WorldWideScience

Sample records for eocene climatic optimum

  1. Aridification in continental Asia after the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosboom, R.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322947359; Abels, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848018; Hoorn, C.; van den Berg, B.C.J.; Guo, Z.; Dupont-Nivet, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313092559

    2014-01-01

    Global climate cooling from greenhouse to icehouse conditions occurred across an enigmatic transitional interval during the Eocene epoch characterized by incipient polar ice-sheet formation as well as short-lived warming events, of which the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) is most noticeable.

  2. Global warming and ocean acidification through halted weathering feedback during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, R.; Selby, D. S.; Cramwinckel, M.; Bohaty, S. M.; Sluijs, A.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) represents a 500 kyr period of global warming 40 million years ago associated with a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but its cause remains enigmatic. Moreover, on the timescale of the MECO, an increase in silicate weathering rates on the continents is expected to balance carbon input and restore the alkalinity of the oceans, but this is in sharp disagreement with observations of extensive carbonate dissolution. Here we show, based on osmium isotope ratios of marine sediments from three different sites, that CO2 rise and warming did not lead to enhanced continental weathering during the MECO, in contrast to expectations from carbon cycle theory. Remarkably, a minor shift to lower, more unradiogenic osmium isotope ratios rather indicates an episode of increased volcanism or reduced continental weathering. This disproves silicate weathering as a geologically constant feedback to CO2 variations. Rather, we suggest that global Early and Middle Eocene warmth diminished the weatherability of continental rocks, ultimately leading to CO2 accumulation during the MECO, and show the plausibility of this scenario using carbon cycle modeling simulations. We surmise a dynamic weathering feedback might explain multiple enigmatic phases of coupled climate and carbon cycle change in the Cretaceous and Cenozoic.

  3. Planktic foraminiferal photosymbiont bleaching during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (Site 1051, northwestern Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Valeria; D'Onofrio, Roberta; Dickens, Gerald Roy; Wade, Bridget

    2017-04-01

    The symbiotic relationship with algae is a key strategy adopted by many modern species and by early Paleogene shallow-dwelling planktic foraminifera. The endosymbionts play an important role in foraminiferal calcification, longevity and growth, allowing the host to succeed in oligotrophic environment. We have indirect evidence on the presence and loss of algae photosymbionts because symbionts modify the chemistry of the microenvironment where a foraminifer calcifies, resulting in a characteristic geochemical signature between test size and δ13C. We present here the result of a test on loss of algal photosymbiont (bleaching) in planktic foraminifera from the northwest Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1051 across the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), the interval ( 49-53 Ma) when Earth surface temperatures and probably atmospheric pCO2 reached their Cenozoic maximum. We select this interval because two symbiont-bearing planktic foraminiferal genera Morozovella and Acarinina, that were important calcifiers of the early Paleogene tropical-subtropical oceans, experienced a marked and permanent switch in abundance at the beginning of the EECO, close to the carbon isotope excursion known as J event. Specifically, the relative abundance of Morozovella permanently decreased by at least half, along with a progressive decrease in the number of species. Concomitantly, the genus Acarinina almost doubled its abundance and diversified within the EECO. Many stressors inducing loss of photosymbiosis may have occurred during the long-lasting environmental conditions relating to the EECO extreme warmth, such as high pCO2 and possible decrease of the surface-water pH. The bleaching may therefore represent a potential mechanism to explain the rapid morozovellid decline at the start of the EECO. Our geochemical data from Site 1051 demonstrate that there was indeed a reduction of algal-symbiosis in morozovellids at the EECO beginning. This bleaching event occurred at the

  4. Ecological and evolutionary response of Tethyan planktonic foraminifera to the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (Alano di Piave section, NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, V.; Agnini, C.; Fornaciari, E.; Giusberti, L.; Rio, D.; Spofforth, D. J. A.; Pälike, H.

    2009-04-01

    The transient (ca. 500 kyr) climatic warming event at ca. 40 Ma, known as Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO), significantly interrupted the overall cooling trend of the Middle Eocene. Originally documented in several deep sea sites at the Southern Ocean (Bohaty and Zachos, 2003), now it appears to be recorded worldwide by pronounced changes of the ^13C and ^18O values and coeval oscillations in global CCD (Tripati et al, 2005). Information on the planktonic foraminiferal response to this event is so far lacking. Here we present a detailed planktonic foraminiferal analysis of the MECO interval from a marginal basin of the central-western Tethys (Alano di Piave section, northeastern Italy). The expanded and continuous Alano section provides an excellent record of this event and offers an unique opportunity to better understand the role of climate upon calcareous plankton evolution. The initiation of the MECO occurs within magnetochron C18r at ca. 40.5 Ma with minimum ^18O and ^13C values achieved at the base of C18n.2n ca. 40.13 Ma, which are interpreted to represent peak warming conditions. Two sapropel-like, organic-rich intervals coincide with the major change in ^13C record at Alano (Agnini et al., 2007a; Spofforth et al., 2008). The MECO event correlates the E12 (P13) and lower E3 (P14) planktonic foraminiferal zones. The high-resolution quantitative planktonic foraminiferal analysis performed on both >38 m and >63 m fraction reveals pronounced and complex changes indicating a strong environmental perturbation that parallels the variations of the stable isotope curves. These changes are primarily represented by the marked increase in abundance of the eutrophic subbotinids and of the small, low-oxygen tolerant Streptochilus, Chiloguembelina and Pseudohastigerina, by the consistent and significant entrance of the eutrophic opportunist triserial Jenkynsina and of Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana, typical species of high-productivity, upwelling areas. The

  5. Dextral to sinistral switch in dominant coiling of planktic foraminiferal Morozovella during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Valeria; D'Onofrio, Roberta; Dickens, Gerald Roy; Wade, Bridget

    2017-04-01

    The coiling direction of trochospiral planktic foraminifera is a widely investigated morphological feature in living species and in upper Quaternary sediment. However, this morphological trait remains scarcely documented in older marine sediment. Here we investigate the coiling direction within Morozovella populations from sections at two ocean drilling sites in the Atlantic that span the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO; 49-53 Ma). The symbiont-bearing surface-dweller planktic foraminiferal genus Morozovella is of particular interest because of its dominance in tropical-subtropical early Paleogene assemblages, and the time interval is of interest of an abrupt and permanent decline in abundance and taxonomic diversity of Morozovella at the J event, near the beginning of the EECO. Our results demonstrate that morozovellids display a dominant dextral preference during the interval preceding the EECO at both the sites studied. However, all species show a first, prominent flip to sinistral coiling mode starting slightly above the J event. This switch from dextral to sinistral coiling became permanent for most of the Morozovella species slightly after the K/X event. Temporary but significant switches towards sinistral coiled morphotypes also occurred at both sites during several pre-EECO hyperthermal events. We record therefore a remarkable variation in the coiling mode of Morozovella during extreme warming intervals of the early Paleogene. Our record sheds new light on the coiling direction preferences of Paleogene planktic foraminifera. Previous interpretations favour genetic explanations for coiling flips rather than ecological responses. Our present data cannot validate or disprove the former idea, but should stimulate renewed thought on the latter idea.

  6. New mineralogical and geochemical evidence for the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in the Neo-Tethys (Central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, E. S.; Jovane, L.; Giorgioni, M.; Hein, J. R.; Sant'Anna, L. G.; Rodelli, D.; Özcan, E.; Frontalini, F.; Coccioni, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) is one of several climate warming events that occurred during the Paleogene. It started at 40.5 Ma and produced a global temperature increase over a period of 500 kyr. However, the duration and the d13C signature of this event are not consistent with the models commonly proposed to explain warming events in the Cenozoic, and thus challenge our understanding of carbon cycling and climatic processes. Here we present data of a new section from central Turkey, recording the MECO in the eastern part of the Neo-Tethys. The stratigraphic extent and continuity, as well as the exceptional preservation of various types of microfossils, allow us to obtain a multi-proxy record of unprecedented high resolution for this interval. We integrate data from stable isotopes, X-ray diffraction mineralogy, XRF chemistry, and magnetic properties to obtain a complete paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic reconstruction. Stable isotopes (d13C and d18O) allow us to clearly define the geochemical signature of the MECO. A divergence between the d18O curves of the shallow- and deep-water dwelling planktonic foraminifera after the event suggests a more stratified water column in the Neo-Tethys. Bulk and clay mineralogy reveal changing weathering conditions on land. Higher amounts of chlorite and illite (physical weathering) occur prior and after the event, while the MECO interval displays greater amounts of illite and smectite (chemical weathering). Additionally, the inverse relationship between detrital minerals and calcite suggests that carbonate productivity might have suffered at that time, or an increase in detrital input could have diluted the carbonate fraction. An increase in ARM and magnetic particle grain size also suggests an increase in productivity or preservation of biogenic magnetite. Our results confirm the global nature of the MECO, affecting both oceans and continents. However, different from other events, warming conditions were not

  7. The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata

  8. Antarctic climate, Southern Ocean circulation patterns, and deep water formation during the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Claire E.; van de Flierdt, Tina; Bohaty, Steven M.; Hammond, Samantha J.

    2017-07-01

    We assess early-to-middle Eocene seawater neodymium (Nd) isotope records from seven Southern Ocean deep-sea drill sites to evaluate the role of Southern Ocean circulation in long-term Cenozoic climate change. Our study sites are strategically located on either side of the Tasman Gateway and are positioned at a range of shallow (Climatic Optimum and is associated with documented cooling across the study region and increased export of Antarctic deep waters, highlighting the complexity and importance of Southern Ocean circulation in the greenhouse climate of the Eocene.

  9. Stable warm tropical climate through the Eocene Epoch

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    Pearson, Paul N.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Pancost, Richard D.; Schouten, Stefan; Singano, Joyce M.; Wade, Bridget S.

    2007-03-01

    Earth's climate cooled from a period of extreme warmth in the early Eocene Epoch (ca. 50 Ma) to the early Oligocene (ca. 33 Ma), when a large ice cap first appeared on Antarctica. Evidence from the planktonic foraminifer oxygen isotope record in deep-sea cores has suggested that tropical sea-surface temperatures declined by 5-10 degrees over this interval, eventually becoming much cooler than modern temperatures. Here we present paleotemperature estimates from foraminifer isotopes and the membrane lipids of marine Crenarcheota from new drill cores in Tanzania that indicate a warm and generally stable tropical climate over this period. We reinterpret the previously published isotope records in the light of comparative textural analysis of the deep-sea foraminifer shells, which shows that in contrast to the Tanzanian material, they have been diagenetically recrystallized. We suggest that increasingly severe alteration of the deep-sea plankton shells through the Eocene produced a diagenetic overprint on their oxygen isotope ratios that imparts the false appearance of a tropical sea-surface cooling trend. This implies that the long-term Eocene climatic cooling trend occurred mainly at the poles and had little effect at lower latitudes.

  10. Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.K.; Bendle, J.A.P.; Bohaty, S.M.; Pross, J.; Schouten, S.; Tauxe, L.; Stickley, C.E.; McKay, R.M.; Röhl, U.; Olney, M.; Sluijs, A.; Escutia, C.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    The warmest global temperatures of the past 85 million years occurred during a prolonged greenhouse episode known as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (52–50 Ma). The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of

  11. Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.K.; Bendle, J.A.P.; Bohaty, S.M.; Pross, J.; Schouten, S.; Tauxe, L.; Stickley, C.E.; McKay, R.M.; Röhl, U.; Olney, M.; Sluijs, A.; Escutia, C.; Brinkhuis, H.; Expedition 318 Scientists

    2013-01-01

    The warmest global temperatures of the past 85 million years occurred during a prolonged greenhouse episode known as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (52-50 Ma). The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica

  12. A late Eocene palynological record of climate change and Tibetan Plateau uplift (Xining Basin, China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Straathof, J.; Abels, H.A.; Xu, Y.; Utescher, T.; Dupont-Nivet, G.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models suggest that Asian paleoenvironments, monsoons and continental aridification were primarily governed by tectonic uplift and sea retreat since the Eocene with potential contribution of global climate changes. However, the cause and timing of these paleoenvironmental changes remain

  13. Climatic changes in the Antarctic Eocene: - palaeontological, mineralogical and geochemical fossil proxies from bryozoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Urszula

    2017-04-01

    (Bartonian in age). Contrary to that, the bryozoan fauna recognized in the upper part of the LMF (Telm7) is composed of the impoverished biota of the scarse lepraliomorphs, poorly preserved cyclostome of Iridmonoidea and Reticrescis, which are abundantly accompanied by the gadiform fish remains, penguin bones and whales. A sharp decrease in the bryozoan diversity near the contact between the Telm5 and Telm6 was connected with the climatic cooling event, which culminated at the time of deposition of the upper part of the LMF. The skeletal mineralogy along with the geochemical stable isotope studies of the bryozoans (Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula) help to elucidate the environmental and climatic changes connected with the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) as well as the EOT in the stratigraphical profile of the La Meseta Formation. References Hara U. 2015. Bryozoan internal moulds from the La Meseta Formation (Eocene) of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Polish Polar Research, vol. 36, 25-49. Hara U., Mors T., Hagstrom J. and Reguero M.A. 2017. Eocene bryozoans assemblages from the La Meseta Formation of Seymour Island, Antarctica (in review).

  14. Synchronous turnover of flora, fauna, and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in Asia.

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    Sun, Jimin; Ni, Xijun; Bi, Shundong; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie; Meng, Jin; Windley, Brian F

    2014-12-12

    The Eocene-Oligocene Boundary (~34 million years ago) marks one of the largest extinctions of marine invertebrates in the world oceans and of mammalian fauna in Europe and Asia in the Cenozoic era. A shift to a cooler climate across this boundary has been suggested as the cause of this extinction in the marine environment, but there is no manifold evidence for a synchronous turnover of flora, fauna and climate at the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in a single terrestrial site in Asia to support this hypothesis. Here we report new data of magnetostratigraphy, pollen and climatic proxies in the Asian interior across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary; our results show that climate change forced a turnover of flora and fauna, suggesting there was a change from large-size perissodactyl-dominant fauna in forests under a warm-temperate climate to small rodent/lagomorph-dominant fauna in forest-steppe in a dry-temperate climate across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary. These data provide a new terrestrial record for this significant Cenozoic environmental event.

  15. Modeling the response of precipitation oxygen stable isotopes to the Eocene climate changes over Asia

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    Botsyun, Svetlana; Sepulchre, Pierre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Risi, Camille; Caves, Jeremy K.; Licht, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau have become a focus of the Earth sciences because they provide a classical example of tectonics-climate interactions. Present-day high elevations of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau is the ultimate result of the collision between Indian and Asia plates during the Cenozoic, however, the precise uplift history of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau is still uncertain, especially for the early Cenozoic. For the purpose of paleoelevations reconstructions, multiple methods are available, but stable oxygen paleoaltimetry is considered to be one of the most efficient techniques and has been widely applied in Asia. However, paleoelevations studies using stable oxygen presume that climatic processes control δ18O in a uniform way through time. We use climate modeling tools in order to investigate Eocene climate and δ18O over Asia and its controlling factors. The state-of-the-art general circulation model embedded with isotopes LMDz-iso has been applied together with Eocene boundary conditions and varied Eocene topography of the Himalayas and Tibet. The results of our simulations suggest that topography change has a minor direct impact on δ18O over the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. On the contrary, Eocene δ18O in precipitation is primarily controlled by the atmosphere circulation and global temperature changes. Based on our numerical experiments, we show that despite persistence of large-scale atmospheric flows such as the monsoons and westerlies, Eocene δ18O over the region is different from those of the present-day due to global higher temperatures, southward shift to a zone of strong convection and increased role of westerlies moisture source. We show that the Rayleigh distillation is not applicable for the Eocene Himalayas and conclude that the assumption about the stationarity of δ18O-elevation relationship through geological time is inaccurate and misleading for paleoelevation estimates. We also show that Eocene

  16. Astrochronology of extreme global warming events during the early Eocene greenhouse climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauretano, V.

    2016-01-01

    The early Eocene represents an ideal case study to analyse the impact of enhanced global warming on the ocean-atmosphere system and the relationship between carbon cycling and climate. During this time interval, the Earth’s surface experienced a long-term warming trend that culminated in a period of

  17. Climate, carbon cycling and marine ecology during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338017909

    2016-01-01

    The Paleocene and Eocene are characterized by strong greenhouse climates. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global temperatures were much higher than today. The period from 60 to 50 million years ago (Ma) is marked by a gradual warming trend of ~8 ºC in the deep ocean. The interval from 56 to 50 Ma

  18. Stability of the vegetation–atmosphere system in the early Eocene climate

    OpenAIRE

    Port , U.; Claussen, M.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the stability of the atmosphere–vegetation system in the warm, almost ice-free early Eocene climate and in the interglacial, pre-industrial climate by analysing the dependence of the system on the initial vegetation cover. The Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology is initialised with either dense forests or bare deserts on all continents. Starting with desert continents, an extended desert remains in Cen...

  19. Characterization of surface moisture changes between the PETM and Early Eocene in a Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzan, J. R.; Huber, M.; Bowen, G. J.; Goldner, A. P.; Noone, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    One of the robust predictions from climate models is the expansion and poleward displacement of Hadley circulation zones-shifting and expanding arid zones across the globe-due to global warming. However, previous proxy studies and recent modeling work for the Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene present scenarios for increased wetness, in areas like North America, due to a 'permanent' El Niño. One way to test the prediction that arid zones expand in a warmer world is to simulate the deep time paleoclimates, like the Eocene, and compare with proxy records. Using Eocene boundary conditions, we simulated the climatic period using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3) including an atmospheric water isotopic tracer model (ISO-CAM). We present results from the simulations of two different pCO2 levels, 4480 and 2240 ppm, representing two different Eocene climates. Results show in the high pCO2 case that North America has an increase in precipitation during the summer monsoon season, and specifically a wetting in the pre-boreal summer monsoon season in most central regions. The increase in precipitation during the summer monsoon, however, is not stored in the soil system and is consequently converted to runoff. When the monsoon comes to an end, central North America experiences enhanced drying. Additionally, in North America, there is a shift towards heavier oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. This work can be compared to site proxy data and analysis of dynamics of the atmosphere explaining hydrological cycles in future and past climates.

  20. Determining optimum climate drivers for weather risk projections

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    Chavez, Erik; Kilian, Markus; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    In spite of the exponential increase of available data, the uncertainties of projections of weather variability, especially at local scale, have not decreased. This poses important challenges for the design of weather risk management strategies in various vulnerable sectors such as energy or agricultural production. This paper focuses on a two step methodology to enable projection of local weather risk in future climate scenarios. First, we focus on the optimum selection of drivers of regional weather patterns in order to project local weather variability risk estimates in future climate scenarios. This is carried out through the use of stochastic downscaling enabling conditional modelling of pixel-level distributions of weather variables as a function of inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability drivers. Secondly, a statistical and physically-based climate model selection methodology is developed in order to produce a sub-ensemble of inter-annual and decadal variability drivers dataset that allows accurate and robust projection of weather variability. The case study of South Eastern Africa will be used. Datasets retrieved from CMIP5 repository in three RCP scenarios (historical, 8.5 and 2.5) are used as well as observed historical weather data.

  1. Stability of the vegetation-atmosphere system in the early Eocene climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, U.; Claussen, M.

    2015-05-01

    We explore the stability of the atmosphere-vegetation system in the warm, almost ice-free early Eocene climate and in the interglacial, pre-industrial climate by analysing the dependence of the system on the initial vegetation cover. The Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology is initialised with either dense forests or bare deserts on all continents. Starting with desert continents, an extended desert remains in Central Asia in early Eocene climate. Starting with dense forest coverage, this desert is much smaller because the initially dense vegetation cover enhances water recycling in Central Asia relative to the simulation with initial deserts. With a smaller Asian desert, the Asian monsoon is stronger than in the case with a larger desert. The stronger Asian monsoon shifts the global tropical circulation leading to coastal subtropical deserts in North and South America which are significantly larger than with a large Asian desert. This result indicates a global teleconnection of the vegetation cover in several regions. In present-day climate, a bi-stability of the atmosphere-vegetation system is found for Northern Africa only. A global teleconnection of bi-stabilities in several regions is absent highlighting that the stability of the vegetation-atmosphere system depends on climatic and tectonic boundary conditions.

  2. Climatic control on primary productivity changes during development of the Late Eocene Kiliran Jao lake, Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widayat, Agus Haris; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Anggayana, Komang; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    A 102 m long core section of the late Eocene Kiliran Jao oil shale has been studied by means of palynofacies and inorganic geochemistry to examine the role of climate change on the development of the Kiliran Jao paleo-lake. Climate changes during deposition of the studied oil shale are interpreted

  3. How Novel are 21st Century Climates? A Global Assessment of Future Climates and their Analogs Back Through the Eocene

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    Burke, K. D.; Williams, J. W.; Jackson, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is a multivariate process, where changes in the environmental space of a location will likely drive biotic responses of the flora and fauna that inhabit the region. In the face of a rapidly changing climate it is important to understand what the future may hold for ecosystems. One method commonly applied to understand how dissimilar future climates will be relative to the modern period is no-analog analysis. This has been done for 21st century climates relative to the modern period, but has not been extended through the paleorecord. Using HadCM3, CCSM3 TraCE-21ka, PMIP3, PlioMIP2 and EoMIP climate simulations, we assess global and regional climatic novelty by identifying the closest analogs in these periods for both future (21st century) and modern climates. This baseline offers a full range climate space with significant overlap of modern and future projected climates, and allows us to assess both emergences and disappearances of analog climate conditions throughout the past. This extended baseline includes past glacial and interglacial climates, as well as past earth warm periods. Past earth warm periods such as the middle to late Pliocene and the early Eocene may be most similar to projections of future climate, so it is important to evaluate our understanding of these global climates. Here we calculate dissimilarity to quantify novelty and no-analog conditions using the Standardized Euclidian Distance, as well as the Mahalanobis distance. Our work shows that nearest climate analogs for the modern period, as well as future climates, existed and disappeared during past warm periods. These results suggest that though climate change may be regionally novel relative to the modern period for some locations, analogs do exist through the paleorecord which in some cases reduce novelty. Nevertheless, novelty remains high in some locations suggesting that some future climates may be unprecedented.

  4. Biotic Response in Aquatic Reptiles (Testudines) during Earliest Eocene Climatic Warming

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    Holroyd, P. A.; Hutchison, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    The earliest Eocene is marked by significant events of global warming: the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at ~55.8 Ma and two short-lived events (ETM2 or Elmo and H2) approximately 2 Ma later. These environmental changes induced strong responses in the continental biota. Noteworthy changes in North American mid-latitude faunas and floras that are temporally correlated with earliest Eocene warming events include: increased diversity; turnover; and significant range changes, comprising both northward shifts in ranges of North American taxa as well as intercontinental dispersal across Holarctica. Evidence for these biotic changes comes directly from the fossil record and indirectly from phylogeographic analyses of molecular phylogenies of extant biota. To date, the stratigraphic record of biotic change has only been examined for the flora and terrestrial mammals. Data on reptiles and for continental aquatic systems are particularly lacking. In order to assess the impact of climate-mediated faunal change in aquatic systems during early Paleogene warming, we have focused on developing a detailed record of fossil turtles (Testudines) from the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, where these records can be directly compared to similarly studied mammalian and floral data and to isotopic studies that provide independent proxies of climate change. Using genus-level occurrence data from more than 450 stratigraphically-constrained localities spanning ~2.5 Ma, we calculated first and last appearances, taxonomic richness, and relative abundance as measured by presence-absence (site occupancy). Among turtles, taxonomic richness increased episodically through the earliest Eocene with two new taxa appearing at the PETM, two immediately following it, and two at Biohorizon B, an interval associated with the younger hyperthermals. These new, immigrant taxa eventually comprised 40% of known generic richness. Phylogenetically, the inferred biogeographic source regions are southern North

  5. Tibetan uplift prior to the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition: Evidence from pollen analysis of the Xining Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont-Nivet, G.; Hoorn, C.; Konert, M.

    2008-01-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas since the onset of the Indo-Asia collision is held responsible for Asian aridification and monsoon intensification, but may also have gradually cooled global climate, leading to the 34 Ma Eocene-Oligocene transition. To unravel the interplay between

  6. Tectono-climatic implications of Eocene Paratethys regression in the Tajik basin of central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrapa, Barbara; DeCelles, Peter G.; Wang, Xin; Clementz, Mark T.; Mancin, Nicoletta; Stoica, Marius; Kraatz, Brian; Meng, Jin; Abdulov, Sherzod; Chen, Fahu

    2015-08-01

    Plate tectonics and eustatic sea-level changes have fundamental effects on paleoenvironmental conditions and bio-ecological changes. The Paratethys Sea was a large marine seaway that connected the Mediterranean Neotethys Ocean with Central Asia during early Cenozoic time. Withdrawal of the Paratethys from central Asia impacted the distribution and composition of terrestrial faunas in the region and has been largely associated with changes in global sea level and climate such as cooling associated with the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT). Whereas the regression has been dated in the Tarim basin (China), the pattern and timing of regression in the Tajik basin, 400 km to the west, remain unresolved, precluding a test of current paleogeographic models. Here we date the Paratethys regression in Tajikistan at ca. 39 million years ago (Ma), which is several million years older than the EOT (at ca. 34 Ma) marking the greenhouse to icehouse climate transition of the Cenozoic. Our data also show a restricted, evaporitic marine environment since the middle-late Eocene and establishment of desert like environments after ca. 39 Ma. The overall stratigraphic record from the Tajik basin and southern Tien Shan points to deposition in a foreland basin setting by ca. 40 Ma in response to active tectonic growth of the Pamir-Tibet Mountains at the same time. Combined with the northwestward younging trend of the regression in the region, the Tajik basin record is consistent with northward growth of the Pamir and suggests significant tectonic control on Paratethys regression and paleoenvironmental changes in Central Asia.

  7. Evolution of the Climate Continuum from the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswasereelert, W.; Meyers, S. R.; Hinnov, L. A.; Kelly, D.

    2011-12-01

    The recognition of orbital rhythms in paleoclimate data has led to a rich understanding of climate evolution during the Neogene and Quaternary. In contrast, changes in stochastic variability associated with the transition from unipolar to bipolar glaciation have received less attention, although the stochastic component likely preserves key insights about climate. In this study, we seek to evaluate the dominance and character of stochastic climate energy since the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (~17 Ma). These analyses extend a previous study that suggested diagnostic stochastic responses associated with Northern Hemisphere ice sheet development during the Plio-Pleistocene (Meyers and Hinnov, 2010). A critical and challenging step necessary to conduct the work is the conversion of depth data to time data. We investigate climate proxy datasets using multiple time scale hypotheses, including depth-derived time scales, sedimentologic/geochemical "tuning", minimal orbital tuning, and comprehensive orbital tuning. To extract the stochastic component of climate, and also explore potential relationships between the orbital parameters and paleoclimate response, a number of approaches rooted in Thomson's (1982) multi-taper spectral method (MTM) are applied. Importantly, the MTM technique is capable of separating the spectral "continuum" - a measure of stochastic variability - from the deterministic periodic orbital signals (spectral "lines") preserved in proxy data. Time series analysis of the proxy records using different chronologic approaches allows us to evaluate the sensitivity of our conclusion about stochastic and deterministic orbital processes during the Middle Miocene to present. Moreover, comparison of individual records permits examination of the spatial dependence of the identified climate responses. Meyers, S.R., and Hinnov, L.A. (2010), Northern Hemisphere glaciation and the evolution of Plio-Pleistocene climate noise: Paleoceanography, 25, PA3207, doi:10

  8. Transition to a climate state qualitatively different from modern in NCAR CCSM simulations of the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, R.; Huber, M.; Hanley, J.

    2012-04-01

    Recent paleoclimate proxy reconstructions indicate that global-mean surface temperatures in past warm climates may have been some 10-15°C higher than today. Little is known about atmospheric dynamics at temperatures this warm. In particular, is it possible that the general circulation may transition to a qualitatively different state at warm enough temperatures? We study this question in a set of simulations using NCAR's Community Climate System Model in both full- and slab-ocean configurations with a range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations extending from preindustrial values (280 ppm) up to 8960 ppm (5 doublings). We find that the simulation at 4480 ppm CO2 gives a remarkably good fit to recent surface temperature reconstructions of the early Eocene, and does not suffer from the classical 'low gradient' problem. We also find that the atmospheric general circulation in this and warmer simulations differs qualitatively from the modern regime in at least two major ways: 1) When equatorial surface temperatures exceed ~33°C, the model undergoes a transition to equatorial superrotation, a state with strong annual- and zonal-mean westerlies on the equator. The transition is driven by zonal momentum convergence due to large-amplitude transient eddies on the equator. These eddies have a structure similar to the observed Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The model's MJO variability is weaker than observed when simulating the modern climate but increases sharply with temperature, coming to dominate the tropical variability and mean state of the warmest climates. 2) Poleward atmospheric moisture transport across midlatitudes decreases with increasing temperature, the opposite behaviour to that at temperatures close to modern. We account for this non-monotonic behaviour in terms of a simple diffusive model of the oceanic storm tracks which suggests that it is due mostly to the drop in mean eddy amplitudes as temperature increases.

  9. Climate signals in Middle Eocene deep-marine clastic systems, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, K. T.; Cantalejo, B.; Scotchman, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    The Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, occupies a crucial position between the non-marine, marginal-marine and shallow-marine environments that acted as the sediment-supply and staging areas for sediment transfer processes into the deep-marine environments of the Ainsa Basin, and the more distal Jaca and Pamplona basins. Studies of source-to-sink systems make the Eocene stratigraphy of the Pyrenees and adjoining areas one of the best natural laboratories worldwide for understanding a complete sedimentary system. The hydrocarbon industry requires good predictive models for the distribution of reservoir and non-reservoir deposits. Using a wide range of proxy physical and geochemical data, we show with a high degree of confidence that Milankovitch forcing at a range of astronomical scales controlled deposition of the thin-bedded, fine-grained sandy turbidites and hemipelagites throughout the basin (~ 70% of the stratigraphy). The driver on sandy channelised submarine-fan deposition (the principal sandbodies) cannot be simply related to Milankovitch frequencies and is likely to be due to a combination of climatic, tectonic and/or autocyclic processes.

  10. Warm Paleocene/Eocene climate as simulated in ECHAM5/MPI-OM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heinemann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the late Paleocene/early Eocene (PE climate using the coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. The surface in our PE control simulation is on average 297 K warm and ice-free, despite a moderate atmospheric CO2 concentration of 560 ppm. Compared to a pre-industrial reference simulation (PR, low latitudes are 5 to 8 K warmer, while high latitudes are up to 40 K warmer. This high-latitude amplification is in line with proxy data, yet a comparison to sea surface temperature proxy data suggests that the Arctic surface temperatures are still too low in our PE simulation.

    To identify the mechanisms that cause the PE-PR surface temperature differences, we fit two simple energy balance models to the ECHAM5/MPI-OM results. We find that about 2/3 of the PE-PR global mean surface temperature difference are caused by a smaller clear sky emissivity due to higher atmospheric CO2 and water vapour concentrations in PE compared to PR; 1/3 is due to a smaller planetary albedo. The reduction of the pole-to-equator temperature gradient in PE compared to PR is due to (1 the large high-latitude effect of the higher CO2 and water vapour concentrations in PE compared to PR, (2 the lower Antarctic orography, (3 the smaller surface albedo at high latitudes, and (4 longwave cloud radiative effects. Our results support the hypothesis that local radiative effects rather than increased meridional heat transports were responsible for the "equable" PE climate.

  11. Stability of continental relic methane hydrates for the holocene climatic optimum and for contemporary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzhanov, M. M.; Mokhov, I. I.

    2017-10-01

    Modelling of the thermal regime of permafrost soils has made it possible to estimate the stability of methane hydrates in the continental permafrost in the Northern Eurasian and North American regions with the risk of gas emissions into the atmosphere as a result of possible dissociation of gas hydrates in the Holocene Optimum and under contemporary climatic conditions [1, 2].

  12. Late Eocene clay boron-derived paleosalinity in the Qaidam Basin and its implications for regional tectonics and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chengcheng; Yang, Yibo; Fang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Weilin

    2016-12-01

    The Qaidam Basin, located on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau and containing Cenozoic sediments with a maximum thickness of 12,000 m, is an ideal place to study the phased uplift of the NE Tibetan Plateau and regional climate change. The estimation of the paleosalinity of sedimentary environments not only helps to evaluate the evolution of lakes in this region but offers insights into contemporaneous climate change. We present detailed geochemical and mineralogical investigations from the lacustrine interval of the Hongliugou section in the northern Qaidam Basin to reconstruct salinity fluctuations in the paleolake during the late Eocene era ( 42.0-35.5 Ma). The clay mineral assemblages mainly contain smectite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite and irregular illite/smectite mixed layers. Clay boron-derived paleosalinity estimates (equivalent boron content, Couch's paleosalimeter and B/Ga ratios) along with other proxies sensitive to salinity changes (e.g., Rb/K ratios and ostracod assemblages) collectively indicate an overall brackish sedimentary environment with a higher-salinity period at approximately 40.0-39.2 Ma. This higher-salinity period indicates a more arid environment and is probably related to global cooling. However, the global cooling in late Eocene cannot explain the overall stable long-term salinity pattern, implying that other factors exist. We propose that the migration of the Yiliping depression depocenter in the northern Qaidam and increased orographic rainfall induced by late Eocene tectonic activity at the northern margin of the basin might have partly offset the increase in salinity driven by global cooling.

  13. Tropical Atlantic climate and ecosystem regime shifts during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Röhl, U.; Westerhold, T.; Bohaty, S.M.; Sluijs, A.

    2018-01-01

    The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum(PETM, 56 Ma) was a phase of rapid global warming associated with massive carbon input into the ocean–atmosphere system from a 13C-depleted reservoir. Many midlatitude and high-latitude sections have been studied and document changes in salinity, hydrology and

  14. Optimum Fisheries Management under Climate Variability: Evidence from Artisanal Marine Fishing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisdom Akpalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In most developing coastal countries, the artisanal fisheries sector is managed as a common pool resource. As a result, such fisheries are overcapitalized and overfished. In Ghana, in addition to anthropogenic factors, there is evidence of rising coastal temperature and its variance, which could impact the environmental carrying capacity of the fish stock. This study investigates the effect of climate variation on biophysical parameters and yields. Our results indicate that the rising temperature is decreasing the carrying capacity. As a result, an optimum tax on harvest must reflect climate variability, as well as the congestion externality.

  15. Shallow marine response to global climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Salisbury Embayment, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, Jean M.; Robinson, Marci M.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Hajek, Elizabeth A.; Kump, Lee R.; Trampush, Sheila M.; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Powars, David S.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2017-07-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of extreme warmth that caused disruption of marine and terrestrial ecosystems on a global scale. Here we examine the sediments, flora, and fauna from an expanded section at Mattawoman Creek-Billingsley Road (MCBR) in Maryland and explore the impact of warming at a nearshore shallow marine (30-100 m water depth) site in the Salisbury Embayment. Observations indicate that at the onset of the PETM, the site abruptly shifted from an open marine to prodelta setting with increased terrestrial and fresh water input. Changes in microfossil biota suggest stratification of the water column and low-oxygen bottom water conditions in the earliest Eocene. Formation of authigenic carbonate through microbial diagenesis produced an unusually large bulk carbon isotope shift, while the magnitude of the corresponding signal from benthic foraminifera is similar to that at other marine sites. This proves that the landward increase in the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion measured in bulk sediment is not due to a near instantaneous release of 12C-enriched CO2. We conclude that the MCBR site records nearshore marine response to global climate change that can be used as an analog for modern coastal response to global warming.

  16. Shallow marine response to global climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Salisbury Embayment, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Trail, Jean; Robinson, Marci M.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Hajek, Elizabeth A.; Kump, Lee R.; Trampush, Sheila M.; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Powars, David S.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of extreme warmth that caused disruption of marine and terrestrial ecosystems on a global scale. Here we examine the sediments, flora, and fauna from an expanded section at Mattawoman Creek-Billingsley Road (MCBR) in Maryland and explore the impact of warming at a nearshore shallow marine (30–100 m water depth) site in the Salisbury Embayment. Observations indicate that at the onset of the PETM, the site abruptly shifted from an open marine to prodelta setting with increased terrestrial and fresh water input. Changes in microfossil biota suggest stratification of the water column and low-oxygen bottom water conditions in the earliest Eocene. Formation of authigenic carbonate through microbial diagenesis produced an unusually large bulk carbon isotope shift, while the magnitude of the corresponding signal from benthic foraminifera is similar to that at other marine sites. This proves that the landward increase in the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion measured in bulk sediment is not due to a near instantaneous release of 12C-enriched CO2. We conclude that the MCBR site records nearshore marine response to global climate change that can be used as an analog for modern coastal response to global warming.

  17. Terrestrial responses of low-latitude Asia to the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition revealed by integrated chronostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. X.; Jiao, W. J.; Liu, Z. H.; Jin, J. H.; Wang, D. H.; He, Y. X.; Quan, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Paleogene sedimentary records from southern China hold important clues to the impacts of the Cenozoic climate changes on low latitudes. However, although there are extensive Paleogene terrestrial archives and some contain abundant fossils in this region, few are accurately dated or have a temporal resolution adequate to decipher climate changes. Here, we present a detailed stratigraphic and paleomagnetic study of a fossiliferous late Paleogene succession in the Maoming Basin, Guangdong Province. The succession consists of oil shale of the Youganwo Formation (Fm) in the lower part and the overlying sandstone-dominated Huangniuling Fm in the upper part. Fossil records indicate that the age of the succession possibly spans the late Eocene to the Oligocene. Both the Youganwo Fm and the overlying Huangniuling Fm exhibit striking sedimentary rhythms, and spectral analysis of the depth series of magnetic susceptibility of the Youganwo Fm reveals dominant sedimentary cycles at orbital frequency bands. The transition from the Youganwo oil shale to the overlying Huangniuling sandstones is conformable and represents a major depositional environmental change from a lacustrine to a deltaic environment. Integrating the magnetostratigraphic, lithologic, and fossil data allows establishing a substantially refined chronostratigraphic framework that places the major depositional environmental change at 33.88 Ma, coinciding with the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition (EOT) at ˜ 33.7 to ˜ 33.9 Ma. We suggest that the transition from a lacustrine to deltaic environment in the Maoming Basin represents terrestrial responses to the EOT and indicates prevailing drying conditions in low-latitude regions during the global cooling at EOT.

  18. Paleoweathering and paleoenvironmental change recorded in lacustrine sediments of the early to middle Eocene in Fushun Basin, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuoling; Ding, Zhongli; Tang, Zihua; Yang, Shiling; Wang, Xu; Cui, Linlin

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the long-term interaction among continental silicate weathering, global climate, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations is helpful in understanding the mechanisms of the Cenozoic climate change and accessing the future climatic and environmental response to anthropogenic carbon emissions. The Eocene, which is characterized by the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) and the following global cooling, represents an ideal test case. Here we generate geochemical data of the Eocene lacustrine sediments from the Fushun Basin, northeast China, to explore the regional climatic response to the global climate change. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) and plagioclase index of alteration (PIA) consistently show a gradual, long-term decrease, indicating a climatic transition from warm and humid to relatively cold and arid during the Eocene in the Fushun Basin. This climatic trend is broadly coincident with the global cooling and decreasing CO2 concentration, implying that the regional climate is closely correlated with the global climate change over geological time scales. Additionally, the extreme silicate weathering and high lake productivity as reflected by relatively positive δ13C values of lacustrine organic matter are associated with the EECO. This consistency may demonstrate that enhanced continental weathering and lake productivity had served as effective sinks to lower atmospheric CO2 across the EECO. Collectively, our new geochemical data add supporting evidence for a long-term, close coupling among continental silicate weathering, climate, and global carbon cycle during the Eocene.

  19. Penguin response to the Eocene climate and ecosystem change in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwiszczak, Piotr

    2010-08-01

    Eocene Antarctic penguins are known solely from the La Meseta Formation (Seymour Island, James Ross Basin). They are most numerous and taxonomically diverse (at least ten species present) within strata formed at the end of this epoch, which is concomitant with a significant cooling trend and biotic turnover prior to the onset of glaciation. Moreover, all newly appeared taxa were small-bodied, and most probably evolved in situ. Interestingly, some chemical proxies suggest enhanced nutrient upwelling events that coincided with obvious changes in the record of La Meseta penguins.

  20. Climatically induced floristic changes across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the northern high latitudes, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Sweet, A.R.; Cameron, A.R. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    1995-06-01

    Global temperature decline associated with the Eocene-Oligocene transition resulted in extinctions of plants and animals in both marine and nonmarine environments. The extensive stratigraphic exposures, well-preserved palynological assemblages, and interbedded coal seams of the nonmarine Amphitheatre Formation, Burwash Basin, Yukon Territory, provide a comprehensive record of this transition. The formation spans a paleoclimatically significant interval otherwise poorly represented in high-latitude deposits of the northwestern Cordiller. Palynological data constrained by the chronologic and stratigraphic framework established for the Amphitheatre Formation indicate that the global temperature decline resulted in a shift from warm temperate, angiosperm-dominated to cooler temperate, gymnosperm-dominated (mainly coniferous) forest types. Petrographic compositional changes in the coals document the same plant community changes. The floristic data also indicate that, at high latitudes, there may have been a change to a wetter and less seasonal climate during the overall global cooling trend.

  1. Variability in climate and productivity during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high-resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ˜ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM, several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ˜9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinated recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors, including deepwater CaCO3 corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3 %, hematite %, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, and calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high-productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an overall

  2. Physical stratigraphic model for the Eocene Escanilla sediment routing system, Spanish Pyrenees: Inverting for climate and tectonic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, John; Allen, Philip; Burgess, Peter; Hampsen, Gary

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary architectures are fundamentally controlled by the interplay at different temporal and spatial scales of the volume and grain-size distribution of the sediment supply to a depositional setting. Yet, the sediment source is a function of both climate and tectonics, and unravelling the forcing mechanism from the observed stratigraphic architecture remains a key research challenge, particularly if we wish to understand the interactions between tectonics and surface processes. The Escanilla palaeo-sediment routing system has its source region in the south-central Pyrenean orogen in the Mid to Late Eocene, and transported sediment from wedge-top basins along tectonic strike to marine depocentres in the west. From constructing a volumetric budget of the sedimentary system, it is observed that during this period there is a marked change in the source distribution of grains and a movement of the gravel front, across three ~2.6 Myr time intervals from 41.6 to 33.9 Ma. Classic sequence stratigraphy would relate the movement of depositional fronts to changes of base level. However, given the variability of source grain size distributions, we explore the possibility that the position of the gravel front is primarily driven by catchment uplift rate and/or surface run-off. Using a simple model of sediment transport that captures first order processes, we can re-create the lateral movement in gravel deposition within the Escanilla sedimentary system. Movement of the gravel front is both a function of accommodation space and the transport capacity of the sediment routing system. We assume that the transport capacity is a linear function of the local slope and the water flux. By assuming that the observed thickness of deposits is the equivalent to the accommodation space generated, we can then use the stratigraphic architecture to constrain the change in upland catchment size and water flux. We find that during the Mid Eocene there was an increase in catchment length and

  3. Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Bendle, James A. P.; Bohaty, Steven M.; Pross, Jörg; Schouten, Stefan; Tauxe, Lisa; Stickley, Catherine E.; McKay, Robert M.; Röhl, Ursula; Olney, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk; Klaus, Adam; Fehr, Annick; Williams, Trevor; Carr, Stephanie A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Gonzàlez, Jhon J.; Hayden, Travis G.; Iwai, Masao; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Katsuki, Kota; Kong, Gee Soo; Nakai, Mutsumi; Passchier, Sandra; Pekar, Stephen F.; Riesselman, Christina; Sakai, Toyosaburo; Shrivastava, Prakash K.; Sugisaki, Saiko; Tuo, Shouting; van de Flierdt, Tina; Welsh, Kevin; Yamane, Masako

    2013-01-01

    The warmest global temperatures of the past 85 million years occurred during a prolonged greenhouse episode known as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (52–50 Ma). The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica from 34 Ma onward. Whereas early studies attributed the Eocene transition from greenhouse to icehouse climates to the tectonic opening of Southern Ocean gateways, more recent investigations invoked a dominant role of declining atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (e.g., CO2). However, the scarcity of field data has prevented empirical evaluation of these hypotheses. We present marine microfossil and organic geochemical records spanning the early-to-middle Eocene transition from the Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctica. Dinoflagellate biogeography and sea surface temperature paleothermometry reveal that the earliest throughflow of a westbound Antarctic Counter Current began ∼49–50 Ma through a southern opening of the Tasmanian Gateway. This early opening occurs in conjunction with the simultaneous onset of regional surface water and continental cooling (2–4 °C), evidenced by biomarker- and pollen-based paleothermometry. We interpret that the westbound flowing current flow across the Tasmanian Gateway resulted in cooling of Antarctic surface waters and coasts, which was conveyed to global intermediate waters through invigorated deep convection in southern high latitudes. Although atmospheric CO2 forcing alone would provide a more uniform middle Eocene cooling, the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway better explains Southern Ocean surface water and global deep ocean cooling in the apparent absence of (sub-) equatorial cooling. PMID:23720311

  4. Did gene family expansions during the Eocene-Oligocene boundary climate cooling play a role in Pooideae adaptation to cool climates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandve, Simen Rød; Fjellheim, Siri

    2010-05-01

    Adaptation to cool environments is a common feature in the core group of the grass subfamily Pooideae (Triticeae and Poeae). This suggest an ancient evolutionary origin of low temperature stress tolerance dating back prior to the initiation of taxonomic divergence of core Pooideae species. Viewing the Pooideae evolution in a palaeo-climatic perspective reveals that taxonomic divergence of the core Pooideae group initiated shortly after a global super-cooling period at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (approximately 33.5-26 Ma). This global climate cooling altered distributions of plants and animals and must have imposed selection pressure for improved low temperature stress responses. Lineage-specific gene family expansions are known to be involved in adaptation to new environmental stresses. In Pooideae, two gene families involved in low temperature stress response, the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) and fructosyl transferase (FT) gene families, has undergone lineage-specific expansions. We investigated the timing of these gene family expansions by molecular dating and found that Pooideae-specific expansion events in CBF and FT gene families took place during Eocene-Oligocene super-cooling period. We hypothesize that the E-O super-cooling exerted selection pressure for improved low temperature stress response and frost tolerance in a core Pooideae ancestor, and that those individuals with multiple copies of CBF and FT genes were favoured.

  5. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-01

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28-0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  6. Optimum soil frost depth to alleviate climate change effects in cold region agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Yosuke; Iwata, Yukiyoshi; Hirota, Tomoyoshi

    2017-03-21

    On-farm soil frost control has been used for the management of volunteer potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), a serious weed problem caused by climate change, in northern Japan. Deep soil frost penetration is necessary for the effective eradication of unharvested small potato tubers; however, this process can delay soil thaw and increase soil wetting in spring, thereby delaying agricultural activity initiation and increasing nitrous oxide emissions from soil. Conversely, shallow soil frost development helps over-wintering of unharvested potato tubers and nitrate leaching from surface soil owing to the periodic infiltration of snowmelt water. In this study, we synthesised on-farm snow cover manipulation experiments to determine the optimum soil frost depth that can eradicate unharvested potato tubers without affecting agricultural activity initiation while minimising N pollution from agricultural soil. The optimum soil frost depth was estimated to be 0.28-0.33 m on the basis of the annual maximum soil frost depth. Soil frost control is a promising practice to alleviate climate change effects on agriculture in cold regions, which was initiated by local farmers and further promoted by national and local research institutes.

  7. Tracing climatic conditions during the deposition of late Cretaceous-early Eocene phosphate beds in Morocco by geochemical compositions of biogenic apatite fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, L.; Gheerbrant, E.; Mouflih, M.; Cappetta, H.; Yans, J.; Ulianov, A.; Amaghzaz, M.

    2012-04-01

    latter negative shift can be linked to the globally recognized Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (Zachos et al., 2001). In terms of carbon isotopic composition, shark teeth enameloid yielded often positive δ13C values, while dentine are always negative and sometimes following clear trend along the series. Coprolites have similar values to dentine, however they display greater variation reflecting the burial milieu and the special environment of phosphatization with the intensive organic matter recycling. Bone-beds show even more variations that could be caused by reworked specimens and also possible enhanced oxidation of organic matter at these levels. Nevertheless, the Sidi Chennane section shows a negative δ13C trend in the early Ypresian, which is compatible with global observations at the time. Moreover, the lowest δ13C values are from the transitional layer between the Ypresian and Thanetian beds which might relate to the Paleocene-Eocene boundary event, though it must be further confirmed. All the fossils display very similar rare earth element (REE) distribution that resembles typical seawater pattern with negative Ce-anomaly and heavy REE enrichment. However the large amount of analyses revealed a general drift in the magnitude of the Ce-anomaly from the older to younger beds that can be used in paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

  8. Wetter and cooler: pronounced temperate climate conditions in western Anatolia during the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Tuncay H.; Bouchal, Johannes M.; Köse, Nesibe; Denk, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    During the course of an ongoing palaeobotanical investigation of the lignite mines of the Yataǧan Basin, Muǧla province, Turkey, the fossil leaves of the Eskihisar lignite mine were analysed using the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP). The investigated fossil leaves derive from the marls and clayey limestones (Sekköy Member) overlying the exploited lignite seam (uppermost Turgut Member). The age of the studied sedimentary rocks is well constrained by vertebrate fossils occuring in the main lignite seam (MN6 → Gomphoterium angustidens Cuvier, 1817; Percrocuta miocenica Pavlov & Thenius, 1965) and at the Yenieskihisar Mammal locality (MN7/8, uppermost Sekköy Member). 719 specimens were measured and assigned to 65 leaf morphotypes. Using this data, CLAMP reconstructed the following climate parameters: mean annual temperature (MAT) 12.58 (+/-1.5)°C, warm month mean temperature (WMMT) 23.72 (+/-2.5)°C, cold month mean temperature (WMMT) 2.29 (+/-2)°C, length of growing season (LGS) 7.52 (+/-0.75) month, mean growing season precipitation (GSP) 130.1 (+/-40) cm, precipitation during the three wettest months (3-WET) 67 (+/-25) cm, precipitation during the three driest months (3-DRY) 20.4 (+/-7.5) cm. The reconstructed parameters are too cool for tropical climates (the 18˚ C winter isotherm being a threshold for tropical climates) and indicate temperate conditions; climates fitting these parameters (Cfb according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification) can be found today in regions known as "Tertiary relict areas" (e.g. Black sea coast of Northeast Turkey, eastern China, Japan). Based on a substantial amount of rainfall during the three driest months, it is further possible to exclude markedly seasonal climates such as a summer-dry and winter-wet Mediterranean climate and a summer-wet and winter-dry monsoon climate as commonly found along the southern foothills of the Himalayas and in southwestern China. Instead, a fully humid Cf climate is

  9. Fluvial-system response to climate change: The Paleocene-Eocene Tremp Group, Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombera, Luca; Arévalo, Oscar J.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2017-10-01

    The Tremp Group of the Tremp-Graus Basin (Southern Pyrenees, Spain) is a succession of predominantly continental origin that records the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a transient episode of extreme global warming that occurred across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. For this succession, the stratigraphic position of the PETM is accurately determined, and histories of tectonic and sea-level controls are well constrained. Building upon previous studies, this work assesses changes in sedimentary architecture through the PETM in the Tremp Group, based on quantitative sedimentological analyses documented over a km-scale strike-oriented transect in the Arén area, with the scope to better understand the response of this alluvial system to the hyperthermal event. The analysed features represent a partial record of the geomorphic organization and processes of the system at the time of deposition, and are therefore interpretable in terms of geomorphic change in alluvial landscapes caused by the PETM. The record of the PETM, as previously recognized, begins at a time when erosional palaeotopographic relief was developed and deposition was confined in valleys. A shift between valley back-filling and widespread aggradation is observed at the onset of the PETM interval, which demonstrates uniquely the impact of the hyperthermal on both depositional loci and interfluves. Compared to underlying strata, the interval that embodies the onset and main phase of the PETM is characterized by: (i) higher proportion of channel deposits; (ii) channel complexes of greater average thickness and width; (iii) barforms and channel fills that are slightly thicker; (iv) increased thickness of sets of cross-stratified sandstones; (v) similar values of maximum extraclast size, by architectural element. An evident change in the facies organization of channel deposits is also seen through the stratigraphy, though this appears to predate the PETM. Increased channel-body density in the PETM

  10. Millennial-scale vegetation dynamics in an estuary at the onset of the Miocene Climate Optimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Andrea; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Roetzel, Reinhard; Corić, Stjepan; Bruch, Angela A; Zuschin, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Pollen analyses have been proven to possess the possibility to decipher rapid vegetational and climate shifts in Neogene sedimentary records. Herein, a c. 21-kyr-long transgression-regression cycle from the Lower Austrian locality Stetten is analysed in detail to evaluate climatic benchmarks for the early phase of the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum and to estimate the pace of environmental change.Based on the Coexistence Approach, a very clear signal of seasonality can be reconstructed. A warm and wet summer season with c. 204-236 mm precipitation during the wettest month was opposed by a rather dry winter season with precipitation of c. 9-24 mm during the driest month. The mean annual temperature ranged between 15.7 and 20.8 °C, with about 9.6-13.3 °C during the cold season and 24.7-27.9 °C during the warmest month. In contrast, today's climate of this area, with an annual temperature of 9.8 °C and 660 mm rainfall, is characterized by the winter season (mean temperature: -1.4 °C, mean precipitation: 39 mm) and a summer mean temperature of 19.9 °C (mean precipitation: 84 mm).Different modes of environmental shifts shaped the composition of the vegetation. Within few millennia, marshes and salt marshes with abundant Cyperaceae rapidly graded into Taxodiaceae swamps. This quick but gradual process was interrupted by swift marine ingressions which took place on a decadal to centennial scale. The transgression is accompanied by blooms of dinoflagellates and of the green alga Prasinophyta and an increase in Abies and Picea. Afterwards, the retreat of the sea and the progradation of estuarine and wetland settings were a gradual progress again.Despite a clear sedimentological cyclicity, which is related to the 21-kyr precessional forcing, the climate data show little variation. This missing pattern might be due to the buffering of the precessional-related climate signal by the subtropical vegetation. Another explanation could be the method-inherent broad range of

  11. The Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary record in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure: Implications for climate and sea-level changes on the western Atlantic margin

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    Schulte, P.; Wade, B.S.; Kontny, A.; ,

    2009-01-01

    A multidisciplinary investigation of the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eyreville core from the Chesapeake Bay impact basin was conducted in order to document environmental changes and sequence stratigraphic setting. Planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy indicate that the Eyreville core includes an expanded upper Eocene (Biozones E15 to E16 and NP19/20 to NP21, respectively) and a condensed Oligocene-Miocene (NP24-NN1) sedimentary sequence. The Eocene-Oligocene contact corresponds to a =3-Ma-long hiatus. Eocene- Oligocene sedimentation is dominated by great diversity and varying amounts of detrital and authigenic minerals. Four sedimentary intervals are identified by lithology and mineral content: (1) A 30-m-thick, smectite- and illite-rich interval directly overlies the Exmore Formation, suggesting long-term reworking of impact debris within the Chesapeake Bay impact structure. (2) Subsequently, an increase in kaolinite content suggests erosion from soils developed during late Eocene warm and humid climate in agreement with data derived from other Atlantic sites. However, the kaolinite increase may also be explained by change to a predominant sediment input from outside the Chesapeake Bay impact structure caused by progradation of more proximal facies belts during the highstand systems tract of the late Eocene sequence E10.Spectral analysis based on gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility logs suggests infl uence of 1.2 Ma low-amplitude oscillation of the obliquity period during the late Eocene. (3) During the latest Eocene (Biozones NP21 and E16), several lithological contacts (clay to clayey silt) occur concomitant with a prominent change in the mineralogical composition with illite as a major component: This lithological change starts close to the Biozone NP19/20-NP21 boundary and may correspond to sequence boundary E10-E11 as observed in

  12. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

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    Jaelyn J Eberle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma, despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut. Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus, esocid (pike, and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.. Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  13. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America

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    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2016-09-01

    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  14. Tropical Atlantic climate and ecosystem regime shifts during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

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    J. Frieling

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma was a phase of rapid global warming associated with massive carbon input into the ocean–atmosphere system from a 13C-depleted reservoir. Many midlatitude and high-latitude sections have been studied and document changes in salinity, hydrology and sedimentation, deoxygenation, biotic overturning, and migrations, but detailed records from tropical regions are lacking. Here, we study the PETM at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 959 in the equatorial Atlantic using a range of organic and inorganic proxies and couple these with dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst assemblage analysis. The PETM at Site 959 was previously found to be marked by a  ∼  3.8 ‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE and a  ∼  4 °C surface ocean warming from the uppermost Paleocene to peak PETM, of which  ∼  1 °C occurs before the onset of the CIE. We record upper Paleocene dinocyst assemblages that are similar to PETM assemblages as found in extratropical regions, confirming poleward migrations of ecosystems during the PETM. The early stages of the PETM are marked by a typical acme of the tropical genus Apectodinium, which reaches abundances of up to 95 %. Subsequently, dinocyst abundances diminish greatly, as do carbonate and pyritized silicate microfossils. The combined paleoenvironmental information from Site 959 and a close-by shelf site in Nigeria implies the general absence of eukaryotic surface-dwelling microplankton during peak PETM warmth in the eastern equatorial Atlantic, most likely caused by heat stress. We hypothesize, based on a literature survey, that heat stress might have reduced calcification in more tropical regions, potentially contributing to reduced deep sea carbonate accumulation rates, and, by buffering acidification, also to biological carbonate compensation of the injected carbon during the PETM. Crucially, abundant organic benthic foraminiferal linings imply

  15. Tropical Atlantic climate and ecosystem regime shifts during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Joost; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Middelburg, Jack J.; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas; Bohaty, Steven M.; Sluijs, Appy

    2018-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma) was a phase of rapid global warming associated with massive carbon input into the ocean-atmosphere system from a 13C-depleted reservoir. Many midlatitude and high-latitude sections have been studied and document changes in salinity, hydrology and sedimentation, deoxygenation, biotic overturning, and migrations, but detailed records from tropical regions are lacking. Here, we study the PETM at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 in the equatorial Atlantic using a range of organic and inorganic proxies and couple these with dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblage analysis. The PETM at Site 959 was previously found to be marked by a ˜ 3.8 ‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and a ˜ 4 °C surface ocean warming from the uppermost Paleocene to peak PETM, of which ˜ 1 °C occurs before the onset of the CIE. We record upper Paleocene dinocyst assemblages that are similar to PETM assemblages as found in extratropical regions, confirming poleward migrations of ecosystems during the PETM. The early stages of the PETM are marked by a typical acme of the tropical genus Apectodinium, which reaches abundances of up to 95 %. Subsequently, dinocyst abundances diminish greatly, as do carbonate and pyritized silicate microfossils. The combined paleoenvironmental information from Site 959 and a close-by shelf site in Nigeria implies the general absence of eukaryotic surface-dwelling microplankton during peak PETM warmth in the eastern equatorial Atlantic, most likely caused by heat stress. We hypothesize, based on a literature survey, that heat stress might have reduced calcification in more tropical regions, potentially contributing to reduced deep sea carbonate accumulation rates, and, by buffering acidification, also to biological carbonate compensation of the injected carbon during the PETM. Crucially, abundant organic benthic foraminiferal linings imply sustained export production, likely driven by prokaryotes. In

  16. Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Optimum Design of Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating System for Car Seat Climate Control (CSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarusi, Abdulmunaem; Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung

    2018-02-01

    The optimum design of a thermoelectric system for application in car seat climate control has been modeled and its performance evaluated experimentally. The optimum design of the thermoelectric device combining two heat exchangers was obtained by using a newly developed optimization method based on the dimensional technique. Based on the analytical optimum design results, commercial thermoelectric cooler and heat sinks were selected to design and construct the climate control heat pump. This work focuses on testing the system performance in both cooling and heating modes to ensure accurate analytical modeling. Although the analytical performance was calculated using the simple ideal thermoelectric equations with effective thermoelectric material properties, it showed very good agreement with experiment for most operating conditions.

