. For a given CO2 level, globally averaged precipitation rates vary widely between models, largely arising from different simulated surface air temperatures. Models with a similar global sensitivity of precipitation rate to temperature (dP=dT ) display different regional precipitation responses for a given temperature change. Regions that are particularly sensitive to model choice include the South Pacific, tropical Africa, and the Peri-Tethys, which may represent targets for future proxy acquisition. A comparison of early and middle Eocene leaf-fossil-derived precipitation estimates with the GCM output illustrates that GCMs generally underestimate precipitation rates at high latitudes, although a possible seasonal bias of the proxies cannot be excluded. Models which warm these regions, either via elevated CO2 or by varying poorly constrained model parameter values, are most successful in simulating a

  5. New or previously unrecorded avian taxa from the Middle Eocene of Messel (Hessen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mayr

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new or from this site previously unrecorded birds are described from the Middle Eocene of Messel (Hessen, Germany. Serudaptus pohli n. gen. n. sp. is a new taxon of the Pseudasturidae and is distinguished from the other species of this family by its short and stout tarsometatarsus and the long and strong claws. An isolated foot of a gruiform bird is assigned to Idiornis cf. itardiensis (Idiornithidae and would, if this assignment can be confirmed, demonstrate the existence of this species for a period of 23 million years. The proportions of the toes suggest that Idiornis cf. itardiensis was less cursorial than its next recent relatives, the Cariamidae. In addition thereto, an exceptionally well preserved skeleton of a sandcoleid bird (Coliiformes: Sandcoleidae gives new information on the osteology and feathering of sandcoleid birds. The specimen resembles the genera Eoglaucidium and Anneavis but it has not been possible to assign it to one of these two genera with certainty. Drei neue oder von dieser Fundstelle bisher nicht nachgewiesene Vögel werden aus dem Mittel-Eozän von Messel (Hessen, Deutschland beschrieben. Serudaptus pohli n. gen. n. sp. ist ein neues Taxon der Pseudasturidae und unterscheidet sich von den anderen Arten dieser Familie durch den kurzen und gedrungenen Tarsometatarsus und die langen, kräftigen Krallen. Der isolierte Fuß eines gruiformen Vogels wird Idiornis cf. itardiensis (Idiornithidae zugeordnet und würde, wenn sich diese Zuordnung bestätigt, die Existenz dieser Art über einen Zeitraum von 23 Millionen Jahren zeigen. Die Zehenproportionen legen nahe, dass Idiornis cf. itardiensis weniger an eine laufende Lebensweise angepasst war als seine nächsten rezenten Verwandten, die Cariamidae. Darüber hinaus zeigt ein außergewöhnlich gut erhaltenes Skelett eines Vertreters der Sandcoleidae bisher unbekannte Einzelheiten der Osteologie und Befiederung dieser Familie. Das Exemplar ähnelt den Gattungen

  6. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, James W.

    1988-11-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate fossil assemblage, the Casa Blanca local fauna, comes from the Laredo Formation, Claiborne Group, of Webb County, Texas, and is the first reported Eocene land-mammal fauna from the coastal plain of North America. The mammalian fauna is correlated with the Serendipity and Candelaria local faunas of west Texas, the Uinta C faunas of the Rocky Mountains, the Santiago Formation local fauna of southern California, and the Swift Current Creek local fauna of Saskatchewan. The vertebrate-bearing deposit lies about 32 m above a horizon containing the marine gastropod Turritella cortezi, which ranges from east Texas to northeast Mexico in the lower half of the Cook Mountain and Laredo Formations and is a guide fossil to the Hurricane Lentil in the Cook Mountain Formation. Nannoplankton found in these middle Eocene formations belong to the upper half of Nannoplankton Zone I6 and allow correlation with European beds of late Lutetian to early Bartonian age.

  7. Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Seiffert, Erik R.; Clementz, Mark; Madar, Sandra I.; Bajpai, Sunil; Hussain, S. Taseer; Thewissen, J. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins. PMID:25295875

  8. Experience in well logging study of Eocene deposits at the territory of Central and West Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilov, G.Ya.; Makhmudova, V.M.; Agabekova, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Experience of investigation of Eocene deposits in Azerbaijan by well-logging methods (WLM), including gamma-logging (GL), neutron gamma-logging (NGL), gamma-gamma logging (GGL), is generalized. Clay rocks are characterized by the maximal NGL and GL values, tuff sandstones - by the average NGL values. NGL and GGL data are used to determine porosity of strata. Complex interpretation of WLM data enables to obtain reliable evaluations of lithology, porosity and oil saturation of Eocene rocks. Algorithm of quantitative interpretation of WLM materials is suggested. Efficiency of WLM interpretation was equal to 95 %. Since the suggested algorithm is formalized completely, it can be realized in systems of complex WLM interpretation by computer

  9. Earth system feedback statistically extracted from the Indian Ocean deep-sea sediments recording Eocene hyperthermals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Kentaro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Ikehara, Minoru; Kato, Yasuhiro

    2017-09-12

    Multiple transient global warming events occurred during the early Palaeogene. Although these events, called hyperthermals, have been reported from around the globe, geologic records for the Indian Ocean are limited. In addition, the recovery processes from relatively modest hyperthermals are less constrained than those from the severest and well-studied hothouse called the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. In this study, we constructed a new and high-resolution geochemical dataset of deep-sea sediments clearly recording multiple Eocene hyperthermals in the Indian Ocean. We then statistically analysed the high-dimensional data matrix and extracted independent components corresponding to the biogeochemical responses to the hyperthermals. The productivity feedback commonly controls and efficiently sequesters the excess carbon in the recovery phases of the hyperthermals via an enhanced biological pump, regardless of the magnitude of the events. Meanwhile, this negative feedback is independent of nannoplankton assemblage changes generally recognised in relatively large environmental perturbations.

  10. A roller-like bird (Coracii) from the Early Eocene of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Kristoffersen, Anette V; Bonde, Niels

    2016-09-27

    The fossil record of crown group birds (Neornithes) prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is scarce and fragmentary. Early Cenozoic bird fossils are more abundant, but are typically disarticulated and/or flattened. Here we report the oldest roller (Coracii), Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov. (Primobucconidae), based on a new specimen from the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago) Fur Formation of Denmark. The new fossil is a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved and articulated skeleton. It lies at the lower end of the size range for extant rollers. Salient diagnostic features of Septencoracias relative to other Coracii include the proportionally larger skull and the small, ovoid and dorsally positioned narial openings. Our discovery adds to the evidence that the Coracii had a widespread northern hemisphere distribution in the Eocene. Septencoracias is the oldest substantial record of the Picocoraciae and provides a reliable calibration point for molecular phylogenetic studies.

  11. Bizarre tubercles on the vertebrae of Eocene fossil birds indicate an avian disease without modern counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald

    2007-08-01

    Remains of fossil birds with numerous bony tubercles on the cervical vertebrae are reported from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany and the Late Eocene of the Quercy fissure fillings in France. These structures, which are unknown from extant birds and other vertebrates, were previously described for an avian skeleton from Messel but considered a singular feature of this specimen. The new fossils are from a different species of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and show that tuberculated vertebrae have a wider taxonomic, temporal, and geographic distribution. In contrast to previous assumptions, they are no ontogenetic feature and arise from the vertebral surface. It is concluded that they are most likely of pathologic origin and the first record of a Paleogene avian disease. Their regular and symmetrical arrangement over most of the external vertebral surface indicates a systemic disorder caused by factors that do not affect extant birds, such as especially high-dosed phytohormones or extinct pathogens.

  12. Outpacing the Anthropocene: New Constraints for the Rate of Carbon Release at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.; Schaller, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) is linked to benthic foraminiferal extinction and excursion taxa in planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils. Previous studies have used integrated bio-magneto-stratigraphies, cycle counting, and extraterrestrial 3He accumulation rates to produce a range of estimates for the duration of the initial onset of the PETM CIE between 750 years to 30 kyr. Durations for the total release time (onset to initiation of recovery) range from 45 to 95 kyr. Uncertainty in the timing of the onset of the PETM CIE prevents the identification of a causal mechanism, and hence understanding the biological responses. Recent work on the Paleocene/Eocene Marlboro Clay has unveiled the presence of regular couplets (~2 cm) expressed in multiple cores and exposures throughout the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Specifically, the Millville and newly recovered Wilson Lake B cores contain 750 and 660 layers through the CIE, respectively. These couplets have corresponding oxygen stable isotope cycles, arguing for a climatic origin. Orbital and millennial periodicities are far too long to explain the ~750 layers identified in the Millville core. Seasonal insolation is the only regular climate cycle that can plausibly account for the observed δ18O amplitudes (~1‰, with some cycles up to 2‰) and layer counts. Seasonal freshwater input can also augment the cyclic oscillations in δ18O, but the majority of the variability is most plausibly ascribed to temperature. Wilson Lake B and Millville have total δ13C excursions of -5 and -4.5‰ respectively, as well as highly expanded sections of the PETM CIE. In the Millville core, high-resolution, bulk stable isotope records show a 3.5‰ δ13C decrease over 12 layers across the PETM CIE onset. Concomitant with this δ13C decrease is a sharp drop in CaCO3. Decreases in both proxies require a large, sudden release of isotopically light carbon. The couplet chronology indicates

  13. Evolution of and Factors Controlling Eocene Sedimentation in the Darende-Balaban Basin, Malatya (Eastern Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜL, KEMAL GÜRBÜZ & MURAT

    2005-01-01

    Collision of the Arabian and Anatolian plates affected evolution of basins located along the southern flank of the Anatolian Plate. The Darende-Balaban foreland basin is one such basin – a basin filled with Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sediments, accumulated unconformably and transgressively above ophiolitic and carbonate basement rocks. This basin is locally surrounded, to the north and south, by Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous structural highs created by tectonic elements during the collision...

  14. Evolution of and Factors Controlling Eocene Sedimentation in the Darende-Balaban Basin, Malatya (Eastern Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜL, KEMAL GÜRBÜZ & GÜL, MURAT

    2014-01-01

    Collision of the Arabian and Anatolian plates affected evolution of basins located along the southern flank of the Anatolian Plate. The Darende-Balaban foreland basin is one such basin – a basin filled with Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sediments, accumulated unconformably and transgressively above ophiolitic and carbonate basement rocks. This basin is locally surrounded, to the north and south, by Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous structural highs created by tectonic elements during the collision...

  15. Evidence for middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from diatoms and ice-rafted debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Catherine E; St John, Kristen; Koç, Nalân; Jordan, Richard W; Passchier, Sandra; Pearce, Richard B; Kearns, Lance E

    2009-07-16

    Oceanic sediments from long cores drilled on the Lomonosov ridge, in the central Arctic, contain ice-rafted debris (IRD) back to the middle Eocene epoch, prompting recent suggestions that ice appeared in the Arctic about 46 million years (Myr) ago. However, because IRD can be transported by icebergs (derived from land-based ice) and also by sea ice, IRD records are restricted to providing a history of general ice-rafting only. It is critical to differentiate sea ice from glacial (land-based) ice as climate feedback mechanisms vary and global impacts differ between these systems: sea ice directly affects ocean-atmosphere exchanges, whereas land-based ice affects sea level and consequently ocean acidity. An earlier report assumed that sea ice was prevalent in the middle Eocene Arctic on the basis of IRD, and although somewhat preliminary supportive evidence exists, these data are neither comprehensive nor quantified. Here we show the presence of middle Eocene Arctic sea ice from an extraordinary abundance of a group of sea-ice-dependent fossil diatoms (Synedropsis spp.). Analysis of quartz grain textural characteristics further supports sea ice as the dominant transporter of IRD at this time. Together with new information on cosmopolitan diatoms and existing IRD records, our data strongly suggest a two-phase establishment of sea ice: initial episodic formation in marginal shelf areas approximately 47.5 Myr ago, followed approximately 0.5 Myr later by the onset of seasonally paced sea-ice formation in offshore areas of the central Arctic. Our data establish a 2-Myr record of sea ice, documenting the transition from a warm, ice-free environment to one dominated by winter sea ice at the start of the middle Eocene climatic cooling phase.

  16. Magnetostratigraphy in the Lodo Formation, CA: An Attempt to Locate Hyperthermals of the Early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, N. C.; Pluhar, C. J.; Gibbs, S.; Rieth, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lodo Formation in the California Coast Range, Fresno County records the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and possibly other Early Eocene hyperthermal events. The Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2, ELMO, or H1) represents a hyperthermal event that occurred approximately 2 million years after the PETM and just prior to the C24r - C24n magnetic reversal (≈ 53.9 Ma) in the Ypresian. While the ETM2 event has been located in offshore samples, it has been more difficult to locate in a terrestrial section. This project attempts to locate the ETM2 magnetostratigraphically by finding the paleomagnetic reversal at C24r-C24n.3n, provide geochronological framework, and assess sedimentation rate changes during this time. This area is known to have had a high rate of deposition (16.8 cm/kyr ) during the PETM, which is found lower in the section. We collected 36 new samples from a 13.44m section spanning stratigraphy thought to cover the ETM2 along with 31 previous samples spanning the PETM, and prepared them for paleomagnetic and paleontological analysis. We analyzed samples using standard paleomagnetic methods including low-temperature and thermal demagnetization. Preliminary results suggest that the magnetostratigraphy spans the C24r-C24n boundary, while the micropaleontology shows the NP10-NP11 boundary, which occurs near the ETM2 as well as the NP11-NP12 boundary. The data indicate an order-of-magnitude drop in sedimentation rate in the lower Eocene at this site, concomitant with a drop in grain size, compared with the PETM.

  17. The Upper Eocene crustose coralline algal pavement in the Colli Berici, north-eastern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Bassi

    2005-01-01

    A crustose coralline algal pavement, identified in Upper Eocene (Priabonian) shallow water, middleramp carbonates in north-eastern Italy (Colli Berici, Southern Alps), represents a rare example of this facies.The crustose pavement consists of a coralline crust bindstone with a wackestone-packstone matrix, and is characterised by the dominance of crustose coralline thalli composed primarily of melobesioids (Lithothamnion and Mesophyllum) and mastophoroids (Spongites, Lithoporella, Neogoniolith...

  18. Atmospheric pCO2 Reconstructed across the Early Eocene Hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Schubert, B.

    2015-12-01

    Negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) are commonly associated with extreme global warming. The Early Eocene is punctuated by five such CIEs, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM, ca. 55.8 Ma), H1 (ca. 53.6 Ma), H2 (ca. 53.5 Ma), I1 (ca. 53.3 Ma), and I2 (ca. 53.2 Ma), each characterized by global warming. The negative CIEs are recognized in both marine and terrestrial substrates, but the terrestrial substrates exhibit a larger absolute magnitude CIE than the marine substrates. Here we reconcile the difference in CIE magnitude between the terrestrial and marine substrates for each of these events by accounting for the additional carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased atmospheric pCO2. Our analysis yields background and peak pCO2 values for each of the events. Assuming a common mechanism for each event, we calculate that background pCO2 was not static across the Early Eocene, with the highest background pCO2 immediately prior to I2, the last of the five CIEs. Background pCO2 is dependent on the source used in our analysis with values ranging from 300 to 720 ppmv provided an injection of 13C-depleted carbon with δ13C value of -60‰ (e.g. biogenic methane). The peak pCO2 during each event scales according to the magnitude of CIE, and is therefore greatest during the PETM and smallest during H2. Both background and peak pCO2 are higher if we assume a mechanism of permafrost thawing (δ13C = -25‰). Our reconstruction of pCO2 across these events is consistent with trends in the δ18O value of deep-sea benthic foraminifera, suggesting a strong link between pCO2 and temperature during the Early Eocene.

  19. Organic Geochemistry and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis of Eocene fine Sediments, East Ketungau Basin, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i2.119Indonesia contains many Paleogene and Neogene basins which some of them have been proven to be a very prolific producer of oil and gas. A study on the result of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker undertaken on the Eocene Mandai Group was able to assess hydrocarbon potential of the Paleogene fine sediments in the frontier basin, especially West Kalimantan area. East Ketungau Basin is located in the western Kalimantan, bounded with Melawi Basin by the Semitau High in the south and West Ketungau Basin in the west. The Mandai Group was deposited in the East Ketungau Basin during Eocene, consisting of sandstone and mudstone facies. Mudstone facies comprises shale, claystone, and coal. Seven samples of Eocene fine sediments collected from East Ketungau Basin were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolisis and three samples for biomarker to evaluate their hydrocarbon potential. The Rock-Eval pyrolisis result of Mandai Group shows that TOC value of this facies ranges from 0.34 % to 5.16 %, Potential Yield (PY between 0.06 and 4.78 mg HC/g rock, and Hydrogen Index (HI from 12 to 89. Based on that result, the fine sediments of Mandai Group are included into a gas prone source rock potential with poor to fair categories. Moreover Tmax values vary from 426o C to 451o C. The Eocene fine sediments of Mandai Group fall under kerogen type III. Based on Tmax and biomarker analyses, the maturity of the sediments is situated within immature to mature level. The fine sediments of Mandai Group were deposited in a terrestrial to marine environment under anoxic to sub-oxic condition.

  20. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D.; Kopp, Robert E.; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Sears, S. Kelly; Lücken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, New Jersey. Aside from previously-described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 μm long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 μm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical...

  1. Terrestrial cooling in Northern Europe during the eocene-oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, Michael T; Sheldon, Nathan D; Grimes, Stephen T; Collinson, Margaret E; Hooker, Jerry J; Bugler, Melanie; Lohmann, Kyger C

    2013-05-07

    Geochemical and modeling studies suggest that the transition from the "greenhouse" state of the Late Eocene to the "icehouse" conditions of the Oligocene 34-33.5 Ma was triggered by a reduction of atmospheric pCO2 that enabled the rapid buildup of a permanent ice sheet on the Antarctic continent. Marine records show that the drop in pCO2 during this interval was accompanied by a significant decline in high-latitude sea surface and deep ocean temperature and enhanced seasonality in middle and high latitudes. However, terrestrial records of this climate transition show heterogeneous responses to changing pCO2 and ocean temperatures, with some records showing a significant time lag in the temperature response to declining pCO2. We measured the Δ47 of aragonite shells of the freshwater gastropod Viviparus lentus from the Solent Group, Hampshire Basin, United Kingdom, to reconstruct terrestrial temperature and hydrologic change in the North Atlantic region during the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Our data show a decrease in growing-season surface water temperatures (~10 °C) during the Eocene-Oligocene transition, corresponding to an average decrease in mean annual air temperature of ~4-6 °C from the Late Eocene to Early Oligocene. The magnitude of cooling is similar to observed decreases in North Atlantic sea surface temperature over this interval and occurs during major glacial expansion. This suggests a close linkage between atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, Northern Hemisphere temperature, and expansion of the Antarctic ice sheets.

  2. Primate tarsal bones from Egerkingen, Switzerland, attributable to the middle Eocene adapiform Caenopithecus lemuroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Erik R; Costeur, Loïc; Boyer, Doug M

    2015-01-01

    The middle Eocene species Caenopithecus lemuroides, known solely from the Egerkingen fissure fillings in Switzerland, was the first Paleogene fossil primate to be correctly identified as such (by Ludwig Rütimeyer in 1862), but has long been represented only by fragmentary mandibular and maxillary remains. More recent discoveries of adapiform fossils in other parts of the world have revealed Caenopithecus to be a biogeographic enigma, as it is potentially more closely related to Eocene adapiforms from Africa, Asia, and North America than it is to any known European forms. More anatomical evidence is needed, however, to provide robust tests of such phylogenetic hypotheses. Here we describe and analyze the first postcranial remains that can be attributed to C. lemuroides-an astragalus and three calcanei held in the collections of the Naturhistorisches Museum Basel that were likely recovered from Egerkingen over a century ago. Qualitative and multivariate morphometric analyses of these elements suggest that C. lemuroides was even more loris-like than European adapines such as Adapis and Leptadapis, and was not simply an adapine with an aberrant dentition. The astragalus of Caenopithecus is similar to that of younger Afradapis from the late Eocene of Egypt, and parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses that include the new tarsal data strongly support the placement of Afradapis and Caenopithecus as sister taxa to the exclusion of all other known adapiforms, thus implying that dispersal between Europe and Africa occurred during the middle Eocene. The new tarsal evidence, combined with previously known craniodental fossils, allows us to reconstruct C. lemuroides as having been an arboreal and highly folivorous 1.5-2.5 kg primate that likely moved slowly and deliberately with little or no capacity for acrobatic leaping, presumably maintaining consistent powerful grasps on branches in both above-branch and inverted postures.

  3. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene Helium-3 Spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part or all of the (sup 3) He spike seen in the sedimentary record at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits.

  4. Late cretaceous to early eocene foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Rakhi Nala area, Sulaiman Range, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, J.

    1996-01-01

    Shaly intervals from late cretaceous to early eocene sediments of the Rakhi Nala Section (Sulaiman Range) were analysed for the foraminiferal micro fauna (Planktons, smaller and larger benthics). The faunal record is interpreted for the precise age and paleo environments. These fresh results, in the light of modern bio stratigraphic knowledge, are compared with the previous bio stratigraphic information available about this area. Several discrepancies regarding the litho and biostratigraphy from the previous literature were addressed and tried to remove. (author)

  5. Integrated stratigraphy of a shallow marine Paleocene-Eocene boundary section, MCBR cores, Maryland (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, J. M.; Robinson, M. M.; Edwards, L. E.; Powars, D. S.; Wandless, G. A.; Willard, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    An exceptional Paleocene-Eocene boundary section occurs in a cluster of six short (color from gray to alternating gray and pink also occurs within the CIE transition. These alternating changes in color coincide with cyclic peaks in the carbon isotope and percent calcium carbonate curves, where gray color corresponds to a positive shift in carbon isotope values and to a corresponding increase in percent benthic and planktic foraminifera. The upper third of the Marlboro Clay is barren of all calcareous microfossil material, although the presence of foraminiferal molds and linings proves that deposition occurred in a marine environment. Co-occurrence of the dinoflagellates Apectodinium augustum and Phthanoperidinium crenulatum at the top of the Marlboro Clay suggests that the Marlboro Clay at Mattawoman Creek is truncated. This is corroborated by the absence in the Marlboro of specimens of the calcareous nannofossil Rhomboaster-Discoaster assemblage, which is restricted to early Eocene Zone NP9b. Based on planktic/benthic foraminifera ratios, deposition of sediments at Mattawoman Creek occurred predominantly in an inner neritic environment, at water depths between 25-50 m. Occasional deepening to approximately 75m (middle neritic environment) occurred in the early Eocene, as represented by the basal Marlboro Clay. The planktic/benthic ratio, however, could also be affected by surface productivity and/or river runoff. The gradual shift up-section in core color from gray to alternating gray and red, to dark red, coupled with dissolution of calcareous microfossil assemblages, is possibly secondary and may represent lysocline shoaling in a nearshore environment. This would suggest that lysocline shoaling continued after the CIE and well into the early Eocene.

  6. Long Wavelenth Subsidence of Western Europe during Late Eocene-Oligocene (38-23 Ma): Mantle Dynamic Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillocheau, Francois; Robin, Cécile; Bessin, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Western Europe (France, southern Britain, southern Belgium, western Germany) is subsiding during Late Eocene to Oligocene (38-23 Ma) as suggested by the growth of numerous small sedimentary basins mainly filled by lacustrine deposits with some brackish to marine deposits. This large-scale subsidence is coeval with the early stage of the so-called Oligocene rifts (in fact Late Bartonian to Rupelian): Lower Rhinegraben, Bresse, Limagnes. The subsiding domain extends from Cornwall to the Rhine Graben including the Armorican Massif, the southern Paris Basin, the northern Aquitaine Basin, the French Central Massif, the Ardennes-Eifel… This subsidence occurred at a period of global sea level fall and then an eustatic component cannot explain (1) the accommodation space creation and (2) the marine floding with a paroxysm during Early Oligocene times (Armorican Massif, ?Ardennes, French Massif central). This marine flooding also indicate that the relief of the Hercynian basement was less elevated and smoother than today. Some of those small "basins" were interpreted as little rifts, but new mapping (e.g. Puy-en-Velay or Forez Plain in the French Massif central) or new geophysical data (e.g. Rennes Basin in the Armorican massif) suggest that no faults control those basins or that they result from post-depositional collapses. This long wavelength subsidence is at the scale of the mantle dynamic. Possible mantle mechanisms and the relationships with the "Oligocene" rifts and the North Sea inversion will be discussed.

  7. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the middle Eocene Guara carbonate platform near Arguis, South-West Pyrenean foreland: Implications for basin physiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, D.; Castelltort, S.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Filleaudeau, P.-Y.; Emmanuel, L.; Mouthereau, F.; Renard, M.

    2009-04-01

    the paleobathymetric gradient on this side of the foreland basin. The sedimentological and paleontological content show that the Guara formation was deposited in shallow water environments (less than 80 m) and can be classified as a carbonate ramp. The evolution of paleobathymetries with time on these two sections allows us to identify three complete progradational - retrogradational cycles. Those cycles do not match global eustatic variations, perhaps indicating the dominating influence of tectonics in this area. The precise study of foraminifera allowed us to date our sections with respect to the SBZ time scale of Serra-Kiel et al. (1). The bottom of the Guara formation, in the Arguis section is dated from the lower Lutetian (SBZ 13) and the top corresponds to the upper Lutetian (SBZ 16). An important hiatus is recorded between the base of the carbonates and the lower Paleocene subjacent continental deposits. Moreover, the base of the formation is older at Lusera i.e. to the centre of the basin. This hiatus could thus represent the foreland flexural forebulge unconformity (2). By restoring the relative position of the two sections during the Lutetian, we have calculated the possible slope of the Guara ramp during this period for each MFS, with values always lower than 0.5°. Extrapolating this slope to the centre of the basin allows us to estimate the paleodepth of the coeval Eocene turbidites and address the important issue of the depth of deposition of submarine fan systems in foreland settings. Within the limits of our approach we propose that these clastic fan systems have been deposited under water depths of 400 to 200 metres. This is partly in agreement with the upper bound of other estimations based on foraminiferal assemblages and trace fossils, and thus favours a relatively "shallow" view of the Middle Eocene Ainsa-Jaca deep marine basin. 1. J. Serra-Kiel et al., Bulletin De La Societe Geologique De France 169, 281 (March 1, 1998, 1998). 2. S. L. Crampton

  8. Astronomical calibration of the geological timescale: closing the middle Eocene gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, T.; Röhl, U.; Frederichs, T.; Bohaty, S. M.; Zachos, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    To explore cause and consequences of past climate change, very accurate age models such as those provided by the astronomical timescale (ATS) are needed. Beyond 40 million years the accuracy of the ATS critically depends on the correctness of orbital models and radioisotopic dating techniques. Discrepancies in the age dating of sedimentary successions and the lack of suitable records spanning the middle Eocene have prevented development of a continuous astronomically calibrated geological timescale for the entire Cenozoic Era. We now solve this problem by constructing an independent astrochronological stratigraphy based on Earth's stable 405 kyr eccentricity cycle between 41 and 48 million years ago (Ma) with new data from deep-sea sedimentary sequences in the South Atlantic Ocean. This new link completes the Paleogene astronomical timescale and confirms the intercalibration of radioisotopic and astronomical dating methods back through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.930 Ma) and the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (66.022 Ma). Coupling of the Paleogene 405 kyr cyclostratigraphic frameworks across the middle Eocene further paves the way for extending the ATS into the Mesozoic.

  9. Eocene Loranthaceae pollen pushes back divergence ages for major splits in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friðgeir Grímsson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background We revisit the palaeopalynological record of Loranthaceae, using pollen ornamentation to discriminate lineages and to test molecular dating estimates for the diversification of major lineages. Methods Fossil Loranthaceae pollen from the Eocene and Oligocene are analysed and documented using scanning-electron microscopy. These fossils were associated with molecular-defined clades and used as minimum age constraints for Bayesian node dating using different topological scenarios. Results The fossil Loranthaceae pollen document the presence of at least one extant root-parasitic lineage (Nuytsieae and two currently aerial parasitic lineages (Psittacanthinae and Loranthinae by the end of the Eocene in the Northern Hemisphere. Phases of increased lineage diversification (late Eocene, middle Miocene coincide with global warm phases. Discussion With the generation of molecular data becoming easier and less expensive every day, neontological research should re-focus on conserved morphologies that can be traced through the fossil record. The pollen, representing the male gametophytic generation of plants and often a taxonomic indicator, can be such a tracer. Analogously, palaeontological research should put more effort into diagnosing Cenozoic fossils with the aim of including them into modern systematic frameworks.

  10. A new primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches (Middle Eocene, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Becker, Damien; Costeur, Loïc

    2017-12-01

    Primates reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, favored by warm temperatures and by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Here we describe new primate material from La Verrerie de Roches, a Middle Eocene karstic infill situated in the Jura Region (Switzerland), consisting of more than 80 dental remains. The primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches includes five different taxa. The best represented primate is Necrolemur aff. anadoni, similar in size and overall morphology to Necrolemur anadoni but resembling in some features the younger species Necrolemur antiquus. Microchoerines are also represented by two species of Pseudoloris, P. pyrenaicus and Pseudoloris parvulus, constituting the unique joint record of these two species known up to now. Remains of Adapiformes are limited to one isolated tooth of a large anchomomyin and another tooth belonging to the small adapine Microadapis cf. sciureus. The studied primate association allows assigning La Verrerie de Roches to the Robiacian Land Mammal Age. More specifically, this site can be confidently situated between the MP15 and MP16 reference levels, although the primate assemblage probably indicates some degree of temporal mixing. This is the first record of P. pyrenaicus and a form closely related to N. anadoni out of the Iberian Peninsula. The identification of these microchoerines in Switzerland gives further support to the connection of NE Spain and Central Europe during the Middle Eocene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Virtual endocranial cast of earliest Eocene Diacodexis (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) and morphological diversity of early artiodactyl brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orliac, M. J.; Gilissen, E.

    2012-01-01

    The study of brain evolution, particularly that of the neocortex, is of primary interest because it directly relates to how behavioural variations arose both between and within mammalian groups. Artiodactyla is one of the most diverse mammalian clades. However, the first 10 Myr of their brain evolution has remained undocumented so far. Here, we used high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to investigate the endocranial cast of Diacodexis ilicis of earliest Eocene age. Its virtual reconstruction provides unprecedented access to both metric parameters and fine anatomy of the most complete endocast of the earliest artiodactyl. This picture is assessed in a broad comparative context by reconstructing endocasts of 14 other Early and Middle Eocene representatives of basal artiodactyls, allowing the tracking of the neocortical structure of artiodactyls back to its simplest pattern. We show that the earliest artiodactyls share a simple neocortical pattern, so far never observed in other ungulates, with an almond-shaped gyrus instead of parallel sulci as previously hypothesized. Our results demonstrate that artiodactyls experienced a tardy pulse of encephalization during the Late Neogene, well after the onset of cortical complexity increase. Comparisons with Eocene perissodactyls show that the latter reached a high level of cortical complexity earlier than the artiodactyls. PMID:22764165

  12. Eocene Loranthaceae pollen pushes back divergence ages for major splits in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grímsson, Friðgeir; Kapli, Paschalia; Hofmann, Christa-Charlotte; Zetter, Reinhard; Grimm, Guido W

    2017-01-01

    We revisit the palaeopalynological record of Loranthaceae, using pollen ornamentation to discriminate lineages and to test molecular dating estimates for the diversification of major lineages. Fossil Loranthaceae pollen from the Eocene and Oligocene are analysed and documented using scanning-electron microscopy. These fossils were associated with molecular-defined clades and used as minimum age constraints for Bayesian node dating using different topological scenarios. The fossil Loranthaceae pollen document the presence of at least one extant root-parasitic lineage (Nuytsieae) and two currently aerial parasitic lineages (Psittacanthinae and Loranthinae) by the end of the Eocene in the Northern Hemisphere. Phases of increased lineage diversification (late Eocene, middle Miocene) coincide with global warm phases. With the generation of molecular data becoming easier and less expensive every day, neontological research should re-focus on conserved morphologies that can be traced through the fossil record. The pollen, representing the male gametophytic generation of plants and often a taxonomic indicator, can be such a tracer. Analogously, palaeontological research should put more effort into diagnosing Cenozoic fossils with the aim of including them into modern systematic frameworks.

  13. Tarsal morphology of the pleuraspidotheriid mammal Hilalia from the middle Eocene of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoire Metais

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleuraspidotheriids are a group of primitive ungulate mammals that, until recently, were thought to be restricted to the late Paleocene of Western Europe. It has been hypothesized that this family actually survived in Central Anatolia until at least the middle Eocene. However, these anachronistically young Anatolian “survivors”, including the genus Hilalia, were previously documented mainly by dental remains. Here, we describe the previously unknown astragalus of Hilalia saribeya, which confirms the pleuraspidotheriid affinities of the genus, and supports phylogenetic reconstructions that place Hilalia as the sister group of Pleuraspidotherium. The morphology of the astragalus suggests sub-cursorial plantigrade locomotion for H. saribeya, although its tarsal morphology remains generalized enough that scansorial capabilities cannot be ruled out. The evolution of Hilalia is addressed in the context of the apparent geographic isolation of Central Anatolia during the Eocene. The endemic character of the mammalian fauna of Central Anatolia during the middle Eocene emphasizes how the complex paleogeography of the northern margin of Neotethys impacted local biotas in a region situated at the crossroads of very distinctive biogeographic zones.

  14. Fossil cyclanthus (cyclanthaceae, pandanales) from the eocene of Germany and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selena Y; Collinson, Margaret E; Rudall, Paula J

    2008-06-01

    The first known fossil fruits and seeds of Cyclanthaceae are described here. Cyclanthus messelensis sp. nov., from the Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany, has discoidal fruiting cycles up to 6 cm in diameter, with a central hole, radiating fiber strands, a thickened outer rim, and paratetracytic stomata. In situ seeds are up to 2 mm long, with an elongate micropylar end, a chalazal neck, and adpressed bands. The Messel fruits and seeds are nearly identical to those of Cyclanthus, differing in minor details of cuticular structure and seeds. The exceptional preservation at Messel (including in situ and isolated seeds) has also allowed us to establish the taxonomic affinity of isolated seeds ('Scirpus' lakensis) that are spatially and temporally widespread in the late Early and early Middle Eocene of southern England. Cyclanthus lakensis comb. nov. is described here as a morphotaxon for isolated fossil Cyclanthus seeds, preserved only as cuticular envelopes. Cyclanthus is another example of links between Eocene Europe and Recent South American floras because it is found today only from Mexico to South America. This material represents the first fossil fruits and seeds of Cyclanthus, which clearly was once growing in the Paleogene of the Old World.

  15. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  16. Sea Surface Warming and Increased Aridity at Mid-latitudes during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D. T.; Zeebe, R. E.; Hoenisch, B.; Schrader, C.; Lourens, L. J.; Zachos, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Early Eocene hyperthermals, i.e. abrupt global warming events characterized by the release of isotopically light carbon to the atmosphere, can provide insight into the sensitivity of the Earth's climate system and hydrologic cycle to carbon emissions. Indeed, the largest Eocene hyperthermal, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), has provided one case study of extreme and abrupt global warming, with a mass of carbon release roughly equivalent to total modern fossil fuel reserves and a release rate 1/10 that of modern. Global sea surface temperatures (SST) increased by 5-8°C during the PETM and extensive evidence from marine and terrestrial records indicates significant shifts in the hydrologic cycle consistent with an increase in poleward moisture transport in response to surface warming. The second largest Eocene hyperthermal, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM-2) provides an additional calibration point for determining the sensitivity of climate and the hydrologic cycle to massive carbon release. Marine carbon isotope excursions (CIE) and warming at the ETM-2 were roughly half as large as at the PETM, but reliable evidence for shifts in temperature and the hydrologic cycle are sparse for the ETM-2. Here, we utilize coupled planktic foraminiferal δ18O and Mg/Ca to determine ΔSST and ΔSSS (changes in sea surface temperature and salinity) for ETM-2 at ODP Sites 1209 (28°N paleolatitude in the Pacific) and 1265 (42°S paleolatitude in the S. Atlantic), accounting for potential pH influence on the two proxies by using LOSCAR climate-carbon cycle simulated ΔpH. Our results indicate a warming of 2-4°C at both mid-latitude sites and an increase in SSS of 1-3ppt, consistent with simulations of early Paleogene hydroclimate that suggest an increase in low- to mid-latitude aridity due to an intensification of moisture transport to high-latitudes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the CIE and warming for ETM-2 scales with the CIE and warming for the PETM, suggesting that

  17. Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial early Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium and hydrocarbon exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains as in the channel sandstones deposited by the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River extending westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel sandstones with a Granite Mountain source occur south of this segment of the Eocene Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district but channel sandstones between the Gas Hills district and the 25-mile segment of the Eocene Wind River are potentially mineralized. This area includes the entire southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel sandstones derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the Paleocene Wind River flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing Eocene Wind River. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene Wind River channel sandstones, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel sandstones and natural gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits. The channel sandstones of the Paleocene and Eocene Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation

  18. Geological Development of the Izu-Bonin Forearc Since the Eocene Based on Biostratigraphic, Rock Magnetic, and Sediment Provenance Observations from IODP Expedition 352 Drill Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronotis, K. E.; Robertson, A.; Kutterolf, S.; Avery, A.; Baxter, A.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Wang, K. L.; Acton, G.

    2016-12-01

    International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 352 recovered early Oligocene to recent sediments above Eocene igneous basement at 4 sites in the Izu-Bonin Forearc. The sites were selected to investigate the forearc region since subduction initiation in the Eocene, with Sites U1439 and U1442 being cored into the upper trench slope and Sites U1440 and U1441 into the lower trench slope. Postcruise studies of biostratigraphy, sediment chemistry, tephra composition and chronology and magnetic properties, along with observations from prior coring help constrain the regional geological development. Volcanic activity in the area, as inferred from its influence on sediment composition, has varied between long periods of activity and quiescence. Combined whole-rock sediment chemistry and tephra compositions suggest that during the Oligocene to earliest Miocene ( 30-22 Ma) tuffaceous input of predominantly dacitic composition was mainly derived from the intra-oceanic Izu-Bonin Arc. The early Miocene interval ( 22-15 Ma) lacks tuffaceous input, as supported by rock magnetic data. During this period, the forearc subsided beneath the carbonate compensation depth (CCD), as evidenced by radiolarian-bearing mud and metal-rich silty clay. This was followed by input of tephra with bimodal felsic and mafic compositions from the Izu-Bonin Arc from 15 to 5 Ma. Middle Miocene to Quaternary time was characterized by increased carbonate preservation, coupled with abundant, predominantly felsic tephra input, which is chemically indicative of a Japan continental arc source (Honshu), with additional chemically distinctive input from the Izu-Bonin Arc. Extending back to 32 Ma, tephra layers can be correlated between the upper-slope sites, extrapolated to the less well-dated lower-slope sites, and further correlated with onland Japanese tephra (Kutterolf et al., 2016; Goldschmidt Conference). Overall, the new results provide an improved understanding of the regional tectonic evolution.

  19. Macrocrystal phlogopite Rb-Sr dates for the Ekati property kimberlites, Slave Province, Canada: evidence for multiple intrusive episodes in the Paleocene and Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creaser, Robert A.; Grütter, Herman; Carlson, Jon; Crawford, Barbara

    2004-09-01

    New Rb-Sr age determinations using macrocrystal phlogopite are presented for 27 kimberlites from the Ekati property of the Lac de Gras region, Slave Province, Canada. These new data show that kimberlite magmatism at Ekati ranges in age from at least Late Paleocene (∼61 Ma) to Middle Eocene time (∼45 Ma). Older, perovskite-bearing kimberlites from Ekati extend this age range to Late Cretaceous time (∼74 Ma). Within this age range, emplacement episodes at ∼48, 51-53, 55-56 and 59-61 Ma can be recognized. Middle Eocene kimberlite magmatism of the previously dated Mark kimberlite (∼47.5 Ma) is shown to include four other pipes from the east-central Ekati property. A single kimberlite (Aaron) may be younger than the 47.5 Ma Mark kimberlite. The economically important Panda kimberlite is precisely dated in this study to be 53.3±0.6 Ma using the phlogopite isochron method, and up to six additional kimberlites from the central Ekati property have Early Eocene ages indistinguishable from that of Panda, including the Koala and Koala North occurrences. Late Paleocene 55-56 Ma kimberlite magmatism, represented by the Diavik kimberlite pipes adjacent to the southeastern Ekati property, is shown to extend onto the southeastern Ekati property and includes three, and possibly four, kimberlites. A precise eight-point phlogopite isochron for the Cobra South kimberlite yields an emplacement age of 59.7±0.4 Ma; eight other kimberlites from across the Ekati property have similar Late Paleocene Rb-Sr model ages. The addition of 27 new emplacement ages for kimberlites from the Ekati property confirms that kimberlite magmatism from the central Slave Province is geologically young, despite ages ranging back to Cambrian time from elsewhere in the Slave Province. With the available geochronologic database, Lac de Gras kimberlites with the highest diamond potential are currently restricted to the 51-53 and 55-56 Ma periods of kimberlite magmatism.