  17. Tectonically driven late Paleocene (57.9-54.7 Ma) transgression and climatically forced latest middle Eocene (41.3-38.0 Ma) regression on the Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Singh, Y. Raghumani; Andotra, D. S.; Patra, A.; Srivastava, V. K.; Guruaribam, Venus; Sijagurumayum, Umarani; Singh, G. P.

    2016-01-01

    Cenozoic era was the turning point in the geological history of the Indian subcontinent when India experienced maximum isolation before it collided with Asia and there occurred a great mountain building activity shaping the Himalaya. In the Cenozoic era, the sedimentation commenced in the late Paleocene (∼57.9 Ma) in the pericratonic basins of the western India as well as the foreland basins of the Himalaya that marks the beginning of a major transgression on the Indian subcontinent. Till now, it is not sure whether this transgression was forced by tectonics or climate. We have interpreted that the primary driver for this transgression was the tectonics that marks the beginning of the India-Asia convergence. A major regression of similar magnitude occurred during latest middle Eocene (41.3-38.0 Ma) that corresponds to global sea-level fall. This regression is global and can be identified even in the Cenozoic basins developed within the African plate. It is interpreted that this regression was driven by the global cooling during latest middle Eocene/late Eocene possibly associated with the nucleation of the Antarctica ice-sheets coupled with the uplift of the Himalaya.

  18. Continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western central Europe

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    Inglis, G. N.; Collinson, M. E.; Riegel, W.; Wilde, V.; Farnsworth, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Robson, B.; Scott, A. C.; Lenz, O.; Pancost, R.

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the marine realm, our understanding of terrestrial temperature change during greenhouse climates is poorly constrained. Recently, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) have been used to successfully reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, despite the potential to provide new insights into terrestrial climate, the application of this proxy in lignite and coal deposits is still limited. Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany ( 48°N), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of Early Eocene lignites and associated marine interbeds. Branched GDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences in these distributions between lignites and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed sediments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the Early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26°C and those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds always exceed 20°C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude palaeoclimate proxy records which indicate enhanced early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section, warming is recorded in both the lignites ( 2°C) and nearshore marine interbeds ( 2-3°C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this trend is relatively well established in marginal marine sediments within the SW Pacific, it has rarely been shown in other regions or terrestrial settings. Using a suite of new climate model simulations, our warming trend is consistent with a doubling of CO2 (from 560ppmv to 1120ppmv) which broadly agrees with proxy

  19. Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene Climate Change Linked to Tectonic Eevolution of Neo-Tethyan Subduction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoutz, O. E.; Royden, L.; Macdonald, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    budget. Our results show that the global ocean bottom water temperature are highly correlated with CO2 variation modeled due to the arc-continent collisions along the TTSS. Our results show that global climate in the Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene have likely been strongly changed due to the tectonic evolution of the Neo-Tethys.

  20. Holocene Climatic Optimum centennial-scale paleoceanography in the NE Aegean (Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantaphyllou, Maria V.; Gogou, Alexandra; Dimiza, Margarita D.; Kostopoulou, Sofia; Parinos, Constantine; Roussakis, Grigoris; Geraga, Maria; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Fleitmann, Dominik; Zervakis, Vassilis; Velaoras, Dimitris; Diamantopoulou, Antonia; Sampatakaki, Angeliki; Lykousis, Vassilis

    2016-02-01

    Combined micropaleontological and geochemical analyses of the high-sedimentation gravity core M-4G provided new centennial-scale paleoceanographic data for sapropel S1 deposition in the NE Aegean Sea during the Holocene Climatic Optimum. Sapropel layer S1a (10.2-8.0 ka) was deposited in dysoxic to oxic bottom waters characterized by a high abundance of benthic foraminiferal species tolerating surface sediment and/or pore water oxygen depletion (e.g., Chilostomella mediterranensis, Globobulimina affinis), and the presence of Uvigerina mediterranea, which thrives in oxic mesotrophic-eutrophic environments. Preservation of organic matter (OM) is inferred based on high organic carbon as well as loliolide and isololiolide contents, while the biomarker record and the abundances of eutrophic planktonic foraminifera document enhanced productivity. High inputs of terrigenous OM are attributed to north Aegean borderland riverine inputs. Both alkenone-based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and δO18 G. bulloides records indicate cooling at 8.2 ka (S1a) and ~7.8 ka (S1 interruption). Sapropelic layer S1b (7.7-6.4 ka) is characterized by rather oxic conditions; abundances of foraminiferal species tolerant to oxygen depletion are very low compared with the U. mediterranea rise. Strongly fluctuating SSTs demonstrate repeated cooling and associated dense water formation, with a major event at 7.4 ka followed by cold spells at 7.0, 6.8, and 6.5 ka. The prominent rise of the carbon preference index within the S1b layer indicates the delivery of less degraded terrestrial OM. The increase of algal biomarkers, labile OM-feeding foraminifera and eutrophic planktonic species pinpoints an enhanced in situ marine productivity, promoted by more efficient vertical convection due to repeated cold events. The associated contributions of labile marine OM along with fresher terrestrial OM inputs after ~7.7 ka imply sources alternative/additional to the north Aegean riverine borderland sources for

  1. A comparative study on optimum insulation thickness of walls and energy savings in equatorial and tropical climate

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    Modeste Kameni Nematchoua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase outdoor temperature acts directly on the indoor climate of buildings. In Cameroon, the energy consumption demand in the buildings sector has been rapidly increasing in recent years; so well that energy supply does not always satisfy demand. Thermal insulation technology can be one of the leading methods for reducing energy consumption in these new buildings. However, choosing the thickness of the insulation material often causes high insulation costs. In the present study, the optimum insulation thickness, energy saving and payback period were calculated for buildings in Yaoundé and Garoua cities, located in two climatic regions in Cameroon. The economic model including the cost of insulation material and the present value of energy consumption and the cost over a life time of 22 years of the building, were used to find the optimum insulation thickness, energy saving, and payback period. Materials that extruded polystyrene were chosen and used for two typical wall structures (concrete block (HCB and compressed stabilized earth block wall (CSEB. The early cooling transmission loads, according to wall orientations and percentage of radiation blocked were calculated using the explicit finite-difference method under steady periodic conditions. As a result, it was found that the west- and east-facing walls are the least favourite in the cooling season, whereas the south and north orientations are the most economical. Although wall orientation had a significant effect on the optimum insulation thickness, it had a more significant effect on energy savings. In equatorial region (Yaoundé, for south orientation, the optimum insulation thickness was 0.08 m for an energy savings of 51.69 $/m2. Meanwhile, in tropical region (Garoua, for north orientation, the optimum insulation thickness was 0.11 m for an energy savings of 97.82 $/m2.

  2. Asian aridification linked to the first step of the Eocene-Oligocene climate Transition (EOT in obliquity-dominated terrestrial records (Xining Basin, China

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    G. Q. Xiao

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asian terrestrial records of the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT are rare and, when available, often poorly constrained in time, even though they are crucial in understanding the atmospheric impact of this major step in Cenozoic climate deterioration. Here, we present a detailed cyclostratigraphic study of the continuous continental EOT succession deposited between ~35 to 33 Ma in the Xining Basin at the northeastern edge of Tibetan Plateau. Lithology supplemented with high-resolution magnetic susceptibility (MS, median grain size (MGS and color reflectance (a* records reveal a prominent ~3.4 m thick basic cyclicity of alternating playa gypsum and dry mudflat red mudstones of latest Eocene age. The magnetostratigraphic age model indicates that this cyclicity was most likely forced by the 41-kyr obliquity cycle driving oscillations of drier and wetter conditions in Asian interior climate from at least 1 million year before the EOT. In addition, our results suggest a duration of ~0.9 Myr for magnetochron C13r that is in accordance with radiometric dates from continental successions in Wyoming, USA, albeit somewhat shorter than in current time scales. Detailed comparison of the EOT interval in the Tashan section with marine records suggest that the most pronounced lithofacies change in the Xining Basin corresponds to the first of two widely recognized steps in oxygen isotopes across the EOT. This first step precedes the major and second step (i.e. the base of Oi-1 and has recently been reported to be mainly related to atmospheric cooling rather than ice volume growth. Coincidence with lithofacies changes in our Chinese record would suggest that the atmospheric impact of the first step was of global significance, while the major ice volume increase of the second step did not significantly affect Asian interior climate.

  3. A dynamic climate and ecosystem state during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: inferences from dinoflagellate cyst assemblages on the New Jersey Shelf

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    A. Sluijs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and Early Eocene climates and ecosystems underwent significant change during several transient global warming phases, associated with rapidly increasing atmospheric carbon concentrations, of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55.5 Ma is best studied. While biotic response to the PETM as a whole (~170 kyrs has been relatively well documented, variations during the PETM have been neglected. Here we present organic dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst distribution patterns across two stratigraphically expanded PETM sections from the New Jersey Shelf, Bass River and Wilson Lake. Many previously studied sites show a uniform abundance of the thermophilic and presumably heterotrophic taxon Apectodinium that spans the entire carbon isotope excursion (CIE of the PETM. In contrast, the New Jersey sections show large variations in abundances of many taxa during the PETM, including the new species Florentinia reichartii that we formally propose. We infer paleoecological preferences of taxa that show temporal abundance peaks, both qualitative and absolute quantitative, from empirical as well as statistical information, i.e., principle (PCA and canonical correspondence analyses (CCA. In the CCAs, we combine the dinocyst data with previously published environmental proxy data from these locations, such as TEX86 paleothermometry, magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary size fraction. The combined information supports previous inferences that sea level rose during the PETM, but also indicates a (regional increase in fresh-water runoff that started ~10 kyr after the onset of the CIE, and perhaps precession-paced cycles in sea surface productivity. The highly variable dinocyst assemblages of the PETM contrast with rather stable Upper Paleocene assemblages, which suggests that carbon input caused a dynamic climate state, at least regionally.

  4. Expansion and diversification of high-latitude radiolarian assemblages in the late Eocene linked to a cooling event in the Southwest Pacific

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    Pascher, K. M.; Hollis, C. J.; Bohaty, S. M.; Cortese, G.; McKay, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Eocene was characterised by "greenhouse" climate conditions that were gradually terminated by a long-term cooling trend through the middle and late Eocene. This long-term trend was determined by several large-scale climate perturbations that culminated in a shift to "ice-house" climates at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition. Geochemical and micropaleontological proxies suggest that tropical-to-subtropical sea-surface temperatures persisted into the late Eocene in the high-latitude Southwest Pacific Ocean. Here, we present radiolarian microfossil assemblage and foraminiferal oxygen and carbon stable isotope data from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Sites 277, 280, 281 and 283 from the middle Eocene to early Oligocene (~ 40-33 Ma) to identify oceanographic changes in the Southwest Pacific across this major transition in Earth's climate history. The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum at ~ 40 Ma is characterised by a negative shift in foraminiferal oxygen isotope values and a radiolarian assemblage consisting of about 5 % of low latitude taxa Amphicraspedum prolixum group and Amphymenium murrayanum. In the early late Eocene at ~ 37 Ma, a positive oxygen isotope shift can be correlated to the Priabonian Oxygen Isotope Maximum (PrOM) event - a short-lived cooling event recognized throughout the Southern Ocean. Radiolarian abundance, diversity, and preservation increase during the middle of this event at Site 277 at the same time as diatoms. The PrOM and latest Eocene radiolarian assemblages are characterised by abundant high-latitude taxa. These high-latitude taxa also increase in abundance during the late Eocene and early Oligocene at DSDP Sites 280, 281 and 283 and are associated with very high diatom abundance. We therefore infer a~northward expansion of high-latitude radiolarian taxa onto the Campbell Plateau towards the end of the late Eocene. In the early Oligocene (~ 33 Ma) there is an overall decrease in radiolarian abundance and diversity at Site 277, and diatoms

  5. Middle Eocene rodents from Peruvian Amazonia reveal the pattern and timing of caviomorph origins and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Marivaux, Laurent; Croft, Darin A.; Billet, Guillaume; Ganerød, Morgan; Jaramillo, Carlos; Martin, Thomas; Orliac, Maëva J.; Tejada, Julia; Altamirano, Ali J.; Duranthon, Francis; Fanjat, Grégory; Rousse, Sonia; Gismondi, Rodolfo Salas

    2012-01-01

    The long-term isolation of South America during most of the Cenozoic produced a highly peculiar terrestrial vertebrate biota, with a wide array of mammal groups, among which caviomorph rodents and platyrrhine primates are Mid-Cenozoic immigrants. In the absence of indisputable pre-Oligocene South American rodents or primates, the mode, timing and biogeography of these extraordinary dispersals remained debated. Here, we describe South America's oldest known rodents, based on a new diverse caviomorph assemblage from the late Middle Eocene (approx. 41 Ma) of Peru, including five small rodents with three stem caviomorphs. Instead of being tied to the Eocene/Oligocene global cooling and drying episode (approx. 34 Ma), as previously considered, the arrival of caviomorphs and their initial radiation in South America probably occurred under much warmer and wetter conditions, around the Mid-Eocene Climatic Optimum. Our phylogenetic results reaffirm the African origin of South American rodents and support a trans-Atlantic dispersal of these mammals during Middle Eocene times. This discovery further extends the gap (approx. 15 Myr) between first appearances of rodents and primates in South America. PMID:21993503

  6. Middle Eocene rodents from Peruvian Amazonia reveal the pattern and timing of caviomorph origins and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Marivaux, Laurent; Croft, Darin A; Billet, Guillaume; Ganerød, Morgan; Jaramillo, Carlos; Martin, Thomas; Orliac, Maëva J; Tejada, Julia; Altamirano, Ali J; Duranthon, Francis; Fanjat, Grégory; Rousse, Sonia; Gismondi, Rodolfo Salas

    2012-04-07

    The long-term isolation of South America during most of the Cenozoic produced a highly peculiar terrestrial vertebrate biota, with a wide array of mammal groups, among which caviomorph rodents and platyrrhine primates are Mid-Cenozoic immigrants. In the absence of indisputable pre-Oligocene South American rodents or primates, the mode, timing and biogeography of these extraordinary dispersals remained debated. Here, we describe South America's oldest known rodents, based on a new diverse caviomorph assemblage from the late Middle Eocene (approx. 41 Ma) of Peru, including five small rodents with three stem caviomorphs. Instead of being tied to the Eocene/Oligocene global cooling and drying episode (approx. 34 Ma), as previously considered, the arrival of caviomorphs and their initial radiation in South America probably occurred under much warmer and wetter conditions, around the Mid-Eocene Climatic Optimum. Our phylogenetic results reaffirm the African origin of South American rodents and support a trans-Atlantic dispersal of these mammals during Middle Eocene times. This discovery further extends the gap (approx. 15 Myr) between first appearances of rodents and primates in South America.

  7. A diverse paleobiota in early eocene Fushun amber from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Rust, Jes; Engel, Michael S; Szwedo, Jacek; Dutta, Suryendu; Nel, André; Fan, Yong; Meng, Fanwei; Shi, Gongle; Jarzembowski, Edmund A; Wappler, Torsten; Stebner, Frauke; Fang, Yan; Mao, Limi; Zheng, Daran; Zhang, Haichun

    2014-07-21

    Paleogene arthropod biotas have proved important for tracing the faunal turnover and intercontinental faunal interchange driven by climatic warming and geodynamic events [1-5]. Despite the large number of Paleogene fossil arthropods in Europe and North America [5-8], little is known about the typical Asian (Laurasia-originated) arthropod biota. Here, we report a unique amber biota (50-53 million years ago) from the Lower Eocene of Fushun in northeastern China, which fills a large biogeographic gap in Eurasia. Fushun amber is derived from cupressaceous trees, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and paleobotanical observations. Twenty-two orders and more than 80 families of arthropods have been reported so far, making it among the most diverse amber biotas. Our results reveal that an apparent radiation of ecological keystone insects, including eusocial, phytophagous, and parasitoid lineages, occurred at least during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. Some insect taxa have close phylogenetic affinities to those from coeval European ambers, showing a biotic interchange between the eastern and western margins of the Eurasian landmass during the Early Paleogene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early-middle Eocene birds from the Lillebaelt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    The marine Lillebaelt Clay Formation of central Denmark is of early-middle Eocene age (late Ypresian - middle Lutetian; microfossil zones NP 13-NP 15). Over 20 bird fossils collected by amateur palaeontologists have been acquired through the Danish national ‘Danekrae' fossil treasure trove...... legislation. The fossils are preserved in clay ironstone concretions and almost two-thirds are isolated skulls preserved three-dimensionally. Bird fossils of this age and degree of preservation are rare in an international context. The fossils indicate a very diverse assemblage consisting of both marine...... Clay Formation deposits derive from just after the Early Eocene Climate Optimum, a period of global elevated temperatures resulting from rapid greenhouse warming. Comparison between this bird assemblage and the recently revised assemblage from the older (earliest Ypresian) Fur Formation of Denmark...

  9. Determination of Optimum Window to External Wall Ratio for Offices in a Hot and Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Alibaba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat loss and gain through windows has a very high impact on the thermal comfort of offices. This paper analyzes a standard low energy consumption university office that has a standard envelope. Dynamic thermal simulations with EDSL Tas software, a predicted mean vote (PMV, and a predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD with all local discomfort as stated in ASHRAE, ISO 7730: 2005, EN 15251: 2007 were used for thermal sensation, in order to optimize the best window to external wall proportion in a hot and humid climate that exists in the Famagusta case study. A simulated office building is oriented east to west in order to take advantage of the wind direction. In May 45% (PPD < 6%–0.7% open window, 93% (PPD < 10–0.2 open window, and 97% (PPD < 15%–0.1% open window thermal comfort scores are obtained when the window to external wall ratio (WWR is 10%. In October 43% (PPD < 6%–0.7% open window, 86% (PPD < 10–0.2 open window, and 92% (PPD < 15%–0.1% open window thermal comfort scores are obtained when the WWR is 10%. In September 49% (PPD < 10% full open window and 51% (PPD < 15%–0.1% open window thermal comfort scores are obtained when the WWR is 10%.

  10. Evidence for a Holocene Climatic Optimum in the southwest Pacific: A multiproxy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, J. G.; Bostock, H. C.; Cortese, G.; Lorrey, A. M.; Hayward, B. W.; Calvo, E.; Northcote, L. C.; Scott, G. H.; Neil, H. L.

    2017-08-01

    The early Holocene sea surface temperature (SST) gradient across the subtropical front (STF) to the east of New Zealand was 2°C (measured between core sites MD97-2121 and MD97-2120): considerably less than the 6°C modern gradient between the two core sites. We document the surface ocean temperatures east and south of New Zealand during the early and middle Holocene, to test and expand upon this reconstruction. This new study samples a latitudinal transect of seven sediment cores from 37°S to 60°S in the southwest Pacific from subtropical waters north of New Zealand to polar waters in the Southern Ocean. Our compilation of SST proxies consists of 525 SST estimates from five different methods and includes 243 new data points. We confirm that an early Holocene warm peak in this region was mostly restricted to the area immediately south of the STF, which resulted in a lower temperature gradient across the STF than in modern times. However, there is no change in Holocene SST south of the polar front. Faunal assemblages suggest an early Holocene meridional expansion of fauna characteristic of the modern subtropical front in the Bounty Gyre. We suggest that such an expansion could be achieved by a reduced inflow of Subantarctic Surface Water into the Bounty Gyre. Results from a modern-analog matching platform called the Past Interpretation of Climate Tool (PICT) suggest that the early Holocene SST is most consistent with reduced westerly winds in the New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean.

  11. MECO Warming Changes Continental Rainfall Patterns in Eocene Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, K.; Mulch, A.; Fiebig, J.; Wacker, U.; Gerdes, A.; Graham, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2016-12-01

    Eocene hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an existing warm climate. They dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, but still remain among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. To evaluate the impacts of global warm periods on terrestrial temperature and rainfall records in continental interiors, we sampled a suite of middle Eocene ( 40 Ma) paleosols from a high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the hinterland of the North American Cordillera (Sage Creek Basin, Montana, USA) and integrated laser ablation U-Pb dating of pedogenic carbonate, stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records. Δ47 temperature data of soil carbonates progressively increase from 23 °C ±3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ±3 °C and subsequently drop to 21 °C ±2 °C and delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. This hyperthermal event is accompanied by large and rapid shifts towards low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic CaCO3 contents. U-Pb geochronology of the paleosol carbonate confirms a middle Eocene age for soil carbonate formation (39.5 ±1.4 Ma and 40.1 ±0.8 Ma). Based on U-Pb geochronology, magneto- and biostratigraphy we suggest that the recorded Δ47 temperature excursion reflects peak warming during the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO). The MECO in continental western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions in this high-elevation site. Shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes and require modification of mid-latitude rainfall patterns, indicating a profound impact of the MECO on the hydrological cycle and consequently on atmospheric circulation patterns in the hinterland of the North American Cordillera.

  12. Mid-latitude continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gordon N.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Riegel, Walter; Wilde, Volker; Farnsworth, Alexander; Lunt, Daniel J.; Valdes, Paul; Robson, Brittany E.; Scott, Andrew C.; Lenz, Olaf K.; Naafs, B. David A.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2017-02-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are increasingly used to reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, the application of this proxy in coal deposits is limited and brGDGTs have only been detected in immature coals (i.e. lignites). Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany (∼48°N palaeolatitude), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of early Eocene lignites and associated interbeds. BrGDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences between lignites - representing peat-forming environments - and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed depositional environments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration (MATmr) developed for soils, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26 °C while those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds exceed 20 °C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude environments and model simulations, indicating enhanced mid-latitude, early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section studied, warming is recorded in both the lignites (∼2 °C) and nearshore marine interbeds (∼2-3 °C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this long-term warming trend is relatively well established in the marine realm, it has rarely been shown in terrestrial settings. Using a suite of model simulations we show that the magnitude of warming at Schöningen is broadly consistent with a doubling of CO2, in agreement with late Paleocene and early Eocene pCO2 estimates.

  13. Investigating the Sedimentary Response and its Role in Climate Feedbacks Associated with the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum in a Continental Shelf Setting: Lodo Gulch, Lodo Formation, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmanowski, R. D.; Mushegan, A.; Brady, M. E.; Pluhar, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Lodo Formation (central CA), records the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) associated with the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in a continental margin setting, where increased sedimentation rates - attributed to an enhanced hydrological cycle - provide a means for significant carbon drawdown after the peak of this hyperthermal event (John et al. 2008). This study investigates variations in grain size associated with the recovery from peak CIE values to better constrain the potential mechanism of the apparent increase in sedimentation rates, which can shed light on climate dynamics and feedbacks associated with other warming events.We collected bulk samples at ~10 cm increments over a stratigraphic interval that encompasses the previously documented CIE onset, peak, and recovery phases. We used a laser diffraction particle size analyzer on disaggregated samples to permit detection of variation within clay and silt sediment size fractions (2-63 microns) in addition to sand-size grains. Results show that, while the onset and peak CIE is associated with abundant clays, the recovery interval preserves a marked shift in median grain size to coarse silt and very fine sand. Ongoing work indicates that the grain size increase is not associated with an increase in foraminiferal abundance. Enhanced terrigenous sediment delivery during the CIE recovery could explain both the increase in grain size (this study) and sedimentation rates (previous work). This increased sediment supply could be attributed to (1) increased seasonality and storm intensity during the hyperthermal, (2) marine regression (i.e. basinward shift in shoreline) associated with decreasing rates of sea level rise during sea level highstand, or some combination of these factors. Future work to document compositional and preservational changes in sediments and foraminifera over this time interval will aid in teasing apart the relative influence of potential drivers of change associated with this event.

  14. Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the early Eocene of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jes; Singh, Hukam; Rana, Rajendra S.; McCann, Tom; Singh, Lacham; Anderson, Ken; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Stebner, Frauke; Thomas, Jennifer C.; Solórzano Kraemer, Monica; Williams, Christopher J.; Engel, Michael S.; Sahni, Ashok; Grimaldi, David

    2010-01-01

    For nearly 100 million years, the India subcontinent drifted from Gondwana until its collision with Asia some 50 Ma, during which time the landmass presumably evolved a highly endemic biota. Recent excavations of rich outcrops of 50–52-million-year-old amber with diverse inclusions from the Cambay Shale of Gujarat, western India address this issue. Cambay amber occurs in lignitic and muddy sediments concentrated by near-shore chenier systems; its chemistry and the anatomy of associated fossil wood indicates a definitive source of Dipterocarpaceae. The amber is very partially polymerized and readily dissolves in organic solvents, thus allowing extraction of whole insects whose cuticle retains microscopic fidelity. Fourteen orders and more than 55 families and 100 species of arthropod inclusions have been discovered thus far, which have affinities to taxa from the Eocene of northern Europe, to the Recent of Australasia, and the Miocene to Recent of tropical America. Thus, India just prior to or immediately following contact shows little biological insularity. A significant diversity of eusocial insects are fossilized, including corbiculate bees, rhinotermitid termites, and modern subfamilies of ants (Formicidae), groups that apparently radiated during the contemporaneous Early Eocene Climatic Optimum or just prior to it during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Cambay amber preserves a uniquely diverse and early biota of a modern-type of broad-leaf tropical forest, revealing 50 Ma of stasis and change in biological communities of the dipterocarp primary forests that dominate southeastern Asia today. PMID:20974929

  15. Post-Eocene climate change across continental Australia and the diversification of Australasian spiny trapdoor spiders (Idiopidae: Arbanitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G; Cooper, Steven J B; Meusemann, Karen; Klopfstein, Seraina; Harrison, Sophie E; Harvey, Mark S; Austin, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    -plugging in transitional arid zone taxa have evolved twice independently in Western Australia, while in Misgolas and Cataxia, burrow door-building behaviours have likely been independently lost at least three times in the eastern Australian mesic zone. We also show that the presence of idiopids in New Zealand (Cantuaria) is likely to be the result of recent dispersal from Australia, rather than ancient continental vicariance. By providing the first comprehensive, continental synopsis of arid zone biogeography in an Australian arachnid lineage, we show that the diversification of arbanitine Idiopidae was intimately associated with climate shifts during the Neogene, resulting in multiple Mio-Pliocene radiations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The nummulithoclast event within the Lower Eocene in the Southern Tethyan margin: Mechanisms involved, analogy with the filament event and climate implication (Kairouan, Central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardassi, Besma

    2017-10-01

    Early Eocene deposits in Tunisia are marked by clear variations in terms of facies and thickness. Each facies corresponds to an appropriate depositional environment. Shallow water deposits pass gradually offshore into deeper carbonates along a homoclinal ramp. In Central Tunisia, detailed investigation of carbonate facies under transmitted light shows a particular richness of the middle part of Early Eocene deposits in nummulithoclasts. These facies are often frequent within corrugated banks. They are overlaying Globigerina rich well-bedded limestones and overlain by nummulites and Discocyclina rich massively-bedded carbonates. Nummulithoclasts occurrence is recorded on field by an abrupt vertical change from autochthonous thinly-bedded limestones to massively-bedded fossiliferous carbonates. Change concerns structures, textures and limestones' composition. Nummulithoclasts are associated either to planktonic micro-organisms or to benthic fauna and phosphates grains. The middle and the upper parts of the Early Eocene deposits, particularly, fossilize hummocky cross-stratifications and megaripples. Their presence advocates the role of energetic currents in sweeping nummulites from lower circatidal to upper bathyal environments. The absence of a slope break helped the settling of reworked nummulites within deeper environments. The abrupt change, nummulithoclast associations and current structures arouse reflection and make them not reliable to characterize depositional environments. However, their preferential occurrence within the middle part of Early Eocene deposits and the tight linkage with storm activity lead them to be considered as event. The large scale hummocks recorded on field suggests that nummulite fragmentation was triggered by tropical cyclones rather than humble storms. The frequent occurrence of cyclones which correspond to low pressure atmospheric systems seems in relation with a global warming enhancing the sea surface temperature.

  17. Lacustrine 87Sr/86Sr as a tracer to reconstruct Milankovitch forcing of the Eocene hydrologic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddouh, M'bark; Meyers, Stephen R.; Carroll, Alan R.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2016-08-01

    The Green River Formation (GRF) provides one of the premier paleoclimate archives of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (∼50 Ma), representing the apex of the early Cenozoic greenhouse climate. Rhythmic lake-level variability expressed in the GRF has inspired numerous hypotheses for the behavior of the Eocene hydrologic cycle, including its linkage to astronomical forcing, solar variability, and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, the lack of sufficient proxy data to document atmospheric water-mass transport and the geographic pattern of evaporation/precipitation/runoff has made it difficult to discriminate between different models for astronomical forcing. Variable 87Sr/86Sr ratios of bedrock that encompass the GRF provide an opportunity to reconstruct the spatial expression of the Eocene hydrologic cycle and its linkage to lake level. Here Sr isotope data from the Wilkins Peak Member, a rhythmic succession that has been demonstrated to record Milankovitch forcing of lake levels, indicate that high lake levels reflect an increased proportion of runoff from less radiogenic rocks west of the basin, eliminating a number of the existing astronomical-forcing hypotheses. The 87Sr/86Sr variability is consistent with a change in mean ENSO state, which is predicted by climate models to be linked to orbital-insolation. Thus, the 87Sr/86Sr data reveal a coupling of high frequency (ENSO) and low frequency (astronomical) climate variability, and also predict the existence of sizable astronomically-forced alpine snowpack during the last greenhouse climate. More broadly, this study demonstrates the utility of 87Sr/86Sr as a powerful tool for reconstructing the deep-time hydrologic cycle.

  18. Tropical/subtropical Upper Paleocene Lower Eocene fluvial deposits in eastern central Patagonia, Chile (46°45'S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, M.; de la Cruz, R.; Troncoso, A.

    2000-11-01

    A succession of quartz-rich fluvial sandstones and siltstones derived from a mainly rhyolitic source and minor metamorphic rocks, located to the west, represent the first Upper Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits described in Chilean eastern central Patagonian Cordillera (46°45'S). This unit, exposed 25 km south of Chile Chico, south of lago General Carrera, is here defined as the Ligorio Márquez Formation. It overlies with an angular unconformity Lower Cretaceous shallow marine sedimentary rocks (Cerro Colorado Formation) and subaerial tuffs that have yielded K-Ar dates of 128, 125 and 123 Ma (Flamencos Tuffs, of the Divisadero Group). The Ligorio Márquez Formation includes flora indicative of a tropical/subtropical climate, and its deposition took place during the initial part of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Cenozoic optimum. The underlying Lower Cretaceous units exhibit folding and faulting, implying a pre-Paleocene-Lower Eocene contractional tectonism. Overlying Oligocene-Miocene marine and continental facies in the same area exhibit thrusts and normal faults indicative of post-Lower Miocene contractional tectonism.

  19. Ecosystem reconstructions for the hinterland of the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2016-04-01

    During IODP Expedition 313, cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved in 2009. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey in order to reconstruct environmental and climate change in the region during the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. In the analyzed samples, angiosperm tree pollen grains were most abundant and probably formed the main vegetation zone in the lowland during the MMCO. The pollen-based results point to the presence of a deciduous-evergreen mixed forest that was characterised by e.g. Quercus, Carya, Liquidambar, Juglans, Pterocarya, Tilia, Engelhardia. Frequent conifer pollen grains indicate that highland forests with e.g. Pinus, Cathaya, and Picea were present the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Typical wetland elements like Nyssa and Taxodium as well as herbal taxa like Polygonum and Polygala were generally rare. The pollen-based climate reconstructions for the hinterland oft the New Jersey shallow shelf document a warm temperate climate without winterfrost and relatively high precipitation through the year during this time. Our results imply that the vegetation and regional climate in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf did not react as sensitively to the cooling phase following the MMCO as other regions in North America or Europe.

  20. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, P.M.J.; Affek, H.P.; Ivany, L.C.; Houben, A.J.P.; Sijp, W.P.; Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at

  1. Age of the Mt. Ortles ice cores, the Tyrolean Iceman and glaciation of the highest summit of South Tyrol since the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo; Bertagna, Giuliano; Bertó, Michele; Binder, Daniel; Carton, Alberto; Carturan, Luca; Cazorzi, Federico; Cozzi, Giulio; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Davis, Mary; De Blasi, Fabrizio; Dinale, Roberto; Dragà, Gianfranco; Dreossi, Giuliano; Festi, Daniela; Frezzotti, Massimo; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Galos, Stephan P.; Ginot, Patrick; Heidenwolf, Petra; Jenk, Theo M.; Kehrwald, Natalie; Kenny, Donald; Magand, Olivier; Mair, Volkmar; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Lin, Ping Nan; Oeggl, Klaus; Piffer, Gianni; Rinaldi, Mirko; Schotterer, Ulrich; Schwikowski, Margit; Seppi, Roberto; Spolaor, Andrea; Stenni, Barbara; Tonidandel, David; Uglietti, Chiara; Zagorodnov, Victor; Zanoner, Thomas; Zennaro, Piero

    2016-11-01

    In 2011 four ice cores were extracted from the summit of Alto dell'Ortles (3859 m), the highest glacier of South Tyrol in the Italian Alps. This drilling site is located only 37 km southwest from where the Tyrolean Iceman, ˜ 5.3 kyrs old, was discovered emerging from the ablating ice field of Tisenjoch (3210 m, near the Italian-Austrian border) in 1991. The excellent preservation of this mummy suggested that the Tyrolean Iceman was continuously embedded in prehistoric ice and that additional ancient ice was likely preserved elsewhere in South Tyrol. Dating of the ice cores from Alto dell'Ortles based on 210Pb, tritium, beta activity and 14C determinations, combined with an empirical model (COPRA), provides evidence for a chronologically ordered ice stratigraphy from the modern glacier surface down to the bottom ice layers with an age of ˜ 7 kyrs, which confirms the hypothesis. Our results indicate that the drilling site has continuously been glaciated on frozen bedrock since ˜ 7 kyrs BP. Absence of older ice on the highest glacier of South Tyrol is consistent with the removal of basal ice from bedrock during the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum (6-9 kyrs BP), the warmest interval in the European Alps during the Holocene. Borehole inclinometric measurements of the current glacier flow combined with surface ground penetration radar (GPR) measurements indicate that, due to the sustained atmospheric warming since the 1980s, an acceleration of the glacier Alto dell'Ortles flow has just recently begun. Given the stratigraphic-chronological continuity of the Mt. Ortles cores over millennia, it can be argued that this behaviour has been unprecedented at this location since the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum.

  2. Strong Equatorial Seasonality during Early Eocene greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Arpita; Sarkar, Anindya

    2017-04-01

    A warm greenhouse climate, punctuated by a series of rapid warming events (known as hyperthermals), is characteristic of the Late Paleocene to Early Eocene period. Rapid addition of 13C depleted carbon to the exogenic carbon cycle, in an otherwise overall higher atmospheric CO2 level, is thought to set off the hyperthermal events. For understanding the fate of ongoing global warming and response of the climate system and biota, researchers for past few decades are paying more attention to comprehend this climatic enigma. Existing proxies from the most distinct hyperthermal event i.e., PETM indicate that the mean annual sea surface temperature (MASST) was comparatively higher (by ˜8 ˚ C) at high latitude and to a lesser extent towards the equator. Apart from the prominent hyperthermal events the rest of the Early Eocene was significantly warmer and thought to be more equable compare to present. Terrestrial proxy records from the mid-latitude regions indicated that the Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) and Minimum Winter Temperature (MWT) was high, thus reducing the seasonality or difference between MWT and Maximum Summer Temperature (MST). In absence of proxy data from the low latitude region, a ≥40 ˚ C summer temperature was predicted assuming a mild Eocene temperature gradient of ˜0.4 ˚ C/ ˚ latitude and mid-latitude temperature data. Even question was raised about the existence of the tropical rain forest in such climatic extreme. Recent pollen census data, on contrary, suggest proliferation of the tropical rain forest during this climatic extreme. Important in this context is that there is a very few direct evidence of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene MAT and seasonality data from the low latitude/equatorial regions. To resolve this issue, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of larger benthic foraminifera (Nummulites burdigalensis) were measured in laser based carbonate device attached with the Delta V advantage continuous flow stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer

  3. Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Gibbs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are natural experiments ideal for exploring the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and biotic response. Here we quantify marine biotic variability through three million years of the early Eocene that include five hyperthermals, utilizing a method that allows us to integrate the records of different plankton groups through scenarios ranging from background to major extinction events. Our long time-series calcareous nannoplankton record indicates a scaling of biotic disruption to climate change associated with the amount of carbon released during the various hyperthermals. Critically, only the three largest hyperthermals, the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 and the I1 event, show above-background variance, suggesting that the magnitude of carbon input and associated climate change needs to surpass a threshold value to cause significant biotic disruption.

  4. High-Resolution Integrated Magnetobiostratigraphy of a New Middle Eocene Section from the Southern Branch of the Neo-Tethys ELAZIĞ Basin (ELAZIĞ Province, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodelli, D.; Jovane, L.; Özcan, E.; Giorgioni, M.; Coccioni, R.; Frontalini, F.; Siciliano, E.; Brogi, A.; Catanzariti, R.; Less, G.; Rostami, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new marine middle Eocene section, from the Elazığ Province, Central Turkey. The high sedimentation rate of the section, its continuity and lack of apparent tectonic disturbances could be a new reference for the study of the "Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum" (MECO) in a shelf margin. Paleomagnetism and biostratigraphy were used to build a solid, high-resolution magnetostratigraphy of the section. The magnetostratigraphy here presented forms the base to paleoenvironmental analysis, namely environmental magnetism, in order to give new insights on the paleoclimatic events that characterized de middle Eocene. The magnetozones recognized were correlated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS, 2012), and calibrated with the biostratigraphic zonations, showing that the section spans from C19n to C17n, thus encompassing the whole Barthonian stage, with a sedimentation rate variating between 43 m/My to 98 m/My with a mean of 69 m/My. The magnetic minerals present in the selected samples are magnetite and hematite, with magnetite possibly coming in at least two different forms, terrigenous and biogenic, implying the possible presence of magnetotactic bacteria in the environment at the time of deposition. Environmental magnetism measurements and ratios show relatively constant values along the section, with prominent peaks in ARM and IRM during the MECO period, tentatively interpreted as an increase of fine magnetite. On the basis of the distribution and abundance of specific taxa, a likely upper-bathyal (300-600 m) depositional depth was inferred. The abundance of calcareous taxa and the preservation of foraminiferal test suggest that the deposition occurred well above the Calcite Compensation Depth (CCD).The quality of the data at our disposition and the very characteristics of the section (namely, the high sedimentation rate, continuity and lack of apparent tectonic disturbances) can represent a starting point to study the middle Eocene climatic history

  5. Climate vs. tectonic induced variations in Cenozoic sediment supply from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    -22] and floral assemblages [23]. The Paleocene and Eocene epochs were times of warm climates, peaking in the Late Paleocene Thermal Maximum [21]. A rapid cooling on the Eocene-Oligocene transition changed the global conditions from ‘greenhouse’ to ‘icehouse’, resulting in glaciers reaching sea level in East......-36. 12. Riis, F., Quantification of Cenozoic vertical movements of Scandinavia by correlation of morphological surfaces with offshore data. Global and Planetary Change, 1996. 12(1-4): p. 331-357. 13. Rasmussen, E.S., The interplay between true eustatic sea-level changes, tectonics, and climatic changes...... Greenland [24] as well as in increased seasonality through colder winters [25]. After a subsequent warming in late Oligocene and Early Miocene the climate started to deteriorate after the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum towards the Pliocene when the North Hemisphere Glaciation begun and the frequency...

  6. Changing atmospheric CO2 concentration was the primary driver of early Cenozoic climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Eleni; John, Eleanor H.; Edgar, Kirsty M.; Foster, Gavin L.; Ridgwell, Andy; Inglis, Gordon N.; Pancost, Richard D.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pearson, Paul N.

    2016-05-01

    The Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO, which occurred about 51 to 53 million years ago), was the warmest interval of the past 65 million years, with mean annual surface air temperature over ten degrees Celsius warmer than during the pre-industrial period. Subsequent global cooling in the middle and late Eocene epoch, especially at high latitudes, eventually led to continental ice sheet development in Antarctica in the early Oligocene epoch (about 33.6 million years ago). However, existing estimates place atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels during the Eocene at 500-3,000 parts per million, and in the absence of tighter constraints carbon-climate interactions over this interval remain uncertain. Here we use recent analytical and methodological developments to generate a new high-fidelity record of CO2 concentrations using the boron isotope (δ11B) composition of well preserved planktonic foraminifera from the Tanzania Drilling Project, revising previous estimates. Although species-level uncertainties make absolute values difficult to constrain, CO2 concentrations during the EECO were around 1,400 parts per million. The relative decline in CO2 concentration through the Eocene is more robustly constrained at about fifty per cent, with a further decline into the Oligocene. Provided the latitudinal dependency of sea surface temperature change for a given climate forcing in the Eocene was similar to that of the late Quaternary period, this CO2 decline was sufficient to drive the well documented high- and low-latitude cooling that occurred through the Eocene. Once the change in global temperature between the pre-industrial period and the Eocene caused by the action of all known slow feedbacks (apart from those associated with the carbon cycle) is removed, both the EECO and the late Eocene exhibit an equilibrium climate sensitivity relative to the pre-industrial period of 2.1 to 4.6 degrees Celsius per CO2 doubling (66 per cent confidence), which is similar to the

  7. Changing atmospheric CO2 concentration was the primary driver of early Cenozoic climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Eleni; John, Eleanor H; Edgar, Kirsty M; Foster, Gavin L; Ridgwell, Andy; Inglis, Gordon N; Pancost, Richard D; Lunt, Daniel J; Pearson, Paul N

    2016-05-19

    The Early Eocene Climate Optimum (EECO, which occurred about 51 to 53 million years ago), was the warmest interval of the past 65 million years, with mean annual surface air temperature over ten degrees Celsius warmer than during the pre-industrial period. Subsequent global cooling in the middle and late Eocene epoch, especially at high latitudes, eventually led to continental ice sheet development in Antarctica in the early Oligocene epoch (about 33.6 million years ago). However, existing estimates place atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels during the Eocene at 500-3,000 parts per million, and in the absence of tighter constraints carbon-climate interactions over this interval remain uncertain. Here we use recent analytical and methodological developments to generate a new high-fidelity record of CO2 concentrations using the boron isotope (δ(11)B) composition of well preserved planktonic foraminifera from the Tanzania Drilling Project, revising previous estimates. Although species-level uncertainties make absolute values difficult to constrain, CO2 concentrations during the EECO were around 1,400 parts per million. The relative decline in CO2 concentration through the Eocene is more robustly constrained at about fifty per cent, with a further decline into the Oligocene. Provided the latitudinal dependency of sea surface temperature change for a given climate forcing in the Eocene was similar to that of the late Quaternary period, this CO2 decline was sufficient to drive the well documented high- and low-latitude cooling that occurred through the Eocene. Once the change in global temperature between the pre-industrial period and the Eocene caused by the action of all known slow feedbacks (apart from those associated with the carbon cycle) is removed, both the EECO and the late Eocene exhibit an equilibrium climate sensitivity relative to the pre-industrial period of 2.1 to 4.6 degrees Celsius per CO2 doubling (66 per cent confidence), which is similar to the

  8. Increasing restriction of the Egyptian shelf during the Early Eocene? - New insights from a southern Tethyan carbonate platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höntzsch, S.; Scheibner, C.; Guasti, E.; Kuss, J.; Marzouk, A.M.; Rasser, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the isolated Galala carbonate platform has been studied intensively with respect to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and the strong climatic variability from the Late Paleocene to the Early Eocene. In this study, we compare the results of different approaches which deal

  9. Seasonal variability in Arctic temperatures during the early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, J. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, H.

    2009-12-01

    As a deep time analog for today’s rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (~53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (~79° N.) preserve evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions that at present, quantitative estimates of Eocene Arctic climate are rare. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we provide estimates of early Eocene Arctic temperature, including mean annual temperature (MAT) of ~ 8° C, mean annual range in temperature (MART) of ~ 16.5° C, warm month mean temperature (WMMT) of 16 - 19° C, and cold month mean temperature (CMMT) of 0 - 1° C. Our seasonal range in temperature is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, unusually high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and sea surface temperature (SST) by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and marine Crenarchaeota fall within our range of WMMT, suggesting a bias towards summer values. Consequently, caution should be taken when using these methods to infer MAT and SST that, in turn, are used to constrain climate models. From a paleontologic perspective, our temperature estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round temperatures. Although in both of these reptiles, past temperature tolerances were greater than in their living descendants.

  10. The middle Eocene Oyambre section (northern Spain): an example of the need for pairing cyclic deep-sea records and outcrop successions in astrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Martínez-Braceras, Naroa; Payros, Aitor

    2017-04-01

    susceptibility record is employed as the basis for erecting a cyclostratigraphy amenable to spectral analysis. The expanded nature of the succession and the use of the 405 ky "tuning-fork" or metronome of stratigraphic time allows a solid astrochronology to be resolved at precession resolution ( 21 ky). We ultimately scrutinize and correlate the Oyambre outcrop cyclic pattern to published deep-sea astronomically tuned stratigraphies, emphasizing the need for integration. Contribution to research project CGL2015-65404-R (MINECO/FEDER). NM-B received a pre-doctoral grant from the Basque Government. Dinarès-Turell, J., et al. (2014). Astronomical calibration of the Danian stage (early Paleocene) revisited: settling chronologies of sedimentary records across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 405, 119-131. Payros, A., et al. (2015). The Lutetian/Bartonian transition (middle Eocene) at the Oyambre section (northern Spain): implications for standard chronostratigraphy. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 440, 234-248. Westerhold, T. and Röhl, U. (2013). Orbital pacing of Eocene climate during the Middle Eocene Climate Optimum and the Chron C19r event: Missing link found in the tropical western Atlantic, Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., 14, 4811-4825. Westerhold, T., et al. (2015). Astronomical Calibration of the Geological Timescale: Closing the Middle Eocene Gap. Climate of the Past 11, 1181-1195.

  11. Hinterland drainage closure and lake formation in response to middle Eocene Farallon slab removal, Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elliot; Cassel, Elizabeth J.; Jicha, Brian R.; Singer, Brad S.; Canada, Andrew S.

    2017-12-01

    ash beds in the Dead Horse Formation at Copper Basin in northern Elko County indicate intermittent ash bed deposition between 45.2 Ma and 38.6 Ma, and an episode of lacustrine deposition between 39.8 Ma and 38.6 Ma that post-dates the main phase of Lake Elko. δD values of volcanic glass sampled from dated ash beds reflect changes in the hydrogen isotope compositions of local Eocene waters, and systematically vary by 80-102‰ according to their depositional environment. The Elko Formation and overlying volcanic strata are overlain regionally by a pronounced unconformity of ∼20 m.y. In the Copper Basin area, deposition continued locally into the Oligocene in the hanging wall of a ductile detachment. The geochronologic and isotopic framework presented here permits reanalysis of the Piñon Range carbonate proxy record that was previously interpreted to record both regional uplift and the middle Eocene climatic optimum. New data suggest instead that isotope values of hydration waters within the Elko Formation were strongly influenced by evaporation, and a change from lacustrine to non-lacustrine conditions can account for the δ18O shift that was interpreted to reflect regional uplift. Moreover, the end of Elko Formation deposition predated the middle Eocene climatic optimum. We interpret the overall record of drainage ponding and paleovalley inundation, progressively more evaporative lacustrine conditions, increasingly proximal volcanism, and subsequent prolonged unconformity to reflect the surface effects of progressive NE to SW removal of the Farallon slab.

  12. Planktic foraminiferal response to early Eocene carbon cycle perturbations in the southeast Atlantic Ocean (ODP Site 1263)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Valeria; D'Onofrio, Roberta; Dickens, Gerald R.; Wade, Bridget S.