  20. The Monsoon Erosion Pump and the Indian Monsoon since Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, L.

    2017-12-01

    Lack of consensus on the Neogene establishment and evolution of the Indian Monsoon is remarkable after half a century of research. Conflicting interpretations point toward the possibility of periodic decoupling between monsoon winds and monsoon precipitation. Here I introduce the concept of a monsoon erosion pump based on terrestrial and oceanic records reconstructed from recent NGHP and IODP drilling and spanning the last 34 million years in the Bay of Bengal, Arabian and Andaman Seas. From millennial to orbital to tectonic timescales, these records suggest that vegetation land cover interacts and modulates the regime of erosion and weathering under perennial but variable monsoonal rain conditions. Under this new proposed paradigm the Indian monsoon exhibits two distinct flavours during the Neogene that can be largely explained by its heartbeat, or astronomical forcing, mediated by the global glacial state and interacting with the paleogeography of South Asia.

  1. Metasequoia glyptostroboides and its Utility in Paleoecological Reconstruction of Eocene High Latitude Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; LePage, B. A.; Vann, D. R.; Johnson, A. H.

    2001-05-01

    Abundant fossil plant remains are preserved in the Eocene-aged deposits of the Buchanan Lake formation on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada. Intact leaf litter, logs, and stumps preserved in situ as mummified remains present an opportunity to determine forest composition, structure, and productivity of a Taxodiaceae-dominated forest that once grew north of the Arctic Circle (paleolatitude 75-80° N). We excavated 37 tree stems for dimensional analysis from mudstone and channel-sand deposits. Stem length ranged from 1.0 m to 14.8 m (average = 3.2 m). Stem diameter ranged from less than 10 cm to greater than 75 cm (average = 32.2 cm). All stem wood was tentatively identified to genus as Metasequoia sp. The diameters and parabolic shape of the preserved tree trunks indicate that the Metasequoia were about 39 m tall across a wide range of diameters. The allometric relationships we derived for modern Metasequoia (n=70) allowed independent predictions of Metasequoia height given the stand density and stump diameters of the fossil forest. The two height estimates of 40 and 40.5 m match the results obtained from measurements of the Eocene trees. We used stump diameter data (n =107, diameter > 20 cm) and an uniform canopy height of 39 m to calculate parabolic stem volume and stem biomass for a 0.22 ha area of fossil forest. Stem volume equaled 2065 m3 ha-1 and stem biomass equaled 560 Mg ha-1 . In the Eocene forest, as determined from length of stems that were free of protruding branches and from 7 exhumed tree tops, the uppermost 9 m of the trees carried live branches with foliage. In living conifers, branch weights and the amount of foliage carried by branches are well correlated with branch diameters measured where the branch joins the main stem. To determine the biomass in branches and foliage in the Eocene forest, we used relationships derived from large modern Metasequoia. Based on the regression of branch weight v. branch diameter (r2 = 0.97) and foliar biomass v

  2. Fuenferrada 3, the first Eocene mammal locality in the depression of Montalbán (Teruel, Spain), with some remarks on the fauna of Olalla 4A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The rodent fauna of Fuenferrada contains two species of Theridomyidae and three species of Gliridae. It is compared with the Early Oligocene fauna of Olalla 4A, and with the Late Eocene fauna of Aguatón 2D. The absence of Cricetidae serves to determine its age as latest Eocene.

  3. High-resolution magneto stratigraphic of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the Umbria-Marche sequence; Stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene nella successione Umbro-Marchigiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanci, L.; Lowrie, W.; Montanari, A.

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution magneto stratigraphy across the Eocene-Olicene boundary has been employed in a detailed investigation of the nature of low-amplitude, short-wavelength oceanic magnetic anomalies. [Italiano] La stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene ed il magnetismo delle rocce sono stati studiati in dettaglio per verificare la presenza di eventuali inversioni di polarita` brevi (short chrons) e variazioni delle intensita` del campo geomagnetico che possano essere messe in relazione con le anomalie oceaniche a bassa ampiezza e corto periodo.

  4. Craniodental morphology and systematics of a new family of hystricognathous rodents (Gaudeamuridae from the late eocene and early oligocene of Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M Sallam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gaudeamus is an enigmatic hystricognathous rodent that was, until recently, known solely from fragmentary material from early Oligocene sites in Egypt, Oman, and Libya. Gaudeamus' molars are similar to those of the extant cane rat Thryonomys, and multiple authorities have aligned Gaudeamus with Thryonomys to the exclusion of other living and extinct African hystricognaths; recent phylogenetic analyses have, however, also suggested affinities with South American caviomorphs or Old World porcupines (Hystricidae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the oldest known remains of Gaudeamus, including largely complete but crushed crania and complete upper and lower dentitions. Unlike younger Gaudeamus species, the primitive species described here have relatively complex occlusal patterns, and retain a number of plesiomorphic features. Unconstrained parsimony analysis nests Gaudeamus and Hystrix within the South American caviomorph radiation, implying what we consider to be an implausible back-dispersal across the Atlantic Ocean to account for Gaudeamus' presence in the late Eocene of Africa. An analysis that was constrained to recover the biogeographically more plausible hypothesis of caviomorph monophyly does not place Gaudeamus as a stem caviomorph, but rather as a sister taxon of hystricids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We place Gaudeamus species in a new family, Gaudeamuridae, and consider it likely that the group originated, diversified, and then went extinct over a geologically brief period of time during the latest Eocene and early Oligocene in Afro-Arabia. Gaudeamurids are the only known crown hystricognaths from Afro-Arabia that are likely to be aligned with non-phiomorph members of that clade, and as such provide additional support for an Afro-Arabian origin of advanced stem and basal crown members of Hystricognathi.

  5. The Eocene climate of China, the early elevation of the Tibetan Plateau and the onset of the Asian Monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Spicer, Robert A; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yu-Fei; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2013-12-01

    Eocene palynological samples from 37 widely distributed sites across China were analysed using co-existence approach to determine trends in space and time for seven palaeoclimate variables: Mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, mean temperature of the warmest month, mean temperature of the coldest month, mean annual range of temperature, mean maximum monthly precipitation and mean minimum monthly precipitation. Present day distributions and observed climates within China of the nearest living relatives of the fossil forms were used to find the range of a given variable in which a maximum number of taxa can coexist. Isotherm and isohyet maps for the early, middle and late Eocene were constructed. These illustrate regional changing patterns in thermal and precipitational gradients that may be interpreted as the beginnings of the modern Asian Monsoon system, and suggest that the uplift of parts of the Tibetan Plateau appear to have taken place by the middle to late Eocene. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Palaeocology of coal-bearing Eocene sediments in central Anatolia (Turkey) based on quantitative palynological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkiraz, M.S.; Kayseri, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the lignite-bearing Yoncali formation between Yozgat and Sorgun, in central Anatolia has been palynologically examined. Based on 37 outcrop samples, quantitative palynological studies recognized 64 genera and 136 palynoflora species in the palynological assemblage, which indicated a Middle-Late Eocene age. This paper also presents a quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Middle-Upper Eocene coal occurrences of Central Anatolia on the basis of palynomorph assemblages. The diversified floral and ecological characteristics of the pollen taxa indicates that the Middle-Upper Eocene formations in central Anatolia were characterized by the presence of a complex mangrove swamp with contributions by Nypa, Pelliciera, Avicennia, Diporites tszkaszentgydrgyi and dinoflagellate cysts which reflect warm climatic conditions. Lowland-riparian and montane elements are characterized by the dominance of Myricaceae, Symplocaceae, Icacinaceae, Quercus, Pinus and Castanea. Swamp-freshwater elements are represented by Sparganjaceae, Nymphaceae, Taxodjaceae, Cupressaceae and Nyssa as well as fern spores such as Osmundaceae and Gleicheniaceae. The calculations were performed with the help of the 'Coexistence Approach' method to climatically evaluate palynoflora from the Yozgat-Sorgun area. The obtained results have been compared to data derived from the application of the Coexistence Approach to other, already published Central Anatolian palynofloras of the same age. The results of the climatic inferences suggest that the palaeoclimatic conditions were in the megathermal zone, megatherm/mesotherm intermediate zone whereas mesothermic conditions prevailed in the montane region. Likewise, the results of mean annual range of temperatures indicate the influence of the Indian ocean, which enabled the development of the mangroves.

  7. Complete primate skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens L Franzen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record.We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650-900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest.Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.

  8. Revised East-West Antarctic plate motions since the Middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, R.; Cande, S. C.; Stock, J.; Damaske, D.

    2010-12-01

    The middle Cenozoic (43-26 Ma) rifting between East and West Antarctica is defined by an episode of ultraslow seafloor spreading in the Adare Basin, located off northwestern Ross Sea. The absence of fracture zones and the lack of sufficient well-located magnetic anomaly picks have resulted in a poorly constrained kinematic model (Cande et al., 2000). Here we utilize the results from a dense aeromagnetic survey (Damaske et al., 2007) collected as part of GANOVEX IX 2005/06 campaign to re-evaluate the kinematics of the West Antarctic rift system since the Middle Eocene. We identify marine magnetic anomalies (anomalies 12o, 13o, 16y, and 18o) along a total of 25,000 km of the GPS navigated magnetic profiles. The continuation of these anomalies into the Northern Basin has allowed us to use the entire N-S length of this dataset in our calculations. A distinct curvature in the orientation of the spreading axis provides a strong constraint on our calculated kinematic models. The results from two- (East-West Antarctica) and three- (Australia-East Antarctica-West Antarctica) plate solutions agree well and create a cluster of rotation axes located south of the rift system, near the South Pole. These solutions reveal that spreading rate and direction, and therefore motion between East and West Antarctica, were steady between the Middle Eocene and Early Oligocene. Our kinematic solutions confirm the results of Davey and De Santis (2005) that the Victoria Land Basin has accommodated ~95 km of extension since the Middle Eocene. This magnetic pattern also provides valuable constraints on the post-spreading deformation of the Adare Basin (Granot et al., 2010). The Adare Basin has accommodated very little extension since the Late Oligocene (<7 km), but motion has probably increased southward. The details of this younger phase of motion are still crudely constrained.

  9. Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum linked to continental arc flare-up in Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; Kuiper, K.; van der Ploeg, R.; Cramwinckel, M.; Honarmand, M.; Sluijs, A.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    A 500 kyr episode of 3-5 °C gradual global climate warming, some 40 Myr ago, has been termed the Middle Eocene climatic optimum (MECO). It has been associated with a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but the source of this carbon remains enigmatic. We show, based on new Ar-Ar ages of volcanic rocks in Iran and Azerbaijan, that the time interval spanning the MECO was associated with a massive increase in continental arc volcanism. We also collected almost 300 Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages from literature. Typically, U-Pb ages from the Eocene are slightly younger, by 3 Myr, than Ar-Ar ages. We observed that U-Pb ages are obtained mostly from intrusive rocks and therefore must reflect an intrusive stage that post-dated extrusive volcanism. Combining all ages for extrusive rocks, we show that they cluster around 40.2 Ma, exactly within the time span of the MECO (40.5-40.0 Ma). We estimate volumes of volcanism based on a shapefile of outcrops and average thickness of the sequences. We calculate CO2 estimates using a relation volcanism-CO2 that was earlier used for the Deccan traps (Tobin et al., 2017). Our calculations indicate that the volume of the Iranian middle Eocene volcanic rocks (estimated at 37000 km3) is sufficient to explain the CO2 rise during the MECO. We conclude that continental arc flare-up in the Neotethys subduction zone is a plausible candidate for causing the MECO.

  10. The evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick; Dumas, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that the Middle to Late Eocene has witnessed the waxing and waning of relatively small ephemeral ice sheets. These alternating episodes culminated in the Eocene-Oligocene transition (34 - 33.5 Ma) during which a sudden and massive glaciation occurred over Antarctica. Data studies have demonstrated that this glacial event is constituted of two 50 kyr-long steps, the first of modest (10 - 30 m of equivalent sea level) and the second of major (50 - 90 m esl) glacial amplitude, and separated by 200 kyrs. Since a decade, modeling studies have put forward the primary role of CO2 in the initiation of this glaciation, in doing so marginalizing the original "gateway hypothesis". Here, we investigate the impacts of CO2 and orbital parameters on the evolution of the ice sheet during the 500 kyrs of the EO transition using a tri-dimensional interpolation method. The latter allows precise orbital variations, CO2 evolution and ice sheet feedbacks (including the albedo) to be accounted for. Our results show that orbital variations are instrumental in initiating the first step of the EO glaciation but that the primary driver of the major second step is the atmospheric pCO2 crossing a modelled glacial threshold of 900 ppm. Although model-dependant, this higher glacial threshold makes a stronger case for ephemeral Middle-Late Eocene ice sheets. In addition, sensitivity tests demonstrate that the small first step only exists if the absolute pCO2 value remains within 100 ppm higher than the glacial threshold during the first 250 kyrs of the transition. Thereby, the pCO2 sufficiently counterbalances the strong insolation minima occurring at 33.9 and 33.8 Ma but is low enough to allow the ice sheet to nucleate. Nevertheless, questions remain as to what may cause this pCO2 drop.

  11. The Eocene Arctic Azolla bloom: environmental conditions, productivity and carbon drawdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, E N; Van Kempen, M M L; Barke, J; Brinkhuis, H; Reichart, G J; Smolders, A J P; Roelofs, J G M; Sangiorgi, F; de Leeuw, J W; Lotter, A F; Sinninghe Damsté, J S

    2009-03-01

    Enormous quantities of the free-floating freshwater fern Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Arctic Ocean during the middle Eocene, as was demonstrated by microscopic analysis of microlaminated sediments recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302. The timing of the Azolla phase (approximately 48.5 Ma) coincides with the earliest signs of onset of the transition from a greenhouse towards the modern icehouse Earth. The sustained growth of Azolla, currently ranking among the fastest growing plants on Earth, in a major anoxic oceanic basin may have contributed to decreasing atmospheric pCO2 levels via burial of Azolla-derived organic matter. The consequences of these enormous Azolla blooms for regional and global nutrient and carbon cycles are still largely unknown. Cultivation experiments have been set up to investigate the influence of elevated pCO2 on Azolla growth, showing a marked increase in Azolla productivity under elevated (760 and 1910 ppm) pCO2 conditions. The combined results of organic carbon, sulphur, nitrogen content and 15N and 13C measurements of sediments from the Azolla interval illustrate the potential contribution of nitrogen fixation in a euxinic stratified Eocene Arctic. Flux calculations were used to quantitatively reconstruct the potential storage of carbon (0.9-3.5 10(18) gC) in the Arctic during the Azolla interval. It is estimated that storing 0.9 10(18) to 3.5 10(18) g carbon would result in a 55 to 470 ppm drawdown of pCO2 under Eocene conditions, indicating that the Arctic Azolla blooms may have had a significant effect on global atmospheric pCO2 levels through enhanced burial of organic matter.

  12. Atmospheric and oceanic impacts of Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A T; Farnsworth, A; Lunt, D J; Lear, C H; Markwick, P J

    2015-11-13

    The glaciation of Antarctica at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (approx. 34 million years ago) was a major shift in the Earth's climate system, but the mechanisms that caused the glaciation, and its effects, remain highly debated. A number of recent studies have used coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models to assess the climatic effects of Antarctic glacial inception, with often contrasting results. Here, using the HadCM3L model, we show that the global atmosphere and ocean response to growth of the Antarctic ice sheet is sensitive to subtle variations in palaeogeography, using two reconstructions representing Eocene and Oligocene geological stages. The earlier stage (Eocene; Priabonian), which has a relatively constricted Tasman Seaway, shows a major increase in sea surface temperature over the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean in response to the ice sheet. This response does not occur for the later stage (Oligocene; Rupelian), which has a more open Tasman Seaway. This difference in temperature response is attributed to reorganization of ocean currents between the stages. Following ice sheet expansion in the earlier stage, the large Ross Sea gyre circulation decreases in size. Stronger zonal flow through the Tasman Seaway allows salinities to increase in the Ross Sea, deep-water formation initiates and multiple feedbacks then occur amplifying the temperature response. This is potentially a model-dependent result, but it highlights the sensitive nature of model simulations to subtle variations in palaeogeography, and highlights the need for coupled ice sheet-climate simulations to properly represent and investigate feedback processes acting on these time scales. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Normal polarity magnetosubchrons in 24r and the age of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerbekmo, J.F.; Heaman, L.M.; Baadsgaard, H.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Evans, M.E.; Sweet, A.R. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    A late Paleocene to early Eocene sequence of flat-lying continental strata occurs in an area known as Obed Mountain, west-central Alberta. The upper 110 m consist of interbedded fluvial channel sandstones and overbank mudrocks containing five back swamp coal seams. Two coreholes, 3.5 km apart, that extend through the entire coal zone were sampled for magnetostratigraphy and {sup 13}C isotope analysis. Bentonites in the No. 1 (lowest) and No. 5 coal seams and a tuff in the No. 3 coal seam were sampled for U-Pb and (or) Rb-Sr dating of zircon and biotite, respectively. Magnetostratigraphic analysis of 520 samples identified the younger part of chron 25r, the whole of chron 25n and the older half of chron 24r. We find six normal polarity subzones in this part of chron 24r, which we correlate to tiny wiggles 6 to 11 in marine magnetic profiles. Carbon isotope analysis of 14 samples from two cores revealed a negative shift of about 2 parts per thousand peaking near the base of 24r.8r. We interpret this as the carbon isotope excursion (CIE), the base of which is now accepted as defining the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. The thickness of the CIE in the Obed Mountain section implies that it lasted between 210 000 and 254 000 years. Radiometric dates of 58.4 {+-} 0.2, 57.7 {+-} 0.3, and 56.9 {+-} 0.8 Ma are obtained for the No. 1, No. 3, and No. 5 coals, respectively. Combining these with magnetostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy yields an age of 57.1 {+-} 0.1 Ma for the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.

  14. Complete primate skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: morphology and paleobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jens L; Gingerich, Philip D; Habersetzer, Jörg; Hurum, Jørn H; von Koenigswald, Wighart; Smith, B Holly

    2009-05-19

    The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record. We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650-900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest. Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.

  15. Coralgal facies of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestones in Letca-Rastoci area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Prica

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are described the coralgal facies identified in the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestone succession (Cozla Formation outcropping in two quarries at Letca and Rastoci (Sălaj district, Romania. In the studied profiles the coral and algae limestones are interlayered with bioclastic limestones with foraminifera. On the top of relatively deep water deposits, coral and algae crusts and dendritic corals coated by algae were deposited. The environment registered a gradual deepening, the deposits being completely immersed, while bioclastic limestones with foraminifera were recurrently formed. This cycle is repeated, the whole succession being caracterized by several such “parasequences”.

  16. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  17. Eonandeva gen. nov., a new distinctive genus from Eocene Baltic amber (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Marta; Giłka, Wojciech

    2015-11-20

    A new fossil genus, Eonandeva gen. nov., with two new species: E. helva sp. nov. (type for the genus) and E. latistyla sp. nov., is described from Eocene Baltic amber (~45-40 Ma). Adult males of both new species show the wing venation pattern, shape and chaetotaxy typical for the tribe Tanytarsini. The characters defined as prior apomorphies for the new genus--the gonostylus with a subapical flattened lobe and the stout, strongly elongated superior volsella--separate Eonandeva from the closely related extant genus Nandeva Wiedenbrug, Reiss et Fittkau, 1998.

  18. Paleoecological evaluation of Late Eocene biostratigraphic zonations of the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Kristin

    1980-01-01

    The late Eocene zonal criteria of the west coast of North America are to a large extent controlled by paleoecology and, therefore, the correlation of coeval but environmentally different benthic foraminiferal faunas cannot be achieved before paleoecological control of the biostratigraphy is understood. The faunal trends, morphology, characteristic occurrences and estimated upper depth limits of the benthic foraminifers and associated microfossils in the Oregon and Washington study sections lead to the recognition of paleoecologic facies. The interpretation of these late Eocene facies as bathymetric and low-oxygen facies is based on analogous late Eocene and Holocene assemblages. The paleoecologic facies criteria are often identical to the stage and zonal criteria. In the California zonal schemes, the Narizian zones are identified by lower and middle bathyal faunas whereas the Refugian zones are identified by outer neritic and upper bathyal faunas. The Washington late Eocene zones are identified by middle bathyal and transported neritic faunas. Modifications of the existing zonal schemes such that time and not paleoecology is the controlling factor results in a zonation that synthesizes the existing zonal schemes, recognizes regional stratigraphic ranges of diagnostic species, and removes paleoecologically controlled species occurrences. The late Narizian encompasses a bathyal and a neritic facies. The bathyal facies is correlative with a modified Bulimina corrugata Zone of California and the Uvigerina cf. U. yazooensis Zone of Washington. The neritic late Narizian facies corresponds to a modified Bulimina schencki-Plectofrondicularia cf. P. jenkinsi Zone of Washington and a modified Amphimorphina jenkinsi Zone of California. The Refugian can also be divided into a neritic and a bathyal facies. Although the early and late subdivisions of this stage are tentative, the early Refugian is equivalent to the modified versions of the Cibicides haydoni and the Uvigerina

  19. Geochemical and Petrologic Constraints on the Source of Eocene Volcanism at Mole Hill, Rockingham County, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Beard, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Mole Hill is an Eocene (48 Ma) basaltic volcanic neck located west of Harrisonburg, VA, and provides a unique opportunity to probe the mantle beneath the Shenandoah Valley. It lies on the northeastern edge of a swarm of alkaline-series volcanic plugs, dikes, and diatremes extending through Rockingham and Highland Counties, VA, and Pendleton County, WV. The Eocene volcanics are thought to have exploited extensive basement fracture systems originally formed during the Alleghenian Orogeny and subsequent rifting. The Eocene volcanism may have been triggered by reactivation of faults due to global shifts in relative plate motions (Southworth 1993, USGS Bull, B1839-I) but the source material and magmatic processes for the Eocene volcanism are largely unknown. Compositional and texture analyses of xenocrystic and groundmass clinopyroxene, olivine, and spinel were completed either at Virginia Tech on the Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe in the Dept of Geological Sciences, or in the Dept of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C using the JEOL JXA-8900R WD/EDS microanalyzer or the FEI NOVA nanoSEM600 FEG Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope. Xenocrysts up to 2cm in diameter are distributed throughout the volcanic neck, with clinopyroxene >>spinel>olivine. The clinopyroxene and olivine xenocrysts show undulatory extinction in cross-polarized light and are found as individual crystals or as aggregates. Clinopyroxene xenocryst cores are high-Al, low-Cr augite ( ˜Wo44En46Fs10) with Mg# 78.5-85.9. The clinopyroxene xenocrysts have compositionally zoned rims 100-250 μm-wide containing abundant plagioclase inclusions and sparse melt inclusions in a sieve texture. The outer edges of xenocrysts approach the compositions of groundmass and microphenocryst clinopyroxenes ( ˜Wo47En38Fs15; Mg# 67.9-74.5). Olivine xenocrysts contain sulfide inclusions and Cr-rich spinel and have Mg-rich ( ˜Fo86-90) cores with more Fe- and Ca-rich rims (Fo70

  20. Oldest new genus of Myrmeleontidae (Neuroptera) from the Eocene Green River Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2017-10-20

    Epignopholeon sophiae gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) is described from the early Eocene of the Green River Formation (Colorado, U.S.A.). It represents the oldest confident record of the family. The new genus is remarkable in that tergite 7 of the female is much shorter than its long sternite 7. The preserved wing venation shows that the genus belongs to the subfamily Myrmeleontinae, and most probably to the tribe Gnopholeontini. The discovery of this species is consistent with estimations of relatively dry and warm conditions during deposition of the upper Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation.

  1. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene Oligocene Helium-3 Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent interplanetary dust particle (IDPs) and small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part the helium-3 flux increase seen in the sedimentary record near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, IDPs in the inner Solar System may have been dragged to Earth, while dust and small meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits; however, this hypotheses does not explain the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts.

  2. An interesting new genus of Berothinae (Neuroptera: Berothidae) from the early Eocene Green River Formation, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2017-01-30

    Xenoberotha angustialata gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Berothidae) is described from the early Eocene of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation (U.S.A., Colorado). It is assigned to Berothinae as an oldest known member of the subfamily based on the presence of scale-like setae on the foreleg coxae. Distal crossveins of the fourth (outer) gradate series which are located very close to the wing margin in Xenoberotha gen. nov. is a character state previously unknown in Berothinae.

  3. A remarkable new genus of Protosmylinae (Neuroptera: Osmylidae) from late Eocene Florissant, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2017-05-18

    Pseudosmylidia relicta gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Osmylidae) is described from the late Eocene of Florissant (U.S.A., Colorado). It is assigned to the subfamily Protosmylinae based on the presence of two venational features characteristic of the subfamily: most crossveins in the radial to intramedial spaces of the forewing are arranged in four gradate series, and CuP is short and simple or forked only once in the hind wing. This genus is remarkable by CuP in the forewing bearing few pectinate branches. This is the only genus of extant and Cenozoic fossil Osmylidae in which this plesiomorphic condition is retained.

  4. Terrestrial and lacustrine gastropods from the Priabonian (upper Eocene) of the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Neubauer, Thomas A; Kadolsky, Dietrich; Pickford, Martin; Nordsieck, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic gastropods from the upper Eocene (Priabonian) Zalumah Formation in the Salalah region of the Sultanate of Oman are described. The assemblages reflect the composition of the continental mollusc fauna of the Palaeogene of Arabia, which, at that time, formed parts of the southeastern Tethys coast. Several similarities with European faunas are observed at the family level, but are rarer at the genus level. These similarities point to an Eocene (Priabonian) rather than to a Rupelian age, although the latter correlation cannot be entirely excluded. At the species level, the Omani assemblages lack any relations to coeval faunas. This suggests the possible presence of a distinct biogeographic province during the Palaeogene or may simply reflect the extremely sparse non-marine fossil record of the Eocene in the Tethys region. The occurrence of the genera Lanistes, Pila, and Gulella along with some pomatiids, probably related to extant genera, suggests that the modern African-Arabian continental faunas can be partly traced back to Eocene times and reflect very old autochthonous developments. In contrast, the diverse Vidaliellidae went extinct, and the morphologically comparable Neogene Achatinidae may have occupied the equivalent niches in extant environments. Carnevalea Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Arabiella Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Pyrgulella Harzhauser, Kadolsky and Neubauer nov. gen., Salalahia Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Omanitopsis Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Arabicolaria Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Pacaudiella Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Goniodomulus Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Eoquickia Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. gen., Omanillya H. Nordsieck nov. gen. and Omanifera H. Nordsieck nov. gen. are introduced as new genera. Pila neuberti Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. sp., Arabiella arabica Kadolsky, Harzhauser and Neubauer nov. sp., Pyrgulella parva Harzhauser, Kadolsky and

  5. Rectification of invalidly published new names for plants from the late Eocene of North Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvaček Zlatko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Valid publication of new names of fossil plant taxa published since 1 January 1996 requires a diagnosis or description in English, besides other requirements included in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress, Melbourne, Australia, July 2011 (McNeill et al. 2012. In order to validate names published from the late Eocene flora of the Staré Sedlo Formation, North Bohemia, diagnosed only in German (Knobloch et al. 1996, English translations are provided, including references to the type material and further relevant information.

  6. Bichordites from the early Eocene of Cuba: significance in the evolutionary history of the spatangoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães

    2017-12-01

    The trace fossil Bichordites monastiriensis is found in early Eocene turbiditic sandstones of the upper-slope deposits from the Capdevila Formation in Los Palacios Basin, Pinar del Río region, western Cuba. The potential tracemakers of B. monastiriensis include fossil spatangoids from the family Eupatagidae. The record of Bichordites in the deposits from Cuba allows to suppose that Eupatagidae echinoids were the oldest potential tracemakers of Bichordites isp. and reinforce the hypothesis that the ichnological record are relevant in envisaging the evolutionary history of the spatangoids.

  7. Testing the ``Wildfire Hypothesis:'' Terrestrial Organic Carbon Burning as the Cause of the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary Carbon Isotope Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. A.; Kurtz, A. C.

    2005-12-01

    The 3‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary has generally been attributed to dissociation of seafloor methane hydrates. We are testing the alternative hypothesis that the carbon cycle perturbation resulted from wildfires affecting the extensive peatlands and coal swamps formed in the Paleocene. Accounting for the CIE with terrestrial organic carbon rather than methane requires a significantly larger net release of fossil carbon to the ocean-atmosphere, which may be more consistent with the extreme global warming and ocean acidification characteristic of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). While other researchers have noted evidence of fires at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in individual locations, the research presented here is designed to test the "wildfire hypothesis" for the Paleocene-Eocene boundary by examining marine sediments for evidence of a global increase in wildfire activity. Such fires would produce massive amounts of soot, widely distributed by wind and well preserved in marine sediments as refractory black carbon. We expect that global wildfires occurring at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary would produce a peak in black carbon abundance at the PETM horizon. We are using the method of Gelinas et al. (2001) to produce high-resolution concentration profiles of black carbon across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary using seafloor sediments from ODP cores, beginning with the Bass River core from ODP leg 174AX and site 1209 from ODP leg 198. This method involves the chemical and thermal extraction of non-refractory carbon followed by combustion of the residual black carbon and measurement as CO2. Measurement of the δ 13C of the black carbon will put additional constraints on the source of the organic material combusted, and will allow us to determine if this organic material was formed prior to or during the CIE.

  8. New data on Amynodontidae (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from Eastern Europe: Phylogenetic and palaeobiogeographic implications around the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissier, Jérémy; Becker, Damien; Codrea, Vlad; Costeur, Loïc; Fărcaş, Cristina; Solomon, Alexandru; Venczel, Marton; Maridet, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Amynodontidae is a family of Rhinocerotoidea (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) known from the late Early Eocene to the latest Oligocene, in North America and Eurasia. European Amynodontidae are very rare, and all remains belong almost exclusively to a single post-Grande Coupure genus from the Oligocene, Cadurcotherium. The "Grande Coupure" defines an extinctions and dispersal-generated originations event in Europe that is nearly contemporaneous with the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Perissodactyls are one of the major groups affected by this event: Palaeotheriidae went almost extinct during this crisis, whereas Rhinocerotidae appeared for the first time in Europe. Study of fossiliferous Eastern-European localities from this age is crucial for the understanding of this crisis. We report here three new localities of Amynodontidae in Eastern Europe. Two of them are dated from the Eocene (Morlaca, Romania; Dorog, Hungary), whereas the other is either Late Eocene or Early Oligocene (Dobârca, Romania). The skull from this latter locality belongs unexpectedly to the same individual as a previously described mandible attributed to "Cadurcodon" zimborensis. As a result, this specimen can be allocated to its proper locality, Dobârca, and is assigned to a new genus, Sellamynodon gen. nov. It is characterised by an extraordinary growth of the nuchal crest, a unique character among amynodontids. Along with this remarkable material from Dobârca, two specimens from another Romanian locality, Morlaca, have been recently discovered and are dated from the Late Eocene. They belong, as well as new material from Dorog (Middle Eocene, Hungary), to the genus Amynodontopsis, also found in North America. The new Hungarian material represents the earliest occurrence of Amynodontidae in Europe. New phylogenetic hypotheses of Rhinocerotoidea are proposed, including the new material presented here, and show that Amynodontidae may be closer to the polyphyletic family 'Hyracodontidae' than to

  9. Before the freeze: otoliths from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica, reveal dominance of gadiform fishes (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Mörs, Thomas; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Reguero, Marcelo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp. nov., Macruronus eastmani sp. nov., Coelorinchus balushkini sp. nov., Coelorinchus nordenskjoeldi sp. nov., Palimphemus seymourensis sp. nov., Hoplobrotula? antipoda sp. nov., Notoberyx cionei gen. et sp. nov. and Cepola anderssoni sp. nov. Macruronus eastmani sp. nov. is also known from the late Eocene of Southern Australia, and Tripterophycis immutatus Schwarzhans, widespread in the southern oceans during the Eocene, has been recorded from New Zealand, southern Australia, and now Antarctica. The otolith assemblage shows a typical composition of temperate fishes dominated by gadiforms, very similar at genus and family levels to associations known from middle Eocene strata of New Zealand and the late Eocene of southern Australia, but also to the temperate Northern Hemisphere associations from the Paleocene of Denmark. The Seymour Island fauna bridges a gap in the record of global temperate marine teleost faunas during the early Eocene climate maximum. The dominant gadiforms are interpreted as the main temperate faunal component, as in the Paleocene of Denmark. Here they are represented by the families Moridae, Merlucciidae (Macruroninae), Macrouridae and Gadidae. Nowadays Gadidae are a chiefly Northern Hemisphere temperate family. Moridae, Macruroninae and Macrouridae live today on the lower shelf to deep-water or mesopelagically with Macruroninae being restricted to the Southern Ocean. The extant endemic Antarctic gadiform family

  10. Eoalosa janvieri gen. et sp. nov., a new clupeid fish (Teleostei, Clupeiformes) from the Eocene of Monte Bolca, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marramà, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    Fishes of the family Clupeidae are extremely abundant in the Eocene fossiliferous limestone of Monte Bolca representing the most common group from this celebrated locality. A new clupeid from the Pesciara site, Eoalosa janvieri gen. et sp. nov., is described. The new taxon exhibits a unique combination of characters supporting its recognition as a new genus and species of clupeid fish that is tentatively placed in the subfamily Alosinae. The description of this new taxon improves our knowledge of the diversity of clupeoid fishes in the Eocene of Monte Bolca.

  11. A new avian fauna from the early-middle Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    A number of hitherto undescribed fossil bird remains have been recovered from the Lillebælt Clay Formation of central Denmark, which is early-middle Eocene in age (~50 to 43 mya). The core of the material consists of fossils acquired through the Danish ‘Danekræ' fossil treasure trove legislation......, a member of the extinct 'pseudo-toothed birds' and the first representative of this group known from Denmark. Other taxa present include remains of Lithornithidae and a new taxon possessing a massive, psittacid-like beak. The Lillebælt Clay Formation birds are temporally placed just after the Early Eocene...

  12. Using a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model to Simulate the Response of Vegetation to Warming at the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellito, C. J.; Sloan, L. C.

    2004-12-01

    A major turnover in benthic marine and terrestrial fauna marks the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (IETM) (~55Ma), a period of ~150 ky in which there was a rapid rise in deep sea and high latitude sea surface temperatures by 5-8C. Curiously, no major responses to this warming in the terrestrial floral record have been detected to date. Here, we present results from experiments examining the response of the global distribution of vegetation to changes in climate at the IETM using the NCAR Land Surface Model (LSM1.2) integrated with a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM). DGVMs allow vegetation to respond to and interact with climate, and thus, provide a unique new method for addressing questions regarding feedbacks between the ecosystem and climate in Earth's past. However, there are a number of drawbacks to using these models that can affect interpretation of results. More specifically, these drawbacks involve uncertainties in the application of modern plant functional types to paleo-flora simulations, inaccuracies in the model climatology used to drive the DGVM, and lack of available detail regarding paleo-geography and paleo-soil type for use in model boundary conditions. For a better understanding of these drawbacks, we present results from a series of tests in the NCAR LSM-DGVM which examine (1) the effect of removing C4 grasses from the available plant functional types in the model; (2) model sensitivity to a change in soil texture; and (3), model sensitivity to a change in the value of pCO2 used in the photosynthetic rate equations. We consider our DGVM results for the IETM in light of output from these sensitivity experiments.

  13. Eocene extension in Idaho generated massive sediment floods into Franciscan trench and into Tyee, Great Valley, and Green River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Ernst, W.G.; Wright, James E.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wells, Ray E.; Farmer, Lucia P.; Kent, Adam J.R.; Graham, Stephan A.

    2013-01-01

    The Franciscan Complex accretionary prism was assembled during an ∼165-m.y.-long period of subduction of Pacific Ocean plates beneath the western margin of the North American plate. In such fossil subduction complexes, it is generally difficult to reconstruct details of the accretion of continent-derived sediments and to evaluate the factors that controlled accretion. New detrital zircon U-Pb ages indicate that much of the major Coastal belt subunit of the Franciscan Complex represents a massive, relatively brief, surge of near-trench deposition and accretion during Eocene time (ca. 53–49 Ma). Sediments were sourced mainly from the distant Idaho Batholith region rather than the nearby Sierra Nevada. Idaho detritus also fed the Great Valley forearc basin of California (ca. 53–37 Ma), the Tyee forearc basin of coastal Oregon (49 to ca. 36 Ma), and the greater Green River lake basin of Wyoming (50–47 Ma). Plutonism in the Idaho Batholith spanned 98–53 Ma in a contractional setting; it was abruptly superseded by major extension in the Bitterroot, Anaconda, Clearwater, and Priest River metamorphic core complexes (53–40 Ma) and by major volcanism in the Challis volcanic field (51–43 Ma). This extensional tectonism apparently deformed and uplifted a broad region, shedding voluminous sediments toward depocenters to the west and southeast. In the Franciscan Coastal belt, the major increase in sediment input apparently triggered a pulse of massive accretion, a pulse ultimately controlled by continental tectonism far within the interior of the North American plate, rather than by some tectonic event along the plate boundary itself.

  14. Release of Volatiles During North Atlantic Flood Basalt Volcanism and Correlation to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, J. M.; Tegner, C.; Kent, A. J.; Ulrich, T.

    2017-12-01

    The opening of the North Atlantic Ocean between Greenland and Norway during the lower Tertiary led to intense flood basalt volcanism and the emplacement of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). The volcanism is temporally overlapping with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), but ash stratigraphy and geochronology suggests that the main flood basalt sequence in East Greenland postdates the PETM. Significant environmental changes during the PETM have been attributed to the release of CO2 or methane gas due to either extensive melting of hydrates at the ocean floor or as a consequence of the interaction of mantle derived magmas with carbon rich sediments.Estimates suggest that a minimum of 1.8x106 km3 of basaltic lava erupted during North Atlantic flood basalt volcanism. Based on measurements of melt inclusions from the flood basalts our preliminary calculations suggest that approximately 2300 Gt of SO2 and 600 Gt of HCl were released into the atmosphere. Calculated yearly fluxes approach 23 Mt/y SO2 and 6 Mt/y HCl. These estimates are regarded as conservative.The S released into to the atmosphere during flood basalt volcanism can form acid aerosols that absorb and reflect solar radiation, causing an effective cooling effect. The climatic effects of the release of Cl into the atmosphere are not well constrained, but may be an important factor for extinction scenarios due to destruction of the ozone layer.The climatic changes due to the release of S and Cl in these amounts, and for periods extending for hundred thousand of years, although not yet fully constrained are likely to be significant. One consequence of the North Atlantic flood basalt volcanism may have been the initiation of global cooling to end the PETM.

  15. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF A SINGULAR PENGUIN SCAPULA (AVES, SPHENISCIFORMES FROM THE EOCENE OF ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penguins have peculiar modifications in their skeletal anatomy as a consequence of their extremely specialized diving habit. Morphological specialization is particularly evident in the forelimb. However, the kinematics of the pectoral girdle appears to be key to the locomotion of penguins. Penguin scapulae have an unusual morphology among birds. Modern penguins have a very large (especially broad scapula, whereas this bone is long but narrower in basal fossil species. The recent finding of an incomplete scapula with a singular acromion in the Upper Eocene Submeseta Allomember of the La Meseta Formation in the Antarctic Peninsula reveals a scapula proportionally narrower than those of modern penguins but similar to that of Waimanu and possibly other Eocene species. Osteological comparisons and muscular dissections of modern penguins show that the most striking feature is the curvature of the acromion, and the consequent enlargement of the facies articularis clavicularis. The configuration of the acromion and the corpus scapula reflects a lack of functional optimization in terms of the resistance to forces transverse to the body axis. The scapula´s general morphology suggests it belonged to a medium to large-sized penguin species with no so specialized diving skills. 

  16. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique M L van Kempen

    Full Text Available In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  17. Astronomically paced middle Eocene deepwater circulation in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pälike, Heiko; Zachos, James C.

    2017-04-01

    The role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as a key player for abrupt climatic changes (e.g. Heinrich Stadials) during the Pleistocene is relatively well constrained. However, the timing of the onset of a „modern" North Atlantic Deepwater (NADW) formation are still debated: Recent estimates range from the middle Miocene to the Early Eocene [Davies et al., 2001, Stoker et al., 2005, Hohbein et al., 2012] and are mainly based on the seismic interpretation contourite drifts. Another understudied aspect of the AMOC is its behavior during climatic variations on orbital time scales and under different climatic boundary conditions (icehouse vs hothouse). IODP Expedition 342 drilled carbonate-rich sequences from sediment drifts offshore Newfoundland that cover the middle Eocene with high sedimentation rates ( 3 cm/ kyr). We present a 2 Myr long stable carbon and oxygen isotope record of benthic foraminifera nuttalides truempyi spanning magnetochron C20r in unprecedented resolution (Petroleum Geology, v. 22, no. 9, p. 977-1005. Hohbein, M. W., Sexton, P. F., and Cartwright, J. A., 2012, Onset of North Atlantic Deep Water production coincident with inception of the Cenozoic global cooling trend: Geology, v. 40, no. 3, p. 255-258.

  18. Oxygen isotopes of marine mollusc shells record Eocene elevation change in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Damien; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Emmanuel, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    Constraining paleoaltimetry of collisional orogens is critical to understand the dynamics of topographic evolution and climate/tectonics retroactions. Here, we use oxygen stable-isotope record on oyster shells, preserved in marine foreland deposits, to examine the past elevation of the Pyrenees during the Eocene. Our approach is based on the comparison with the Paris basin, an intracratonic basin not influenced by orogenic growth. The finding of a shift of 1.5‰ between 49 and 41 Ma, indicating more negative δ18Oc in the south Pyrenean foreland, is interpreted to reflect the inflow of river water sourced from higher elevation in the Pyrenees. To test this and provide paleoelevation estimate, we adopt a morphologic-hydrological model accounting for the hypsometry of drainage basin. Our best fitting model shows that the Pyrenees rose up to 2000 m. This indicates that the Pyrenees reached high elevation in the Eocene, thus providing new critical constraints on their long-term orogenic development. δ18O of marine mollusc shells are proved potentially attractive for paleoelevation studies, especially for mountain belts where elevated continental surfaces have not been preserved.

  19. The onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at Branch Stream, Clarence River valley, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotnick, B.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Hollis, C.J.; Crampton, J.S.; Strong, C.P.; Phillips, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present new lithologic, biostratigraphic and carbon isotope records for a calcareous-rich ∼84m thick, early Eocene, upper continental slope section now exposed along Branch Stream, Marlborough. Decimetre-scale limestone-marl couplets comprise the section. Several marl-rich intervals correspond to carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) representing increased 13 C -depleted carbon fluxes to the ocean. These records are similar to those at nearby Mead Stream, except marl-rich intervals at Branch Stream are thicker with a wider δ 13 C range. Comparison to other sites indicates the section spans ∼53.4-51.6 Ma, the onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). The most prominent CIE is correlated with the K/X event (52.9 Ma). Prominent marl-rich intervals resulted from increased fluxes of terrigenous material and associated carbonate dilution. We find multiple warming events marked lowermost EECO, each probably signaling enhanced seasonal precipitation. Branch Stream bulk isotopic records suggest 'differential diagenesis' impacted the sequence during sediment burial. (author).

  20. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Monique M L; Smolders, Alfons J P; Lamers, Leon P M; Roelofs, Jan G M

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  1. Quantifying the Eocene to Pleistocene topographic evolution of the southwestern Alps, France and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauquette, Séverine; Bernet, Matthias; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Grosjean, Anne-Sabine; Guillot, Stéphane; van der Beek, Peter; Jourdan, Sébastien; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Bertini, Adele; Pittet, Bernard; Tricart, Pierre; Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Zheng, Zhuo; Roche, Emile; Pavia, Giulio; Gardien, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    We evaluate the topographic evolution of the southwestern Alps using Eocene to Pleistocene pollen data combined with existing sedimentological, petrographic and detrital geo- and thermochronological data. We report 32 new pollen analyses from 10 sites completed by an existing dataset of 83 samples from 14 localities situated across the southwestern Alps, including both the pro- and the retro-foreland basins. The presence of microthermic tree pollen (mainly Abies, Picea) indicates that this part of the mountain belt attained elevations over 1900 m as early as the Oligocene. Inferred rapid surface uplift during the mid-Oligocene coincided with a previously documented brief phase of rapid erosional exhumation, when maximum erosion rates may have reached values of up to 1.5-2 km/Myr. Slower long-term average exhumation rates of ∼0.3 km/Myr since the Late Oligocene helped maintaining the high Alpine topography of the southwestern Alps until today. The relative abundances of meso-microthermic tree pollen (Cathaya, Cedrus and Tsuga) and microthermic tree pollen (Abies, Picea) in the pro- and retro-foreland basin deposits, indicate that the present-day asymmetric topography, with a relatively gentle western flank and steeper eastern flank, was established early in the southwestern Alps, at least since the Early Miocene, and possibly since the Oligocene or Late Eocene. Therefore, the high topography and asymmetric morphology of this part of the Alps has been maintained throughout the past ∼30 Ma.

  2. Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne group) and Jackson group lignite deposits of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The lignite deposits within the upper Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne Group) and the overlying Jackson Group are among the coal resources that were not quantitatively assessed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) program in the Gulf Coastal Plain coal province. In the past, these lignite-bearing stratigraphic units often have been evaluated together because of their geographic and stratigraphic proximity (Fisher, 1963; Kaiser, 1974; Kaiser et al., 1980; Jackson and Garner, 1982; Kaiser, 1996) (Figures 1, 2). The term “Yegua-Jackson trend“ is used informally herein for the lignite-bearing outcrops of these Late Eocene deposits in Texas. Lignite beds in the Yegua-Jackson trend generally are higher both in ash yield and sulfur content than those of the underlying Wilcox Group (Figure 2). Recent studies (Senkayi et al., 1987; Ruppert et al., 1994; Warwick et al., 1996, 1997) have shown that some lignite beds within the Yegua-Jackson trend contain partings of volcanic ash and host elevated levels of trace elements that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Amendments of 1990. Lignite beds within the Yegua Formation are thin (less than or equal to 6 ft) and laterally discontinuous in comparison with most Wilcox Group deposits (Ayers, 1989a); in contrast, the Jackson Group lignite beds range up to 12 ft in total thickness and are relatively continuous laterally, extending nearly 32 mi along strike.

  3. A new commelinid monocot seed fossil from the early Eocene previously identified as Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkinen, Tiina; Kottner, Sören; Stuppy, Wolfgang; Ahmed, Farah; Knapp, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Fossils provide minimum age estimates for extant lineages. Here we critically evaluate Cantisolanum daturoides Reid & Chandler and two other early putative seed fossils of Solanaceae, an economically important plant family in the Asteridae. Three earliest seed fossil taxa of Solanaceae from the London Clay Formation (Cantisolanum daturoides) and the Poole and Branksome Sand Formations (Solanum arnense Chandler and Solanispermum reniforme Chandler) were studied using x-ray microcomputed tomography (MCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The MCT scans of Cantisolanum daturoides revealed a high level of pyrite preservation at the cellular level. Cantisolanum daturoides can be clearly excluded from Solanaceae and has more affinities to the commelinid monocots based on a straight longitudinal axis, a prominent single layer of relatively thin-walled cells in the testa, and a clearly differentiated micropyle surrounded by radially elongated and inwardly curved testal cells. While the MCT scans show no internal preservation in Solanum arnense and Solanispermum reniforme, SEM images show the presence of several characteristics that allow the placement of these taxa at the stem node of Solanaceae. Cantisolanum daturoides is likely a member of commelinid monocots and not Solanaceae as previously suggested. The earliest fossil record of Solanaceae is revised to consist of fruit fossil with inflated calyces from the early Eocene of Patagonia (52 Ma) and fossilized seeds from the early to mid-Eocene of Europe (48-46 Ma). The new identity for Cantisolanum daturoides does not alter a late Cretaceous minimum age for commelinids. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Scale insect larvae preserved in vertebrate coprolites (Le Quesnoy, France, Lower Eocene): paleoecological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Ninon; Foldi, Imre; Godinot, Marc; Petit, Gilles

    2016-10-01

    Coprolites of terrestrial vertebrates from the Sparnacian Le Quesnoy locality (Ypresian, Eocene, MP7, 53 Ma; Oise, France) were examined for possible parasitic helminth eggs. The extraction of the coprolite components was performed by a weak acetolyse and a slide mounting in glycerin. This long examination did not reveal paleoparasite remains, which may be explained through several arguments. However, some pollen grains, some enigmatic components, and two well-preserved first-instar cochineal nymphs (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) were evidenced in coprolites. Identified as Coccidae, these larvae are the earliest stage of the scale insect development ever reported as fossil, revealing the specific environment of preservation that fossilized scats may provide. These observations, combined to the coprolites morphotype, enable to ascribe the fossil scats producer to a small herbivorous mammal present in the deposit (early perissodactyls or Plesiadapidae). Regarding the ecology of extant representatives of Coccidae, this mammal was a likely foliage consumer, and the abundant Juglandaceae and/or Tiliaceae from Le Quesnoy might have lived parasitized by scale insects. These Early Eocene parasites had an already well-established dissemination strategy, with prevalent minute first-instar larvae. The herein performed extraction technique appears well-suited for the study of carbonate coprolites and could certainly be useful for evidencing other kind of microorganisms (including internal parasites).

  5. Inducement of heterochronic variation in a species of planktic foraminifera by a Late Eocene impact event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, N.; Kitchell, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    While it is well known that the cosmic impact event at or near the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary coincides with an interval of mass extinction, a similar impact (or series of impacts) near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary presents a more complex picture, in terms of associated fluctuations in marine biotic diversity. Tektites, microtektites, and mineral grains exhibiting features of shock metamorphism found in Eocene sediments of the western N. Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico (comprising the North American microtektite strewn field) offer compelling evidence for a catastrophic impact event. Despite the magnitude of this event, however, few extinctions in the planktic marine fauna are known to have occurred coincident with this event. Instead, changes in relative abundance, morphology, and development occurred. Cosmic impacts generally have been interpreted as influencing the course of evolution through the wholesale elimination of significant portions of standing biotic diversity. Indeed, extinction traditionally has been viewed as the negative side of evolution. In some instances, it is suggested such impact events can serve instead to increase, rather than decrease, morphological and ecological diversity, by altering the developmental programs within species at the level of the local population.

  6. Analysis of systematic fracturing in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Vrabec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyse systematic fractures occurring in sandstone beds in Eocene flsch of the Slovenian coastal area. Two nearly perpendicular fracture sets were identifid: fractures F1 are generally NW-SE oriented, wellexpressed and predominately planar, whereas fractures F2 are NE-SW-striking, shorter, more irregular in shape, and terminate against the F1 set. The average orientation of both sets does not change signifiantly in a coastal transect crossing all principal structural domains of the area. We analysed fracture spacing with respect to layer thickness and determined fracture spacing index for both fracture sets. We interpret both fracture sets as tensional (Mode I joints originating in two distinct extensional episodes. Set F1 is older and formed in NE-SW directed tension which we correlate with the well-documented regional post-Dinaric orogen-perpendicular extension of presumably mid-Miocene age. Set F2 formed in NW-SE oriented tension, which is compatible with previously documented NE-SW-striking normal faults occurring in the area, but was so far not documented elsewhere. We interpret that F1 fractures predate folding and thrusting in the coastal belt. Earlier, Eocene-Oligocene Dinaric thrusting therefore did not signifiantly affect the coastal area, whereas post-F1 shortening, associated with northward indentation and underthrusting of the Adria microplate, did not commence before late Miocene.

  7. Heterogeneity in global vegetation and terrestrial climate change during the late Eocene to early Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Matthew J; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2017-02-24

    Rapid global cooling at the Eocene - Oligocene Transition (EOT), ~33.9-33.5 Ma, is widely considered to mark the onset of the modern icehouse world. A large and rapid drop in atmospheric pCO 2 has been proposed as the driving force behind extinctions in the marine realm and glaciation on Antarctica. However, the global terrestrial response to this cooling is uncertain. Here we present the first global vegetation and terrestrial temperature reconstructions for the EOT. Using an extensive palynological dataset, that has been statistically grouped into palaeo-biomes, we show a more transitional nature of terrestrial climate change by indicating a spatial and temporal heterogeneity of vegetation change at the EOT in both hemispheres. The reconstructed terrestrial temperatures show for many regions a cooling that started well before the EOT and continued into the Early Oligocene. We conclude that the heterogeneous pattern of global vegetation change has been controlled by a combination of multiple forcings, such as tectonics, sea-level fall and long-term decline in greenhouse gas concentrations during the late Eocene to early Oligocene, and does not represent a single response to a rapid decline in atmospheric pCO 2 at the EOT.

  8. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  9. Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Lorenz Franzen

    Full Text Available The early Middle Eocene locality of Grube Messel, near Darmstadt (Germany, is famous for its complete vertebrate skeletons. The degree of preservation of soft tissues, such as body silhouettes, internal organs and gut contents, is frequently remarkable. The present specimen was analyzed for remnants of the reproductive system. Classic anatomy and osteology and high-resolution micro-x-ray were applied to describe the fetus of the European Eocene equoid Eurohippus messelensis. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM was used for determination of soft tissue remnants. The fetus is the earliest and best-preserved fossil specimen of its kind. The postcranial fetal skeleton is almost complete and largely articulated, allowing the conclusion that the pregnant mare was in late gestation. The apparent intrauterine position of the fetus is normal for the phase of pregnancy. Death of mare and fetus were probably not related to problems associated with parturition. Soft tissue interpreted as the uteroplacenta and a broad uterine ligament are preserved due to bacterial activity and allow considerations on the evolutionary development of the structures.

  10. Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jens Lorenz; Aurich, Christine; Habersetzer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The early Middle Eocene locality of Grube Messel, near Darmstadt (Germany), is famous for its complete vertebrate skeletons. The degree of preservation of soft tissues, such as body silhouettes, internal organs and gut contents, is frequently remarkable. The present specimen was analyzed for remnants of the reproductive system. Classic anatomy and osteology and high-resolution micro-x-ray were applied to describe the fetus of the European Eocene equoid Eurohippus messelensis. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used for determination of soft tissue remnants. The fetus is the earliest and best-preserved fossil specimen of its kind. The postcranial fetal skeleton is almost complete and largely articulated, allowing the conclusion that the pregnant mare was in late gestation. The apparent intrauterine position of the fetus is normal for the phase of pregnancy. Death of mare and fetus were probably not related to problems associated with parturition. Soft tissue interpreted as the uteroplacenta and a broad uterine ligament are preserved due to bacterial activity and allow considerations on the evolutionary development of the structures.

  11. Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene-Oligocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, A; Herold, N; Huber, M

    2014-07-31

    Two main hypotheses compete to explain global cooling and the abrupt growth of the Antarctic ice sheet across the Eocene-Oligocene transition about 34 million years ago: thermal isolation of Antarctica due to southern ocean gateway opening, and declining atmospheric CO2 (refs 5, 6). Increases in ocean thermal stratification and circulation in proxies across the Eocene-Oligocene transition have been interpreted as a unique signature of gateway opening, but at present both mechanisms remain possible. Here, using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, we show that the rise of Antarctic glaciation, rather than altered palaeogeography, is best able to explain the observed oceanographic changes. We find that growth of the Antarctic ice sheet caused enhanced northward transport of Antarctic intermediate water and invigorated the formation of Antarctic bottom water, fundamentally reorganizing ocean circulation. Conversely, gateway openings had much less impact on ocean thermal stratification and circulation. Our results support available evidence that CO2 drawdown--not gateway opening--caused Antarctic ice sheet growth, and further show that these feedbacks in turn altered ocean circulation. The precise timing and rate of glaciation, and thus its impacts on ocean circulation, reflect the balance between potentially positive feedbacks (increases in sea ice extent and enhanced primary productivity) and negative feedbacks (stronger southward heat transport and localized high-latitude warming). The Antarctic ice sheet had a complex, dynamic role in ocean circulation and heat fluxes during its initiation, and these processes are likely to operate in the future.

  12. Unlocking the Barite Paleoproductivity Proxy: Using a New Barite Extraction Method to Understand Productivity Trends During the Eocene Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, B. M.; Norris, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) around 50 Ma was a sustained period of extreme global warmth with ocean bottom water temperatures of up to 12° C. The marine biologic response to such climatic extremes is unclear, however, in part because proxies that integrate ecosystem-wide productivity signals are scarce. While the accumulation of marine barite (BaSO4) is one such proxy, its applicability has remained limited due to the difficulty in reliably quantifying barite. Discrete measurements of barite content in marine sediments are laborious, and indirect estimates provide unclear results. We have developed a fast, high-throughput method for reliable measurement of barite content that relies on selective extraction of barite rather than sample digestion and quantification of remaining barite. Tests of the new method reveal that it gives the expected results for a wide variety of sediment types and can quantitatively extract 10-100 times the amount of barite typically encountered in natural sediments. Altogether, our method provides an estimated ten-fold increase in analysis efficiency over current sample digestion methods and also works reliably on small ( 1 g or less) sediment samples. Furthermore, the instrumentation requirements of this method are minor, so samples can be analyzed in shipboard labs to generate real-time paleoproductivity records during coring expeditions. Because of the magnitude of throughput improvement, this new technique will permit the generation of large datasets needed to address previously intractable paleoclimate and paleoceanographic questions. One such question is how export productivity changes during climatic extremes. We used our new method to analyze globally distributed sediment cores to determine if the EECO represented a period of anomalous export productivity either due to higher rates of primary production or more vigorous heterotrophic metabolisms. An increase in export productivity could provide a mechanism for exiting

  13. The freshwater fern Azolla (Azollaceae) from Eocene Arctic and Nordic Sea sediments: New species and their stratigraphic distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burgh, J.; Collinson, M.E.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; Barke, J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of the freshwater fern Azolla are described from Eocene marine deposits of the Arctic and Nordic seas, bringing the total number of species now documented from these areas to five. Azolla arctica Collinson et al., Azolla jutlandica Collinson et al., Azolla nova sp. nov. and Azolla

  14. Reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean environment during the Eocene Azolla interval using geochemical proxies and climate modeling. Geologica Ultraiectina (331)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    With the realization that the Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the aquatic floating fern Azolla 49 Myrs ago, new questions regarding the Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. This dissertation describes the reconstruction of paleo-environmental conditions

  15. Reducing Disparity in Radio-Isotopic and Astrochronology-Based Time Scales of the Late Eocene and Oligocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahy, Diana; Condon, Daniel J.; Hilgen, Frederik J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102639876; Kuiper, Klaudia F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/258125772

    2017-01-01

    A significant discrepancy of up to 0.6 Myr exists between radio-isotopically calibrated and astronomically tuned time scales of the late Eocene-Oligocene. We explore the possible causes of this discrepancy through the acquisition of “high-precision” 206Pb/238U dating of zircons from 11 volcanic ash

  16. A new mechanism for the two-step d18O signal at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigchelaar, M.; von der Heydt, A.S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    The most marked step in the global climate transition from “Greenhouse” to “Icehouse” Earth occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) boundary, 33.7 Ma. Evidence for climatic changes comes from many sources, including the marine benthic 18O record, showing an increase by 1.2– 1.5‰ at this time. This

  17. The Eocene-Oligocene transition in the North Alpine Foreland Basin and subsequent closure of a Paratethys gateway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Boon, A.; Beniest, A.; Ciurej, A.; Gaździcka, E.; Grothe, A.; Sachsenhofer, R. F.; Langereis, C. G.; Krijgsman, W.

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), a major palaeoenvironmental change took place in the Paratethys Sea of central Eurasia. Restricted connectivity and increased stratification resulted in wide-spread deposition of organic-rich sediments which nowadays make up important hydrocarbon source

  18. Multiproxy record of abrupt sea-surface cooling across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wade, B.S.; Houben, A.J.P.; Quaijtaal, W.; Schouten, S.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K.G.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT; ca. 33–34 Ma) was a time of pronounced climatic change, marked by the establishment of continental-scale Antarctic ice sheets. The timing and extent of temperature change associated with the EOT is controversial. Here we present multiproxy EOT climate records

  19. Clay mineralogical constraints on weathering in response to early Eocene hyperthermal events in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming (Western Interior, USA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chaowen; Adriaens, Rieko; Hong, Hanlie; Elsen, Jan; Vandenberghe, Noël; Lourens, Lucas J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023103; Gingerich, Philip D.; Abels, Hemmo A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848018

    2017-01-01

    Series of transient greenhouse warming intervals in the early Eocene provide an opportunity to study the response of rock weathering and erosion to changes in temperature and precipitation. During greenhouse warming, chemical weathering is thought to increase the uptake of carbon from the

  20. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Challenges the Records of the Extant Liverwort Ptilidium pulcherrimum in Eocene Baltic Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Lee, Gaik Ee; Váňa, Jiří; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Krings, Michael; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of liverworts in amber, a fossilized tree resin, is often exquisite. Twenty-three fossil species of liverworts have been described to date from Eocene (35-50 Ma) Baltic amber. In addition, two inclusions have been assigned to the extant species Ptilidium pulcherrimum (Ptilidiales or Porellales). However, the presence of the boreal P. pulcherrimum in the subtropical or warm-temperate Baltic amber forest challenges the phytogeographical interpretation of the Eocene flora. A re-investigation of one of the fossils believed to be P. pulcherrimum reveals that this specimen in fact represents the first fossil evidence of the genus Tetralophozia, and thus is re-described here as Tetralophozia groehnii sp. nov. A second fossil initially assigned to P. pulcherrimum is apparently lost, and can be reassessed only based on the original description and illustrations. This fossil is morphologically similar to the extant North Pacific endemic Ptilidium californicum, rather than P. pulcherrimum. Divergence time estimates based on chloroplast DNA sequences provide evidence of a Miocene origin of P. pulcherrimum, and thus also argue against the presence of this taxon in the Eocene. Ptilidium californicum originated 25-43 Ma ago. As a result, we cannot rule out that the Eocene fossil belongs to P. californicum. Alternatively, the fossil might represent a stem lineage element of Ptilidium or an early crown group species with morphological similarities to P. californicum.

  1. An unusual new species of Hallodapomimus Herczek, 2000 from the Eocene Baltic amber (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Herczek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hallodapomimus antennatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae, Hallodapini is described from a macropterous female found in Eocene Baltic amber. The new species can be recognized readily from the other species of the genus, mainly due to its unusual second antennal segment. A key for the identification of all known fossil Hallodapini is presented.

  2. A new Late Eocene primate from the Krabi Basin (Thailand) and the diversity of Palaeogene anthropoids in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Lazzari, Vincent; Euriat, Adélaïde; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2013-11-22

    According to the most recent discoveries from the Middle Eocene of Myanmar and China, anthropoid primates originated in Asia rather than in Africa, as was previously considered. But the Asian Palaeogene anthropoid community remains poorly known and inadequately sampled, being represented only from China, Myanmar, Pakistan and Thailand. Asian Eocene anthropoids can be divided into two distinct groups, the stem group eosimiiforms and the possible crown group amphipithecids, but the phylogenetic relationships between these two groups are not well understood. Therefore, it is critical to understand their evolutionary history and relationships by finding additional fossil taxa. Here, we describe a new small-sized fossil anthropoid primate from the Late Eocene Krabi locality in Thailand, Krabia minuta, which shares several derived characters with the amphipithecids. It displays several unique dental characters, such as extreme bunodonty and reduced trigon surface area, that have never been observed in other Eocene Asian anthropoids. These features indicate that morphological adaptations were more diversified among amphipithecids than was previously expected, and raises the problem of the phylogenetic relations between the crown anthropoids and their stem group eosimiiforms, on one side, and the modern anthropoids, on the other side.

  3. Paleomagnetism and the Alpine tectonics of Eurasia IV : Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene pole positions from northeastern Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voo, R. van der

    In April 1965 and May 1966 several groups of samples were collected by the author in northern and eastern Turkey in view of a study of their magnetic properties. The characteristic magnetizations of four groups of Eocene and Cretaceous volcanic rocks and sediments had the following directions of

  4. Trace fossils from the eocene Lillebælt clay formation, Røsnæs Peninsula, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Kresten; Milàn, Jesper; Mesfun, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A cliff exposure of the Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation, on the Røsnæs peninsula of Zealand, Denmark, has yielded a diverse trace-fossil assemblage. The trace fossils are described formally for the first time and assigned to Phymatoderma melvillensis, unnamed clusters of small burrows, Ophiomorpha...

  5. Eocene tectonic compression in Northern Zealandia: Magneto-biostratigraphic constraints from the sedimentary records of New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallanave, E.; Agnini, C.; Pascher, K. M.; Maurizot, P.; Bachtadse, V.; Hollis, C. J.; Dickens, G. R.; Collot, J.; Sevin, B.; Strogen, D.; Monesi, E.

    2017-12-01

    Published seismic profiles acquired from the Tasman Sea and northern Zealandia area (southwest Pacific) point to a widespread Eocene convergent deformation of oceanic and continental crust, with reverse faults and uplift (Tectonic Event of the Cenozoic in the Tasman Area; TECTA). The TECTA is interpreted as the precursor of the Tonga-Kermadec subduction initiation. Grande Terre is the main island of the New Caledonia archipelago and the largest emergent portion of northern Norfolk Ridge (part of northern Zealandia). Eocene sedimentary records exposed in Grande Terre contain a transition from pelagic micrite to terrigenous-rich calciturbidites, marking a shift from passive margin to convergent tectonic regime. This could represent the local expression of the convergence inception observed on a regional scale. We conducted an integrated magneto-biostratigraphic study, based on calcareous nannofossil and radiolaria, of two early-middle Eocene records cropping out near Noumea (southwest Grande Terre) and Koumac (northwest Grande Terre). The natural remanent magnetization of the sediments is complicated by multiple vector components, likely related to the late Eocene obduction, but a characteristic remanent magnetization has been successfully isolated. Overall the record spans from magnetic polarity Chron C23n to C18n, i.e. from 51 to 39 Ma. In this robust magnetic polarity-based chronological frame, the pelagic micrite to terrigenous-rich calciturbidites occurred near the top of Chron C21n and is dated 46 Ma. Furthermore, the magnetic mineral assemblage within part of the calciturbidites consists of hematite associated with maghemite. This association indicates emergent land as source of the terrigenous, suggesting a considerable uplift. Because 94% of the Zealandia continent is submerged, ocean drilling is needed to gauge the full extent and timing of Eocene compressive deformation revealed by the seismic profiles acquired in the Tasman area. This is a primary aim of

  6. Rainforest conifers of Eocene Patagonia: attached cones and foliage of the extant Southeast Asian and Australasian genus Dacrycarpus (Podocarpaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Eocene caldera-lake beds at Laguna del Hunco (LH, ca. 52.2 Ma) and Río Pichileufú (RP, ca. 47.7 Ma) in Argentine Patagonia provide copious information about the biological history of Gondwana. Several plant genera from these sites are known as fossils from southern Australia and New Zealand and survive only in Australasian rainforests. The potential presence of Dacrycarpus (Podocarpaceae) holds considerable interest due to its extensive foliage-fossil record in Gondwana, its remarkably broad modern distribution in Southeast Asian and Australasian rainforests, its high physiological moisture requirements, and its bird-dispersed seeds. However, the unique seed cones that firmly diagnose Dacrycarpus were not previously known from the fossil record. I describe and interpret fertile (LH) and vegetative (LH and RP) material of Dacrycarpus and present a nomenclatural revision for fossil Dacrycarpus from South America. Dacrycarpus puertae sp. nov. is the first fossil occurrence of the unusual seed cones that typify living Dacrycarpus, attached to characteristic foliage, and of attached Dacrycarpus pollen cones and foliage. Dacrycarpus puertae is indistinguishable from living D. imbricatus (montane, Burma to Fiji). Dacrycarpus chilensis (Engelhardt) comb. nov. is proposed for Eocene vegetative material from Chile. Modern-aspect Dacrycarpus was present in Eocene Patagonia, demonstrating an astonishingly wide-ranging paleogeographic history and implying a long evolutionary association with bird dispersers. Dacrycarpus puertae provides the first significant Asian link for Eocene Patagonian floras, strengthens the biogeographic connections from Patagonia to Australasia across Antarctica during the warm Eocene, and indicates high-rainfall paleoenvironments.

  7. The Rajang Unconformity: Major provenance change between the Eocene and Miocene sequences in NW Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. T.; Hennig, J.; BouDagher-Fadel, M.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The offshore Sarawak Basin NW of North Sarawak is a major hydrocarbon province in SE Asia. A very thick sedimentary sequence of Oligocene to ?Early Miocene age, named Cycle 1, is an important hydrocarbon source and reservoir. Despite numerous wells the stratigraphy and tectonic history is not very well understood. The Nyalau Formation of onshore North Sarawak is the supposed equivalent of the offshore Cycle 1 sequence. The Nyalau Formation is a thick sedimentary sequence of mainly tidal to deltaic deposits. The formation is dominated by well-bedded sandstone-mudstone alternations and thicker sandstones with abundant bioturbation. The sandstones are predominantly arenaceous. Various lithic fragments and feldspar indicate multiple sources and fresh input from igneous and metamorphic rocks. Interbedded thin limestone beds and marls yielded Early Miocene foraminifera for the upper part of the succession. Zircons separated from the sandstones yielded mainly Cretaceous and Triassic ages. The Triassic is the dominant age population. The Nyalau Formation conformably overlies the Buan Shale and the Tatau Formation, and in places unconformably overlies the Belaga Formation. The Belaga Formation is part of the Rajang Group that represents remnants of a large submarine fan deposited in the Late Cretaceous to Eocene in Central Sarawak. In contrast to the Nyalau Formation, the majority of zircons from the Rajang Group have Cretaceous ages. This marks an important change in provenance at the major unconformity separating the Belaga and Nyalau Formations. This unconformity was previously interpreted as the result of an orogeny in the Late Eocene. However, there is no evidence for a subduction or collision event at this time in Sarawak. We interpret it to mark plate reorganisation in the Middle Eocene and name it the Rajang Unconformity. Borneo is the principal source of Cretaceous zircons which were derived from the Schwaner Mountains and West Sarawak. The dominant Triassic zircon

  8. Groundwater pollution risk mapping for the Eocene aquifer of the Oum Er-Rabia basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said

    2006-11-01

    Sustainable development requires the management and preservation of water resources indispensable for all human activities. When groundwater constitutes the main water resource, vulnerability maps therefore are an important tool for identifying zones of high pollution risk and taking preventive measures in potential pollution sites. The vulnerability assessment for the Eocene aquifer in the Moroccan basin of Oum Er-Rabia is based on the DRASTIC method that uses seven parameters summarizing climatic, geological, and hydrogeological conditions controlling the seepage of pollutant substances to groundwater. Vulnerability maps were produced by using GIS techniques and applying the “generic” and “agricultural” models according to the DRASTIC charter. Resulting maps revealed that the aquifer is highly vulnerable in the western part of the basin and areas being under high contamination risk are more extensive when the “agricultural” model was applied.

  9. Xenoliths in Eocene lavas from Central Tibet record carbonated metasomatism of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussin, Fanny; Cordier, Carole; Boulvais, Philippe; Guillot, Stéphane; Roperch, Pierrick; Replumaz, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Cenozoic post-collisional volcanism of the Tibetan Plateau, emplaced on an accreted continental margin under compression, could bring important information regarding the edification of the Plateau. In this study, we combined petrography, whole rock geochemistry, stable isotopes and in situ mineral analysis to decipher the genesis of Eocene-Oligocene magmatic rocks from the Nangqian basin (35-38 Ma, [Spurlin et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2016]), located at the hinge between Central Tibet and the Eastern Indo-Asia Collision Zone. Our dataset includes potassic trachyandesites; amphibole-bearing potassic trachytes; and rare ultrapotassic (K2O/Na2O ≥ 4) mafic syenites. All samples have high REE abundances (La = 100 - 500 x primitive mantle). Fractionation of heavy REE (Gd/YbN > 3) indicates melting in the garnet stability field, and relative depletion in high-field strength elements (Nb, Ta) indicates a selective enrichment of the source by metasomatic fluids. This metasomatism event is also evidenced by the occurrence of re-equilibrated mantle xenocrysts of phlogopite (Mg# = 88 - 90 and Cr2O3 content = 0.9 - 1.82 wt%) in mafic syenites. Potassic trachyandesites have specific composition, with negative Zr-Hf anomaly and low Hf/Sm (0.2 - 0.4). Indeed, they include xenocrystic aggregates, composed of magmatic clinopyroxene, apatite and subordinate biotite and feldspar, with interstitial calcite and dolomite. δ18OV -SMOW (9.2 - 11.0 ) and δ13CV -PDB (-6.1 - -4.0 ) of these rocks indicate the presence of primary, mantle-derived carbonates. In situ analysis of the major and trace element compositions of the carbonates, clinopyroxenes and apatites further suggest that these aggregates represent cumulates of a carbonate-bearing magma. These xenoliths thus show that the lithospheric mantle was also metasomatized by CO2-rich fluids. Cenozoic carbonatites in China have been identified in Maoniuping in Western Sichuan (31.7 Ma), Lixian in the Western Qinlin (22-23 Ma), and

  10. Furrowed outcrops of Eocene chalk on the lower continental slop offshore New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, James M.; Kirby, John R.; Hampson, John C., Jr.; Gibson, Patricia R.; Hecker, Barbara

    1983-01-01

    A sea bottom of middle Eocene calcareous claystone cut by downslope-trending furrows was observed during an Alvin dive to the mouth of Berkeley Canyon on the continental slope off New Jersey. The furrows are 10 to 50 m apart, 4 to 13 m deep, linear, and nearly parallel in water depths of 2,000 m. They have steep walls and flat floors 3 to 5 m wide, of fine-grained sediment. Mid-range sidescan-sonar images show that similarly furrowed surfaces are found on nearby areas of the lower continental slope, not associated with canyons. The furrows are overlain in places by Pleistocene sediments. Although they show evidence of erosional origin, they do not appear to be related to observed structures, and their straight, parallel pattern is not well understood. A general cover of flocky unconsolidated sediments implies that bottom-current erosion is not active now.

  11. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  12. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Wolfe

    Full Text Available We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma, revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae. The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18O and δ(2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  13. A fossil unicorn crestfish (Teleostei, Lampridiformes, Lophotidae) from the Eocene of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, Donald

    2017-01-01

    Lophotidae, or crestfishes, is a family of rare deep-sea teleosts characterised by an enlarged horn-like crest on the forehead. They are poorly represented in the fossil record, by only three described taxa. One specimen attributed to Lophotidae has been described from the pelagic fauna of the middle-late Eocene Zagros Basin, Iran. Originally considered as a specimen of the fossil lophotid † Protolophotus , it is proposed hereby as a new genus and species † Babelichthys olneyi , gen. et sp. nov., differs from the other fossil lophotids by its relatively long and strongly projecting crest, suggesting a close relationship with the modern unicorn crestfish, Eumecichthys . This new taxon increases the diversity of the deep-sea teleost fauna to which it belongs, improving our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the early Cenozoic mesopelagic ecosystems.

  14. A fossil unicorn crestfish (Teleostei, Lampridiformes, Lophotidae from the Eocene of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davesne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lophotidae, or crestfishes, is a family of rare deep-sea teleosts characterised by an enlarged horn-like crest on the forehead. They are poorly represented in the fossil record, by only three described taxa. One specimen attributed to Lophotidae has been described from the pelagic fauna of the middle-late Eocene Zagros Basin, Iran. Originally considered as a specimen of the fossil lophotid †Protolophotus, it is proposed hereby as a new genus and species †Babelichthys olneyi, gen. et sp. nov., differs from the other fossil lophotids by its relatively long and strongly projecting crest, suggesting a close relationship with the modern unicorn crestfish, Eumecichthys. This new taxon increases the diversity of the deep-sea teleost fauna to which it belongs, improving our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the early Cenozoic mesopelagic ecosystems.

  15. Gigantism in unique biogenic magnetite at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D; Kopp, Robert E; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Wu, Ting-Di; Rouiller, Isabelle; Smirnov, Aleksey V; Sears, S Kelly; Lücken, Uwe; Tikoo, Sonia M; Hesse, Reinhard; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Vali, Hojatollah

    2008-11-18

    We report the discovery of exceptionally large biogenic magnetite crystals in clay-rich sediments spanning the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a borehole at Ancora, NJ. Aside from previously described abundant bacterial magnetofossils, electron microscopy reveals novel spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetite up to 4 microm long and hexaoctahedral prisms up to 1.4 microm long. Similar to magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria, these single-crystal particles exhibit chemical composition, lattice perfection, and oxygen isotopes consistent with an aquatic origin. Electron holography indicates single-domain magnetization despite their large crystal size. We suggest that the development of a thick suboxic zone with high iron bioavailability--a product of dramatic changes in weathering and sedimentation patterns driven by severe global warming--drove diversification of magnetite-forming organisms, likely including eukaryotes.

  16. Nannoplankton malformation during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and its paleoecological and paleoceanographic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralower, Timothy J.; Self-Trail, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is characterized by a transient group of nannoplankton, belonging to the genus Discoaster. Our investigation of expanded shelf sections provides unprecedented detail of the morphology and phylogeny of the transient Discoasterduring the PETM and their relationship with environmental change. We observe a much larger range of morphological variation than previously documented suggesting that the taxa belonged to a plexus of highly gradational morphotypes rather than individual species. We propose that the plexus represents malformed ecophenotypes of a single species that migrated to a deep photic zone refuge during the height of PETM warming and eutrophication. Anomalously, high rates of organic matter remineralization characterized these depths during the event and led to lower saturation levels, which caused malformation. The proposed mechanism explains the co-occurrence of malformed Discoaster with pristine species that grew in the upper photic zone; moreover, it illuminates why malformation is a rare phenomenon in the paleontological record.

  17. New Carcharhiniform Sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Early to Middle Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A.; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, is known for its wealth of fossil remains. This island provides one of the richest fossiliferous Paleogene sequences in the world. Chondrichthyans seemingly dominate this Eocene marine fauna and offer a rare insight into high-latitude faunas during the Palaeogene. So far, only a few isolated teeth of carcharhinid sharks have been reported from Seymour Island. Bulk sampling in the well-exposed La Meseta and Submeseta formations yielded new and abundant chondrichthyan material, including numerous teeth of carcharhinid and triakid sharks. Here, we present a reevaluation of the previously described carcharhinid remains and a description of new taxa: Meridiogaleus cristatus, gen. et sp. nov., Kallodentis rythistemma, gen. et sp. nov., Abdounia richteri, sp. nov., and Abdounia mesetae, sp. nov. The carcharhiniforms Mustelus sp. and Galeorhinus sp. are reported based on rare material, whereas teeth previously assigned to Scoliodon represent a nomen dubium. PMID:29551850

  18. MIDDLE EOCENE TO EARLY MIOCENE FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE EPILIGURIAN SUCCESSION (NORTHERN APENNINES, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETTA MANCIN

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative biostratigraphical study was performed on the foraminiferal assemblages from 15 stratigraphic sections of the Epiligurian Succession (Middle Eocene-Early Miocene, Northern Apennines, Italy. This study enabled us to identify the presence of some of the standard bioevents and to note that other bioevents are absent or show a different chronostratigraphic range. Other additional bioevents, identified throughout the area, have therefore been utilised to improve the biostratigraphical resolution of the Epiligurian sediments. These bioevents include the massive extinction of the muricate species at the Bartonian/Priabonian boundary; the increasing abundance of Paragloborotalia opima opima near Subzone P21a/P21b and the Rupelian/Chattian boundaries; and the FO of Globoquadrina dehiscens at the Subzone N4a/N4b boundary. 

  19. Spicules of Litistidic sponges from the upper Eocene Verhivtsevska depression (Miiddle Dniprean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova T.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a taxonomic composition of lithistid sponges which are lived in the Late Eocene basin of Verchovtzev depression Ukrainian Shield is supposed by the spicules morphological analysis. There are sponges of ten geneses and seven families presented in paleocoenosis, but families Theonellidae (geneses Lerouxia, Rhagadinia andPlinthosellidae (genusPlinthosella are dominated. Threenewmorphospeciesof spicules aredescribed: Phyllotriaenapartita T.A.Ivanova morphosp.n., Ph. araneola T.A.Ivanova, morphosp.n., Tetracrepides semiornatus T.A.Ivanova, morphosp.n. Their stratigraphical meaning is determined. These spicules are characteristic for the Obuchovian Suite and would be used as the paleontological criterion of the Obuchovian Suite determination in geological sections of the Middle Dnieper region.

  20. Palaeoenvironment of Eocene prodelta in Spitsbergen recorded by the trace fossil Phycosiphon incertum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Tovar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ichnological, sedimentological and geochemical analyses were conducted on the Eocene Frysjaodden Formation in order to interpret palaeoenvironment prodelta sediments in the Central Basin of Spitsbergen. Phycosiphon incertum is the exclusive ichnotaxon showing differences in size, distribution, abundance and density, and relation to laminated/bioturbated intervals. Large P. incertum mainly occur dispersed, isolated and randomly distributed throughout the weakly laminated/non-laminated intervals. Small P. incertum occur occasionally in patches of several burrows within laminated intervals or as densely packed burrows in thin horizons in laminated intervals or constituting fully bioturbated intervals that are several centimetres thick. Ichnological changes are mainly controlled by oxygenation, although the availability of benthic food cannot be discarded. Changes in oxygenation and rate of sedimentation can be correlated with the registered variations in the Bouma sequence of the distal turbiditic beds within prodeltal shelf sediments.

  1. Paleokarst processes in the Eocene limestones of the Pyramids Plateau, Giza, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aref, M. M.; Refai, E.

    The Eocene limestones of the Pyramids plateau are characterized by landforms of stepped terraced escarpment and karst ridges with isolated hills. The carbonate country rocks are also dominated by minor surface, surface to subsurface and subsurface solution features associated with karst products. The systematic field observations eludicate the denudation trend of the minor solution features and suggest the origin of the regional landscapes. The lithologic and structural characters of the limestone country rocks comprise the main factors controlling the surface and subsurface karst evolution. The development of the karst features and the associated sediments in the study area provides information on the paleohydrolic, chemical and climatic environments involved in the origin of the karstification.