    2017-11-01

    At low latitude locations in the northern hemisphere, striking changes in the relative abundances and diversity of the two dominant planktic foraminifera genera, Morozovella and Acarinina, are known to have occurred close to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO; 49-53 Ma). Lower Eocene carbonate-rich sediments at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1263 were deposited on a bathymetric high (Walvis Ridge) at 40° S, and afford an opportunity to examine such planktic foraminiferal assemblage changes in a temperate southern hemisphere setting. We present here quantified counts of early Eocene planktic foraminiferal assemblages from Hole 1263B, along with bulk sediment stable isotope analyses and proxy measurements for carbonate dissolution. The bulk sediment δ13C record at Site 1263 resembles similar records generated elsewhere, such that known and inferred hyperthermal events can be readily identified. Although some carbonate dissolution has occurred, the well-preserved planktic foraminiferal assemblages mostly represent primary changes in environmental conditions. Our results document the permanent decrease in Morozovella abundance and increase in Acarinina abundance at the beginning of the EECO, although this switch occurred 165 kyr after that at low-latitude northern hemisphere locations. This suggests that unfavourable environmental conditions for morozovellids at the start of the EECO, such as sustained passage of a temperature threshold or other changes in surface waters, occurred at lower latitudes first. The remarkable turnover from Morozovella to Acarinina was widely geographically widespread, although the causal mechanism remains elusive. In addition, at Site 1263, we document the virtual disappearance within the EECO of the biserial chiloguembelinids, commonly considered as inhabiting intermediate water depths, and a reduction in abundance of the thermocline-dwelling subbotinids. We interpret these changes as signals of subsurface water properties

  13. Eocene relatives of cod icefishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) from Seymour Island, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, Małgorzata; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Møller, Peter Rask

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentary skull bones and vertebra from the Upper Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour (Marambio) Island, Antarctic Peninsula have been described as gadiform fishes, informally named “Mesetaichthys”. Here we describe jaws as Mesetaichthys jerzmanskae n. g. and n. sp., and refer this taxon to t...... of notothenioids in connection with the deterioration of the climate in Antarctica during the Late Eocene-Oligocene is discussed....

  14. Seasonal variability in Arctic temperatures during early Eocene time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Fricke, Henry C.; Humphrey, John D.; Hackett, Logan; Newbrey, Michael G.; Hutchison, J. Howard

    2010-08-01

    As a deep time analog for today's rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (52-53 Ma) rock on Ellesmere Island in Canada's High Arctic (˜ 79°N.) preserves evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions than at present, the quantification of Eocene Arctic climate has been more elusive. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we infer early Eocene Arctic temperatures, including mean annual temperature (MAT) of ˜ 8 °C, mean annual range in temperature of ˜ 16.5-19 °C, warm month mean temperature of 19-20 °C, and cold month mean temperature of 0-3.5 °C. Our seasonal range in temperature is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, relatively high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and SST by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and isoprenoid tetraether lipids in marine Crenarchaeota fall close to our warm month temperature, suggesting a bias towards summer values. From a paleontologic perspective, our temperature estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round temperatures. Although for both of these reptilian groups, past temperature tolerances probably were greater than in living descendants.

  15. Extreme Seasonality During Early Eocene Hyperthermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plink-Bjorklund, P.; Birgenheier, L.

    2012-12-01

    An outcrop multi-proxy dataset from the Uinta Basin, Utah, US indicates that extreme seasonality occurred repeatedly during the Early Eocene transient global warming events (hyperthermals), during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) as well as during the six consequent younger hyperthermals. In this multi-proxy analysis we have investigated the precipitation distribution and peakedness changes during Early Eocene hyperthermals. This dataset is different from previously published terrestrial climate proxy analyses, in that we fully utilize the sedimentary record itself, and especially the hydrodynamic indicators within the river strata. We combine these high-resolution sedimentologic-stratigraphic analyses, with analyses of terrestrial burrowing traces, and the conventional palaeosol and stable carbon isotope analyses. With this approach, we are able to better document hydroclimatologic changes, and identify climate seasonality changes, rather than just long-term mean humidity/aridity and temperature trends. For this study we analyzed over 1000 m of Palaeocene and Early Eocene river and lake strata in the Uinta Basin, Utah, US (Figs. 1 and 2). The sedimentologic-stratigraphic analyses of outcrops included measuring detailed stratigraphic sections, analyzing photopanels, a spatial GPS survey, and lateral walk-out of stratigraphic packages across an area of 300 km2, with additional data across an area of ca 6000 km2 (Fig. 2). Continental burrowing traces and palaeosols were analyzed along the measured sections. For geochemical analysis 196 samples of mudrock facies were collected along the measured sections and analyzed for total organic carbon (Corg), total nitrogen (Ntot), and δ13C values of bulk organic matter. Biostratigraphy (25), radiometric dates, and carbon isotope stratigraphy, using bulk δ13C of organic matter in floodplain siltstones confirm the position of the PETM and the 6-8 post-PETM hyperthermals in the studied strata The seasonality

  16. Ultimate Eocene (Priabonian) Chondrichthyans (Holocephali, Elasmobranchii) of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriwet, Jürgen; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo; Pfaff, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    The Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, is known for its remarkable wealth of fossil remains of chondrichthyans and teleosts. Chondrichthyans seemingly were dominant elements in the Antarctic Paleogene fish fauna, but decreased in abundance from middle to late Eocene, during which time remains of bony fishes increase. This decline of chondrichthyans at the end of the Eocene generally is related to sudden cooling of seawater, reduction in shelf area, and increasing shelf depth due to the onset of the Antarctic thermal isolation. The last chondrichthyan records known so far include a chimeroid tooth plate from TELM 6 (Lutetian) and a single pristiophorid rostral spine from TELM 7 (Priabonian). Here, we present new chondrichthyan records of Squalus, Squatina, Pristiophorus, Striatolamia, Palaeohypotodus, Carcharocles, and Ischyodus from the upper parts of TELM 7 (Priabonian), including the first record of Carcharocles sokolovi from Antarctica. This assemblage suggests that chondrichthyans persisted much longer in Antarctic waters despite rather cool sea surface temperatures of approximately 5°C. The final disappearance of chondrichthyans at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary concurs with abrupt ice sheet formation in Antarctica. Diversity patterns of chondrichthyans throughout the La Meseta Formation appear to be related to climatic conditions rather than plate tectonics.

  17. Early-middle Eocene transition in calcareous nannofossil assemblages at IODP Site U1410 (Southeast Newfoundland Ridge, NW Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Carlotta; Agnini, Claudia; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2017-04-01

    The early-middle Eocene interval documents the shift from the warmest greenhouse conditions occurred during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 52-50 Ma) to the beginning of the cooling phase which led to the Oligocene icehouse regime. This important transition is well expressed as a reversal in the global oxygen and carbonate isotope trends (Zachos et al., 2001). Moreover, this interval was a time of remarkable transformation in the marine biosphere. Communities of calcareous nannoplankton, marine calcifying algae at the base of the oceans food chain, experienced transient and permanent profound changes. Calcareous nannofossil are regarded as remarkable tools both in biostratigraphy and paleoecology, with several taxa that show different responses to changes in physical parameters of surface waters. Here, we aim to document calcareous nannoplankton assemblage changes across the early-middle Eocene transition, in order to upset the biostratigraphic framework and to increase comprehension of how phytoplankton communities responded to paleoenvironmental changes at that time. The sedimentary successions recovered at IODP Site U1410 (Exp. 342; 41˚ 19.6987'N; 49˚ 10.1995'W, Norris et al., 2012) on the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge (NW Atlantic) offer an expanded record of the early-middle Eocene interval that is marked by an increase in accumulation rate related to sedimentation of clay-rich nannofossil oozes. Quantitative analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages was conducted, encompassing calcareous nannofossil Zones NP12 -NP15 or CNE4-CNE10 (Martini, 1971; Agnini et al., 2014). The study interval records the appearance and proliferation of Noelaerhabdaceae family (i.e, Reticulofenestra/Dictyococcites group), which can be considered one of the most significant shifts in the assemblage structure of the Paleogene. This change was probably favored by modifications in surface water chemistry. The middle Eocene clay-rich sediments contain well preserved

  18. Equatorial convergence of India and early Cenozoic climate trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Dennis V; Muttoni, Giovanni

    2008-10-21

    India's northward flight and collision with Asia was a major driver of global tectonics in the Cenozoic and, we argue, of atmospheric CO(2) concentration (pCO(2)) and thus global climate. Subduction of Tethyan oceanic crust with a carpet of carbonate-rich pelagic sediments deposited during transit beneath the high-productivity equatorial belt resulted in a component flux of CO(2) delivery to the atmosphere capable to maintain high pCO(2) levels and warm climate conditions until the decarbonation factory shut down with the collision of Greater India with Asia at the Early Eocene climatic optimum at approximately 50 Ma. At about this time, the India continent and the highly weatherable Deccan Traps drifted into the equatorial humid belt where uptake of CO(2) by efficient silicate weathering further perturbed the delicate equilibrium between CO(2) input to and removal from the atmosphere toward progressively lower pCO(2) levels, thus marking the onset of a cooling trend over the Middle and Late Eocene that some suggest triggered the rapid expansion of Antarctic ice sheets at around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary.

  19. Multiple States in the Vegetation-Atmosphere System during the Early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, U.; Claussen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Model simulations suggest that different initial conditions can lead to multiple stable vegetation-atmosphere states in the present-day Sahara. Here, we explore the stability of the vegetation-atmosphere system in the warm, nearly ice-free early Eocene climate. Using the MPI-ESM, we simulate the early Eocene vegetation starting from two different states: Continents are either completely covered by forest or completely barren, devoid of any vegetation. The soil albedo is similar to vegetation albedo. Hence, the albedo effect of vegetation is negligible. Without the albedo effect, the Charney effect which is suggested to cause multiple stable vegetation states in the present-day Sahara is absent. In our simulations, the hydrological effect of vegetation plays the major role. We perform the same simulations with preindustrial conditions to compare the stability of the vegetation-atmosphere system in both climate states. A desert evolves in Central Asia in both early Eocene simulations. This Asian desert is larger when the simulation starts from bare soil instead forest. Bare soil causes a dry climate in Central Asia in the beginning of the simulation. In the dry climate, vegetation does not establish. Forest enhances evaporation relative to bare soil leading to a stronger Asian monsoon and higher precipitation rates. The increased precipitation sustains plant growth and a smaller Asian desert evolves than in the simulation started from bare soil. Moreover, the stronger Asian monsoon affects global climate. Therefore, the two vegetation states in Central Asia accompany two globally different vegetation-atmosphere states. In the preindustrial climate, the Sahara is larger when the initial vegetation is bare soil instead of forest. The same hydrological effect causes the multiple vegetation states the Sahara as in the early Eocene Asian desert. However, the multiple stable vegetation states in the Sahara do not affect the global climate. This result emphasises that the

  20. Polar amplification of the early Eocene indicated by δ2H values of lignin methoxyl groups of mummified wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhäuser, Tobias; Hook, Benjamin; Halfar, Jochen; Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank

    2017-04-01

    A number of well-preserved mummified wood samples have been excavated during diamond mining operations in early Eocene (55-50 Ma) kimberlite deposits located near the Arctic Circle (64° N, 110° W) in the Canadian Northwest Territories. The preserved wood, containing multi-decadal length tree-ring information, therefore allows the reconstruction of an unprecedented snapshot of terrestrial high-latitude climate during the early Eocene. Here we used wood-derived stable hydrogen isotopes (δ2H) as proxy for paleoclimatic interpretations. While cellulose extractions are commonly used for the analysis of modern wood-derived δ2H values, the mummified wood samples had been affected by selective degradation leading to a strong or even complete loss of cellulose while leaving a lignin-rich material behind. We have therefore analyzed δ2H values of the lignin methoxyl groups that have previously been shown to reflect the δ2H values of the local precipitation and can thus be used to infer paleoclimate information such as temperature changes. We applied this proxy to specimens found in three adjacent kimberlite pipes (30 km apart) which represent a range of early Eocene ages (Rb/Sr dating: 55.5 ± 0.7, 55.2 ± 0.3 and 53.3 ± 0.6 Ma [2σ standard deviation]). The δ2H values were measured at annual resolution for the three mummified wood series (length of individual time series: 82, 62 and 40 years) and the mean δ2H value of precipitation for the three decadal-scale time slices was reconstructed. Finally, we used existing relationships between early Eocene temperatures and stable isotopes in precipitation to quantify temperature changes. Warming phases such as the one covered here (culminating in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum [52 to 50 Ma]) are commonly accompanied by a stronger increase in arctic/subarctic surface air temperatures in comparison to the global average (the ratio of these temperature differences is referred to as the polar amplification). Our estimation

  1. Triggers and consequences of glacial expansion across the Eocene - Oligocene Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, A.J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31483964X

    2012-01-01

    The results described in this thesis provide a rather complex picture of climatic, environmental and biotic changes preceding and arising from the onset of Antarctic glaciation. This period is commonly known as the greenhouse to icehouse transition across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT, 34-33

  2. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  3. Multiproxy record of abrupt sea-surface cooling across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wade, B.S.; Houben, A.J.P.; Quaijtaal, W.; Schouten, S.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K.G.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT; ca. 33–34 Ma) was a time of pronounced climatic change, marked by the establishment of continental-scale Antarctic ice sheets. The timing and extent of temperature change associated with the EOT is controversial. Here we present multiproxy EOT climate records

  4. Orbital forcing of the Paleocene and Eocene carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, Richard E.; Westerhold, Thomas; Littler, Kate; Zachos, James C.

    2017-05-01

    Multimillion-year proxy records across the Paleocene and Eocene show prominent variations on orbital time scales. The cycles, which have been identified at various sites across the globe, preferentially concentrate spectral power at eccentricity and precessional frequencies. It is evident that these cycles are an expression of changes in global climate and carbon cycling paced by astronomical forcing. However, little is currently known about the link between orbital forcing and the carbon cycle-climate system and the amplitude of associated atmospheric CO2 variations. Here we use simple and complex carbon cycle models to explore the basic effect of different orbital forcing schemes and noise on the carbon cycle. Our primary modeling target is the high-resolution, ˜7.7 Myr long, benthic isotope record at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1262 in the South Atlantic. For direct insolation forcing (as opposed to artificial eccentricity-tilt-precession), one major challenge is understanding how the system transfers spectral power from high to low frequencies. We discuss feasible solutions, including insolation transformations analogous to electronic AC-DC conversion (DC'ing). Regarding mechanisms, we focus on tropical insolation and a long-term carbon imbalance in terrestrial organic burial/oxidation but do not rule out other scenarios. Our analysis shows that high-latitude mechanisms are unlikely drivers of orbitally paced changes in the late Paleocene-early Eocene (LPEE) Earth system. Furthermore, we provide constraints on the origin and isotopic composition of a possible LPEE cyclic carbon imbalance/source responding to astronomical forcing. Our simulations also reveal a mechanism for the large δ13C-eccentricity lag at the 400 kyr period observed in Paleocene, Oligocene, and Miocene sections. We present the first estimates of orbital-scale variations in atmospheric CO2 during the late Paleocene and early Eocene.

  5. Major early Eocene carbon cycle perturbations and changes in planktic foraminiferal assemblages from the southeast Atlantic Ocean (ODP Site 1263)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Valeria; D'Onofrio, Roberta; Dickens, Gerald Roy; Wade, Bridget

    2017-04-01

    On a paleoclimatic perspective the early Paleogene represents one of the most interesting and dynamic intervals of the Earth's history. Present record indicates that the Earth climate system reached its Cenozoic maximum peak of global warming and probably of pCO2 during the early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO, 49-53 Ma). Superimposed to the general trend, our planet experienced short-term ( 40-200 kyr) repeated peaks in global temperatures and major changes in the carbon cycle, known as hyperthermals. Great scientific interest has been focused on the early Paleogene hyperthermal events, given the assumed similarity with the current climatic scenario. Less attention has been dedicated to the EECO long lasting perturbation of extraordinary warming thus many characters of this interval still remain largely unconstrained, especially as for the biotic response. We present here results on early Eocene planktic foraminiferal analysis from the southeast Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1263 (Walvis Ridge, Leg 208) to explore possible relationship between changes in assemblages and carbon cycle perturbation. The time interval is of particular interest for an abrupt switch occurred at low-latitude of the northern hemisphere between two important calcifiers of the tropical-subtropical early Paleogene oceans, the genera Morozovella and Acarinina at the carbon isotopic excursion known as J event, at the EECO onset. Precisely, the relative abundance of Morozovella permanently decreased by at least half, along with a progressive decrease in the number of species. Concomitantly, Acarinina almost doubled its abundance and diversified. Site 1263 was located during the early Eocene at a latitude of 40° south therefore representing a temperate setting of southern hemisphere not yet explored for planktic foraminiferal changes. We document a permanent decrease in Morozovella abundance at the beginning of the EECO, although this decline is delayed by 165 kyr with respect to

  6. Eocene squalomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A.; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    Rare remains of predominantly deep-water sharks of the families Hexanchidae, Squalidae, Dalatiidae, Centrophoridae, and Squatinidae are described from the Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which has yielded the most abundant chondrichthyan assemblage from the Southern Hemisphere to date. Previously described representatives of Hexanchus sp., Squalus weltoni, Squalus woodburnei, Centrophorus sp., and Squatina sp. are confirmed and dental variations are documented. Although the teeth of Squatina sp. differ from other Palaeogene squatinid species, we refrain from introducing a new species. A new dalatiid taxon, Eodalatias austrinalis gen. et sp. nov. is described. This new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic elasmobranchs but also allows assuming that favourable deep-water habitats were available in the Eocene Antarctic Ocean off Antarctica in the Eocene. The occurrences of deep-water inhabitants in shallow, near-coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula agrees well with extant distribution patterns.

  7. Fossil plant stomata indicate decreasing atmospheric CO2 prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Porter, Amanda S.; Holohan, Aidan; Kunzmann, Lutz; Collinson, Margaret; McElwain, Jennifer C.

    2016-02-01

    A unique stratigraphic sequence of fossil leaves of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (extinct trees of the beech family, Fagaceae) from central Germany has been used to derive an atmospheric pCO2 record with multiple data points spanning the late middle to late Eocene, two sampling levels which may be earliest Oligocene, and two samples from later in the Oligocene. Using the inverse relationship between the density of stomata and pCO2, we show that pCO2 decreased continuously from the late middle to late Eocene, reaching a relatively stable low value before the end of the Eocene. Based on the subsequent records, pCO2 in parts of the Oligocene was similar to latest Eocene values. These results suggest that a decrease in pCO2 preceded the large shift in marine oxygen isotope records that characterizes the Eocene-Oligocene transition and that when a certain threshold of pCO2 change was crossed, the cumulative effects of this and other factors resulted in rapid temperature decline, ice build up on Antarctica and hence a change of climate mode.

  8. High latitude hydrological changes during the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, Srinath; Pagani, Mark; Huber, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy

    2014-01-01

    The Eocene hyperthermals, including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2), represent extreme global warming events ~56 and 54 million years ago associated with rapid increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. An initial study on PETM

  9. Water mass stability reconstructions from greenhouse (Eocene) to icehouse (Oligocene) for the northern Gulf Coast continental shelf (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Takuro; Grossman, Ethan L.; Dockery, David T.; Ivany, Linda C.

    2004-03-01

    Shallow water mass characteristics such as temperature and density profile play a critical role in the climate system. We have developed a new method by which to reconstruct the ancient shallow water mass stability on the continental shelf using oxygen isotope variation within mollusc shells and fish otoliths and applied the method to an important interval in Earth history, the most recent transition from Greenhouse (Eocene) to Icehouse (Oligocene) climate modes. We define the slope of summer temperature (density) versus the seasonal range in temperature (density) as an indicator of water mass stability. In addition, extrapolation of the regression to zero seasonality is a proxy for temperature at the bottom of the seasonal thermocline (TBST). During the greenhouse world (the early Eocene and middle Eocene) the water mass plot shows an unstable water mass, agreeing with previous planktonic foraminiferal studies showing that temperature gradients at this time were much smaller than at present. During the middle to late Eocene transition, a substantial increase in water mass stability occurred. Significant cooling (˜5°C) of the TBST at this transition indicates that the greater cooling of deeper water relative to surface water caused the increase in water mass stability. The changes in water column structure at this transition were the most likely cause of a major extinction of planktonic foraminifera from warm to cold water taxa. The late Eocene T-ΔT profile is very similar to modern profiles, suggesting that shallow water mass structure became similar to that of the modern Gulf Coastal shelf by the late Eocene. At the Eocene/Oligocene (E/O) boundary, no major change in water mass structure is identified. This agrees with the observation that no major extinction of planktonic foraminifera is found at the E/O boundary.

  10. Large temperature drop across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in central North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanazzi, Alessandro; Kohn, Matthew J; MacFadden, Bruce J; Terry, Dennis O

    2007-02-08

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition towards a cool climate (approximately 33.5 million years ago) was one of the most pronounced climate events during the Cenozoic era. The marine record of this transition has been extensively studied. However, significantly less research has focused on continental climate change at the time, yielding partly inconsistent results on the magnitude and timing of the changes. Here we use a combination of in vivo stable isotope compositions of fossil tooth enamel with diagenetic stable isotope compositions of fossil bone to derive a high-resolution (about 40,000 years) continental temperature record for the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We find a large drop in mean annual temperature of 8.2 +/- 3.1 degrees C over about 400,000 years, the possibility of a small increase in temperature seasonality, and no resolvable change in aridity across the transition. The large change in mean annual temperature, exceeding changes in sea surface temperatures at comparable latitudes and possibly delayed in time with respect to marine changes by up to 400,000 years, explains the faunal turnover for gastropods, amphibians and reptiles, whereas most mammals in the region were unaffected. Our results are in agreement with modelling studies that attribute the climate cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene transition to a significant drop in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

  11. On the possibility of ice on Greenland during the Eocene-Oligocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langebroek, Petra M.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Kathrine Pedersen, Vivi; Nele Meckler, A.; Gasson, Edward

    2017-04-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition ( 34 Ma) is one of the major climate transitions of the Cenozoic era. Atmospheric CO2 decreased from the high levels of the Greenhouse world (>1000 ppm) to values of about 600-700 ppm in the early Oligocene. High latitude temperatures dropped by several degrees, causing a large-scale expansion of the Antarctic ice sheet. Concurrently, in the Northern Hemisphere, the inception of ice caps on Greenland is suggested by indirect evidence from ice-rafted debris and changes in erosional regime. However, ice sheet models have not been able to simulate extensive ice on Greenland under the warm climate of the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We show that elevated bedrock topography is key in solving this inconsistency. During the late Eocene / early Oligocene, East Greenland bedrock elevations were likely higher than today due to tectonic and deep-Earth processes related to the break-up of the North Atlantic and the position of the Icelandic plume. When allowing for higher initial bedrock topography, we do simulate a large ice cap on Greenland under the still relatively warm climate of the early Oligocene. Ice inception takes place at high elevations in the colder regions of North and Northeast Greenland; with the size of the ice cap being strongly dependent on the climate forcing and the bedrock topography applied.

  12. Geochemistry and depositional environments of Paleocene-Eocene phosphorites: Metlaoui Group, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnit, Hechmi; Bouhlel, Salah; Jarvis, Ian

    2017-10-01

    The Late Paleocene-Early Eocene phosphorites of the Metlaoui Group in Tunisia are a world-class phosphate resource. We review the characteristics of phosphorites deposited in three areas: the Northern Basins; Eastern Basins; and Gafsa-Metlaoui Basin. Comprehensive new bulk rock elemental data are presented, together with complementary mineralogical and mineral chemical results. Carbonate fluorapatite (francolite) constitutes the dominant mineral phase in the deposits. Phosphorite samples are enriched in Cd, Sr, U, rare-earth elements and Y, together with environmentally diagnostic trace elements that provide detrital (Cr, Zr), productivity (Cu, Ni, Zn) and redox (Mo, V) proxies. Suboxic bottom-water conditions predominated, with suboxic to anoxic porewaters accompanying francolite precipitation. Phosphorite deposition occurred under increasingly arid climate conditions, accompanying global Paleocene-Eocene warming. The Northern Basins show the strongest Tethys Ocean influence, with surface seawater rare-earth element signatures consistently developed in the phosphorites. Bed-scale compositional variation indicates relatively unstable environmental conditions and episodes of sediment redeposition, with varying detrital supply and a relatively wet local climate. Glauconitic facies in the Northern Basins and the more isolated evaporite-associated phosphorites in the dryer Eastern Basins display the greatest diagenetic influences. The phosphorite - organic-rich marl - diatom-bearing porcelanite facies association in the Gafsa-Metlaoui Basin represents the classic coastal upwelling trinity. Modified Tethyan waters occurred within the Basin during phosphorite deposition, with decreasing marine productivity from NW to SE evidenced by systematically falling enrichment factors for Cu, Ni, Cd and Zn in the phosphorites. Productivity declined in concert with increasing basin isolation during the deposition of the commercial phosphorite beds in the latest Paleocene to earliest

  13. The first Late Eocene continental faunal assemblage from tropical North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo; Smith, Krister T.; Guerrero-Arenas, Rosalia; Alvarado-Ortega, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    To date, the terrestrial faunal record of the North American late Eocene has been recovered from its subtropical and temperate regions. We report the first late Eocene continental faunal assemblage from tropical North America, in southern Mexico. Fossil specimens were collected from mudstones that crop out in the Municipality of Santiago Yolomécatl, in northwestern Oaxaca. Previously published K-Ar ages of 32.9 ± 0.9 and 35.7 ± 1.0 Ma in overlain nearby volcanic rocks and biostratigraphy of these new localities suggests a Chadronian mammal age for this new local fauna. The assemblage is composed by two turtle taxa, Rhineura, two caniform taxa, a sciurid, a jimomyid rodent, a geomyine rodent, Gregorymys, Leptochoerus, Perchoerus probus, Merycoidodon, a protoceratid, Poebrotherium, Nanotragulus, Miohippus assinoboiensis, a chalicotherid, a tapiroid, cf. Amynodontopsis, Trigonias and the hymenopteran ichnofossils Celliforma curvata and Fictovichnus sciuttoi. The records of these taxa in northwestern Oaxaca greatly expand southerly their former geographic distribution in North America. The records of the geomorph rodents and Nanotragulus extend their former known biochronological range to the late Eocene. The hymenopteran ichnofossils in the localities suggest the presence of a bare soil after periodic waterlogging, under a sub-humid to sub-arid climate. This new local fauna represents the first glimpse of Eocene vertebrate and invertebrate terrestrial life from tropical North America.

  14. A high resolution study of trace elements and stable isotopes in oyster shells to estimate central asian middle eocene seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougeois, L.; de Rafélis, M.; Reichart, G.-J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165599081; de Nooijer, L.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337998132; Nicollin, F.; Dupont-Nivet, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313092559

    2014-01-01

    Modern Asian climate is characterized by strong seasonality caused by the duality between monsoon-dominated conditions in southeastern Asia and semi-arid to arid conditions in Central Asia. Eocene high-resolution proxy records which enable the reconstruction of the onset and magnitude of changes in

  15. Fossil Atherospermataceae from lower Eocene sediments of Austria: Laurelia Juss. from the EECO section at Krappfeld in Carinthia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Christa-Ch.; Egger, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Laurelia Juss. (Atherospermataceae R. Br.) today is a disjunct genus in the southern hemisphere that inhabit temperate moist forests of South America and New Zealand. Unequivocal Atherospermataceae fossils are still rare and are known since the Upper Cretaceous from the southern hemisphere. Here, we present the first findings of Laurelia pollen in the northern hemisphere, preserved in EECO (Early Eocene Climate Optimum) sediments in southern Austria. The sediments of the Paleogene Holzer Formation rest with an erosional unconformity on Campanian rocks, is 8 m-thick and composed of soft red and green claystone, and coaly lenses rich in terrestrial palynomorphs. The pollen and spores were examined with LM and SEM and assigned to botanical families and genera. Overall, three different palynomorph-rich facies were identified: The first, at the base of the Holzer Formation, is characterized by abundant and diverse fern spores, various Arecaceae, Myricaceae, and Juglandaceae. The second is from the black transgressive shale and characterized by the co-occurrence of marine dinoflagellates and Normapolles, Nypa, palm pollen, and Avicennia. The third facies is dominated by wind pollinated triporate taxa (e.g., Normapolles, Myricaceae, Juglandaceae), monosulcate palm taxa and numerous fern spores. The Atherospermataceae pollen, which resembles most closely the genus Laurelia Juss., were encountered in low numbers in all three facies of the Holzer Formation, but previously misidentified. The reason lies in the aperture type: Atherospermataceae pollen are composed of two hemispherical halves that are separated by a complete ring-like aperture or an incomplete a ring-like aperture that acts as a zone of weakness so that the deposited fossil pollen, tend to fall apart. Most fossil Laurelia pollen in the Krappfeld are preserved as rolled up individual halves and look like boat-shaped sulcate pollen grains of monocots or basal angiosperms; preservation of complete grains is rare

  16. Occurrence and distribution of bacterial tetraether lipids in the Eocene Canadian Arctic paleosols: paleoclimate implications (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, S.; Jahren, A.; Schubert, B.; Eberle, J. J.; Summons, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Early to Middle Eocene (~56-45 Ma) was a “greenhouse” interval with average global temperatures warmer than any other time in the Cenozoic. This period was characterized by warm climates at high latitude leading to lush forests and the arrival of new mammal groups north of the Arctic Circle (>73°N). Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids characteristic of certain archaea and bacteria and it has been demonstrated that branched and cyclic GDGTs derived from soil bacteria vary in structure as a function of environmental factors. Proxies based on the relative abundances of methyl branched and cyclopentyl bacterial tetraethers are hypothesized to correlate with mean annual air temperature and soil pH. Here we present the occurrence and distribution of GDGTs in a range of paleosol and sediment samples from Axel Heiberg Island and Ellesmere Island, Nunavut (eastern Canadian Arctic) and Banks Island in the Northwest Territories (western Canadian Arctic). Preliminary results on 11 paleosol samples from the middle Eocene-aged Geodetic Hills Fossil Forest on Axel Heiberg Island indicate a mean annual air temperature of about 9°C. Earlier paleotemperature estimates for Axel Heiberg Island led to values ranging from 9°C to 15°C for the Middle Eocene. Recent temperature prediction for Ellesmere Island (Early Eocene) based upon oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal and fish fossils led to ~8°C. In contrast, GDGTs from a marine sedimentary sequence from Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean led to much higher Early Eocene temperature. Thus, the evaluation of the paleotemperature for the Early to Middle Eocene is still a subject of controversy. Ongoing GDGTs analysis of samples from Ellesmere and Banks Islands should give a more comprehensive paleoenvironmental description of the Eocene Arctic. Differences observed between the various paleotemperature estimates will also be discussed. GDGTs distributions are

  17. Late Eocene to early Oligocene quantitative paleotemperature record: evidence from continental halite fluid inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-jun; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Cheng-lin; Liu, Bao-kun; Ma, Li-chun; Wang, Li-cheng

    2014-07-22

    Climate changes within Cenozoic extreme climate events such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the First Oligocene Glacial provide good opportunities to estimate the global climate trends in our present and future life. However, quantitative paleotemperatures data for Cenozoic climatic reconstruction are still lacking, hindering a better understanding of the past and future climate conditions. In this contribution, quantitative paleotemperatures were determined by fluid inclusion homogenization temperature (Th) data from continental halite of the first member of the Shahejie Formation (SF1; probably late Eocene to early Oligocene) in Bohai Bay Basin, North China. The primary textures of the SF1 halite typified by cumulate and chevron halite suggest halite deposited in a shallow saline water and halite Th can serve as an temperature proxy. In total, one-hundred-twenty-one Th data from primary and single-phase aqueous fluid inclusions with different depths were acquired by the cooling nucleation method. The results show that all Th range from 17.7°C to 50.7°C,with the maximum homogenization temperatures (ThMAX) of 50.5°C at the depth of 3028.04 m and 50.7°C at 3188.61 m, respectively. Both the ThMAX presented here are significantly higher than the highest temperature recorded in this region since 1954 and agree with global temperature models for the year 2100 predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  18. Atmospheric CO2 variations on orbital time scale during the Paleocene and Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, R. E.; Westerhold, T.; Littler, K.; Zachos, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-million-year proxy records (d13C, d18O, %CaCO3, Fe, etc.) show prominent variations on orbital time scale during the Paleocene and Eocene. The cycles have been identified at various sites across the globe and preferentially concentrate spectral power at eccentricity and precessional frequencies. It is almost certain that these cycles are an expression of changes in global climate and carbon cycling paced by orbital variations. However, little is currently known about (1) the driving mechanism linking orbital forcing to changes in climate and carbon cycling and (2) the amplitude of atmospheric CO2 variations associated with these cycles. We have used simple and complex carbon cycle models to explore the basic effect of different orbital forcing schemes and noise on the carbon cycle by forcing different carbon cycle parameters. For direct insolation forcing (opposed to eccentricity - tilt - precession), one major challenge is understanding how the system transfers spectral power from high to low frequencies. We will discuss feasible solutions to this problem, including insolation transformations analogous to electronic AC-DC conversion (DC'ing). Our results show that high-latitude mechanisms are unlikely drivers of orbitally paced changes in the Paleocene-Eocene Earth system. Based on a synthesis of modeling and proxy data analysis, we present the first estimates of orbital-scale variations in atmospheric CO2 during the Paleocene and Eocene.

  19. Insights into the early Eocene hydrological cycle from an ensemble of atmosphere-ocean GCM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Matthew; Lunt, Daniel; Pancost, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies utilising a range of geochemical proxies have indicated that a significant perturbation to global hydrology occurred at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 Ma). An enhanced hydrological cycle for the warm early Eocene is also suggested to have played a key role in maintaining high-latitude warmth during this interval. Comparisons of proxy data to General Circulation Model (GCM) simulated hydrology have not widely been made however, and inter-model variability remains poorly characterised despite significant differences in simulated surface temperatures. In this work, we address this by undertaking an intercomparison of GCM-derived precipitation distributions within the EoMIP ensemble (Lunt et al., 2012), which includes previously-published early Eocene simulations performed using five GCMs differing in boundary conditions, model structure and precipitation-relevant parameterisation schemes. We show that an intensified hydrological cycle is simulated for all Eocene simulations relative to preindustrial. This is primarily due to elevated atmospheric paleo-CO2, although the effects of differences in paleogeography/ice sheets are also of importance in some models. For a given CO2 level, globally-averaged precipitation rates vary widely between models, largely as a result of different climate sensitivities (dT/dCO2) and differing parameterisation schemes. Despite this, models with similar global precipitation sensitivities (dP/dT) display different regional responses for a given temperature change. Regions which are particularly model sensitive include the South Pacific, tropical Africa and the Tethys and may represent targets for future proxy acquisition. A comparison of leaf-fossil-derived precipitation estimates with GCM data illustrates that models tend to unanimously underestimate early Eocene precipitation rates at high latitudes. Models which warm these regions via elevated CO2 or by utilising alternative parameterisations are most

  20. Before the freeze: otoliths from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica, reveal dominance of gadiform fishes (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Mörs, Thomas; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Reguero, Marcelo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp. nov., Macruronus eastmani sp. nov., Coelorinchus balushkini sp. nov., Coelorinchus nordenskjoeldi sp. nov., Palimphemus seymourensis sp. nov., Hoplobrotula? antipoda sp. nov., Notoberyx cionei gen. et sp. nov. and Cepola anderssoni sp. nov. Macruronus eastmani sp. nov. is also known from the late Eocene of Southern Australia, and Tripterophycis immutatus Schwarzhans, widespread in the southern oceans during the Eocene, has been recorded from New Zealand, southern Australia, and now Antarctica. The otolith assemblage shows a typical composition of temperate fishes dominated by gadiforms, very similar at genus and family levels to associations known from middle Eocene strata of New Zealand and the late Eocene of southern Australia, but also to the temperate Northern Hemisphere associations from the Paleocene of Denmark. The Seymour Island fauna bridges a gap in the record of global temperate marine teleost faunas during the early Eocene climate maximum. The dominant gadiforms are interpreted as the main temperate faunal component, as in the Paleocene of Denmark. Here they are represented by the families Moridae, Merlucciidae (Macruroninae), Macrouridae and Gadidae. Nowadays Gadidae are a chiefly Northern Hemisphere temperate family. Moridae, Macruroninae and Macrouridae live today on the lower shelf to deep-water or mesopelagically with Macruroninae being restricted to the Southern Ocean. The extant endemic Antarctic gadiform family

  1. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Laurent, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The Early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene fluvio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which...

  2. Crown Group Lejeuneaceae and Pleurocarpous Mosses in Early Eocene (Ypresian) Indian Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Bechteler, Julia; Lee, Gaik Ee; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Hedenäs, Lars; Singh, Hukam; Pócs, Tamás; Nascimbene, Paul C; Peralta, Denilson F; Renner, Matt; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2016-01-01

    Cambay amber originates from the warmest period of the Eocene, which is also well known for the appearance of early angiosperm-dominated megathermal forests. The humid climate of these forests may have triggered the evolution of epiphytic lineages of bryophytes; however, early Eocene fossils of bryophytes are rare. Here, we present evidence for lejeuneoid liverworts and pleurocarpous mosses in Cambay amber. The preserved morphology of the moss fossil is inconclusive for a detailed taxonomic treatment. The liverwort fossil is, however, distinctive; its zig-zagged stems, suberect complicate-bilobed leaves, large leaf lobules, and small, deeply bifid underleaves suggest a member of Lejeuneaceae subtribe Lejeuneinae (Harpalejeunea, Lejeunea, Microlejeunea). We tested alternative classification possibilities by conducting divergence time estimates based on DNA sequence variation of Lejeuneinae using the age of the fossil for corresponding age constraints. Consideration of the fossil as a stem group member of Microlejeunea or Lejeunea resulted in an Eocene to Late Cretaceous age of the Lejeuneinae crown group. This reconstruction is in good accordance with published divergence time estimates generated without the newly presented fossil evidence. Balancing available evidence, we describe the liverwort fossil as the extinct species Microlejeunea nyiahae, representing the oldest crown group fossil of Lejeuneaceae.

  3. Optimum Safety Levels for Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    statistics and structure response. The study comprises the influence of interest rate, service lifetime, downtime costs and damage accumulation. Design limit states and safety classes for breakwaters are discussed. The results indicate that optimum safety levels are somewhat higher than the safety levels......Optimum design safety levels for rock and cube armoured rubble mound breakwaters without superstructure are investigated by numerical simulations on the basis of minimization of the total costs over the service life of the structure, taking into account typical uncertainties related to wave...

  4. A "tropical" Early Eocene marine environment on the Antarctic margin: TEX86 results from IODP expedition 318

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendle, J. A.; Bijl, P.; Toney, J. L.; Pross, J.; Contreras, L.; Schouten, S.; Roehl, U.; Tauxe, L.; Huber, M.; Brinkhuis, H.; Scientific Team of IODP Drilling Leg 318

    2011-12-01

    The early Eocene was characterised by high pCO2 (ca.1,000 to more than 2,000ppm) and mean global temperatures that reached a long-term maximum. Relative to the present day, meridional temperature gradients were unusually low, with warmer equatorial regions and much warmer subtropical Arctic and mid-latitude climates. Yet global climatic conditions during this pre-glacial interval have remained poorly constrained, as only a few temperature records are available portraying the Cenozoic climatic evolution of the high southern latitudes. Here we present dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and organic geochemical tetraether based sea-surface temperature estimates from IODP expedition 318, extracted from bio- and magnetostratigraphically dated, late early to early middle Eocene sediments recovered at Site U1356. For the first time, we reconstruct marine temperatures and ecological conditions from the Eocene Greenhouse world in direct proximity to the Antarctic continent. Early Eocene dinocyst assemblages are dominated by tropical dinocyst genus Apectodinium, whilst TEX86 results indicate persistent and remarkable warmth, with the magnitude of the reconstructed SSTs dependent on the applied calibration: TEX86-L = 20 - 26°C (Av. 23°C); TEX86-H = 27 - 33°C (Av. 32°C). Our marine based proxies are just several strands from multiple independent lines of evidence emerging from the Early Eocene of the Wilkes Land Antarctic margin, including: pollen, terrestrial biomarkers (e.g. MBT/CBT-MAT estimates of 22 - 27°C , Av. 26°C), compound specific plant wax D/H measurements and clay minerals. Taken together, this evidence of very high temperatures, thermophilic fauna, an invigorated hydrological cycle, chemically weathered soils and well developed wetlands gives a very compelling picture of environmental conditions comparable to the modern tropics. These results confirm that exceptionally warm polar-regions are a feature common to reconstructed Greenhouse periods. Such

  5. Eocene global warming events driven by ventilation of oceanic dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Philip F; Norris, Richard D; Wilson, Paul A; Pälike, Heiko; Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Bolton, Clara T; Gibbs, Samantha

    2011-03-17

    'Hyperthermals' are intervals of rapid, pronounced global warming known from six episodes within the Palaeocene and Eocene epochs (∼65-34 million years (Myr) ago). The most extreme hyperthermal was the ∼170 thousand year (kyr) interval of 5-7 °C global warming during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Myr ago). The PETM is widely attributed to massive release of greenhouse gases from buried sedimentary carbon reservoirs, and other, comparatively modest, hyperthermals have also been linked to the release of sedimentary carbon. Here we show, using new 2.4-Myr-long Eocene deep ocean records, that the comparatively modest hyperthermals are much more numerous than previously documented, paced by the eccentricity of Earth's orbit and have shorter durations (∼40 kyr) and more rapid recovery phases than the PETM. These findings point to the operation of fundamentally different forcing and feedback mechanisms than for the PETM, involving redistribution of carbon among Earth's readily exchangeable surface reservoirs rather than carbon exhumation from, and subsequent burial back into, the sedimentary reservoir. Specifically, we interpret our records to indicate repeated, large-scale releases of dissolved organic carbon (at least 1,600 gigatonnes) from the ocean by ventilation (strengthened oxidation) of the ocean interior. The rapid recovery of the carbon cycle following each Eocene hyperthermal strongly suggests that carbon was re-sequestered by the ocean, rather than the much slower process of silicate rock weathering proposed for the PETM. Our findings suggest that these pronounced climate warming events were driven not by repeated releases of carbon from buried sedimentary sources, but, rather, by patterns of surficial carbon redistribution familiar from younger intervals of Earth history.

  6. OPTIMUM RESOURCE ALLOCATION AMONG SELECTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr kayce

    This study examined optimum cropping patterns for selected root and tuber crop based production and resource .... period, Pk is marketing expense per unit of the kth crop sold, Yk is quantity of the kth crop sold, Fk is yield of the kth ... depending on whether such activity is sole crop or mixed crop. Restrictions in the model: ...

  7. Modulus optimum for digital controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víteèek Antonín

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the popular modulus optimum with the original approach for the conventional digital controllers. The use of the D-transform allows obtaining the uniform computing formulas for the values of the digital and analog controller tuning parameters. The use is shown on an example.

  8. Palaeocology of coal-bearing Eocene sediments in central Anatolia (Turkey) based on quantitative palynological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkiraz, M.S.; Kayseri, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the lignite-bearing Yoncali formation between Yozgat and Sorgun, in central Anatolia has been palynologically examined. Based on 37 outcrop samples, quantitative palynological studies recognized 64 genera and 136 palynoflora species in the palynological assemblage, which indicated a Middle-Late Eocene age. This paper also presents a quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Middle-Upper Eocene coal occurrences of Central Anatolia on the basis of palynomorph assemblages. The diversified floral and ecological characteristics of the pollen taxa indicates that the Middle-Upper Eocene formations in central Anatolia were characterized by the presence of a complex mangrove swamp with contributions by Nypa, Pelliciera, Avicennia, Diporites tszkaszentgydrgyi and dinoflagellate cysts which reflect warm climatic conditions. Lowland-riparian and montane elements are characterized by the dominance of Myricaceae, Symplocaceae, Icacinaceae, Quercus, Pinus and Castanea. Swamp-freshwater elements are represented by Sparganjaceae, Nymphaceae, Taxodjaceae, Cupressaceae and Nyssa as well as fern spores such as Osmundaceae and Gleicheniaceae. The calculations were performed with the help of the 'Coexistence Approach' method to climatically evaluate palynoflora from the Yozgat-Sorgun area. The obtained results have been compared to data derived from the application of the Coexistence Approach to other, already published Central Anatolian palynofloras of the same age. The results of the climatic inferences suggest that the palaeoclimatic conditions were in the megathermal zone, megatherm/mesotherm intermediate zone whereas mesothermic conditions prevailed in the montane region. Likewise, the results of mean annual range of temperatures indicate the influence of the Indian ocean, which enabled the development of the mangroves.

  9. Atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate impacts of alternative warming scenarios for the Eocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carlson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in modelling the warm climates of the early Eocene shows that it is possible to obtain a reasonable global match between model surface temperature and proxy reconstructions, but only by using extremely high atmospheric CO2 concentrations or more modest CO2 levels complemented by a reduction in global cloud albedo. Understanding the mix of radiative forcing that gave rise to Eocene warmth has important implications for constraining Earth's climate sensitivity, but progress in this direction is hampered by the lack of direct proxy constraints on cloud properties. Here, we explore the potential for distinguishing among different radiative forcing scenarios via their impact on regional climate changes. We do this by comparing climate model simulations of two end-member scenarios: one in which the climate is warmed entirely by CO2 (which we refer to as the greenhouse gas (GHG scenario and another in which it is warmed entirely by reduced cloud albedo (which we refer to as the low CO2–thin clouds or LCTC scenario . The two simulations have an almost identical global-mean surface temperature and equator-to-pole temperature difference, but the LCTC scenario has  ∼  11 % greater global-mean precipitation than the GHG scenario. The LCTC scenario also has cooler midlatitude continents and warmer oceans than the GHG scenario and a tropical climate which is significantly more El Niño-like. Extremely high warm-season temperatures in the subtropics are mitigated in the LCTC scenario, while cool-season temperatures are lower at all latitudes. These changes appear large enough to motivate further, more detailed study using other climate models and a more realistic set of modelling assumptions.

  10. Atmospheric circulation and hydroclimate impacts of alternative warming scenarios for the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Henrik; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2017-08-01

    Recent work in modelling the warm climates of the early Eocene shows that it is possible to obtain a reasonable global match between model surface temperature and proxy reconstructions, but only by using extremely high atmospheric CO2 concentrations or more modest CO2 levels complemented by a reduction in global cloud albedo. Understanding the mix of radiative forcing that gave rise to Eocene warmth has important implications for constraining Earth's climate sensitivity, but progress in this direction is hampered by the lack of direct proxy constraints on cloud properties. Here, we explore the potential for distinguishing among different radiative forcing scenarios via their impact on regional climate changes. We do this by comparing climate model simulations of two end-member scenarios: one in which the climate is warmed entirely by CO2 (which we refer to as the greenhouse gas (GHG) scenario) and another in which it is warmed entirely by reduced cloud albedo (which we refer to as the low CO2-thin clouds or LCTC scenario) . The two simulations have an almost identical global-mean surface temperature and equator-to-pole temperature difference, but the LCTC scenario has ˜ 11 % greater global-mean precipitation than the GHG scenario. The LCTC scenario also has cooler midlatitude continents and warmer oceans than the GHG scenario and a tropical climate which is significantly more El Niño-like. Extremely high warm-season temperatures in the subtropics are mitigated in the LCTC scenario, while cool-season temperatures are lower at all latitudes. These changes appear large enough to motivate further, more detailed study using other climate models and a more realistic set of modelling assumptions.

  11. A new quantitative approach to identify reworking in Eocene to Miocene pollen records from offshore Antarctica using red fluorescence and digital imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strother, Stephanie L.; Salzmann, Ulrich; Sangiorgi, Francesca|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836982; Bijl, Peter K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314028110; Pross, Jorg; Escutia, Carlota; Salabarnada, Ariadna; Pound, Matthew J.; Voss, Jochen; Woodward, John

    2017-01-01

    Antarctic palaeoclimate evolution and vegetation history after the formation of a continent-scale cryosphere at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, 33.9 million years ago, has remained a matter of controversy. In particular, the reconstruction of terrestrial climate and vegetation has been strongly

  12. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Bourdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene flu-vio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which corresponds to the middle Ypresian, early Eocene. Here we provide a detailed description of the avian remains that were preliminarily reported in a recent study of the vertebrate fauna from La Borie. A maxilla, a quadrate, cervical vertebrae, a femur and two tibiotarsi are assigned to the giant ground bird Gastornis parisiensis (Gastornithidae. These new avian remains add to the fossil record of Gastornis, which is known from the late Paleocene to middle Eocene of Europe, early Eocene of Asia and early Eocene of North America. Gastornis parisiensis differs from the North American Gastornis giganteus in several features, including the more ventral position of the narial openings and the slender orbital process of quadrate. Two tibiotarsi and one tarsometatarsus are assigned to a new genus and species of Geranoididae, Galligeranoides boriensis gen. et sp. nov. So far, this family was known only from the early and middle Eocene of North America. The fossils from La Borie constitute the first record of the Geranoididae in Europe. We show that Gastornis coexisted with the Geranoididae in the early Eocene of both Europe (La Borie and North America (Willwood Formation. The presence of Geranoididae and the large flightless bird Gastornis on either side of the present-day North Atlantic provides further evidence that a high-latitude land connection existed between Europe and North America in the early Eocene.

  13. Optimum windmill-site matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salameh, Z.M.; Safari, I. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    In this paper a methodology for the selection of the optimum windmill for a specific site is developed. The selection windmill for a specific site is developed. The selection is based on finding the capacity factors (CF) of the available windmills. This is done by using long term wind speed data recorded at different hours of the day for many years. This data is then used to generate mean wind speeds for a typical day in a month. Probability density functions for the mean wind speeds for the different hours of the day are generated with the manufacturer's specifications on windmills used to calculate the capacity factors for the windmills. The windmill with the highest average capacity factor for the specific site is the optimum one and to be recommended.

  14. Optimum design of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    This book helps designers and manufacturers to select and develop the most suitable and competitive steel structures, which are safe, fit for production and economic. An optimum design system is used to find the best characteristics of structural models, which guarantee the fulfilment of design and fabrication requirements and minimize the cost function. Realistic numerical models are used as main components of industrial steel structures. Chapter 1 containts some experiences with the optimum design of steel structures Chapter 2 treats some newer mathematical optimization methods. Chapter 3 gives formulae for fabrication times and costs. Chapters 4 deals with beams and columns. Summarizes the Eurocode rules for design. Chapter 5 deals with the design of tubular trusses. Chapter 6 gives the design of frame structures and fire-resistant design rules for a frame. In Chapters 7 some minimum cost design problems of stiffened and cellular plates and shells are worked out for cases of different stiffenings and loads...

  15. Global Effects Of Late Eocene Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusz, A. E.; Miller, K. G.; Kent, D. V.; Wright, J. D.; Wade, B. S.; Aubry, M. P.

    2007-05-01

    Two of the three largest impact craters found on Earth since 200 Ma (Popigai and the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure or CBIS) are late Eocene (~35.4-35.5 Ma based on radiometric ages) and are well preserved, yet the environmental response to these near synchronous and large impacts is poorly understood. No extinction events are recorded in coccolithophorids, planktonic or benthic foraminifera at this time, and terrestrial biota appear unaffected. The late Eocene global temperature history and carbon budget are poorly constrained because of sparsely sampled δ18O and δ13C records. We present new microfauna and nannoplankton evidence and stable isotopic data that show: 1) minimal biotic and temperature response associated with the impacts; and 2) a large and transient carbon isotope excursion associated with the impacts that reflect a major change in the global carbon budget. Southern Ocean ODP Site 1090 provides an exceptional record to test if a carbon isotopic anomaly is associated with the late Eocene impacts because benthic foraminifera are well preserved, the identified ejecta horizon is marked by an Ir anomaly (~950pg/g; Kyte and Liu, 2002), and the magnetostratigraphic age control is excellent (Channell et al., 2003). A first-order correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale at Site 1090 places the impact ejecta horizon in Chron C16n.1n (279.01 mbsf) with a corresponding age of ~35.4 Ma, consistent with published radiometric ages. We generated a high-resolution carbon and oxygen stable isotope record of benthic foraminifera across the impact ejecta layer from 34.6-35.8 Ma (8 kyr sampling) and 33.7-36 Ma (16 kyr sampling). Our results show that a transient carbon isotope decrease (277-278 mbsf) of 0.4-0.5% is associated with the impact horizon. The δ13C anomaly persists for ~250 kyr; then the signal returns to `pre-impact' values. Following recovery from the transient excursion there were no long-term changes in global carbon isotopic values

  16. Eocene chert resources of Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carman, G.J.; St John, V.P.

    1986-05-01

    The Eocene Port Moresby beds consist of chert, siliceous argillite, and calcarenite in a 3000-m sequence. A northwest grain and severe topography at outcrop reflect 50/sup 0/-80/sup 0/ structural dips, northeastward-inclined, low-angle thrust faults, and high-angle reverse faults. Within the fault slices, symmetrical folds plunge toward the northwest, and syntaphral folds occur intermittently. The cherts are comprised of biogenic silica and rarer spherulitic, fibrous chalcedony in massive nodular concretions up to 2 m in diameter and as competent, repetitive, 10 to 30-cm thick beds. The calcarenites are richly nummulitic, partly silicified, and contain chert nodules. Radiolaria, planktonic foraminifera, and sponge spicules predominate over reworked fauna in the cherts. Microlaminations and sparse pyrite endorse the interpretation of sheltered, possibly deep, and rapid deposition in a reducing environment. Chert and cherty limestone crop out again, 200 km northwest at Hell's Gate, Saw Mountains. Oil and gas seeps in the intervening Lakekamu-Moresby Embayment were first recorded 75 years ago, and seismic interpretation confirms the presence of buried thrust folds. Gas and Oil fluorescence was recorded in four vintage wells, but none have tested the Eocene. Like the Monterey Formation, fractured radiolarian cherts have potential as a resource in terms of both reservoir and source. Moresby chert deposition is possibly related to opening of the Coral Sea. The chert diagenesis and thermal maturation were probably influenced by Paleogene overthrusting of oceanic crust 100 km east, Neogene uplift of the Mesozoic metamorphics in the 4000-m Owen Stanley Range, and consequential southwesterly detachment folding of the Tertiary section.