  2. Evolution of the earliest horses driven by climate change in the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secord, Ross; Bloch, Jonathan I; Chester, Stephen G B; Boyer, Doug M; Wood, Aaron R; Wing, Scott L; Kraus, Mary J; McInerney, Francesca A; Krigbaum, John

    2012-02-24

    Body size plays a critical role in mammalian ecology and physiology. Previous research has shown that many mammals became smaller during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), but the timing and magnitude of that change relative to climate change have been unclear. A high-resolution record of continental climate and equid body size change shows a directional size decrease of ~30% over the first ~130,000 years of the PETM, followed by a ~76% increase in the recovery phase of the PETM. These size changes are negatively correlated with temperature inferred from oxygen isotopes in mammal teeth and were probably driven by shifts in temperature and possibly high atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. These findings could be important for understanding mammalian evolutionary responses to future global warming.

  3. Eocene fossil is earliest evidence of flower-visiting by birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; Wilde, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Birds are important pollinators, but the evolutionary history of ornithophily (bird pollination) is poorly known. Here, we report a skeleton of the avian taxon Pumiliornis from the middle Eocene of Messel in Germany with preserved stomach contents containing numerous pollen grains of an eudicotyledonous angiosperm. The skeletal morphology of Pumiliornis is in agreement with this bird having been a, presumably nectarivorous, flower-visitor. It represents the earliest and first direct fossil evidence of flower-visiting by birds and indicates a minimum age of 47 million years for the origin of bird-flower interactions. As Pumiliornis does not belong to any of the modern groups of flower-visiting birds, the origin of ornithophily in some angiosperm lineages may have predated that of their extant avian pollinators. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Isotopic compositions and probable origins of organic molecules in the Eocene Messel shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J. M.; Takigiku, Ray; Ocampo, Ruben; Callot, Enry J.; Albrecht, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    It is shown here that the carbon isotopic compositions of biomarkers from the Eocene Messel shale, accumulated 47 + or - 2 million years ago in anaerobic waters at the bottom of a lake, allow identification of specific sources for some materials and reconstruction of carbon flows within the lake and its sediments. The C-13 content of organic matter synthesized by lacustrine primary producers can be estimated from the observed C-13 content of the geoporphyrins derived from their chlorophylls. Total organic material in the shale is depleted in C-13 by six parts per thousand relative to that input. This difference cannot be explained by selective loss of components enriched in C-13, nor, as shown by isotopic compositions of other biomarkers, by inputs from land plants surrounding the lake or from methanogenic bacteria.

  5. Atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate impacts of alternative warming scenarios for the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Henrik; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2017-08-01

    Recent work in modelling the warm climates of the early Eocene shows that it is possible to obtain a reasonable global match between model surface temperature and proxy reconstructions, but only by using extremely high atmospheric CO2 concentrations or more modest CO2 levels complemented by a reduction in global cloud albedo. Understanding the mix of radiative forcing that gave rise to Eocene warmth has important implications for constraining Earth's climate sensitivity, but progress in this direction is hampered by the lack of direct proxy constraints on cloud properties. Here, we explore the potential for distinguishing among different radiative forcing scenarios via their impact on regional climate changes. We do this by comparing climate model simulations of two end-member scenarios: one in which the climate is warmed entirely by CO2 (which we refer to as the greenhouse gas (GHG) scenario) and another in which it is warmed entirely by reduced cloud albedo (which we refer to as the low CO2-thin clouds or LCTC scenario) . The two simulations have an almost identical global-mean surface temperature and equator-to-pole temperature difference, but the LCTC scenario has ˜ 11 % greater global-mean precipitation than the GHG scenario. The LCTC scenario also has cooler midlatitude continents and warmer oceans than the GHG scenario and a tropical climate which is significantly more El Niño-like. Extremely high warm-season temperatures in the subtropics are mitigated in the LCTC scenario, while cool-season temperatures are lower at all latitudes. These changes appear large enough to motivate further, more detailed study using other climate models and a more realistic set of modelling assumptions.

  6. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups (Eocene) in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, W.P.; Templain, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Rocks of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups crop out in the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain and are represented by a series of sands and shales which reflect oscillation of the strandline. The Wilcox Group (lower Eocene), usually undifferentiated in Texas, consists of very fine sands and clays and abundant lignite. The Claiborne Group (middle Eocene) comprises, in ascending order, Carrizo Sand, Reklaw Formation (clay), Queen City Sand, Weches Formation (clay), Sparta Sand, Cook Mountain Formation (clay), and Yegua Formation (sand). Fluvial systems of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups exist in east Texas and trend perpendicular to the present coastline. In central Texas, sand bodies are parallel to the present coastline and are strand-plain, barrier-bar systems. Since the time of deposition of the Queen City Sand, a significant fluvial sand buildup occurred in the area of the present Rio Grande embayment where the marine clays pinch out. Known occurrences of mineral matter in the Wilcox and Claiborne (up to the Yegua) are limited to lignite (particularly in the Wilcox), cannel coal in the upper Claiborne, and hydrocarbons throughout. No uranium mineralization is known, and no uranium is likely to be discovered in the Claiborne and Wilcox. Approximately 50 surface samples and many gamma-ray logs showed no significant anomalies. The sands are very good potential host rocks, but no uranium source was discovered. During deposition of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups, there was no volcanism to serve as a source of uranium (as with the prolific occurrences in the younger rocks of south Texas); also, Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Llano uplift were not exposed

  7. Geochemical and geological control on filling history of Eocene reservoirs, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, M.; Maguregui, J.; Toro, C.; Marquina, M. [Intevep S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-08-01

    Crude oils of Eocene fluvio-deltaic reservoirs in {open_quotes}Bloque V{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Centro Lago{close_quotes} fields in the center of the Maracaibo Lake show many differences in composition, which are due to stratigraphically and structurally controlled reservoir geometry and a low rate of in-reservoir mixing of at least two successive petroleum charges. Oils produced from the top of structural highs contain 18(H) oleanane, higher Pr/Ph and C{sub 23-3}/C{sub 24-4} ratios, a lower proportion of DBT/P compounds, and clearly different fingerprint patterns in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 15} range, than those observed in oils produced from the lower parts of the structures. These compositional differences suggest that two source rocks, or two distinctive organic facies within the same Cretaceous La Luna Formation, generated and filled vertically poorly connected Eocene reservoirs. On the other hand, saturate-biomarkers ratios, triaromatics (C{sub 21}/C{sub 21}+C{sub 28}), n-paraffins (n-C{sub 20}/n-C{sub 29}) and n-heptane index suggest that oils in upper reservoirs are slightly less mature than oils in lower reservoirs and, consequently filled the structure first. Additional evidence from formation water analysis and tectonic basin evolution allow us to interpret at least two petroleum pulses from Cretaceous source rocks during Upper Miocene to present day kitchens located in the Andes foredeep at the southeast of the study area.

  8. Atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate impacts of alternative warming scenarios for the Eocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carlson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in modelling the warm climates of the early Eocene shows that it is possible to obtain a reasonable global match between model surface temperature and proxy reconstructions, but only by using extremely high atmospheric CO2 concentrations or more modest CO2 levels complemented by a reduction in global cloud albedo. Understanding the mix of radiative forcing that gave rise to Eocene warmth has important implications for constraining Earth's climate sensitivity, but progress in this direction is hampered by the lack of direct proxy constraints on cloud properties. Here, we explore the potential for distinguishing among different radiative forcing scenarios via their impact on regional climate changes. We do this by comparing climate model simulations of two end-member scenarios: one in which the climate is warmed entirely by CO2 (which we refer to as the greenhouse gas (GHG scenario and another in which it is warmed entirely by reduced cloud albedo (which we refer to as the low CO2–thin clouds or LCTC scenario . The two simulations have an almost identical global-mean surface temperature and equator-to-pole temperature difference, but the LCTC scenario has  ∼  11 % greater global-mean precipitation than the GHG scenario. The LCTC scenario also has cooler midlatitude continents and warmer oceans than the GHG scenario and a tropical climate which is significantly more El Niño-like. Extremely high warm-season temperatures in the subtropics are mitigated in the LCTC scenario, while cool-season temperatures are lower at all latitudes. These changes appear large enough to motivate further, more detailed study using other climate models and a more realistic set of modelling assumptions.

  9. An extinct Eocene taxon of the daisy family (Asteraceae): evolutionary, ecological and biogeographical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Katinas, Liliana; Crisci, Jorge V; Tellería, María C; Bremer, Kåre; Passalia, Mauro G; Passala, Mauro G; Bechis, Florencia; Corsolini, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Morphological, molecular and biogeographical information bearing on early evolution of the sunflower alliance of families suggests that the clade containing the extant daisy family (Asteraceae) differentiated in South America during the Eocene, although palaeontological studies on this continent failed to reveal conclusive support for this hypothesis. Here we describe in detail Raiguenrayun cura gen. & sp. nov., an exceptionally well preserved capitulescence of Asteraceae recovered from Eocene deposits of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. The fossil was collected from the 47·5 million-year-old Huitrera Formation at the Estancia Don Hipólito locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. The arrangement of the capitula in a cymose capitulescence, the many-flowered capitula with multiseriate-imbricate involucral bracts and the pappus-like structures indicate a close morphological relationship with Asteraceae. Raiguenrayun cura and the associated pollen Mutisiapollis telleriae do not match exactly any living member of the family, and clearly represent extinct taxa. They share a mosaic of morphological features today recognized in taxa phylogenetically close to the root of Asteraceae, such as Stifftieae, Wunderlichioideae and Gochnatieae (Mutisioideae sensu lato) and Dicomeae and Oldenburgieae (Carduoideae), today endemic to or mainly distributed in South America and Africa, respectively. This is the first fossil genus of Asteraceae based on an outstandingly preserved capitulescence that might represent the ancestor of Mutisioideae-Carduoideae. It might have evolved in southern South America some time during the early Palaeogene and subsequently entered Africa, before the biogeographical isolation of these continents became much more pronounced. The new fossil represents the first reliable point for calibration, favouring an earlier date to the split between Barnadesioideae and the rest of Asteraceae than previously thought, which can be traced back at least 47·5

  10. Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-27

    The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province.

  11. Eocene age of the Baranowski Glacier Group at Red Hill, King George Island, West Antarctica

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    Mozer Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric and geochemical studies were carried out at Red Hill in the southern part of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, northern Antarctic Peninsula on the Bransfield Strait coast. The rock succession at Red Hill has been determined to represent the Baranowski Glacier Group that was previously assigned a Late Cretaceous age. Two formations were distinguished within this succession: the lower Llano Point Formation and the upper Zamek Formation. These formations have stratotypes defined further to the north on the western coast of Admiralty Bay. On Red Hill the Llano Point Formation consists of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic breccia; the Zamek Formation consist predominantly of fine to coarse tuff, pyroclastic breccia, lavas, tuffaceous mud-, silt-, and sandstone, locally conglomeratic. The lower part of the Zamek Formation contains plant detritus (Nothofagus, dicotyledonous, thermophilous ferns and numerous coal seams (vitrinitic composition that confirm the abundance of vegetation on stratovolcanic slopes and surrounding lowlands at that time. Selected basic to intermediate igneous rocks from the succession have been analysed for the whole-rock K-Ar age determination. The obtained results indicate that the Red Hill succession was formed in two stages: (1 from about 51–50 Ma; and (2 46–42 Ma, i.e. during the Early to Middle Eocene. This, in combination with other data obtained from other Baranowski Glacier Group exposures on western coast of Admiralty Bay, confirms the recently defined position of the volcano-clastic succession in the stratigraphic scheme of King George Island. The new stratigraphic position and lithofacies development of the Red Hill succession strongly suggest its correlation with other Eocene formations containing fossil plants and coal seams that commonly occur on King George Island.

  12. Environmental forcing of terrestrial carbon isotope excursion amplification across five Eocene hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. J.; Abels, H.

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes in the isotope composition of exogenic carbon pools accompany many major episodes of global change in the geologic record. The global expression of this change in substrates that reflect multiple carbon pools provides important evidence that many events reflect persistent, global redistribution of carbon between reduced and oxidized stocks. As the diversity of records documenting any event grows, however, discrepancies in the expression of carbon isotope change among substrates are almost always revealed. These differences in magnitude, pace, and pattern of change can complicate interpretations of global carbon redistribution, but under ideal circumstances can also provide additional information on changes in specific environmental and biogeochemical systems that accompanied the global events. Here we evaluate possible environmental influences on new terrestrial records of the negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) associated with multiple hyperthermals of the Early Eocene, which show a common pattern of amplified carbon isotope change in terrestrial paleosol carbonate records relative to that recorded in marine substrates. Scaling relationships between climate and carbon-cycle proxies suggest that that the climatic (temperature) impact of each event scaled proportionally with the magnitude of its marine CIE, likely implying that all events involved release of reduced carbon with a similar isotopic composition. Amplification of the terrestrial CIEs, however, does not scale with event magnitude, being proportionally less for the first, largest event (the PETM). We conduct a sensitivity test of a coupled plant-soil carbon isotope model to identify conditions that could account for the observed CIE scaling. At least two possibilities consistent with independent lines of evidence emerge: first, varying effects of pCO2 change on photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination under changing background pCO2, and second, contrasting changes in regional

  13. Late Eocene Myanmar tectonics constrained by magnetostratigraphy of the Yaw Formation, Chidwin Basin, Kalewa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Licht, Alexis; Bernard, Annabelle; Roperch, Pierrick; Win, Zaw; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Aung, Day Wa; Kaythi, Myat; Hnin Swe, Hnin; Poblete, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Sedimentary basins in Myanmar have recorded key events of the India-Asia collision including associated geodynamic movements and paleoclimatic records. In particular, Paleogene deposits provide invaluable insight on the accretion of the Burma terrane, its rotation associated with the alleged extrusion of Indochina and the formation of the Indo-Burman ranges. They also yield unique records of monsoonal intensity during the growth of the Tibetan Plateau and a rich paleontological assemblage including some of the earliest primates. However, understanding the potential relations between these recorded events is strongly hindered by insufficient age control on these deposits. As part of the Myanmar Geodynamic & Paleoclimate Initiative and the ERC "MAGIC" project, our initial focus is to date Paleogene deposits of Myanmar with better accuracy using magnetostratigraphy. We present preliminary results from the Chindwin Basin where we sampled a 400-meter section of the top of the Yaw formation recording a major sedimentological facies transition previously estimated roughly as Eocene to Oligocene in age. Detailed rock magnetic analyses enabled to identify and isolate primary Characteristic Remanent Magnetizations of normal and reversed polarities carried by iron sulfides, iron carbonates and/or iron oxides. A correlation to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale can be proposed suggesting deposition between the base of chrons C16n2n and the base of C13r (36.3 and 34.8 Ma). This age suggests the facies transition may be more likely associated with regional tectonics such as the Indo-Burman uplift rather than sea-level drop linked to ice-sheet formation at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition at 33.9 Ma. In addition, the mean observed paleomagnetic declination (13.3+/-3.7°) is statistically indistinguishable from declinations expected by geodynamic models with limited vertical-axis rotations of the Burma terrane and therefore supports little to no rotational extrusion since 35 Ma.

  14. Depositional environment, sand provenance, and diagenesis of the Basal Salina Formation (lower Eocene), northwestern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Carozzi, A. V.

    The Basal Salina Formation is a lower Eocene transgressive sequence consisting of interbedded shales, siltstones, and conglomeratic sandstones. This formation occurs in the Talara basin of northwestern Peru and is one of a series of complexly faulted hydrocarbon-producing formations within this extensional forearc basin. These sediments were probably deposited in a fan-delta complex that developed along the ancestral Amotape Mountains during the early Eocene. Most of the sediment was derived from the low-grade metamorphic and plutonic rocks that comprise the Amotape Mountains, and their sedimentary cover. Detrital modes of these sandstones reflect the complex tectonic history of the area, rather than the overall forearc setting. Unlike most forearc sediments, these are highly quartzose, with only minor percentages of volcanic detritus. This sand is variably indurated and cemented by chlorite, quartz, calcite, and kaolinite. Clay-mineral matrix assemblages show gradational changes with depth, from primarily detrital kaolinite to diagenetic chlorite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Basal Salina sandstones exhibit a paragenetic sequence that may be tied to early meteoric influx or late-stage influx of thermally driven brines associated with hydrocarbon migration. Much of the porosity is secondary, resulting from a first-stage dissolution of silicic constituents (volcanic lithic fragments, feldspar, and fibrous quartz) and a later dissolution of surrounding carbonate cement. Types of pores include skeletal grains, grain molds, elongate pores, and fracture porosity. Measured porosity values range up to 24% and coarser samples tend to be more porous. Permeability is enhanced by fractures and deterred by clay-mineral cements and alteration residues.

  15. Taxonomic description of in situ bee pollen from the middle Eocene of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grímsson, FriĐgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Labandeira, Conrad C; Engel, Michael S; Wappler, Torsten

    2017-01-02

    The middle Eocene Messel and Eckfeld localities are renowned for their excellently preserved faunas and diverse floras. Here we describe for the first time pollen from insect-pollinated plants found in situ on well-preserved ancient bees using light and scanning electron microscopy. There have been 140 pollen types reported from Messel and 162 pollen types from Eckfeld. Here we document 23 pollen types, six from Messel and 18 from Eckfeld (one is shared). The taxa reported here are all pollinated by insects and mostly not recovered in the previously studied dispersed fossil pollen records. Typically, a single or two pollen types are found on each fossil bee specimen, the maximum number of distinct pollen types on a single individual is five. Only five of the 23 pollen types obtained are angiosperms of unknown affinity, the remainder cover a broad taxonomic range of angiosperm trees and include members of several major clades: monocots (1 pollen type), fabids (7), malvids (4), asterids (5) and other core eudicots (1). Seven types each can be assigned to individual genera or infrafamilial clades. Since bees visit only flowers in the relative vicinity of their habitat, the recovered pollen provides a unique insight into the autochthonous palaeo-flora. The coexistence of taxa such as Decodon, Elaeocarpus, Mortoniodendron and other Tilioideae, Mastixoideae, Olax, Pouteria and Nyssa confirms current views that diverse, thermophilic forests thrived at the Messel and Eckfeld localities, probably under a warm subtropical, fully humid climate. Our study calls for increased attention to pollen found in situ on pollen-harvesting insects such as bees, which can provide new insights on insect-pollinated plants and complement even detailed palaeo-palynological knowledge obtained mostly from pollen of wind-pollinated plants in the dispersed pollen record of sediments. In the case of Elaeocarpus, Mortoniodendron, Olax and Pouteria the pollen collected by the middle Eocene bees

  16. Taphonomy of the fossil insects of the middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation

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    Dale E. Greenwalt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The lacustrine oil shales of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation in northwestern Montana comprise a relatively unstudied middle Eocene fossil insect locality. Herein, we detail the stratigraphic position of the fossiliferous unit, describe the insect fauna of the Coal Creek locality and document its bias towards very small but remarkably pre-served insects. In addition, the depositional environment is examined and the mineral constituents of the laminations that comprise the varves of the Kishenehn oil shale are defined. Fifteen orders of insects have been recorded with the majority of all insects identified as aquatic with the families Chironomidae (Diptera and Corixidae (Hemiptera dominant. The presence of small aquatic insects, many of which are immature, the intact nature of >90% of the fossil insects and the presence of Daphnia ephippia, all indicate that the depositional environment was the shallow margin of a large freshwater lake. The fossil insects occur within fossilized microbial mat layers that comprise the bedding planes of the oil shale. Unlike the fossiliferous shales of the Florissant and Okanagan Highlands, the mats are not a product of diatomaceous algae nor are diatom frustules a component of the sediments or the varve structure. Instead, the varves are composed of very fine eolian siliciclastic silt grains overlaid with non-diatomaceous, possibly cyanobacteria-derived microbial mats which contain distinct traces of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A distinct third layer composed of essentially pure calcite is present in the shale of some exposures and is presumably derived from the seasonal warming-induced precipitation of carbonate from the lake’s waters. The Coal Creek locality presents a unique opportunity to study both very small middle Eocene insects not often preserved as compression fossils in most Konservat-Lagerstätte and the processes that led to their preservation.

  17. Changes in Eocene-Miocene shallow marine carbonate factories along the tropical SE Circum-Caribbean responded to major regional and global environmental and tectonic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the factory of Cenozoic tropical marine carbonates have been for long attributed to major variations on climatic and environmental conditions. Although important changes on the factories of Cenozoic Caribbean carbonates seem to have followed global climatic and environmental changes, the regional impact of such changes on the factories of shallow marine carbonate along the Caribbean is not well established. Moreover, the influence of transpressional tectonics on the occurrence, distribution and stratigraphy of shallow marine carbonate factories along this area is far from being well understood. Here we report detailed stratigraphic, petrographic and Sr-isotope chemostratigraphic information of several Eocene-Miocene carbonate successions deposited along the equatorial/tropical SE Circum-Caribbean (Colombia and Panama) from which we further assess the influence of changing environmental conditions, transtentional tectonics and sea level change on the development of the shallow marine carbonate factories. Our results suggest that during the Eocene-early Oligocene interval, a period of predominant high atmospheric pCO2, coralline algae constitute the principal carbonate builders of shallow marine carbonate successions along the SE Circum-Caribbean. Detailed stratigraphic and paragenetic analyses suggest the developed of laterally continuous red algae calcareous build-ups along outer-rimmed carbonate platforms. The predominance of coralline red algae over corals on the shallow marine carbonate factories was likely related to high sea surface temperatures and high turbidity. The occurrence of such build-ups was likely controlled by pronounce changes in the basin paleotopography, i.e. the occurrence of basement highs and lows, resulting from local transpressional tectonics. The occurrence of these calcareous red algae dominated factories was also controlled by diachronic opening of different sedimentary basins along the SE Circum Caribbean resulting from

  18. Refining the Early and Middle Eocene Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale: new results from ODP Leg 208 (Walvis Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.; Frederichs, T.; Bohaty, S. M.; Florindo, F.; Zachos, J. C.; Raffi, I.; Agnini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Astronomical calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) for the Eocene (34-56 Ma) has advanced tremendously in recent years. Combining a cyclostratigraphic approach based on the recognition of the stable 405-kyr eccentricity cycle of Earth's orbit with high-resolution bio- and magnetostratigraphy from deep-sea sedimentary records (ODP Legs 171B, 189 and 207; IODP Exp. 320/321) resulted in a new calibration of the middle-to-late Eocene GPTS spanning Chrons C12r to C19n (30.9-41.3 Ma). A fully astronomically calibrated GPTS for the Eocene was established recently by integrating cyclo-bio-magnetostratigraphy from ODP Sites 702 and 1263 records spanning the middle Eocene with Site 1258 records covering the early Eocene. Comparison of this deep sea-derived GPTS with GTS2012 and GPTS calibration points from terrestrial successions show overall consistent results, but there are still major offsets for the duration of Chrons C20r, C22r and C23n.2n. Because of the relatively large uncertainty of the calibration point, a radioisotopic dated ash layer in DSDP 516F, at C21n.75 (46.24±0.5 Ma) the duration of C20r in GPTS2012 (2.292 myr) is uncertain. Offsets in durations of C22r and C23n.2n between GPTS2012 and the new astronomical GPTS (~400-kyr longer C22r; ~400-kyr shorter C23n.2n) could be due to uncertainties in the interpretation of Site 1258 magnetostratigraphic data. Here we present new results toward establishing a more accurate and complete bio-, magneto- and chemostratigraphy for South Atlantic Leg 208 sites encompassing magnetochrons C13 to C24 (33 to 56 Ma). Our study aims to integrate paleomagnetic records from multiple drilled sites with physical property data, stable isotope data and XRF core scanning data to construct an astronomically calibrated framework for refining GPTS age estimates. This effort will complete the Early-to-Middle Eocene GPTS and allow evaluation of the relative position of calcareous nannofossil events to magnetostratigraphy.

  19. Eocene sea temperatures for the mid-latitude southwest Pacific from Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic and benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, John B.; Baker, Joel A.; Hollis, Christopher J.; Morgans, Hugh E. G.; Smith, Euan G. C.

    2010-11-01

    We have used laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to measure elemental (Mg/Ca, Al/Ca, Mn/Ca, Zn/Ca, Sr/Ca, and Ba/Ca) ratios of 13 species of variably preserved early to middle Eocene planktonic and benthic foraminifera from New Zealand. The foraminifera were obtained from Ashley Mudstone, mid-Waipara River, South Island, which was deposited at bathyal depth ( ca. 1000 m) on the northern margin of the east-facing Canterbury Basin at a paleo-latitude of ca. 55°S. LA-ICP-MS data yield trace element depth profiles through foraminifera test walls that can be used to identify and exclude zones of surficial contamination and infilling material resulting from diagenetic coatings, mineralisation and detrital sediment. Screened Mg/Ca ratios from 5 species of foraminifera are used to calculate sea temperatures from late Early to early Middle Eocene ( ca. 51 to 46.5 Ma), a time interval that spans the termination of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). During this time, sea surface temperatures (SST) varied from 30 to 24 °C, and bottom water temperatures (BWT) from 21 to 14 °C. Comparison of Mg/Ca sea temperatures with published δ 18O and TEX 86 temperature data from the same samples (Hollis et al., 2009) shows close correspondence, indicating that LA-ICP-MS can provide reliable Mg/Ca sea temperatures even where foraminiferal test preservation is variable. Agreement between the three proxies also implies that Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations for modern planktonic and benthic foraminifera can generally be applied to Eocene species, although some species (e.g., V. marshalli) show significant calibration differences. The Mg/Ca ratio of the Eocene ocean is constrained by our data to be 35-50% lower than the modern ocean depending on which TEX 86 - temperature calibration (Kim et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2009) - is used to compare with the Mg/Ca sea temperatures. Sea temperatures derived from δ 18O analysis of foraminifera from Waipara show

  20. Patterns of Storage, Synthesis and Changing Light Levels Revealed by Carbon Isotope Microsampling within Eocene Metasequoia Tree Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, H.; Sternberg, L.

    2005-12-01

    Fossil tree rings from Axel Heiberg Island were microanalyzed for δ13C value in order to assess patterns of tree growth and carbon storage within the Middle Eocene (~45 Ma) Arctic paleoenvironment. Wood from four Metasequoia-type individuals was subsampled for analysis: each individual fossil consisted of between 4 and 10 large (~1 cm thick) consecutive tree rings. One of the fossils displayed an obvious concentric pattern, allowing for the determination of the direction of growth with isotopic pattern. Each ring was divided into ~1 mm thick subsamples, resulting in 5-10 δ13C value determinations per period of ring growth (i.e., growing season). All rings revealed a distinct pattern that was characteristic across growing seasons and across individual fossils. Early in the season, δ13C was at its highest value but descended systematically and sharply to its lowest value at the end of the growing season. Total decrease ranged between 3 and 5 ‰ over the course of each growing season. Identical patterns were observed in the δ13C value of alpha-cellulose isolated from each subsample, indicating that the trends observed did not represent changing levels of secondary metabolites, but rather a seasonal adjustment in the bulk source of carbon used during biosynthesis. Our results are consistent with the following annual pattern of wood synthesis 1.) complete dependence on the mobilization of stored carbon compounds early in the growing season; 2.) systematically increasing use of actively-acquired photosynthate during the growing season; 3.) complete reliance on active photosynthate by the end of the growing season. An additional and significant source of 13C discrimination is declining light levels late in the growing season, and likely contributes to the extreme pattern of δ13C decrease seen across each ring. Our results mimic those seen from modern broadleaf deciduous trees (Helle & Schlesser 2004), but differ from those seen in modern conifers (Barbour et al 2002

  1. New mineralogical and geochemical evidence for the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in the Neo-Tethys (Central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, E. S.; Jovane, L.; Giorgioni, M.; Hein, J. R.; Sant'Anna, L. G.; Rodelli, D.; Özcan, E.; Frontalini, F.; Coccioni, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) is one of several climate warming events that occurred during the Paleogene. It started at 40.5 Ma and produced a global temperature increase over a period of 500 kyr. However, the duration and the d13C signature of this event are not consistent with the models commonly proposed to explain warming events in the Cenozoic, and thus challenge our understanding of carbon cycling and climatic processes. Here we present data of a new section from central Turkey, recording the MECO in the eastern part of the Neo-Tethys. The stratigraphic extent and continuity, as well as the exceptional preservation of various types of microfossils, allow us to obtain a multi-proxy record of unprecedented high resolution for this interval. We integrate data from stable isotopes, X-ray diffraction mineralogy, XRF chemistry, and magnetic properties to obtain a complete paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic reconstruction. Stable isotopes (d13C and d18O) allow us to clearly define the geochemical signature of the MECO. A divergence between the d18O curves of the shallow- and deep-water dwelling planktonic foraminifera after the event suggests a more stratified water column in the Neo-Tethys. Bulk and clay mineralogy reveal changing weathering conditions on land. Higher amounts of chlorite and illite (physical weathering) occur prior and after the event, while the MECO interval displays greater amounts of illite and smectite (chemical weathering). Additionally, the inverse relationship between detrital minerals and calcite suggests that carbonate productivity might have suffered at that time, or an increase in detrital input could have diluted the carbonate fraction. An increase in ARM and magnetic particle grain size also suggests an increase in productivity or preservation of biogenic magnetite. Our results confirm the global nature of the MECO, affecting both oceans and continents. However, different from other events, warming conditions were not

  2. Metre-scale cyclicity in Middle Eocene platform carbonates in northern Egypt: Implications for facies development and sequence stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Moussa, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    The shallow-water carbonates of the Middle Eocene in northern Egypt represent a Tethyan reef-rimmed carbonate platform with bedded inner-platform facies. Based on extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, five lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. Investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. Sequence S1 is interpreted to correspond to the Lutetian, S2 corresponds to the Late Lutetian and Early Bartonian, and S3 represents the Late Bartonian. Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth-order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles. The complete hierarchy of cycles can be correlated along 190 km across the study area, and highlighting a general "layer-cake" stratigraphic architecture. The documentation of the studied outcrops may contribute to the better regional understanding of the Middle Eocene formations in northern Egypt and to Tethyan pericratonic carbonate models in general.

  3. Eocene to mid-Pliocene landscape evolution in Scandinavia inferred from offshore sediment volumes and pre-glacial topography using inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Vivi K.; Braun, Jean; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2018-02-01

    The origin of high topography in Scandinavia is highly debated, both in terms of its age and the underlying mechanism for its formation. Traditionally, the current high topography is assumed to have formed by several Cenozoic (mainly Neogene) phases of surface uplift and dissection of an old peneplain surface. These same surface uplift events are suggested to explain the increased deposition observed in adjacent offshore basins on the Norwegian shelf and in the North Sea. However, more recently it has been suggested that erosion and isostatic rock uplift of existing topography may also explain the recent evolution of topography in Scandinavia. For this latter view, the increased sedimentation towards the present is assumed to be a consequence of a climate related increase in erosion. In this study we explore whether inverse modelling of landscape evolution can give new insight into Eocene to mid-Pliocene (54-4 Ma) landscape evolution in the Scandinavian region. We do this by combining a highly efficient forward-in-time landscape evolution model (FastScape) with an optimization scheme suitable for non-linear inverse problems (the neighbourhood algorithm - NA). To limit our approach to the fluvial regime, we exclude the most recent mid-Pliocene-Quaternary time period where glacial erosion processes are expected to dominate landscape evolution. The "goodness" of our landscape evolution models is evaluated using i) sediment fluxes based on decompacted offshore sediment volumes and ii) maximum pre-glacial topography from a mid-Pliocene landscape, reconstructed using geophysical relief and offshore sediment volumes from the mid-Pliocene-Quaternary. We find several tested scenarios consistent with the offshore sediment record and the maximum elevation for our reconstructed pre-glacial (mid-Pliocene) landscape reconstruction, including: I) substantial initial topography ( 2 km) at 54 Ma and no induced tectonic rock uplift, II) the combination of some initial topography ( 1

  4. Tracing climatic conditions during the deposition of late Cretaceous-early Eocene phosphate beds in Morocco by geochemical compositions of biogenic apatite fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, L.; Gheerbrant, E.; Mouflih, M.; Cappetta, H.; Yans, J.; Ulianov, A.; Amaghzaz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Morocco's Western Atlantic coast was covered by shallow seas during the late Cretaceous-early Eocene when large amount of phosphate rich sediments were deposited. This time interval envelops a major part of the last greenhouse period and gives the opportunity to study the event's characteristics in shallow water settings. These phosphate deposits are extremely rich in vertebrate fossils, while other types of fossils are rare or often poorly preserved. Hence the local stratigraphy is based on the most abundant marine vertebrate fossils, on the selachian fauna (sharks and rays). Our geochemical investigations were also carried out on these remains, though in some cases frequently found coprolites were involved as well. The main goal of our study was to test whether stable isotope compositions (δ18OPO4, δ13C) of these fossils reflect any of the hyperthermal events and/or the related perturbations in the carbon cycle during the early Paleogene (Lourens et al. 2005) and whether these geochemical signals can be used to refine the local stratigraphy. Additionally, the samples were analyzed for trace element composition in order to better assess local taphonomy and burial conditions. The samples came from two major phosphate regions, the Ouled Abdoun and the Ganntour Basins and they were collected either directly on the field during excavations (Sidi Chennane) or were obtained from museum collections with known stratigraphical position (Sidi Daoui, Ben Guerrir). The phosphate oxygen isotopic compositions of shark teeth display large range across the entire series (18.5-22.4 ) which can partly be related to the habitat of sharks. For instance the genus Striatolamnia often yielded the highest δ18O values indicating possible deep water habitat. Despite the large variation in δ18O values, a general isotope trend is apparent. In the Maastrichtian after a small negative shift, the δ18O values increase till the Danian from where the trend decrease till the Ypresian. The

  5. An exceptionally preserved Eocene shark and the rise of modern predator-prey interactions in the coral reef food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Federico; Minelli, Daniela; Conte, Gabriele Larocca; Miyashita, Tetsuto

    2016-01-01

    Following extreme climatic warming events, Eocene Lagerstätten document aquatic and terrestrial vertebrate faunas surprisingly similar to modern counterparts. This transition in marine systems is best documented in the earliest teleost-dominated coral reef assemblage of Pesciara di Bolca, northern Italy, from near the end of the Eocene Climatic Optimum. Its rich fauna shows similarities with that of the modern Great Barrier Reef in niche exploitation by and morphological disparity among teleost primary consumers. However, such paleoecological understanding has not transcended trophic levels above primary consumers, particularly in carcharhiniform sharks. We report an exceptionally preserved fossil school shark (Galeorhinus cuvieri) from Pesciara di Bolca. In addition to the spectacular preservation of soft tissues, including brain, muscles, and claspers, this male juvenile shark has stomach contents clearly identifiable as a sphyraenid acanthomorph (barracuda). This association provides evidence that a predator-prey relationship between Galeorhinus and Sphyraena in the modern coral reefs has roots in the Eocene. A growth curve of the living species of Galeorhinus fitted to G. cuvieri suggests that all specimens of G. cuvieri from the lagoonal deposits of Bolca represent sexually and somatically immature juveniles. The modern trophic association between higher-degree consumers (Galeorhinus and Sphyraena) has a counterpart in the Eocene Bolca, just as Bolca and the Great Barrier Reef show parallels among teleost primary consumers. Given the age of Bolca, trophic networks among consumers observed in modern coral reefs arose by the exit from the Climatic Optimum. The biased representation of juveniles suggests that the Bolca Lagerstätte served as a nursery habitat for G. cuvieri. Ultraviolet photography may be useful in probing for exceptional soft tissue preservation before common acid preparation methods.

  6. The Eocene-Oligocene transition in the North Alpine Foreland Basin and subsequent closure of a Paratethys gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; Beniest, A.; Ciurej, A.; Gaździcka, E.; Grothe, A.; Sachsenhofer, R. F.; Langereis, C. G.; Krijgsman, W.

    2018-03-01

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), a major palaeoenvironmental change took place in the Paratethys Sea of central Eurasia. Restricted connectivity and increased stratification resulted in wide-spread deposition of organic-rich sediments which nowadays make up important hydrocarbon source rocks. The North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) was a major gateway of the Paratethys Sea to the open ocean during the Eocene, but the age of closure of this gateway is still uncertain. The Ammer section in southern Germany documents the shallowing of this connection and subsequent disappearance of marine environments in the NAFB, as reflected in its sedimentary succession of turbidites to marls (Deutenhausen to Tonmergel beds), via coastal sediments (Baustein beds) to continental conglomerates (Weißach beds). Here, we apply organic geochemistry and date the lithological transitions in the Ammer section using integrated stratigraphy, including magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy. Nannoplankton and dinocyst results can be reconciled when dinoflagellate species Wetzeliella symmetrica is of late Eocene age. Our magnetostratigraphy then records C13r-C13n-C12r and allows calculation of sediment accumulation rates and estimation of ages of lithological transitions. We show that the shallowing from turbiditic slope deposits (Deutenhausen beds) to shelf sediments (Tonmergel beds) coincides with the Eocene-Oligocene boundary at 33.9 Ma. The transition to continental sediments is dated at ca. 33.15 Ma, significantly older than suggested by previous studies. We conclude that the transition from marine to continental sediments drastically reduced the marine connection through the western part of the NAFB and influenced the oxygen conditions of the Paratethys Sea.

  7. Eocene fluvial drainage patterns and their implications for uranium and hydrocarbon exploration in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Paleocurrent maps of the fluvial lower Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin of central Wyoming define promising uranium- and hydrocarbon-exploration target areas. The Wind River Formation is thought to have the greatest potential for uranium mineralization in areas where it includes arkosic channel sandstones derived from the granitic core of the Granite Mountains, as in the channel-sandstone bodies deposited in Eocene time by a 40-kilometer segment of the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River that exended westward from near the town of Powder River on the east edge of the basin. Channel-sandstone bodies with a Granite Mountains source occur south of this segment of the paleo-Wind River and north of the Granite Mountains. The southwestern part of this area includes the Gas Hills uranium district, but the channel-sandstone bodies between the Gas Hills district and the 40-kilometer segment of the paleo-Wind River may also be mineralized. This area includes the southeasternmost part of the Wind River Basin southeast of Powder River and contains northeasterly trending channel-sandstone bodies derived from the Granite Mountains. Limited paleocurrent information from the margins of the Wind River Basin suggests that the paleo-Wind River in Paleocene time flowed eastward and had approximately the same location as the eastward-flowing paleo-Wind River of Eocene time. The channel-sandstone bodies of the paleo-Wind Rivers are potential hydrocarbon reservoirs, particularly where they are underlain or overlain by the organic-rich shale and siltstone of the Waltman Shale Member of the Fort Union Formation. If leaks of sulfur-containing gas have created a reducing environment in the Eocene paleo-Wind River channel-sandstone bodies, then I speculate that the areas of overlap of the channel-sandstone bodies and natural-gas fields in the underlying rocks may be particularly favorable areas in which to search for uranium deposits

  8. Highly resolved early Eocene food webs show development of modern trophic structure after the end-Cretaceous extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Williams, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Generalities of food web structure have been identified for extant ecosystems. However, the trophic organization of ancient ecosystems is unresolved, as prior studies of fossil webs have been limited by low-resolution, high-uncertainty data. We compiled highly resolved, well-documented feeding interaction data for 700 taxa from the 48 million-year-old latest early Eocene Messel Shale, which contains a species assemblage that developed after an interval of protracted environmental and biotal c...

  9. Reconstructing a lost Eocene Paradise, Part II: On the utility of dynamic global vegetation models in pre-Quaternary climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellito, Cindy J.; Sloan, Lisa C.

    2006-02-01

    Models that allow vegetation to respond to and interact with climate provide a unique method for addressing questions regarding feedbacks between the ecosystem and climate in pre-Quaternary time periods. In this paper, we consider how Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs), which have been developed for simulations with present day climate, can be used for paleoclimate studies. We begin with a series of tests in the NCAR Land Surface Model (LSM)-DGVM with Eocene geography to examine (1) the effect of removing C 4 grasses from the available plant functional types in the model; (2) model sensitivity to a change in soil texture; and (3), model sensitivity to a change in the value of pCO 2 used in the photosynthetic rate equations. The tests were designed to highlight some of the challenges of using these models and prompt discussion of possible improvements. We discuss how lack of detail in model boundary conditions, uncertainties in the application of modern plant functional types to paleo-flora simulations, and inaccuracies in the model climatology used to drive the DGVM can affect interpretation of model results. However, we also review a number of DGVM features that can facilitate understanding of past climates and offer suggestions for improving paleo-DGVM studies.