  17. Astronomically paced middle Eocene deepwater circulation in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Lohmann, Gerrit; Pälike, Heiko; Zachos, James C.

    2017-04-01

    The role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) as a key player for abrupt climatic changes (e.g. Heinrich Stadials) during the Pleistocene is relatively well constrained. However, the timing of the onset of a „modern" North Atlantic Deepwater (NADW) formation are still debated: Recent estimates range from the middle Miocene to the Early Eocene [Davies et al., 2001, Stoker et al., 2005, Hohbein et al., 2012] and are mainly based on the seismic interpretation contourite drifts. Another understudied aspect of the AMOC is its behavior during climatic variations on orbital time scales and under different climatic boundary conditions (icehouse vs hothouse). IODP Expedition 342 drilled carbonate-rich sequences from sediment drifts offshore Newfoundland that cover the middle Eocene with high sedimentation rates ( 3 cm/ kyr). We present a 2 Myr long stable carbon and oxygen isotope record of benthic foraminifera nuttalides truempyi spanning magnetochron C20r in unprecedented resolution (Earth's axial tilt (obliquity). Experiments in a GCM (ECHAM5 - MPIOM, OASIS 3 coupled) indicate that temperatures in the Norwegian and Labrador Sea could have allowed for sea ice during winter in a minimal obliquity setting (22.1°), whereas temperatures are too high to allow sea ice formation under maximum obliquity (24.5°) winter conditions depending on Eocene boundary conditions (atmospheric CO2 concentration). We hypothesize that the combined effect of low temperatures in the sinking areas, an increased latitudinal SST gradient seasonal, and the potential formation of sea ice during obliquity minima results in an initial shallow NADW formation during the middle Eocene. This hypothesis is in accordance with the astronomical imprint observed in the data from IODP Site U1410. Davies, R., Cartwright, J., Pike, J., and Line, C., 2001, Early Oligocene initiation of North Atlantic deep water formation: Nature, v. 410, no. 6831, p. 917-920. Stoker, M. S., Praeg, D

  18. Optimum aggression development in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutergin N.B.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The positive lines of aggressiveness of sportsmen are exposed in relation to adaptability in sport and to adaptability out of sport. They accompany sporting and vital success. The contradictory are set to in relation to adaptability lines of aggressiveness of sportsmen. They play role of positive factors. In relation to life out of sport - subzero. The specific of interdependence of indexes of aggressiveness and skills of self-control and communicative activity of sportsmen is certain. The program of forming of optimum indexes of aggressiveness of sportsmen is developed.

  19. Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin from northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Arka; Dutta, Suryendu; Raju, Srinivasan V.

    2014-06-01

    The molecular composition of fossil resins from early to middle Eocene coal from northeast India, has been analyzed for the first time to infer their paleobotanical source. The soluble component of fossil resin was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resin extracts are composed of cadalene-based C15 sesquiterpenoids and diagenetically altered triterpenoids. The macromolecular composition was investigated using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The major pyrolysis products are C15 bicyclic sesquiterpenoids, alkylated naphthalenes, benzenes and a series of C17-C34 n-alkene- n-alkane pairs. Spectroscopic analysis revealed the dominance of aliphatic components. The presence of cadalene-based sequiterpenoids confirms the resin to be Class II or dammar resin, derived from angiosperms of Dipterocarpaceae family. These sesquiterpenoids are often detected in many SE Asian fluvio-deltaic oils. Dipterocarpaceae are characteristic of warm tropical climate suggesting the prevalence of such climate during early Eocene in northeast India.

  20. Astronomically paced changes in deep-water circulation in the western North Atlantic during the middle Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Niezgodzki, Igor; De Vleeschouwer, David; Bickert, Torsten; Harper, Dustin; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Lohmann, Gerrit; Sexton, Philip; Zachos, James; Pälike, Heiko

    2018-02-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) currently redistributes heat and salt between Earth's ocean basins, and plays a vital role in the ocean-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Despite its crucial role in today's climate system, vigorous debate remains as to when deep-water formation in the North Atlantic started. Here, we present datasets from carbonate-rich middle Eocene sediments from the Newfoundland Ridge, revealing a unique archive of paleoceanographic change from the progressively cooling climate of the middle Eocene. Well-defined lithologic alternations between calcareous ooze and clay-rich intervals occur at the ∼41-kyr beat of axial obliquity. Hence, we identify obliquity as the driver of middle Eocene (43.5-46 Ma) Northern Component Water (NCW, the predecessor of modern NADW) variability. High-resolution benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C suggest that obliquity minima correspond to cold, nutrient-depleted, western North Atlantic deep waters. We thus link stronger NCW formation with obliquity minima. In contrast, during obliquity maxima, Deep Western Boundary Currents were weaker and warmer, while abyssal nutrients were more abundant. These aspects reflect a more sluggish NCW formation. This obliquity-paced paleoceanographic regime is in excellent agreement with results from an Earth system model, in which obliquity minima configurations enhance NCW formation.

  1. Late Lutetian Thermal Maximum—Crossing a Thermal Threshold in Earth's Climate System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhold, T.; Röhl, U.; Donner, B.; Frederichs, T.; Kordesch, W. E. C.; Bohaty, S. M.; Hodell, D. A.; Laskar, J.; Zeebe, R. E.

    2018-01-01

    Recognizing and deciphering transient global warming events triggered by massive release of carbon into Earth's ocean-atmosphere climate system in the past are important for understanding climate under elevated pCO2 conditions. Here we present new high-resolution geochemical records including benthic foraminiferal stable isotope data with clear evidence of a short-lived (30 kyr) warming event at 41.52 Ma. The event occurs in the late Lutetian within magnetochron C19r and is characterized by a ˜2°C warming of the deep ocean in the southern South Atlantic. The magnitudes of the carbon and oxygen isotope excursions of the Late Lutetian Thermal Maximum are comparable to the H2 event (53.6 Ma) suggesting a similar response of the climate system to carbon cycle perturbations even in an already relatively cooler climate several million years after the Early Eocene Climate Optimum. Coincidence of the event with exceptionally high insolation values in the Northern Hemisphere at 41.52 Ma might indicate that Earth's climate system has a thermal threshold. When this tipping point is crossed, rapid positive feedback mechanisms potentially trigger transient global warming. The orbital configuration in this case could have caused prolonged warm and dry season leading to a massive release of terrestrial carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system initiating environmental change.

  2. Low-latitude arc–continent collision as a driver for global cooling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oliver Jagoutz; Francis A. Macdonald; Leigh Royden

    2016-01-01

    .... These emplacement events correspond temporally with, and are potential agents for, the global climatic cooling events that terminated the Cretaceous Thermal Maximum and the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum...

  3. Parametric Investigation of Optimum Thermal Insulation Thickness for External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Kaynakli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have estimated the optimum thickness of thermal insulation materials used in building walls for different climate conditions. The economic parameters (inflation rate, discount rate, lifetime and energy costs, the heating/cooling loads of the building, the wall structure and the properties of the insulation material all affect the optimum insulation thickness. This study focused on the investigation of these parameters that affect the optimum thermal insulation thickness for building walls. To determine the optimum thickness and payback period, an economic model based on life-cycle cost analysis was used. As a result, the optimum thermal insulation thickness increased with increasing the heating and cooling energy requirements, the lifetime of the building, the inflation rate, energy costs and thermal conductivity of insulation. However, the thickness decreased with increasing the discount rate, the insulation material cost, the total wall resistance, the coefficient of performance (COP of the cooling system and the solar radiation incident on a wall. In addition, the effects of these parameters on the total life-cycle cost, payback periods and energy savings were also investigated.

  4. Investigating Seasonal Isotopic Variability along an Early Eocene Shallow Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, J. A.; Ivany, L. C.; Schlossnagle, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    While the bulk of paleotemperature estimates are derived from microfossils in the open ocean, shelf settings can also provide detailed records of climatic and oceanographic parameters. Molluscs live in a variety of habitats, but are especially common in shallow-water shelf environments, where microfossil preservation may be rare. Isotope thermometry using mollusc shells has been the subject of considerable study and the accretionary process is generally well understood. Because shells accrete more or less continuously over a lifespan, their chemistry can additionally provide estimates of mean annual range of temperature (MART), or seasonality, a valuable complement to mean annual temperature (MAT) estimates derived from open ocean microfossils. Studies of paleotemperature through time in shelf settings typically employ a sampling scheme designed to maximize temporal coverage, with one or a few shells from each stratigraphic horizon. However, few have assessed the degree to which spatial and/or environmental variability may confound temperature estimates. Because shelf environments are affected by local processes such as runoff and evaporation, spatial variability may bias temporal trends when specimens from only one locality per temporal bin are used. Even controlling for facies through time may not be enough, as processes that typically influence oxygen isotopic composition, such as freshwater influx, can be transient events in shelf settings and hence may not be reflected in sediment composition. Here, we document the spatial variability in oxygen isotopes (and therefore MAT and MART) along an inner shelf environment in the early Eocene (~55 Ma) of the Gulf Coastal Plain (GCP; Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi and Texas) of the United States. The GCP was a shallow, mixed carbonate-siliciclastic shelf during the Paleogene. Geochemical data are derived from the aragonitic shells of the common GCP bivalve genus Venericardia, collected from the Bashi Marl and its

  5. Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha: Sciaroidea in early Eocene Cambay amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Stebner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One new genus and three new species of Lygistorrhinidae in early Eocene Cambay amber from India are described, which significantly increases our knowledge about this group in the Eocene. Lygistorrhina indica n. sp. is the oldest fossil known from this extant genus. Indorrhina sahnii n. gen. et sp. shows morphological similarities to each of the two extant genera Lygistorrhina and Asiorrhina. Palaeognoriste orientale is the third species known from a group that has only been recorded from Eocene Baltic amber before. The latter finding reveals faunal links between Cambay amber and the probably slightly younger Baltic amber, adding further evidence that faunal exchange between Europe/Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber.

  6. Middle Eocene echinoids from Gebel Qarara, Maghagh, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed Said M.

    2017-09-01

    The Middle Eocene echinoid fauna of Gebel Qarara is large and diverse. Twenty four species in seventeen genera are identified and described. Three species of them are new: Echinocyamus belali, Antillaster farisi and Metalia lindaae. The Caribbean genus Antillaster which is recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean region, suggests an east - west migration from the Tethys and Paratethys to the Caribbean region during the Eocene time by crossing the Atlantic Ocean in a westerly direction. The paleoecology and the paleogeography of the echinoid fauna are discussed. The paleoecological study appears to revel that the Middle Eocene rocks of that area were deposited in a shallow marine water conditions. Paleogeographically, 33.3% of the total echinoids are endemic to Egypt, 66.7% species are similar to that of the taxa of the adjacent countries.

  7. Preliminary Paleomagnetism of Paleocene-Eocene Boundary of the Lodo Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, W.; Pluhar, C. J.; Kemp, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    Lee & Kodama (2009) showed evidence for a short normal-polarity subchron during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. This led them to speculate on a causal relationship between this subchron and the PETM, which constituted a major climate fluctuation. If true, such a relationship would be highly significant and the presence of a subchron at the PETM would also be useful in synchronizing PETM records across the globe. Our preliminary study sought evidence to support the proposed subchron at the PETM, which had not been documented prior to Lee & Kodama's study. We collected and analyzed sediments of the Lodo formation, CA spanning the PETM using standard techniques, including stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization experiments, finding no evidence for a normal-polarity subchron, and instead revealing stable reversed polarities. This does not support Lee & Kodama's results. Further work will sample more densely and at multiple locations to ensure that no evidence of a PETM normal subchron was missed. In contrast to the excellent remanence behavior of Lodo formation PETM samples, preliminary sampling and analysis for a magnetostratigraphy spanning the whole formation revealed poor thermal demagnetization behavior. Initial hypotheses for this poor sample behavior include, unrecognized creep processes affecting the physical structure of samples, as well as rock magnetic effects. These will be investigated further in our ongoing study of the of the Lodo Formation.

  8. High Arctic Forests During the Middle Eocene Supported by ~400 ppm Atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxbauer, D. P.; Royer, D. L.; LePage, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Fossils from Paleogene High Arctic deposits provide some of the clearest evidence for greenhouse climates and offer the potential to improve our understanding of Earth system dynamics in a largely ice-free world. One of the most well-known and exquisitely-preserved middle Eocene (47.9-37.8 Myrs ago) polar forest sites, Napartulik, crops out on eastern Axel Heiberg Island (80 °N), Nunavut, Canada. An abundance of data from Napartulik suggest mean annual temperatures of up to 30 °C warmer than today and atmospheric water loads 2× above current levels. Despite this wealth of paleontological and paleoclimatological data, there are currently no direct constraints on atmospheric CO2 levels for Napartulik or any other polar forest site. Here we apply a new plant gas-exchange model to Metasequoia (dawn redwood) leaves to reconstruct atmospheric CO2 from six fossil forests at Napartulik. Individual reconstructions vary between 405-489 ppm with a site mean of 437 ppm (337-564 ppm at 95% confidence). These estimates represent the first direct constraints on CO2 for polar fossil forests and suggest that the temperate conditions present at Napartulik during the middle Eocene were maintained under CO2 concentrations ~1.6× above pre-industrial levels. Our results strongly support the case that long-term climate sensitivity to CO2 in the past was sometimes high, even during largely ice-free periods, highlighting the need to better understand the climate forcing and feedback mechanisms responsible for this amplification.

  9. Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sluijs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief (~150 kyr period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE. Biotic responses include a global abundance peak (acme of the subtropical dinoflagellate Apectodinium. Here we identify the PETM in a marine sedimentary sequence deposited on the East Tasman Plateau at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 1172 and show, based on the organic paleothermometer TEX86, that southwest Pacific sea surface temperatures increased from ~26 °C to ~33°C during the PETM. Such temperatures before, during and after the PETM are >10 °C warmer than predicted by paleoclimate model simulations for this latitude. In part, this discrepancy may be explained by potential seasonal biases in the TEX86 proxy in polar oceans. Additionally, the data suggest that not only Arctic, but also Antarctic temperatures may be underestimated in simulations of ancient greenhouse climates by current generation fully coupled climate models. An early influx of abundant Apectodinium confirms that environmental change preceded the CIE on a global scale. Organic dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest a local decrease in the amount of river run off reaching the core site during the PETM, possibly in concert with eustatic rise. Moreover, the assemblages suggest changes in seasonality of the regional hydrological system and storm activity. Finally, significant variation in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages during the PETM indicates that southwest Pacific climates varied significantly over time scales of 103 – 104 years during this event, a finding comparable to similar studies of PETM successions from the New Jersey Shelf.

  10. Eocene high-latitude temperature gradients over time and space based on d18O values of fossil shark teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, S. S.; Kim, S.; Colman, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Early-Mid Eocene (56.0-33.9Mya) is characterized by a temperate Antarctic climate and shallower latitudinal temperature gradients than those in present day. The warmer waters off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula provided suitable habitats for taxa (i.e., sharks) that live today at lower latitudes. Stable isotope analysis of Eocene shark teeth provides a proxy to understand high latitude temperature gradients. However, shark ecology, in particular migration and occupation of tidal versus pelagic habitats, must be considered in the interpretation of stable isotope data. In this study, we analyze d18OPO4 values from the enameloid of Striatolamia (synonymized with Carcharias) shark teeth from the La Meseta formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica) to estimate paleotemperature in Early-Mid Eocene Antarctica, and assess the impact of ecology versus environmental signals on d18OPO4 values. We compare the ranges and offsets between our measured shark tooth d18OPO4 and published bivalve d18OCO3 values to test whether shark teeth record signals of migration across latitudinal temperature gradients, or instead reflect seasonal and long-term temporal variation across La Meseta stratigraphic units.

  11. Salinity of the Early and Middle Eocene Arctic Ocean From Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Fish Bone Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L. M.; Moore, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions indicate that the Arctic was largely isolated from the world ocean during the early and middle Eocene, with exchange limited to shallow, and possibly intermittent, connections to the North Atlantic and Tethys (via the Turgay Strait). Relative isolation, combined with an intensification of the hydrologic cycle under an Eocene greenhouse climate, is suspected to have led to the development of a low- salinity surface water layer in the Arctic that could have affected deep and intermediate convection in the North Atlantic. Sediment cores recently recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge by the IODP 302 Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) allow for the first assessment of the salinity of the Arctic Ocean during the early and middle Eocene. Stable isotope analysis performed on the structural carbonate of fish bone apatite from ~30 samples between the ages of ~55 and ~44 myr yielded δ18O values between -6.84‰ and -2.96‰ VPDB, with a mean value of -4.89‰. From the δ18O values we calculate that the Arctic Ocean was probably brackish during most of the early and middle Eocene, with an average salinity of 19 to 24‰. Negative excursions in the δ18O record (<-6‰) indicate three events during which the salinity of the Arctic surface waters was severely lowered: the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the Azolla event at ~49 Ma, and a third previously unidentified event at ~46 Ma. During the PETM, low salinities developed under conditions of increased regional precipitation and runoff associated with extreme high latitude warmth and possible tectonic uplift in the North Atlantic. During the other two low-salinity events, sea level was lowered by ~20-30 m, implying a possible severing of Arctic connections to the world ocean. The most positive δ18O value (-2.96‰) occurs at ~45 Ma, the age of the youngest dropstone discovered in the ACEX sediments, and may therefore correspond to a climatic cooling rather than a high salinity event.

  12. NICMOS Optimum Coronagraphic Focus Determinaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Glenn

    2001-07-01

    As originally designed the NICMOS coronagraph had two focii at conjugate points in the optical path with the coronagraphic hole at the f/24 focus of the input OTA beam, and the detector at the reimaged f/45 focus in Camera 2. Because of the forward displacement of the cold optical bench holding the Camera 2 detector, as a result of the larger-than-expected expansion of the solid N2 cryogen {as described and documented by the 'Dewar Anomoly Review Board'}, the two focii are now aconjugate. For direct imaging this is of little concern, and the HST/NICMOS Camera 2 focus interface is established by co-locating the f/45 image plane on the detector. This is done by de-spacing the relayed focus through a translative motion {with compensating comal tilt correction} of the Pupil Alignment Mechanism {PAM}. The mirror which this mechanism drives is upstream of the field divider mirror upon which the coronagraphic hole resides. Therefore, achieving a "best" focus at the detector results in a "soft" focus {in the f/24 image plane} at the coronagraphic hole. This leads to a wavelength-dependent increase in the diffracted energy in the now-defocused unocculted wings of a PSF from a target placed inside of the coronagraphic hole {as the f/24 image plane will fall behind the surface of the camera 2 field divider mirror} increasing the scattered and diffracted background around the target and lowering the field contrast at the detector image plane. In principal the coronagraphic stray light rejection would be most efficient by minimizing the spot size of an input PSF in the hole. This, however, is traded against a small degree of defocus at the detector. Ultimately, the best coronagraphic performance is achieved where the image contrast between an unocculted target and the residual background from an occulted source {both affected differently by focus and subsequent scattering} is maximized. The purpose of this test is to find the optimum PAM position to maximize the coronagraphic

  13. Maastrichtian Paleocene and Eocene pollen and spores from Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeken-Klinkenberg, van P.M.J.

    1966-01-01

    In order to continue the investigation of the Nigerian Maastrichtian pollenflora (van Hoeken-Klinkenberg, 1964) with Lower Tertiary material, a study has been made of some boreholesamples of the Maastrichtian, Paleocene and Eocene in Nigeria. A comparison is made with the South American pollen and

  14. Characterization of middle Eocene tide-influenced delta: a study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    42

    The Hazad Member (Middle Eocene) of the Ankleswar Formation in Cambay Basin, India, is traditionally reported as .... derived from acid igneous and high rank metamorphic source rocks (Mohan et al. 1990). 3. Materials .... middle and upper part of the successions in the central and eastern part of the basin, respectively.

  15. A diverse Eocene fish scale assemblage from Seymour Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Vodrážka, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 895-908 ISSN 1280-9659 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Teleostei * scales * lepidology * Eocene * La Meseta Formation Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2012

  16. Asian monsoons in a late Eocene greenhouse world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, A.; van Cappelle, M.; Abels, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848018; Ladant, J.-B.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311482465; France-Lanord, C.; Donnadieu, Y.; Vandenberghe, J.; Rigaudier, T.; Lécuyer, C.; Terry, D.; Adriaens, R.; Boura, A.; Guo, Z.; Naing Soe, Aung; Quade, J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313092559; Jaeger, J.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The strong present-day Asian monsoons are thought to have originated between 25 and 22 million years (Myr) ago, driven by Tibetan–Himalayan uplift. However, the existence of older Asian monsoons and their response to enhanced greenhouse conditions such as those in the Eocene period (55–34 Myr ago)

  17. Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The molecular composition of fossil resins from early to middle Eocene coal from northeast India, has been analyzed for the first time to infer their paleobotanical source. The soluble component of fossil resin was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The resin extracts are composed of ...

  18. Towards a robust and consistent middle Eocene astronomical timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Slah; Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; De Vleeschouwer, David; Laskar, Jacques; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Pälike, Heiko; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Sexton, Philip F.; Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula

    2018-03-01

    Until now, the middle Eocene has remained a poorly constrained interval of efforts to produce an astrochronological timescale for the entire Cenozoic. This has given rise to a so-called "Eocene astronomical timescale gap" (Vandenberghe et al., 2012). A high-resolution astrochronological calibration for this interval has proven to be difficult to realize, mainly because carbonate-rich deep-marine sequences of this age are scarce. In this paper, we present records from middle Eocene carbonate-rich sequences from the North Atlantic Southeast Newfoundland Ridge (IODP Exp. 342, Sites U1408 and U1410), of which the cyclical sedimentary patterns allow for an orbital calibration of the geologic timescale between ∼38 and ∼48 Ma. These carbonate-rich cyclic sediments at Sites U1408 and U1410 were deposited as drift deposits and exhibit prominent lithological alternations (couplets) between greenish nannofossil-rich clay and white nannofossil ooze. The principal lithological couplet is driven by the obliquity of Earth's axial tilt, and the intensity of their expression is modulated by a cyclicity of about 173 kyr. This cyclicity corresponds to the interference of secular frequencies s3 and s6 (related to the precession of nodes of the Earth and Saturn, respectively). This 173-kyr obliquity amplitude modulation cycle is exceptionally well recorded in the XRF (X-ray fluorescence)-derived Ca/Fe ratio. In this work, we first demonstrate the stability of the (s3-s6) cycles using the latest astronomical solutions. Results show that this orbital component is stable back to at least 50 Ma, and can thus serve as a powerful geochronometer in the mid-Eocene portion of the Cenozoic timescale. We then exploit this potential by calibrating the geochronology of the recovered middle Eocene timescale between magnetic polarity Chrons C18n.1n and C21n. Comparison with previous timescales shows similarities, but also notable differences in durations of certain magnetic polarity chrons. We

  19. A new find of the fossil Cyclosorus from the Eocene of South China and its paleoclimatic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugolnykh, Serge V; Wang, Li; Han, Meng; Jin, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The thelypteroid ferns are widely distributed across tropical regions around the world, but information about their fossil representatives is scarce. A new species, Cyclosorus scutum Naugolnykh, Wang, Han et Jin was discovered from the Eocene Changchang Formation of Hainan Island, South China, and is described on the basis of sterile and fertile leaves, sori, sporangia and spores preserved in situ. Discovery of this new species clearly shows that climatic conditions of that time in this area were humid, i.e. warm and wet.

  20. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A., E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Sivapalan, Subarna, E-mail: subarna-sivapalan@petronas.com.my [Department of Management and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  1. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

    2014-10-01

    Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  2. Fire and ecosystem change in the Arctic across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Elizabeth H.; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2017-06-01

    Fire has been an important component of ecosystems on a range of spatial and temporal scales. Fire can affect vegetation distribution, the carbon cycle, and climate. The relationship between climate and fire is complex, in large part because of a key role of vegetation type. Here, we evaluate regional scale fire-climate relationships during a past global warming event, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), in order to understand how vegetation influenced the links between climate and fire occurrence in the Arctic region. To document concurrent changes in climate, vegetation, and fire occurrence, we evaluated biomarkers, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), terpenoids, and alkanes, from the PETM interval at a marine depositional site (IODP site 302, the Lomonosov Ridge) in the Arctic Ocean. Biomarker, fossil, and isotope evidence from site 302 indicates that terrestrial vegetation changed during the PETM. The abundance of the C29n-alkanes, pollen, and the ratio of leaf-wax n-alkanes relative to diterpenoids all indicate that proportional contributions from angiosperm vegetation increased relative to that from gymnosperms. These changes accompanied increased moisture transport to the Arctic and higher temperatures, as recorded by previously published proxy records. We find that PAH abundances were elevated relative to total plant biomarkers throughout the PETM, and suggest that fire occurrence increased relative to plant productivity. The fact that fire frequency or prevalence may have increased during wetter Arctic conditions suggests that changes in fire occurrence were not a simple function of aridity, as is commonly conceived. Instead, we suggest that the climate-driven ecological shift to angiosperm-dominated vegetation was what led to increased fire occurrence. Potential increases in terrestrial plant biomass that arose from warm, wet, and high CO2 conditions were possibly attenuated by biomass burning associated with compositional changes

  3. NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...

  4. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  5. Eocene diversification of crown group rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-R, Juan C; Gibb, Gillian C; Trewick, Steve A

    2014-01-01

    Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves.

  6. Insect herbivory, plant defense, and early Cenozoic climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, P; Labandeira, C C; Johnson, K R; Coley, P D; Cutter, A D

    2001-05-22

    Insect damage on fossil leaves from the Central Rocky Mountains, United States, documents the response of herbivores to changing regional climates and vegetation during the late Paleocene (humid, warm temperate to subtropical, predominantly deciduous), early Eocene (humid subtropical, mixed deciduous and evergreen), and middle Eocene (seasonally dry, subtropical, mixed deciduous and thick-leaved evergreen). During all three time periods, greater herbivory occurred on taxa considered to have short rather than long leaf life spans, consistent with studies in living forests that demonstrate the insect resistance of long-lived, thick leaves. Variance in herbivory frequency and diversity was highest during the middle Eocene, indicating the increased representation of two distinct herbivory syndromes: one for taxa with deciduous, palatable foliage, and the other for hosts with evergreen, thick-textured, small leaves characterized by elevated insect resistance. Leaf galling, which is negatively correlated with moisture today, apparently increased during the middle Eocene, whereas leaf mining decreased.

  7. New Eocene damselflies and first Cenozoic damsel-dragonfly of the isophlebiopteran lineage (Insecta: Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André

    2015-10-09

    The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera.

  8. Cocos sahnii Kaul: a Cocos nucifera L.-like fruit from the Early Eocene rainforest of Rajasthan, western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, Rakesh C; Guleria, Jaswant S

    2012-09-01

    Cocos sahnii Kaul, a fossil palm fruit, is validated and described from the Fuller's earth deposits of Kapurdi village of Rajasthan considered as Early Eocene in age. The fossil best resembles the genus Cocos, particularly Cocos nucifera L., which is now a common coastal element thriving in highly moist conditions. The recovery of this coconut-like fruit, along with earlier described evergreen taxa from the same formation, suggests the existence of typical tropical, warm and humid coastal conditions during the depositional period. The present arid to semi-arid climatic conditions occurring in Rajasthan indicate drastic climate change in the region during the Cenozoic. The possible time for the onset of aridity in the region which caused the total eradication of semi-evergreen to evergreen forests is discussed, as well as the palaeobiogeography of coconuts.

  9. Optimum beamforming subject to multiple linear constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A. K.

    1980-09-01

    Optimum beamformers with a single look direction constraint can suffer from signal suppression problems when the optimum weights are calculated from the inverse of the signal-plus-noise cross-spectral matrix. Signal suppression occurs when the beam steer direction does not exactly correspond to the signal direction and this can occur if the number of fixed beams is small. The use of multiple linear constraints upon the optimum weights reduces this signal suppression. Multiple directional constraints can lead to ill-conditioned equations. However, it is shown that the limiting solutions of multiple directional constraints are multiple derivative contraints and these do not lead to ill-conditioned equations. The ability of various derivative constraints to prevent signal suppression is analyzed quantitatively.

  10. Method for Determining Optimum Injector Inlet Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Huu P. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method for determining the optimum inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector includes obtaining a throttleable level phase value, volume flow rate, chamber pressure, liquid propellant density, inlet injector pressure, desired target spray angle and desired target optimum delta pressure value between an inlet and a chamber for a plurality of engine stages. The method calculates the tangential inlet area for each throttleable stage. The method also uses correlation between the tangential inlet areas and delta pressure values to calculate the spring displacement and variable inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector.

  11. Evolution and extinction of Afro-Arabian primates near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Erik R

    2007-01-01

    Revised age estimates for the primate-bearing localities of the Jebel Qatrani Formation (Fayum area, northern Egypt) have provided a new perspective on primate response to early Oligocene climate change in North Africa. Environmental changes associated with early Oligocene cooling might have driven the local extinction of at least 4 strepsirrhine primate clades (adapids, djebelemurines, plesiopithecids and galagids). Contrary to previous suggestions, oligopithecid (and possibly proteopithecid) anthropoids persisted beyond the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (EOB) in the Fayum area, and the former group evidently continued to diversify through the early Oligocene at lower latitudes. Propliopithecids and parapithecine parapithecids first appear in the Jebel Qatrani Formation millions of years after the EOB, so their derived dental and gnathic features can no longer be interpreted as sudden adaptive morphological responses to earliest Oligocene climatic events. Evidence for latitudinal contraction of Afro-Arabian primate distribution through the early Oligocene suggests that the profound late Oligocene restructuring of Afro-Arabian primate communities is most likely to have occurred in equatorial and low-latitude tropical Africa. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Fluvial response to abrupt global warming at the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Brady Z; Heller, Paul L; Clementz, Mark T

    2012-11-01

    Climate strongly affects the production of sediment from mountain catchments as well as its transport and deposition within adjacent sedimentary basins. However, identifying climatic influences on basin stratigraphy is complicated by nonlinearities, feedback loops, lag times, buffering and convergence among processes within the sediment routeing system. The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) arguably represents the most abrupt and dramatic instance of global warming in the Cenozoic era and has been proposed to be a geologic analogue for anthropogenic climate change. Here we evaluate the fluvial response in western Colorado to the PETM. Concomitant with the carbon isotope excursion marking the PETM we document a basin-wide shift to thick, multistoried, sheets of sandstone characterized by variable channel dimensions, dominance of upper flow regime sedimentary structures, and prevalent crevasse splay deposits. This progradation of coarse-grained lithofacies matches model predictions for rapid increases in sediment flux and discharge, instigated by regional vegetation overturn and enhanced monsoon precipitation. Yet the change in fluvial deposition persisted long after the approximately 200,000-year-long PETM with its increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, emphasizing the strong role the protracted transmission of catchment responses to distant depositional systems has in constructing large-scale basin stratigraphy. Our results, combined with evidence for increased dissolved loads and terrestrial clay export to world oceans, indicate that the transient hyper-greenhouse climate of the PETM may represent a major geomorphic 'system-clearing event', involving a global mobilization of dissolved and solid sediment loads on Earth's surface.

  13. Evidence for a warm ice-free environment on the high latitude Antarctic coast (78°S) during the Middle to Late Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R. H.; Bohaty, S. M.; Harwood, D. M.; Sangiorgi, F.; Willmott, V.; Talarico, F.; MacLeod, K. G.

    2013-12-01

    Much of Antarctica's Cenozoic geological record is hidden beneath the thick ice sheets and fringing ice shelves that cover the continent. Glacial erratics of sedimentary rocks present in coastal moraines at Minna Bluff and Mount Discovery, McMurdo Sound, western Ross Sea, Antarctica contain middle and late Eocene plant and marine fossils that were deposited in a range of marine settings along the Antarctic coastline. This suite of sedimentary rocks were likely deposited at the margin of a narrow (c. 100 km wide), relatively deep (up to 1000 m) marine seaway that was bound by the proto-Transantarctic Mountains to the west and a topographic high to the east. Although these Eocene ';';McMurdo Erratics'' lack stratigraphic integrity, they are significant as they offer a rare glimpse into Antarctica's climate during global greenhouse conditions at high latitudes (c. 78°S). Fossils recovered from the rocks are diverse and include marine and terrestrial palynomorphs, diatoms, molluscs, wood, leaves and other macrofauna and flora. Geochemical temperature proxies derived from the sedimentary rocks include organic biomarkers (TEX86) and fish tooth δ18O that indicate coastal sea surface temperatures were at least 15°C in the late Middle Eocene. While rare lonestones occur in several sandstone erratics, we find no conclusive evidence for glaciation at the coast. The fossil-bearing coastal moraines also contain a suite of igneous and metamorphic erratics that are comparable to lithological units exposed in the Transantarctic Mountains between the Skelton and Mulock glaciers. This suggests that the Eocene erratics were eroded from the north-eastern portion of a large sub-glacial basin behind Minna Bluff and/or from grabens in a basement high immediately south-east of Minna Bluff. Importantly, the northeastward extension of this basement high is a target for stratigraphic drilling during the proposed ANDRILL Coulman High Project. Drilling on the Coulman High has an excellent

  14. Development of the optimum rotor theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; van Kuik, Gijs A.M.

    The purpose of this study is the examination of optimum rotor theories with ideal load distributions along the blades, to analyze some of the underlying ideas and concepts, as well as to illuminate them. The book gives the historical background of the issue and presents the analysis of the proble...

  15. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  16. Genotype x environment interaction and optimum resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry yield and yield components from 6 multilocational trials of cassava genotypes conducted for 3 years in Nigeria were used to study the nature and magnitude of genotype x environment (G x E) interaction and to determine the optimum resource allocation for cassava yield trials. The effects of environment, genotype and G ...

  17. Determination of the Optimum Thickness of Approximately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to conserve the world's scarce energy and material resources, a balance between the cost of heating a material and the optimum thickness of the material becomes vey essential. One of such materials is the local cast aluminium pot commonly used as cooking ware in Nigeria. This paper therefore sets up a ...

  18. On Optimum Safety Levels of Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Group 47 on "Selection of type of breakwater structures". The paper summaries results given in Burcharth and Sorensen (2005) related to outer rubble mound breakwaters but focus on optimum safety levels for outer caisson breakwaters on low and high rubble foundations placed on sea beds strong enough...

  19. The oldest accurate record of Scenopinidae in the Lowermost Eocene amber of France (Diptera: Brachycera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre

    2016-03-22

    Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini.

  20. Fossil plant stomata indicate decreasing atmospheric CO2 prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Porter, Amanda S; Holohan, Aidan; Kunzmann, Lutz; Collinson, Margaret; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    .... Using the inverse relationship between the density of stomata and pCO(2), we show that pCO(2) decreased continuously from the late middle to late Eocene, reaching a relatively stable low value before the end of the Eocene...

  1. Revision of Eocene Antarctic carpet sharks (Elasmobranchii, Orectolobiformes) from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Andrea; Mörs, Thomas; Reguero, Marcelo A; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, was once called the 'Rosetta Stone' of Southern Hemisphere palaeobiology, because this small island provides the most complete and richly fossiliferous Palaeogene sequence in Antarctica. Among fossil marine vertebrate remains, chondrichthyans seemingly were dominant elements in the Eocene Antarctic fish fauna. The fossiliferous sediments on Seymour Island are from the La Meseta Formation, which was originally divided into seven stratigraphical levels, TELMs 1-7 (acronym for Tertiary Eocene La Meseta) ranging from the upper Ypresian (early Eocene) to the late Priabonian (late Eocene). Bulk sampling of unconsolidated sediments from TELMs 5 and 6, which are Ypresian (early Eocene) and Lutetian (middle Eocene) in age, respectively, yielded very rich and diverse chondrichthyan assemblages including over 40 teeth of carpet sharks representing two new taxa, Notoramphoscyllium woodwardi gen. et sp. nov. and Ceolometlaouia pannucae gen. et sp. nov. Two additional teeth from TELM 5 represent two different taxa that cannot be assigned to any specific taxon and thus are left in open nomenclature. The new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic selachian faunas but also allows two previous orectolobiform records to be re-evaluated. Accordingly, Stegostoma cf. faciatum is synonymized with Notoramphoscyllium woodwardi gen. et sp. nov., whereas Pseudoginglymostoma cf. brevicaudatum represents a nomen dubium. The two new taxa, and probably the additional two unidentified taxa, are interpreted as permanent residents, which most likely were endemic to Antarctic waters during the Eocene and adapted to shallow and estuarine environments.

  2. Paleoceanographic, and paleoclimatic constraints on the global Eocene diatom and silicoflagellate record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Stickley, Catherine E.; Bukry, David

    2015-01-01

    Eocene diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy are summarized and correlated with the most recent geologic time scale as well as with the global oxygen isotope and eustatic sea level curves. The global distribution of Eocene diatom/silicoflagellate-bearing sediments varies considerably, reflecting changing oceanic gateways and paleoceanography with changing patterns that are punctuated by four major depositional events.

  3. Early to Middle Eocene vegetation dynamics at the Wilkes Land Margin (Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314028110; Koutsodendris, A.; Raine, J.I.; van de Schootbrugge, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/376758562; Brinkhuis, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/095046097

    2013-01-01

    The early Eocene epoch was characterized by extreme global warmth, which in terrestrial settings was characterized by an expansion of near-tropical vegetation belts into the high latitudes. During the middle to late Eocene, global cooling caused the retreat of tropical vegetation to lower latitudes.

  4. Earliest record of the fossil snake Palaeophis from the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Viborg; Cuny, Gilles Guy Roger; Rasmussen, Arne Redsted

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. – The earliest record of Palaeophis ever found in Denmark is here based on vertebrae described from the Paleocene/Eocene Stolleklint Clay of the Isle of Mors (northern Denmark). Although much smaller, they appear quite similar to the Eocene vertebra described from the Fur Formation in t...

  5. Southern Ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, A.; Bijl, P.K.; Schouten, S.; Röhl, U.; Reichart, G.-J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    A brief (~150 kyr) period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM) is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a

  6. Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, A.; Bijl, P.K.; Schouten, S.; Röhl, U.; Reichart, G.-J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    A brief (~150 kyr) period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM) is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a

  7. A new burmagomphid dragonfly from the Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián F. Petrulevičius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new burmagomphid anisopteran, Satelitala soberana gen. et sp. nov. is described from the lower Eocene of Laguna del Hunco, Patagonia, Argentina. The new genus is characterised by hindwing characters such as the subdiscoidal triangle not elongated; anal loop divided longitudinally; paranal cell divided longitudinally; five terminal cells between RP and MA; five terminal cells between MP and CuA; and obtuse angle between PsA and CuP+AA. Burmagomphid dragonflies were represented so far only by one specimen from the middle Cretaceous of Southeast Asia. This new record extends the distribution to Patagonia, to the Cenozoic, and also to paleolake deposits.

  8. Connecting America and Russia: Eocene erosion across the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Cornelia; Lisker, Frank; Piepjohn, Karsten; Estrada, Solveig; Lorenz, Henning

    2017-04-01

    The structural evolution of the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding continental areas is still poorly constrained, due to ice coverage and inaccessibility. The only scientific coring campaign within the central Arctic Ocean (the ACEX project) was positioned on the Lomonosov Ridge. This is a pronounced geomorphic structure of presumably continental origin, which stretches across the entire Arctic Ocean between the northernmost margin of the North American continent (Ellesmere Island) and the Siberian Shelf, bordering the New Siberian Islands. Geophysical data suggest that the Lomonosov Ridge may be continuous with the Siberian and Ellesmerian continental margins (e.g., Poselov et al., 2011). Rather unexpectedly, the ACEX project revealed that the Lomonosov Ridge was in very shallow water or even exposed to erosion between 44 and 18 Ma. As an explanation, it was suggested that the Lomonosov Ridge experienced compressional tectonics at that time, which may have affected the entire central Arctic Ocean, propagating from North America towards the Siberian shelf (ÓRegan et al., 2008). Here we present the first low-temperature thermochronological data from northern Ellesmere Island and from the New Siberian Islands, recording the erosion and exhumation history of these areas. Our apatite (U-Th)/He data show that while southern and central Ellesmere Island was characterized by very slow erosion during the Cenozoic, northern Ellesmere Island bordering the Arctic Ocean experienced km-scale erosion during the Eocene, contemporaneously with the stalled subsidence / uplift period of the Lomonosov Ridge. The thermochronology data from the New Siberian Islands reflect a complex erosion history: the eastern part of the North Siberian Islands, the DeLong Island Group, experienced rather limited erosion during the Cenozoic and most of the Mesozoic. By contrast, data from the western New Siberian Islands - the Lyakhov Island Group - in direct continuation of the Lomonosov Ridge are

  9. The evolution of mammal body sizes: responses to Cenozoic climate change in North American mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, B G; Mowoe, M O

    2013-06-01

    Explanations for the evolution of body size in mammals have remained surprisingly elusive despite the central importance of body size in evolutionary biology. Here, we present a model which argues that the body sizes of Nearctic mammals were moulded by Cenozoic climate and vegetation changes. Following the early Eocene Climate Optimum, forests retreated and gave way to open woodland and savannah landscapes, followed later by grasslands. Many herbivores that radiated in these new landscapes underwent a switch from browsing to grazing associated with increased unguligrade cursoriality and body size, the latter driven by the energetics and constraints of cellulose digestion (fermentation). Carnivores also increased in size and digitigrade, cursorial capacity to occupy a size distribution allowing the capture of prey of the widest range of body sizes. With the emergence of larger, faster carnivores, plantigrade mammals were constrained from evolving to large body sizes and most remained smaller than 1 kg throughout the middle Cenozoic. We find no consistent support for either Cope's Rule or Bergmann's Rule in plantigrade mammals, the largest locomotor guild (n = 1186, 59% of species in the database). Some cold-specialist plantigrade mammals, such as beavers and marmots, showed dramatic increases in body mass following the Miocene Climate Optimum which may, however, be partially explained by Bergmann's rule. This study reemphasizes the necessity of considering the evolutionary history and resultant form and function of mammalian morphotypes when attempting to understand contemporary mammalian body size distributions. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. A new genus and species of Heroini (Perciformes: Cichlidae from the early Eocene of southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alano Perez

    Full Text Available The Lumbrera Formation is the uppermost unit of the Salta Group, which crops out in northwestern Argentina. The paleoenvironment of the Lumbrera Formation is interpreted as a perennial lake deposited under temperate climatic conditions during the early to middle Eocene. Its fossil content is made up of palynomorphs, insects, crocodiles, turtles, lizards, and mammals, besides an ichthyofauna formed by cichlids, poeciliids and dipnoans. †Plesioheros chauliodus is described based on a single individual from this formation, which was fossilized as a lateral view impression (missing anal and caudal fins. It can be distinguished from other cichlids by a moderately deep body, enlarged anterior dentary teeth bearing subapical cusp, a low abdominal vertebral count (10, five canal openings in the dentary, and XI + 12 dorsal-fin rays. A phylogenetic analysis, using the matrix by Kullander (1998, recovered †Plesioheros within Heroini. This species was recovered most closely related to Australoheros and to the deep-bodied South American heroins. The occurrence of an Eocene Heroini, as well as of other cichlid lineages in the same stratigraphical level, is evidence of an ancient diversification in this family. This ancient age supports the hypothesis that the Cichlidae originated on Gondwana.

  11. Sedimentary characteristics and depositional model of a Paleocene-Eocene salt lake in the Jiangling Depression, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaocan; Wang, Chunlian; Liu, Chenglin; Zhang, Zhaochong; Xu, Haiming; Huang, Hua; Xie, Tengxiao; Li, Haonan; Liu, Jinlei

    2015-11-01

    We studied the sedimentary characteristics of a Paleocene-Eocene salt lake in the Jiangling Depression through field core observation, thin section identification, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. On the basis of sedimentary characteristics we have summarized the petrological and mineralogical characteristics of the salt lake and proposed 9 types of grade IV salt rhythms. The deposition shows a desalting to salting order of halite-argillaceous-mudstone-mud dolostonemud anhydrock-glauberite-halite. The relationship among grade IV rhythms, water salinity and climate fluctuations was analyzed. Based on the analysis of the relationship between boron content and mudstone color and by combining the mineralogy and sedimentary environment characteristics, we propose that the early and late Paleocene Shashi Formation in the Jiangling Depression was a paleolacustrine depositional environment with a high salt content, which is a representation of the shallow water salt lake depositional model. The middle Paleocene Shashi Formation and the early Eocene Xingouzui Formation were salt and brackish sedimentary environments with low salt content in a deep paleolake, which represents a deep salt lake depositional model.

  12. Response of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone to global cooling and initiation of Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene Oligocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeong, Kiseong; Kuroda, Junichiro; Seo, Inah; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 34 million years ago across the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), Earth’s climate tipped from a largely unglaciated state into one that sustained large ice sheets on Antarctica. Antarctic glaciation is attributed to a threshold response to slow decline in atmospheric CO2 but our understanding of the feedback processes triggered and of climate change on the other contents is limited. Here we present new geochemical records of terrigenous dust accumulating on the sea floor across the EOT from a site in the central equatorial Pacific. We report a change in dust chemistry from an Asian affinity to a Central-South American provenance that occurs geologically synchronously with the initiation of stepwise global cooling, glaciation of Antarctica and aridification on the northern continents. We infer that the inter-tropical convergence zone of intense precipitation extended to our site during late Eocene, at least four degrees latitude further south than today, but that it migrated northwards in step with global cooling and initiation of Antarctic glaciation. Our findings point to an atmospheric teleconnection between extratropical cooling and rainfall climate in the tropics and the mid-latitude belt of the westerlies operating across the most pivotal transition in climate state of the Cenozoic Era.

  13. Provenance of the Eocene Soebi Blanco formation, Bonaire, Leeward Antilles: Correlations with post-Eocene tectonic evolution of northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, S.; Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Vervoort, J.; Reiners, P.

    2014-07-01

    Middle to upper Eocene fluvial strata in the island of Bonaire contain detrital components that were tracked to Precambrian to Triassic massifs in northern Colombia and Venezuela. These detrital components confirm previous hypothesis suggesting that Bonaire and the Leeward Antilles were attached to South American basement massifs (SABM). These are composed of different fragmented South American blocks (Paraguana, Falcon, Maracaibo, Guajira, Perija, and Santa Marta) representing an Eocene, right-laterally displaced tectonic piercing point along the southern Caribbean plate margin. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS from the metamorphic boulders of the Soebi Blanco Formation in Bonaire yield Grenvillian peaks ages (1000-1200 Ma), while detrital zircons recovered from the sandy matrix of the conglomerates contain populations with peaks of 1000 Ma-1200 Ma, 750-950 Ma, and 200-300 Ma. These populations match with geochronological data reported for the northern South American massifs. Thermochronological results from the metamorphic clasts yield Paleocene-middle Eocene ages (65-50 Ma) that confirm a regional-scale cooling event in this time. These data imply a land connection between the SABM and the Leeward Antilles in late Eocene times, followed by a significant strike slip right-lateral displacement and transtensional basin opening starting in latest Eocene times. The succession of Eocene tectonic events recorded by the Soebi Blanco Formation and adjacent basins is a major tracer of the oblique convergence of the Caribbean plate against the South American margin.

  14. Eocene Podocarpium (Leguminosae) from South China and its biogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqing; Qiu, Jue; Zhou, Zhekun; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger is one of the most common legumes in the Neogene of Eurasia, including fossil fruits, seeds, leaves, and possible flower and pollen grains. This genus is not completely consistent with any extant genera according to gross morphological characters and poorly preserved cuticular structures reported in previous studies. The fossil pods collected from the coal-bearing series of the Changchang Basin of Hainan Island and Maoming Basin of Guangdong, South China, are examined by morphologically comparative work, with special reference to venation patterns and placental position. These distinctive features, as well as the ovule development of pods from different developmental stages and the epidermal structure of the pods, as distinguished from previous records lead to the conclusion that these fossils can be recognized as a new species of Podocarpium, P. eocenicum sp. nov. This new discovery indicates that Podocarpium had arrived in South China by the Eocene. Investigation on the fossil records of this extinct genus shows that P. eocenicum is the earliest and lowest latitude fossil data. The possible occurrence pattern of this genus is revealed as follows: Podocarpium had distributed in the South China at least in the middle Eocene, and then migrated to Europe during the Oligocene; in the Miocene this genus reached its peak in Eurasia, spreading extensively across subtropical areas to warm temperate areas; finally, Podocarpium shrank rapidly and became extinct in Eurasia during the Pliocene. PMID:26579179

  15. Diversity of Scydmaeninae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in Upper Eocene Rovno amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2016-08-25

    Among nearly 1270 inclusions of Coleoptera found in Upper Eocene Rovno amber, 69 were identified as ant-like stone beetles (Scydmaeninae); 34 were possible to unambiguously determine to the tribal level and were studied in detail. Rovnoleptochromus ableptonoides gen. & sp. n. (Mastigitae: Clidicini), Vertheia quadrisetosa gen. & sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Eutheiini), Cephennomicrus giganteus sp. n. (Cephenniitae: Cephenniini), Glaesoconnus unicus gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), Rovnoscydmus frontalis gen. & sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini; type species of Rovnoscydmus), Rovnoscydmus microscopicus sp. n., Euconnus (incertae sedis, near Cladoconnus) palaeogenus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini), and Stenichnus (s. str.) proavus sp. n. (Scydmaenitae: Glandulariini) are described. Additionally, specimens representing one undescribed species of Vertheia, one of Cephennodes, five of Cephennomicrus, one of Euconnus, one of Microscydmus are recorded, and nine specimens representing an unknown number of species of Rovnoscydmus (and two putative Rovnoscydmus), one Euconnus (and one putative Euconnus), two putative Microscydmus and one putative Scydmoraphes were found in the studied material. The composition of Scydmaeninae fauna in Rovno amber is discussed in the context of ecological preferences and distribution of extant taxa. It is concluded that subtropical and tropical taxa were present in the region where Rovno amber has formed, most notably the second genus and species of the extant tribe Clidicini known from the Eocene of Europe, and six species of the extant genus Cephennomicrus, for the first time found in the fossil record. An annotated catalog of nominal species of Scydmaeninae known in the fossil record is given.

  16. How many upper Eocene microspherule layers: More than we thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Joseph E.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific controversy over the origin of upper Eocene tektites, microtektites and other microspherules cannot be logically resolved until it is determined just how many events are involved. The microspherule-bearing beds in marine sediments have been dated using standard biozonal techniques. Although a powerful stratigraphic tool, zonal biostratigraph has its limitations. One is that if an event, such as a microspherule occurrence, is observed to occur in a zone at one locality and then a similar event observed in the same zone at another locality, it still may be unwarranted to conclude that these events exactly correlate. To be in a zone a sample only need be between the fossil events that define the zone boundaries. It is often very difficult to accurately determine where within a zone one might be. Further, the zone defining events do not everywhere occur at the same points in time. That is, the ranges of the defining taxa are not always filled. Thus, the length of time represented by a zone (but not, of course, its chronozone) can vary from place to place. These problems can be offset by use of chronostratigraphic modelling techniques such as Graphic Correlation. This technique was used to build a Cretaceous and Cenozoic model containing fossil, magnetopolarity, and other events. The scale of the model can be demonstrated to be linear with time. This model was used to determine the chronostratigraphic position of upper Eocene microspherule layers.

  17. Optimum Operational Parameters for Yawed Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Peters

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of systematical optimum operational parameters for wind turbines under various wind directions is derived by using combined momentum-energy and blade-element-energy concepts. The derivations are solved numerically by fixing some parameters at practical values. Then, the interactions between the produced power and the influential factors of it are generated in the figures. It is shown that the maximum power produced is strongly affected by the wind direction, the tip speed, the pitch angle of the rotor, and the drag coefficient, which are specifically indicated by figures. It also turns out that the maximum power can take place at two different optimum tip speeds in some cases. The equations derived herein can also be used in the modeling of tethered wind turbines which can keep aloft and deliver energy.

  18. A systematic approach for locating optimum sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel Ramos; Isabel Otero

    1979-01-01

    The basic information collected for landscape planning studies may be given the form of a "s x m" matrix, where s is the number of landscape units and m the number of data gathered for each unit. The problem of finding the optimum location for a given project is translated in the problem of ranking the series of vectors in the matrix which represent landscape...

  19. Techniques for evaluating optimum data center operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Rodriguez, Sergio Adolfo Bermudez; Wehle, Hans-Dieter

    2017-06-14

    Techniques for modeling a data center are provided. In one aspect, a method for determining data center efficiency is provided. The method includes the following steps. Target parameters for the data center are obtained. Technology pre-requisite parameters for the data center are obtained. An optimum data center efficiency is determined given the target parameters for the data center and the technology pre-requisite parameters for the data center.

  20. Multilevel VLSI interconnection—an optimum approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikrishnan, K. V.; Totta, P. A.

    1986-04-01

    The wirability of circuit elements is a key ingredient in the success of the very large scale integration technology. Multilevel wiring eliminates the need to use extensive areas of the silicon surface simply for wiring channels. Increasing the number of wiring planes significantly improves the possibility of achieving the goals of the VLSI, i.e. the interconnection of the maximum number of devices in the smallest possible area. Extensive modeling has shown the need to optimize the wiring pitch, number of wiring planes and electrical properties of the materials used (e.g-low resistivity for conductors and low dielectric constant for insulators). The choice of the interconnection technology is also influenced by other factors. Some of these areas: cost and reliability objectives; in house expertise and practice; new process/equipment availability and a desire to maintain process commonality. The selected strategy is sometimes an optimum approach for an individual situation which is not universally optimum. In IBM, for example, two different but successful multilevel wiring technologies are being used extensively. The first is used for bipolar circuits; it is a three-level metallization design, with sputtered SiO2 as the insulator. The second, for FET devices, has two-levels of metal and polyimide as the insulator. Both technologies use area array input/output terminal connections and lift off line definition. The process/material set of each is reviewed to emphasize the mechanics of reaching an ``optimum'' solution for the individual applications.