  10. An ecological response to the Eocene/Oligocene transition revealed by the δ13CTOC record, Lanzhou Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuli; Zhao, Yan; Fang, Xiaomin; Meng, Qingquan

    2018-06-01

    The Eocene/Oligocene (E/O) transition, corresponds to an abrupt global cooling, thought to have been one of the greatest temperature changes in the mid-Cenozoic Earth's history. Sparse studies have successfully reconstructed the terrestrial ecological response to this temperature change. Here, we report results from the study of organic carbon isotopes (δ13CTOC), together with n-alkanes biomarker analysis, in the Yongdeng Section, Lanzhou Basin, Northwest China, and discuss changes in δ13CTOC and their mechanisms. The results show that between 35.3 Ma and 31.0 Ma, δ13CTOC ranged from -26.72‰ to -21.27‰. The main change occurred at 33.4 Ma, when δ13CTOC became heavier by 3‰. At this time the long-chain n-alkane members (C27, C29 and C31) were dominant, suggesting the most likely sources of organic matter were terrestrial plants. Combining these results with existing measurements of plant δ13CTOC and sporopollen data in adjacent areas, we infer that this change at 33.4 Ma might have been caused by an increase in gymnosperm content especially coniferous trees adapted to cold climates, which have a heavier δ13CTOC than that of the angiosperms, this would have been a response to the global cooling characteristic of this period.

  11. Early evidence of xeromorphy in angiosperms: stomatal encryption in a new eocene species of Banksia (Proteaceae) from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Raymond J; McLoughlin, Stephen; Hill, Robert S; McNamara, Kenneth J; Jordan, Gregory John

    2014-09-01

    • Globally, the origins of xeromorphic traits in modern angiosperm lineages are obscure but are thought to be linked to the early Neogene onset of seasonally arid climates. Stomatal encryption is a xeromorphic trait that is prominent in Banksia, an archetypal genus centered in one of the world's most diverse ecosystems, the ancient infertile landscape of Mediterranean-climate southwestern Australia.• We describe Banksia paleocrypta, a sclerophyllous species with encrypted stomata from silcretes of the Walebing and Kojonup regions of southwestern Australia dated as Late Eocene.• Banksia paleocrypta shows evidence of foliar xeromorphy ∼20 Ma before the widely accepted timing for the onset of aridity in Australia. Species of Banksia subgenus Banksia with very similar leaves are extant in southwestern Australia. The conditions required for silcrete formation infer fluctuating water tables and climatic seasonality in southwestern Australia in the Eocene, and seasonality is supported by the paucity of angiosperm closed-forest elements among the fossil taxa preserved with B. paleocrypta. However, climates in the region during the Eocene are unlikely to have experienced seasons as hot and dry as present-day summers.• The presence of B. paleocrypta within the center of diversity of subgenus Banksia in edaphically ancient southwestern Australia is consistent with the continuous presence of this lineage in the region for ≥40 Ma, a testament to the success of increasingly xeromorphic traits in Banksia over an interval in which numerous other lineages became extinct. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  12. Earliest Mysticete from the Late Eocene of Peru Sheds New Light on the Origin of Baleen Whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier; Martínez-Cáceres, Manuel; Bianucci, Giovanni; Di Celma, Claudio; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Steurbaut, Etienne; Urbina, Mario; de Muizon, Christian

    2017-05-22

    Although combined molecular and morphological analyses point to a late middle Eocene (38-39 million years ago) origin for the clade Neoceti (Odontoceti, echolocating toothed whales plus Mysticeti, baleen whales, and relatives), the oldest known mysticete fossil dates from the latest Eocene (about 34 million years ago) of Antarctica [1, 2]. Considering that the latter is not the most stemward mysticete in recent phylogenies and that Oligocene toothed mysticetes display a broad morphological disparity most likely corresponding to contrasted ecological niches, the origin of mysticetes from a basilosaurid ancestor and its drivers are currently poorly understood [1, 3-8]. Based on an articulated cetacean skeleton from the early late Eocene (Priabonian, around 36.4 million years ago) of the Pisco Basin, Peru, we describe a new archaic tooth-bearing mysticete, Mystacodon selenensis gen. et sp. nov. Being the geologically oldest neocete (crown group cetacean) and the earliest mysticete to branch off described so far, the new taxon is interpreted as morphologically intermediate between basilosaurids and later toothed mysticetes, providing thus crucial information about the anatomy of the skull, forelimb, and innominate at these critical initial stages of mysticete evolution. Major changes in the morphology of the oral apparatus (including tooth wear) and flipper compared to basilosaurids suggest that suction and possibly benthic feeding represented key, early ecological traits accompanying the emergence of modern filter-feeding baleen whales' ancestors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Single-crystal 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Eocene-Oligocene transition in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, C.C. III; Prothero, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Explanations for the causes of climatic changes and associated faunal and floral extinctions at the close of the Eocene Epoch have long been controversial because of, in part, uncertainties in correlation and dating of global events. New single-crystal laser fusion (SCLF) 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates on tephra from key magnetostratigraphic and fossil-bearing sections necessitate significant revision in North American late Paleogene chronology. The Chadronian-Orellan North American Land Mammal Age boundary, as a result, is shifted from 32.4 to 34.0 Ma (million years ago), the Orellan-Whitneyan boundary is shifted from 30.8 to 32.0 Ma, and the Whitneyan-Arikareean boundary is now approximately 29.0 Ma. The new dates shift the correlation of Chron C12R from the Chadronian to within the Orellan-Whitneyan interval, the Chadronian becomes late Eocene in age, and the North American Oligocene is restricted to the Orellan, Whitneyan, and early Arikareean. The Eocene-Oligocene boundary, and its associated climate change and extinction events, as a result, correlates with the Chadronian-Orellan boundary, not the Duchesnean-Chadronian boundary. 30 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Characteristics of microfossils assemblages of core SB-01 from Sanshui basin and discussion of paleocene-eocene boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Xie Yecai; Wang Zhengqing; Ma Chuang

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of microfossils assemblages of core SB-01 from Sanshui Basin have been analysised in this paper. Based on micropaleontological study and data from carbon and oxygen isotopes of bulk carbonates, which depth of Paleocene-Eocene boundary from the core was discussed. Ostracode assemblages include the Sinocypris nitela-Cyprois buxinensis-Limnocythere honggangensis assemblage(89.0-73.38 m) with few species and low abundance and the Sinocypris nitela-Cyprois buxinensis-Limnocythere honggangensis assemblage (73.38-0 m) with few species and low abundance during early and middle the core deposition and relatively many species and abundance increasing quickly of the late time of the core deposition; Charophyte assemblages contain the Peckichara subspherica-Rhabdochara jiangduensis assemblage (89.0-73.38 m) with rich species, high abundance and large sizes of fossils and the Gyrogona qianjiangica-Obtusochara brevicylindrica assemblage (73.38-53.75 m) with few species,low abundance and small sizes of fossils. At 73.38 m core depth, the great changes of microfossils assemblages and carbon isotopes values (decrease by more than 3.0 per thousand) and oxygen isotopes values of bulk carbonates take place, which consist with the geological records of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Hence, Paleocene-Eocene boundary of SanShui Basin should be roughly placed at 73.38 m core depth. (authors)

  15. A large mimotonid from the middle Eocene of China sheds light on the evolution of lagomorphs and their kin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostowicz-Frelik, Łucja; Li, Chuankui; Mao, Fangyuan; Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing

    2015-03-30

    Mimotonids share their closest affinity with lagomorphs and were a rare and endemic faunal element of Paleogene mammal assemblages of central Asia. Here we describe a new species, Mimolagus aurorae from the Middle Eocene of Nei Mongol (China). This species belongs to one of the most enigmatic genera of fossil Glires, previously known only from the type and only specimen from the early Oligocene of Gansu (China). Our finding extends the earliest occurrence of the genus by at least 10 million years in the Paleogene of Asia, which closes the gap between Mimolagus and other mimotonids that are known thus far from middle Eocene or older deposits. The new species is one of the largest known pre-Oligocene Glires. As regards duplicidentates, Mimolagus is comparable with the largest Neogene continental leporids, namely hares of the genus Lepus. Our results suggest that ecomorphology of this species was convergent on that of small perissodactyls that dominated faunas of the Mongolian Plateau in the Eocene, and probably a result of competitive pressure from other Glires, including a co-occurring mimotonid, Gomphos.

  16. Astronomically paced changes in deep-water circulation in the western North Atlantic during the middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Lohmann, Gerrit; Sexton, Philip; Zachos, James; Pälike, Heiko

    2018-02-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) currently redistributes heat and salt between Earth's ocean basins, and plays a vital role in the ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Despite its crucial role in today's climate system, vigorous debate remains as to when deep-water formation in the North Atlantic started. Here, we present datasets from carbonate-rich middle Eocene sediments from the Newfoundland Ridge, revealing a unique archive of paleoceanographic change from the progressively cooling climate of the middle Eocene. Well-defined lithologic alternations between calcareous ooze and clay-rich intervals occur at the ∼41-kyr beat of axial obliquity. Hence, we identify obliquity as the driver of middle Eocene (43.5-46 Ma) Northern Component Water (NCW, the predecessor of modern NADW) variability. High-resolution benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C suggest that obliquity minima correspond to cold, nutrient-depleted, western North Atlantic deep waters. We thus link stronger NCW formation with obliquity minima. In contrast, during obliquity maxima, Deep Western Boundary Currents were weaker and warmer, while abyssal nutrients were more abundant. These aspects reflect a more sluggish NCW formation. This obliquity-paced paleoceanographic regime is in excellent agreement with results from an Earth system model, in which obliquity minima configurations enhance NCW formation.

  17. Low palaeoelevation of the northern Lhasa terrane during late Eocene: Fossil foraminifera and stable isotope evidence from the Gerze Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yi; Zhang, Kexin; Garzione, Carmala N; Xu, Yadong; Song, Bowen; Ji, Junliang

    2016-06-08

    The Lhasa terrane is a key region for understanding the paleoelevation of the southern Tibetan Plateau after India-Asia collision. The Gerze Basin, located in the northern part of the Lhasa terrane, is a shortening-related basin. We discovered Lagena laevis (Bandy) fossils in upper Eocene strata of the Gerze Basin. This type of foraminifera is associated with lagoon and estuarine environments, indicating that the northern part of the Lhasa terrane was near sea level during the late Eocene. We speculate that these foraminifera were transported inland by storm surges to low elevation freshwater lakes during times of marine transgressions. This inference is consistent with the relatively positive δ(18)O values in carbonate from the same deposits that indicate low palaeoelevations close to sea level. Considering the palaeoelevation results from the nearby Oligocene basins at a similar latitude and the volcanic history of the Lhasa terrane, we infer that large-magnitude surface uplift of the northern Lhasa terrane occurred between late Eocene and late Oligocene time.

  18. Revised magnetic polarity time scale for the Paleocene and early Eocene and implications for Pacific plate motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.F.; Coney, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetostratiographic studies of a continental sedimentary sequence in the Clark's Fork Basin, Wyoming and a marine sedimentary sequence at Gubbio, Italy indicate that the Paleocene--Eocene boundary occurs just stratigraphically above normal polarity zones correlative with magnetic anomaly 25 chron. These data indicate that the older boundary of anomaly 24 chron is 52.5 Ma. This age is younger than the late Paleocene age assigned by LaBrecque et al. [1977] and also younger than the basal Eocene age assigned by Ness et al. [1980]. A revised magnetic polarity time scale for the Paleocene and early Eocene is presented in this paper. Several changes in the relative motion system between the Pacific plate and neighboring plates occurred in the interval between anomaly 24 and anomaly 21. A major change in absolute motion of the Pacific plate is indicated by the bend in the Hawaiian--Emperor Seamount chain at approx.43 Ma. The revised magnetic polarity time scale indicates that the absolute motion change lags the relative motion changes by only approx.3--5 m.y. rather than by >10 m.y. as indicated by previous polarity time scales

  19. New Cricetid Rodents from Strata near the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Erden Obo Section (Nei Mongol, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing

    2016-01-01

    New cricetids (Eucricetodon wangae sp. nov., Eucricetodon sp. and Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis sp. nov.) are reported from the lower and middle parts of the "Upper Red" beds of the Erden Obo section in Nei Mongol, China. Eucricetodon wangae is more primitive than other known species of the genus from lower Oligocene of Asia and Europe in having a single anterocone on M1, a single connection between the protocone and the paracone, the anterior metalophule connection in M1-2 and weaker anteroconid and ectomesolophid in lower molars. Pappocricetodon siziwangqiensis is more advanced than other species of the genus in permanently missing P4 and having posterior protolophule connection. These fossils suggest that the age of the "Upper Red" of the Erden Obo section is younger than the age of the Upper Eocene Houldjin and Caijiachong formations, but older than those containing the Shandgolian faunas; the "Upper Red" is most closely correlative to the Ergilian beds in age, and probably close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Given the age estimate, Eucricetodon wangae provides the new evidence to support that cricetid dispersal from Asia to Europe occurred prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary.

  20. Evidence for ephemeral middle Eocene to early Oligocene Greenland glacial ice and pan-Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripati, Aradhna; Darby, Dennis

    2018-03-12

    Earth's modern climate is defined by the presence of ice at both poles, but that ice is now disappearing. Therefore understanding the origin and causes of polar ice stability is more critical than ever. Here we provide novel geochemical data that constrain past dynamics of glacial ice on Greenland and Arctic sea ice. Based on accurate source determinations of individual ice-rafted Fe-oxide grains, we find evidence for episodic glaciation of distinct source regions on Greenland as far-ranging as ~68°N and ~80°N synchronous with ice-rafting from circum-Arctic sources, beginning in the middle Eocene. Glacial intervals broadly coincide with reduced CO 2 , with a potential threshold for glacial ice stability near ~500 p.p.m.v. The middle Eocene represents the Cenozoic onset of a dynamic cryosphere, with ice in both hemispheres during transient glacials and substantial regional climate heterogeneity. A more stable cryosphere developed at the Eocene-Oligocene transition, and is now threatened by anthropogenic emissions.

  1. High resolution taxonomic study of the late Eocene (~34 Ma) Florissant palynoflora, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is located in Teller County in central Colorado, at approximate latitude 38°54'N and longitude 105°13'. The lithologies of the Florissant Formation consist of coarse-grained arkosic and volcanoclastic sandstones and conglomerates, finer shale, and tuffaceus mudstone and siltstone. It is divided into six units, mostly of lacustrine and fluvial origin with volcanic sediments interfingering and topping the strata. Volcanic units have been dated using the 40Ar/39Ar single-crystal method, giving an absolute age of ca. 34 Ma for the upper fossiliferous sedimentary unit. This pinpoints the formation of the Florissant sediments at the end of the Eocene, providing fruitful insight into the changing palaeoecosystem of the region at the dawn of the Oligocene. The formation is very well known for its rich fossil insect fauna and well preserved plant macrofossils found in the shale units, and the silicified tree stumps occurring in the lower mudstone unit. The sample used for this study originates from the upper shale unit, the fifth unit from the base of the formation. Previous studies on the plant macrofossils, mesofossils and the palynoflora have shown that during the late Eocene the surroundings of Florissant palaeo-lake were covered by diverse mixed broad-leaved evergreen/deciduous and needle-leafed forests. Until now pollen from the Florissant Formation has mostly been described according to conventional morphological nomenclature, using light microscopy (LM) only. In this study the same individual pollen grains are investigated using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by means of single grain technique. This provides best exploitable results concerning a more detailed resolution regarding taxonomy and more accurate identifications. The main goal of this study is to compile a well resolved taxonomic species list based on the palynoflora, to clarify the generic and species diversity of selected families (e

  2. Sensitivity of the Eocene climate to CO2 and orbital variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keery, John S.; Holden, Philip B.; Edwards, Neil R.

    2018-02-01

    The early Eocene, from about 56 Ma, with high atmospheric CO2 levels, offers an analogue for the response of the Earth's climate system to anthropogenic fossil fuel burning. In this study, we present an ensemble of 50 Earth system model runs with an early Eocene palaeogeography and variation in the forcing values of atmospheric CO2 and the Earth's orbital parameters. Relationships between simple summary metrics of model outputs and the forcing parameters are identified by linear modelling, providing estimates of the relative magnitudes of the effects of atmospheric CO2 and each of the orbital parameters on important climatic features, including tropical-polar temperature difference, ocean-land temperature contrast, Asian, African and South (S.) American monsoon rains, and climate sensitivity. Our results indicate that although CO2 exerts a dominant control on most of the climatic features examined in this study, the orbital parameters also strongly influence important components of the ocean-atmosphere system in a greenhouse Earth. In our ensemble, atmospheric CO2 spans the range 280-3000 ppm, and this variation accounts for over 90 % of the effects on mean air temperature, southern winter high-latitude ocean-land temperature contrast and northern winter tropical-polar temperature difference. However, the variation of precession accounts for over 80 % of the influence of the forcing parameters on the Asian and African monsoon rainfall, and obliquity variation accounts for over 65 % of the effects on winter ocean-land temperature contrast in high northern latitudes and northern summer tropical-polar temperature difference. Our results indicate a bimodal climate sensitivity, with values of 4.36 and 2.54 °C, dependent on low or high states of atmospheric CO2 concentration, respectively, with a threshold at approximately 1000 ppm in this model, and due to a saturated vegetation-albedo feedback. Our method gives a quantitative ranking of the influence of each of the

  3. Productivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2

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    M. Dedert

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Early Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 at ~53.7 Ma is one of multiple hyperthermal events that followed the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma. The negative carbon excursion and deep ocean carbonate dissolution which occurred during the event imply that a substantial amount (103 Gt of carbon (C was added to the ocean-atmosphere system, consequently increasing atmospheric CO2(pCO2. This makes the event relevant to the current scenario of anthropogenic CO2 additions and global change. Resulting changes in ocean stratification and pH, as well as changes in exogenic cycles which supply nutrients to the ocean, may have affected the productivity of marine phytoplankton, especially calcifying phytoplankton. Changes in productivity, in turn, may affect the rate of sequestration of excess CO2 in the deep ocean and sediments. In order to reconstruct the productivity response by calcareous nannoplankton to ETM2 in the South Atlantic (Site 1265 and North Pacific (Site 1209, we employ the coccolith Sr/Ca productivity proxy with analysis of well-preserved picked monogeneric populations by ion probe supplemented by analysis of various size fractions of nannofossil sediments by ICP-AES. The former technique of measuring Sr/Ca in selected nannofossil populations using the ion probe circumvents possible contamination with secondary calcite. Avoiding such contamination is important for an accurate interpretation of the nannoplankton productivity record, since diagenetic processes can bias the productivity signal, as we demonstrate for Sr/Ca measurements in the fine (<20 μm and other size fractions obtained from bulk sediments from Site 1265. At this site, the paleoproductivity signal as reconstructed from the Sr/Ca appears to be governed by cyclic changes, possibly orbital forcing, resulting in a 20–30% variability in Sr/Ca in dominant genera as obtained by ion probe. The ~13 to 21

  4. Eocene lake basins in Wyoming and Nevada record rollback of the Farallon flat-slab beneath western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. E.; Cassel, E. J.; Jicha, B. R.; Singer, B. S.; Carroll, A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical and conceptual models of flat-slab rollback predict broad initial dynamic subsidence above the slab hinge then uplift and volcanism triggered by the advection of asthenosphere beneath the overriding plate. These predicted surface effects provide a viable but largely untested explanation for lake basin formation in Cordilleran-type orogenies. We argue that the hydrologic closure of both the foreland (early Eocene) and hinterland (late Eocene) of the North American Cordillera were caused by a trenchward-migrating wave of dynamic and thermal topography resulting from progressive removal of the Farallon flat-slab. Two major episodes of hydrologic drainage closure are recorded by Eocene terrestrial strata in the western United States. The first occurred in the retroarc foreland during the early Eocene, and resulted in the deposition of the Green River Fm. The second occurred in the hinterland during the late Eocene and resulted in accumulation of the Elko Fm. In both regions, lake strata overlie fluvial strata and become progressively more evaporative up-section, and are overlain by volcaniclastic strata. Both successions were then truncated by regional unconformities that extend until the Oligocene. We interpret these stratigraphic successions to record trenchward propagation of a regional topographic wave, caused by slab rollback. Migration of the slab-hinge initially caused dynamic subsidence and initiation of lacustrine deposition. Regional surface uplift followed, and was associated with scattered volcanism. Uplift promoted formation of endorheic basins and ultimately the development of regional unconformities. The height of the uplift can be roughly approximated by the preserved thickness of lacustrine and other nonmarine deposits at both locations (0.2-1.0 km). The 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb geochronology of Green River Fm ash beds indicate that this surface topographic wave migrated trenchward (SW) across the foreland from 53 to 47 Ma at a velocity of ~6 cm

  5. Sedimentology and paleoecology of an Eocene Oligocene alluvial lacustrine arid system, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldi-Campesi, Hugo; Cevallos-Ferriz, Sergio R. S.; Centeno-García, Elena; Arenas-Abad, Concepción; Fernández, Luis Pedro

    2006-10-01

    A depositional model of the Eocene-Oligocene Coatzingo Formation in Tepexi de Rodríguez (Puebla, Mexico) is proposed, based on facies analysis of one of the best-preserved sections, the Axamilpa Section. The sedimentary evolution is interpreted as the retrogradation of an alluvial system, followed by the progressive expansion of an alkaline lake system, with deltaic, palustrine, and evaporitic environments. The analysis suggests a change towards more arid conditions with time. Fossils from this region, such as fossil tracks of artiodactyls, aquatic birds and cat-like mammals, suggest that these animals traversed the area, ostracods populated the lake waters, and plants grew on incipient soils and riparian environments many times throughout the history of the basin. The inferred habitat for some fossil plants coincides with the sedimentological interpretation of an arid to semiarid climate for that epoch. This combined sedimentological-paleontological study of the Axamilpa Section provides an environmental context in which fossils can be placed and brings into attention important biotic episodes, like bird and camelid migrations or the origin of endemic but extinct plants in this area.

  6. Halophilic archaea cultivated from surface sterilized middle-late eocene rock salt are polyploid.

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    Salla T Jaakkola

    Full Text Available Live bacteria and archaea have been isolated from several rock salt deposits of up to hundreds of millions of years of age from all around the world. A key factor affecting their longevity is the ability to keep their genomic DNA intact, for which efficient repair mechanisms are needed. Polyploid microbes are known to have an increased resistance towards mutations and DNA damage, and it has been suggested that microbes from deeply buried rock salt would carry several copies of their genomes. Here, cultivable halophilic microbes were isolated from a surface sterilized middle-late Eocene (38-41 million years ago rock salt sample, drilled from the depth of 800 m at Yunying salt mine, China. Eight unique isolates were obtained, which represented two haloarchaeal genera, Halobacterium and Halolamina. We used real-time PCR to show that our isolates are polyploid, with genome copy numbers of 11-14 genomes per cell in exponential growth phase. The ploidy level was slightly downregulated in stationary growth phase, but the cells still had an average genome copy number of 6-8. The polyploidy of halophilic archaea living in ancient rock salt might be a factor explaining how these organisms are able to overcome the challenge of prolonged survival during their entombment.

  7. Eocene and not Cretaceous origin of spider wasps: Fossil evidence from amber

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    Juanita Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spider wasps had long been proposed to originate in the mid-Cretaceous based on the Burmese amber fossil Bryopompilus interfector Engel and Grimaldi, 2006. We performed a morphological examination of this fossil and determined it does not belong to Pompilidae or any other described hymenopteran family. Instead, we place it in the new family Bryopompilidae. The oldest verifiable member of the Pompilidae is from Baltic amber, which suggests the family probably originated in the Eocene, not in the mid-Cretaceous as previously proposed. The origin of spider wasps appears to be correlated with an increase in spider familial diversity in the Cenozoic. We also we add two genera to the extinct pompilid fauna: Tainopompilus gen. nov., and Paleogenia gen. nov., and describe three new species of fossil spider wasps: Anoplius planeta sp. nov., from Dominican amber (Burdigalian to Langhian; Paleogenia wahisi sp. nov., from Baltic amber (Lutetian to Priabonian; and Tainopompilus argentum sp. nov, from Dominican amber (Chattian to Langhian.

  8. Productivity feedback did not terminate the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM

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    A. Torfstein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM occurred approximately 55 million years ago, and is one of the most dramatic abrupt global warming events in the geological record. This warming was triggered by the sudden release of thousands of gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere and is widely perceived to be the best analogue for current anthropogenic climate change. Yet, the mechanism of recovery from this event remains controversial. A massive increase in the intensity of the marine biological pump ("productivity feedback" has been suggested to cause a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and subsequent carbon sequestration in the ocean. A re-evaluation of the "productivity feedback hypothesis", based on biogenic barium mass accumulation rates (Ba-MARs for a site in the Southern Ocean, finds that any increase in export production lagged the initial carbon release by at least ~70 000 years. This implies that export production did not facilitate rapid removal of excess carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, the most likely mechanism for carbon removal appears to be silicate weathering, which occurred at much slower rates than previously assumed.

  9. First adequately-known quadrupedal sirenian from Eurasia (Eocene, Bay of Biscay, Huesca, northeastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Berenguer, Ester; Badiola, Ainara; Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Canudo, José Ignacio

    2018-03-23

    Sirenians are the only extant herbivorous mammals fully adapted to an aquatic lifestyle. They originated in Africa during the Paleocene from an undetermined clade of afrotherian mammals, and by the end of the Eocene they were widely distributed across the tropical latitudes. Here we introduce Sobrarbesiren cardieli gen. et sp. nov. It is the first adequately-known quadrupedal sirenian from Eurasia and the oldest record of this clade from western Europe. Fossils have been recovered from the middle Lutetian (SBZ15) site of Castejón de Sobrarbe-41 (Huesca, Spain), and comprise many cranial and postcranial remains, including pelvic girdle and hind limb bones, from at least six sirenian individuals of different ontogenetic stages. Sobrarbesiren shows a suite of characters previously considered synapomorphies of different clades of derived sirenians, such as the presence of the processus retroversus of the squamosal and the pterygoid fossa, combined with ancestral characters such as the presence of an alisphenoid canal, a permanent P5, at least two sacral vertebrae, a primitive pelvis and functional femora and fibulae. Sobrarbesiren is recovered as the sister taxon of Dugongidae and represents a transitional stage of adaptation to aquatic life between the amphibious quadrupedal prorastomids and the aquatic quadrupedal protosirenids.

  10. Geodynamic evolution of the Taiwan-Luzon-Mindoro belt since the late eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Jean François; Blanchet, René; Rangin, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Letouzey, Jean; Muller, Carla

    1986-05-01

    The structural framework of the Taiwan-Luzon-Mindoro belt (or festoon) is described, following three major transects: the Luzon transect with active subduction and active island arc; the Taiwan transect with active collision; the Mindoro transect with active subduction and inactive collision. Based on this geological study and on available geophysical data, a model for the geodynamic evolution of this portion of the Philippine Sea and Eurasia Plates boundary is proposed in a succession of reconstructions between the Late Eocene and the Present. The major geodynamic events are: (1) beginning of the opening of the South China Sea (S.C.S.) in Lower Oligocene times, contemporaneous with obduction of the Zambales and Angat ophiolites on Luzon. (2) subduction of a Mesozoic (?) oceanic basin along the proto-Manila trench from the Upper Oligocene to the Lower Miocene. (3) obduction of the South China Sea oceanic crust onto the Chinese and Reed Bank—Calamian passive margins in Middle Miocene time (14-15 Ma) related to a major kinematic reorganization (end of opening of the S.C.S.). (4) beginning of collision between the Luzon microblock and the two margins of the S.C.S. in the Upper Miocene (~ 7 Ma); collision is still active in Taiwan whereas it stopped in Mindoro during the Pliocene.

  11. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  12. Liquidambar maomingensis sp. nov. (Altingiaceae) from the late Eocene of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Natalia P; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Song, Yunsheng; Volkova, Lyudmila D; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-08-01

    • Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data has changed our view on the evolution and systematics of plant taxa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of several molecular markers, fruit anatomy, and pollen morphology, the genera Altingia and Semiliquidambar were formally transferred to the genus Liquidambar. The new species of Liquidambar from the Eocene of South China significantly extends our knowledge of the variability of the morphological characters of this genus in the geological past. Fossil leaves in conjunction with data on the associated reproductive structures allow us to make inferences about patterns in the evolutionary history of Liquidambar.• Fossil leaves and associated reproductive structures preserved as impressions were described and compared with the corresponding organs of extant and fossil relatives. The morphological variation of numerous leaves was examined by stereomicroscopy.• Liquidambar maomingensis sp. nov. is characterized by polymorphic leaves including both palmately lobed and unlobed leaves. This study presents the first observations of such dimorphism in the fossil record of Liquidambar leaves. Two distinct leaf groups are interpreted as sun and shade leaves.• The fossil leaves and associated infructescences from Maoming probably belong to the same plant. The occurrence of fossil leaves similar to those of extant species previously considered within Semiliquidambar and Liquidambar with the associated infructescences close to those of Altingia provide paleobotanical evidence that justifies combining the genera Liquidambar, Altingia, and Semiliquidambar into the single genus Liquidambar as recently proposed based on molecular markers. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 isotope record of the early eocene nammal formation, salt range, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, S.; Sajid, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Nammal Formation is the lowermost unit of the Early Eocene succession in the Salt Range, Pakistan. It is well exposed throughout the Salt Range. The Nammal Formation having 30 to 35 meters thickness is predominantly composed of nodular limestone interbedded with marl and shale. The present study was focussed on stable carbon 13 and oxygen 18 isotopic analysis based on data from two stratigraphically important sections. The samples from the Nilawahan section provided with the delta 13C values varied between 1.34 to -1.56 (VPDB) and values of delta 18O fluctuated between -4.47 to -6.59 (VPDB). Likewise the sample analysis of BadshahPur section exhibited that the delta 13C values changes from 1.09 to -1.65 (VPDB) and delta 18O values range from -4.17 to -6.85 (VPDB). The isotopic records of carbon 13 and oxygen 18 indicated the shallow marine deposition of the Nammal Formation under tropical conditions. It highlighted the palaeo climatic and diagenetic conditions of the Nammal Formation at the time of deposition in the Salt Range region. (author)

  14. The terminal Eocene event - Formation of a ring system around the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that the formation of a ring system about the earth by particles and debris related to the North American strewn tektite field is responsible for the terminal Eocene event of 34 million years ago, in which severe climatic changes accompanied by widespread biological extinctions occurred. Botanical data is cited which implies a 20-C decrease in winter temperature with no change in summer temperature, and evidence of the correlation of the North American tektite fall, which is estimated to have a total mass of 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 10th tons, with the disappearance of five of the most abundant species of radiolaria is presented. The possible connection between the tektites and climatic change is argued to result from the screening of sunlight by an equatorial ring of trapped particles of extraterrestrial origin in geocentric orbit which would cut off sunlight only in the winter months. Such a ring, located at a distance of between 1.5 and 2.5 earth radii (the Roche limit) is estimated to have a lifetime of a few million years.

  15. Impact of dissolution on the sedimentary record of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralower, Timothy J.; Kelly, D. Clay; Gibbs, Samantha; Farley, Kenneth; Eccles, Laurie; Lindemann, T. Logan; Smith, Gregory J.

    2014-09-01

    The input of massive amounts of carbon to the atmosphere and ocean at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ˜55.53 Ma) resulted in pervasive carbonate dissolution at the seafloor. At many sites this dissolution also penetrated into the underlying sediment column. The magnitude of dissolution at and below the seafloor, a process known as chemical erosion, and its effect on the stratigraphy of the PETM, are notoriously difficult to constrain. Here, we illuminate the impact of dissolution by analyzing the complete spectrum of sedimentological grain sizes across the PETM at three deep-sea sites characterized by a range of bottom water dissolution intensity. We show that the grain size spectrum provides a measure of the sediment fraction lost during dissolution. We compare these data with dissolution and other proxy records, electron micrograph observations of samples and lithology. The complete data set indicates that the two sites with slower carbonate accumulation, and less active bioturbation, are characterized by significant chemical erosion. At the third site, higher carbonate accumulation rates, more active bioturbation, and possibly winnowing have limited the impacts of dissolution. However, grain size data suggest that bioturbation and winnowing were not sufficiently intense to diminish the fidelity of isotopic and microfossil assemblage records.

  16. Winged fruits and associated leaves of Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae) from the Late Eocene of South China and their phytogeographic and paleoclimatic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinxin; Tang, Biao; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Jin, Jianhua

    2013-03-01

    Dipterocarps are the representative component of tropical rain forests in Southeast Asia and hold important economic and ecological significance, but their origin and migration are controversial. Information on dipterocarpaceous fossils, particularly the more convincing reproductive structures, not only can improve the phylogenetic and phytogeographic studies of this family, but also provide important information for reconstructing paleoclimate. • Morphologically preserved winged fruits and associated leaves were collected from the Late Eocene Huangniuling Formation, Maoming Basin, South China. We determined their taxonomic positions based on comparative morphology with similar extant and fossil specimens and discuss their phytogeographic and paleoclimatic implications by consulting the distribution and habitat of fossil and modern populations. • The Late Eocene winged fruits are attributed to Shorea Roxburgh ex Gaertner (Dipterocarpaceae) as Shorea maomingensis sp. nov. The associated leaves are recognized as Shorea sp. based on leaf architecture, and they are likely to be conspecific with the winged fruits. • The discovery of dipterocarps indicates that they had arrived in tropical and humid South China by the Late Eocene. Dipterocarps including Shorea exhibit a wide range of physiological tolerance to climate; palynological analysis suggests an increase in aridity and seasonality in the Maoming Basin from the Late Eocene. Dipterocarps became adapted to this seasonal climate from the Late Eocene to Early Miocene, expanded northward in the climatic optimum of the Middle Miocene, and declined and gradually disappeared from the southeastern part of the continent from the Late Miocene.

  17. Geological characteristic of the main oil and gas producing formations of the upper Austrian molasse basin. Pt. 1. The Eocene sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L [Rohoel-Aufsuchungs-Gesellschaft m.b.H., Vienna (Austria)

    1980-09-01

    The sandstones of the Upper Eocene are the main oil carriers within RAG's Upper Austrian concession area. The attempt is being made to reconstruct the paleogeography of the Eocene-in which time the sea transgressed the Molasse basin towards N and E - from core and log evidence. From deep Lower Tertiary onwards the mesozoic and older sediments were exposed to intensive erosion, which resulted in a slightly undulating peneplane sloping in a S to SW direction. This erosion plane was - still in Lower Tertiary times - in some areas dissected into horst and graben structures which greatly influenced the deposition of the early Eocene sediments. During the Upper Eocene the Molasse basin began to subside and subsided more strongly in the SW than in the N and NE, so that neritic deposits could form in the first area, whereas lagoonal and brackish sedimentation still prevailed in the latter. The Eocene sandstones are being classified according to their environment of deposition, and their reservoir, characteristics are being studied. Sandstones are absent in the neritic environment of the Discocyclina-marls only. Sand deposits have been encountered as: 1) transgressive horizons directly overlying the pretertiary substrate, 2) infills of channels cut into limnic-brackish sediments, 3) littoral deposits, partly interfingering with Lithothamnium limestone, 4) fine grained sandy marls and nummulitic sandstones within sublittoral to neritic sediments.

  18. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  19. The Eocene South American metatherian Zeusdelphys complicatus is not a protodidelphidid but a hatcheriform: Paleobiogeographic implications

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    Leonardo M. Carneiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zeusdelphys complicatus is one of the most enigmatic metatherians from the Itaboraí Basin. The type and only known specimen was previously regarded as the upper dentition of Eobrasilia; an M4 of a new taxon; an M3 of a Kollpaniidae (now regarded as a group of “condylarths”; a probable M1 of an incertae sedis taxon; and as an M1 of a Protodidelphidae. Herein, we present a morphological review of the dental structures of Zeusdelphys complicatus, presenting new interpretations and comparing it with other North and South American taxa. We also perform a phylogenetic analysis in order to test the affinities of Zeusdelphys and the validity of most studied characters. The results recovered Zeusdelphys complicatus as more closely related to Hatcheritherium alpha than to any other metatherian. Glasbiidae were recovered as the sister lineage of Protodidelphidae within Didelphimorphia, as true marsupials. Ectocentrocristus was recovered as the sister taxon of Zeusdelphys + Hatcheritherium, as a Hatcheriformes. The analysis recovered this suborder as an independent lineage from Polydolopimorphia, being more closely related to “Alphadontidae”. The affinities with Protodidelphidae are a result of convergent evolution, as Zeusdelphys is more closely related to Hatcheritherium alpha from the Late Cretaceous of North America. The results support a North American origin for Hatcheriformes. The presence of strong sea-level lowstands and islands in the Caribbean Plate during the Late Cretaceous provide valid data to support a faunal interchange between Americas during the latest Late Cretaceous. Based on the results, Zeusdelphys represents a South American early Eocene surviving Hatcheriformes.

  20. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  1. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness

  2. Hydrological and associated biogeochemical consequences of rapid global warming during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Matthew J.; Inglis, Gordon N.; Badger, Marcus P. S.; Naafs, B. David A.; Behrooz, Leila; Remmelzwaal, Serginio; Monteiro, Fanny M.; Rohrssen, Megan; Farnsworth, Alexander; Buss, Heather L.; Dickson, Alexander J.; Valdes, Paul J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2017-10-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) hyperthermal, 56 million years ago (Ma), is the most dramatic example of abrupt Cenozoic global warming. During the PETM surface temperatures increased between 5 and 9 °C and the onset likely took hydrological and associated biogeochemical feedbacks, and proxy data from the PETM can provide constraints on changes in warm climate hydrology simulated by general circulation models (GCMs). In this paper, we provide a critical review of biological and geochemical signatures interpreted as direct or indirect indicators of hydrological change at the PETM, explore the importance of adopting multi-proxy approaches, and present a preliminary model-data comparison. Hydrological records complement those of temperature and indicate that the climatic response at the PETM was complex, with significant regional and temporal variability. This is further illustrated by the biogeochemical consequences of inferred changes in hydrology and, in fact, changes in precipitation and the biogeochemical consequences are often conflated in geochemical signatures. There is also strong evidence in many regions for changes in the episodic and/or intra-annual distribution of precipitation that has not widely been considered when comparing proxy data to GCM output. Crucially, GCM simulations indicate that the response of the hydrological cycle to the PETM was heterogeneous - some regions are associated with increased precipitation - evaporation (P - E), whilst others are characterised by a decrease. Interestingly, the majority of proxy data come from the regions where GCMs predict an increase in PETM precipitation. We propose that comparison of hydrological proxies to GCM output can be an important test of model skill, but this will be enhanced by further data from regions of model-simulated aridity and simulation of extreme precipitation events.

  3. Warm Paleocene/Eocene climate as simulated in ECHAM5/MPI-OM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heinemann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the late Paleocene/early Eocene (PE climate using the coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. The surface in our PE control simulation is on average 297 K warm and ice-free, despite a moderate atmospheric CO2 concentration of 560 ppm. Compared to a pre-industrial reference simulation (PR, low latitudes are 5 to 8 K warmer, while high latitudes are up to 40 K warmer. This high-latitude amplification is in line with proxy data, yet a comparison to sea surface temperature proxy data suggests that the Arctic surface temperatures are still too low in our PE simulation.

    To identify the mechanisms that cause the PE-PR surface temperature differences, we fit two simple energy balance models to the ECHAM5/MPI-OM results. We find that about 2/3 of the PE-PR global mean surface temperature difference are caused by a smaller clear sky emissivity due to higher atmospheric CO2 and water vapour concentrations in PE compared to PR; 1/3 is due to a smaller planetary albedo. The reduction of the pole-to-equator temperature gradient in PE compared to PR is due to (1 the large high-latitude effect of the higher CO2 and water vapour concentrations in PE compared to PR, (2 the lower Antarctic orography, (3 the smaller surface albedo at high latitudes, and (4 longwave cloud radiative effects. Our results support the hypothesis that local radiative effects rather than increased meridional heat transports were responsible for the "equable" PE climate.

  4. A middle Eocene mesoeucrocodylian (Crocodyliformes) from the Kaninah Formation, Republic of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nancy J.; Hill, Robert V.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Schulp, Anne; As-Saruri, Mustafa; Al-Nimey, Fuad; Jolley, Lea Ann; Schulp-Stuip, Yvonne; O'Connor, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    During the Cenozoic, the Arabian Plate separated from continental Africa and assumed a closer geographical relationship with Eurasia. As such, the vertebrate fossil record of the Arabian Peninsula has great potential for documenting faunal interchanges that occurred as a result of such tectonic events, with a shift from a primarily Afro-Arabian fauna in the Palaeogene to a more cosmopolitan fauna in the Neogene. Understanding of the sequence and timing of this faunal interchange has long been hampered by a lack of palaeontological data. Recently recovered fossils from the Middle Eocene Kaninah Formation of Yemen constitute the earliest Palaeogene record of continental vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula, thereby offering a rare glimpse at the region's post- -Cretaceous fauna. Here we describe fossil materials from the Kaninah Formation, a collection of dental and postcranial elements representing a mesoeucrocodylian crocodyliform of unclear affinities. The specimen exhibits ziphodont tooth morphology along with a biserial paravertebral shield and polygonal gastral osteoderms, consistent with certain mesoeucrocodylians (e.g., ziphodontan notosuchians). Yet the associated fragmentary anterior caudal vertebra, although badly abraded, preserves morphology suggestive of procoely. This vertebral type in combination with the dental and osteoderm morphology is much more taxonomically restrictive and consistent with the suite of characters exhibited by atoposaurids, a finding that would significantly extend that clade through the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary. Alternatively, given the relative paucity of information from the region during the Palaeogene, the combination of characteristics of the Kaninah crocodyliform may reflect a novel or poorly known form exhibiting previously unrecognised character mosaicism. We take a conservative approach, and refer the Kaninah specimen to Mesoeucrocodylia, Atoposauridae (?) pending discovery of more complete material. New fossils

  5. Nummulite bioperforations and palaeoenvironments in the middle Eocene of the Berici Mts. (N Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazzoni, C. A.; Kytayev, N.

    2012-04-01

    A quantitative analysis of bioperforations on several tests of Nummulites lyelli and N. discorbinus (B forms) has been performed on four large polished slabs (90 x 45 cm) coming from different levels of middle Eocene shallow-water limestones. About 80% of N. lyelli B and 15% of N. discorbinus B show some type of bioperforation, indicating a vast activity of boring organisms in the life environment. Moreover, encrusting of the same tests by coralline algae and spirorbid worms is common. Seven different types of bioperforation were distinguished: large-irregular, small-irregular, total-irregular, spiral, small circular, transversal, and paraboloid. The spiral and small circular borings were attributed to Trypanites helicus, according to Görmus & Nielsen (2006). The transversal and paraboloid ones resemble Oichnus ispp. (Görmus & Nielsen, 2006). According to Nielsen & Görmus (2004) Trypanites helicus is probably associated with nematod worms. The irregular borings (especially the large-irregular and total-irregular) are still problematic, but could tentatively be attributed to gastropods (Sliter, 1971). The scarce abrasion and fragmentation of the bioeroded tests seems to point to a good degree of authochthony of the nummulite tests, with no or very limited lateral transport. Moreover, the percentages of bored tests are strikingly uniform in the different levels, even if the fossil assemblages show some variation and represent probably slightly different paleoenvironments. The bioperforations have a potential use to detect transport and reworking, since the sediment infilling could be either the same as surrounding or a different one. A careful analysis of this feature is therefore preliminary to the biostratigraphic use of the fossil nummulites.

  6. Electron microscopy and microanalysis of uranium phases in primary ores, Eocene and Miocene of south Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, L.C.; Price, J.G.; Bobeck, P.

    1984-01-01

    Two contrasting types of roll-front uranium deposits occur in south Texas. In the barrier-bar sands of the Eocene Jackson Group, organic matter was essential to uranium reduction, whereas in the fluvial sands of the Miocene Oakville Formation, epigenetic pyrite was the reductant. In a sample of reduced Oakville ore, a uranium phase with grains ranging in diameter from < 1 to 20μm was recognized by SEM backscattered-electron imaging and wavelength-dispersive spectrometer (WDS) elemental-dot mapping. Quantitative microprobe analyses indicated that the phase is a uranium-calcium silicate-phosphate with molar Ca/P approximately equal to 1.0, U/P equal to 2.8 +/- 0.4 (n = 27), and U/Si approaching 1.0 in samples uncontaminated with quartz, feldspar, or clay minerals. Highest uranium content is 59%. Oakville ore is typically easy to leach by in-situ methods. Jackson ore contains 2 uranium phases. Sulfur-rich organic matter contains 4.1 +/- 1.6% uranium (n = 27). Although individual grains of a possible uranium mineral within the organic matter are too small to be resolved by electron imaging, a consistent molar U/Fe (0.5 +/- 0.1) suggests a uranium-iron oxide phase. Alternatively, uranium is adsorbed by or otherwise bound to the organic matter. The second phase is a uranium-calcium silicate-phosphate that differs from the Oakville ore. Molar Ca/P equals 0.8 +/- 0.2 (n = 13), and U/P equals 4.7 +/- 0.4. Small grain size (generally less than 1 μm) prevented analysis of samples uncontaminated with quartz and pyrite. The grain with highest uranium content (43%) has U/Si equal to 0.34. Jackson ore is less favorable for in-situ leaching than Oakville ore in part because the organic-associated uranium is difficult to extract

  7. Ceratopetalum (Cunoniaceae) fruits of Australasian affinity from the early Eocene Laguna del Hunco flora, Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfo, María A; Hermsen, Elizabeth J

    2017-03-01

    Radially symmetrical, five-winged fossil fruits from the highly diverse early Eocene Laguna del Hunco flora of Chubut Province, Patagonia, Argentina, are named, described and illustrated. The main goals are to assess the affinities of the fossils and to place them in an evolutionary, palaeoecological and biogeographic context. Specimens of fossil fruits were collected from the Tufolitas Laguna del Hunco. They were prepared, photographed and compared with similar extant and fossil fruits using published literature. Their structure was also evaluated by comparing them with that of modern Ceratopetalum (Cunoniaceae) fruits through examination of herbarium specimens. The Laguna del Hunco fossil fruits share the diagnostic features that characterize modern and fossil Ceratopetalum (symmetry, number of fruit wings, presence of a conspicuous floral nectary and overall venation pattern). The pattern of the minor wing (sepal) veins observed in the Patagonian fossil fruits is different from that of modern and previously described fossil Ceratopetalum fruits; therefore, a new fossil species is recognized. An apomorphy (absence of petals) suggests that the fossils belong within crown-group Ceratopetalum . The Patagonian fossil fruits are the oldest known record for Ceratopetalum . Because the affinities, provenance and age of the fossils are so well established, this new Ceratopetalum fossil species is an excellent candidate for use as a calibration point in divergence dating studies of the family Cunoniaceae. It represents the only record of Ceratopetalum outside Australasia, and further corroborates the biogeographic connection between the Laguna del Hunco flora and ancient and modern floras of the Australasian region. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  8. Acid activation of upper Eocene Ca-bentonite for soybean oil clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Salima; Herchi, Mongi; Mechti, Wafa; Gaied, Mohamed Essghaier

    2017-10-01

    In central Tunisia, many upper Eocene outcrops supply smectitic claystone which are characterized by several analytical techniques (calcimetry, XRD, SediGraph, chemical analysis, surface area, etc.). Beidellite is the main mineral detected by the XRD method. Representative raw samples M1, taken from Henchir Souar (Zaghouan, Tunisia), were acid activated in order to improve their physicochemical properties. This study consists in optimizing the activation conditions with HCl 3 N by varying the following parameters: time (2, 4, and 6 h) and temperature (25, 50, 75, and 90 °C). The characterization by XRD and chemical analysis was carried out on the samples (M1, activated for 2 and 6 h at 75 °C), showing a structural modification of the clay by reduction of intensity reflection 001 order of smectite and dissolution of metal ions (Al 3+ , Fe 3+ , and Mg 2+ ) from clay structure. Optimum condition for soybean oil clarification is obtained using a variety of amount raw clays (0.5, 0.75, and 1%). Thus, the best clarification yield is given at 0.75% of clay, showing a capacity of about 55%. Various forms of activated materials were used with a 75% proportion to leach soybean oil. Results were compared with commercial bentonite (Tonsil) having surface area (378 m 2 /g). The activated sample M1 during 4 h at 75 °C possesses a decolorizing capacity of about 85% greater than the oil treated by Tonsil in laboratory (58%).

  9. An Eocene orthocone from Antarctica shows convergent evolution of internally shelled cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Reguero, Marcelo A.; Mörs, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background The Subclass Coleoidea (Class Cephalopoda) accommodates the diverse present-day internally shelled cephalopod mollusks (Spirula, Sepia and octopuses, squids, Vampyroteuthis) and also extinct internally shelled cephalopods. Recent Spirula represents a unique coleoid retaining shell structures, a narrow marginal siphuncle and globular protoconch that signify the ancestry of the subclass Coleoidea from the Paleozoic subclass Bactritoidea. This hypothesis has been recently supported by newly recorded diverse bactritoid-like coleoids from the Carboniferous of the USA, but prior to this study no fossil cephalopod indicative of an endochochleate branch with an origin independent from subclass Bactritoidea has been reported. Methodology/Principal findings Two orthoconic conchs were recovered from the Early Eocene of Seymour Island at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica. They have loosely mineralized organic-rich chitin-compatible microlaminated shell walls and broadly expanded central siphuncles. The morphological, ultrustructural and chemical data were determined and characterized through comparisons with extant and extinct taxa using Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM/EDS). Conclusions/Significance Our study presents the first evidence for an evolutionary lineage of internally shelled cephalopods with independent origin from Bactritoidea/Coleoidea, indicating convergent evolution with the subclass Coleoidea. A new subclass Paracoleoidea Doguzhaeva n. subcl. is established for accommodation of orthoconic cephalopods with the internal shell associated with a broadly expanded central siphuncle. Antarcticerida Doguzhaeva n. ord., Antarcticeratidae Doguzhaeva n. fam., Antarcticeras nordenskjoeldi Doguzhaeva n. gen., n. sp. are described within the subclass Paracoleoidea. The analysis of organic-rich shell preservation of A. nordenskjoeldi by use of SEM/EDS techniques revealed fossilization of hyposeptal cameral soft tissues

  10. Coupled hydrology and biogeochemistry of Paleocene–Eocene coal beds, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Martini, Anna M.; Osborn, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six formation waters, gas, and microbial samples were collected and analyzed from natural gas and oil wells producing from the Paleocene to Eocene Wilcox Group coal beds and adjacent sandstones in north-central Louisiana, USA, to investigate the role hydrology plays on the generation and distribution of microbial methane. Major ion chemistry and Cl−Br relations of Wilcox Group formation waters suggest mixing of freshwater with halite-derived brines. High alkalinities (up to 47.8 meq/L), no detectable SO4, and elevated δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (up to 20.5‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite [VPDB]) and CO2 (up to 17.67‰ VPDB) in the Wilcox Group coals and adjacent sandstones indicate the dominance of microbial methanogenesis. The δ13C and δD values of CH4, and carbon isotope fractionation of CO2 and CH4, suggest CO2 reduction is the major methanogenic pathway. Geochemical indicators for methanogenesis drop off significantly at chloride concentrations above ∼1.7 mol/L, suggesting that high salinities inhibit microbial activity at depths greater than ∼1.6 km. Formation waters in the Wilcox Group contain up to 1.6% modern carbon (A14C) to at least 1690 m depth; the covariance of δD values of co-produced H2O and CH4 indicate that the microbial methane was generated in situ with these Late Pleistocene or younger waters. The most enriched carbon isotope values for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and CO2, and highest alkalinities, were detected in Wilcox Group sandstone reservoirs that were CO2 flooded in the 1980s for enhanced oil recovery, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that CO2 sequestration may actually enhance methanogenesis in organic-rich formations.

  11. Fluvial response to abrupt global warming at the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Brady Z; Heller, Paul L; Clementz, Mark T

    2012-11-01

    Climate strongly affects the production of sediment from mountain catchments as well as its transport and deposition within adjacent sedimentary basins. However, identifying climatic influences on basin stratigraphy is complicated by nonlinearities, feedback loops, lag times, buffering and convergence among processes within the sediment routeing system. The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) arguably represents the most abrupt and dramatic instance of global warming in the Cenozoic era and has been proposed to be a geologic analogue for anthropogenic climate change. Here we evaluate the fluvial response in western Colorado to the PETM. Concomitant with the carbon isotope excursion marking the PETM we document a basin-wide shift to thick, multistoried, sheets of sandstone characterized by variable channel dimensions, dominance of upper flow regime sedimentary structures, and prevalent crevasse splay deposits. This progradation of coarse-grained lithofacies matches model predictions for rapid increases in sediment flux and discharge, instigated by regional vegetation overturn and enhanced monsoon precipitation. Yet the change in fluvial deposition persisted long after the approximately 200,000-year-long PETM with its increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, emphasizing the strong role the protracted transmission of catchment responses to distant depositional systems has in constructing large-scale basin stratigraphy. Our results, combined with evidence for increased dissolved loads and terrestrial clay export to world oceans, indicate that the transient hyper-greenhouse climate of the PETM may represent a major geomorphic 'system-clearing event', involving a global mobilization of dissolved and solid sediment loads on Earth's surface.

  12. Chemistry of the Marlboro Clay in Virginia and Implications for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, M.; Cai, Y.; Corley, A.; Liang, J. A.; Powars, D.; Goldstein, S. L.; Kent, D. V.; Broecker, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a global hyperthermal ( 5ºC warming) event marked by a rapid carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of >1‰ in the marine carbonate record (e.g. Zeebe et al. Nature Geoscience 2009). Possible explanations for the CIE include intrusion of a sill complex into organic carbonate (Aarnes et al. J. Geol. Soc. 2015), dissolution of methane hydrates (Thomas et al. Geology 2002), and a comet impact event (Schaller et al. Science 2016). Here we present new data across the PETM from the VirginiaDEQ-USGS Surprise Hill (SH) core, Northumberland Co., VA. We analyzed the Marlboro Clay, a thick, kaolinite-rich clay unit that marks the initiation of the PETM in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of North America, as well as units above and below it. Bulk sediment records a δ13C excursion of approximately -5‰ across the CIE, while benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides spp.) record a synchronous excursion of approximately -4.5‰. These results are consistent with other records from the New Jersey Coastal Plain (Makarova et al. Paleoceanography 2017). The excursion coincides with an increase in magnetic susceptibility, a decrease in bulk CaCO3 content, and an 2.5‰ decrease of δ18O in both the bulk sediment and benthic foraminifera of the SH core. Pb isotope analyses of the fraction sediments indicate a unique provenance make-up for the Marlboro Clay. The results of the study thus indicate that PETM Marlboro Clay was not generated simply by intensified weathering of the same source area as the underlying Aquia Formation and overlying Nanjemoy Formation. Any hypothesis that aims to explain the mechanism that triggered the PETM must also account for the observed distinct provenance make-up of the Marlboro Clay.

  13. Magnetostratigraphy of the Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: new constraints on the location of Paleocene/Eocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, L.; Gee, J.; Gallet, Y.; Pick, T.; Bown, T.

    1994-01-01

    The lower Eocene Willwood Formation in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming preserves a rich and diverse mammalian and floral record. The paleomagnetic behavior of the sequence of floodplain paleosols of varying degrees of maturation ranges from excellent to poor. We present a magnetostratigraphic section for a composite section near Worland, Wyoming, by using a set of strict criteria for interpreting the step-wise alternating field and thermal demagnetization data of 266 samples from 90 sites throughout the composite section. Correlation to the geomagnetic reversal time scale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from this section, from a section in the Clark's Fork Basin in northern Wyoming, and from DSDP Site 550, with the isotopic data determined on a tuff near the top of our section. Our correlation suggests that the Bighorn Basin composite section in the Worland area spans from within Chron C24r to near the top of Chron C24n, or from approximately 55 to 52 Ma. This correlation places the Paleocene/Eocene boundary within the vicinity of the base of the section. Cryptochron C24r.6 of Cande and Kent is tentatively identified some 100 m above the base of the section. The temporal framework provided here enables correlation of the mammalian biostratigraphy of the Bighorn Basin to other continental sequences as well as to marine records. It also provides independent chronological information for the calculation of sediment accumulation rates to constrain soil maturation rates. We exclude an age as young as 53 Ma for the Paleocene/Eocene boundary and support older ages, as recommended in recent time scales. The location of a tuff dated at 52.8 ?? 0.3 Ma at the older boundary C24n.1 is consistent with the age of 52.5 Ma estimated by Cande and Kent and inconsistent with that of 53.7 Ma, from Harland et al. ?? 1994.

  14. The Paleocene Eocene carbon isotope excursion in higher plant organic matter: Differential fractionation of angiosperms and conifers in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Stefan; Woltering, Martijn; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Sluijs, Appy; Brinkhuis, Henk; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2007-06-01

    A study of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene (P-E) sediments deposited on the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean reveals relatively high abundances of terrestrial biomarkers. These include dehydroabietane and simonellite derived from conifers (gymnosperms) and a tetra-aromatic triterpenoid derived from angiosperms. The relative percentage of the angiosperm biomarker of the summed angiosperm + conifer biomarkers was increased at the end of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), different when observed with pollen counts which showed a relative decrease in angiosperm pollen. Stable carbon isotopic analysis of these biomarkers shows that the negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) during the PETM amounts to 3‰ for both conifer biomarkers, dehydroabietane and simonellite, comparable to the magnitude of the CIE inferred from marine carbonates, but significantly lower than the 4.5‰ of the terrestrial C 29n-alkane [M. Pagani, N. Pedentchouk, M. Huber, A. Sluijs, S. Schouten, H. Brinkhuis, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.R. Dickens, and the IODP Expedition 302 Expedition Scientists (2006), Arctic's hydrology during global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 442, 671-675.], which is a compound sourced by both conifers and angiosperms. Conspicuously, the angiosperm-sourced aromatic triterpane shows a much larger CIE of 6‰ and suggests that angiosperms increased in their carbon isotopic fractionation during the PETM. Our results thus indicate that the 4.5‰ C 29n-alkane CIE reported previously represents the average CIE of conifers and angiosperms at this site and suggest that the large and variable CIE observed in terrestrial records may be partly explained by the variable contributions of conifers and angiosperms. The differential response in isotopic fractionation of angiosperms and conifers points to different physiological responses of these vegetation types to the rise in temperature, humidity, and greenhouse gases during the PETM.

  15. Apatite fission-track evidence of widespread Eocene heating and exhumation in the Yukon-Tanana Upland, interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Murphy, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    We present an apatite fission-track (AFT) study of five plutonic rocks and seven metamorphic rocks across 310 km of the Yukon-Tanana Upland in east-central Alaska. Samples yielding ???40 Ma AFT ages and mean confined track lengths > 14 ??m with low standard deviations cooled rapidly from >120??C to 40 Ma suggest partial annealing and, therefore, lower maximum temperatures (???90-105??C). A few samples with single-grain ages of ???20 Ma apparently remained above ???50??C after initial cooling. Although the present geothermal gradient in the western Yukon-Tanana Upland is ???32??C/km, it could have been as high as 45??C/km during a widespread Eocene intraplate magmatic episode. Prior to rapid exhumation, samples with ???40 Ma AFT ages were >3.8-2.7 km deep and samples with >50 Ma AFT ages were >3.3-2.0 km deep. We calculate a 440-320 m/Ma minimum rate for exhumation of all samples during rapid cooling. Our AFT data, and data from rocks north of Fairbanks and from the Eielson deep test hole, indicate up to 3 km of post-40 Ma vertical displacement along known and inferred northeast-trending high-angle faults. The predominance of 40-50 Ma AFT ages throughout the Yukon-Tanana Upland indicates that, prior to the post-40 Ma relative uplift along some northeast-trending faults, rapid regional cooling and exhumation closely followed the Eocene extensional magmatism. We propose that Eocene magmatism and exhumation were somehow related to plate movements that produced regional-scale oroclinal rotation, northward translation of outboard terranes, major dextral strike-slip faulting, and subduction of an oceanic spreading ridge along the southern margin of Alaska.

  16. Anatomy of a mountain: The Thebes Limestone Formation (Lower Eocene) at Gebel Gurnah, Luxor, Nile Valley, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher; Dupuis, Christian; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Knox, Robert O.'B.; Galal, Wael Fathi; Baele, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-01

    We present a detailed geologic study of the Thebes Formation at Gebel Gurnah in its locus typicus on the West Bank (opposite Luxor) of the Nile River in the Upper Nile Valley, Egypt. This is the first detailed measurement and lithologic description of the ∼340 m thick (predominantly) carbonate section. The Thebes Formation is divided into thirteen major lithic units (A to M). We interpret data on the lithologic succession and variations, whole rock/clay mineralogy, and macro/micropaleontology in terms of deposition on a shallow carbonate platform episodically influenced by continental runoff, and describe six depositional sequences that we place in the global framework of Lower Eocene (Ypresian) sequence stratigraphy. We note however significant incompatibilities between the Thebes depositional sequences and the global sequences. We emend the definition of the Thebes Formation by defining its top as corresponding to level 326 m at the top of Nodular Limestone 'L' (NLL), and assigning the overlying beds to the Minia Limestone Formation. New biostratigraphic data and revision of previous studies establish the direct assignment of the Thebes Formation to planktonic foraminiferal Zones E4/P6b (upper part), E5/P7 and (indirectly) Zone E6/P8, and (probably, indirectly) Zone E7a/;P9;, and to calcareous nannofossil Zone NP12 and lower Zone NP13 of the Lower Eocene (Ypresian) and provide a temporal framework spanning ∼ 2.8 Myr from towards the end of the Early Eocene. Dominantly carbonate deposition, with a strongly reduced detrital influx, occurred on a very wide shelf (probably) at least ∼ 100 km from the coastline. The thick sedimentary succession and the marked vertical lithologic variations are interpreted as resulting from sea level fluctuations imprinted on a long-term decrease in sea-level associated with rapid subsidence reflecting tectonic relaxation after the major Late Paleocene tectonic reorganization of the Syrian Arc.

  17. Eocene and Miocene extension, meteoric fluid infiltration, and core complex formation in the Great Basin (Raft River Mountains, Utah)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Teyssier, Christian; Wells, Michael L.; Cosca, Michael A.; Gottardi, Raphael; Gebelin, Aude; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2015-01-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) in the North American Cordillera reflect the effects of lithospheric extension and contribute to crustal adjustments both during and after a protracted subduction history along the Pacific plate margin. While the Miocene-to-recent history of most MCCs in the Great Basin, including the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek MCC, is well documented, early Cenozoic tectonic fabrics are commonly severely overprinted. We present stable isotope, geochronological (40Ar/39Ar), and microstructural data from the Raft River detachment shear zone. Hydrogen isotope ratios of syntectonic white mica (δ2Hms) from mylonitic quartzite within the shear zone are very low (−90‰ to −154‰, Vienna SMOW) and result from multiphase synkinematic interaction with surface-derived fluids. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology reveals Eocene (re)crystallization of white mica with δ2Hms ≥ −154‰ in quartzite mylonite of the western segment of the detachment system. These δ2Hms values are distinctively lower than in localities farther east (δ2Hms ≥ −125‰), where 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data indicate Miocene (18–15 Ma) extensional shearing and mylonitic fabric formation. These data indicate that very low δ2H surface-derived fluids penetrated the brittle-ductile transition as early as the mid-Eocene during a first phase of exhumation along a detachment rooted to the east. In the eastern part of the core complex, prominent top-to-the-east ductile shearing, mid-Miocene 40Ar/39Ar ages, and higher δ2H values of recrystallized white mica, indicate Miocene structural and isotopic overprinting of Eocene fabrics.

  18. A new find of the fossil Cyclosorus from the Eocene of South China and its paleoclimatic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugolnykh, Serge V; Wang, Li; Han, Meng; Jin, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The thelypteroid ferns are widely distributed across tropical regions around the world, but information about their fossil representatives is scarce. A new species, Cyclosorus scutum Naugolnykh, Wang, Han et Jin was discovered from the Eocene Changchang Formation of Hainan Island, South China, and is described on the basis of sterile and fertile leaves, sori, sporangia and spores preserved in situ. Discovery of this new species clearly shows that climatic conditions of that time in this area were humid, i.e. warm and wet.

  19. Database for the geologic map of upper Eocene to Holocene volcanic and related rocks in the Cascade Range, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Andrew D.; Ramsey, David W.; Smith, James G.

    2014-01-01

    This geospatial database for a geologic map of the Cascades Range in Washington state is one of a series of maps that shows Cascade Range geology by fitting published and unpublished mapping into a province-wide scheme of lithostratigraphic units. Geologic maps of the Eocene to Holocene Cascade Range in California and Oregon complete the series, providing a comprehensive geologic map of the entire Cascade Range that incorporates modern field studies and that has a unified and internally consistent explanantion. The complete series will be useful for regional studies of volcanic hazards, volcanology, and tectonics.

  20. 87Sr/86Sr variations in basalts of Late Eocene-Early Miocene series in Eastern Sikhoteh-Alin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esin, S.V.; Ponomarchuk, V.A.; Shipitsyn, Yu.G.; Palesskij, Yu.G.

    1993-01-01

    Late Eocene high-alumina and Oligocene high-alumina and magnesian basalts of the Neogene calc-alkaline series from the Eastern Sikhoteh-Alin are shown to have the following 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios: 0.70390-0.70465; 0.70347-0.70401, and the 0.70330-0.70347. Analysis of variations of Sr ratios, REE, HFSE, and LILE suggests that they are the products of successive melting of a multicomponent source containing the peridotite material of OIB- and MORB-types altered by fluids to a different degree and the pelagic sediments

  1. Development, evolution, and destruction of the saline mineral area of Eocene Lake Uinta, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Halite and the sodium bicarbonate mineral nahcolite were deposited in Eocene-age saline Lake Uinta in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado. Variations in the areal extent of saline mineral deposition through time were studied using descriptions of core and outcrop. Saline minerals have been extensively leached by groundwater, and the original extent of saline deposition was determined from the distribution of empty vugs and collapse breccias. Because vugs and breccias strongly influence groundwater movement, determining where leaching has occurred is an important consideration for in-situ oil shale extraction methods currently being developed.

  2. Modeling the influence of a reduced equator-to-pole sea surface temperature gradient on the distribution of water isotopes in the Early/Middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Eveline N.; Sewall, Jacob O.; Noone, David; Huber, Matthew; von der Heydt, Anna; Damsté, Jaap Sinninghe; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-09-01

    Proxy-based climate reconstructions suggest the existence of a strongly reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient during the Azolla interval in the Early/Middle Eocene, compared to modern. Changes in the hydrological cycle, as a consequence of a reduced temperature gradient, are expected to be reflected in the isotopic composition of precipitation (δD, δ 18O). The interpretation of water isotopic records to quantitatively reconstruct past precipitation patterns is, however, hampered by a lack of detailed information on changes in their spatial and temporal distribution. Using the isotope-enabled version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) atmospheric general circulation model, Community Atmosphere Model v.3 (isoCAM3), relationships between water isotopes and past climates can be simulated. Here we examine the influence of an imposed reduced meridional sea surface temperature gradient on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its isotopic composition in an Early/Middle Eocene setting. As a result of the applied forcings, the Eocene simulation predicts the occurrence of less depleted high latitude precipitation, with δD values ranging only between 0 and -140‰ (compared to Present-day 0 to -300‰). Comparison with Early/Middle Eocene-age isotopic proxy data shows that the simulation accurately captures the main features of the spatial distribution of the isotopic composition of Early/Middle Eocene precipitation over land in conjunction with the aspects of the modeled Early/Middle Eocene climate. Hence, the included stable isotope module quantitatively supports the existence of a reduced meridional temperature gradient during this interval.

  3. Tectonically controlled relief evolution in the Northern Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau from the Eocene to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, N.; Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Kober, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Cenozoic Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau mountains developed on the southern part of the Paleozoic Altaid orogen as a far-field effect of the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. Highland terrain, active seismicity, and fast GPS-derived motions are evidence of rapid ongoing mountain growth today. Variations in relief energy, hight-to-width ratio of ranges and apatite fission track (AFT) exhumation ages suggest they rose at different times. The strong dissection of the higher ridges (heights of up to 2km), indicates an earlier onset and higher rates of uplift. At the other end of the spectrum are low, little dissected ridges. According to AFT ages, exhumation in the Junggar Range began at 9 Ma (Jolivet et al., 2010), circa 11 Ma in the central Kyrgyz Range (Sobel et al., 2006) and 10 Ma in the Terskey Alatau. An AFT age of the low Sogety range is 77 Ma, suggesting that the Cenozic exhumation of the ridge was insufficient to expose rocks from below c.3 km depth. The synclinal lows between the basement highs preserve Cenozoic strata of Eocene to Quaternary age, probably deposited in a once continuous basin (the Ili Basin) and recording the entire history of Tien Shan uplift. Facies pattern of proximal alluvial fans are strictly related to the recent higher mountain areas in the north and in the south. During Middle Miocene, a large lake developed in the basin center. Up to the Middle Miocene sedimentation was accompanied by normal faulting of small magnitude. The main Cenozoic folding and thrusting occurred after that time and before deposition of the Chorgos formation. Shortening was accommodated by reactivation of inherited basement structures, by a switch to reverse or strike-slip motion on normal faults, and the nucleation of new thrusts. The majority of faults which emplace basement rocks over upper Cenozoic sediments dip steeply at angles of 60-70˚, and some have throws of more than 200 m. They are marked by topographic steps and contrasting morphology

  4. Late Eocene Inversion and Exhumation of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia) Based On Low-Temperature Thermochronometry: Implications for Diachronous Initiation of Arabia-Eurasia Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, M. H.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Thomson, S. N.; Schleiffarth, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    The timing of initial Arabia-Eurasia collision along the Bitlis-Zagros suture is controversial, with widely varying estimates from middle Eocene to late Miocene ( 45-10 Ma). The Cenozoic Sivas Basin (central Anatolia) preserves a detailed record of the initial stages of Arabia collision directly north of the suture in the Eurasian foreland. New apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology data from Late Cretaceous to Paleogene units indicate rapid basin inversion and initiation of the north-vergent Southern Sivas Fold and Thrust Belt (SSFTB) during the late Eocene to early Oligocene ( 40-30 Ma), consistent with the age of a basin-wide unconformity and switch from marine to nonmarine sedimentation. We interpret late Eocene exhumation and the predominantly north-vergent kinematics of the SSFTB to reflect northward propagation of contraction into the Sivas retro-foreland basin due to initial collision of the Arabian passive margin with the Anatolide-Tauride block along the southern Eurasian margin during the late middle Eocene. We test this hypothesis by comparing our new results with regional-scale compilations of both published thermochronology and geochronology data from the entire Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. Low-temperature thermochronology data from eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, Zagros, and Alborz demonstrate that rapid cooling and intraplate deformation occurred across much of the Eurasian foreland during the middle Eocene to early Oligocene ( 45-30 Ma). Our regional compilation of published geochronology data from central and eastern Anatolia reveals a distinct magmatic lull during the latest Eocene, Oligocene, and earliest Miocene (ca. 38-20 Ma), slightly earlier than a diachronous magmatic lull initiating at 25-5 Ma from northwest to southeast in Iran (Chiu et al., 2013). These results support a tectonic model for diachronous collision in which initial collision of the Arabia promontory occurred in central-eastern Anatolia during the middle

  5. Clear as Mud: Changes in Paleoshelf Environments and Deposition Rates at Medford, New Jersey during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrecca, L.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.; Browning, J. V.; Emge, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene boundary marks a time of swift global climatic change. Constraining the timeframe of this event is a first order question necessary for ascertaining the origin of the event and the potential for its use as an analog for modern climate change. The New Jersey shelf sediments of the Marlboro Formation records this time period with exceptionally thick (5-15m) records of the period of global low carbon isotopic values ("the core") which requires minimum sedimentation rates of 10's cm/kyr. Rhythmic layers have been previously reported from Wilson Lake & Millville, NJ (IODP Leg 174AX). These structures coined "laminae couplets" consist of semi-periodic 1-2mm thick raised laminations separated by matrix of varying width (averaging 1.8cm). These have been dismissed as artifacts of drilling "biscuits". We report here on a series of shallow auger cores drilled on a transect at Medford, NJ, without using drilling fluid. These cores also show a similar set of structures on the 2cm scale verifying that they are primary depositional features. The mm width laminae in the auger core show remarkable swelling within minutes of splitting. XRD, XRF, bulk carbonate geochemistry, and grain size analysis have been determined at regular depth intervals throughout the core. We have analyzed differences in these parameters between the laminae and interbedded matrix material, as well as across the transect as a whole. In general, the Marlboro formation at this updip location consists of micaceous, lignitic, very clayey silt (mean size 6 micrometers) with occasional organic debris indicating proximal deposition from a fluvial system. Paleodepth of 40m and normal marine salinities are estimated using a paleoslope model and the presence of common though not abundant planktonic foraminifera. We discuss a model of deposition for the Marlboro Formation as fluid mud (nearbed suspension flows) associated with the "Appalachian Amazon" alluding toward the finer grained inter

  6. A new genus and species of Heroini (Perciformes: Cichlidae from the early Eocene of southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alano Perez

    Full Text Available The Lumbrera Formation is the uppermost unit of the Salta Group, which crops out in northwestern Argentina. The paleoenvironment of the Lumbrera Formation is interpreted as a perennial lake deposited under temperate climatic conditions during the early to middle Eocene. Its fossil content is made up of palynomorphs, insects, crocodiles, turtles, lizards, and mammals, besides an ichthyofauna formed by cichlids, poeciliids and dipnoans. †Plesioheros chauliodus is described based on a single individual from this formation, which was fossilized as a lateral view impression (missing anal and caudal fins. It can be distinguished from other cichlids by a moderately deep body, enlarged anterior dentary teeth bearing subapical cusp, a low abdominal vertebral count (10, five canal openings in the dentary, and XI + 12 dorsal-fin rays. A phylogenetic analysis, using the matrix by Kullander (1998, recovered †Plesioheros within Heroini. This species was recovered most closely related to Australoheros and to the deep-bodied South American heroins. The occurrence of an Eocene Heroini, as well as of other cichlid lineages in the same stratigraphical level, is evidence of an ancient diversification in this family. This ancient age supports the hypothesis that the Cichlidae originated on Gondwana.

  7. Shallow marine response to global climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Salisbury Embayment, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, Jean; Robinson, Marci M.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Hajek, Elizabeth A.; Kump, Lee R.; Trampush, Sheila M.; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Powars, David S.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of extreme warmth that caused disruption of marine and terrestrial ecosystems on a global scale. Here we examine the sediments, flora, and fauna from an expanded section at Mattawoman Creek-Billingsley Road (MCBR) in Maryland and explore the impact of warming at a nearshore shallow marine (30–100 m water depth) site in the Salisbury Embayment. Observations indicate that at the onset of the PETM, the site abruptly shifted from an open marine to prodelta setting with increased terrestrial and fresh water input. Changes in microfossil biota suggest stratification of the water column and low-oxygen bottom water conditions in the earliest Eocene. Formation of authigenic carbonate through microbial diagenesis produced an unusually large bulk carbon isotope shift, while the magnitude of the corresponding signal from benthic foraminifera is similar to that at other marine sites. This proves that the landward increase in the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion measured in bulk sediment is not due to a near instantaneous release of 12C-enriched CO2. We conclude that the MCBR site records nearshore marine response to global climate change that can be used as an analog for modern coastal response to global warming.

  8. Shallow marine response to global climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Salisbury Embayment, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, Jean M.; Robinson, Marci M.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Hajek, Elizabeth A.; Kump, Lee R.; Trampush, Sheila M.; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Powars, David S.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2017-07-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of extreme warmth that caused disruption of marine and terrestrial ecosystems on a global scale. Here we examine the sediments, flora, and fauna from an expanded section at Mattawoman Creek-Billingsley Road (MCBR) in Maryland and explore the impact of warming at a nearshore shallow marine (30-100 m water depth) site in the Salisbury Embayment. Observations indicate that at the onset of the PETM, the site abruptly shifted from an open marine to prodelta setting with increased terrestrial and fresh water input. Changes in microfossil biota suggest stratification of the water column and low-oxygen bottom water conditions in the earliest Eocene. Formation of authigenic carbonate through microbial diagenesis produced an unusually large bulk carbon isotope shift, while the magnitude of the corresponding signal from benthic foraminifera is similar to that at other marine sites. This proves that the landward increase in the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion measured in bulk sediment is not due to a near instantaneous release of 12C-enriched CO2. We conclude that the MCBR site records nearshore marine response to global climate change that can be used as an analog for modern coastal response to global warming.

  9. When Indian crabs were not yet Asian - biogeographic evidence for Eocene proximity of India and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Sebastian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The faunal and floral relationship of northward-drifting India with its neighboring continents is of general biogeographic interest as an important driver of regional biodiversity. However, direct biogeographic connectivity of India and Southeast Asia during the Cenozoic remains largely unexplored. We investigate timing, direction and mechanisms of faunal exchange between India and Southeast Asia, based on a molecular phylogeny, molecular clock-derived time estimates and biogeographic reconstructions of the Asian freshwater crab family Gecarcinucidae. Results Although the Gecarcinucidae are not an element of an ancient Gondwana fauna, their subfamily Gecarcinucinae, and probably also the Liotelphusinae, evolved on the Indian Subcontinent and subsequently dispersed to Southeast Asia. Estimated by a model testing approach, this dispersal event took place during the Middle Eocene, and thus before the final collision of India and the Tibet-part of Eurasia. Conclusions We postulate that the India and Southeast Asia were close enough for exchange of freshwater organisms during the Middle Eocene, before the final Indian-Eurasian collision. Our data support geological models that assume the Indian plate having tracked along Southeast Asia during its move northwards.

  10. A study of the Eocene S-type granites of Chapedony metamorphic core complex (northeast of Yazd province, Central Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakipour, A.; Torabi, Gh.

    2016-01-01

    The Eocene Chapedony metamorphic core complex, is located in western part of the Posht-e-Badam block. This complex is consisting of migmatite, gneiss, amphibolite, marble, micaschist and various types of granitoids. In middle part of this complex (Kalut-e-Chapedony), an Eocene granitic rock unit cross cuts the other rocks. The minerals of this granite are plagioclase (An 9 Ab 8 7O r 4), potassium feldspars (orthoclase), quartz, euhedral garnet (Alm 7 7Sps 1 3Prp 9 Grs 1 ), zircon, apatite, fibrolitic sillimanite and muscovite. Petrology and geochemical studies reveal calc-alkaline, peraluminous and S-type nature of the studied granites. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns represent evident negative anomaly of Eu and low values of the REEs. Continental crust and North American shale composite (NASC) - normalized multi-elements spider diagrams indicate trace elements depletion. These granites are formed by melting of continental crust sedimentary rocks, resulted by emplacement of mantle-derived magma at the bottom of continental crust which formed the Chapedony metamorphic core complex. The source rock of these granites should be a clay-rich sedimentary rock with low amount of plagioclase and CaO/Na 2 O ratio.

  11. Detrital U-Pb zircon analysis of an Eocene McMurdo Erratic sandstone, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, T.; Encarnacion, J.; Valencia, V.A.; Roti Roti, J.M.; Rasoazanamparany, C.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most important Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in Antarctica are glacial erratics of fossiliferous Palaeogene to Neogene siliclastic rocks known as the McMurdo Erratics. Detrital zircon U-Pb isotopic data reported herein provide new information on the provenance of these siliciclastic rocks. The U-Pb age data from a sandstone glacial erratic that is likely of Eocene age show a dominant age cluster that ranges from 488 to 635 Ma, accompanied by subsidiary Neoproterozoic-Archaean peaks. The dominant Neoproterozoic-Ordovician age cluster, in conjunction with the arkosic lithologies of some erratics and the local presence of granitic and metasedimentary clasts, indicates that the Neoproterozoic-Ordovician basement complex of the Transantarctic Mountains likely served as a major source for the Eocene siliciclastic sediments. This is consistent with derivation of the McMurdo Erratics from locations proximal to the Transantarctic Mountains such as the Discovery Deep and/or major mountain outlet glacier areas. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The extended Price equation quantifies species selection on mammalian body size across the Palaeocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Brian D; Fox, Jeremy W; Barrón-Ortiz, Christian R; Chew, Amy E; Holroyd, Patricia A; Ludtke, Joshua A; Yang, Xingkai; Theodor, Jessica M

    2015-08-07

    Species selection, covariation of species' traits with their net diversification rates, is an important component of macroevolution. Most studies have relied on indirect evidence for its operation and have not quantified its strength relative to other macroevolutionary forces. We use an extension of the Price equation to quantify the mechanisms of body size macroevolution in mammals from the latest Palaeocene and earliest Eocene of the Bighorn and Clarks Fork Basins of Wyoming. Dwarfing of mammalian taxa across the Palaeocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), an intense, brief warming event that occurred at approximately 56 Ma, has been suggested to reflect anagenetic change and the immigration of small bodied-mammals, but might also be attributable to species selection. Using previously reconstructed ancestor-descendant relationships, we partitioned change in mean mammalian body size into three distinct mechanisms: species selection operating on resident mammals, anagenetic change within resident mammalian lineages and change due to immigrants. The remarkable decrease in mean body size across the warming event occurred through anagenetic change and immigration. Species selection also was strong across the PETM but, intriguingly, favoured larger-bodied species, implying some unknown mechanism(s) by which warming events affect macroevolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Quantified abundance of magnetofossils at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary from synchrotron-based transmission X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huapei; Wang, Jun; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen Karen; Kent, Dennis V

    2015-10-13

    The Paleocene-Eocene boundary (∼55.8 million years ago) is marked by an abrupt negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) that coincides with an oxygen isotope decrease interpreted as the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) in the form of giant (micron-sized) spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetofossils, as well as nano-sized magnetotactic bacteria magnetosome chains, have been reported in clay-rich sediments in the New Jersey Atlantic Coastal Plain and were thought to account for the distinctive single-domain magnetic properties of these sediments. Uncalibrated strong field magnet extraction techniques have been typically used to provide material for scanning and transmission electron microscopic imaging of these magnetic particles, whose concentration in the natural sediment is thus difficult to quantify. In this study, we use a recently developed ultrahigh-resolution, synchrotron-based, full-field transmission X-ray microscope to study the iron-rich minerals within the clay sediment in their bulk state. We are able to estimate the total magnetization concentration of the giant biogenic magnetofossils to be only ∼10% of whole sediment. Along with previous rock magnetic studies on the CIE clay, we suggest that most of the magnetite in the clay occurs as isolated, near-equidimensional nanoparticles, a suggestion that points to a nonbiogenic origin, such as comet impact plume condensates in what may be very rapidly deposited CIE clays.