  1. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  2. Origin of clay minerals in Early Eocene volcanic paleosols on King George Island, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinola, Diogo Noses; Pi-Puig, Teresa; Solleiro-Rebolledo, Elizabeth; Egli, Markus; Sudo, Masafumi; Sedov, Sergey; Kühn, Peter

    2017-07-25

    The paleoclimate during the Early Eocene in Maritime Antarctica is characterized by cool conditions without a pronounced dry season. Soils formed on volcanic material under such climate conditions in modern analogue environments are usually Andosols rich in nanocrystalline minerals without pedogenic smectite. The paleosols formed on volcanic material on King Georges Island are covered by basalts, dated by 6 new (40)Ar/(39)Ar datings to 51-48 Ma, and are rich in smectite. A pedogenic origin of the smectites would suggest a semi-arid rather than a wet non-seasonal humid paleoclimate. To investigate the origin of the smectites in these paleosols we used X-ray diffraction and microscopic techniques. Minor mineralogical changes between the volcanic parent material and the paleosols and a homogenous distribution of smectites throughout the paleosol horizons indicate that these smectites were mainly inherited from the pyroclastic parent material, which was altered prior to surficial weathering. Nevertheless, the mineralogical properties, such as degree of crystallinity and octahedral site occupancy, of these smectites were modified during the ancient soil formation. Our findings highlight that trioctahedral smectites were a product of deuteric alteration of pyroclastic rocks and were progressively transformed to dioctahedral smectites during weathering in a soil environment on King George Island.

  3. Sedimentology and paleoecology of an Eocene Oligocene alluvial lacustrine arid system, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldi-Campesi, Hugo; Cevallos-Ferriz, Sergio R. S.; Centeno-García, Elena; Arenas-Abad, Concepción; Fernández, Luis Pedro

    2006-10-01

    A depositional model of the Eocene-Oligocene Coatzingo Formation in Tepexi de Rodríguez (Puebla, Mexico) is proposed, based on facies analysis of one of the best-preserved sections, the Axamilpa Section. The sedimentary evolution is interpreted as the retrogradation of an alluvial system, followed by the progressive expansion of an alkaline lake system, with deltaic, palustrine, and evaporitic environments. The analysis suggests a change towards more arid conditions with time. Fossils from this region, such as fossil tracks of artiodactyls, aquatic birds and cat-like mammals, suggest that these animals traversed the area, ostracods populated the lake waters, and plants grew on incipient soils and riparian environments many times throughout the history of the basin. The inferred habitat for some fossil plants coincides with the sedimentological interpretation of an arid to semiarid climate for that epoch. This combined sedimentological-paleontological study of the Axamilpa Section provides an environmental context in which fossils can be placed and brings into attention important biotic episodes, like bird and camelid migrations or the origin of endemic but extinct plants in this area.

  4. Very large release of mostly volcanic carbon during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutjahr, Marcus; Ridgwell, Andy; Sexton, Philip F.; Anagnostou, Eleni; Pearson, Paul N.; Pälike, Heiko; Norris, Richard D.; Thomas, Ellen; Foster, Gavin L.

    2017-08-01

    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a global warming event that occurred about 56 million years ago, and is commonly thought to have been driven primarily by the destabilization of carbon from surface sedimentary reservoirs such as methane hydrates. However, it remains controversial whether such reservoirs were indeed the source of the carbon that drove the warming. Resolving this issue is key to understanding the proximal cause of the warming, and to quantifying the roles of triggers versus feedbacks. Here we present boron isotope data—a proxy for seawater pH—that show that the ocean surface pH was persistently low during the PETM. We combine our pH data with a paired carbon isotope record in an Earth system model in order to reconstruct the unfolding carbon-cycle dynamics during the event. We find strong evidence for a much larger (more than 10,000 petagrams)—and, on average, isotopically heavier—carbon source than considered previously. This leads us to identify volcanism associated with the North Atlantic Igneous Province, rather than carbon from a surface reservoir, as the main driver of the PETM. This finding implies that climate-driven amplification of organic carbon feedbacks probably played only a minor part in driving the event. However, we find that enhanced burial of organic matter seems to have been important in eventually sequestering the released carbon and accelerating the recovery of the Earth system.

  5. Environmental and climate changes in Antarctica in the Geological Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Leitchenkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Cretaceous time, Antarctica was characterized by subtropical and tropical climate. The Early Eocene was warmest in the Antarctic history but this Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica at about 34 Ma ago. There is indirect evidence that small ice caps developed within central Antarctica in the Late Eocene (42−34 Ma. From the Early Oligocene to the Middle Miocene (34−13 Ma ice sheet was wet-based and fluctuated considerably in volume, but about 14 m.y. ago it became dry-based and more stable.  Seismic data collected on the East Antarctic margin give valuable information on dynamics of the past ice sheets. These data shows that the sedimentary cover of the western Wilkes Land margin includes a giant (c. 200 000 km2 deep-water fan which formed between c. 43 and 34 Ma ago. The average rate of sedimentation in the central part of fan was 230–250 m/m.y. Active input of terrigenous sediments into deep-water denotes high-energy fluvial system within the Wilkes Land. Emergence of this fluvial system evidences earliest glaciation in the Antarctic interior which fed full-flowing rivers. The thickness of strata deposited during post-Early Oligocene glaciations on the Antarctic margin generally reflects the averaged energy of depositional environments. The thickest sediments (up to 2.0 km, i.e. almost twice more than in other parts of East Antarctic margin and inferred highest energy are seen in the central Cooperation Sea, on the central Wilkes Land margin and in the D'Urville Sea. The areas with the thickest post-Early Oligocene strata correlate with places where present-day ice discharge is highest, such as via the Lambert, Totten and Mertz/Ninnis Glaciers. The correlation points to high ice (and sediment flux in the same areas since the Early Oligocene.

  6. Eocene-Miocene carbon-isotope and floral record from brown coal seams in the Gippsland Basin of southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Guy R.; McGowran, Brian; Fromhold, Tom; Wagstaff, Barbara E.; Gallagher, Stephen J.; Wallace, Malcolm W.; Sluiter, Ian R. K.; Whitelaw, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The carbon-isotope and palynological record through 580 m thick almost continuous brown coal in southeast Australia's Gippsland Basin is a relatively comprehensive southern hemisphere Middle Eocene to Middle Miocene record for terrestrial change. The carbon isotope δ 13C coal values of these coals range from - 27.7‰ to - 23.2. This isotopic variability follows gymnosperm/angiosperm fluctuations, where higher ratios coincide with heavier δ13C values. There is also long-term variability in carbon isotopes through time. From the Eocene greenhouse world of high gymnosperm-heavier δ13C coal values, there is a progressive shift to lighter δ13C coal values that follows the earliest (Oi1?) glacial events around 33 Ma (Early Oligocene). The overlying Oligocene-Early Miocene brown coals have lower gymnosperm abundance, associated with increased % Nothofagus (angiosperm), and lightening of isotopes during Oligocene cooler conditions. The Miocene palynological and carbon-isotope record supports a continuation to the Oligocene trends until around the late Early Miocene (circa 19 Ma) when a warming commenced, followed by an even stronger isotope shift around 16 Ma that peaked in the Middle Miocene when higher gymnosperm abundance and heavier isotopes prevailed. The cycle between the two major warm peaks of Middle Eocene and Middle Miocene was circa 30 Ma long. This change corresponds to a fall in inferred pCO 2 levels for the same period. The Gippsland data suggest a link between gymnosperm abundance, long-term plant δ13C composition, climatic change, and atmospheric pCO 2. Climatic deterioration in the Late Miocene terminated peat accumulation in the Gippsland Basin and no further significant coals formed in southeast Australia. The poor correspondence between this terrestrial isotope data and the marine isotope record is explained by the dominant control on δ13C by the gymnosperm/angiosperm abundance, although in turn this poor correspondence may reflect palaeoclimate

  7. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  8. Study on the optimum PCM melting temperature for energy savings in residential buildings worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, M.; de Gracia, A.; Fernández, C.; Zsembinszki, G.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    To maintain comfort conditions in residential buildings along a full year period, the use of active systems is generally required to either supply heating or cooling. The heating and cooling demands strongly depend on the climatic conditions, type of building and occupants’ behaviour. The overall annual energy consumption of the building can be reduced by the use of renewable energy sources and/or passive systems. The use of phase change materials (PCM) as passive systems in buildings enhances the thermal mass of the envelope, and reduces the indoor temperature fluctuations. As a consequence, the overall energy consumption of the building is generally lower as compared to the case when no PCM systems are used. The selection of the PCM melting temperature is a key issue to reduce the energy consumption of the buildings. The main focus of this study is to determine the optimum PCM melting temperature for passive heating and cooling according to different weather conditions. To achieve that, numerical simulations were carried out using EnergyPlus v8.4 coupled with GenOpt® v3.1.1 (a generic optimization software). A multi-family residential apartment was selected from ASHRAE Standard 90.1- 2013 prototype building model, and different climate conditions were considered to determine the optimum melting temperature (in the range from 20ºC to 26ºC) of the PCM contained in gypsum panels. The results confirm that the optimum melting temperature of the PCM strongly depends on the climatic conditions. In general, in cooling dominant climates the optimum PCM temperature is around 26ºC, while in heating dominant climates it is around 20ºC. Furthermore, the results show that an adequate selection of the PCM as passive system in building envelope can provide important energy savings for both heating dominant and cooling dominant regions.

  9. High latitude hydrological changes during the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Srinath; Pagani, Mark; Huber, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy

    2014-10-01

    The Eocene hyperthermals, including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2), represent extreme global warming events ∼56 and 54 million years ago associated with rapid increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. An initial study on PETM characteristics in the Arctic region argued for intensification of the hydrological cycle and a substantial increase in poleward moisture transport during global warming based on compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotopic (2H/1H) records from sedimentary leaf-wax lipids. In this study, we apply this isotopic and hydrological approach on sediments deposited during ETM2 from the Lomonosov Ridge (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302). Our results show similar 2H/1H changes during ETM2 as during the PETM, with a period of 2H-enrichment (∼ 20 ‰) relative to ;pre-event; values just prior to the negative carbon isotope shift (CIE) that is often taken as the onset of the hyperthermal, and more negative lipid δ2H values (∼ - 15 ‰) during peak warming. Notably, lipid 2H-enrichment at the base of the event is coeval with colder TEX86H temperatures. If 2H/1H values of leaf waxes primarily reflect the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation, the observed local relationship between temperature and 2H/1H values for the body of ETM2 is precisely the opposite of what would be predicted using a simple Rayleigh isotope distillation model, assuming a meridional vapor trajectory and a reduction in equator-pole temperature gradients. Overall, a negative correlation exists between the average chain length of n-alkanes and 2H/1H suggesting that local changes in ecology could have impacted the hydrogen isotopic compositions of leaf waxes. The negative correlation falls across three separate intervals - the base of the event, the initial CIE, and during the H2 hyperthermal (of which the assignment is not fully certain). Three possible mechanisms potentially explain 2H

  10. Paleoenvironment of eocene deposits in the Afikpo syncline, southern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arua, I.

    The Eocene Ameki Formation of the Afikpo syncline in southeastern Nigeria is composed of sandstones and mudrocks. In its type area, five sedimentary facies are distinguished; these are in ascending order: (1) very fine to fine-grained calcareous quartz arenites; (2) fine to coarse, pebbly, bioturbated quartz arenites; (3) grey to dark, silty, fossiliferous shale; (4) very fine to fine-grained, argillaceous sandstone; and (5) fine to coarse pebbly, quartz arenites. Based on an integrated study of lithologic successions, sedimentary features and faunal distribution in each facies, two main environments of deposition of the Ameki sediment may be suggested: near-shore and marine. Each of these environments may be further subdivided into subtidal and intertidal zones of the marine environment, and barrier ridge, lagoon pond, marginal lagoon and beach of the near-shore environment. The overall dynamics of the environment seems to fit best a landward migrating barrier ridge-lagoon complex.

  11. Hydrological and associated biogeochemical consequences of rapid global warming during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Matthew J.; Inglis, Gordon N.; Badger, Marcus P. S.; Naafs, B. David A.; Behrooz, Leila; Remmelzwaal, Serginio; Monteiro, Fanny M.; Rohrssen, Megan; Farnsworth, Alexander; Buss, Heather L.; Dickson, Alexander J.; Valdes, Paul J.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Pancost, Richard D.

    2017-10-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) hyperthermal, 56 million years ago (Ma), is the most dramatic example of abrupt Cenozoic global warming. During the PETM surface temperatures increased between 5 and 9 °C and the onset likely took < 20 kyr. The PETM provides a case study of the impacts of rapid global warming on the Earth system, including both hydrological and associated biogeochemical feedbacks, and proxy data from the PETM can provide constraints on changes in warm climate hydrology simulated by general circulation models (GCMs). In this paper, we provide a critical review of biological and geochemical signatures interpreted as direct or indirect indicators of hydrological change at the PETM, explore the importance of adopting multi-proxy approaches, and present a preliminary model-data comparison. Hydrological records complement those of temperature and indicate that the climatic response at the PETM was complex, with significant regional and temporal variability. This is further illustrated by the biogeochemical consequences of inferred changes in hydrology and, in fact, changes in precipitation and the biogeochemical consequences are often conflated in geochemical signatures. There is also strong evidence in many regions for changes in the episodic and/or intra-annual distribution of precipitation that has not widely been considered when comparing proxy data to GCM output. Crucially, GCM simulations indicate that the response of the hydrological cycle to the PETM was heterogeneous - some regions are associated with increased precipitation - evaporation (P - E), whilst others are characterised by a decrease. Interestingly, the majority of proxy data come from the regions where GCMs predict an increase in PETM precipitation. We propose that comparison of hydrological proxies to GCM output can be an important test of model skill, but this will be enhanced by further data from regions of model-simulated aridity and simulation of extreme precipitation

  12. Testing orbital forcing in the Eocene deltaic sequences of the South-Pyrenean Foreland Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Miguel; López-Blanco, Miguel; Valero, Luis; Beamud, Elisabet; Pueyo-Morer, Emilio; Rodríguez-Pinto, Adriana

    2014-05-01

    Paleoclimate proxy records from marine pelagic sediments show that a link exists between long-period orbital cyclicity and the pattern of high latitude glaciations. Thus, a sound possibility exist that transgressive-regressive third-order sequences from shallow marine environments reflect long-period orbital (glacioeustatic) forcing, as suggested from a variety of shallow marine settings of different ages, from Mesozoic to Paleogene. In this study we aim at testing the role of the 400 kyr eccentricity cycle in the sequential organization of the Late Eocene deltaic sequences of the Belsue-Atares Formation, in the Jaca-Pamplona Basin. The overall record spans from latest Lutetian to early Priabonian and consists of nearly 1000 meters of siliciclastic deltaic to mixed platform sequences of various scales. Very notorious lateral changes in both stratigraphic thickness and sedimentary facies witness the synkinematic character of these sediments, deposited simultaneously to intrabasinal fold growth. A magnetostratigraphy based chronostratigraphic framework is used, first, to determine the age and duration of the sequences and, second, to establish a robust correlation with other deltaic sequences within the south-pyrenean foreland. The long-distance correlation exercise is used to discriminate between local (tectonic) and global (climatic) forcing factors, under the assumption that climate signature is synchronous, while tectonic forcing is prone to yield diachronic units at basin scale. Astronomical tuning with the 400-kyr cycle of the eccentricity solution of the Earth orbit is attempted on the basis of derived magnetostratigraphic age constrains. Our results suggest that transgressive (regressive) trends correlate with maxima (minima) of eccentricity cycle, a phase-relationship which is compatible with a base-level (accommodation) driven forcing.

  13. Evolutionary, Iterative Optimum-Optimorum Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana NĂSTASE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The performing of the aerodynamical, global optimized (GO shape of flying configurations(FCs leads to an enlarged variational problem with free boundaries. The optimum-optimorum theorywas developed by the author in order to solve this enlarged variational problem, inside of a class ofFCs, with some chosen common properties. This theory was used for the inviscid GO shape of threemodels with high aerodynamical performances, namely: ADELA (a delta wing alone and of twointegrated wing-fuselage FCs FADET I and FADET II, flying in supersonic flow. The refinement ofthe optimization strategy, in form of an evolutive, iterative optimum-optimorum theory, is herepresented. The inviscid GO shape of FC, represents now only the first step of this iterative method. Acomputational checking of this shape is made by using new hybrid analytical-numerical solutions forthe Navier-Stokes layer. The total drag coefficient (including friction is computed and a weakinteraction aerodynamics/ structure, via new and/or modified constraints is proposed. Up the secondstep of iteration process, a migration in the drag functional and in the constraints is performed.

  14. REGARDING "TRAGIC ECONOMIC OPTIMUM" FROM HOLISTIC+ PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Popescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication aims to discuss the new scientific vision of "the entire integrated" as it follows the recent achievements of quantum physics, psychology and biology. From this perspective, economy is seen as a living organism, part of the social organism and together with de bright ecology. The optimum of the economy as a living organism is based on dynamic compatibilities with all common living requirements. The evolution of economic life is organically linked to the unavoidable circumstances contained in the form of V. Frankl ‘s tragic triad consisting of: pain, guilt and death. In interaction with the holistic triad circumscribed by limitations, uncertainties and open interdependencies, the tragic economic optimum (TEO is formed. It can be understood as that state of economic life in which freedom of choice of scarce resources under uncertainty has in the compatibility of rationality and hope the development criteria of MEANING. TEO means to say YES to economic life even in conditions of resource limitations, bankruptcies and unemployment, negative externalities, stress, etc. By respiritualization of responsibility using scientific knowledge. TEO - involves multicriteria modeling of economic life by integrating human demands, community, environmental, spiritual and business development in the assessment predicting human GDP as a variable wave aggregate.

  15. Control of climate and Tethyan legacy on distribution of Paleocene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11

    Control of climate and Tethyan legacy on distribution of. Paleocene-Eocene gastropods and establishment of the Northern. Tropical Realm. Shrestha Das1* and Kalyan Halder2. 1 Research Scholar, Department of Geology, Presidency University, 86/1, College Street,. Kolkata-700073. 2Associate Professor, Department of ...

  16. Interaction of ice sheets and climate on geological time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    Since the inception of the Antarctic ice sheet at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (~34 Myr ago), land ice plays a crucial role in Earth’s climate. Through the ice-albedo and surface-height-temperature feedbacks, land ice variability strengthens atmospheric temperature changes induced by orbital and

  17. The onset of modern-like Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition: Evidence, causes, and possible implications for global cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Meir; Erez, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    A compilation of benthic δ18O from the whole Atlantic and the Southern Ocean (Atlantic sector) shows two major jumps in the interbasinal gradient of δ18O (Δδ18O) during the Eocene and the Oligocene: one at ˜40 Ma and the second concomitant with the isotopic event of the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), ˜33.7 Ma ago. From previously published circulation models and proxies, we show that the first Δδ18O jump reflects the thermal isolation of Antarctica associated with the proto-Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC). The second marks the onset of interhemispheric northern-sourced circulation cell, similar to the modern Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). The onset of AMOC-like circulation slightly preceded (100-300 kyr) the EOT, as we show by the high-resolution profiles of δ18O and δ13C previously published from DSDP/ODP sites in the Southern Ocean and South Atlantic. These events coincide with the onset of antiestuarine circulation between the Nordic seas and the North Atlantic which started around the EOT and may be connected to the deepening of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge. We suggest that while the shallow proto-ACC supplied the energy for deep ocean convection in the Southern Hemisphere, the onset of the interhemispheric northern circulation cell was due to the significant EOT intensification of deepwater formation in the North Atlantic driven by the Nordic antiestuarine circulation. This onset of the interhemispheric northern-sourced circulation cell could have prompted the EOT global cooling.Plain Language SummaryThe Eocene-Oligocene transition is the major abrupt climatic event during the Cenozoic, which marks the major step to the icehouse world. We show that this transition is a shift to a world with Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and slightly preceded this transition. Thus, possibly was a major factor in this climatic shift.

  18. A new quantitative approach to identify reworking in Eocene to Miocene pollen records from offshore Antarctica using red fluorescence and digital imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Stephanie L.; Salzmann, Ulrich; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Bijl, Peter K.; Pross, Jörg; Escutia, Carlota; Salabarnada, Ariadna; Pound, Matthew J.; Voss, Jochen; Woodward, John

    2017-04-01

    Antarctic palaeoclimate evolution and vegetation history after the formation of a continent-scale cryosphere at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, 33.9 million years ago, has remained a matter of controversy. In particular, the reconstruction of terrestrial climate and vegetation has been strongly hampered by uncertainties in unambiguously identifying non-reworked as opposed to reworked sporomorphs that have been transported into Antarctic marine sedimentary records by waxing and waning ice sheets. Whereas reworked sporomorph grains over longer non-successive geological timescales are easily identifiable within younger sporomorph assemblages (e.g. Permian sporomorphs in Pliocene sediments), distinguishing non-reworked from reworked material in palynological assemblages over successive geological time periods (e.g. Eocene sporomorphs in Oligocene sediments) has remained problematic. This study presents a new quantitative approach to identifying non-reworked pollen assemblages in marine sediment cores from circum-Antarctic waters. We measured the fluorescence colour signature, including red, green, and blue fluorescence; brightness; intensity; and saturation values of selected pollen and spore taxa from Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene sediments from the Wilkes Land margin Site U1356 (East Antarctica) recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 318. Our study identified statistically significant differences in red-fluorescence values of non-reworked sporomorph taxa against age. We conclude that red fluorescence is a reliable parameter for identifying the presence of non-reworked pollen and spores in Antarctic marine sediment records from the circum-Antarctic realm that are influenced by glaciation and extensive reworking. Our study provides a new tool to accurately reconstruct Cenozoic terrestrial climate change on Antarctica using fossil pollen and spores.

  19. Simulating Effects of Drainage Design Parameters on Optimum Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural water management system aims to provide crop water requirements to sustain optimum yield. Some of the factors influencing optimum crop yield are drainage design parameters in water-logged soils. Hence, the impact of drainage design parameters on optimum crop yield was examined. Field experimentation ...

  20. Biomarker and molecular isotope approaches to deconvolve the terrestrial carbon isotope record: modern and Eocene calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.; Wing, S.; Currano, E. D.

    2010-12-01

    Climate, biome, and plant community are important predictors of carbon isotope patterns recorded in leaves and leaf waxes. However, signatures recorded by terrestrial organic carbon and lipids that have mixed floral sources (e.g., n-alkanes) potentially reflect both plant community changes and climate. More taxonomically specific proxies for plants (i.e., di- and tri-terpenoids for conifers and angiosperms, respectively), can help to resolve the relative influences of changing community and climate, provided differences in biomarker production and lipid biosynthetic fractionation among plants can be better constrained. We present biomarker abundance and carbon isotope values for lipids from leaves, branches and bark of 44 tree species, representing 21 families including deciduous and evergreen conifers and angiosperms. n-alkane production differs greatly between conifer and angiosperm leaves. Both deciduous and evergreen angiosperms make significantly more n-alkanes than conifers, with n-alkanes not detected in over half of the conifers in our study. Terpenoid abundances scale strongly with leaf habit: evergreen species have significantly higher abundances. We combine these relative differences in lipid production with published estimates of fluxes for leaf litter from conifer and angiosperm trees to develop a new proxy approach for estimating paleo plant community inputs to ancient soils and sediments. To test our modern calibration results, we have evaluated n-alkanes and terpenoids from laterally extensive (~18 km) carbonaceous shales and mudstones in Eocene sediments (52.6 Ma) at Fifteenmile Creek in the Bighorn Basin (WY, USA). Our terpenoid-based proxy predicts on average a 40% conifer community, which is remarkably close in agreement with a fossil-based estimate of 36%. n-alkane carbon isotope fractionation (leaf-lipid) differs among plant types, with conifer n-alkanes about 2-3‰ 13C enriched relative to those in angiosperms. Since conifer leaves are

  1. Optimum Maintenance Strategies for Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frangopol, Dan M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Das, Parag C.

    As bridges become older and maintenance costs become higher, transportation agencies are facing challenges related to implementation of optimal bridge management programs based on life cycle cost considerations. A reliability-based approach is necessary to find optimal solutions based on minimum...... expected life-cycle costs or maximum life-cycle benefits. This is because many maintenance activities can be associated with significant costs, but their effects on bridge safety can be minor. In this paper, the program of an investigation on optimum maintenance strategies for different bridge types...... is described. The end result of this investigation will be a general reliability-based framework to be used by the UK Highways Agency in order to plan optimal strategies for the maintenance of its bridge network so as to optimize whole-life costs....

  2. Choosing an optimum sand control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khamehchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation sand control is always one of the main concerns of production engineers. There are some different methods to prevent sand production. Choosing a method for preventing formation sand production depends on different reservoir parameters and politic and economic conditions. Sometimes, economic and politic conditions are more effective to choose an optimum than reservoir parameters. Often, simultaneous investigation of politic and economic conditions with reservoir parameters has different results with what is expected. So, choosing the best sand control method is the result of thorough study. Global oil price, duration of sand control project and costs of necessary equipment for each method as economic and politic conditions and well productivity index as reservoir parameter are the main parameters studied in this paper.

  3. Development of the Philippine Mobile Belt in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Peña, Rolando E.; Tam, Tomas A.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Usui, Mayumi; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The origin of the Philippine Archipelago is characterized by the combination of the oceanic Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) and the Palawan Continental Block (PCB). This paper is focused on the geologic evolution of the PMB in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene. The study areas (northern Luzon) are situated in the central part of the PMB which is occupied by its typical components made up of a pre-Paleocene ophiolitic complex, Eocene successions, Eocene to Oligocene igneous complex and late Oligocene to Pliocene successions. Facies analysis of the middle Eocene and late Oligocene to early Pliocene successions was carried out to understand the depositional environment of their basins. Modal sandstone compositions, which reflect the basement geology of the source area, were analyzed. Major element geochemistry of sediments was considered to reconstruct the tectonic settings. The following brief history of the PMB is deduced. During the middle Eocene, the PMB was covered by mafic volcanic rocks and was a primitive island arc. In late Eocene to late Oligocene time, the intermediate igneous complex was added to the mafic PMB crust. By late Oligocene to early Miocene time, the PMB had evolved into a volcanic island arc setting. Contributions from alkalic rocks are detected from the rock fragments in the sandstones and chemical composition of the Zigzag Formation. During the middle Miocene to Pliocene, the tectonic setting of the PMB remained as a mafic volcanic island arc.

  4. Planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphy, paleoecology and chronostratigraphy across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary in northern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoui-Yaakoub, Narjess; Grira, Chaima; Mtimet, Moncef Saïd; Negra, Mohamed Hédi; Molina, Eustoquio

    2017-01-01

    The biostratigraphic analysis of the Eocene-Oligocene transition of the Menzel Bou Zelfa and Jhaff sections in northeastern Tunisia (Cap Bon peninsula) allows us to identify a continuous planktic foraminiferal biozonation. The following biozones were recognized: Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta Zone (E14), Globigerinatheka index Zone (E15), (Hantkenina alabamensis Zone (E16) of the upper Eocene and Pseudohastigerina naguewichiensis Zone (O1) of the lower Oligocene. A rapid mass extinction event in planktic foraminifera occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition, including the extinction of the turborotalids (Turborotalia cerroazulensis, Turborotalia cocoaensis and Turborotalia cunialensis) followed by a significant size reduction of the genus Pseudohastigerina and the extinction of the hantkeninids (Hantkenina alabamensis, Hantkenina brevispina, Hantkenina nanggulanensis and Cribrohantkenina lazzarii), which mark the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. These species were tropical and subtropical surface and intermediate dwellers, with distinctive morphologies (carinate turborotalids and spinose hantkeninids), which were well adapted species of k-strategy. The surviving planktic foraminifera species were quite similar in morphology with globular chambers (globigerinids) and small planispiral (pseudohastigerinids), which were opportunistic species of r-strategy. The recognition of a 4 m thick interval, between the extinction of turborotalids and hantkeninids, indicates that the section is continuous and one of the most expanded throughout the Eocene-Oligocene transition. This section could serve as an auxiliary section (hypostratotype) for the complete definition of the Global Stratotype Section and Point for the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, which mark the base of the Rupelian Stage.

  5. The crazy hollow formation (Eocene) of central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M.P.; Warner, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    The Late Eocene Crazy Hollow Formation is a fluviatile and lacustrine unit that was deposited locally in the southwest arm of Lake Uinta during and after the last stages of the lake the deposited the Green River Formation. Most exposures of the Crazy Hollow are located in Sanpete and Sevier Counties. The unit is characterized by a large variety of rock types, rapid facies changes within fairly short distances, and different lithofacies in the several areas where outcrops of the remnants of the formation are concentrated. Mudstone is dominant, volumetrically, but siltstone, shale, sandstone, conglomerate and several varieties of limestone are also present. The fine-grained rocks are mostly highly colored, especially in shades of yellow, orange and red. Sand grains, pebbles and small cobbles of well-rounded black chert are widespread, and "salt-and-pepper sandstone" is the conspicuous characteristic of the Crazy Hollow. The salt-and-pepper sandstone consists of grains of black chert, white chert, quartz and minor feldspar. The limestone beds and lenses are paludal and lacustrine in origin; some are fossiliferous, and contain the same fauna found in the Green River Formation. With trivial exceptions, the Crazy Hollow Formation lies on the upper, limestone member of the Green River Formation, and the beds of the two units are always accordant in attitude. The nature of the contact differs locally: at some sites there is gradation from the Green River to the Crazy Hollow; at others, rocks typical of the two units intertongue; elsewhere there is a disconformity between the two. A variety of bedrock units overlie the Crazy Hollow at different sites. In the southeasternmost districts it is overlain by the late Eocene formation of Aurora; in western Sevier County it is overlain by the Miocene-Pliocene Sevier River Formation; in northernmost Sanpete County it is overlain by the Oligocene volcanics of the Moroni Formation. At many sites bordering Sanpete and Sevier Valleys

  6. Large sedimentary aquifer systems functioning. Constraints by classical isotopic and chemical tools, and REE in the Eocene sand aquifer, SW France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelet-Giraud, E.; Negrel, P. J.; Millot, R.; Guerrot, C.; Brenot, A.; Malcuit, E.

    2010-12-01

    Large sedimentary aquifer systems often constitute strategic water resources for drinking water supply, agriculture irrigation and industry, but can also represent an energetic resource for geothermal power. Large water abstractions can induce complete modification of the natural functioning of such aquifer systems, e.g. with seepage between aquifer layers that can lead to water quality degradation. These large aquifer systems thus require rational water management at the sedimentary basin scale in order to preserve both water quantity and quality. In addition to hydrogeological modelling mainly dealing with water quantity, chemical and isotopic methods were applied to evidence the spatial variability of water characteristics and to turn this into better understanding of hydrosystems functioning. The large Eocene Sand aquifer system of the Adour-Garonne sedimentary basin was studied through various hydrological, chemical and isotopic tools. This system extends over 116,000 km2 (one-fifth of the French territory, located in the South west part). The aquifer being artesian in the west of the district and confined with piezometric levels around 250-m depth in the east. The ‘Eocene Sands’, composed of sandy Tertiary sediments alternating with carbonate deposits, is a multi-layer system with high permeability and a thickness of several tens of metres to a hundred metres..The Eocene Sand aquifer system comprises at least five aquifers: Paleocene, Eocene infra-molassic sands (IMS), early Eocene, middle Eocene, and late Eocene. According to δ18O and δ2H values and estimated 14C ages, both present-day recharge (mainly located in the north of the area) and old recharge (16-35 ky) can be evidenced. High spatial variability was evidenced within a same aquifer layer, with temporal variability over one hydrological cycle limited to a few points located in the recharge areas. These results and especially the very old waters recharged under colder climate combined with the

  7. Was the Eocene Arctic a Source Area for Exotic Plants and Mammals? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, J. J.; Harrington, G. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Today’s High Arctic is undergoing rapid warming, but the impact on its animal and plant communities is not clear. As a deep time analog to better understand and predict the impacts of global warming on the Arctic biota, early Eocene (52-53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut in Canada’s High Arctic (~79°N latitude) preserve evidence of diverse terrestrial ecosystems that supported dense forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, snakes, primates, tapirs, brontotheres, and hippo-like Coryphodon. The fossil localities were just a few degrees further south and still well above the Arctic Circle during the early Eocene; consequently, the biota experienced months of continuous sunlight as well as darkness, the Arctic summer and winter, respectively. The flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions than at present, and recently published analyses of biogenic phosphate from fossil fish, turtle, and mammal estimate warm summers (19 - 20 C) and mild, above-freezing winters. In general, temperature estimates for the early Eocene Arctic can be compared to those found today in temperate rainforests in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The early Eocene Arctic mammalian fauna shares most genera with coeval mid-latitude faunas thousands of kilometers to the south in the US Western Interior, and several genera also are shared with Europe and Asia. Recent analyses suggest that the large herbivores such as hippo-like Coryphodon were year-round inhabitants in the Eocene Arctic forests. Although several of the Eocene Arctic mammalian taxa are hypothesized to have originated in either mid-latitude North America or Asia, the earlier occurrence of certain clades (e.g., tapirs) in the Arctic raises the possibility of a northern high-latitude origin. Analysis of the early Eocene Arctic palynoflora indicates comparable richness to early Eocene plant communities in the US Western Interior, but nearly 50% of its species (mostly angiosperms) are

  8. The Role of the Silicon Cycle in the Eocene-Oligocene Transition: Rapid Rise in Diatom-δ30Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, K. E.; Rickaby, R. E.; Leng, M. J.; Halliday, A. N.

    2011-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) boundary represents a time of major climatic change which heralded the descent of Earth's climate from earlier greenhouse conditions into today's icehouse world. Decline of atmospheric CO2 levels, development of major ice sheets on Antarctica and initiation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current around 34Ma ago dramatically changed the state of the atmosphere, cryosphere and hydrosphere: Major isotopic excursions are seen in both marine oxygen and carbon cycles, and yet the mechanisms behind this transition are still not fully understood. Unravelling the causes of such a significant climatic shift is essential to furthering our grasp on the mechanisms that control climate. The silicon isotope composition (δ30Si) preserved in diatom opal provides a window to the E-O Silicon cycle. The Silicon cycle is a key player in controlling atmospheric CO2 levels for two reasons. Firstly, weathering of silicate minerals acts to draw down CO2 into the ocean and ultimately sediments. Secondly, carbon export from the surface ocean by diatoms, siliceous walled phytoplankton, facilitates carbon transport to a deep ocean sink. We present a long term record of diatom-δ30Si record covering 37Ma to 25Ma, with E-O boundary targeted higher resolution (sponge spicule-δ30Si of ~2% seen by De La Rocha (2003) in sediments from the Maud Rise (ODP site 689). Taken together, these records demonstrate that changes are occurring in both the surface and deep waters of the Southern Ocean across this boundary. We will discuss the implications this has for silicon cycling across the E-O transition, in terms of variation in both weathering and diatom productivity, and the impact that this may have had on global climate.

  9. Abrupt Terrestrial Cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, D. J.; Hren, M. T.; Pacini, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) from a greenhouse to icehouse climate state is the most significant climate transition of the Cenozoic (Zachos et al., 2001). The EOT marks the first presence of large-scale ice in the Cenozoic, with ice sheets appearing on Antarctica. The expression of the EOT in temperature and water isotopes has been documented widely in the marine realm (Coxall et al., 2005; Ivany et al., 2003; Lear et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2009; Pagani et al., 2005; Zachos et al., 2001), as well as in the terrestrial realm (Hren et al., 2013; Sheldon, 2009; Zanazzi et al., 2007). With such dramatic climatic changes occurring in Antarctica, it would be reasonable to expect neighboring Patagonia to hold excellent records of this transition. However, existing terrestrial records from Patagonia show negligible change in the water isotope record (Kohn et al., 2015; Kohn et al., 2010). Analyses of the δD of volcanic glass from the Vera Member of the Sarmiento Formation in the well-dated (Dunn et al., 2013; Ré et al., 2010) sedimentary section at Gran Barranca allow us to reconstruct the water isotope record in central Patagonia during the EOT. These data show a drop in precipitation δD of 20‰ over 100-200 kyr followed by a recovery of 15‰ over the next 0.5-1.0 Myr. Based on observed δ-T relationships (Dansgaard, 1964; Kohn et al., 2004), this excursion implies a cooling of 6°C during the EOT. This magnitude of cooling, as well as the pattern of rapid temperature change followed by a more gradual recovery matches well with nearby marine records of temperature (Liu et al., 2009) and water isotopes (Muza et al., 1983) from DSDP site 511. Other data from Gran Barranca show suppression of wildfire (Selkin et al., 2015) and possible increases in canopy openness (Dunn et al., 2015), which may be driven by this cooling, but it appears that vegetation populations (Strömberg et al., 2013) and evolution of grazing mammals (Kohn et al., 2015) were negligibly

  10. Mesozoic and Eocene ductile deformation of western Central Iran: from Cimmerian collisional orogeny to Eocene extension and exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargaranbafghi, Fariba; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann

    2010-05-01

    To advance our understanding of the Mesozoic to Eocene tectonics and kinematics of basement units exposed in the south-western Central Iran plateau, this paper presents new structural and thermochronological data from the Chapedony metamorphic core complex and hangingwall units, particularly from the Posht-e-Badam complex. The overall Paleogene structural characteristics of the area are related to an oblique convergent zone. The Saghand area represent part of a deformation zone between the Arabia and Eurasia plates, and can be interpreted as a product of the Central Iran intracontinental deformation as a weak zone during Mesozoic to Paleogene times. Field and microstructural evidence reveals that the metamorphic and igneous rocks in the study area suffered a ductile shear deformation including mylonitization at the hangingwall boundary of the Eocene Chapedony metamorphic core complex. The shear zone is subhorizontal low-angle normal fault and the shear direction of the hangingwall unit is towards NE, based on the attitude of foliation and lineation of ductility deformed rocks and shear sense indicators. Comparison of deformation features in the described mylonites and other structural features within the footwall unit lead to the conclusion that the mylonites were formed in a subhorizontal shear zone by NE-SW stretching in the extension tectonics during Middle to Late Eocene. The Chapedony metamorphic core complex is characterized by amphibolite-facies metamorphism and development of S and S-L tectonic fabrics. The Posht-e-Badam complex is deformed by two stages during Cimmerian tectonic processes forming the Paleo-Tethyan suture. The Posht-e-Badam complex is overprinted by two stages of metamorphism. White mica ages at 203 and 181 Ma are related to cooling after medium-grade metamorphism respectively ductile shearing. These ages are variably overprinted by low-grade metamorphism also affecting Jurassic metasediments in the Polo area. Consequently, these are

  11. Verification of the optimum tropospheric parameters setting for the kinematic PPP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Y.; Ohta, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Kinematic GNSS analysis is useful for extraction of the crustal deformation phenomena between seconds to one day such as coseismic and postseismic deformation after a large earthquake. The kinematic GNSS analysis, however, have fundamental difficulties for the separation between unknown parameters such as the site coordinate and tropospheric parameters, caused by a strong correlation between each other. Thus, we focused on the improvement of the separation precision between coordinate time series of kinematic PPP and wet zenith tropospheric delay (WZTD) based on the comprehensive search of the parameter space. We used GIPSY-OASIS II Ver. 6.3 software for kinematic PPP processing of whole GEONET sites in 10 March 2011. We applied the every 6 hours nominal WZTD value as a priori information based on the ECMWF global numerical climate model. For the coordinate time series and tropospheric parameters, we assumed white noise and random walk stochastic process, respectively. These unknown parameters are very sensitive to assumed process noise for each stochastic process. Thus, we searched for the optimum two variable parameters; wet zenith tropospheric parameter (named as TROP) and its gradient (named as GRAD). We defined the optimum parameters, which minimized the standard deviation of coordinate time series.We firstly checked the spatial distribution of optimum pair of TROP and GRAD. Even though the optimum parameters showed the certain range (TROP: 2×10-8 ~ 6×10-7 (horizontal), 5.5×10-9 ~ 2×10-8 (vertical); GRAD: 2×10-10 ~ 6×10-9 (horizontal), 2×10-10 ~ 1×10-8 (vertical) (unit: km·s-½)), we found they showed the large diversity. It suggests there are strong heterogeneity of atmospheric state. We also estimated temporal variations of optimum TROP and GRAD in specific site. We analyzed the data through 2010 at GEONET 940098 station located in the most southern part of Kyusyu, Japan. Obtained time series of optimum GRAD showed clear annual variation, and the

  12. METALLOGENY OF EOCENE SYNCOLLISIONAL GRANITES OF MOTAJICA AND PROSARA MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurković

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The geological setting is dominated by Eocene (48.7 Ma syncollisional granitoids in the form of a small pluton in the Motajica Mt. and in the form of numerous sills and dykes in the Prosara Mt. Microelement paragenesis of these magmatites, pegmatites, greisens and quartz veins are distinguished by U, Th, Ce, Y, P, Nb, Ta, B, Li, F, Be, Sn, Mo, W, Fe, Cu, Pb. These elements and 87Sr/86Sr and 18O isotopic values indicate the mantle origin of magma contaminated by relatively sterile lithospheric rocks. The most probable hypothesis of such a hybrid magma formation is the "slab break-off model". Deep erosion of Motajica granitoid pluton opened its acrobatholitic and epibatholitic level with numerous, but small pegmatite deposits (beryllites, tourmalinites, emeraldites and sylexites with piezoelectric quartz. Greisenization marked by strong silicification and muscovitization affected less than 1% of pluton. It is characterized by minor and accessory molybdenite, wolframite, huebnerite, scheelite, fluorite. Hydrothermal occurrences, galena and Fe minerals have only a mineralogical significance. Economically significant are numerous autochthonous kaolin deposits formed in Pliocene-Pleistocene time. Prosara apomagmatic granitoids, exclusively granite dykes are metallogenetically sterile.

  13. A Siliceous Microfossil View of Middle Eocene Arctic Paleoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, C. E.; Koc, N.; Brumsack, H.; Jordan, R. W.; Suto, I.

    2007-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302, "The Arctic Coring Expedition" (ACEX) made arguably the most significant discovery of Paleogene siliceous microfossils in nearly 2 decades. 100 m of mm to sub-mm laminated biosiliceous sediments of Middle Eocene age are rich in marine and freshwater siliceous microfossils allowing intriguing insights into central Arctic paleoenvironments during the start of Cenozoic cooling to icehouse conditions. Largely endemic assemblages of marine diatoms and ebridians are preserved along with very high abundances of chrysophyte cysts, the endogenously formed resting stage of freshwater algae. These siliceous microfossil groups imply an overall brackish environment, but variations in group dominance suggest episodic variations in salinity, stratification and trophic status. We synthesize the overall characteristics of the biosiliceous sediments by reporting on broad scale variations in siliceous microfossils and give some exciting insights into the composition of the laminae which may help explain the formation of these sediments. Our results indicate basin-wide paleo-environmental fluctuations on long- and possibly seasonal timescales.

  14. Evidence of a Cooler Continental Climate in East China during the Warm Early Cenozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Smith, Thierry; Yang, Jian; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2016-01-01

    The early Cenozoic was characterized by a very warm climate especially during the Early Eocene. To understand climatic changes in eastern Asia, we reconstructed the Early Eocene vegetation and climate based on palynological data of a borehole from Wutu coal mine, East China and evaluated the climatic differences between eastern Asia and Central Europe. The Wutu palynological assemblages indicated a warm temperate vegetation succession comprising mixed needle- and broad-leaved forests. Three periods of vegetation succession over time were recognized. The changes of palynomorph relative abundance indicated that period 1 was warm and humid, period 2 was relatively warmer and wetter, and period 3 was cooler and drier again. The climatic parameters estimated by the coexistence approach (CA) suggested that the Early Eocene climate in Wutu was warmer and wetter. Mean annual temperature (MAT) was approximately 16°C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) was 800-1400 mm. Comparison of the Early Eocene climatic parameters of Wutu with those of 39 other fossil floras of different age in East China, reveals that 1) the climate became gradually cooler during the last 65 million years, with MAT dropping by 9.3°C. This cooling trend coincided with the ocean temperature changes but with weaker amplitude; 2) the Early Eocene climate was cooler in East China than in Central Europe; 3) the cooling trend in East China (MAT dropped by 6.9°C) was gentler than in Central Europe (MAT dropped by 13°C) during the last 45 million years.

  15. Evidence of a Cooler Continental Climate in East China during the Warm Early Cenozoic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Qian Zhang

    Full Text Available The early Cenozoic was characterized by a very warm climate especially during the Early Eocene. To understand climatic changes in eastern Asia, we reconstructed the Early Eocene vegetation and climate based on palynological data of a borehole from Wutu coal mine, East China and evaluated the climatic differences between eastern Asia and Central Europe. The Wutu palynological assemblages indicated a warm temperate vegetation succession comprising mixed needle- and broad-leaved forests. Three periods of vegetation succession over time were recognized. The changes of palynomorph relative abundance indicated that period 1 was warm and humid, period 2 was relatively warmer and wetter, and period 3 was cooler and drier again. The climatic parameters estimated by the coexistence approach (CA suggested that the Early Eocene climate in Wutu was warmer and wetter. Mean annual temperature (MAT was approximately 16°C and mean annual precipitation (MAP was 800-1400 mm. Comparison of the Early Eocene climatic parameters of Wutu with those of 39 other fossil floras of different age in East China, reveals that 1 the climate became gradually cooler during the last 65 million years, with MAT dropping by 9.3°C. This cooling trend coincided with the ocean temperature changes but with weaker amplitude; 2 the Early Eocene climate was cooler in East China than in Central Europe; 3 the cooling trend in East China (MAT dropped by 6.9°C was gentler than in Central Europe (MAT dropped by 13°C during the last 45 million years.

  16. Evidence of a Cooler Continental Climate in East China during the Warm Early Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Smith, Thierry; Yang, Jian; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2016-01-01

    The early Cenozoic was characterized by a very warm climate especially during the Early Eocene. To understand climatic changes in eastern Asia, we reconstructed the Early Eocene vegetation and climate based on palynological data of a borehole from Wutu coal mine, East China and evaluated the climatic differences between eastern Asia and Central Europe. The Wutu palynological assemblages indicated a warm temperate vegetation succession comprising mixed needle- and broad-leaved forests. Three periods of vegetation succession over time were recognized. The changes of palynomorph relative abundance indicated that period 1 was warm and humid, period 2 was relatively warmer and wetter, and period 3 was cooler and drier again. The climatic parameters estimated by the coexistence approach (CA) suggested that the Early Eocene climate in Wutu was warmer and wetter. Mean annual temperature (MAT) was approximately 16°C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) was 800–1400 mm. Comparison of the Early Eocene climatic parameters of Wutu with those of 39 other fossil floras of different age in East China, reveals that 1) the climate became gradually cooler during the last 65 million years, with MAT dropping by 9.3°C. This cooling trend coincided with the ocean temperature changes but with weaker amplitude; 2) the Early Eocene climate was cooler in East China than in Central Europe; 3) the cooling trend in East China (MAT dropped by 6.9°C) was gentler than in Central Europe (MAT dropped by 13°C) during the last 45 million years. PMID:27196048

  17. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  18. On Optimum Causal Cognitive Spectrum Reutilization Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighi, Kasra; Agrell, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study opportunistic transmission strategies for cognitive radios (CR) in which causal noisy observation from a primary user(s) (PU) state is available. PU is assumed to be operating in a slotted manner, according to a two-state Markov model. The objective is to maximize utilization ratio (UR), i.e., relative number of the PU-idle slots that are used by CR, subject to interference ratio (IR), i.e., relative number of the PU-active slots that are used by CR, below a certain level. We introduce an a-posteriori LLR-based cognitive transmission strategy and show that this strategy is optimum in the sense of maximizing UR given a certain maximum allowed IR. Two methods for calculating threshold for this strategy in practical situations are presented. One of them performs well in higher SNRs but might have too large IR at low SNRs and low PU activity levels, and the other is proven to never violate the allowed IR at the price of a reduced UR. In addition, an upper-bound for the UR of any CR strategy...

  19. Optimum design parameters of a heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Bayram; Yakut, Kenan; Kotcioglu, Isak [Ataturk Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey); Celik, Cafer [Ataturk Univ., Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2005-09-01

    In this study, the effects of the longitudinal and lateral separations of consecutively enlarged-contracted arranged fin pairs, widths of the fins, angle of attack, heights of fins and flow velocity on the heat and pressure drop characteristics were investigated using the Taguchi experimental-design method. Nusselt number and friction factor were considered as performance parameters. An L{sub 18}(2{sup 1}*3{sup 7}) orthogonal array was selected as an experimental plan for the eight parameters mentioned above. First of all, each goal was optimized, separately. Then, all the goals were optimized together, considering the priority of the goals, and the optimum results were found to be fin width of 15 mm, angle of attack of 15 deg, fin height of 100 mm, span-wise distance between fins of 20 mm, stream-wise distance between fins of 10 mm, span-wise distance between slices of 20 mm, stream-wise distances between slices of 20 mm at a flow velocity of 4 m/s. (Author)

  20. Designing from minimum to optimum functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannova, Olga; Bell, Larry

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses a multifaceted strategy to link NASA Minimal Functionality Habitable Element (MFHE) requirements to a compatible growth plan; leading forward to evolutionary, deployable habitats including outpost development stages. The discussion begins by reviewing fundamental geometric features inherent in small scale, vertical and horizontal, pressurized module configuration options to characterize applicability to meet stringent MFHE constraints. A proposed scenario to incorporate a vertical core MFHE concept into an expanded architecture to provide continuity of structural form and a logical path from "minimum" to "optimum" design of a habitable module. The paper describes how habitation and logistics accommodations could be pre-integrated into a common Hab/Log Module that serves both habitation and logistics functions. This is offered as a means to reduce unnecessary redundant development costs and to avoid EVA-intensive on-site adaptation and retrofitting requirements for augmented crew capacity. An evolutionary version of the hard shell Hab/Log design would have an expandable middle section to afford larger living and working accommodations. In conclusion, the paper illustrates that a number of cargo missions referenced for NASA's 4.0.0 Lunar Campaign Scenario could be eliminated altogether to expedite progress and reduce budgets. The plan concludes with a vertical growth geometry that provides versatile and efficient site development opportunities using a combination of hard Hab/Log modules and a hybrid expandable "CLAM" (Crew Lunar Accommodations Module) element.

  1. Bighorn Basin Coring Project: Palynofloral changes and taphonomy through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, G.; Jardine, P.

    2012-12-01

    The early Palaeogene hyperthermals provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the biotic responses to rapid and transient global warming events. As part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP), we have analyzed 182 sporomorph (pollen and spore) samples from three newly cored sites in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Two sites, Basin Substation (121 samples) and Polecat Bench (41 samples), contain the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ETM1), and one early Eocene site, Gilmore Hill (20 samples), contains the ELMO (ETM2) event. We have focused initially on the Basin Substation section, because it is more organic rich, has demonstrated higher sporomorph recovery potential than the other two sites, and is the main focus of complementary geochemical analyses. Below 90 m core depth sporomorph concentrations are typically 1000 - 10 000 grains/gram, but between 90 and 60 m these decline to gymnosperms Cupressacites hiatipites (cypress, Cupressaceae) and bisaccate pollen (Pinaceae and/or Podocarpaceae), and the angiosperm taxa Polyatriopollenites vermontensis (wingnut or wheel wingnut, Juglandaceae), Caryapollenites spp. (hickory, Juglandaceae), and Alnipollenites spp. (alder, Betulaceae). However, samples are heterogeneous in terms of the dominant taxon, with different taxa having the highest relative abundance in different samples. In the upper part of the core, the assemblage is similar to that in the lower part, but with a more consistent dominance of gymnosperm taxa, and with the addition of Eocene marker taxa Intratriporopollenites instructus (linden, Tilioideae) and Celtis spp. (hackberry, Cannabaceae). These both have their first appearance at 56.14 m in the core, just above the zone of low sporomorph recovery. These results point to (a) a decrease in sporomorph preservation that is linked to environmental change during the PETM event, and (b) repeated reorganizations of plant relative abundances prior to the PETM. Current research is focusing on the

  2. Biostratigraphy of a Paleocene–Eocene Foreland Basin boundary in southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiao Wan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Paleocene–Eocene boundary within a foreland basin of southern Tibet, which was dominated by a carbonate ramp depositional environment, documents more complex environmental conditions than can be derived from studies of the deep oceanic environment. Extinction rates for larger foraminiferal species in the Zongpu-1 Section apply to up to 46% of the larger foraminiferal taxa. The extinction rate in southern Tibet is similar to rates elsewhere in the world, but it shows that the Paleocene fauna disappeared stepwise through the Late Paleocene, with Eocene taxa appearing abruptly above the boundary. A foraminifera turnover was identified between Members 3 and 4 of the Zongpu Formation—from the Miscellanea–Daviesina assemblage to an Orbitolites–Alveolina assemblage. The Paleocene and Eocene boundary is between the SBZ 4 and SBZ 5, where it is marked by the extinction of Miscellanea miscella and the first appearance of Alveolina ellipsodalis and a large number of Orbitolites. Chemostratigraphically, the δ13C values from both the Zongpu-1 and Zongpu-2 Sections show three negative excursions in the transitional strata, one in Late Paleocene, one at the boundary, and one in the early Eocene. The second negative excursion of δ13C, which is located at the P–E boundary, coincides with larger foraminifera overturn. These faunal changes and the observed δ13C negative excursions provide new evidence on environmental changes across the Paleocene–Eocene boundary in Tibet.

  3. Organic geochemical characteristics of the Paleocene-Eocene oil shales in the Nallihan Region, Ankara, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Ali [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Aliyev, Saday Azadoglu [Ankara University, Science and Technology Research and Application Center, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    Units of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age are exposed in the study area which extends along the Sakarya River by the Sarycakaya town of Eskibehir at west and Nallyhan district of Ankara at East. Paleozoic is represented with metamorphites consisting of glaucophane schist, muscovite schist and marble alternations and granites cutting them. The Mesozoic composing of Jurassic-Cretaceous Sogukcam limestones at the northern part of the area is in tectonic contact with other units. The Tertiary is characterized by the Paleocene-Eocene Kizilcay Group which consists of the Beykoy, Camalan and Lacin Formations. The Camalan Formation is composed of sandstone, limestone, oil shale and locally coal bands. In the area, as a result of intense tectonic activity by the late Eocene, sedimentary sequence that compacted within the Paleozoic metamorphic rocks were folded and fractured. The Paleocene-Eocene shales have adequate organic material content to form potential source rocks. In order to determine hydrocarbon potential of the unit, various organic geochemical analysis techniques were performed. According to pyrolysis results (TOC, S{sub 1} and S{sub 2}), the Paleocene-Eocene shales are perfect source rocks for oil. On the basis of Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses, kerogens are Type I and Type II kerogens. Spore Color Index and T{sub max} evaluations indicate that maturity of the unit is between diagenesis and early mature oil zone and at the beginning of the oil-producing stage. Organic facies of the Paleocene-Eocene shales are A, AB and B. (author)

  4. Alternating Southern and Northern Hemisphere climate response to astronomical forcing during the past 35 m.y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, David; Vahlenkamp, Maximilian; Crucifix, Michel; Pälike, Heiko

    2017-04-01

    Earth's climate has undergone different intervals of gradual change as well as abrupt shifts between climate states. Here we aim to characterize the corresponding changes in climate response to astronomical forcing in the icehouse portion of the Cenozoic, from the latest Eocene to the present. As a tool, we use a 35-m.y.-long δ18Obenthic record compiled from different high-resolution benthic isotope records spliced together (what we refer to as a megasplice). An important feature of the evolutive spectrum of the megasplice is the sustained power at the frequency of the 405-kyr long eccentricity cycle throughout the Oligocene and early to middle Miocene. That power disappears after the mid-Miocene Climatic Transition, along with a weakening of the power of the 100-kyr short eccentricity cycles. While this general feature has been previously recognized, this is the first long record where this significant transition is clearly observed. We analyze the climate response to astronomical forcing during four 800-k.y.-long time windows. During the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (ca. 15.5 Ma), global climate variability was mainly dependent on Southern Hemisphere summer insolation, amplified by a dynamic Antarctic ice sheet; 2.5 m.y. later, relatively warm global climate states occurred during maxima in both Southern Hemisphere and Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. At that point, the Antarctic ice sheet grew too big to pulse on the beat of precession, and the Southern Hemisphere lost its overwhelming influence on the global climate state. Likewise, we juxtapose response regimes of the Miocene (ca. 19 Ma) and Oligocene (ca. 25.5 Ma) warming periods. Despite the similarity in δ18Obenthic values and variability, we find different responses to precession forcing. While Miocene warmth occurs during summer insolation maxima in both hemispheres, Oligocene global warmth is consistently triggered when Earth reaches perihelion in the Northern Hemisphere summer. The presence of a

  5. WEATHERING PROCESS IN EOCENE FLYSCH IN REGION OF SPLIT (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Miščević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene flysh in the region of Split (Dalmatia, Croatia is char¬acterized by the presence of layers with different characteristics. It mainly includes thin-layered marls, clayey marls, calcareous marls, clastic lay¬ered limestones, calcarenites and breccias. Those parts that can be de¬scribed as the soft rocks or hard clays by the mechanical means, exposed to weathering reduce the durability within "an engineering time scale". The paper deals with the factors that influence the weathering process. The analyzed weathering is a combination of processes acting simulta¬neously. Most of these processes depend on the change of the water con¬tent, thus the weathering process mainly develops when a material is subjected to the wetting-drying process, On the base of these results form of degradation process is modeled. The weathering process can be main¬ly described as physical weathering combined with chemical weathering on the free surfaces and on the cracks walls. Erosion as a result of weath¬ering, is the dominant geomorphic process on analyzed flysch terrain. According to the analysis, as the most appropriate due to the characteris¬tics the tests are chosen as index properties. Some of these tests are modified in order to adapt them to the determined characteristics of ma¬terials from flysch layers. The correlations between the measured values are used as the basis for the classification proposal of the analyzed mate¬rial, according to its resistance to weathering processes. Roughly, three main groups of samples are recognizable: the first one with carbonate content more then 90% is not weathered at the engineers time scale; the second group with carbonate content from 75% to 90% include samples susceptible to weathering in engineers time scale; the third group with carbonate content less then 75% include samples in which the weather¬ing occurs immediately after the exposition to the weathering factors.

  6. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum triggered by Volcanism revealed by Mercury anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozyem, Hassan; Adatte, Thierry; Mbabi Bitchong, André; Chevalier, Yoann; Keller, Gerta

    2017-04-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.8±0.2 Ma) is marked by a global drop of 2-6‰ in 13C values and rapid warming of 4-5°C in tropical surface waters and 4-8°C in high latitudes. Climate warming persisted for several tens of thousands of years and resulted in rapid diversification in terrestrial mammals and marine planktic foraminifera. Deep-water bathyal benthic foraminifera suffered a mass extinction ( 40% species) but no significant extinctions occurred shallow shelf environments. Benthic extinctions are commonly explained as the effects of the initial stage of climate warming due to North Atlantic Volcanic Province volcanism (NAVP), which triggered methane release from ocean sediments causing global warming and ocean acidification. But the relationship between NAPV and the PETM events are not clearly demonstrated. Several studies [1-4] demonstrated the relationship between Hg anomalies in sediments and LIP activity associated with mass extinctions. We investigated the mercury (Hg) content of several sections located in deep bathyal (Zumaya, Trabakua, N-Spain) and outer shelf environments (Dababiya GSSP, Duwi, Egypt). At Zumaya the PETM is marked by a red clayey and marly interval poor in organic matter and coincident with a pronounced ∂13C negative shift. A comparable clay interval with low TOC content is also present in the Dababyia section in the lower part of the negative ∂13C shift, whereas the upper part of is enriched in TOC, reflecting increased productivity. A significant but unique Hg enrichment is observed at the onset of the PETM just below the carbone isotope shift in Spain as well as in Egypt. This increase, which is not correlated with clay or total organic carbon contents, suggests the Hg anomaly resulted from higher atmospheric Hg input into the marine realm, rather than organic matter scavenging and/or increased run-off. This Hg anomaly at the onset of the PETM provides the first direct evidence that volcanism played a

  7. Coast-to-Coast Record of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in Shallow Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, C. M.; Bohaty, S. M.; Sluijs, A.; Brinkhuis, H.; Zachos, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is characterized by rapid global warming, as much as 8° C, and a negative excursion in carbon isotopes (CIE). The magnitude of the CIE indicates rapid transfer of a large mass of carbon to the atmosphere. The rise in temperature associated with the addition of this greenhouse gas appears to have also altered global humidity and precipitation patterns, a feature often best expressed in near shore depositional facies. One goal of this study is to complement the deep-sea climate record with near shore, shallow-water records of regional climate change. We present sedimentologic, fossil, and geochemical data from three shallow-marine sections, one from the U.S. Pacific margin (Lodo formation, now exposed in the mountains of Central California), and two from the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain in New Jersey (drill sites at Bass River and Wilson Lake). Stable isotope analyses of foraminifera indicate that the magnitude of the isotopic excursion is globally similar to that in the deep-sea, although detail observations suggest that the excursion in bulk carbonate values in NJ sections is somewhat larger at the base of the CIE (Δδ13C=~4-6‰), particularly inshore, than what is typically measured in the deep sea (Δδ13C=~3‰). Carbonate dissolution may be truncating the excursion recorded in pelagic records. However, given the discrepancy between bulk and the foraminiferal data, we suspect that either diagenesis and/or vital effects and/or season-dependent intensification of the hydrological cycle and nutrient input may be contributing to more negative values in the bulk δ13C in shallow marine sections. We also find that δ13C of marine organic matter in each of these sections records the CIE, a particularly useful feature in sections containing few calcareous microfossils (due to dissolution or dilution). The magnitude of the excursion in these records is similar to the bulk carbonate record. Finally, clay mineral analysis

  8. Transitivity of the climate–vegetation system in a warm climate

    OpenAIRE

    Port , U.; Claussen, M.

    2015-01-01

    To date, the transitivity of the global system has been analysed for late Quaternary (glacial, interglacial, and present-day) climate. Here, we extend this analysis to a warm, almost ice-free climate with a different configuration of continents. We use the Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology to analyse the stability of the climate system under early Eocene and pre-industrial conditions. We initialize the simulations by prescribing either dense forests or bare desert...

  9. Deep time evidence for climate sensitivity increase with warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaffer, Gary; Huber, Matthew; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Future global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions will depend on climate feedbacks, the effect of which is expressed by climate sensitivity, the warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content. It is not clear how feedbacks, sensitivity, and temperature will evolve in our warming...... world, but past warming events may provide insight. Here we employ paleoreconstructions and new climate-carbon model simulations in a novel framework to explore a wide scenario range for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) carbon release and global warming event 55.8Ma ago, a possible future...... indicates climate sensitivity increase with global warming....

  10. Large-amplitude variations in carbon cycling and terrestrial weathering during the latest Paleocene and earliest Eocene: The record at Mead Stream, New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotnick, B.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Nicolo, M.J.; Hollis, C.J.; Crampton, J.S.; Zachos, J.C.; Sluijs, A.

    The late Paleocene to early Eocene was marked by major changes in Earth surface temperature and carbon cycling. This included at least two, and probably more, geologically brief (<200-k.yr.) intervals of extreme warming, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and the Eocene thermal maximum-2

  11. 50 CFR 648.20 - Maximum optimum yield (OYs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum optimum yield (OYs). 648.20 Section 648.20 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.20 Maximum optimum yield (OYs...

  12. Determining optimum rates of mineral fertilizers for economic rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient input and output balances are very essential for maintaining balances in not only soil nutrient management but also in preventing pollution and waste through excess use. A study was undertaken to determine the optimum levels of the major elements (N, P, K) required for optimum lowland rice yields under the ...

  13. Determination of the Optimum Collector Angle for Composite Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for predicting solar radiation available at any given time in the inhabited area in Ilorin was developed. From the equation developed, the optimum tilt angle of the collector due south was carried out. The optimum angle of tilt of the collector and the orientation are dependent on the month of the year and the location ...

  14. Optimum mobility’ facelift. Part 2 – the technique

    OpenAIRE

    Fanous, Nabil; Karsan, Naznin; Zakhary, Kristina; Tawile, Carolyne

    2006-01-01

    In the first of this two-part article on the ‘optimum mobility’ facelift, facial tissue mobility was analyzed, and three theories or mechanisms emerged: ‘intrinsic mobility’, ‘surgically induced mobility’ and ‘optimum mobility points’.

  15. Optimum operating regimes for the ideal wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    We here present new results on the classical work of the optimum rotor. The emphasis is put vortex theory for which we have developed a new analytical method to determine the loading on an optimum win turbine rotor. The introduction of the work is a repetition of results using momentum theory. Th...

  16. Optimum insulation thickness in wood-framed homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Oviatt

    1975-01-01

    New design methods must be developed to reduce energy waste in buildings. This study examines an economic approach to the design of thermal insulation in the home and demonstrates graphically that an optimum point of insulation thickness occurs where total costs of insulation and energy over the useful life of a building are a minimum. The optimum thickness thus...

  17. Determination of angle of inclination for optimum power production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering the Daily Average Power Output, Tilt angle of 150 recorded Optimum Daily Average Power output of 16.83 Watts throughout the period of measurement. This suggests that tilt angle of 150 is considered as suitable angle for Solar panel installation for optimum daily power production in this geographical location.

  18. Optimum conditions for carbonisation of coconut shell | Gimba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimum conditions that are useful in the carbonization of coconut shell have been examined. The carbonization was effected using particle sizes (150 – 2000μm) at carbonization temperatures between 200 and 900C in a laboratory muffle furnace. The study involved determination of yield, rate of weight loss, optimum ...

  19. Optimum Temperature and Thermal Stability of Crude Polyphenol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bello & Sule: Optimum Temperature and Thermal Stability of Crude Polyphenol Oxidase from some Common Fruits. 30. DISCUSSION. Temperature is one of the factors that affect the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction (Martin, 2006). Optimum temperature is the temperature at which an enzyme shows its highest catalytic ...

  20. Optimum Design Of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Using Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng. Mohammed Fawzy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the increasing demand of electrical energy in Egypt and also in many neighboring countries around the world the main problem facing electrical energy production using classical methods such steam power stations is the depletion of fossil fuels. The gap between the electrical energy demand and the continuous increase on the fossil fuel cost make the problem of electricity generation more sophisticated. With the continuous decrease of the photovoltaic PV technologies cost it doesnt make sense neglecting the importance of electricity production using solar photovoltaic PV especially that the annual average daily energy received is about 6 kamp12310whmamp123112day in Cairo Egypt 30N.In this work a detailed simulation model including photovoltaic PV module characteristics and climatic conditions of Cairo Egypt is developed. The model compares fixed PV systems electrical energy output with photovoltaic PV system using concentrators and double axis tracker systems. The comparison includes the energy generated area required as well as the cost per kwh generated. The optimality criterion is the cost per kwh generated. The system that gives the minimum cost per kwh is the optimum system. To verify the developed model the simulation results of fixed PV modules and CPV using tracking system obtained by the model are compared with practical measurements of 40KW peak station erected in Cairo Egypt 30N.Very good agreement between measured values and results obtained from detailed simulation model. For fixed PV system the detailed economic analysis showed that it gives minimum cost perkwh generated Comparisons among these systems are presented. For Cairo results showed that a cost of about 6 to 9 US centskwh is attainable.

  1. Transitivity of the climate-vegetation system in a warm climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, U.; Claussen, M.

    2015-11-01

    To date, the transitivity of the global system has been analysed for late Quaternary (glacial, interglacial, and present-day) climate. Here, we extend this analysis to a warm, almost ice-free climate with a different configuration of continents. We use the Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology to analyse the stability of the climate system under early Eocene and pre-industrial conditions. We initialize the simulations by prescribing either dense forests or bare deserts on all continents. Starting with desert continents, an extended desert remains in central Asia in the early Eocene climate. Starting with dense forest coverage, the Asian desert is much smaller, while coastal deserts develop in the Americas which appear to be larger than in the simulations with initially bare continents. These differences can be attributed to differences in the large-scale tropical circulation. With initially forested continents, a stronger dipole in the 200 hPa velocity potential develops than in the simulation with initially bare continents. This difference prevails when vegetation is allowed to adjust to and interact with climate. Further simulations with initial surface conditions that differ in the region of the Asian desert only indicate that local feedback processes are less important in the development of multiple states. In the interglacial, pre-industrial climate, multiple states develop only in the Sahel region. There, local climate-vegetation interaction seems to dominate.

  2. Ancient Fungal Life in North Pacific Eocene Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Manz, W.; Reitner, J.; Lustrino, M.

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the manifold life forms of the deep biosphere although there is increasing scientific evidence that an extensive biosphere does exist in extreme environments such as the rocks below the seafloor. The ODP Leg 200 was devoted to the study of Eocene oceanic crust of the North Pacific Ocean. Within a massive tholeiitic lava flow unit, at depth of 51 mbsf underneath a water column of about 5000 m, we found unique filamentous structures. Based on morphological traits like branching, septa and central pores the filaments are interpreted as fungi. These filaments were found within carbonate-filled vesicles ranging in size from 0.5 to 3 mm in diameter. The net of fungal hyphae completely fills the whole pore space from the basalt-carbonate boundary towards the center of the pores. The cross section dimension of these filaments is about 5-10 micrometer and the length differ from 50 to several hundreds micrometer. Thereby the cell septa of the hyphae are clearly visible. The number of hyphae ranges from some tenth to some hundreds per particular pore. The presence of pyrite within the carbonate cements points out anaerobic conditions in this habitat. After removing the carbonate by etching the vesicles with diluted formic acid, the 3-dimensional structure of the fungus could be clearly visualized. Fine structure analysis of the hyphae obtained by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed a network of tiny small fibers coating the surface of the hyphae. Semi-quantitative chemical analyses of the etched hyphae were conducted with an energy dispersive spectrometer system (EDS) coupled with the FE-SEM. The results evidence a chemical composition of the hyphae different from the surrounding carbonate matrix. Undisturbed filamentous growth through different calcite crystals within the vesicles and small open space between the fungi and matrix indicate endolithic fungal growth after the calcium carbonate filling of the vesicles. To the best

  3. Recent advances on the knowledge of the Eocene primates from the Pyrenean Basins (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Femenias-Gual, Joan; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    The Eocene was one of the warmest epochs of the Cenozoic and documented the first occurrence of several orders of modern mammals. Among them, Euprimates underwent a very important radiation favored by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Two main groups reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, Adapiformes and Omomyiformes, which are related to the main clades of living primates (strepsirrhines and haplorhines, respectively). In the Iberian Peninsula, Eocene primates have been known since the 1960s, when several fossil sites containing prosimian remains were discovered. Nevertheless, it was not until 2010 that the research on Eocene primates from Spain has increased strikingly, and the results achieved in this last stage have surpassed those of the whole past century in terms of number of publications. Besides some interesting findings in the Ebro, Almazán and Miranda-Trebiño basins, the Pyrenees have yielded the most abundant record of Eocene primates from the Iberian Peninsula, constituting therefore an excellent region for evaluating the evolution of primates through this epoch. In the early Eocene continental deposits of the Àger area, adapiforms are well represented, with three species of the genus Agerinia. Besides, the only record of Plesiadapiformes (archaic primates) from Spain has been documented in this zone. The middle Eocene is particularly well represented in the Eastern Pyrenees. In the section of Sant Jaume de Frontanyà, three primate species have been described in the last years. The adapiform Anchomomys frontanyensis and the omomyiform Pseudoloris pyrenaicus, found in the oldest levels of the section, and the omomyiform Necrolemur anadoni, identified in the youngest levels, have allowed reconstructing the relationships of these taxa with their correlatives found in other parts of Europe. Late Eocene deposits with mammal remains crop out in the area of La Pobla de Segur. The most relevant fossil

  4. The influence of ice sheets on temperature during the past 38 million years inferred from a one-dimensional ice sheet-climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stap, Lennert B.; Van De Wal, Roderik S.W.; De Boer, Bas; Bintanja, Richard; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the inception of the Antarctic ice sheet at the Eocene-Oligocene transition ( ~34 Myr ago), land ice has played a crucial role in Earth's climate. Through feedbacks in the climate system, land ice variability modifies atmospheric temperature changes induced by orbital, topographical, and

  5. Presence detection under optimum fusion in an ultrasonic sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sriram; Pandharipande, Ashish

    2012-04-01

    Reliable presence detection is a requirement in energy-efficient occupancy-adaptive indoor lighting systems. A system of multiple ultrasonic sensors is considered for presence detection, and the performance gain from optimum fusion is studied. Two cases are considered wherein an individual sensor determines presence based on (i) local detection by processing echoes at its receiver, and (ii) the optimum Chair-Varshney fusion rule using multiple sensor detection results. The performance gains of using optimum fusion over local detection are characterized under different sensor system configurations and it is shown that improved detection sensitivity is obtained over a larger detection coverage region.

  6. Optimum unambiguous discrimination of linearly independent pure state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Shengshi; Wu, Shengjun

    2009-01-01

    Given n linearly independent pure states and their prior probabilities, we study the optimum unambiguous state discrimination problem. We derive the conditions for the optimum measurement strategy to achieve the maximum average success probability and establish two sets of equations that must...... analytical relation between the optimum solution and the n states to be discriminated. We also solve a generalized equal-probability measurement problem analytically. Finally, as another application of our result, the unambiguous discrimination problem of three pure states is studied in detail and analytical...

  7. Cyclicity in the middle Eocene central Arctic Ocean sediment record: orbital forcing and environmental response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangiorgi, F.; Soelen, E.E. van; Spofforth, D.J.A.; Pälike, H.; Stickley, C.E.; St. John, K.; Koç, N.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous X-ray fluorescence scanning of middle Eocene (~46 Ma) core M0002A-55X (~236–241 m composite depth), recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302, revealed a strong cyclical signal in some major and trace geochemical elements. We performed a multiproxy study of the

  8. Variability in the length of the sea ice season in the middle eocene arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stickley, C.E.; Koç, N.; Pearce, R.B.; Kemp, A.E.S.; Jordan, R.W.; Sangiorgi, F.; St. John, K.

    2012-01-01

    Finely laminated Middle Eocene sediments from the central Arctic contain high abundances of the delicate, sea ice–dwelling fossil diatoms Synedropsis spp. and sea ice–rafted debris (sea ice–IRD), establishing an offshore seasonal sea ice regime ca. 47 Ma. Synedropsis spp. co-occur with other

  9. Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov.: the first described species of Passandridae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) from Eocene Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukejs, Andris; Alekseev, Vitalii I; Mckellar, Ryan C

    2016-07-26

    Based on two relatively well-preserved specimens from Eocene Baltic amber, Passandra septentrionaria sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It is the first formally described species of Passandridae from Baltic amber, and the first known European representative of the family. The global distribution of extant Passandra Dalman is mapped, and the historical distribution of the group is briefly discussed.

  10. Diachronous seawater retreat from the southwestern margin of the Tarim Basin in the late Eocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Jimin; Windley, Brian F.; Zhang, Zhiliang; Fu, Bihong; Li, Shihu

    In contrast to the present hyper-arid inland basin surrounded by the high mountains of Central Asia, the western Tarim Basin was once connected with the Tajik Basin at least in the late Eocene, when an epicontinental sea extended from the western Tarim Basin to Europe. Western Tarim is a key site

  11. A new raninid crab, Pseudorogueus Rangiferus (Decapoda, Crustacea, from the Eocene of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraaye, R. H.B.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available new genus and species of raninid crab, Pseudorogueus rangiferus, is described from the Lower Eocene of Catalunya, Spanish Pyrenees.Se describe un nuevo género y especie de cangrejo Raninidae, Pseudorogueus rangiferus, proveniente del Eoceno inferior de los Pirineos Catalanes (Cataluña, España.

  12. Salinity of the Eocene Arctic Ocean from oxygen isotope analysis of fish bone carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Lindsey M.; Moore, Theodore C.

    2008-03-01

    Stable isotope analysis was performed on the structural carbonate of fish bone apatite from early and early middle Eocene samples (˜55 to ˜45 Ma) recently recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302 (the Arctic Coring Expedition). The δ18O values of the Eocene samples ranged from -6.84‰ to -2.96‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite, with a mean value of -4.89‰, compared to 2.77‰ for a Miocene sample in the overlying section. An average salinity of 21 to 25‰ was calculated for the Eocene Arctic, compared to 35‰ for the Miocene, with lower salinities during the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum, the Azolla event at ˜48.7 Ma, and a third previously unidentified event at ˜47.6 Ma. At the Azolla event, where the organic carbon content of the sediment reaches a maximum, a positive δ13C excursion was observed, indicating unusually high productivity in the surface waters.

  13. New stalked and sessile cirripedes from the Eocene Mo Clay, northwest Jutland (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriol, René-Pierre; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Jakobsen, Sten Lennart

    2016-01-01

    New taxa of thoracican cirripedes are recorded from the Eocene Mo Clay of northwest Jutland, Denmark, namely Stipilepas molerensis Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a scalpelliform gooseneck barnacle, and Plesiobrachylepas jutlandica Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a brachylepadomorph sessile form. This material...

  14. A small galliform bird from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation, northwestern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Dyke, Gareth John

    2007-01-01

    A pair of fossilized imprints of feet represent the first published galliform (landfowl) specimen from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of northwest Denmark. The specimen is referable to Galliformes due to the presence of a distinctly asymmetric trochlea metatarsi III. The specimen appears distinct...

  15. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  16. CO2 Storage Potential of the Eocene Tay Sandstone, Central North Sea, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Christopher; Williams, John

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is crucial for low-carbon industry, climate mitigation and a sustainable energy future. The offshore capacity of the UK is substantial and has been estimated at 78 Gt of CO2 in saline aquifers and hydrocarbon fields. The early-mid Eocene Tay Sandstone Member of the Central North Sea (CNS) is a submarine-fan system and potential storage reservoir with a theoretical capacity of 123 Mt of CO2. The Tay Sandstone comprises of 4 sequences, amalgamating into a fan complex 125km long and 40 km at a minimum of 1500 m depth striking NW-SE, hosting several hydrocarbon fields including Gannett A, B, D and Pict. In order to better understand the storage potential and characteristics, the Tay Sandstone over Quadrant 21 has been interpreted using log correlation and 3D seismic. Understanding the internal and external geometry of the sandstone as well as the lateral extent of the unit is essential when considering CO2 vertical and horizontal fluid flow pathways and storage security. 3D seismic mapping of a clear mounded feature has revealed the youngest sequence of the Tay complex; a homogenous sand-rich channel 12 km long, 1.5 km wide and on average 100 m thick. The sandstone has porosity >35%, permeability >5 D and a net to gross of 0.8, giving a total pore volume of 927x106 m3. The remaining three sequences are a series of stacked channels and interbedded mudstones which are more quiescent on the seismic, however, well logs indicate each subsequent sequence reduce in net to gross with age as mud has a greater influence in the early fan system. Nevertheless, the sandstone properties remain relatively consistent and are far more laterally extensive than the youngest sequence. The Tay Sandstone spatially overlaps several other potential storage sites including the older Tertiary sandstones of the Cromarty, Forties and Mey Members and deeper Jurassic reservoirs. This favours the Tay Sandstone to be considered in a secondary or multiple stacked

  17. Resilient terrestrial ecosystems at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of global warming lasting ~200 ka that began ~56 Ma. Global temperature rose 5-8 °C in association with the emission of thousands of Pg of carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. PETM rocks and fossils are extensively exposed in the SE Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, where the event is represented by ~40 m of fluvial rocks. Fossil plants demonstrate a rapid and nearly complete turnover in floral composition that also suggests a change in the structure of vegetation. Floras collected from the last ~50 ka of the Paleocene are composed of Platanaceae (sycamores), Betulaceae (birches), Fagaceae (oaks), Lauraceae (laurels), Juglandaceae (walnuts), Cercidiphyllaceae (katsura), Taxodiaceae (dawn redwood), and Arecaceae (palms), among others. Many of these families are most diverse and abundant today in temperate to subtropical, mid-latitude forests. During the body of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) associated with the PETM fossil floras have a completely different composition. All of the latest Paleocene plant types are absent, except for palms, and instead the floras are dominated by Fabaceae (bean family). Other taxa include Sapindaceae (soapberry), Annonaceae (paw-paw), and Hernandiaceae. Where living relatives are known, they live in dry tropical forests of Central and South America. This floral composition is maintained through the ~30 m of section representing the ~110 ka-long body of the CIE, the same interval characterized by dwarfed mammalian faunas. During the recovery phase of the CIE most of the latest Paleocene plants returned to the area of study, although some new taxa appeared, apparently coming in from Europe or Asia. The distinctive PETM floral types are not seen after the recovery phase of the CIE. Change in floral composition during the PETM apparently represents regional extirpations of populations of plants that preferred warm, mesic conditions, and northward range extensions of plants that

  18. Evidence of Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene equatorial rain forest ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Prevalence of excessive humid climate during this period has been seen as a result of equatorial positioning of Indian subcontinent, superimposed by a long term global warming phase (PETM and EECO) during the early Palaeogene. The study presents clear evidence that highly diversified equatorial rain ...

  19. Atmospheric pCO2 reconstructed across five early Eocene global warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Schubert, Brian A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals, occurred during the early Eocene (56-52 Ma). Five of these events - the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM or ETM1), H1 (or ETM2), H2, I1, and I2 - are marked by a carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within both marine and terrestrial sediments. The magnitude of CIE, which is a function of the amount and isotopic composition of carbon added to the ocean-atmosphere system, varies significantly between marine versus terrestrial substrates. Here we use the increase in carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased pCO2 to reconcile this difference and reconstruct a range of background pCO2 and peak pCO2 for each CIE, provided two potential carbon sources: methane hydrate destabilization and permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation. Although the uncertainty on each pCO2 estimate using this approach is low (e.g., median uncertainty = + 23% / - 18%), this work highlights the potential for significant systematic bias in the pCO2 estimate resulting from sampling resolution, substrate type, diagenesis, and environmental change. Careful consideration of each of these factors is required especially when applying this approach to a single marine-terrestrial CIE pair. Given these limitations, we provide an upper estimate for background early Eocene pCO2 of 463 +248/-131 ppmv (methane hydrate scenario) to 806 +127/-104 ppmv (permafrost-thawing/organic matter oxidation scenario). These results, which represent the first pCO2 proxy estimates directly tied to the Eocene hyperthermals, demonstrate that early Eocene warmth was supported by background pCO2 less than ∼3.5× preindustrial levels and that pCO2 > 1000 ppmv may have occurred only briefly, during hyperthermal events.

  20. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry of Eocene core complexes in the North American Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulch, A.; Teyssier, C.; Cosca, M. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2007-08-01

    The hydrogen isotope composition of Eocene muscovite in mylonitic quartzite from the Kettle and Shuswap metamorphic core complexes (Washington and British Columbia) permits estimates of paleoaltimetry of the North American Cordillera at the onset of post-collisional lithospheric extension. Coupled oxygen, hydrogen, and 40Ar/39Ar isotope data indicate that meteoric water penetrated to significant depths during normal faulting along the Columbia River Detachment bounding both Kettle and Shuswap metamorphic core complexes. Synkinematic muscovite attains δDmuscovite values as low as -135‰ and -157‰, respectively, consistent with δDwater values of -115 ± 5‰ and -135 ± 5‰. In context with stable isotope data from Eocene sedimentary basins of continental North America, these data constrain the isotopic composition of precipitation from which paleoelevation estimates can be made. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry indicates that during detachment formation (49-47 Ma), orogen-parallel variations in topography existed, and mean elevations decreased from ≥4000 m at the latitude of the Shuswap core complex to ≥3000 m in the Kettle core complex. In addition, these data indicate a net decrease in mean surface elevation by ˜1000 m since the Eocene. Our results for the Kettle core complex are consistent with paleoelevation estimates based on fossil floral physiognomy in the Eocene Republic basin (Washington), indicating that high elevations characterized not only the frontal escarpment near the crustal-scale detachment but continued into the Okanogan highlands further west. Collectively, the stable isotope, geochronological, and paleofloral data support tectonic models of high Eocene surface elevations contemporaneous with magmatism and lithospheric extension.

  1. Convergent evolution of anthropoid-like adaptations in Eocene adapiform primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Erik R; Perry, Jonathan M G; Simons, Elwyn L; Boyer, Doug M

    2009-10-22

    Adapiform or 'adapoid' primates first appear in the fossil record in the earliest Eocene epoch ( approximately 55 million years (Myr) ago), and were common components of Palaeogene primate communities in Europe, Asia and North America. Adapiforms are commonly referred to as the 'lemur-like' primates of the Eocene epoch, and recent phylogenetic analyses have placed adapiforms as stem members of Strepsirrhini, a primate suborder whose crown clade includes lemurs, lorises and galagos. An alternative view is that adapiforms are stem anthropoids. This debate has recently been rekindled by the description of a largely complete skeleton of the adapiform Darwinius, from the middle Eocene of Europe, which has been widely publicised as an important 'link' in the early evolution of Anthropoidea. Here we describe the complete dentition and jaw of a large-bodied adapiform (Afradapis gen. nov.) from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt ( approximately 37 Myr ago) that exhibits a striking series of derived dental and gnathic features that also occur in younger anthropoid primates-notably the earliest catarrhine ancestors of Old World monkeys and apes. Phylogenetic analysis of 360 morphological features scored across 117 living and extinct primates (including all candidate stem anthropoids) does not place adapiforms as haplorhines (that is, members of a Tarsius-Anthropoidea clade) or as stem anthropoids, but rather as sister taxa of crown Strepsirrhini; Afradapis and Darwinius are placed in a geographically widespread clade of caenopithecine adapiforms that left no known descendants. The specialized morphological features that these adapiforms share with anthropoids are therefore most parsimoniously interpreted as evolutionary convergences. As the largest non-anthropoid primate ever documented in Afro-Arabia, Afradapis nevertheless provides surprising new evidence for prosimian diversity in the Eocene of Africa, and raises the possibility that ecological competition between

  2. Paleohydrologic change across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Bighorn Basin, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczynski, A. A.; McInerney, F. A.; Wing, S. L.; Kraus, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the uncertainties in accurately predicting future climate change involves how the hydrologic cycle will respond to increasing pCO2 and temperature. Quantifying the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations and the hydrologic cycle in the geologic past is crucial to understanding and accurately modeling how anthropogenic carbon emissions will affect future changes in the hydrologic cycle. Records of paleohydrologic response to global warming in the geologic past are rare, particularly for continental interiors, where climate model projections of precipitation are highly uncertain. Here we examine hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf waxes as a tool for reconstructing paleohydrologic change in the continental interior of North America across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), an abrupt, transient episode of extreme global warming ~56 Ma. New hydrogen isotope measurements of leaf-wax n-alkanes from the southeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming record two positive shifts during the PETM. n-Alkane δD values first shift to more positive values just after the onset of the carbon isotope excursion and then again higher up in the body of the carbon isotope excursion, with a return to slightly more negative δD values in between. Paleobotanical, paleopedologic, and isotope data from the same field area have suggested that the Bighorn Basin may have experienced a drier or more seasonally dry climate during the PETM. Mean annual precipitation estimates based on paleosol major oxides, soil wetness assessed using the soil morphology index, and an aridity proxy based on differences in δ18O values of tooth enamel in aridity-sensitive and aridity-insensitive mammals each independently suggest a potential two-phase drying within the PETM interval. Similarly, the hydrogen isotope record could reflect two periods of drying, with a return to slightly wetter conditions in between. However, leaf-wax hydrogen isotope ratios reflect not only source water hydrogen isotope

  3. Coupled and decoupled responses of continental and marine organic-sedimentary systems through the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, New Jersey margin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Mor, Aya; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2013-01-01

    The flux of sediment and organic carbon from continents to the coastal ocean is an important factor governing organic burial in coastal sediments, and these systems preserve important records of environmental and biogeochemical conditions during past global change events. Burial of organic materials in coastal systems can be promoted by chemical resilience or through protection by association with mineral surfaces, but the role and influence of these processes on organic records from ancient sediments is poorly known. We studied sediment and organic matter burial as particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral-bound organic matter (MOM) in near-shore marine sediments from the Wilson Lake core (New Jersey, USA) that span the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), a climatic perturbation 55.9 Myr ago. Our results show that distinct POM and MOM fractions can be isolated from sediments. Both fractions appear to be dominated by terrestrial material, but POM consisted primarily of recently synthesized material whereas MOM included a significant fraction of pre-aged organic matter from soils or ancient sediments. Variation in organic burial through the PETM is associated with changes in inorganic nitrogen burial, clay mineralogy, and clastic grain size that we associate with enhanced continental weathering, erosion and redeposition of ancient kaolinites, and eustatic sea level variation, respectively. These results provide a new perspective on factors governing carbon burial and carbon isotope records in ancient marine margin settings and offer information on rate and phasing of late Paleocene/early Eocene Earth system changes that may constrain interpretations of the cause of the PETM climate change event.

  4. Optimum cutting wire assembly in dimension stone quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagherpour R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production process in dimension stone quarries has a close relationship with the diamond beads efficiency and their number in unit length (density parameter. This study intends to find out the governing relationship between these parameters and cutting efficiency according to empirical findings in Targh travertine quarry. In addition, it's been tried to figure out the optimum operating condition in order to maximize the efficiency. To do so, along with the number of beads in unit length, other parameters such as cutting length and time have been recorded through the whole lifetime of cutting wire. The collected data have been compiled statistically in order to obtain the optimum cutting dimensions, cutting capacity and efficiency and the optimum number of beads in unit length. The results showed that the optimum mode of cutting wire assembly occurs using 31 diamond beads per meter. Besides, diamond beads have the highest efficiency at the middle third of their lifetime.

  5. Optimum testing of multiple hypotheses in quantum detection theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, H. P.; Kennedy, R. S.; Lax, M.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of specifying the optimum quantum detector in multiple hypotheses testing is considered for application to optical communications. The quantum digital detection problem is formulated as a linear programming problem on an infinite-dimensional space. A necessary and sufficient condition is derived by the application of a general duality theorem specifying the optimum detector in terms of a set of linear operator equations and inequalities. Existence of the optimum quantum detector is also established. The optimality of commuting detection operators is discussed in some examples. The structure and performance of the optimal receiver are derived for the quantum detection of narrow-band coherent orthogonal and simplex signals. It is shown that modal photon counting is asymptotically optimum in the limit of a large signaling alphabet and that the capacity goes to infinity in the absence of a bandwidth limitation.

  6. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  7. Determination of optimum insulation thicknesses using economical analyse for exterior walls of buildings with different masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Kon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five different cities were selected from the five climatic zones according to Turkish standard TS 825, and insulation thicknesses of exterior walls of sample buildings were calculated by using optimization. Vertical perforated bricks with density of 550 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 were chosen within the study content. Glass wool, expanded polystyrene (XPS, extruded polystyrene (EPS were considered as insulation materials. Additionally, natural gas, coal, fuel oil and LPG were utilized as fuel for heating process while electricity was used for cooling.  Life cycle cost (LCC analysis and degree-day method were the approaches for optimum insulation thickness calculations. As a result, in case of usage vertical perforated bricks with density of 550 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 resulted different values in between 0.005-0.007 m (5-7 mm in the optimum insulation thickness calculations under different insulation materials.  Minimum optimum insulation thickness was calculated in case XPS was preferred as insulation material, and the maximum one was calculated in case of using glass wool.

  8. Determining the Optimum Font Size for Braille on Capsule Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Braille fonts allow us to easily make braille labels on capsule paper. For legibility, fonts should be printed at optimum sizes. To find the optimum sizes for Japanese braille fonts, we conducted an experiment in which a Japanese braille font was printed at various sizes on capsule paper and read and rated by young braille users. The results show that braille printed at 17 and 18 point sizes were read faster and evaluated higher than those printed at smaller or bigger sizes.

  9. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary energy levels for optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake at both the starter and grower phases and the carcass characteristics of the birds at 91 days. Dietary energy levels of 12.91, 12.42, 12.34 and 12.62 MJ ME/kg DM feed supported optimum feed intake, ...

  10. Optimum detailed design of reinforced concrete frames using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, V.; Ramasamy, J. V.

    2007-06-01

    This article presents the application of the genetic algorithm to the optimum detailed design of reinforced concrete frames based on Indian Standard specifications. The objective function is the total cost of the frame which includes the cost of concrete, formwork and reinforcing steel for individual members of the frame. In order for the optimum design to be directly constructible without any further modifications, aspects such as available standard reinforcement bar diameters, spacing requirements of reinforcing bars, modular sizes of members, architectural requirements on member sizes and other practical requirements in addition to relevant codal provisions are incorporated into the optimum design model. The produced optimum design satisfies the strength, serviceability, ductility, durability and other constraints related to good design and detailing practice. The detailing of reinforcements in the beam members is carried out as a sub-level optimization problem. This strategy helps to reduce the size of the optimization problem and saves computational time. The proposed method is demonstrated through several example problems and the optimum results obtained are compared with those in the available literature. It is concluded that the proposed optimum design model can be adopted in design offices as it yields rational, reliable, economical, time-saving and practical designs.

  11. Evidence for >5 Ma paleo-exposure of an Eocene-Miocene paleosol of the Bohnerz Formation, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Florian; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Farley, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-01

    We obtained (U-Th)/He formation ages and cosmogenic 3He concentrations for pisoliths from a paleosol of the Bohnerz Formation (Siderolithic) of Central Europe. The paleosol is exposed in the Almenbühl quarry near Lohn, Canton Schaffhausen, Switzerland. The paleosol consists of red clay of 3-4 m thickness developed on deeply weathered Jurassic limestone and overlain by Early Miocene conglomerates. The (U-Th)/He formation ages of the pisoliths are between 50 Ma and 8 Ma, with most ages being older than 17 Ma. There is a sharp decline in the frequency of ages at the time of burial of the paleosol at 17 Ma. These ages are inconsistent with the previous assumption that the Bohnerz Formation formed in a Cretaceous to Early Eocene laterite in a tropical climate. We propose that the Bohnerz Formation more closely resembles Terra Rossa soils, which do not require a tropical climate to form. The 3He concentration in the pisoliths is roughly constant with depth throughout the paleosol at 300 Matoms/g. We interpret this as the result of soil convection during cosmic ray exposure. The minimum exposure duration at the surface of the paleosol is ∼5 Ma. A simple model of soil convection shows that the true exposure duration of the paleosol is approximately 10-20 Ma. These results indicate that the clay soils of the Bohnerz formation were continuously exposed at the surface for millions of years. Since the paleosol was covered by conglomerate since 17 Ma, the 3He measured here was produced by cosmic ray exposure before burial. Cosmogenic 3He concentrations measured in fine-grained soil iron-oxides (paleosols.

  12. First bird remains from the Eocene of Algarrobo, central Chile Primeros restos de aves del Eoceno de Algarrobo, Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto E Yury-Yáñez; Rodrigo A Otero; Sergio Soto-Acuña; Mario E Suárez; David Rubilar-Rogers; Michel Sallaberry

    2012-01-01

    Paleogene records of birds in the Eastern margin of the Pacific Ocean have increased in recent years, being almost exclusively restricted to fossil Sphenisciformes (penguins). New avian remains (Ornithurae, Neornithes) from Middle-to-Late Eocene levels of the Estratos de Algarrobo unit, in Algarrobo, central Chile, are disclosed in the present work. These new finds are significant in representing the first non-spheniscid bird remains of Middle to Late Eocene age, recovered in mid-latitudes of...

  13. Optimum irradiance distribution of concentrated sunlight for photovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Pablo; Mohedano, Rubén

    1999-04-01

    The irradiance distribution on a concentration photovoltaic cell that produces maximum conversion efficiency has been found with the tools of Variational Calculus. The analysis is two dimensional and can be applied to a comb-like double busbar solar cell illuminated by a line-focus concentrator. The optimum distribution is, in general, nonuniform, and depends on the internal parameters of the solar cell: the higher the contribution of the grid to the global cell series resistance, the lower the uniformity of the optimum irradiance distribution. In practical cases, the efficiency for uniform illumination is close to that of the optimum, but in the latter the irradiance close to the busbar may be noticeable higher than the average.

  14. Optimum Arrangement of Reactive Power Sources While Using Genetic Algori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gashimov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of total losses in distribution electricity supply network is considered as an important measure which serves for improvement of efficiency of electric power supply systems. This objective can be achieved by optimum distribution of reactive power sources in proper places of distribution electricity supply network. The proposed methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm. Total expenses for installation of capacitor banks, their operation and also expenses related to electric power losses are considered as an efficiency function which is used for determination of places with optimum values of capacitor bank power. The methodology is the most efficient for selection of optimum places in the network where it is necessary to install capacitor banks with due account of their power control depending on a switched-on load value in the units.

  15. Optimum Groove Location of Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintu Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the various arrangements of grooving location of two-groove oil journal bearing for optimum performance. An attempt has been made to find out the effect of different configurations of two groove oil journal bearing by changing groove locations. Various groove angles that have been considered are 10°, 20°, and 30°. The Reynolds equation is solved numerically in a finite difference grid satisfying the appropriate boundary conditions. Determination of optimum performance is based on maximization of nondimensional load, flow coefficient, and mass parameter and minimization of friction variable using genetic algorithm. The results using genetic algorithm are compared with sequential quadratic programming (SQP. The two grooved bearings in general have grooves placed at diametrically opposite directions. However, the optimum groove locations, arrived at in the present work, are not diametrically opposite.

  16. ESTIMATION OF OPTIMUM FIRST DRY PERIOD IN KARAN FRIES CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.Panja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Study for estimation of optimum first dry period was conducted on 571 Karan Fries Cattle (Crossing Tharparkar and Sahiwal cows with American Holstein Friesian Sires at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana. The data were corrected for non-genetic factors by using least squares analysis. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated using standard statistical methods. The overall least squares mean for first dry period estimated as 64.47 ± 1.46 days. The relationship between first dry period and second lactation production traits were studied by using polynomial regression analysis and class interval method. Six classes of first dry period was used. Optimum first dry period was identified on the basis of higher second lactation milk production and numbers of animals in various classes as 51-70 days. However, to determine optimum level maximum profit to be taken into account.

  17. Revision of the genus Metoisops (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Miridae, Isometopinae) from late Eocene European amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczek, Aleksander; Popov, Yuri A

    2014-11-26

    Metoisops akingbohungbei, M. groehni, M. punctatodiffusus, M. intergerivus, M. grabenhorsti, M. variabilis, and M. consimilis are described as new species from the late Eocene Baltic, Ukrainian, (Rovno) and Saxonian (Bitterfeld) amber. The new diagnosis of the genus Metoisops and also all species of this genus presented, along with illustrations. An analysis of all studied specimens referring to of Metoisops from different Eocene European amber demonstrates the great variability of their features, and allows for differentiation of species. Ratios of the width and length of body, eye, vertex, antennal and rostral segments, pronotum, mesoscutum and scutellum, claval commissura, length of hind femur, tibia and tarsus, corium and cuneus length, as well as ratio of membrane cell's width and length of all 9 species of the genus Metoisops are presented. 

  18. First records of Chevrolatiini and Cephenniini in Eocene Baltic amber (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł; Kubisz, Daniel

    2016-05-26

    Fossils of two tribes of the ant-like stone beetles, previously unknown in Eocene deposits, are recorded, based on inclusions in Baltic amber. Well-preserved specimens of Chevrolatia sp. (Chevrolatiini) and Cephennodes sp. (Cephenniini) are described, but the species lack reliable diagnostic characters and remain unnamed. This is the first record of a fossil of Chevrolatiini, an extant tribe that includes only one genus, Chevrolatia Jacquelin du Val, distributed in the Holarctic, Mexico, West Palaearctic and Afrotropical regions. The extant tribe Cephenniini, in turn, is cosmopolitan, but the only fossil unambiguously assigned to this taxon, an unnamed genus, was known from Upper Cretaceous Burmese amber. Many extant species of Cephennodes Reitter are known from Palaearctic, but they predominantly inhabit its eastern part, with only two species occurring in Europe. The Eocene specimen of Cephennodes sp. is also the first known fossil of this genus.

  19. Fine structure of the late Eocene Ir anomaly in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaro, F.

    1991-01-01

    The Late Eocene Ir abundance profile in deep sea cores from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 113 Hole 689B on the Maude Rise off of Antarctica was studied with 410 samples continuously in 10 cm increments and measured with the Iridium Coincidence (ICS). The ICS was subsequently modified to measure 13 other elements simultaneously with the Ir. The abundance profiles of these elements were then determined in the Late Eocene Massignano section in central Italy with 250 samples (encompassing roughly 2 million years of accumulation) which were collected about every 5 cm in about 2 cm increments. These studies augmented a previous one (which included many elements) of deep sea cores from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 592 on the Lord Howe Rise in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand. In the latter study, 50 samples (encompassing roughly 0.7 million years of accumulation) were collected continuously in 10 cm increments. The results from these studies are discussed.

  20. A roller-like bird (Coracii) from the Early Eocene of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Kristoffersen, Anette V; Bonde, Niels

    2016-09-27

    The fossil record of crown group birds (Neornithes) prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is scarce and fragmentary. Early Cenozoic bird fossils are more abundant, but are typically disarticulated and/or flattened. Here we report the oldest roller (Coracii), Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov. (Primobucconidae), based on a new specimen from the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago) Fur Formation of Denmark. The new fossil is a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved and articulated skeleton. It lies at the lower end of the size range for extant rollers. Salient diagnostic features of Septencoracias relative to other Coracii include the proportionally larger skull and the small, ovoid and dorsally positioned narial openings. Our discovery adds to the evidence that the Coracii had a widespread northern hemisphere distribution in the Eocene. Septencoracias is the oldest substantial record of the Picocoraciae and provides a reliable calibration point for molecular phylogenetic studies.

  1. Cool-water Eocene-Oligocene carbonate sedimentation on a paleobathymetric high, Kangaroo Island, southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Matenaar, Joanne; Bone, Yvonne

    2016-07-01

    The Kingscote Limestone is a thin, biofragmental 41 m thick Paleogene subtropical to cool-temperate carbonate interpreted to have accumulated in a seaway developed between a series of mid-shelf islands. It is a pivotal section that allows interpretation of a region in which there is little exposure of early Cenozoic shelf sediments. Sedimentation occurred on part of the shelf along the northern margin of an extensive Eocene embayment that evolved into a narrow Oligocene ocean following collapse of the Tasman Gateway. Eocene strata are subtropical echinoid-rich floatstones with conspicuous bryozoans, and mollusks, together with large and small benthic foraminifers. Numerous echinoid rudstone storm deposits punctuate the succession. Correlation with coeval Eocene strata across southern Australia supports a regional facies model wherein inner neritic biosiliceous spiculitic sediments passed outboard into calcareous facies. The silica was derived from land covered by a thriving subtropical forest and attendant deep weathering. Oligocene rocks are distinctively cooler cyclic cross-bedded bryozoan rudstones and floatstones with a similar benthic biota but dominated by bryozoans and containing no large benthic foraminifers. These deposits are interpreted as flood-dominated tidal subaqueous dunes that formed in a flood-tide dominated inter-island strait. Omission surfaces at the top of the Eocene and at the top of most Oligocene cycles are Fe-stained hardgrounds that underwent extensive multigeneration seafloor and meteoric diagenesis prior to deposition of the next cycle. Cycles in the Kingscote Limestone, although mostly m-scale and compositionally distinct are similar to those across the region and point to a recurring cycle motif controlled by icehouse eustasy and local paleogeography.

  2. A roller-like bird (Coracii) from the Early Eocene of Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Estelle Bourdon; Anette V. Kristoffersen; Niels Bonde

    2016-01-01

    The fossil record of crown group birds (Neornithes) prior to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary is scarce and fragmentary. Early Cenozoic bird fossils are more abundant, but are typically disarticulated and/or flattened. Here we report the oldest roller (Coracii), Septencoracias morsensis gen. et sp. nov. (Primobucconidae), based on a new specimen from the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago) Fur Formation of Denmark. The new fossil is a nearly complete, three-dimensionally preserved and ...

  3. A tectonically-induced Eocene sedimentary mélange in the West Ligurian Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, E.; Bertok, C.; d'Atri, A.; Martire, L.; Piana, F.; Catanzariti, R.

    2012-09-01

    The southern Alpine Foreland basin succession (Late Eocene-Early Oligocene?) lies over the Mesozoic condensed carbonate succession of the Provençal Dauphinois Domain, ends with a chaotic complex, and is overthrust by more internal Alpine units (San Remo-Monte Saccarello Ligurian unit) emplaced in Late Oligocene-Early Miocene times. The chaotic complex consists of debris flow paraconglomerates, breccias, and megablocks, up to km-sized. Despite the post-Eocene Alpine tectonics overprint, particularly intense in its uppermost part, the sedimentary origin of the chaotic complex is proved by the interbedding of paraconglomerates and breccias with fine-grained turbidites. Megablocks consist both of formations buried below the chaotic deposits (Mesozoic Provençal Dauphinois succession, Eocene Alpine Foreland basin succession) both of exotic units (Ligurian Helminthoides Flysch). Paraconglomerate and breccia clasts were sourced by the penecontemporaneous turbidite sands and muds as well as the same lithologies as megablocks. All these features suggest the activity of early Alpine Eocene strike-slip or transtensive fault systems that juxtaposed and exhumed the Helminthoides Flysch unit and the Provençal Dauphinois succession. Submarine ridges were generated and favored rock fall phenomena that involved both small, mm- to dm-sized, clasts and huge slabs detached from the main rock masses. These morphostructural highs were flanked by oversteepened slopes affected by failures that gave rise to debris flows, involving hemipelagic muds and turbidite sands and lithified fragments of older formations, which resulted in strongly polygenic paraconglomerates. The studied mélange is thus fully due to sedimentary processes that were, however, completely controlled by early Alpine tectonics.

  4. Lower Paleogene Tectonostratigraphy of Balochistan: Evidence for Time-Transgressive Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Clyde

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of lithofacies, paleoflow directions, and sandstone petrography of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene paralic and continental sediments exposed along the transpressional suture zone of the western margin of the Indian plate indicate that the process of deformation and uplift of the carbonate shelf in this area had started by late Paleocene time. This tectonic uplift and deformation is documented by: (1 an overall shallowing upward synorogenic sequence of sediments, (2 proximal conglomerate facies (consisting of lower Paleocene and Mesozoic clasts dominating in the western part of the study area and distal facies of sandstone and shale dominating in the eastern part of the study area, (3 the existence of an unconformity of late Paleocene-early Eocene age in the Quetta and Kalat regions, (4 paleocurrent directions in deltaic and fluvial deposits indicating southeastward flowing sediment dispersal paths during late Paleocene-early Eocene time, which is opposite to that found in the late Cretaceous, suggesting a reversal in the depositional slope of the Cretaceous shelf, and (5 petrographic study of sandstones indicating a collision suture/fold thrust belt provenance. This episode of uplift and deformation could be the result of India-Arabian transpression with associated ophiolite obduction or, more likely, to represent the local response to initial India-Asia contact. The unroofing pattern and uplift geometry of the western Indian shelf suggests that this tectonism first started in the southern part of the study area (Kalat-Khuzdar area during the late Paleocene-early Eocene and proceeded northward in a time-transgressive fashion.

  5. Solar-absorber antireflector on the eye of an Eocene fly (45 Ma)

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, A. R.; Hegedus, Z.; Watts, R A

    1998-01-01

    Antireflection structures on eyes potentially increase visual efficiency through increased photon capture for a given stimulus condition. We report an unusual surface grating on the compound eyes of an Eocene dolichopodid dipteran (45 Ma) known only from Baltic amber. By measuring the reflective properties of a flat model of this grating constructed from material of appropriate refractive index we show that this 'fly eye grating' is an efficient antireflector of white light at angles up to 60...

  6. An exceptionally well-preserved Eocene dolichopodid fly eye: function and evolutionary significance

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Gengo; ANDREW R. PARKER; Siveter, David J; Maeda, Haruyoshi; Furutani, Masumi

    2008-01-01

    The exceptionally preserved eyes of an Eocene dolichopodid fly contained in Baltic amber show remarkable detail, including features at micrometre and submicrometre levels. Based on this material, we establish that it is likely that the neural superposition compound eye existed as far back as 45 Ma. The ommatidia have an open rhabdom with a trapezoidal arrangement of seven rhabdomeres. Such a structure is uniquely characteristic of the neural superposition compound eye of present-day flies. Op...