  14. Virtual endocasts of Eocene Paramys (Paramyinae): oldest endocranial record for Rodentia and early brain evolution in Euarchontoglires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Ornella C; Amador-Mughal, Farrah; Silcox, Mary T

    2016-01-27

    Understanding the pattern of brain evolution in early rodents is central to reconstructing the ancestral condition for Glires, and for other members of Euarchontoglires including Primates. We describe the oldest virtual endocasts known for fossil rodents, which pertain to Paramys copei (Early Eocene) and Paramys delicatus (Middle Eocene). Both specimens of Paramys have larger olfactory bulbs and smaller paraflocculi relative to total endocranial volume than later occurring rodents, which may be primitive traits for Rodentia. The encephalization quotients (EQs) of Pa. copei and Pa. delicatus are higher than that of later occurring (Oligocene) Ischyromys typus, which contradicts the hypothesis that EQ increases through time in all mammalian orders. However, both species of Paramys have a lower relative neocortical surface area than later rodents, suggesting neocorticalization occurred through time in this Order, although to a lesser degree than in Primates. Paramys has a higher EQ but a lower neocortical ratio than any stem primate. This result contrasts with the idea that primates were always exceptional in their degree of overall encephalization and shows that relative brain size and neocortical surface area do not necessarily covary through time. As such, these data contradict assumptions made about the pattern of brain evolution in Euarchontoglires. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Evidence of cyclic climatic changes recorded in clay mineral assemblages from a continental Paleocene-Eocene sequence, northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Campo, Margarita; Bauluz, Blanca; del Papa, Cecilia; White, Timothy; Yuste, Alfonso; Mayayo, Maria Jose

    2018-06-01

    The continental Paleocene-Eocene sequence investigated in this study belongs to the Salta Group, deposited in an intracontinental rift, the Salta Basin (NW Argentina), that evolved from the lower Cretaceous to the middle Paleogene, and is subdivided into the Pirgua, the Balbuena and the Santa Barbara Subgroups. The Maíz Gordo Formation (200 m thick) is the middle unit of the Santa Bárbara Subgroup, deposited during late post-rift sedimentation. We studied the mineralogy of fine-grained horizons of this formation by X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to examine the connection between vertical changes in clay mineralogy in alluvial sediments and paleosols, and global paleoclimatic changes registered during the Paleogene. Paleosols vary from calcic vertisols in the lowermost levels, to inseptisols and gleysols in intermediate positions, to gleyed oxisols in the upper section, indicating increased chemical weathering through time. Clay mineral relative abundances vary with a general increase in kaolinite content from bottom to top. However, at one site there are significant variations in kaolinite/muscovite (Kln/Ms) that define five cycles of kaolinite abundance and Kln/Ms. that indicate cyclic patterns of paleoprecipitation and paleotemperature. These are interpreted as several short-lived hyperthermals during the Paleocene-early Eocene in the Southern Hemisphere, which correlate with well-established episodes of warmth documented from the Northern Hemisphere.

  16. Alnus subgenus Alnus in the Eocene of western North America based on leaves, associated catkins, pollen, and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Manchester, Steven R; Jin, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    The fossil record of alder (Alnus) is well known in the Cenozoic deposits throughout the northern hemisphere, based on numerous reports of the distinctive pollen, cone-like infructescences, staminate inflorescences, and leaves. However, our understanding of the systematic position of these fossils relative to the modern phylogeny of the genus has been limited because most fossils were described from only one organ. We examined well-preserved leaves and associated fruiting and staminate catkins from the middle Eocene, Clarno Formation, Oregon, USA by stereomicroscopy. In situ and dispersed pollen were cleaned with HF and acetolized for light and scanning electron microscopy. We reconstructed a new extinct species based on multiple organs and discuss significant phytogeographic and phylogenetic implications for Alnus. Alnus clarnoensis sp. nov. is described based on serrate leaves with 1-4 small teeth between each primary tooth, associated cone-like fruiting catkins with fruits in situ, and associated slender pollen catkins bearing in situ 3- to 6-pored pollen with arci between the pores. Combined investigations of each organ indicate that they probably derive from the same species and can be confidently attributed to subgenus Alnus Furlow based on leaf architecture and pollen pore number frequency. The Clarno fossils are most similar to the extant North American species of subgenus Alnus rather than to those from Asia and Europe, indicating that this modern subgenus was already distinct by the middle Eocene and that the intercontinental migration likely occurred earlier. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. Paleofacies of Eocene Lower Ngimbang Source Rocks in Cepu Area, East Java Basin based on Biomarkers and Carbon-13 Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Elok A.; Rachman, Faisal; Satyana, Awang H.; Fahrudin; Setyawan, Reddy

    2018-02-01

    The Eocene Lower Ngimbang carbonaceous shales are geochemically proven hydrocarbon source rocks in the East Java Basin. Sedimentary facies of source rock is important for the source evaluation that can be examined by using biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes data. Furthermore, paleogeography of the source sedimentation can be reconstructed. The case study was conducted on rock samples of Lower Ngimbang from two exploration wells drilled in Cepu area, East Java Basin, Kujung-1 and Ngimbang-1 wells. The biomarker data include GC and GC-MS data of normal alkanes, isoprenoids, triterpanes, and steranes. Carbon-13 isotope data include saturate and aromatic fractions. Various crossplots of biomarker and carbon-13 isotope data of the Lower Ngimbang source samples from the two wells show that the source facies of Lower Ngimbang shales changed from transitional/deltaic setting at Kujung-1 well location to marginal marine setting at Ngimbang-1 well location. This reveals that the Eocene paleogeography of the Cepu area was composed of land area in the north and marine setting to the south. Biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes are powerful data for reconstructing paleogeography and paleofacies. In the absence of fossils in some sedimentary facies, these geochemical data are good alternatives.

  18. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Cambay Amber Indicate that the Eocene Fauna of the Indian Subcontinent Was Not Isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Singh, Hukam; Gunkel, Simon; Rust, Jes

    2017-01-01

    India's unique and highly diverse biota combined with its unique geodynamical history has generated significant interest in the patterns and processes that have shaped the current distribution of India's flora and fauna and their biogeographical relationships. Fifty four million year old Cambay amber from northwestern India provides the opportunity to address questions relating to endemism and biogeographic history by studying fossil insects. Within the present study seven extant and three fossil genera of biting midges are recorded from Cambay amber and five new species are described: Eohelea indica Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Gedanohelea gerdesorum Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea cambayana Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea borkenti Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., and Meunierohelea orientalis Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp. Fossils of species in the genera Leptoconops Skuse, 1889, Forcipomyia Meigen, 1818, Brachypogon Kieffer, 1899, Stilobezzia Kieffer, 1911, Serromyia Meigen, 1818, and Mantohelea Szadziewski, 1988 are recorded without formal description. Furthermore, one fossil belonging to the genus Camptopterohelea Wirth & Hubert, 1960 is included in the present study. Our study reveals faunal links among Ceratopogonidae from Cambay amber and contemporaneous amber from Fushun, China, Eocene Baltic amber from Europe, as well as the modern Australasian and the Oriental regions. These findings imply that faunal exchange between Europe, Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber in the early Eocene.

  19. Eocene bituminous coal deposits of the Claiborne group, Webb County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    Two bituminous coal zones, the San Pedro and the Santo Tomas, in the middle Eocene Claiborne Group of Webb County, south Texas (Figure 1), are among the coal resources that are not evaluated quantitatively as part of the current Gulf Coastal Plain coal resource assessment. Coal beds within these zones were mined by underground methods northwest of Laredo until 1939 and have been intermittently mined at the surface since 1979. These coals have long been regarded as unique within the Gulf Coast Tertiary coal-bearing section because they are high-volatile C bituminous in rank and because their physical characteristics resemble upper Carboniferous cannel coals of the Appalachians and Europe.Discontinuous exposures of the Santo Tomas and the underlying San Pedro coal zone extend northwestward from Dolores for approximately 15 to 21 mi along the breaks of the Rio Grande and its tributaries in Webb County (Figure 1). This part of south Texas lies along the southwestern flank of the Rio Grande Embayment, which extends south and southeastwardly through the Mexican States of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas (Figure 1). Within the embayment, the lower to middle part of the Claiborne Group consists of marine mudstones (Reklaw Formation) in the east and northeast and sandstones and mudstones (Bigford Formation) in the south and southwest (Figure 2). The marine mudstones coarsen upward into fluvial-deltaic sandstones (Queen City Sand) that prograded gulfward across eastern and central Texas (Guevara and Garcia, 1972). To the west and southwest, the interval overlying the Bigford Formation becomes less sandy, and claystones (El Pico Clay) predominate. Although the San Pedro coal zone has been placed traditionally near the top of the Bigford Formation and the Santo Tomas coal zone near the base of the El Pico Clay, recent work has failed to validate a mappable contact between these formations (Warwick and Hook, 1995). The coal beds dip northeast at less than 2 degrees towards

  20. Early Depositional History of the Eocene Izu-Bonin Mariana Arc, Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, R.; Marsaglia, K. M.; Tepley, F. J., III

    2015-12-01

    Expedition 351 of the International Ocean Discovery Program cored an Eocene section at Site U1438 in the Philippine Sea that provides insight into the early history of the Izu-Bonin arc. Subduction here is hypothesized to have initiated spontaneously, leaving a characteristic depositional sequence of post-subduction-initiation localized extension and volcanism. We conducted detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of the cores of the lowermost 100m of volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks (Unit IV) directly overlying subduction initiation igneous basement, to identify depositional facies and trends. We subdivided Unit IV into three subunits based on lithologic characteristics. Transitions between the subunits are relatively abrupt, occurring within the length of a single core. The lowermost subunit (IVA) consists of 4 meters of laminated pelagic claystone with thin beds of graded volcaniclastic siltstone, and fine-grained tuff laminae composed of plagioclase feldspar and green-brown amphibole. The middle subunit (IVB) comprises 51 meters of texturally variable, thick-bedded, coarse-grained gravity flow deposits. These are composed of volcaniclastic sandstone and conglomerate containing glassy and tachylitic volcanic grains as well as sedimentary lithic fragments, along with traces of shallow-water carbonate bioclasts. Subunit IVB sediments are poorer in feldspar than IVA and contain only trace amphibole. They show variable grain rounding and an upsection increase in vitric components. Tachylite grains range from sub-angular to well rounded throughout, and other volcanic grain types show upward increases in angularity and vesicularity. The abrupt transition from pelagic sediments in subunit IVA to shallow-water-sourced gravity flows in subunit IVB suggests a rapid emergence of shallow-water to subaerial volcanic center early in the arc's development. The upper part of subunit IVB also contains igneous intrusions, providing possible evidence for more proximal

  1. Tropical Atlantic climate and ecosystem regime shifts during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Middelburg, Jack J.; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas; Bohaty, Steven M.; Sluijs, Appy

    2018-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma) was a phase of rapid global warming associated with massive carbon input into the ocean-atmosphere system from a 13C-depleted reservoir. Many midlatitude and high-latitude sections have been studied and document changes in salinity, hydrology and sedimentation, deoxygenation, biotic overturning, and migrations, but detailed records from tropical regions are lacking. Here, we study the PETM at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 in the equatorial Atlantic using a range of organic and inorganic proxies and couple these with dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblage analysis. The PETM at Site 959 was previously found to be marked by a ˜ 3.8 ‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and a ˜ 4 °C surface ocean warming from the uppermost Paleocene to peak PETM, of which ˜ 1 °C occurs before the onset of the CIE. We record upper Paleocene dinocyst assemblages that are similar to PETM assemblages as found in extratropical regions, confirming poleward migrations of ecosystems during the PETM. The early stages of the PETM are marked by a typical acme of the tropical genus Apectodinium, which reaches abundances of up to 95 %. Subsequently, dinocyst abundances diminish greatly, as do carbonate and pyritized silicate microfossils. The combined paleoenvironmental information from Site 959 and a close-by shelf site in Nigeria implies the general absence of eukaryotic surface-dwelling microplankton during peak PETM warmth in the eastern equatorial Atlantic, most likely caused by heat stress. We hypothesize, based on a literature survey, that heat stress might have reduced calcification in more tropical regions, potentially contributing to reduced deep sea carbonate accumulation rates, and, by buffering acidification, also to biological carbonate compensation of the injected carbon during the PETM. Crucially, abundant organic benthic foraminiferal linings imply sustained export production, likely driven by prokaryotes. In

  2. Two Mechanisms for Methane Release at the Paleocene/Eocene Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M. E.; Cramer, B. S.; Mountain, G. S.; Mountain, G. S.; Katz, S.; Miller, K. G.; Miller, K. G.

    2001-12-01

    The rapid global warming of the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) has been attributed to a massive methane release from marine gas hydrate reservoirs. Two mechanisms have been proposed for this methane release. The first relies on a deepwater circulation change and water temperature increase that was sufficiently large and rapid to trigger massive thermal dissociation of gas hydrate frozen beneath the seafloor (Dickens et al., 1995). The second relies on slope failure (via erosion or seismic activity) of the oversteepened continental margins of the western North Atlantic to allow methane to escape from gas reservoirs trapped between the hydrate-bearing sediments and the underlying reef front (Katz et al., in press). We evaluate thermal dissociation by modeling heat flow through the sediments to show the effect of the temperature change on the gas hydrate stability zone through time. We use Paleocene bottom water temperatures (constrained by isotope records) and assume an instantaneous water temperature increase (i.e., no time allotted for ocean circulation change and water mass mixing). This yields an end-member minimum estimate of >2350 years necessary to melt all gas hydrate at locations shallower than 1570m; gas hydrates at greater depths remain frozen. We also use this model to predict the amount of C12-enriched methane that could have contributed to the carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Using reasonable methane distributions within sediments, we conclude that thermal dissociation alone cannot account for the full magnitude of the CIE. We propose that thermal dissociation did not initiate the CIE; rather, a different mechanism injected a large amount of carbon into the atmosphere, causing global greenhouse warming that could have led to subsequent thermal dissociation. Methane remains a plausible source for this initial carbon injection; however, initial release would have resulted from mechanical disruption of sediments rather than thermal dissociation

  3. Tropical Atlantic climate and ecosystem regime shifts during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Frieling

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma was a phase of rapid global warming associated with massive carbon input into the ocean–atmosphere system from a 13C-depleted reservoir. Many midlatitude and high-latitude sections have been studied and document changes in salinity, hydrology and sedimentation, deoxygenation, biotic overturning, and migrations, but detailed records from tropical regions are lacking. Here, we study the PETM at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 959 in the equatorial Atlantic using a range of organic and inorganic proxies and couple these with dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst assemblage analysis. The PETM at Site 959 was previously found to be marked by a  ∼  3.8 ‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE and a  ∼  4 °C surface ocean warming from the uppermost Paleocene to peak PETM, of which  ∼  1 °C occurs before the onset of the CIE. We record upper Paleocene dinocyst assemblages that are similar to PETM assemblages as found in extratropical regions, confirming poleward migrations of ecosystems during the PETM. The early stages of the PETM are marked by a typical acme of the tropical genus Apectodinium, which reaches abundances of up to 95 %. Subsequently, dinocyst abundances diminish greatly, as do carbonate and pyritized silicate microfossils. The combined paleoenvironmental information from Site 959 and a close-by shelf site in Nigeria implies the general absence of eukaryotic surface-dwelling microplankton during peak PETM warmth in the eastern equatorial Atlantic, most likely caused by heat stress. We hypothesize, based on a literature survey, that heat stress might have reduced calcification in more tropical regions, potentially contributing to reduced deep sea carbonate accumulation rates, and, by buffering acidification, also to biological carbonate compensation of the injected carbon during the PETM. Crucially, abundant organic benthic foraminiferal linings imply

  4. CO2 Storage Potential of the Eocene Tay Sandstone, Central North Sea, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Christopher; Williams, John

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is crucial for low-carbon industry, climate mitigation and a sustainable energy future. The offshore capacity of the UK is substantial and has been estimated at 78 Gt of CO2 in saline aquifers and hydrocarbon fields. The early-mid Eocene Tay Sandstone Member of the Central North Sea (CNS) is a submarine-fan system and potential storage reservoir with a theoretical capacity of 123 Mt of CO2. The Tay Sandstone comprises of 4 sequences, amalgamating into a fan complex 125km long and 40 km at a minimum of 1500 m depth striking NW-SE, hosting several hydrocarbon fields including Gannett A, B, D and Pict. In order to better understand the storage potential and characteristics, the Tay Sandstone over Quadrant 21 has been interpreted using log correlation and 3D seismic. Understanding the internal and external geometry of the sandstone as well as the lateral extent of the unit is essential when considering CO2 vertical and horizontal fluid flow pathways and storage security. 3D seismic mapping of a clear mounded feature has revealed the youngest sequence of the Tay complex; a homogenous sand-rich channel 12 km long, 1.5 km wide and on average 100 m thick. The sandstone has porosity >35%, permeability >5 D and a net to gross of 0.8, giving a total pore volume of 927x106 m3. The remaining three sequences are a series of stacked channels and interbedded mudstones which are more quiescent on the seismic, however, well logs indicate each subsequent sequence reduce in net to gross with age as mud has a greater influence in the early fan system. Nevertheless, the sandstone properties remain relatively consistent and are far more laterally extensive than the youngest sequence. The Tay Sandstone spatially overlaps several other potential storage sites including the older Tertiary sandstones of the Cromarty, Forties and Mey Members and deeper Jurassic reservoirs. This favours the Tay Sandstone to be considered in a secondary or multiple stacked

  5. Crustal evolution of Eocene paleo arc around Ogasawara region obtained by seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ishizuka, O.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. The existence of two paleo arc which consists of Oligocene and Eocene paleo age is known in IBM forearc region by geological and geophysical studies. The Ogasawara ridge is also known to locate the initial structure of arc evolution from geologic sampling of research submersible. In this region, IODP drilling site: IBM-2 is proposed in order to understand the temporal and spatial change in arc crust composition from 50 to 40Ma magmatism. Site IBM-2 consists of two offset drilling holes (BON-1, BON-2). BON-1 designed to first encounter forearc basalt and will reach the sheeted dykes. BON-2 will start in boninites and finish in fore arc basalts. The purpose of these drilling is sampling the full volcanic stratigraphy from gabbro to boninite. There is no seismic data around BON-1 and BON-2, therefore it is need to conduct the multi-channel seismic reflection survey. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey and wide-angle reflection survey using 7,800 cu.in. air gun, 5 km streamer with 444 ch hydrophones and 40 OBSs in March 2011. We obtained two seismic reflection profiles of lines KT06 and KT07 along the paleo arc around Ogasawara ridge. Line KT06 located the north side of Ogasawara ridge. Line KT07 located the trench side of Ogasawara ridge. Lines KT06 is also deployed the OBSs every 5 km interval. Thin sediments are covered with basement in both survey lines. There are some sediment filled in depression topography. The low-frequency reflection from the top of subducting Pacific plate is recognized in line KT06. The continuity of this reflection is not clear due to the complicated bathymetry. The displacement of basement in northern side of Ogasawara ridge is identified along the lineament of bathymetry in Line 06. This structure is

  6. Similarity in Evolutionary Histories of Eocene Sediments from Subathu and Cambay Basins: Geochemical and Palaeontological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Halder, K.; Sarkar, S.

    2017-12-01

    A systematic comparative study of microfaunal assemblage and representative geochemical elements from two Cenozoic basins of India, Mangrol-Valia Lignite Mine section (21°30'52''N:73°12'20.5''E) of Cambay Shale Formation, western India and Jigni section (33°14'45"N:74°22'0"E) from Subathu Formation in northern India was undertaken to infer the paleoenvironment, palaeobathymetry and paleoclimate of these successions. Despite a gamut of work already carried out in these two basins, the sedimentary successions still await a correlative-detailed process-based facies, geochemical characterization and paleoenvironmental analysis. With a view to fulfill this gap, the present work was carried out by studying bulk rock XRD, XRF, clay mineralogy and analyzing calcareous microfossil foraminifera from samples at equivalent depth of these two basins which are situated thousands of kilometers apart and in different tectonic settings. The faunal assemblage of Eocene sediments of Mangrol-Valia section is indicative of shallow marine and inner shelf deposition with medium oxygen supply, while that of the Jigni section suggests primarily a shallow marine condition, which gradually changes to open marine condition with time. It is pertinent to note that the two basins of Cenozoic India started their lithosuccession with coal bearing strata. Well preserved pectin aragonite shells also indicate that primarily these two basins experienced low energy lagoonal environment. The fossil assemblage in both basins also suggests a tropical moist to terrestrial lowland environment. Geochemical analysis shows that the Mangrol-Valia section mineralogically comprises of kaolinite, siderite, quartz, smectite and kaolinite with higher abundance throughout the succession indicating chemical weathering of Deccan basement and high erosional environment. Calcite is the main constituent of Jigni section that indicates intracratonic rift settings. Medium to high quartz content and other detrital

  7. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and its Effects on Continental Biotas: Evidence from Polecat Bench in Northwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Many important environmental events in the geological past were first recognized by their effects on the associated biota, and this is true for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or PETM global greenhouse warming event, which happened 55 million years before present. In the Southern Ocean, PETM carbon and oxygen isotope anomalies were found to coincide with a major terminal-Paleocene disappearance or extinction of benthic foraminiferans. On North America the PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE) was found to coincide with mammalian dwarfing and a major initial-Eocene appearance or origination event of continental mammals. Linking the two records, marine and continental, resolved a long-standing disagreement over competing definitions of the Paleocene-Eocene epoch boundary, and more importantly indicated that the PETM greenhouse warming event was global. Dwarfing of herbivorous mammals can be interpreted as a response to elevated atmospheric CO2. The origin of modern orders of mammals including Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and Primates ('APP' taxa) is more complicated and difficult to explain but the origin of these orders may also be a response, directly or indirectly, to PETM warming. We now know from Polecat Bench and elsewhere in North America that the biotic response to PETM greenhouse warming involved the appearance of at least two new mammalian faunas distinct from previously known Clarkforkian mammals of the upper or late Paleocene and previously known Wasatchian mammals of the lower or early Eocene. Three stages and ages of the former are known (Cf-1 to Cf-3) and seven stages and ages of the latter are known (Wa-1 to Wa-7), each occupying about a hundred meters of strata representing a half-million years or so of time. Between the standard Clarkforkian and Wasatchian faunal zones is an initial 'Wa-M' faunal zone of only five or so meters in thickness and something on the order of 20 thousand years of geological time. The Wa-M fauna includes the first

  8. Hinterland drainage closure and lake formation in response to middle Eocene Farallon slab removal, Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elliot; Cassel, Elizabeth J.; Jicha, Brian R.; Singer, Brad S.; Canada, Andrew S.

    2017-12-01

    Hinterland basins can accumulate high resolution archives of orogenic processes and continental climate, but are challenging to reconstruct due to tectonic overprinting and the inherent complexity of their lithofacies assemblages. The Cordilleran hinterland of northeast Nevada has been interpreted to have overlain a flattened Farallon slab from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene. Slab removal and advection of asthenospheric mantle beneath Nevada have been invoked to explain a southwestward migrating wave of Eocene to Oligocene volcanism and proposed as a driver for topographic uplift. However, the timing of slab removal and possible subsequent delamination of North American lithospheric mantle can only ambiguously be related to the surface record. Subsequent Neogene extension and basin filling has complicated the correlation and interpretation of strata that record these events. Here we apply single crystal sanidine 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to 26 ash beds in northeast Nevada to reconstruct Paleogene geographic and hydrologic evolution. We use these ages and legacy geochronology to compare lithofacies and isotope proxy records of meteoric waters to regional tectonics and global climate, and assess competing tectonic interpretations for lake basin formation. Lakes formed locally prior to ca. 48.7 Ma in northeast Nevada, coeval with foreland lakes of the Green River Formation. The most expansive phase of lacustrine deposition resulted in onlap onto locally derived fluvial deposits and folded Paleozoic bedrock, and occurred between ca. 43.4 and ca. 40.8 Ma. Elko Formation strata exhibit a basin-wide transition from fluvial-lacustrine to fluctuating profundal lithofacies at ca. 42.7 Ma, suggesting a shift towards regional hydrologic closure. The stromatolitic upper Elko Formation is intercalated with ash fall tuffs and several partially welded to unwelded ignimbrites from increasingly proximal volcanism. Elko Formation deposition ended by ca. 40.4 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar ages for seven

  9. Middle Eocene (Bartonian) Nummulites perforatus bank from the Transylvanian Basin, Romania: an example from a classical occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabolcs Attila, Kövecsi; Lóránd, Silye; György, Less; Sorin, Filipescu

    2016-04-01

    Giant uni-cellulars, Nummulites lived in stable oligotrophic environments throughout the Eocene of the Tethys forming large accumulations called "banks" (Arni, 1965), which were identified on the top of the Cǎpusu Formation, Transylvanian Basin (Popescu, 1978). The studied outcrop is located near Cǎpusu village, Cluj County where we studied two sections (CA1, CA2). They consist of medium to coarse grained sands with abundant Nummulites perforatus (A and B forms). Sporadically specimens of Nummulites beaumonti are also present. According to the larger foraminiferal zonation of Serra-Kiel et al. (1998) the studied nummlitic bank is referred to the SBZ 17 Zone (early Bartonian). Specimens were recovered from 6 samples, about 2 kg each, prepared by standard methods. In section CA1 the A/B ratio ranges between 42/1 and 117/1 while in section CA2 the A/B ratio varies between 27/1 and 52/1. The higher A/B ratio suggests that the original Nummulites assemblages was winnowed in situ. By contrast, the lower A/B ratio indicates that the original assemblage was supposedly selectively winnowed (Ainger, 1985), but they are in situ (Seddighi et al., 2015). This interpretation is supported by the fact, that in all samples the Nummulites specimens (both A and B form) are bioeroded and abraded, which indicates a shallow water environment with high hydrodynamic activity (Racey, 2001; Papazzoni, 2008). Based on our observations the studied nummulitic accumulations consist mostly of monospecific assemblages, and they form a bank. The identified biofabrics, the A/B ratio of the assemblages and the presence of both A and B forms support this interpretation. The presence of the abraded Nummulites tests further suggest that the studied deposits were sedimented in a shallow water environment with high hydrodynamic activity, probably in a wave dominant setting. References: Aigner, T. 1982. Event-stratification in nummulite accumulations and in shell beds from the Eocene of Egypt. In

  10. Controls on fluvial metamorphosis during global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary (56 Ma) in Spain: extreme droughts, extreme floods or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelltort, Sebastien; Chen, Chen; Guerit, Laure; Foreman, Brady; Paola, Chris; Adatte, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    How does global warming change the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events? The response to this question is partly preserved in the geological record. 56 Ma ago, global temperatures increased during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), leading to a major biotic turnover, but how this event affected the nature of extreme events remains unknown. On several continents, fluvial systems with sinuous channels within fine-grained floodplains suddenly transformed at the P-E boundary into apparently coarser-grained braid plains with frequent lateral migrations, washing their muddy floodplains to the seas. This landscape transformation has been related to aridification and intensification of precipitation allowing transport of coarser material as a result of P-E global warming, with important implications for predicting the consequences of current global change. Here we test this hypothesis by quantifying the magnitude of grain size change and flow depth at a representative P-E locality in Northern Spain. We find that the size of pebbles in transport and flow depth remained similar to, or even smaller than, pre-PETM conditions. This suggests that, if more seasonal and extreme precipitation occurred, they are not necessarily borne out in the predicted deeper flow depths and coarser grain sizes, but rather trigger a shift to multiple active channels. However, an alternative or complementary explanation may rest in pollen data found in coeval marine records and which document a dramatic vegetation shift from permanent conifer forests prior to the crisis into periodic vegetation in brief periods of rain during the hyperthermal episode. Such change induced by long periods of intense droughts, could have enhanced erodibility of channel banks by decreasing root-controlled cohesion of fine-grained floodplains and interfluves, promoting their lateral mobility and the observed fluvial metamorphosis. Thus, although water is regarded as the main agent sculpting

  11. Fossil and modern sponge fauna of southern Australia and adjacent regions compared: interpretation, evolutionary and biogeographic significance of the late Eocene ‘soft’ sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łukowiak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The late Eocene ‘soft’ sponge fauna of southern Australia is reconstructed based on disassociated spicules and is used to interpret the paleoecology and environmental context of shallow marine communities in this region. The reconstructed sponge association was compared with coeval sponge

  12. The geological position, sedimentary record and composition of the Tylicz Conglomerate (Late Eocene-Oligocene): stratigraphical and paleogeographical implications (Magura Nappe, Polish Outer Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Barbara; Oszczypko, Nestor

    2010-02-01

    During the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene the Magura Basin was supplied with clastic material from, non-existing today, source areas situated on the northern and southern margins of the basin. The northern source area is traditionally connected with Silesian Ridge, whereas the position of the southern one is still under discussion. The Upper Eocene-Oligocene pebbly mudstones of the Tylicz/Krynica facies zone contain exotic material derived from the south-Magura source area. The studied pebbles and clasts contain fragments of crystalline rocks, derived from a continental type of crust, and frequent clasts of Mesozoic to Paleogene deep and shallow-water limestones. Volcanites, rarely granitoides as well as schists, gneisses, quartzites and cataclasites were found in the group of crystalline exotic pebbles. The isotopic ages of "exotic" pebbles from the Tylicz section document a Variscan age of plutonic and metamorphic rocks. The composition of the Tylicz exotic conglomerates occupied the transitional position between the Jarmuta/Proč (Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene) and Strihovce (Eocene) exotic pebbles. The provenance of these rocks could be connected with Eocene exhumation of the SE sector of the Magura Basin basement. Another possibility can be explain by supply of siliciclastic material from a SE source area (Dacia and Tisza Mega-Units) and carbonate material from a S source area (ALCAPA Mega-Unit: Central Carpathian Block and Pieniny Klippen Belt).

  13. A synoptic review of the Eocene (Ypresian) cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali, Elasmobranchii) of the Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marramà, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Giorgio; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Claeson, Kerin M.; Zorzin, Roberto; Fornasiero, Mariagabriella; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Here, we review and discuss the records and taxonomy of the Ypresian (Eocene) chondrichthyans from the famous Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätte in northeastern Italy. Despite the outstanding diversity and the numerous studies focusing on the actinopterygian faunas from Pesciara and Monte Postale, the current knowledge about the systematics, taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the cartilaginous fishes from these Eocene sites remains elusive and largely inadequate. The celebrated Eocene Bolca Lagerstätte has yielded several exquisitely preserved articulated remains of chondrichthyan fishes in which delicate structures and soft tissues are preserved, as well as isolated teeth. The cartilaginous fish assemblage of Bolca comprises at least 17 species-level taxa belonging to 10 families in 6 orders, including selachians (Carcharhiniformes, Lamniformes), batoids (Torpediniformes, Myliobatiformes, Rajiformes) and holocephalans (Chimaeriformes). The occurrence of holocephalans represented by an isolated fin-spine of the chimeroid Ischyodus in the Bolca assemblage is reported here for the first time and represents the first record of chimeroids in the Eocene of Italy and also southern Europe. The Bolca chondrichthyan assemblage is remarkably different from those of other contemporaneous Boreal or Tethyan deposits, suggesting that its taxonomic composition is largely influenced by the palaeoenvironmental context. However, this synoptic review also highlights the importance of detailed revisions of all chondrichthyan remains from the Bolca Konservat-Lagerstätten.

  14. A new quantitative approach to identify reworking in Eocene to Miocene pollen records from offshore Antarctica using red fluorescence and digital imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strother, Stephanie L.; Salzmann, Ulrich; Sangiorgi, Francesca|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836982; Bijl, Peter K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314028110; Pross, Jorg; Escutia, Carlota; Salabarnada, Ariadna; Pound, Matthew J.; Voss, Jochen; Woodward, John

    2017-01-01

    Antarctic palaeoclimate evolution and vegetation history after the formation of a continent-scale cryosphere at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, 33.9 million years ago, has remained a matter of controversy. In particular, the reconstruction of terrestrial climate and vegetation has been strongly

  15. Modeling the influence of a reduced equator-to-pole sea surface temperature gradient on the distribution of water isotopes in the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, E. N.; Sewall, J. O.; Noone, D. C.; Huber, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Reichart, G.

    2009-12-01

    Proxy-based climate reconstructions suggest the existence of a strongly reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient during most of the Early Eocene. With the realization that the Eocene Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the free floating freshwater fern Azolla, new questions related to Eocene (global) hydrological cycling facilitating these blooms arose. Changes in hydrological cycling, as a consequence of a reduced temperature gradient, are expected to be most clearly reflected in the isotopic composition (D, 18O) of precipitation. The interpretation of water isotopic records to quantitatively estimate past precipitation patterns is, however, hampered by the lack of detailed information on changes in their spatial and temporal distribution. Using the isotope-enabled global circulation model, Community Atmosphere Model v.3 (isoCAM3), relationships between water isotopes and past climates can be simulated. Here we examine the influence of a reduced meridional sea surface temperature gradient on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its isotopic composition in an Eocene setting. Overall, our combination of Eocene climate forcings, with superimposed TEX86-derived SST estimates and elevated pCO2 concentrations, produces a climate that agrees well with proxy data in locations around the globe. It shows the presence of an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation in the Arctic region. The Eocene model runs with a significantly reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient in a warmer more humid world predict occurrence of less depleted precipitation, with δD values ranging only between 0 and -140‰ (as opposed to the present-day range of 0 to -300‰). Combining new results obtained from compound specific isotope analyses on terrestrially derived n-alkanes extracted from Eocene sediments, and model calculations, shows that the model not only captures the main features, but reproduces isotopic values

  16. New protocetid whale from the middle eocene of pakistan: birth on land, precocial development, and sexual dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D Gingerich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protocetidae are middle Eocene (49-37 Ma archaeocete predators ancestral to later whales. They are found in marine sedimentary rocks, but retain four legs and were not yet fully aquatic. Protocetids have been interpreted as amphibious, feeding in the sea but returning to land to rest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two adult skeletons of a new 2.6 meter long protocetid, Maiacetus inuus, are described from the early middle Eocene Habib Rahi Formation of Pakistan. M. inuus differs from contemporary archaic whales in having a fused mandibular symphysis, distinctive astragalus bones in the ankle, and a less hind-limb dominated postcranial skeleton. One adult skeleton is female and bears the skull and partial skeleton of a single large near-term fetus. The fetal skeleton is positioned for head-first delivery, which typifies land mammals but not extant whales, evidence that birth took place on land. The fetal skeleton has permanent first molars well mineralized, which indicates precocial development at birth. Precocial development, with attendant size and mobility, were as critical for survival of a neonate at the land-sea interface in the Eocene as they are today. The second adult skeleton is the most complete known for a protocetid. The vertebral column, preserved in articulation, has 7 cervicals, 13 thoracics, 6 lumbars, 4 sacrals, and 21 caudals. All four limbs are preserved with hands and feet. This adult is 12% larger in linear dimensions than the female skeleton, on average, has canine teeth that are 20% larger, and is interpreted as male. Moderate sexual dimorphism indicates limited male-male competition during breeding, which in turn suggests little aggregation of food or shelter in the environment inhabited by protocetids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Discovery of a near-term fetus positioned for head-first delivery provides important evidence that early protocetid whales gave birth on land. This is consistent with skeletal

  17. Variability of the planktonic foraminifera community across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, Fuente Caldera Section, Baetic Ranges (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda-Lisarri, A.

    2013-12-01

    During the Eocene/Oligocene transition, in a massive extinction event that took place about 33.7 million years ago, the current high resolution study analyzes qualitatively and quantitatively the community structure of the planktonic foraminifera that were preserved in the hemipelagic sediments of the Tethys Sea. The sampled section of the Fuente Caldera column, located in the Baetic mountain ranges, spans a register of 396,551.7 years. Based in the identification of 27 species, that belong to 13 genera and 2 families of foraminifera, there have been found three biozones of Gonzalvo Zonation (Gonzalvo, 2002) in the studied stratigraphic interval: Turborotalia cocoaensis and Cribrohantkenina lazzarii Biozones (Rupelian), and Paragloborotalia increbescens (Priabonian). The planktonic foraminifera associations variability patterns are defined by paleoecologic indexes (diversity index, high and low latitude species index and planktonic and benthic foraminifera index), by geochemical proxies: δ18O and δ13C and by 'Q' Mode Factor Analysis. They prove that the deposition environment is outer platform and also, they suggest that the studied area in the Tethys Sea underwent many thermal pulses, during which some species extinct or appear. In the first extinction event the species Turborotalia cocoaensis and Turborotalia cunialensis became extinct. In the second one, Hantkenina alabamensis, Hantkenina brevispina, Cribrohantkenina lazzarii and Pseudohastigerina micra became extinct while a succession occured; Globigerina officinalis, Globoturborotalita anguliofficinalis and Tenuitellinata angustiumbilicata appeared. The cooling event that finished in the Lower Oligocene was the biggest of these pulses, which was extremely abrupt and corresponds to the Oi-1 event that was described by Miller (Miller, 1991). All this evidences that the planktonic foraminifera extinction in the Upper Eocene was a gradual and fast event, what is supported by the Factor Analysis application. Key

  18. Depositional controls on coal distribution and quality in the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures, Buller Coalfield, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R.M.; Sykes, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Buller Coalfield on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand, contains the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures. The coal measures unconformably overlie Paleozoic-Cretaceous basement rocks and are conformably overlain by, and laterally interfinger with, the Eocene marine Kaiata Formation. This study examines the lithofacies frameworks of the coal measures in order to interpret their depositional environments. The lower part of the coal measures is dominated by conglomeratic lithofacies that rest on a basal erosional surface and thicken in paleovalleys incised into an undulating peneplain surface. These lithofacies are overlain by sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies of the upper part of the coal measures. The main coal seam of the organic-rich lithofacies is thick (10-20 m), extensive, locally split, and locally absent. This seam and associated coal seams in the Buller Coalfield are of low- to high-volatile bituminous rank (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65% and 1.75%). The main seam contains a variable percentage of ash and sulphur. These values are related to the thickening and areal distribution of the seam, which in turn, were controlled by the nature of clastic deposition and peat-forming mire systems, marine transgression and local tidal incursion. The conglomeratic lithofacies represent deposits of trunk and tributary braided streams that rapidly aggraded incised paleovalleys during sea-level stillstands. The main seam represents a deposit of raised mires that initially developed as topogenous mires on abandoned margins of inactive braidbelts. Peat accumulated in mires as a response to a rise in the water table, probably initially due to gradual sea-level rise and climate, and the resulting raised topography served as protection from floods. The upper part of the coal measures consists of sandstone lithofacies of flu vial origin and bioturbated sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies, which represent deposits of paralic (deltaic

  19. Differences and similarities of the Eocene to recent Sphaerogypsina tests collected from the Pannonian basin to the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Katica; Ćosović, Vlasta; Čretnik, Janko; Turk, Janez; Briguglio, Antonino; Rögl, Fred; Praprotnik, Anton

    2017-04-01

    With a new series of shots in the X-ray tomographic techniques (CT), the study of fossil (Eocene and Miocene) and recent tests of Sphaerogypsina globulus (Reuss, 1848) sensu lato, sampled in the Adriatic Sea and adjacent coastal areas, have continued. The Eocene, Lutetian samples collected at the NW margin of the Central Neotethys (Benkovac) contain tests up to 2 mm in diameters, while specimens found in Priabonian deposits from the southern outskirts of the Eastern Alps (Šuštarica, Ravna Gora) and in the central Pannonian basin (Eger) are smaller, with diameters of 1.2 mm. In the Oligocene, Rupelian, sediments, deposited in the Slovenian corridor, area south of the E. Alps, known as representing transition between recessing Neotethys and emerging Pannonian Sea, (Gornji grad, Nova Štifta), foraminiferal tests are of 1.1 mm in diameter. Globular tests of Miocene, Badenian, specimens (Nussdorf, north of the E. Alps), originally described as bryozoan Ceriopora globulus by Reuss 1848, attained 1.2 mm in diameter. Comparison of tests diameters shows that Middle Eocene sphaerogypsinids had the largest tests among fossil taxa, implying that warm temperatures suited them a lot. The Oligocene tests, were smaller and the trend of decreasing in size persisted in the Miocene. Recent tests, although collected over decades from different places in the Adriatic Sea, just recently have been systematically sampled at Pakleni Is. (Hvar), Kornati archipelago and Mali Čutin Is., and studied.The tests, with diameters ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 mm (an average of 0.6 to 0.8 mm), are very small in comparison with fossil forms. The life habitats, as type of substrate, light (sunny vs. shadowed areas) have been investigated, revealing that sphaerogypsinids prefer to live at water depth up to 50 - 60 m. Special attention is payed to find live specimens, which would provide the basis for DNA analysis. The application of micro- tomography contributed significantly in studying test internal

  20. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60??ppm range of solid-state 13C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000??cm- 1) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH2) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both 13C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition in the soil for as little as 1000??years. The Morwell

  1. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Paul C. [Lyons and Associates Consultants, 206 Amber Road, Middleboro, MA 02346 (United States); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60 ppm range of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH{sub 2}) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition

  2. Planktic foraminiferal photosymbiont bleaching during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (Site 1051, northwestern Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Valeria; D'Onofrio, Roberta; Dickens, Gerald Roy; Wade, Bridget

    2017-04-01

    The symbiotic relationship with algae is a key strategy adopted by many modern species and by early Paleogene shallow-dwelling planktic foraminifera. The endosymbionts play an important role in foraminiferal calcification, longevity and growth, allowing the host to succeed in oligotrophic environment. We have indirect evidence on the presence and loss of algae photosymbionts because symbionts modify the chemistry of the microenvironment where a foraminifer calcifies, resulting in a characteristic geochemical signature between test size and δ13C. We present here the result of a test on loss of algal photosymbiont (bleaching) in planktic foraminifera from the northwest Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1051 across the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), the interval ( 49-53 Ma) when Earth surface temperatures and probably atmospheric pCO2 reached their Cenozoic maximum. We select this interval because two symbiont-bearing planktic foraminiferal genera Morozovella and Acarinina, that were important calcifiers of the early Paleogene tropical-subtropical oceans, experienced a marked and permanent switch in abundance at the beginning of the EECO, close to the carbon isotope excursion known as J event. Specifically, the relative abundance of Morozovella permanently decreased by at least half, along with a progressive decrease in the number of species. Concomitantly, the genus Acarinina almost doubled its abundance and diversified within the EECO. Many stressors inducing loss of photosymbiosis may have occurred during the long-lasting environmental conditions relating to the EECO extreme warmth, such as high pCO2 and possible decrease of the surface-water pH. The bleaching may therefore represent a potential mechanism to explain the rapid morozovellid decline at the start of the EECO. Our geochemical data from Site 1051 demonstrate that there was indeed a reduction of algal-symbiosis in morozovellids at the EECO beginning. This bleaching event occurred at the

  3. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  4. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  5. An occurrence of the protocetid whale "Eocetus" wardii in the middle Eocene Piney Point Formation of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, R.E.; Edwards, L.E.; Osborne, J.E.; Alford, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two protocetid whale vertebrae, here referred to “Eocetus” wardii, have been recovered from the riverbed of the Pamunkey River in east-central Virginia. Neither bone was found in situ, but both were found with lumps of lithified matrix cemented to their surfaces. Most of this matrix was removed and processed for microfossils. Specimens of dinoflagellates were successfully recovered and this flora clearly demonstrates that both vertebrae came from the middle Eocene Piney Point Formation, which crops out above and below river level in the area where the bones were discovered. These vertebrae are the oldest whale remains reported from Virginia and are as old as any cetacean remains known from the western hemisphere.