  7. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene-Oligocene Helium-3 Spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part or all of the (sup 3) He spike seen in the sedimentary record at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits.

  8. Organic Geochemistry and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis of Eocene fine Sediments, East Ketungau Basin, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i2.119Indonesia contains many Paleogene and Neogene basins which some of them have been proven to be a very prolific producer of oil and gas. A study on the result of Rock-Eval pyrolysis and biomarker undertaken on the Eocene Mandai Group was able to assess hydrocarbon potential of the Paleogene fine sediments in the frontier basin, especially West Kalimantan area. East Ketungau Basin is located in the western Kalimantan, bounded with Melawi Basin by the Semitau High in the south and West Ketungau Basin in the west. The Mandai Group was deposited in the East Ketungau Basin during Eocene, consisting of sandstone and mudstone facies. Mudstone facies comprises shale, claystone, and coal. Seven samples of Eocene fine sediments collected from East Ketungau Basin were analyzed by Rock-Eval pyrolisis and three samples for biomarker to evaluate their hydrocarbon potential. The Rock-Eval pyrolisis result of Mandai Group shows that TOC value of this facies ranges from 0.34 % to 5.16 %, Potential Yield (PY between 0.06 and 4.78 mg HC/g rock, and Hydrogen Index (HI from 12 to 89. Based on that result, the fine sediments of Mandai Group are included into a gas prone source rock potential with poor to fair categories. Moreover Tmax values vary from 426o C to 451o C. The Eocene fine sediments of Mandai Group fall under kerogen type III. Based on Tmax and biomarker analyses, the maturity of the sediments is situated within immature to mature level. The fine sediments of Mandai Group were deposited in a terrestrial to marine environment under anoxic to sub-oxic condition.

  9. Geochemical anomalies near the Eocene-Oligocene and Permian-Triassic boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaro, F.; Alvarez, L.W.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H.V.

    1981-10-01

    Evidence is presented to support the theory that several mass extinctions, i.e., those that define the Permian-Triassic boundary, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and the Eocene-1 Oligocene boundary, were caused by impact on the earth of extraterrestrial objects having the composition of carbonaceous chondrites and diameters of about 10 km. The evidence consists of anomalously high concentrations of iridium and other siderophile elements at the stratigraphic levels defining the extinctions. (ACR)

  10. Magnetostratigraphy in the Lodo Formation, CA: An Attempt to Locate Hyperthermals of the Early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, N. C.; Pluhar, C. J.; Gibbs, S.; Rieth, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lodo Formation in the California Coast Range, Fresno County records the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and possibly other Early Eocene hyperthermal events. The Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2, ELMO, or H1) represents a hyperthermal event that occurred approximately 2 million years after the PETM and just prior to the C24r - C24n magnetic reversal (≈ 53.9 Ma) in the Ypresian. While the ETM2 event has been located in offshore samples, it has been more difficult to locate in a terrestrial section. This project attempts to locate the ETM2 magnetostratigraphically by finding the paleomagnetic reversal at C24r-C24n.3n, provide geochronological framework, and assess sedimentation rate changes during this time. This area is known to have had a high rate of deposition (16.8 cm/kyr ) during the PETM, which is found lower in the section. We collected 36 new samples from a 13.44m section spanning stratigraphy thought to cover the ETM2 along with 31 previous samples spanning the PETM, and prepared them for paleomagnetic and paleontological analysis. We analyzed samples using standard paleomagnetic methods including low-temperature and thermal demagnetization. Preliminary results suggest that the magnetostratigraphy spans the C24r-C24n boundary, while the micropaleontology shows the NP10-NP11 boundary, which occurs near the ETM2 as well as the NP11-NP12 boundary. The data indicate an order-of-magnitude drop in sedimentation rate in the lower Eocene at this site, concomitant with a drop in grain size, compared with the PETM.

  11. Early Eocene fossils suggest that the mammalian order Perissodactyla originated in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Kenneth D; Holbrook, Luke T; Rana, Rajendra S.; Kumar, Kishor; Jones, Katrina E; Ahrens, Heather E; Missiaen, Pieter; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Cambaytheres (Cambaytherium, Nakusia and Kalitherium) are recently discovered early Eocene placental mammals from the Indo-Pakistan region. They have been assigned to either Perissodactyla (the clade including horses, tapirs and rhinos, which is a member of the superorder Laurasiatheria) or Anthracobunidae, an obscure family that has been variously considered artiodactyls or perissodactyls, but most recently placed at the base of Proboscidea or of Tethytheria (Proboscidea+Sirenia, superorder ...

  12. Elevated CO2 and warming effects on CH4 uptake in a semiarid grassland below optimum soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Feike A.; Morgan, Jack A.; von Fischer, Joseph C.; Follett, Ronald F.

    2011-03-01

    Semiarid rangelands are a significant global sink for methane (CH4), but this sink strength may be altered by climate change. Methane uptake is sensitive to soil moisture showing a hump-shaped relationship with a distinct optimum soil moisture level. Both CO2 and temperature affect soil moisture, but the direction of CH4 uptake response may depend on if the system is below or above the soil moisture optimum. Most climate change studies on CH4 uptake have been conducted in mesic environments with soil moisture levels typically above optimum, but little is known about responses in drier systems with suboptimal soil water. We studied effects of atmospheric CO2 (ambient versus 600 ppm), and temperature (ambient versus 1.5/3.0°C warmer day/night) on CH4 uptake during two growing seasons in a full factorial semiarid grassland field experiment in Wyoming, United States. We observed typical hump-shaped relationships between CH4 uptake and water filled pore space. Averaged over a range of soil moisture conditions, CH4 uptake was not affected by elevated CO2, but significantly decreased with warming in both seasons (25% in the first and 13% in the second season). Warming showed the strongest reduction and elevated CO2 showed the strongest increase in CH4 uptake when soils were below optimum moisture, indicating that these effects are particularly strong when soils are dry. Thus, directional effects of elevated CO2 and warming on CH4 uptake in semiarid grasslands can be opposite to their effects in mesic ecosystems because semiarid grasslands are often below optimum soil moisture for methane uptake.

  13. Optimum position of isolators within erbium-doped fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Ole; Schüsler, Kim; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1992-01-01

    An isolator is used as an amplified spontaneous emission suppressing component within an erbium-doped fiber. The optimum isolator placement is both experimentally and theoretically determined and found to be slightly dependent upon pump power. Improvements of 4 dB in gain and 2 dB in noise figure...... are measured for the optimum isolator location at 25% of the fiber length when the fiber is pumped with 60 mW of pump power at 1.48 μm...

  14. Generic Advertising Optimum Budget for Iran’s Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum

  15. Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monclús, M. A.; Molina-Aldareguía, J. M., E-mail: jon.molina@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Zheng, S. J.; Mayeur, J. R.; Beyerlein, I. J.; Mara, N. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Polcar, T. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Llorca, J. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science, Polytechnic University of Madrid, E. T. S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.

  16. Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Monclús

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.

  17. Provenance and palaeogeographic implications of Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary rocks in the northwestern Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, A.E.; Colgan, J.P.; York, C.

    2009-01-01

    A thick sequence of uppermost Eocene to lower Oligocene volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks is exposed at the base of the Warner Range in northeastern California. This isolated exposure provides insight into the palaeogeographic setting of the northwestern Basin and Range during this time period. Significant thinning of the unit over 35km of lateral exposure and predominantly volcanic clast compositions suggest that the sequence was deposited in an alluvial plain adjacent to a volcanic arc. Palaeocurrent indicators in the conglomerates define a NNE transport direction. Detrital zircon analysis on coarse sandstones and dating of individual granite cobbles show a range of ages consistent with a local, volcanic source area primarily from the SSW with some far-travelled input from northern Nevada; the far-travelled component increases in influence as the unit thins to the north. Comparison with other sedimentary sequences of Eocene age and integration with palaeofloral and geophysical data help to define drainage divides, and suggest that this sequence accumulated in a relatively isolated, intra-arc basin. This localized accumulation differs markedly from contemporaneous drainages to the south that transported material westwards from central Nevada to the palaeoshoreline, and suggests that ongoing volcanism had a strong influence on palaeogeography in this region during the Eocene and Oligocene.

  18. A new primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches (Middle Eocene, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Becker, Damien; Costeur, Loïc

    2017-12-01

    Primates reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, favored by warm temperatures and by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Here we describe new primate material from La Verrerie de Roches, a Middle Eocene karstic infill situated in the Jura Region (Switzerland), consisting of more than 80 dental remains. The primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches includes five different taxa. The best represented primate is Necrolemur aff. anadoni, similar in size and overall morphology to Necrolemur anadoni but resembling in some features the younger species Necrolemur antiquus. Microchoerines are also represented by two species of Pseudoloris, P. pyrenaicus and Pseudoloris parvulus, constituting the unique joint record of these two species known up to now. Remains of Adapiformes are limited to one isolated tooth of a large anchomomyin and another tooth belonging to the small adapine Microadapis cf. sciureus. The studied primate association allows assigning La Verrerie de Roches to the Robiacian Land Mammal Age. More specifically, this site can be confidently situated between the MP15 and MP16 reference levels, although the primate assemblage probably indicates some degree of temporal mixing. This is the first record of P. pyrenaicus and a form closely related to N. anadoni out of the Iberian Peninsula. The identification of these microchoerines in Switzerland gives further support to the connection of NE Spain and Central Europe during the Middle Eocene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cranial asymmetry in Eocene archaeocete whales and the evolution of directional hearing in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlke, Julia M.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Welsh, Robert C.; Wood, Aaron R.

    2011-01-01

    Eocene archaeocete whales gave rise to all modern toothed and baleen whales (Odontoceti and Mysticeti) during or near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Odontocetes have asymmetrical skulls, with asymmetry linked to high-frequency sound production and echolocation. Mysticetes are generally assumed to have symmetrical skulls and lack high-frequency hearing. Here we show that protocetid and basilosaurid archaeocete skulls are distinctly and directionally asymmetrical. Archaeocete asymmetry involves curvature and axial torsion of the cranium, but no telescoping. Cranial asymmetry evolved in Eocene archaeocetes as part of a complex of traits linked to directional hearing (such as pan-bone thinning of the lower jaws, mandibular fat pads, and isolation of the ear region), probably enabling them to hear the higher sonic frequencies of sound-producing fish on which they preyed. Ultrasonic echolocation evolved in Oligocene odontocetes, enabling them to find silent prey. Asymmetry and much of the sonic-frequency range of directional hearing were lost in Oligocene mysticetes during the shift to low-frequency hearing and bulk-straining predation. PMID:21873217

  20. Eocene Loranthaceae pollen pushes back divergence ages for major splits in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friðgeir Grímsson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background We revisit the palaeopalynological record of Loranthaceae, using pollen ornamentation to discriminate lineages and to test molecular dating estimates for the diversification of major lineages. Methods Fossil Loranthaceae pollen from the Eocene and Oligocene are analysed and documented using scanning-electron microscopy. These fossils were associated with molecular-defined clades and used as minimum age constraints for Bayesian node dating using different topological scenarios. Results The fossil Loranthaceae pollen document the presence of at least one extant root-parasitic lineage (Nuytsieae and two currently aerial parasitic lineages (Psittacanthinae and Loranthinae by the end of the Eocene in the Northern Hemisphere. Phases of increased lineage diversification (late Eocene, middle Miocene coincide with global warm phases. Discussion With the generation of molecular data becoming easier and less expensive every day, neontological research should re-focus on conserved morphologies that can be traced through the fossil record. The pollen, representing the male gametophytic generation of plants and often a taxonomic indicator, can be such a tracer. Analogously, palaeontological research should put more effort into diagnosing Cenozoic fossils with the aim of including them into modern systematic frameworks.

  1. The Best Modern Analog for Eocene Arctic Forests is within Today's Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.; Eberle, J.; Sternberg, L. O.; Ellsworth, P.; Eberth, D.; Sweet, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the 25 years that have passed since the first extensive descriptions of the Fossil Forests that persisted above the Arctic Circle during the Eocene (~45-54 Ma), no less than four locations have been suggested as modern analogs. These locations represent a diverse collection of biomes and temperature/precipitation environments, and include the southeastern Unites States and southeastern Asia (based on flora and fauna assemblages), southern Chile and the U.S. Pacific Northwest (based on biomass and productivity estimates), and Pacific Northwestern U.S. and Canada (based on mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation). Here we report on new isotope datasets that allow for a prediction of best modern analog based on a quantitative characterization of paleoseasonality. First, we report high-resolution carbon isotope data from fossil tree rings that record the ratio of summer to winter precipitation. Second, we report analyses of the oxygen isotope composition of phenylglucosazone, a compound isolated from fossil cellulose that straightforwardly records the oxygen isotope composition of meteoric water available to the tree. Together, our analyses indicate that the fossil forests of the Eocene Arctic thrived under a summer-dominated, high-intensity, seasonal precipitation regime, with at least 279 mm of rainfall during the wettest month. A quantitative comparison of mean-annual temperature and precipitation, fossil and modern plant communities, and the seasonality indices, highlights the Korean peninsula as the most appropriate modern analog for the Arctic Eocene forests, in preference to the North and South American analogs previously proposed.

  2. Carbon sequestration during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum by an efficient biological pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhongwu; Gray, Ellen; Thomas, Ellen; Murphy, Brandon; Zachos, James; Paytan, Adina

    2014-05-01

    A perturbation of the carbon cycle and biosphere, linked to globally increased temperatures about 55.9 million years ago, characterized the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Its effect on global oceanic productivity is controversial. Here we present records of marine barite accumulation rates that show distinct peaks during this time interval, suggesting a general increase in export productivity. We propose that changes in marine ecosystems, resulting from high atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 and ocean acidification, led to enhanced carbon export from the photic zone to depth, thereby increasing the efficiency of the biological pump. Higher seawater temperatures at that time increased bacterial activity and organic matter regeneration. Through this process much of the sinking particulate organic matter was probably converted to dissolved inorganic and organic carbon. We estimate that an annual carbon export flux out of the euphotic zone and into the deep ocean waters could have amounted to about 15 Gt during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. About 0.4% of this carbon is expected to have entered the refractory dissolved organic pool, where it could be sequestered from the atmosphere for tens of thousands of years. Our estimates are consistent with the amount of carbon redistribution expected for the recovery from the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

  3. Early Middle Eocene Palaeoenvironments and Biostratigraphy of the Lomonosov Ridge: A Diatom and Chrysophyte Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, C.; Koc, N.; Jordan, R.; Suto, I.

    2006-12-01

    The Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX), Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Leg 302 recovered sediment cores from the Lomonosov Ridge to >400 meters below seafloor (mbsf). Dark grey mud-bearing organic-rich laminated biosiliceous ooze, between ~200-300 mbsf in Holes M0002A and M0004A, are Middle Eocene in age and contain shallow water marine diatoms in good preservation with abundances on the order of 106-107 valves/gram. The highest levels of biogenic silica, and the best siliceous microfossil preservation, occur below 220 mbsf, corresponding to Lithostratigraphic Unit 2. The diatoms occur in conjunction with variable abundances of other marine to brackish siliceous microfossils (ebridians, silicoflagellates and endoskeletal dinoflagellates) as well as diverse assemblages of freshwater chrysophyte cysts and marine and terrestrial palynomorphs. There are clear and frequent changes in dominance between the main siliceous microfossil groups, reflecting of an extraordinary depositional environment where both shallow marine and freshwater influences prevailed. We quantify these changes for the diatoms and chrysophytes. While the cyclical nature of these inferred salinity changes is under investigation, we report here on the broad scale variation in biosiliceous components through the Middle Eocene focusing in particular on the diatom and chrysophyte changes. Our initial results highlight the potential for an integrated regional diatom biostratigraphy for the Middle Eocene of the Arctic and Barents Sea, and indicate basin-wide palaeo-environmental fluctuations on long and short timescales. This poster outlines the various lines of work we are currently exploring in more detail.

  4. Determination of optimum welding parameters in connecting high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, different welding parameters were applied to two different steels with high alloys and mechanical and metallographical investigations are performed. Thus, the optimum welding parameters were determined for these materials and working conditions. 12.30 diameter steel bars made up of 1.4871 ...

  5. Applicability Problem in Optimum Reinforced Concrete Structures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashara Assedeq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimum reinforced concrete structures design is very complex problem, not only considering exactness of calculus but also because of questionable applicability of existing methods in practice. This paper presents the main theoretical mathematical and physical features of the problem formulation as well as the review and analysis of existing methods and solutions considering their exactness and applicability.

  6. optimum workforce-size model using dynamic programming approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    This paper presents an optimum workforce-size model which determines the minimum number of excess workers (overstaffing) as well as the minimum total recruitment cost during a specified planning horizon. The model is an extension of other existing dynamic programming models for manpower planning in the sense ...

  7. Optimum workforce-size model using dynamic programming approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper presents an optimum workforce-size model which determines the minimum number of excess workers (overstaffing) as well as the minimum total recruitment cost during a specified planning horizon. The model is an extension of other existing dynamic programming models for manpower planning in the ...

  8. Bud initiation and optimum harvest date in Brussels sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Sukkel, W.

    1999-01-01

    For six cultivars of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) with a decreasing degree of earliness, or optimum harvest date, the time of bud initiation was determined during two seasons. Fifty percent of the plants had initiated buds between 60 and 75 days after planting (DAP) in 1994

  9. Optimum Size of School Districts Relative to Selected Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabulao, Cesar M.; Hickrod, G. Alan

    1971-01-01

    The economic efficiency of public school districts was explored by utilization of the concept of economies and diseconomies of scale. An optimum size relative to costs was discovered by analyzing the data with curvilinear least squares regression and also with the differential calculus. (Author)

  10. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... but with different energy levels. A quadratic equation was used to determine dietary energy levels for optimum feed intake, growth rate, FCR and ME intake at both the starter and grower phases and the carcass characteristics of the birds at 91 days. Dietary energy levels of 12.91, 12.42, 12.34 and 12.62 MJ ...

  11. Stratified Sampling–When the Optimum Allocation Demands More ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 4. Stratified Sampling– When the Optimum Allocation Demands More than 100% Sampling. R Vasudeva. Classroom Volume 2 Issue 4 April 1997 pp 74-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Multivariate Time Series Analysis for Optimum Production Forecast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the establishment of an optimum forecast model that predicts future production trends of 7UP Bottling company. Sixty (60) months time series data of 7UP bottling company were used after ascertaining the presence of seasonal variation and trend components of the data to establish the ...

  13. Optimum culture medium composition for lipopeptide production by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimum culture medium composition for lipopeptide production by Bacillus subtilis using response .... Hence the total number of tests required for five independent variables is 24+ (2×5) +. Table 1. Experimental design matrix. Actual values. Coded values. Responses. 0 x1 x2 ...... intelligence versus a statistical approach.

  14. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The ... cracked nuts yielding whole kernels after impact cracking was used to determine the optimum moisture content the average ... At this moisture content the proportion of evaporable water retained in.

  15. Detection of Optimum Maturity of Maize Using Image Processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayuba et al.

    2017-04-13

    Apr 13, 2017 ... Detection of Optimum Maturity of Maize Using Image Processing and Artificial. Neural Network. DETECTION OF ... (MATLAB) and used as inputs to the artificial neural network that classify different levels of maturity. ... differences in vision, human weariness factors and intuition differences concerning crops ...

  16. Optimum design of laminated composite under axial compressive load

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composite laminate; genetic algorithm; buckling; optimum design; finite element. 1. Introduction. Buckling of structural elements like columns, plates, shells, etc. whether slender or thin is an important phenomenon and certainly has to be looked into design phase itself. In aerospace structures generally thin walled members ...

  17. Improved optimum condition for recovery and measurement of 210 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for deposition of 210Po and evaluate the accuracy and precision of the results for its determination in environmental samples. To improve the technique for measurement of polonium-210(210Po) in environmental samples. The optimization of five factors (volume ...

  18. The effects of physical and chemical changes on the optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... during fruit development and their relationship with optimum harvest maturity for Bacon, Fuerte and Zutano avocado cultivars grown under Dörtyol ecological condition. Fruits cv. Bacon, Fuerte and Zutano were obtained trees grafted on seedlings and planted 5 m x 6 m in Dörtyol Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, ...

  19. Optimum resource allocation among selected smallholder root and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined optimum cropping patterns for selected root and tuber crop based production and resource allocation of smallholder farmers in Abia State, Nigeria, using the linear programming approach. The objective function was to maximize gross revenue from the production of selected root and tuber crop based ...

  20. determination of optimum number of trunk lines for corporate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    It is usual in the developed countries, to assume a reliable network while determining the optimum number of trunk lines required to be leased in order to provide standard quality of service to corporate network users. Therefore, the ratio of the rate of failure of the trunk lines to the rate of its restoration parameter is not put into ...

  1. Experimental investigation of optimum beam size for FSO uplink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Hemani; Kaddoum, Georges; Jain, Virander Kumar; Kar, Subrat

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of transmitter beam size on the performance of free space optical (FSO) communication has been determined experimentally. Irradiance profile for varying turbulence strength is obtained using optical turbulence generating (OTG) chamber inside laboratory environment. Based on the results, an optimum beam size is investigated using the semi-analytical method. Moreover, the combined effects of atmospheric scintillation and beam wander induced pointing errors are considered in order to determine the optimum beam size that minimizes the bit error rate (BER) of the system for a fixed transmitter power and link length. The results show that the optimum beam size for FSO uplink depends upon Fried parameter and outer scale of the turbulence. Further, it is observed that the optimum beam size increases with the increase in zenith angle but has negligible effect with the increase in fade threshold level at low turbulence levels and has a marginal effect at high turbulence levels. Finally, the obtained outcome is useful for FSO system design and BER performance analysis.

  2. An Alternative Approach to the Determination of Optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents an alternative approach to the computation of the optimum reservations to be made in a GSM network for handover call requests. Prioritizing handover calls in a cellular network such as the GSM is necessary so as to guarantee seamless connection. Successful handover enhances the quality of service ...

  3. Selection of Wavelengths for Optimum Precision in Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTusa, Michael R.; Schilt, Alfred A.

    1985-01-01

    Although many textbooks include a description of simultaneous determinations employing absorption spectrophotometry and treat the mathematics necessary for analytical quantitations, treatment of analytical wavelength selection has been mostly qualitative. Therefore, a general method for selecting wavelengths for optimum precision in simultaneous…

  4. Dietary energy level for optimum productivity and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... Abstract. A study was conducted to determine dietary energy levels for optimum productivity and carcass characteristics of indigenous Venda chickens raised in closed confinement. Four dietary treatments were considered in the first phase (1 to 7 weeks) on two hundred day-old unsexed indigenous Venda ...

  5. Determination of Optimum Number of Trunk Lines for Corporate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of determining the optimum number of telecommunication trunk lines subscribers' common equipment) for a given average traffic intensity is contributory, among other things, to the problem encountered in providing cost effective and high quality telecommunication services to corporate network users.

  6. Optimum dietary protein requirement of genetically male tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the optimum dietary protein level needed for growing genetically male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Diets containing crude protein levels 40, 42.5, 45, 47.5 and 50% were formulated and tried in triplicates. Test diets were fed to 20 fish/1m3 floating hapa at 5% of fish body weight daily ...

  7. Optimum Commodity Taxation with a Non-Renewable Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine optimum commodity taxation (OCT), including the taxation of non-renewable resources (NRRs), by a government that needs to rely on commodity taxes to raise revenues. NRRs should be taxed at higher rates than otherwise-identical conventional commodities, according to an augmented, dynamic...

  8. How stem defects affect the capability of optimum bucking method?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Emin Akay

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In forest harvesting activities, computer-assisted optimum bucking method increases the economic value of harvested trees. The bucking decision highly depends on the log quality grades which mainly vary with the surface characteristics such as stem defects and form of the stems. In this study, the effects of stem defects on optimum bucking method was investigated by comparing bucking applications which were conducted during the logging operations in two different Brutian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten stands. In the applications, the first stand contained the stems with relatively more stem defects than that of the stems in the second stand. The average number of defects per log for sample trees in the first and the second stand was recorded as 3.64 and 2.70, respectively. The results indicated that optimum bucking method increased the average economic value of harvested trees by 15.45% and 8.26 % in the stands, respectively. Therefore, the computer-assisted optimum bucking method potentially provides better results than that of traditional bucking method especially for the harvested trees with more stem defects.

  9. On optimum dispatch of electric power generation via numerical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we develop an optimum dispatch / generating strategy by presenting economically the best load flow configuration in supplying load demand among the generators. The main aim is to minimize the total production / generation costs, with minimum losses and at the same time satisfy the load flow equation without ...

  10. Optimum design of Nd-doped fiber optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Lumholt, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The waveguide parameters for a Nd-doped fluoride (Nd:ZBLANP) fiber amplifier have been optimized for small-signal and booster operation using an accurate numerical model. The optimum cutoff wavelength is shown to be 800 nm and the numerical aperture should be made as large as possible. Around 80...

  11. experimental validation of optimum resistance moment of concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Fibre-Reinforced Plastics (FRPs) have been suggested as suitable reinforcement for concrete structures among other solutions to combat corrosion problems in steel reinforced concrete. This paper presents the experimental validation of optimum resistance moment of concrete slabs reinforced with Carbon-Fibre ...

  12. Experimental validation of optimum resistance moment of concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibre-Reinforced Plastics (FRPs) have been suggested as suitable reinforcement for concrete structures among other solutions to combat corrosion problems in steel reinforced concrete. This paper presents the experimental validation of optimum resistance moment of concrete slabs reinforced with Carbon-Fibre ...

  13. Factors influencing the optimum sex ratio in a structured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, L; Luck, R F

    1988-02-01

    W. D. Hamilton (1967, Science 156, 477-488) calculated the optimum sex-ratio strategy for a population subdivided into local mating groups. He made three important assumptions: that the females founding each group responded precisely to the number of them initiating the group; that ail broods within a group matured synchronously; and that males were incapable of dispersing between groups. We have examined the effects of relaxing each of these assumptions and obtained the following results: (1) When broods mature asynchronously the optimum sex ratio is considerably more female biased than the Hamiltonian prediction. (2) Increasing male dispersal always decreases the optimum female bias to the sex ratio, but it is of particular interest that when moderate levels of dispersal are coupled with asynchrony of brood maturation then the optimum strategy is relatively insensitive to changes in foundress number. (3) When females cannot precisely determine the number of other foundresses initiating the group then the optimum strategy is almost exactly the strategy appropriate to a group of average size. These effects can be most easily understood in terms of local parental control (LPC) of the sex ratio. Through LPC a founding female can alter the mating success of her sons by altering the sex ratio of her brood. Asynchrony in the maturation of broods within a group increases the control that a founding female has over the mating success of her sons, whereas male dispersal reduces it. We have shown that the role of LPC and the role of inbreeding, which favors a female-biased sex ratio in haploidiploid species, are independent and that their effects can be combined into a single general formula r = (1-(r2/z2) E(alpha z/alpha r]/(1 + I). The concept of LPC can also be used to interpret two factors which have been proposed to select for the Hamiltonian sex ratios: local mate competition is LPC acting through sons; and sib mating is LPC acting through daughters.

  14. Weathering, diagenesis, and pedogenesis in Paleocene-Eocene paleosols from the Bighorn Basin, WY: evidence from environmental magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxbauer, Daniel P.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Fox, David L.; Clyde, William C.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental magnetism of loessic soils and recent paleosols has proven to be a useful tool in the reconstruction of climatic conditions in Quaternary systems. However, it remains unclear how applicable these tools are in more ancient systems where diagenetic and surficial weathering processes may act to alter the original assemblage of magnetic minerals. Here, we evaluate the magnetic properties of nine paleosols that span the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM ~55 Ma) in the Bighorn Basin, WY. Each paleosol layer has been sampled from both drill core and outcrop exposure. Outcrops in this system are exposed to a pervasive weathering front, which is observed to alter sediment color in the upper 25 meters of drill cores. Importantly, these nine paleosol layers occur in the core far below this pervasive weathering front and are presumably unweathered. Our results show a consistent increase in both magnetic remanence measured between 100 - 1000 mT and a quantitative redness index in outcrops relative to equivalent core sediment. We suggest these patterns indicate the production of pigmentary hematite in outcrops as a result of oxidative weathering processes. There is no clear affect of weathering on the low-coercivity mineral component. However, comparison of the low-coercivity component with pedogenic magnetite in modern soils suggests that additional diagenetic processes may act to alter low-coercivity minerals irrespective of surface weathering. Despite these alterations, magnetic enhancement ratios for paleosol B-horizons show strong correlations with independent geochemical paleoprecipitation estimates across the PETM, derived from the same paleosol B-horizons. This suggests that magnetic minerals and bulk geochemistry record similar information about pedogenesis and that more work should continue to pursue environmental magnetism as a tool in reconstructing paleoclimate in ancient terrestrial systems.

  15. Multilocus Phylogeny of the Afrotropical Freshwater Crab Fauna Reveals Historical Drainage Connectivity and Transoceanic Dispersal Since the Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Savel R; Phiri, Ethel E; Klaus, Sebastian; Albrecht, Christian; Cumberlidge, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction, divergence time estimations and ancestral range estimation were undertaken for 66% of the Afrotropical freshwater crab fauna (Potamonautidae) based on four partial DNA loci (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome oxidase one [COI], and histone 3). The present study represents the most comprehensive taxonomic sampling of any freshwater crab family globally, and explores the impact of paleodrainage interconnectivity on cladogenesis among freshwater crabs. Phylogenetic analyses of the total evidence data using maximum-likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian inference (BI) produced a robust statistically well-supported tree topology that reaffirmed the monophyly of the Afrotropical freshwater crab fauna. The estimated divergence times suggest that the Afrotropical Potamonautidae diverged during the Eocene. Cladogenesis within and among several genera occurred predominantly during the Miocene, which was associated with major tectonic and climatic ameliorations throughout the region. Paleodrainage connectivity was observed with specimens from the Nilo-Sudan and East African coast proving to be sister to specimens from the Upper Guinea Forests in West Africa. In addition, we observed strong sister taxon affinity between specimens from East Africa and the Congo basin, including specimens from Lake Tanganyika, while the southern African fauna was retrieved as sister to the Angolan taxa. Within the East African clade we observed two independent transoceanic dispersal events, one to the Seychelles Archipelago and a second to Madagascar, while we observe a single transoceanic dispersal event from West Africa to São Tomé. The ancestral area estimation suggested a West African/East African ancestral range for the family with multiple dispersal events between southern Africa and East Africa, and between East Africa and Central Africa The taxonomic implications of our results are discussed in light of the widespread paraphyly evident among a

  16. Marine and terrestrial environmental changes in NW Europe preceding carbon release at the Paleocene-Eocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kender, Sev; Stephenson, Michael H.; Riding, James B.; Leng, Melanie J.; Knox, Robert W. O.'B.; Peck, Victoria L.; Kendrick, Christopher P.; Ellis, Michael A.; Vane, Christopher H.; Jamieson, Rachel

    2012-11-01

    Environmental changes associated with the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM, ∼56 Ma) have not yet been documented in detail from the North Sea Basin. Located within proximity to the North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP), the Kilda Basin, and the northern rain belt (paleolatitude 54 °N) during the PETM, this is a critical region for testing proposed triggers of atmospheric carbon release that may have caused the global negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in marine and terrestrial environments. The CIE onset is identified from organic matter δ13C in exceptional detail within a highly expanded sedimentary sequence. Pollen and spore assemblages analysed in the same samples for the first time allow a reconstruction of possible changes to vegetation on the surrounding landmass. Multiproxy palynological, geochemical, and sedimentologic records demonstrate enhanced halocline stratification and terrigenous deposition well before (103 yrs) the CIE, interpreted as due to either tectonic uplift possibly from a nearby magmatic intrusion, or increased precipitation and fluvial runoff possibly from an enhanced hydrologic cycle. Stratification and terrigenous deposition increased further at the onset and within the earliest CIE which, coupled with evidence for sea level rise, may be interpreted as resulting from an increase in precipitation over NW Europe consistent with an enhanced hydrologic cycle in response to global warming during the PETM. Palynological evidence indicates a flora dominated by pollen from coastal swamp conifers before the CIE was abruptly replaced with a more diverse assemblage of generalist species including pollen similar to modern alder, fern, and fungal spores. This may have resulted from flooding of coastal areas due to relative sea level rise, and/or ecologic changes forced by climate. A shift towards more diverse angiosperm and pteridophyte vegetation within the early CIE, including pollen similar to modern hickory, documents a long term

  17. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM THREONINE REQUIREMENTS OF JAPANESE QUAIL (Coturnix coturnix japonica CHICKS REARED UNDER TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Samuel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Threonine, like most amino acids, is traditionally noted for its role in protein synthesis. However, dietary threonine concentration required for the maximum performance of Japanese quails is yet to be determined, therefore, a study was conducted to determine the optimum threonine requirement of Japanese quail chicks in the tropical environment. A total of four hundred and fifty, two weeks old quail chicks (mixed sexes were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments (0.67, 0.81, 0.95, 1.08 and 1.22 % total threonine and replicated thrice in a completely randomized design (CRD. There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in average weight gain, average feed intake, feed conversion ratio and age at first lay of quails fed the dietary treatments. Weight of first egg laid was significantly (P0.05 similar for all treatments. There were significant differences (P0.05. It was concluded that the performance of birds were not influenced by the dietary treatments up to the highest dietary level of threonine studied (1.22%. Therefore, it is possible that the optimum dietary level of threonine may be above 1.22 %. Further studies will be necessary to establish higher doses of dietary threonine requirement of Japanese quails reared under tropical climatic environment.

  18. Estimating Denitrification Rates in the East/Japan Sea Using Extended Optimum Multi-Parameter Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Nam Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Denitrification rates in the East/Japan Sea (EJS were examined with extended Optimum Multi-Parameter (eOMP analysis. The potential denitrification locations expected from the eOMP analysis occurred only in the Ulleung Basin (UB and near the Tatar Strait (TtS of the Eastern Japan Basin (EJB. Estimated denitrification rates were ~0.3 - 3 and ~4 - 11 μmolμmol N m-2 d-1 in the UB and in the EJB, respectively. These rates agree with previous published results. The _ rates were lower than reported for other marginal seas. However, considering the rapid EJS response to climate change, we predict that denitrification may be enhanced in the near future.

  19. Cenozoic Mammals and Climate Change: The Contrast between Coarse-Scale versus High-Resolution Studies Explained by Species Sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Prothero

    2012-01-01

    Many paleontologists have noticed the broadly similar patterns between the changes in Cenozoic mammalian diversity and taxonomic dominance and climate changes. Yet detailed studies of fossil population samples with fine-scale temporal resolution during episodes of climate change like the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the White River Group, and the late Pleistocene at Rancho La Brea tar pits, demonstrates that most fossil mammal species are static and show no significant microevolutionary res...

  20. Determination of optimum pressurizer level for kori unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo; Lee, Chang Sup; Lee Jae Yong; Kim, Yo Han; Lee, Dong Hyuk [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    To determine the optimum pressurizer water level during normal operation for Kori unit 1, performance and safety analysis are performed. The methodology is developed by evaluating {sup d}ecrease in secondary heat removal{sup e}vents such as Loss of Normal Feedwater accident. To demonstrate optimum pressurizer level setpoint, RETRAN-03 code is used for performance analysis. Analysis results of RETRAN following reactor trip are compared with the actual plant data to justify RETRAN code modelling. The results of performance and safety analyses show that the newly established level setpoints not only improve the performance of pressurizer during transient including reactor trip but also meet the design bases of the pressurizer volume and pressure. 6 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  1. A new optimum topology switching dc-to-dc converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, S.; Middlebrook, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    A novel switching dc-to-dc converter is presented, which has the same general conversion property (increase or decrease of the input dc voltage) as does the conventional buck-boost converter, and which offers through its new optimum topology higher efficiency, lower output voltage ripple, reduced EMI, smaller size and weight, and excellent dynamic response. One of its most significant advantages is that both input and output current are not pulsating but are continuous (essentially dc with small superimposed switching current ripple), thus resulting in a close approximation to the ideal physically nonrealizable dc-to-dc transformer. The converter retains the simplest possible structure with the minimum number of components which, when interconnected in its optimum topology, yield the maximum performance.

  2. Optimum Disposition of Metal Particles in the Propellant Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid L. Minkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the dispersed metal in solid propellants to increase the temperature of combustion products leads to such a problem as the specific impulse loss due to the incomplete combustion of metal particles in the exhaust products. A redistribution of metal loaded into the propellant grain is one of the methods to decrease the specific impulse loss. This paper reports on the ways to obtain the optimum metal particle disposition for the case-bounded propellant grain of tube cross-sectional type. Three different approaches to analyze the metal combustion efficiency are discussed. The influence of the dynamic nonequilibrium of two-phase flow on the optimum metal particles disposition in the propellant grain of tube cross-sectional type is investigated.

  3. Optimum design of B-series marine propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Gaafary

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an optimum marine propeller is one of the most important problems in naval architecture. This problem can be handled using the propeller series diagrams or regression polynomials. This paper introduces a procedure to find out the optimum characteristics of B-series marine propellers. The propeller design process is performed as a single objective function subjected to constraints imposed by cavitation, material strength and required propeller thrust. Although optimization software of commercial type can be adopted to solve the problem, the computer program that has been specially developed for this task may be more useful for its flexibility and possibility to be incorporated, as a subroutine, with the complex ship design process.

  4. Solar assisted biogas plants: Pt. 4. Optimum area for blackening and double glazing over a fixed-dome biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayashankar, B.C.; Kishor, J.; Goyal, I.C.; Sawhney, R.L.; Sodha, M.S.

    The economic analysis of a fixed-dome biogas plant of rated capacity 8 m/sup 3/, above which a part of the ground is blackened and doubly glazed in the cold climate of Srinagar is presented. Blackening and glazing of the ground cannot alone maintain the slurry temperature at 35/sup 0/C, which is the optimum temperature in the mesophilic range for the anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, and so a part of the biogas must be burnt. The electrical simulation experiments have been performed to determine the loss or gain of heat from the underground biodigestor to the ambient atmosphere through the ground if a part of the ground above is blackened and double glazed. Economic analysis of the system shows that the optimum area to be blackened and glazed would have a radius 1.5 times that of the biodigestor.

  5. Application of Genetic Algorithm for Solving Optimum Power Flow Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vennila, H.; T. Ruban Deva Prakash; B.G. Malini; M.S. Birundha; V. Evangelin Jeba; L. Sumi

    2013-01-01

    An efficient and optimum economic operation and planning of electric power generation systems is very important. The basic requirement of power economic dispatch (ED) is to generate adequate electricity to meet load demand at the lowest possible cost under a number of constrains. Genetic Algorithms (GA) represents a class of general purpose stochastic search techniques which simulate natural inheritance by genetics. In this paper, the principles of genetics involving natural selection and evo...

  6. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Optimum Structural Design,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    LAD aircraft fuselage, a large space truss, or a nuclear :: Computer Scientist reactor vessel. A single program general enough to answer all...its results as compared to the demonstrated in reference 23, that accuracy of extrap - mainframe-only version and was used to explore system- olation...vessel shell. for a nuclear reactor . 12-66 - ,*>?. ...7 *iI I.. Table 2 Optimum Designs of Hydrostatically-Compressed, Ring-Stiffened Cylinders Derived

  7. Assessment of Sustainable Yield and Optimum Fishing Effort for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Likewise, since the estimated MSY of441.6 t/year for the period after the reduction would be obtained at an F-factor of 1.0, it was concluded that the current level of fishing effort of 696 gillnets/day can be maintained as fopt for sustainable exploitation of the stock. Keywords: Stock assessment, MSY, Optimum fishing effort, ...

  8. Physical Meaning of the Optimum Measurement Process in Quantum Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Masao; Kozuka, Haruhisa; Hirota, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    The optimum measurement processes are represented as the optimum detection operators in the quantum detection theory. The error probability by the optimum detection operators goes beyond the standard quantum limit automatically. However the optimum detection operators are given by pure mathematical descriptions. In order to realize a communication system overcoming the standard quantum limit, we try to give the physical meaning of the optimum detection operators.

  9. Optimum Antenna Downtilt Angles for Macrocellular WCDMA Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemelä Jarno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of antenna downtilt on the performance of cellular WCDMA network has been studied by using a radio network planning tool. An optimum downtilt angle has been evaluated for numerous practical macrocellular site and antenna configurations for electrical and mechanical antenna downtilt concepts. The aim of this massive simulation campaign was expected to provide an answer to two questions: firstly, how to select the downtilt angle of a macrocellular base station antenna? Secondly, what is the impact of antenna downtilt on system capacity and network coverage? Optimum downtilt angles were observed to vary between – depending on the network configuration. Moreover, the corresponding downlink capacity gains varied between – . Antenna vertical beamwidth affects clearly the required optimum downtilt angle the most. On the other hand, with wider antenna vertical beamwidth, the impact of downtilt on system performance is not such imposing. In addition, antenna height together with the size of the dominance area affect the required downtilt angle. Finally, the simulation results revealed how the importance of the antenna downtilt becomes more significant in dense networks, where the capacity requirements are typically also higher.

  10. An optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre, F.; Rios M, C.; Ruvalcaba A, M. G.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L., E-mail: fta777@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Centro Regional de Estudis Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work aims to obtain an optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectroscopy by means of Genie 2000 (Canberra). Twenty different analysis sequences were customized using different peak area percentages and different algorithms for: 1) peak finding, and 2) peak area determination, and with or without the use of a library -based on evaluated nuclear data- of common gamma-ray emitters in environmental samples. The use of an optimum analysis sequence with certified nuclear information avoids the problems originated by the significant variations in out-of-date nuclear parameters of commercial software libraries. Interference-free gamma ray energies with absolute emission probabilities greater than 3.75% were included in the customized library. The gamma-ray spectroscopy system (based on a Ge Re-3522 Canberra detector) was calibrated both in energy and shape by means of the IAEA-2002 reference spectra for software intercomparison. To test the performance of the analysis sequences, the IAEA-2002 reference spectrum was used. The z-score and the reduced {chi}{sup 2} criteria were used to determine the optimum analysis sequence. The results show an appreciable variation in the peak area determinations and their corresponding uncertainties. Particularly, the combination of second derivative peak locate with simple peak area integration algorithms provides the greater accuracy. Lower accuracy comes from the combination of library directed peak locate algorithm and Genie's Gamma-M peak area determination. (Author)

  11. Optimum Tilt Angle of Photovoltaic Panels for Some Iraq Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Aziz Ali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a photovoltaic (PV panels are influenced by its inclination angle with the horizontal surface. Thus, it must be inclined at a proper angle to raise the effectiveness of these panels. This research focuses on the computation of optimum slope angle of the PV panels in order to get the maximum incident solar radiation. Therefore, it is recommended to set the PV panels at fixed slope angle throughout the year to avoid the cost of sun tracking systems. In this research, an optimum slope angle of PV panels is investigated to get a maximum incident solar irradiance value using Bernard-Menguy-Schwartz model for some Iraq cities: Baghdad city (latitude of 33o22'N, Mosul city (latitude of 36o15'N, Zakho city (latitude of 37o10'N, and Samawah city (latitude of 31o15'N. The results showed that the optimum slope angle for these panels seems to be close to latitude of these cities.

  12. Optimum profit model considering production, quality and sale problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Ho; Lu, Chih-Lun

    2011-12-01

    Chen and Liu ['Procurement Strategies in the Presence of the Spot Market-an Analytical Framework', Production Planning and Control, 18, 297-309] presented the optimum profit model between the producers and the purchasers for the supply chain system with a pure procurement policy. However, their model with a simple manufacturing cost did not consider the used cost of the customer. In this study, the modified Chen and Liu's model will be addressed for determining the optimum product and process parameters. The authors propose a modified Chen and Liu's model under the two-stage screening procedure. The surrogate variable having a high correlation with the measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the first stage. The measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the second stage when the product decision cannot be determined in the first stage. The used cost of the customer will be measured by adopting Taguchi's quadratic quality loss function. The optimum purchaser's order quantity, the producer's product price and the process quality level will be jointly determined by maximising the expected profit between them.

  13. Paleomagnetism of Eocene Intrusive Rocks, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, B. A.; Fawcett, T. C.; Gregiore, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming are a large Precambrian-cored Laramide uplift. Intruding the Black Hills are a diverse suite of igneous rocks, which include phonolites, trachytes, latites, garnet-bearing rhyolites, and pyroxenites. These intrusive bodies range in size from several meter outcrop-scale bodies, to several 10s of km wide intrusive complexes. New geochronology (40Ar-39Ar) data indicate many of these intrusive rocks are between 58 and 45 Ma in age (Duke at al, 2002). As part of a larger paleomagnetic study aimed at Jurassic strata surrounding the Black Hills, a collection of 20 sites and 145 samples of the Eocene intrusive rocks was made. A combination of alternating field, thermal, and liquid nitrogen step-wise demagnetization revealed that, with a few exceptions, these rocks have two well-defined magnetization components. The first-removed component is interpreted to be a present (dipole) field magnetization, and is removed by 10 to 30 mT a.f., or 200 C thermal demagnetization steps. The second-removed components have either positive or negative inclinations, and are defined by demagnetization steps between 30 and 200 mT a.f., or 300 to 630 C thermal demagnetization steps. These components are interpreted to be ancient, presumably Eocene, magnetizations. A preliminary mean of the normal-polarity sites is D=352, I=59.3, k=26.7, a95=18.2, N=4, and of the reverse-polarity sites is D=154.9, I=-61.3, k=23.1, a95=18.2, N=4. The combined mean direction is D=344.9, I=60.3, k=28.8, a95=10.5, N=8. Two sites of rhyolites at Mt. Theodore Roosevelt have well-defined magnetization components, but either mixed polarity (Site 99Trr1), or reverse-polarity with what might be a transitional-field direction (D=27.7, I=-37.4, k=18.0, a95=18.6, n=5), and are not included in the calculation of means. The magnetizations recorded by these Eocene rocks are essentially identical to the expected direction for the Black Hills calculated from the Diehl et al., 1983

  14. Ironstone deposits hosted in Eocene carbonates from Bahariya (Egypt)-New perspective on cherty ironstone occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, A. M.; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Calvo, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    This paper gives new insight into the genesis of cherty ironstone deposits. The research was centered on well-exposed, unique cherty ironstone mineralization associated with Eocene carbonates from the northern part of the Bahariya Depression (Egypt). The economically important ironstones occur in the Naqb Formation (Early Eocene), which is mainly formed of shallow marine carbonate deposits. Periods of lowstand sea-level caused extensive early dissolution (karstification) of the depositional carbonates and dolomitization associated with mixing zones of fresh and marine pore-water. In faulted areas, the Eocene carbonate deposits were transformed into cherty ironstone with preservation of the precursor carbonate sedimentary features, i.e. skeletal and non-skeletal grain types, thickness, bedding, lateral and vertical sequential arrangement, and karst profiles. The ore deposits are composed of iron oxyhydroxides, mainly hematite and goethite, chert in the form of micro- to macro-quartz and chalcedony, various manganese minerals, barite, and a number of subordinate sulfate and clay minerals. Detailed petrographic analysis shows that quartz and iron oxides were coetaneous and selectively replaced carbonates, the coarse dolomite crystals having been preferentially transformed into quartz whereas the micro-crystalline carbonates were replaced by the iron oxyhydroxides. A number of petrographic, sedimentological and structural features including the presence of hydrothermal-mediated minerals (e.g., jacobsite), the geochemistry of the ore minerals as well as the structure-controlled location of the mineralization suggest a hydrothermal source for the ore-bearing fluids circulating through major faults and reflect their proximity to centers of magmatism. The proposed formation model can contribute to better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of formation of banded iron formations (BIFs) that were abundant during the Precambrian.

  15. The evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet at the Eocene-Oligocene Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick; Dumas, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that the Middle to Late Eocene has witnessed the waxing and waning of relatively small ephemeral ice sheets. These alternating episodes culminated in the Eocene-Oligocene transition (34 - 33.5 Ma) during which a sudden and massive glaciation occurred over Antarctica. Data studies have demonstrated that this glacial event is constituted of two 50 kyr-long steps, the first of modest (10 - 30 m of equivalent sea level) and the second of major (50 - 90 m esl) glacial amplitude, and separated by 200 kyrs. Since a decade, modeling studies have put forward the primary role of CO2 in the initiation of this glaciation, in doing so marginalizing the original "gateway hypothesis". Here, we investigate the impacts of CO2 and orbital parameters on the evolution of the ice sheet during the 500 kyrs of the EO transition using a tri-dimensional interpolation method. The latter allows precise orbital variations, CO2 evolution and ice sheet feedbacks (including the albedo) to be accounted for. Our results show that orbital variations are instrumental in initiating the first step of the EO glaciation but that the primary driver of the major second step is the atmospheric pCO2 crossing a modelled glacial threshold of 900 ppm. Although model-dependant, this higher glacial threshold makes a stronger case for ephemeral Middle-Late Eocene ice sheets. In addition, sensitivity tests demonstrate that the small first step only exists if the absolute pCO2 value remains within 100 ppm higher than the glacial threshold during the first 250 kyrs of the transition. Thereby, the pCO2 sufficiently counterbalances the strong insolation minima occurring at 33.9 and 33.8 Ma but is low enough to allow the ice sheet to nucleate. Nevertheless, questions remain as to what may cause this pCO2 drop.

  16. Geochemical anomalies near the Eocene/Oligocene and Permian/Triassic boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaro, F.; Alvarez, L.W.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    As a test of the asteroid-impact theory, which predicts that extinctions of taxa and geochemical anomalies similar to those found near the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary should occur with a frequency of about 100 million years (m.y.), geochemical studies have been made near the Permian/Triassic and Eocene/Oligocene boundaries. An extensive clay layer, which had previously been assigned to the P/T boundary, was found to be chemically and mineralogically very different from the clays above and below, and it probably originated as an ash. As no iridium (Ir) anomaly (<0.055 ppb) was detected in the layer, it probably had a volcanic rather than an impact origin. The latter possibility, however, cannot be ruled out, as high-speed comets could have the necessary explosive force and still have very little Ir. An Ir anomaly (0.4 ppb) was found near the Eocene/Oligocene boundary in a deep-sea core from the Caribbean Sea (DSDP Site 149, Core 31, Section 1, Intervals 1-2 and 3-4 cm) at exactly the same position that microtektites and extinctions of five species of radiolaria had been previously detected. Thus, the Ir anomaly, the microtektite data, and the radiolarian extinctions are all supportive of a major bolide impact 34 m.y. ago. A worldwide distribution of the Ir anomaly is strongly suggested by very recent studies made in collaboration with Billy P. Glass in which Ir anomalies associated with microtektites in late Eocene sediments have been found in the Gulf of Mexico (DSDP Site 94), the Central Pacific Ocean, (DSDP Hole 69A and DSDP Site 166), and the Indian Ocean (DSDP Site 216).

  17. New fauna of archaeocete whales (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Bartonian middle Eocene of southern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Philip D.; Zouhri, Samir

    2015-11-01

    Six genera and species of archaic whales are present in a new fauna from the Aridal Formation at Gueran in the Sahara Desert of southwestern Morocco. Three of the archaeocete species represent semiaquatic Protocetidae and three species are fully aquatic Basilosauridae. Protocetids are characteristic of Lutetian lower middle Eocene strata, and basilosaurids are characteristic of Priabonian late Eocene beds. Similar representation of both families is restricted to intervening Bartonian strata and indicative of a late middle Eocene age. Archaeocetes from Gueran include (1) a small protocetid represented by a partial humerus, teeth, and vertebrae; (2) a middle-sized protocetid represented by a partial innominate and proximal femur; (3) the very large protocetid Pappocetus lugardi represented by teeth, a partial innominate, and two partial femora; (4) a new species of the small basilosaurid Chrysocetus represented by a dentary, teeth, humeri, and many vertebrae; (5) a new species of the larger basilosaurid Platyosphys (resurrected as a distinct genus) represented by a partial braincase, tympanic bulla, and many vertebrae; and (6) the large basilosaurid Eocetus schweinfurthi represented by teeth, a tympanic bulla, and lumbar vertebrae. The Gueran locality is important geologically because it constrains the age of a part of the Aridal Formation, and biologically because it includes a diversity of archaic whales represented by partial skeletons with vertebrae in sequence and by forelimb and hind limb remains. With further collecting, Gueran archaeocete skeletons promise to clarify the important evolutionary transition from foot-powered swimming in Protocetidae to the tail-powered swimming of Basilosauridae and all later Cetacea.

  18. High-resolution magneto stratigraphic of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the Umbria-Marche sequence; Stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene nella successione Umbro-Marchigiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanci, L.; Lowrie, W.; Montanari, A.

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution magneto stratigraphy across the Eocene-Olicene boundary has been employed in a detailed investigation of the nature of low-amplitude, short-wavelength oceanic magnetic anomalies. [Italiano] La stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene ed il magnetismo delle rocce sono stati studiati in dettaglio per verificare la presenza di eventuali inversioni di polarita` brevi (short chrons) e variazioni delle intensita` del campo geomagnetico che possano essere messe in relazione con le anomalie oceaniche a bassa ampiezza e corto periodo.