  6. Mechanistic insights into a hydrate contribution to the Paleocene-Eocene carbon cycle perturbation from coupled thermohydraulic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, T. A.; Marín-Moreno, H.; Armstrong McKay, D. I.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-08-01

    During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the carbon isotopic signature (δ13C) of surface carbon-bearing phases decreased abruptly by at least 2.5 to 3.0‰. This carbon isotope excursion (CIE) has been attributed to widespread methane hydrate dissociation in response to rapid ocean warming. We ran a thermohydraulic modeling code to simulate hydrate dissociation due to ocean warming for various PETM scenarios. Our results show that hydrate dissociation in response to such warming can be rapid but suggest that methane release to the ocean is modest and delayed by hundreds to thousands of years after the onset of dissociation, limiting the potential for positive feedback from emission-induced warming. In all of our simulations at least half of the dissociated hydrate methane remains beneath the seabed, suggesting that the pre-PETM hydrate inventory needed to account for all of the CIE is at least double that required for isotopic mass balance.

  7. Biomarker Analysis of Samples Visually Identified as Microbial in the Eocene Green River Formation: An Analogue for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott Marshall, Alison; Cestari, Nicholas A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major exploration targets for current and future Mars missions are lithofacies suggestive of biotic activity. Although such lithofacies are not confirmation of biotic activity, they provide a way to identify samples for further analyses. To test the efficacy of this approach, we identified carbonate samples from the Eocene Green River Formation as "microbial" or "non-microbial" based on the macroscale morphology of their laminations. These samples were then crushed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) to determine their lipid biomarker composition. GC/MS analysis revealed that carbonates visually identified as "microbial" contained a higher concentration of more diverse biomarkers than those identified as "non-microbial," suggesting that this could be a viable detection strategy for selecting samples for further analysis or caching on Mars.

  8. Climatically induced floristic changes across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the northern high latitudes, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Sweet, A.R.; Cameron, A.R. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    1995-06-01

    Global temperature decline associated with the Eocene-Oligocene transition resulted in extinctions of plants and animals in both marine and nonmarine environments. The extensive stratigraphic exposures, well-preserved palynological assemblages, and interbedded coal seams of the nonmarine Amphitheatre Formation, Burwash Basin, Yukon Territory, provide a comprehensive record of this transition. The formation spans a paleoclimatically significant interval otherwise poorly represented in high-latitude deposits of the northwestern Cordiller. Palynological data constrained by the chronologic and stratigraphic framework established for the Amphitheatre Formation indicate that the global temperature decline resulted in a shift from warm temperate, angiosperm-dominated to cooler temperate, gymnosperm-dominated (mainly coniferous) forest types. Petrographic compositional changes in the coals document the same plant community changes. The floristic data also indicate that, at high latitudes, there may have been a change to a wetter and less seasonal climate during the overall global cooling trend.

  9. A new genus and species of micro bee fly from the Earliest Eocene French amber (Diptera: Mythicomyiidae: Psiloderoidinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myskowiak, Justine; Garrouste, Romain; Nel, Andre

    2016-05-26

    Mythicomyiidae, or micro bee flies, are tiny flies (0.5-5.0 mm) that are found throughout most parts of the world except the highest altitudes and latitudes (Greathead & Evenhuis 2001). Including all extinct and extant taxa, the Mythicomyiidae currently comprise more than 380 valid taxonomic species distributed among 30 genera. The subfamily Psiloderoidinae is especially well represented among the fossil Mythicomyiidae by seven Cretaceous or Cenozoic genera. We here describe a new genus and a new species of this subfamily based on fossils from the Earliest Eocene of Oise (France). A Psiloderoidinae, Proplatypygus matilei Nel & DePloëg, 2004, is already described in this amber. Another mythicomyiid, Eurodoliopteryx inexpectatus Nel, 2006, is the most frequent bombylioid in this amber (Nel & DePloëg, 2004; Nel, 2006).

  10. Geological setting and paleomagnetism of the Eocene red beds of Laguna Brava Formation (Quebrada Santo Domingo, northwestern Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizán, H.; Geuna, S.; Melchor, R.; Bellosi, E. S.; Lagorio, S. L.; Vásquez, C.; Japas, M. S.; Ré, G.; Do Campo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The red bed succession cropping out in the Quebrada Santo Domingo in northwestern Argentina had been for long considered as Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic in age based on weak radiometric and paleontological evidence. Preliminary paleomagnetic data confirmed the age and opened questions about the nature of fossil footprints with avian features discovered in the section. Recently the stratigraphic scheme was reviewed with the identification of previously unrecognized discontinuities, and a radiometric dating obtained in a tuff, indicated an Eocene age for the Laguna Brava Formation and the fossil bird footprints, much younger than the previously assigned. We present a detailed paleomagnetic study interpreted within a regional tectonic and stratigraphic framework, looking for an explanation for the misinterpretation of the preliminary paleomagnetic data. The characteristic remanent magnetizations pass a tilt test and a reversal test. The main magnetic carrier is interpreted to be low Ti titanomagnetites and to a lesser extent hematite. The characteristic remanent magnetization would be essentially detrital. The obtained paleomagnetic pole (PP) for the Laguna Brava Formation has the following geographic coordinates and statistical parameters: N = 29, Lon. = 184.5° E, Lat. = 75.0° S, A95 = 5.6° and K = 23.7. When this PP is compared with another one with similar age obtained in an undeformed area, a declination anomaly is recognized. This anomaly can be interpreted as Laguna Brava Formation belonging to a structural block that rotated about 16° clockwise along a vertical axis after about 34 Ma. This block rotation is consistent with the regional tectonic framework, and would have caused the fortuitous coincidence of the PP with Early Jurassic poles. According to the interpreted magnetostratigraphic correlation, the Laguna Brava Formation would have been deposited during the Late Eocene with a mean sedimentation rate of about 1.4 cm per thousand years, probably in

  11. Post-Eocene volcanics of the Abazar district, Qazvin, Iran: Mineralogical and geochemical evidence for a complex magmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiabanha, A.; Bardintzeff, J. M.; Kananian, A.; Rahimi, G.

    2012-02-01

    The style of volcanism of post-Eocene volcanism in the Alborz zone of northern Iran is different to that of Eocene volcanism (Karaj Formation). Indeed, the volcanic succession of the Abazar district, located in a narrow volcanic strip within the Alborz magmatic assemblage, is characterized by distinct mineralogical and chemical compositions linked to a complex magmatic evolution. The succession was produced by explosive eruptions followed by effusive eruptions. Two main volcanic events are recognized: (1) a thin rhyolitic ignimbritic sheet underlain by a thicker lithic breccia, and (2) lava flows including shoshonite, latite, and andesite that overlie the first event across a reddish soil horizon. Plagioclase in shoshonite (An 48-92) shows normal zoning, whereas plagioclase in latite and andesite (An 48-75) has a similar composition but shows reverse and oscillatory zoning. QUILF temperature calculations for shoshonites and andesites yield temperatures of 1035 °C and 1029 °C, respectively. The geothermometers proposed by Ridolfi et al. (2010) and Holland and Blundy (1994) yield temperatures of 960 °C and 944 °C for latitic lava, respectively. The samples of volcanic rock show a typical geochemical signature of the continental arc regime, but the andesites clearly differ from the shoshonites, the latites and the rhyolites. The mineralogical and chemical characteristics of these rocks are explained by the following petrogenesis: (1) intrusion of a hot, mantle-depth mafic (shoshonitic) magma, which differentiated in the magma chamber to produce a latitic and then a rhyolitic liquid; (2) rhyolitic ignimbritic eruptions from the top of the magma chamber, following by shoshonitic and then latitic extrusions; (3) magma mingling between the latitic and andesitic magmas, as indicated by the occurrence of andesite clasts within the latite; and (4) andesitic effusions. The youngest volcanic events in the Alborz zone show a close chemical relationship with continental arc

  12. Porosity and reservoir potentiality of the Cherahil Formation limestone (middle-upper Eocene) in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njahi, Zahra; Kassabi, Nadhem; Touir, Jamel

    2017-07-01

    During the middle and upper Eocene, the deposits in the Gulf of Gabes correspond to the Cherahil Formation, which is sub-divided into three units, which are as follows from base to top: the Lower Cherahil A, the Siouf and the Upper Cherahil B members. The Siouf member has a lateral equivalent in the Souar Formation named Reineche member. The Cherahil Formation has never been considered by oil companies as a particular drilling target in the Gulf of Gabes (offshore east Tunisia) despite the presence of hydrocarbon at the bottom of Cherahil Formation in Sidi Behara and Sidi Litayem oil fields in Sfax Area (onshore east Tunisia) and in its equivalent carbonate beds in Jebel Trozza (Central Tunisia). Therefore, the evaluation of porosity in the carbonate levels of Cherahil Formation in 20 drilling wells were performed on well logging by applying Wyllie method. The obtained results show that the studied carbonates are characterized by an economically important total porosity average ranging between 5% and 55%, and both vertical and lateral variations. The vertical porosity variation was controlled by the sea-level fluctuation that, in turn, controlled the evolution of carbonate sedimentary environments and relative facies. The lateral porosity variation followed the Tunisian middle-upper Eocene paleogeography changes controlled by NW-SE synsedimentary tectonic trends. Considering the important features of the Cherahil Formation and the coexistence of components of an oil system in the Gulf of Gabes, this formation can be an important potential reservoir and subsequently a new petroleum exploration target in the Gulf of Gabes.

  13. Architecture and reservoir quality of low-permeable Eocene lacustrine turbidite sandstone from the Dongying Depression, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Muhammad Jawad; Lin, Chengyan; Chunmei, Dong; Zhang, Xianguo; Zhao, Haiyan; Xiao, Shuming; Azeem, Tahir; Zahid, Muhammad Aleem; Ma, Cunfei

    2018-05-01

    The architecture and quality of lacustrine turbidites that act as petroleum reservoirs are less well documented. Reservoir architecture and multiscale heterogeneity in turbidites represent serious challenges to production performance. Additionally, establishing a hierarchy profile to delineate heterogeneity is a challenging task in lacustrine turbidite deposits. Here, we report on the turbidites in the middle third member of the Eocene Shahejie Formation (Es3), which was deposited during extensive Middle to Late Eocene rifting in the Dongying Depression. Seismic records, wireline log responses, and core observations were integrated to describe the reservoir heterogeneity by delineating the architectural elements, sequence stratigraphic framework and lithofacies assemblage. A petrographic approach was adopted to constrain microscopic heterogeneity using an optical microscope, routine core analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The Es3m member is interpreted as a sequence set composed of four composite sequences: CS1, CS2, CS3 and CS4. A total of forty-five sequences were identified within these four composite sequences. Sand bodies were mainly deposited as channels, levees, overbank splays, lobes and lobe fringes. The combination of fining-upward and coarsening-upward lithofacies patterns in the architectural elements produces highly complex composite flow units. Microscopic heterogeneity is produced by diagenetic alteration processes (i.e., feldspar dissolution, authigenic clay formation and quartz cementation). The widespread kaolinization of feldspar and mobilization of materials enhanced the quality of the reservoir by producing secondary enlarged pores. In contrast, the formation of pore-filling authigenic illite and illite/smectite clays reduced its permeability. Recovery rates are higher in the axial areas and smaller in the marginal areas of architectural elements. This study represents a significant insight into the reservoir architecture and

  14. Origin of an extensive network of non-tectonic synclines in Eocene limestones of the Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Barbara J.; Tarabees, Elhamy A.; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite images of the Western Desert of Egypt display conspicuous sinuous color patterning that previous workers have interpreted as erosional flutes formed by catastrophic flooding. Our work with high resolution satellite imagery shows that the patterning is not erosional but, rather, the result of a network of thousands of narrow synclines in the Eocene bedrock capping the Limestone Plateau. Synclines form as isolated, 200-400 meter-wide downwarps in otherwise flat-lying strata. Limb dips are shallow, and doubly plunging hinges form multiple basin closures along syncline lengths. Anticlines form ;accidentally; in inter-syncline areas where two adjacent synclines lie close together. Synclines have two dominant orientations, WNW-ESE and NNW-SSE, parallel to two prominent joint and fault sets, and synclines branch, merge, and change orientation along their lengths. Synclines are all at the same scale with neither larger structures nor parasitic structures and are best described as non-tectonic sag synclines. An Egypt-wide inventory reveals that these synclines are both confined to Eocene limestones and developed, albeit it sporadically, over nearly 100,000 km2. The syncline network predates plateau gravels of the Katkut Formation, which have been interpreted as Oligocene or early Miocene in age, and the network is cut by faults related to Western Desert extension associated with Red Sea rifting. The mechanism that caused sag of overlying layers is not clear. Modern karst collapse, subsurface dissolution of evaporites, and collapse of paleokarst are all unlikely mechanisms given the timing of formation and the underlying stratigraphy. Silica diagenesis and downslope mobilization of underlying shales are possibilities, although uncertainty about the origin of silica in the limestones, plus the consistency of syncline orientations over large areas, make these models problematic. Hypogene karst, perhaps related to aggressive fluids associated with basaltic intrusions

  15. Foraminiferal and carbon isotope stratigraphy through the Paleocene-Eocene transition at Dee Stream, Marlborough, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, H.J.L.; Dickens, G.R.; Strong, C.P.; Hollis, C.J.; Field, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Dee Stream in the Clarence River valley of New Zealand bisects a well-exposed section of marine sedimentary rocks deposited in the Early Paleogene at high southern latitudes. One hundred metres of strata lying within this section and comprising cm-dm well-bedded, siliceous limestone with marly partings was mapped, logged, and sampled to establish a detailed foraminiferal and carbon isotope stratigraphy and to examine environmental changes across the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). Although low abundance and poor preservation of planktic and benthic foraminifera characterises much of the Paleocene, foraminifera and carbon isotopes clearly show that the section spans the Upper Paleocene to Lower Eocene planktic foraminiferal zones from Zone P4 to Subzone P6b, and the Subbotina triloculinoides to Pseudohastigerina wilcoxensis Zones. The δ 13 C record correlates closely to other δ 13 C curves generated from other key Early Paleogene carbonate sequences. The Dee Stream logged section contains a 1 m thick PETM interval at 26.5 m at the base of Zone P5, or the Morozovella velascoensis Subzone. Here, benthic foraminifera undergo significant extinction, Morozovella aequa makes its first appearance, and the δ 13 C of carbonate decreases by 2 permille. The benthic foraminifer Bulimina tuxpamensis dominates benthic assemblages immediately following the onset of the PETM interval, suggesting dysoxic bottom waters during this event. In conjunction with other recently examined sections from the Marlborough region, the thick and apparently continuous Paleogene record at Dee Stream provides an important site for understanding environmental change on high-latitude continental margins during the Paleogene, including the PETM. (author). 54 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Did Photosymbiont Bleaching Lead to the Demise of Planktic Foraminifer Morozovella at the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Valeria; D'Onofrio, Roberta; Dickens, Gerald R; Wade, Bridget S

    2017-11-01

    The symbiont-bearing mixed-layer planktic foraminiferal genera Morozovella and Acarinina were among the most important calcifiers of early Paleogene tropical-subtropical oceans. A marked and permanent switch in the abundance of these genera is known to have occurred at low-latitude sites at the beginning of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), such that the relative abundance of Morozovella permanently and significantly decreased along with a progressive reduction in the number of species; concomitantly, the genus Acarinina almost doubled its abundance and diversified. Here we examine planktic foraminiferal assemblages and stable isotope compositions of their tests at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1051 (northwest Atlantic) to detail the timing of this biotic event, to document its details at the species level, and to test a potential cause: the loss of photosymbionts (bleaching). We also provide stable isotope measurements of bulk carbonate to refine the stratigraphy at Site 1051 and to determine when changes in Morozovella species composition and their test size occurred. We demonstrate that the switch in Morozovella and Acarinina abundance occurred rapidly and in coincidence with a negative carbon isotope excursion known as the J event (~53 Ma), which marks the start of the EECO. We provide evidence of photosymbiont loss after the J event from a size-restricted δ 13 C analysis. However, such inferred bleaching was transitory and also occurred in the acarininids. The geologically rapid switch in planktic foraminiferal genera during the early Eocene was a major evolutionary change within marine biota, but loss of photosymbionts was not the primary causal mechanism.

  17. New palynology-based astronomical and revised 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Eocene maar lake of Messel (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Olaf K.; Wilde, Volker; Mertz, Dieter F.; Riegel, Walter

    2015-04-01

    The annually laminated oil shale from the Eocene maar lake at Messel (Federal State of Hessen, Germany) provides unique paleoenvironmental data for a time interval of ~640 ka during the Paleogene greenhouse phase. As a consequence of orbitally controlled changes in the vegetation in the vicinity of the lake, the lacustrine laminites can now be astronomically tuned. Dating is based on the short eccentricity amplitude modulations of the regional pollen rain and their correlation to the astronomical La2010a/La2010d solutions in combination with a revised 40Ar/39Ar age of a basalt fragment from a lapilli tuff section below the first lacustrine sediments. Depending on different newly suggested ages for the Fish Canyon sanidine used as monitor for neutron irradiation, the age for the eruption at Messel is between 48.27 ± 0.22 and 48.11 ± 0.22 Ma. This allows for the first time the exact correlation of a Paleogene lacustrine sequence to the marine record in Central Europe. The Messel oil shale becomes now slightly older than previously assumed and includes the Ypresian/Lutetian boundary that moves the base of the European Land Mammal Age Geiseltalian (MP 11) into the Lower Eocene. This opens a window for establishing an independent chronostratigraphic framework for Paleogene terrestrial records and their correlation to the marine realm. Furthermore, the study reveals that higher amounts of pollen from "wet" and thermophilous plants indicate less seasonal and more balanced precipitation and slightly higher temperatures during a well-expressed eccentricity minimum.

  18. Agerinia marandati sp. nov., a new early Eocene primate from the Iberian Peninsula, sheds new light on the evolution of the genus Agerinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femenias-Gual, Joan; Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Poyatos-Moré, Miquel; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    The Eocene was the warmest epoch of the Cenozoic and recorded the appearance of several orders of modern mammals, including the first occurrence of Euprimates. During the Eocene, Euprimates were mainly represented by two groups, adapiforms and omomyiforms, which reached great abundance and diversity in the Northern Hemisphere. Despite this relative abundance, the record of early Eocene primates from the European continent is still scarce and poorly known, preventing the observation of clear morphological trends in the evolution of the group and the establishment of phylogenetic relationships among different lineages. However, knowledge about the early Eocene primates from the Iberian Peninsula has been recently increased through the description of new material of the genus Agerinia from several fossil sites from Northeastern Spain. Here we present the first detailed study of the euprimate material from the locality of Masia de l'Hereuet (early Eocene, NE Spain). The described remains consist of one fragment of mandible and 15 isolated teeth. This work provides detailed descriptions, accurate measurements, high-resolution figures and thorough comparisons with other species of Agerinia as well with other Eurasian notharctids. Furthermore, the position of the different species of Agerinia has been tested with two phylogenetic analyses. The new material from Masia de l'Hereuet shows several traits that were previously unknown for the genus Agerinia, such as the morphology of the upper and lower fourth deciduous premolars and the P 2 , and the unfused mandible. Moreover, this material clearly differs from the other described species of Agerinia , A. roselli and A. smithorum , thus allowing the erection of the new species Agerinia marandati . The phylogenetic analyses place the three species of Agerinia in a single clade, in which A. smithorum is the most primitive species of this genus. The morphology of the upper molars reinforces the distinction of Agerinia from

  19. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  20. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  1. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  2. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  3. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  4. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  5. The oldest fossil record of the megamouth shark from the late Eocene of Denmark and comments on the enigmatic megachasmid origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenshu Shimada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The megamouth shark (Lamniformes: Megachasmidae has sporadic occurrences both in the present-day oceans and in the fossil record. In this paper, we describe a new megachasmid, Megachasma alisonae sp. nov., on the basis of a morphologically distinct tooth collected from the Pyt Member of the late Eocene Søvind Marl Formation at Moesgård Strand in Denmark, that represents the geologically oldest known Megachasma. The tooth likely came from an individual that measured somewhere between 1.3 and 3.5 m long, and its morphology and chipped cusp tips suggest that it possibly fed on macro-zooplankton and small fishes that had hard skeletal components. Its occurrence in the mid-Priabonian Pyt Member at least suggests that the shark inhabited a relatively deep, open marine environment about 36 Ma ago. This Eocene specimen is significant because it illustrates the dental condition of early megachasmids, which is distinctively odontaspidid-like morphologically.

  6. Phylogeny and chronology of the major lineages of New World hystricognath rodents: insights on the biogeography of the Eocene/Oligocene arrival of mammals in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Voloch, Carolina M; Vilela, Julio F; Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Schrago, Carlos G

    2013-01-01

    Background The hystricognath rodents of the New World, the Caviomorpha, are a diverse lineage with a long evolutionary history, and their representation in South American fossil record begins with their occurrence in Eocene deposits from Peru. Debates regarding the origin and diversification of this group represent longstanding issues in mammalian evolution because early hystricognaths, as well as Platyrrhini primates, appeared when South American was an isolated landmass, which raised the po...

  7. The nummulithoclast event within the Lower Eocene in the Southern Tethyan margin: Mechanisms involved, analogy with the filament event and climate implication (Kairouan, Central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardassi, Besma

    2017-10-01

    Early Eocene deposits in Tunisia are marked by clear variations in terms of facies and thickness. Each facies corresponds to an appropriate depositional environment. Shallow water deposits pass gradually offshore into deeper carbonates along a homoclinal ramp. In Central Tunisia, detailed investigation of carbonate facies under transmitted light shows a particular richness of the middle part of Early Eocene deposits in nummulithoclasts. These facies are often frequent within corrugated banks. They are overlaying Globigerina rich well-bedded limestones and overlain by nummulites and Discocyclina rich massively-bedded carbonates. Nummulithoclasts occurrence is recorded on field by an abrupt vertical change from autochthonous thinly-bedded limestones to massively-bedded fossiliferous carbonates. Change concerns structures, textures and limestones' composition. Nummulithoclasts are associated either to planktonic micro-organisms or to benthic fauna and phosphates grains. The middle and the upper parts of the Early Eocene deposits, particularly, fossilize hummocky cross-stratifications and megaripples. Their presence advocates the role of energetic currents in sweeping nummulites from lower circatidal to upper bathyal environments. The absence of a slope break helped the settling of reworked nummulites within deeper environments. The abrupt change, nummulithoclast associations and current structures arouse reflection and make them not reliable to characterize depositional environments. However, their preferential occurrence within the middle part of Early Eocene deposits and the tight linkage with storm activity lead them to be considered as event. The large scale hummocks recorded on field suggests that nummulite fragmentation was triggered by tropical cyclones rather than humble storms. The frequent occurrence of cyclones which correspond to low pressure atmospheric systems seems in relation with a global warming enhancing the sea surface temperature.

  8. Linking Late Cretaceous to Eocene Tectonostratigraphy of the San Jacinto Fold Belt of NW Colombia With Caribbean Plateau Collision and Flat Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J. Alejandro; Oncken, Onno; Le Breton, Eline; Ibánez-Mejia, Mauricio; Faccenna, Claudio; Veloza, Gabriel; Vélez, Vickye; de Freitas, Mario; Mesa, Andrés.

    2017-11-01

    Collision with and subduction of an oceanic plateau is a rare and transient process that usually leaves an indirect imprint only. Through a tectonostratigraphic analysis of pre-Oligocene sequences in the San Jacinto fold belt of northern Colombia, we show the Late Cretaceous to Eocene tectonic evolution of northwestern South America upon collision and ongoing subduction with the Caribbean Plate. We linked the deposition of four fore-arc basin sequences to specific collision/subduction stages and related their bounding unconformities to major tectonic episodes. The Upper Cretaceous Cansona sequence was deposited in a marine fore-arc setting in which the Caribbean Plate was being subducted beneath northwestern South America, producing contemporaneous magmatism in the present-day Lower Magdalena Valley basin. Coeval strike-slip faulting by the Romeral wrench fault system accommodated right-lateral displacement due to oblique convergence. In latest Cretaceous times, the Caribbean Plateau collided with South America marking a change to more terrestrially influenced marine environments characteristic of the upper Paleocene to lower Eocene San Cayetano sequence, also deposited in a fore-arc setting with an active volcanic arc. A lower to middle Eocene angular unconformity at the top of the San Cayetano sequence, the termination of the activity of the Romeral Fault System, and the cessation of arc magmatism are interpreted to indicate the onset of low-angle subduction of the thick and buoyant Caribbean Plateau beneath South America, which occurred between 56 and 43 Ma. Flat subduction of the plateau has continued to the present and would be the main cause of amagmatic post-Eocene deposition.

  9. The Maastrichtiense Daniense and Middle Eocene age transgression in the Punta del Este basin and it regional correlation established by dinoflagellate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daners, G.; Veroslavsky, G.; Guerstein, G.; Guler, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Punta del Este Basin (Uruguay), two transgressions were recognized through the study of dinoflagellate associations of Gaviotin Formation. The transgression cycles were assigned to Maastrichtian-Danian and Middle Eocene ages, separated by a paracomformity established through biostratigraphic criteria. A regional correlation for these transgressive cycles was stablished by the comparisson of these dinoflagellate associations with those of other Atlantic and Austral basins (Colorado, Neuquina and Austral) [es

  10. On a grain of sand - a microhabitat for the opportunistic agglutinated foraminifera Hemisphaerammina apta n. sp., from the early Eocene Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, David H.; Neville, Lisa A.

    2018-02-01

    Hemisphaerammina apta n. sp. is an attached monothalamous agglutinated foraminifera discovered in shelf sediments of the early Eocene Arctic Ocean. It is a simple yet distinctive component of the endemic agglutinated foraminiferal assemblage that colonized the Arctic Ocean after the microfaunal turnover caused by the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Associated foraminifera are characterized by a high percentage of monothalamous species (up to 60 %) and are entirely agglutinated indicating a brackish (mesohaline) early Eocene Arctic Ocean. Hemisphaerammina apta occurs exclusively as individuals attached to fine detrital grains (0.2 to 1.8 mm) of sediment. It is a small species (0.06 to 0.2 mm in diameter), fine-grained, with a low hemispherical profile, no floor across the attachment area, no substantive marginal flange, no internal structures, and no aperture. Lacking an aperture, it apparently propagated and fed through minute (micrometre-sized) interstitial pores in the test wall. Attachment surfaces vary from concave to convex and rough to smooth. Grains for attachment are diverse in shape and type but are predominantly of quartz and chert. The presence of H. apta in the early Eocene was an opportunistic response to an environment with an active hydrological system (storm events). Attachment to grains of sand would provide a more stable base on a sea floor winnowed by storm-generated currents. Active transport is indicated by the relative abundance of reworked foraminifera mixed with in situ species. Contemporaneous reworking and colonization by H. apta is suggested by its attachment to a reworked specimen of Cretaceous foraminifera.

  11. New Genus and Species of Gall Midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae, Holoneurini from the Late Eocene Amber of Olevsk (Zhitomir Region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotova Z. A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gall midges are reported for the first time in Late Eocene Rovno amber from the Olevsk, Zhitomir Region. This is the second amber locality to yield gall midges in the Zhitomir Region, after Gulyanka. Rovnoholoneurus gen. n. and two new species, Rovnoholoneurus davidi sp. n. and R. miyae sp. n. are described. Bryocrypta laqueata Fedotova, 2005 is transferred to the genus Rovnoholoneurus, and Rovnoholoneurus laqueatus (Fedotova, 2005, comb. n. is established. A key to the species of Rovnoholoneurus is provided.

  12. Apatite fission-track evidence for regional exhumation in the subtropical Eocene, block faulting, and localized fluid flow in east-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Bacon, Charles R.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Day, Warren C.

    2016-01-01

    The origin and antiquity of the subdued topography of the Yukon–Tanana Upland (YTU), the physiographic province between the Denali and Tintina faults, are unresolved questions in the geologic history of interior Alaska and adjacent Yukon. We present apatite fission-track (AFT) results for 33 samples from the 2300 km2 western Fortymile district in the YTU in Alaska and propose an exhumation model that is consistent with preservation of volcanic rocks in valleys that requires base level stability of several drainages since latest Cretaceous–Paleocene time. AFT thermochronology indicates widespread cooling below ∼110 °C at ∼56–47 Ma (early Eocene) and ∼44–36 Ma (middle Eocene). Samples with ∼33–27, ∼19, and ∼10 Ma AFT ages, obtained near a major northeast-trending fault zone, apparently reflect hydrothermal fluid flow. Uplift and erosion following ∼107 Ma magmatism exposed plutonic rocks to different extents in various crustal blocks by latest Cretaceous time. We interpret the Eocene AFT ages to suggest that higher elevations were eroded during the Paleogene subtropical climate of the subarctic, while base level remained essentially stable. Tertiary basins outboard of the YTU contain sediment that may account for the required >2 km of removed overburden that was not carried to the sea by the ancestral Yukon River system. We consider a climate driven explanation for the Eocene AFT ages to be most consistent with geologic constraints in concert with block faulting related to translation on the Denali and Tintina faults resulting from oblique subduction along the southern margin of Alaska.

  13. Colemanus keeleyorum (Braconidae, Ichneutinae s. l.: a new genus and species of Eocene wasp from the Green River Formation of western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of Ichneutinae s. l., Colemanus keeleyorum Fisher, is described from the Eocene Green River Formation in Colorado, USA. Colemanus was placed on a phylogenetic hypothesis using morphological data. Using a parsimony criterion, Colemanus is placed within Proteropini (Ichneutinae s. l.. Reconstructions of well-preserved regions (mesosomal dorsum and wings are included. A previously described species from lower Oligocene Baltic amber is transferred to Colemanus, resulting in the new combination C. contortus (Brues, 1933.

  14. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  15. Paleocene-Eocene and Plio-Pleistocene sea-level changes as "species pumps" in Southeast Asia: Evidence from Althepus spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengyuan; Li, Shuqiang

    2018-05-17

    Sea-level change has been viewed as a primary driver in the formation of biodiversity. Early studies confirmed that Plio-Pleistocene sea-level changes led to the isolation and subsequent genetic differentiation of Southeast (SE) Asian organisms over short geological timescales. However, long-time consequences of sea-level fluctuations remain unclear. Herein, we analyze the evolutionary history of Althepus (spiders) whose distribution encompasses Indo-Burma and the Sunda shelf islands to understand how sea-level changes over shallow and deep timescales effected their history. Our integrative analyses, including phylogeny, divergence times, ancestral area reconstruction and diversification dynamics, reveal an intricate pattern of diversification, probably triggered by sea-level fluctuations during the Paleocene-Eocene and Plio-Pleistocene. The timing of one early divergence between the Indo-Burmese and Sundaic species coincides with late Paleocene and early Eocene high global sea levels, which induced the formation of inland seaways in the Thai-Malay Peninsula. Subsequent lowered sea levels could have provided a land bridge for its dispersal colonization across the Isthmus of Kra. Analyses suggest that Plio-Pleistocene sea-level rises contributed to recent divergence of many species. Thus, our findings cannot reject the hypothesis that sea-level changes during the Paleocene-Eocene and Plio-Pleistocene played a major role in generating biodiversity in SE Asia; sea-level changes can act as "species pumps". Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-proxy Paleoclimate and CO2 Reconstruction from the Latest Middle Eocene Sedimentary Fill of a Subarctic Kimberlitic Maar Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A. V.; Wolfe, A. P.; Royer, D. L.; Greenwood, D. R.; Tierney, J. E.; Doria, G.; Gagen, M. H.; Siver, P.; Westgate, J.

    2016-12-01

    Eocene paleoclimate reconstructions are rarely accompanied by parallel estimates of CO2, complicating assessment of the equilibrium climate responses to CO2. We reconstruct temperature, precipitation, and CO2 from latest middle Eocene ( 38 Myrs ago) peats in subarctic Canada, preserved in sediments that record infilling of a kimberlite pipe maar crater. Mutual climatic range analyses of pollen, together with oxygen isotope analyses of a-cellulose from unpermineralized wood and inferenecs from branched glycerol diakyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), reveal a high-latitude humid-temperate forest ecosystem with mean annual temperatures (MATs) >17 °C warmer than present, mean coldest month temperatures above 0 °C, and mean annual precipitation 4x present. Metasequoia stomatal indices and gas-exchange modeling produce median CO2 concentrations of 634 and 432 ppm, respectively, with a consensus median estimate of 494 ppm. Reconstructed MATs are >6 °C warmer than those produced by Eocene climate models forced at 560 ppm CO2, underscoring the capacity for exceptional polar amplification of warming and hydrological intensification under relatively modest CO2 concentrations, once both fast and slow feedbacks become expressed.

  17. Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene 'Miacis' from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiya, Susumu; Tseng, Zhijie Jack

    2016-10-01

    The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains regions. Here we report on the affinities of two peculiar carnivoraforms from the Chambers Tuff of Trans-Pecos, Texas, that were first described 30 years ago as Miacis cognitus and M. australis . Re-examination of previously described specimens and their inclusion in a cladistic analysis revealed the two taxa to be diminutive basal amphicyonids; as such, they are assigned to new genera Gustafsonia and Angelarctocyon , respectively. These two taxa fill in some of the morphological gaps between the earliest-known amphicyonid genus, Daphoenus , and other Middle-Eocene carnivoraforms, and lend additional support for a basal caniform position of the beardogs outside the Canoidea. The amphicyonid lineage had evidently given rise to at least five rather distinct forms by the end of the Middle Eocene. Their precise geographical origin remains uncertain, but it is plausible that southern North America served as an important stage for a very early phase of amphicyonid radiation.

  18. Heavy mineral delineation of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic sections at the Savannah River Site, Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathcart, E.M.; Sargent, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina consists of a fluvial-deltaic and shallow marine complex of unconsolidated sediments overlying the crystalline basement rocks of the North American continent. Because of the lateral and vertical variability of these sediments, stratigraphic boundaries have been difficult to distinguish. Portions of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and eocene stratigraphic sections from cores recovered during the construction of two monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site were studied to determine if heavy mineral suites could be utilized to distinguish boundaries. The stratigraphic sections include: the Late Cretaceous Middendorf, Black Creek, and Steel Creek Formations, the Paleocene Snapp Formation, the late Paleocene-Early Eocene Fourmile Branch Formation, and the Early Eocene Congaree formation. In previous studies composite samples were taken over 2.5 ft. intervals along the cores and processed using a heavy liquid for heavy mineral recovery. During this study, heavy mineral distributions were determined by binocular microscope and the mineral identifications confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis of hand-picked samples. The heavy mineral concentration data and grain size data were then compared to the stratigraphic boundary positions determined by other workers using more classical methods. These comparisons were used to establish the utility of this method for delineating the stratigraphic boundaries in the area of study

  19. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    Paralic carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous shelf sediments have seldom been investigated. During the early Eocene, calcareous and siliciclastic sediments were deposited on a wide shelf in front of low-reliefed hinterland in the Al Khawd region in NE Oman. The siliciclastic-calcareous sediments originated from strongly reworked debris of the Arabic Shield. The underlying Semail Ophiolite did not act as a direct source of debris but provided some heat to increase the maturity of carbonaceous rocks and modify the isotope signal of the calcareous minerals in the Rusayl Formation. A multidisciplinary approach involving sedimentology, mineralogy, chemistry, coal petrography and paleontology resulted in the establishment of nine stratigraphic lithofacies units and provides the reader with a full picture from deposition of the mixed carbonaceous-calcareous-siliciclastic rocks to the most recent stages of post-depositional alteration of the Paleogene formations. The calcareous Jafnayn Formation (lithofacies unit I) developed in a subtidal to intertidal regime, influenced episodically by storms. Deepening of the calcareous shelf towards younger series was ground to a halt by paleosols developing on a disconformity (lithofacies unit II) and heralding the onset of the Rusayl Formation. The stratigraphic lithofacies units III and IV reflect mangrove swamps which from time to time were flooded through washover fans from the open sea. The presence of Spinozonocolpites and the taxon Avicennia, which today belong to a coastal marsh vegetational community, furnish palynological evidence to the idea of extensive mangrove swamps in the Rusayl Formation [El Beialy, S.Y., 1998. Stratigraphic and palaeonenvironmental significance of Eocene palynomorphs from the Rusayl Shale Formation, Al Khawd, northern Oman. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 102, 249-258]. During the upper Rusayl Formation (lithofacies units V through VII) algal mats episodically flooded by marine

  20. Eruptive history, geochronology, and post-eruption structural evolution of the late Eocene Hall Creek Caldera, Toiyabe Range, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.

    2017-02-24

    The magmatic, tectonic, and topographic evolution of what is now the northern Great Basin remains controversial, notably the temporal and spatial relation between magmatism and extensional faulting. This controversy is exemplified in the northern Toiyabe Range of central Nevada, where previous geologic mapping suggested the presence of a caldera that sourced the late Eocene (34.0 mega-annum [Ma]) tuff of Hall Creek. This region was also inferred to be the locus of large-magnitude middle Tertiary extension (more than 100 percent strain) localized along the Bernd Canyon detachment fault, and to be the approximate location of a middle Tertiary paleodivide that separated east and west-draining paleovalleys. Geologic mapping, 40Ar/39Ar dating, and geochemical analyses document the geologic history and extent of the Hall Creek caldera, define the regional paleotopography at the time it formed, and clarify the timing and kinematics of post-caldera extensional faulting. During and after late Eocene volcanism, the northern Toiyabe Range was characterized by an east-west trending ridge in the area of present-day Mount Callaghan, probably localized along a Mesozoic anticline. Andesite lava flows erupted around 35–34 Ma ponded hundreds of meters thick in the erosional low areas surrounding this structural high, particularly in the Simpson Park Mountains. The Hall Creek caldera formed ca. 34.0 Ma during eruption of the approximately 400 cubic kilometers (km3) tuff of Hall Creek, a moderately crystal-rich rhyolite (71–77 percent SiO2) ash-flow tuff. Caldera collapse was piston-like with an intact floor block, and the caldera filled with thick (approximately 2,600 meters) intracaldera tuff and interbedded breccia lenses shed from the caldera walls. The most extensive exposed megabreccia deposits are concentrated on or close to the caldera floor in the southwestern part of the caldera. Both silicic and intermediate post-caldera lavas were locally erupted within 400 thousand

  1. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  2. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  3. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  4. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  5. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  6. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)