  19. Optimum conditions for enzymatic degradation of some oilseed proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Zanaty, E. A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean, sesame seed, and rice bran meal proteins were hydrolyzed with two enzymes, namely, papain and bromelain. Experiments were carried out to elucidate the optimum condition for each enzyme when acting on each substrate seperately. Results revealed that the highest relative activities for papain were achieved with E/S 0.06 , 0.29, 0.19 and pH 7.2, 7.0, 7.0 for soybean, sesame,and rice bran meal proteins, respectively. Optimum temperature for papain while hydrolysing the three substrates was 50 ºC. When using bromelain optimum E/S resulting in highest relative activities were 0.067, 0.058 and 0.21 for soybean, sesame,and rice bran meal protein, respectively. Optimum pH was 6.0 and optimum temperature was 45 ºC for bromelain when hydrolysing the protein of the three substrates. A numerical correlation of enzymatic behaviour for the different substrates was calculated.Proteínas de haba de soja, semilla de sésamo y harina de germen de arroz se hidrolizaron con dos enzimas, denominadas, papaina y bromelaina. Se han llevado a cabo experimentos para determinar las condiciones óptimas de cada enzima cuando actúan separadamente sobre cada sustrato. Los resultados mostraron que las mayores actividades relativas para la papaina se consiguieron con una E/S 0,06, 0,29, 0,19 y un pH 7.2, 7.0, 7.0 para las proteínas de haba de soja, sésamo y harina de germen de arroz, respectivamente. La temperatura óptima para la papaina durante la hidrólisis de los tres sustratos fue de 50 ºC. Cuando se usa bromelaina las relaciones E/S óptimas que proporcionaron mayor actividad relativa fueron 0.067, 0.058 y 0.21 para las proteínas de habas de soja, sésamo y harina de germen de arroz respectivamente. El pH óptimo fue 6.0 y la temperatura óptima 45 ºC para la bromelaina cuando se hidroliza la proteína de los tres sustratos. Con estos datos se hizo una correlación numérica del comportamiento enzimático para los diferentes sustratos.

  20. Two new parrots (Psittaciformes) from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waterhouse, David; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Zelenkov, Nikita

    2008-01-01

    Two new fossil psittaciform birds from the Lower Eocene ‘Mo Clay' (Fur Formation) of Denmark (c. 54 Ma) are described. An unnamed specimen is assigned to the extinct avian family of stem-group parrots, Pseudasturidae (genus and species incertae sedis), while a second (Mopsitta tanta gen. et sp. nov.......) is the largest fossil parrot yet known. Both specimens are the first fossil records of these birds from Denmark. Although the phylogenetic position of Mopsitta is unclear (it is classified as family incertae sedis), this form is phylogenetically closer to Recent Psittacidae than to other known Palaeogene...... psittaciforms and may, therefore, represent the oldest known crowngroup parrot....

  1. Eonandeva gen. nov., a new distinctive genus from Eocene Baltic amber (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Marta; Giłka, Wojciech

    2015-11-20

    A new fossil genus, Eonandeva gen. nov., with two new species: E. helva sp. nov. (type for the genus) and E. latistyla sp. nov., is described from Eocene Baltic amber (~45-40 Ma). Adult males of both new species show the wing venation pattern, shape and chaetotaxy typical for the tribe Tanytarsini. The characters defined as prior apomorphies for the new genus--the gonostylus with a subapical flattened lobe and the stout, strongly elongated superior volsella--separate Eonandeva from the closely related extant genus Nandeva Wiedenbrug, Reiss et Fittkau, 1998.

  2. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic Amber (Eocene): The Genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species—E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew—are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus’ ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  3. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  4. Coralgal facies of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestones in Letca-Rastoci area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Prica

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are described the coralgal facies identified in the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestone succession (Cozla Formation outcropping in two quarries at Letca and Rastoci (Sălaj district, Romania. In the studied profiles the coral and algae limestones are interlayered with bioclastic limestones with foraminifera. On the top of relatively deep water deposits, coral and algae crusts and dendritic corals coated by algae were deposited. The environment registered a gradual deepening, the deposits being completely immersed, while bioclastic limestones with foraminifera were recurrently formed. This cycle is repeated, the whole succession being caracterized by several such “parasequences”.

  5. Stratigraphic positions of the Eocene vertebrate localities in the Paukkaung area (Pondaung Formation, central Myanmar)

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hisashi; Maung, Maung; Win, Zaw; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Zin Maung Maung Thein; Egi, Naoko; Takai, Masanaru; Shigehara, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    The detailed geological survey of the Upper Member of the Eocene Pondaung Formation in the Paukkaung area (Myaing Township, Magway Division, central Myanmar) has been carried out in order to clarify the stratigraphic relationship among the localities of fossil vertebrates (Pkl, Pk2, Pk3, Pk4, Pk5, Pk8, Pk9 and Pk12). Most of the fossilbearing localities (Pkl, Pk2, Pk3, Pk4, Pk5 and Pk8) belong to a single claystone sequence of the Pondaung Formation, named the Ayoedawpon Taung Claystone, whic...

  6. An exceptionally well-preserved Eocene dolichopodid fly eye: function and evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Gengo; Parker, Andrew R; Siveter, David J; Maeda, Haruyoshi; Furutani, Masumi

    2009-03-22

    The exceptionally preserved eyes of an Eocene dolichopodid fly contained in Baltic amber show remarkable detail, including features at micrometre and submicrometre levels. Based on this material, we establish that it is likely that the neural superposition compound eye existed as far back as 45 Ma. The ommatidia have an open rhabdom with a trapezoidal arrangement of seven rhabdomeres. Such a structure is uniquely characteristic of the neural superposition compound eye of present-day flies. Optical analysis reveals that the fossil eyes had a sophisticated and efficient optical system.

  7. Goulds Belt, Interstellar Clouds, and the Eocene Oligocene Helium-3 Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry

    2015-01-01

    Drag from hydrogen in the interstellar cloud which formed Gould's Belt may have sent interplanetary dust particle (IDPs) and small meteoroids with embedded helium to the Earth, perhaps explaining part the helium-3 flux increase seen in the sedimentary record near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Assuming the Solar System passed through part of the cloud, IDPs in the inner Solar System may have been dragged to Earth, while dust and small meteoroids in the asteroid belt up to centimeter size may have been dragged to the resonances, where their orbital eccentricities were pumped up into Earth-crossing orbits; however, this hypotheses does not explain the Popigai and Chesapeake Bay impacts.

  8. Asian Winter Monsoons in the Eocene: Evidence from the Aeolian Dust Series of the Xining Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, A.; Adriens, R.; Pullen, A. T.; Kapp, P. A.; Abels, H.; van Cappelle, M.; Vandenberghe, J.; Dupont Nivet, G.

    2014-12-01

    The aeolian dust deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau are attributed to spring and winter monsoonal storms sweeping clastic material from the deserts of the Asian interior into central China and are reported to begin 25-22 million years (Myr) ago. The beginning of aeolian dust sedimentation has been attributed to the onset of central Asia desertification and winter monsoonal circulation, and are commonly linked to development of high topographic relief associated with the Tibetan-Himalayan orogenic system. However, recent papers suggest that the core of the Tibetan Plateau may have reached significant elevation since the earliest phases of the India-Asia collision 55 Myr ago. Here, we extend the sedimentary record of the Chinese Loess Plateau at its western margin to include the late Eocene - late Oligocene deposits of the Xining Basin, which were deposited between 41 and 25 Myr ago based on detailed magnetostratigraphy. The particle size, shape, and surface microtexture of quartz grains in these deposits display textures indicative of prolonged aeolian transport; grain-size distributions show a bimodal distribution similar to Miocene through Quaternary deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The clay mineralogy of the finer fraction and U/Pb zircon ages of the coarser fraction from Xining Loess sediments sampled along three sections spanning the whole studied interval are also similar to those observed in Quaternary and Neogene aeolian deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau and thus suggest similar sources located in central China. However, slight differences in Eocene U/Pb zircon ages, such as the lack of Cenozoic ages or the scarcity of zircons older than 2000 Myr, suggest that the Tibetan Plateau may have contributed little to the aeolian dust deposition, in favor of sources located further north and west (Kunlun and Tian Shan Ranges). The Xining deposits are thus the first direct evidence that winter monsoonal winds were active 15 Myr earlier than previously

  9. Developed Hybrid Model for Propylene Polymerisation at Optimum Reaction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hossain Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A statistical model combined with CFD (computational fluid dynamic method was used to explain the detailed phenomena of the process parameters, and a series of experiments were carried out for propylene polymerisation by varying the feed gas composition, reaction initiation temperature, and system pressure, in a fluidised bed catalytic reactor. The propylene polymerisation rate per pass was considered the response to the analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM, with a full factorial central composite experimental design, was applied to develop the model. In this study, analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated an acceptable value for the coefficient of determination and a suitable estimation of a second-order regression model. For better justification, results were also described through a three-dimensional (3D response surface and a related two-dimensional (2D contour plot. These 3D and 2D response analyses provided significant and easy to understand findings on the effect of all the considered process variables on expected findings. To diagnose the model adequacy, the mathematical relationship between the process variables and the extent of polymer conversion was established through the combination of CFD with statistical tools. All the tests showed that the model is an excellent fit with the experimental validation. The maximum extent of polymer conversion per pass was 5.98% at the set time period and with consistent catalyst and co-catalyst feed rates. The optimum conditions for maximum polymerisation was found at reaction temperature (RT 75 °C, system pressure (SP 25 bar, and 75% monomer concentration (MC. The hydrogen percentage was kept fixed at all times. The coefficient of correlation for reaction temperature, system pressure, and monomer concentration ratio, was found to be 0.932. Thus, the experimental results and model predicted values were a reliable fit at optimum process conditions. Detailed and adaptable CFD results were capable

  10. The Potential of Eocene Shale of Nanggulan Formation as a Hydrocarbon Source Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Winardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i1.152In western Indonesia, Eocene shale is generally considered as a potential source rock. The Nanggulan Formation outcropping at Kulonprogo Yogyakarta consists of a shale interval of Eocene in age. Analysis of its organic material content, kerogen type, and maturity level were conducted to know its potential. The laboratory analysis of eleven samples were done to measure its TOC content. Samples with TOC > 0.5% then were analyzed to measure its Rv and TAI. Maturity level was also calculated by TTI from burial history model. The result of analysis shows there are various TOC contents and seven samples of them are categorized into a good-excellent class (TOC > 1%. Kerogen content of those samples is type III (non fluorescene amorphous-humic kerogen. One sample has a good indication of hydrocarbon formation (PY = 9.0 mg HC/g rock. Unfortunately thermal maturity level of the samples is immature (highest Rv 0.39, Tmax 422oC, and TAI 2. Otherwise, TTI calculation result from subsurface burial history modelling indicates that some areas are mature having reached gas window since 0.4 mya, especially in the area which had been influenced by a volcanic intrusion at Oligocene (28.5 mya. Therefore, the Nanggulan Formation shale has a potential capacity as a source rock with some limitation in maturity level.

  11. Anatomically preserved seeds of Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) from the Early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Iju; Manchester, Steven R; Chen, Zhiduan

    2004-08-01

    Well-preserved seeds from the early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong, China are assigned to the genus Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) based on morphology and anatomy. The seeds of Nuphar wutuensis sp. nov. are ellipsoidal to ovoid, 4-5 mm long with a clearly visible raphe ridge, and a truncate apex capped by a circular operculum ca. 1 mm in diameter bearing a central micropylar protrusion. These features, along with the testa composed of a uniseriate outer layer of equiaxial pentagonal to hexagonal surface cells and a middle layer 4-6 cells thick composed of thick-walled, periclinally elongate sclereids, correspond to the morphology and anatomy of extant Nuphar and distinguish this fossil species from all other extant and extinct genera of Nymphaeales. These seeds provide the oldest record for the genus in Asia and are supplemented by a similar well-preserved specimen from the Paleocene of North Dakota, USA. These data, together with the prior recognition of Brasenia (Cabombaceae) in the middle Eocene, indicate that the families Nymphaeaceae and Cabombaceae had differentiated by the early Tertiary.

  12. Geological evolution of Eocene Aǧrı Basin (Eastern Anatolia-Turkey): Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fırat Demirkaya, Demirkan; Aksoy, Necmettin; Üner, Serkan

    2017-04-01

    Continental collision zones are sites of intense crustal deformation resulting in different geological processes such as crustal thickening, regional contraction, and volcanic activity. The East Anatolian Plateau emerges from the compression and following collision between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. Numerous basins were formed by this compressional tectonism, including the Pasinler, Muş, and Lake Van basins. The E-W trending Aǧrı Basin is located at north of the collision zone formed by compressional tectonism in Eocene and shaped by the volcanism that was active since Miocene. The basins fill initiates with Middle Eocene to Lower Miocene shallow marine deposits composing of reefal limestones, mudstones, and sandstones. Ongoing compressional regime and related regional uplift caused regression and latter transition from shallow marine to terrestrial environments in Middle Miocene took place. Marine units are unconformably overlain by Upper Miocene to Pliocene lacustrine and fluvial deposits. The Quaternary sedimentation is represented by alluvial fan deposits derived from the northern margin of the basin and young fluvial sediments. Volcanic and volcanoclastic products are frequently observed in Miocene to Recent basin deposits. Currently, E-W trending thrust faults, forming the Aǧrı Basin, continue to control the shape and depositional processes of the basin. Deformation of alluvial fans and channel shifting of the Murat and Seryan rivers which longitudinally passing the basin are the prominent geomorphological indicators of this tectonic activity.

  13. STRATIGRAPHIC REVISION OF THE EOCENE ALBIDONA FORMATION IN THE TYPE LOCALITY (CALABRIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA BARUFFINI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Original biostratigraphic and sedimentologic data concerning the type-section of the Albidona Formation (Liguride Complex, Southern Apennines, Italy are presented and discussed. Since its definition in 1962, this lithostratigraphic unit has been the object of controversial interpretations in terms of age attribution and paleotectonic significance. Based on cross-observations performed on calcareous nannofossils and palynomorphs, we conclude that the Albidona Formation must be assigned to the Eocene and, based on these evidences, we make a review of the previous biostratigraphic literature. We further recognise four different turbidite systems (named A to D, bounded by minor stratigraphic hiatuses, that are characterised by different sedimentary facies assemblages and petrofacies. The overall vertical arrangement demonstrates that the Albidona Formation was deposited in a tectonically mobile basin during a phase of deformation that is older than the apenninic deformation and must be likely referred to the alpine tectonics of the Calabrian arc. Moreover, the relationship with the underlying folded unit suggests for the Albidona Formation the significance of an episutural deposit relevant to a Paleogene deformation that affected the older units of the Liguride Complex. By considering stratigraphic and sedimentological features, we suggest a correlation of the Albidona Formation with analogue turbidite suites cropping out in the Apennines, discussing their significance in the context of the Eocene tectonic paroxysm in the Mediterranean area.

  14. Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mariano; Tejedor, Marcelo F.; Campbell, Kenneth E.; Chornogubsky, Laura; Novo, Nelson; Goin, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The platyrrhine primates, or New World monkeys, are immigrant mammals whose fossil record comes from Tertiary and Quaternary sediments of South America and the Caribbean Greater Antilles. The time and place of platyrrhine origins are some of the most controversial issues in primate palaeontology, although an African Palaeogene ancestry has been presumed by most primatologists. Until now, the oldest fossil records of New World monkeys have come from Salla, Bolivia, and date to approximately 26 million years ago, or the Late Oligocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of new primates from the ?Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru, which extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years. The new specimens are important for understanding the origin and early evolution of modern platyrrhine primates because they bear little resemblance to any extinct or living South American primate, but they do bear striking resemblances to Eocene African anthropoids, and our phylogenetic analysis suggests a relationship with African taxa. The discovery of these new primates brings the first appearance datum of caviomorph rodents and primates in South America back into close correspondence, but raises new questions about the timing and means of arrival of these two mammalian groups.

  15. Search for an optimum time response of spark counters

    CERN Document Server

    Devismes, A; Kress, T; Gobbi, A; Eschke, J; Herrmann, N; Hildenbrand, K D; Koczón, P; Petrovici, M

    2002-01-01

    A spark counter of the type developed by Pestov has been tested with the aim of searching for an optimum time response function, changing voltage, content of noble and quencher gases, pressure and energy-loss. Replacing the usual argon by neon has brought an improvement of the resolution and a significant reduction of tails in the time response function. It has been proven that a counter as long as 90 cm can deliver, using neon gas mixture, a time resolution sigma<60 ps with about 1% absolute tail and an efficiency of about 90%.

  16. Optimum responses of droplets under electro-wetting actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan; Vo, Quoc

    2016-11-01

    The electro-wetting phenomenon has been used extensively to manipulate shape and position of liquid droplets in various applications such as microfluidics, microswitches, liquid lenses, light valves, and fast response displays. One of the quantities critically affecting the performance of such applications is the actuation time, defined as the duration for a droplet to reach a new equilibrium state after an electrical field is applied. We experimentally study the dynamical response of electro-actuated droplets for a wide range of control parameters including viscosity, drop size, and electric field. We show that there exists a relation between such parameters to achieve optimum actuation time, which can be validated by experimental data.

  17. Design optimum frac jobs using virtual intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab; Popa, Andrei; Ameri, Sam

    2000-10-01

    Designing optimal frac jobs is a complex and time-consuming process. It usually involves the use of a two- or three-dimensional computer model. For the computer models to perform as intended, a wealth of input data is required. The input data includes wellbore configuration and reservoir characteristics such as porosity, permeability, stress and thickness profiles of the pay layers as well as the overburden layers. Among other essential information required for the design process is fracturing fluid type and volume, proppant type and volume, injection rate, proppant concentration and frac job schedule. Some of the parameters such as fluid and proppant types have discrete possible choices. Other parameters such as fluid and proppant volume, on the other hand, assume values from within a range of minimum and maximum values. A potential frac design for a particular pay zone is a combination of all of these parameters. Finding the optimum combination is not a trivial process. It usually requires an experienced engineer and a considerable amount of time to tune the parameters in order to achieve desirable outcome. This paper introduces a new methodology that integrates two virtual intelligence techniques, namely, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms to automate and simplify the optimum frac job design process. This methodology requires little input from the engineer beyond the reservoir characterizations and wellbore configuration. The software tool that has been developed based on this methodology uses the reservoir characteristics and an optimization criteria indicated by the engineer, for example a certain propped frac length, and provides the detail of the optimum frac design that will result in the specified criteria. An ensemble of neural networks is trained to mimic the two- or three-dimensional frac simulator. Once successfully trained, these networks are capable of providing instantaneous results in response to any set of input parameters. These

  18. Optimum Dietary Protein Level for Blue Streak Hap, Labidochromis caeruleus

    OpenAIRE

    Ergün, Sebahattin; Güroy, Derya; Tekeşoğlu, Haluk; Güroy, Betül; Çelik, İhsan; Tekinay, A. Adem; Bulut, Musa

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was designed to determine the optimum dietary protein level of a freshwater ornamental fish, Blue streak hap (Labidochromis caeruleus). Four isocaloric fish meal based diets ranging from 30% to 45% in protein were fed to triplicate groups of Blue streak hap for 8 weeks. Fish (initial weight, 0.85 g) were reared in twelve 50 L aquarium with biological filter and controlled temperature (27.5°C), in stocking density of ten fish/aquarium. Results showed that dietary protein level si...

  19. Optimum amount of an insurance sum in life insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Balkovec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal insurance represents one of the sources of personal social security as a category of personal property. How to get a proper life insurance is a frequently asked question. When insuring material objects (car, house..., the problem is usually not in the amount of the taken insurance. With life insurance (abstract goods, problems as such occur. In this paper, we wish to present a model that, according to the financial situation and the anticipated future, makes it possible to calculate the optimum insurance sum in life insurance.

  20. Optimum filter-based discrimination of neutrons and gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, Moslem [Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanicka 68a, 602 00 Brno, (Czech Republic); Prenosil, Vaclav; Cvachovec, Frantisek [Faculty of Military Technology, University of Defence, Kounicova 156/65, 662 10 Brno, (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-01

    An optimum filter-based method for discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in a mixed radiation field is presented. The existing filter-based implementations of discriminators require sample pulse responses in advance of the experiment run to build the filter coefficients, which makes them less practical. Our novel technique creates the coefficients during the experiment and improves their quality gradually. Applied to several sets of mixed neutron and photon signals obtained through different digitizers using stilbene scintillator, this approach is analyzed and its discrimination quality is measured. (authors)

  1. Matching technique yields optimum LNA performance. [Low Noise Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifri, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The present article is concerned with a case in which an optimum noise figure and unconditional stability have been designed into a 2.385-GHz low-noise preamplifier via an unusual method for matching the input with a suspended line. The results obtained with several conventional line-matching techniques were not satisfactory. Attention is given to the minimization of thermal noise, the design procedure, requirements for a high-impedance line, a sampling of four matching networks, the noise figure of the single-line matching network as a function of frequency, and the approaches used to achieve unconditional stability.

  2. Determination of the optimum doses of nutrients in a diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová, M; Dibák, O

    1979-01-01

    For 14 days, SPF male Wistar rats with an initial weight of 60 g were given isocaloric diets (1.7 MJ/100 g diet) containing 10% protein (casein) and 5, 10, 25 and 40% fat (margarine). Two utilization parameters of the protein biological value--net protein utilization (NPU) and liver protein utilization (LPU)--were determined from protein intake and body and liver nitrogen. These results were supplemented by a study of the course of the antithetical processes of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, of the citric acid cycle and transamination processes and of the liver and muscle amino acid spectrum. A high (40%) fat diet significantly reduced the protein biological value parameters NPU and LPU and liver and muscle amino acid values, stimulated gluconeogenesis and inhibited glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, together with associated transamination processes in the liver. Activation of these processes in the muscles provided substrates for increased gluconeogenesis. The negative effect of a low fat + high carbohydrate diet was less marked. The optimum diet for weaned rats is thus a diet containing 10% protein and 10--25% fat. The study, which submits several possible ways of determining optimum nutrient intakes under different physiological conditions shows that diets with more detailed nutrient concentrations should be used.

  3. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Production of Chitosan Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dustgani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioedegradable nanoparticles are intensively investigated for their potential applications in drug delivery systems. Being a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, chitosan holds great promise for use in this area. This investigation was concerned with determination and optimization of the effective parameters involved in the production of chitosan nanoparticles using ionic gelation method. Studied variables were concentration and pH of the chitosan solution, the ratio of chitosan to sodium tripolyphosphate therein and the molecular weight of chitosan. For this purpose, Taguchistatistical method was used for design of experiments in three levels. The size of chitosan nanoparticle was determined using laser light scattering. The experimental results showed that concentration of chitosan solution was the most important parameter and chitosan molecular weight the least effective parameter. The optimum conditions for preparation of nanoparticles were found to be 1 mg/mL chitosan solution with pH=5, chitosan to sodium tripolyphosphate ratio of 3 and chitosan molecular weight of 200,000 daltons. The average nanoparticle size at optimum conditions was found to be about 150 nm.

  4. The optimum content of rubber ash in concrete: flexural strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, M. S.; Shahidan, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Ariffin, S. F. A.; Othman, N. H.; Rahman, R.; Khalid, F. S.; Nazri, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Discarded scrap tyres have become one of the major environmental problems nowadays. Several studies have been carried out to reuse waste tires as an additive or sand replacement in concrete with appropriate percentages of tire rubber, called as rubberized concrete to solve this problem. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the flexural strength performance of concrete when adding the rubber ash and also to analyse the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prisms. The performance total of 30 number of concrete prisms in size of 100mm x 100mm x 500 mm were investigated, by partially replacement of rubber ash with percentage of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% from the volume of the sand. The flexural strength is increased when percentage of rubber ash is added 3% from control concrete prism, RA 0 for both concrete prism age, 7 days and 28 days with value 1.21% and 0.976% respectively. However, for RA 5, RA 7 and RA 9, the flexural strength was decreased compared to the control for both age, 7 days and 28 days. In conclusion, 3% is the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prism for both concrete age

  5. Optimum Tower Crane Selection and Supporting Design Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Won Sohn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To optimize tower crane selection and supporting design, lifting requirements (as well as stability should be examined, followed by a review of economic feasibility. However, construction engineers establish plans based on data provided by equipment suppliers since there are no tools with which to thoroughly examine a support design's suitability for various crane types, and such plans lack the necessary supporting data. In such cases it is impossible to optimize a tower crane selection to satisfy lifting requirements in terms of cost, and to perform lateral support and foundation design. Thus, this study is intended to develop an optimum tower crane selection and supporting design management method based on stability. All cases that are capable of generating an optimization of approximately 3,000 ˜ 15,000 times are calculated to identify the candidate cranes with minimized cost, which are examined. The optimization method developed in the study is expected to support engineers in determining the optimum lifting equipment management.

  6. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohui; Yue, Yong; Wong, Prudence W H; Zhang, Yixin; Tan, Jianhong

    2018-01-24

    Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  7. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  8. Investigation of Various Essential Factors for Optimum Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    OKADA, Keiji; TAKEMURA, Kei; SATO, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated various essential factors for optimum infrared thermography for cattle clinics. The effect of various factors on the detection of surface temperature was investigated in an experimental room with a fixed ambient temperature using a square positioned on a wall. Various factors of animal objects were examined using cattle to determine the relationships among presence of hair, body surface temperature, surface temperature of the eyeball, the highest temperature of the eye circle, rectum temperature and ambient temperature. Also, the surface temperature of the flank at different time points after eating was examined. The best conditions of thermography for cattle clinics were determined and were as follows: (1) The distance between a thermal camera and an object should be fixed, and the camera should be set within a 45-degree angle with respect to the objects using the optimum focal length. (2) Factors that affect the camera temperature, such as extreme cold or heat, direct sunshine, high humidity and wind, should be avoided. (3) For the comparison of thermographs, imaging should be performed under identical conditions. If this is not achievable, hairless parts should be used. PMID:23759714

  9. An unusual new species of Hallodapomimus Herczek, 2000 from the Eocene Baltic amber (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Herczek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hallodapomimus antennatus sp. n. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae, Hallodapini is described from a macropterous female found in Eocene Baltic amber. The new species can be recognized readily from the other species of the genus, mainly due to its unusual second antennal segment. A key for the identification of all known fossil Hallodapini is presented.

  10. Magnetostratigraphy and Tectonic Rotation of the Eocene-Oligocene Makah and Hoko River Formations, Northwest Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Prothero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene-Oligocene Makah Formation and subjacent middle Eocene Hoko River Formation of the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, yield mollusks, crustaceans, foraminifera, and early neocete whales; their age has never been precisely established. We sampled several sections; most samples showed a stable single-component remanence held largely in magnetite and passed a Class I reversal test. The upper Refugian (late Eocene and lower Zemorrian (early Oligocene rocks at Baada Point correlate with Chron C13r (33.7–34.7 Ma and Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The Ozette Highway section of the Makah Formation spanned the early Refugian to late Refugian, with a sequence that correlates with Chrons C15r-C13r (33.7–35.3 Ma, and a long reversed early Zemorrian section that correlates with Chron C12r (30–33 Ma. The type section of the Hoko River Formation correlates with Chron C18r (40.0–41.2 Ma. The area sampled shows about 45∘ of post-Oligocene counterclockwise tectonic rotation, consistent with results obtained from the Eocene-Oligocene rocks in the region.

  11. Happy birthday Willi Hennig!-Hyptia hennigi sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae), a fossil ensign wasp from Eocene Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, John T; Krogmann, Lars; Priya, Priya

    2013-10-31

    The ensign wasp genus Hyptia Illiger was previously known from 52 extant New World species and one fossil species from Lower Miocene to Upper Oligocene Mexican amber. Hyptia hennigi sp. nov., from Eocene Baltic amber, is the oldest known species and the first member of the genus from the Old World.

  12. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Challenges the Records of the Extant Liverwort Ptilidium pulcherrimum in Eocene Baltic Amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Scheben, Armin; Lee, Gaik Ee; Váňa, Jiří; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Krings, Michael; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of liverworts in amber, a fossilized tree resin, is often exquisite. Twenty-three fossil species of liverworts have been described to date from Eocene (35-50 Ma) Baltic amber. In addition, two inclusions have been assigned to the extant species Ptilidium pulcherrimum (Ptilidiales or Porellales). However, the presence of the boreal P. pulcherrimum in the subtropical or warm-temperate Baltic amber forest challenges the phytogeographical interpretation of the Eocene flora. A re-investigation of one of the fossils believed to be P. pulcherrimum reveals that this specimen in fact represents the first fossil evidence of the genus Tetralophozia, and thus is re-described here as Tetralophozia groehnii sp. nov. A second fossil initially assigned to P. pulcherrimum is apparently lost, and can be reassessed only based on the original description and illustrations. This fossil is morphologically similar to the extant North Pacific endemic Ptilidium californicum, rather than P. pulcherrimum. Divergence time estimates based on chloroplast DNA sequences provide evidence of a Miocene origin of P. pulcherrimum, and thus also argue against the presence of this taxon in the Eocene. Ptilidium californicum originated 25-43 Ma ago. As a result, we cannot rule out that the Eocene fossil belongs to P. californicum. Alternatively, the fossil might represent a stem lineage element of Ptilidium or an early crown group species with morphological similarities to P. californicum.

  13. A new avian fauna from the early-middle Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    A number of hitherto undescribed fossil bird remains have been recovered from the Lillebælt Clay Formation of central Denmark, which is early-middle Eocene in age (~50 to 43 mya). The core of the material consists of fossils acquired through the Danish ‘Danekræ' fossil treasure trove legislation...

  14. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Challenges the Records of the Extant Liverwort Ptilidium pulcherrimum in Eocene Baltic Amber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Heinrichs

    Full Text Available Preservation of liverworts in amber, a fossilized tree resin, is often exquisite. Twenty-three fossil species of liverworts have been described to date from Eocene (35-50 Ma Baltic amber. In addition, two inclusions have been assigned to the extant species Ptilidium pulcherrimum (Ptilidiales or Porellales. However, the presence of the boreal P. pulcherrimum in the subtropical or warm-temperate Baltic amber forest challenges the phytogeographical interpretation of the Eocene flora. A re-investigation of one of the fossils believed to be P. pulcherrimum reveals that this specimen in fact represents the first fossil evidence of the genus Tetralophozia, and thus is re-described here as Tetralophozia groehnii sp. nov. A second fossil initially assigned to P. pulcherrimum is apparently lost, and can be reassessed only based on the original description and illustrations. This fossil is morphologically similar to the extant North Pacific endemic Ptilidium californicum, rather than P. pulcherrimum. Divergence time estimates based on chloroplast DNA sequences provide evidence of a Miocene origin of P. pulcherrimum, and thus also argue against the presence of this taxon in the Eocene. Ptilidium californicum originated 25-43 Ma ago. As a result, we cannot rule out that the Eocene fossil belongs to P. californicum. Alternatively, the fossil might represent a stem lineage element of Ptilidium or an early crown group species with morphological similarities to P. californicum.

  15. Eocene-Oligocene calcareous nannofossils from Hiedin area, between Hodis and Tetis (Transylvania, Romnaia: biostratigraphy and paleoecological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Chira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Eocene - Oligocene deposits from Huedin area, between the localities Hodiş and Tetiş, of the Transylvanian Basin, have been analysed. The assemblages of calcareous nannofossils are rich in the Brebi and Mera formations and relatively scarce in almost all other formations.

  16. Paleomagnetism and the Alpine tectonics of Eurasia IV : Jurassic, Cretaceous and Eocene pole positions from northeastern Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voo, R. van der

    In April 1965 and May 1966 several groups of samples were collected by the author in northern and eastern Turkey in view of a study of their magnetic properties. The characteristic magnetizations of four groups of Eocene and Cretaceous volcanic rocks and sediments had the following directions of

  17. Magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion at the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum: The role of plant community change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Francesca A.; Wing, Scott L.; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2007-10-01

    Carbon-isotope measurements ( δ13C) of leaf-wax n-alkanes from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ larger than that observed in marine carbonate δ13C records. Reconciling these records requires either that marine carbonates fail to record the full magnitude of the CIE or that the CIE in plants has been amplified relative to the marine. Amplification of the CIE has been proposed to result from an increase in available moisture that allowed terrestrial plants to increase 13C-discrimination during the PETM. Leaf physiognomy, paleopedology and hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf-wax lipids from the Bighorn Basin, however, all suggest that rather than a simple increase in available moisture, climate alternated between wet and dry during the PETM. Here we consider two other explanations and test them quantitatively with the carbon isotopic record of plant lipids. The "marine modification" hypothesis is that the marine carbonate record was modified by chemical changes at the PETM and that plant lipids record the true magnitude of the CIE. Using atmospheric CO 2δ13C values estimated from the lipid record, and equilibrium fractionation between CO 2 and carbonate, we estimate the expected CIE for planktonic foraminifera to be 6‰. Instead, the largest excursion observed is about 4‰. No mechanism for altering marine carbonate by 2‰ has been identified and we thus reject this explanation. The "plant community change" hypothesis is that major changes in floral composition during the PETM amplified the CIE observed in n-alkanes by 1-2‰ relative to marine carbonate. This effect could have been caused by a rapid transition from a mixed angiosperm/conifer flora to a purely angiosperm flora. The plant community change hypothesis is consistent with both the magnitude and pattern of CIE amplification among the different n-alkanes, and with data from fossil plants

  18. Ferrimagnetic Iron Sulfide Formation and Methane Venting Across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in Shallow Marine Sediments, Ancient West Siberian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmin, Maxim; Roberts, Andrew P.; Horng, Chorng-Shern; Mazurov, Aleksey; Savinova, Olesya; Ruban, Aleksey; Kashapov, Roman; Veklich, Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Authigenesis of ferrimagnetic iron sulfide minerals (greigite and monoclinic pyrrhotite) occurred across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) within the Bakchar oolitic ironstone in southeastern Western Siberia. Co-occurrence of these minerals is associated with diagenetic environments that support anaerobic oxidation of methane, which has been validated by methane fluid inclusion analysis in the studied sediments. In modern settings, such ferrimagnetic iron sulfide formation is linked to upward methane diffusion in the presence of minor dissolved sulfide ions. The PETM was the most extreme Cenozoic global warming event and massive methane mobilization has been proposed as a major contributor to the globally observed warming and carbon isotope excursion associated with the PETM. The studied sediments provide rare direct evidence for methane mobilization during the PETM. Magnetic iron sulfide formation associated with methanogenesis in the studied sediments can be explained by enhanced local carbon burial across the PETM. While there is no strong evidence to link local methane venting with more widespread methane mobilization and global warming, the magnetic, petrographic, and geochemical approach used here is applicable to identifying authigenic minerals that provide telltale signatures of methane mobility that can be used to assess methane formation and mobilization through the PETM and other hyperthermal climatic events.

  19. A Backarc Basin Origin for the Eocene Volcanic Rocks North of Abbas Abad, East of Shahrud, Northeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatbari Jafari, M.; Mobasher, K.; Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H.; La Tour, T.

    2008-12-01

    The region in northeastern Iran, bordered by the Miami fault and the Doruneh fault, mainly exposes the Eocene volcanic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks and sporadic outcrops of pre- Jurassic metamorphic rocks such as gneiss and mica-schist. We have divided the volcanic and volcanic-sedimentary rocks into six main units: E1 through the youngest E6. North of Abbas Abad, the Lower Eocene is conglomerate, sandstone, and red shale with lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone at the base, and dacitic lava (E1) at the top. The nummulites give an Early Eocene age for the limestone lenses. The E2 unit includes vesicular basalt, intercalated, intraformational conglomerate, and lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone. E3 is volcanic- sedimentary, and is made of green tuff, tuffite, shale, and nummulite bearing limestone. E4 includes basalt and vesicular trachy-basalt, and E5 is mostly sedimentary, made of tan marl, sandstone, shale, and lenses of Middle Eocene nummulite-bearing limestone. The E6 unit is the most extensive, with at least three levels of nummulite-bearing limestone lenses which give a Middle to Early Eocene age. The volcanic rocks of the E6 unit include few hundred meters of epiclastic to hyaloclastic breccia, with intercalations of lava at the base. These are overlain by four horizons of aphyric olivine basalt and basalt, and phyric trachy-andesite and trachy-basalt. The volume of the aphyric lavas decreases, and that of the phyric lavas increases upsection. The Eocene volcanic sequence is covered by turbidite; the marl washings give an Eocene-Oligocene age range. Chondrite-normalized multi-element plots indicate enrichment of the Eocene Abbas Abad volcanic rocks in the LILE elements, with variable ratios of La/Yb (4.36-19.33) and La/Sm (3.10-7.91). These plots show a gentle slope, and the volcanic rocks in the E1 to E4 units are less enriched than those in the E6 unit, probably reflecting the difference in the original source for the melt. The multi-element plots

  20. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Catherine J; Ow, Yan X; Langlois, Lucas; Uthicke, Sven; Johansson, Charlotte L; O'Brien, Katherine R; Hrebien, Victoria; Adams, Matthew P

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km) in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant) occurs, for three seagrass species (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri). To obtain whole plant net production, photosynthesis, and respiration rates of leaves and the root/rhizome complex were measured using oxygen-sensitive optodes in closed incubation chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 to 43°C. The temperature-dependence of photosynthesis and respiration was fitted to empirical models to obtain maximum metabolic rates and thermal optima. The thermal optimum (Topt) for gross photosynthesis of Z. muelleri, which is more commonly distributed in sub-tropical to temperate regions, was 31°C. The Topt for photosynthesis of the tropical species, H. uninervis and C. serrulata, was considerably higher (35°C on average). This suggests that seagrass species are adapted to water temperature within their distributional range; however, when comparing among latitudes and seasons, thermal optima within a species showed limited acclimation to ambient water temperature (Topt varied by 1°C in C. serrulata and 2°C in H. uninervis, and the variation did not follow changes in ambient water temperature). The Topt for gross photosynthesis were higher than Topt calculated from plant net productivity, which includes above- and below-ground respiration for Z. muelleri (24°C) and H. uninervis (33°C), but remained unchanged at 35°C in C. serrulata. Both estimated plant net productivity and Topt are sensitive to the proportion of below-ground biomass, highlighting the need for consideration of below- to above-ground biomass ratios when applying thermal optima to other meadows. The thermal optimum

  1. Optimum Temperatures for Net Primary Productivity of Three Tropical Seagrass Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Collier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rising sea water temperature will play a significant role in responses of the world's seagrass meadows to climate change. In this study, we investigated seasonal and latitudinal variation (spanning more than 1,500 km in seagrass productivity, and the optimum temperatures at which maximum photosynthesis and net productivity (for the leaf and the whole plant occurs, for three seagrass species (Cymodocea serrulata, Halodule uninervis, and Zostera muelleri. To obtain whole plant net production, photosynthesis, and respiration rates of leaves and the root/rhizome complex were measured using oxygen-sensitive optodes in closed incubation chambers at temperatures ranging from 15 to 43°C. The temperature-dependence of photosynthesis and respiration was fitted to empirical models to obtain maximum metabolic rates and thermal optima. The thermal optimum (Topt for gross photosynthesis of Z. muelleri, which is more commonly distributed in sub-tropical to temperate regions, was 31°C. The Topt for photosynthesis of the tropical species, H. uninervis and C. serrulata, was considerably higher (35°C on average. This suggests that seagrass species are adapted to water temperature within their distributional range; however, when comparing among latitudes and seasons, thermal optima within a species showed limited acclimation to ambient water temperature (Topt varied by 1°C in C. serrulata and 2°C in H. uninervis, and the variation did not follow changes in ambient water temperature. The Topt for gross photosynthesis were higher than Topt calculated from plant net productivity, which includes above- and below-ground respiration for Z. muelleri (24°C and H. uninervis (33°C, but remained unchanged at 35°C in C. serrulata. Both estimated plant net productivity and Topt are sensitive to the proportion of below-ground biomass, highlighting the need for consideration of below- to above-ground biomass ratios when applying thermal optima to other meadows. The

  2. Characterization and genesis interpretation of charcoal-bearing concretions from the early Eocene Ione Formation, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, D.; Aburto, F.

    2013-12-01

    Charcoal core concretions have been discovered in the kaolinitic soil horizons of the Ione formation (early Eocene epoch ~52Ma BP). It is thought that the Ione Formation in the Ione Basin was deposited in delta and estuarine waters that were subsequently exhumed and exposed to a warmer, humid, tropical-like environment during the early Eocene. The formation of concretions is indicative of seasonal dryness, and the charcoal cores are evidence of wildfires and of the existence of a forest ecosystem. The mineral outer shells of the concretions have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation Quadruple Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Micro-computed tomography (MCT) scans indicate that these concretions have at least three distinct shells and a inner core with fragments of charcoal without apparent internal organization. The outer shell is mainly composed of a layered mix of kaolinite, quartz, goethite, hematite and birnessite. Some pyrite and jarosite have also been found, which could indicate that goethite may be post-depositional and a product of the bacteria-mediated oxidation of pyrite. The central shell has a similar composition, but with a higher content of iron oxyhydroxides and jarosite. The inner cores of the concretions are mainly composed of a mixture of kaolinite and quartz which correspond to the layer in which the concretions were found. The concretion cores contain loose charcoal fragments in a unsolidified kaolinite matrix. The charcoal fragments have been characterized by Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), C/N isotope analysis, and Synchrotron radiation FTIR (SR-FTIR). Analysis of the ATR-FTIR spectra showed significant absorbance peaks at wavenumbers that coincided with the chemical functionality of other wood biochars. Charcoal from different concretions display (n =12) extremely similar spectra which suggest that they were originated from similar species and

  3. Geology, geochemistry and genesis of the Eocene Lailishan Sn deposit in the Sanjiang region, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hua-Wen; Pei, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shou-Ting; Zhang, Lin-Kui; Tang, Li; Lin, Jin-Zhan; Zheng, Luo

    2017-04-01

    The Lailishan deposit is an important tin deposit that is genetically associated with an Early Eocene biotite granite in the western Yunnan metallogenic belt in the Sanjiang region, SW China. This study reports new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data, whole-rock elements, mica Ar-Ar age and C-H-O-S-Pb isotope for the Lailishan Sn deposit. The mineralization-related biotite granite crystallized during the Early Eocene (50.5 Ma), with its zircon εHf(t) values ranging from -11.5 to -7.6 and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) ranging from 1.60 to 1.85 Ga. The rocks are peraluminous with A/CNK values of 0.99-1.08. The granites display high Si, Al and K contents but low Mg, Fe and Ca contents. The rocks show flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns with strong Eu negative anomalies. These characteristics indicate that the magma originated from a continental crustal source. The hydrothermal muscovite exhibits an Ar-Ar plateau age of 50.4 ± 0.2 Ma. The δ18O and δD values of hydrothermal quartz from the deposit range from -7.32‰ to 4.01‰ and from -124.9‰ to -87.1‰, respectively. The δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values of calcite range from -11.3‰ to -3.7‰ and from +2.2‰ to +12.7‰, respectively. The sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34SV-CDT) range from +3.3‰ to +8.6‰ for sulfide separates, and the lead isotopic ratios 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb range from 18.668 to 18.746, from 15.710 to 15.743 and from 39.202 to 39.295, respectively. These isotopic compositions are similar to those of magma-derived fluids, indicating that the ore-forming fluids and materials mainly originated from magmatic rocks with some input from meteoric water. This evidence suggests that the tin mineralization is closely linked to the Lailishan I-type granites. In combination with previous data, it is proposed in this study that widespread early Eocene magmatism resulted from the slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan slab at ca. 55 Ma.

  4. Terrigenous Grain-size Record of the Newfoundland Ridge Contourite Drift, IODP Site U1411: The First Physical Proxy Record of North Atlantic Abyssal Current Intensity during the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, K.; Romans, B.; Spray, J.; Wilson, P. A.; Bohaty, S. M.; Sanchez, T.

    2016-12-01

    Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC) is a vital process that helps to regulate global climate and support marine ecosystems. The timing and nature of the shift to modern AMOC, and especially to deep-water formation in the North Atlantic, has been a topic of ongoing study, with the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT, 34 Ma) being a potential focal point of this shift. However, the role played by abrupt EOT cooling in North Atlantic circulation remains unclear. Improved constraints on Paleogene circulation will provide insight into the sensitivity of AMOC to perturbations in global climate. We obtained grain-size data from the terrigenous fraction of the mud-dominated sediments of the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge contourite drift complex at IODP Site U1411, which is interpreted to have formed under the influence of the Deep Western Boundary Current. We analyzed 195 samples that span 150 m of stratigraphy from 36-26 Ma. The main objective was to use the `sortable silt' fraction (10-63 µm) to generate a record of relative change in bottom-current velocity. These data are complemented with a record of the abundance and size of lithogenic sand (>63 µm). Here we present U1411 sortable silt data as the first physical proxy record of abyssal current intensity in the North Atlantic, from late Eocene to mid Oligocene. Invigoration of North Atlantic deep circulation occurred gradually (over Myr timescales). We infer that deep circulation in the North Atlantic was not sensitive to the abrupt global cooling and Antarctic glaciation associated with the EOT. Rather, our data suggest that changes in North Atlantic circulation were likely governed by longer-term processes related to the opening of key tectonic gateways (i.e., the Greenland-Scotland-Faeroes Ridge in the North Atlantic, and the Drake and Tasman Passages in the Southern Ocean). Lithogenic sand is nearly absent in the Eocene and then systematically increases in abundance from the earliest Oligocene through the

  5. Climate change and trophic response of the Antarctic bottom fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Richard B; Moody, Ryan M; Ivany, Linda C; Blake, Daniel B; Werner, John E; Glass, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    As Earth warms, temperate and subpolar marine species will increasingly shift their geographic ranges poleward. The endemic shelf fauna of Antarctica is especially vulnerable to climate-mediated biological invasions because cold temperatures currently exclude the durophagous (shell-breaking) predators that structure shallow-benthic communities elsewhere. We used the Eocene fossil record from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, to project specifically how global warming will reorganize the nearshore benthos of Antarctica. A long-term cooling trend, which began with a sharp temperature drop approximately 41 Ma (million years ago), eliminated durophagous predators-teleosts (modern bony fish), decapod crustaceans (crabs and lobsters) and almost all neoselachian elasmobranchs (modern sharks and rays)-from Antarctic nearshore waters after the Eocene. Even prior to those extinctions, durophagous predators became less active as coastal sea temperatures declined from 41 Ma to the end of the Eocene, approximately 33.5 Ma. In response, dense populations of suspension-feeding ophiuroids and crinoids abruptly appeared. Dense aggregations of brachiopods transcended the cooling event with no apparent change in predation pressure, nor were there changes in the frequency of shell-drilling predation on venerid bivalves. Rapid warming in the Southern Ocean is now removing the physiological barriers to shell-breaking predators, and crabs are returning to the Antarctic Peninsula. Over the coming decades to centuries, we predict a rapid reversal of the Eocene trends. Increasing predation will reduce or eliminate extant dense populations of suspension-feeding echinoderms from nearshore habitats along the Peninsula while brachiopods will continue to form large populations, and the intensity of shell-drilling predation on infaunal bivalves will not change appreciably. In time the ecological effects of global warming could spread to other portions of the Antarctic coast. The differential

  6. Climate change and trophic response of the Antarctic bottom fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Aronson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As Earth warms, temperate and subpolar marine species will increasingly shift their geographic ranges poleward. The endemic shelf fauna of Antarctica is especially vulnerable to climate-mediated biological invasions because cold temperatures currently exclude the durophagous (shell-breaking predators that structure shallow-benthic communities elsewhere. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used the Eocene fossil record from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, to project specifically how global warming will reorganize the nearshore benthos of Antarctica. A long-term cooling trend, which began with a sharp temperature drop approximately 41 Ma (million years ago, eliminated durophagous predators-teleosts (modern bony fish, decapod crustaceans (crabs and lobsters and almost all neoselachian elasmobranchs (modern sharks and rays-from Antarctic nearshore waters after the Eocene. Even prior to those extinctions, durophagous predators became less active as coastal sea temperatures declined from 41 Ma to the end of the Eocene, approximately 33.5 Ma. In response, dense populations of suspension-feeding ophiuroids and crinoids abruptly appeared. Dense aggregations of brachiopods transcended the cooling event with no apparent change in predation pressure, nor were there changes in the frequency of shell-drilling predation on venerid bivalves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rapid warming in the Southern Ocean is now removing the physiological barriers to shell-breaking predators, and crabs are returning to the Antarctic Peninsula. Over the coming decades to centuries, we predict a rapid reversal of the Eocene trends. Increasing predation will reduce or eliminate extant dense populations of suspension-feeding echinoderms from nearshore habitats along the Peninsula while brachiopods will continue to form large populations, and the intensity of shell-drilling predation on infaunal bivalves will not change appreciably. In time the ecological effects of

  7. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R. [Dpto. Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Zacarias, A. [ESIME UPA, IPN, Av. de las Granjas 682, Col. Santa Catarina, 02550, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  8. Optimum design of 2D micro-angle sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinggang; Zhao, Heng; Lou, Xiaona; Jiang, Ningchuan; Hu, Xiaotang

    2008-12-01

    To improve dynamic measurement performance and resolution, an optimum design on two-dimensional (2D) micro-angle sensor based on optical internal-reflection method via critical-angle refractive index measurement is presented in the paper. The noise signals were filtered effectively by modulating laser-driven and demodulating in signal proceeding. The system's accuracy and response speed are improved further by using 16-bit high-precision AD converter and MSP430 CPU which present with a high-speed performance during signals processes such as fitting angle-voltage curve through specific arithmetic, full range and zero point calibration, filter, scaling transformation etc. The experiment results indicated that, dynamic signal measurement range can be up to +/-600arcsec, the measurement resolution can be better than 0.1arcsec, and the repeatability could be better than +/-0.5arcsec.

  9. Optimum design of concrete cable-stayed bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alberto M. B.; Simões, Luís M. C.; Negrão, João H. J. O.

    2016-05-01

    The design of cable-stayed bridges involves a significant number of design variables and design objectives. The concrete cable-stayed bridge optimization is formulated here as a multi-objective optimization problem with objectives of minimum cost, minimum deflections and minimum stresses. A numerical method is developed to obtain the optimum design of such structures. This numerical method includes: structural analysis, sensitivity analysis and optimization. The structural analysis accounts for all the relevant effects (concrete time-dependent effects, construction stages and geometrical nonlinear effects). The structural response to changes in the design variables is achieved by a discrete direct sensitivity analysis procedure, and an entropy-based approach was used for structural optimization. The features and applicability of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical examples concerning the optimization of a real-sized concrete cable-stayed bridge.

  10. Optimum Identification Method of Sorting Green Household Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Mohd Hisam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project is related to design of sorting facility for reducing, reusing, recycling green waste material, and in particular to invent an automatic system to distinguish household waste in order to separate them from the main waste stream. The project focuses on thorough analysis of the properties of green household waste. The method of identification is using capacitive sensor where the characteristic data taken on three different sensor drive frequency. Three types of material have been chosen as a medium of this research, to be separated using the selected method. Based on capacitance characteristics and its ability to penetrate green object, optimum identification method is expected to be recognized in this project. The output capacitance sensor is in analogue value. The results demonstrate that the information from the sensor is enough to recognize the materials that have been selected.

  11. Optimum investment strategy in the power industry mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard; Hnydiuk-Stefan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an innovative methodology for identifying optimum investment strategies in the power industry. To do so, it examines results including, among others, the impact of oxy-fuel technology on CO2 emissions prices, and the specific cost of electricity production. The technical and economic analysis presented here extend the available knowledge in the field of investment optimization in energy engineering, while also enabling investors to make decisions involving its application. Individual chapters explore the potential impacts of different factors like environmental charges on costs connected with investments in the power sector, as well as discussing the available technologies for heat and power generation. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers, market analysts, decision makers, power engineers and students alike.

  12. Optimum distributed detection of weak signals in dependent sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Rick S.; Kassam, Saleem A.

    1992-05-01

    The extension of classical locally optimum (LO) detection results to the case of distributed detection with dependent sensors is considered. The necessary conditions are presented for the LO distributed sensor detector designs and fusion rule for an N sensor parallel distributed detection system with dependent sensor observations. Specific solutions are obtained for a random signal in additive noise detection problem with two sensors. Letting f be the noise probability density function (pdf), these solutions indicate that the LO sensor detector nonlinearities, in general, contain a term proportional to f-prime/f. The importance of this term varies with the additive noise pdf and the false alarm probability. LO solutions are presented for finite sample sizes, and the LO solutions are discussed in the asymptotic case. The results are extended to yield the form of the solutions for the N sensor LO random signal distribution problem, which yields expected generalizations of the two sensor results.

  13. Optimum Choice of RF Frequency for Two Beam Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    Recent experimental results on normal conducting RF structures indicate that the scaling of the gradient limit with frequency is less favourable than what was believed. We therefore reconsider the optimum choice of RF frequency and iris aperture for a normal conducting, two-beam linear collider with E_CMS=3 TeV, a loaded accelerating gradient of 150 MV/m and a luminosity of 8 10^34 cm-^2 s^-1. The optimisation criterion is minimizing overall RF costs for investment and operation with constraints put on peak surface electric fields and pulsed heating of accelerating structures. Analytical models are employed where applicable, while interpolation on simulation program results is used for the calculation of luminosity and RF structure properties.

  14. Optimum selection of an energy resource using fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouelnaga, Ayah E., E-mail: ayahabouelnaga@hotmail.co [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, 21544 Alexandria (Egypt); Metwally, Abdelmohsen; Nagy, Mohammad E.; Agamy, Saeed [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, 21544 Alexandria (Egypt)

    2009-12-15

    Optimum selection of an energy resource is a vital issue in developed countries. Considering energy resources as alternatives (nuclear, hydroelectric, gas/oil, and solar) and factors upon which the proper decision will be taken as attributes (economics, availability, environmental impact, and proliferation), one can use the multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) to optimize the selection process. Recently, fuzzy logic is extensively applied to the MAUT as it expresses the linguistic appraisal for all attributes in wide and reliable manners. The rise in oil prices and the increased concern about environmental protection from CO{sub 2} emissions have promoted the attention to the use of nuclear power as a viable energy source for power generation. For Egypt, as a case study, the nuclear option is found to be an appropriate choice. Following the introduction of innovative designs of nuclear power plants, improvements in the proliferation resistance, environmental impacts, and economics will enhance the selection of the nuclear option.

  15. Optimum design of band-gap beam structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Niels; Niu, Bin; Cheng, Gengdong

    2012-01-01

    or significantly suppressed for a range of external excitation frequencies. Maximization of the band-gap is therefore an obvious objective for optimum design. This problem is sometimes formulated by optimizing a parameterized design model which assumes multiple periodicity in the design. However, it is shown...... in the present paper that such an a priori assumption is not necessary since, in general, just the maximization of the gap between two consecutive natural frequencies leads to significant design periodicity. The aim of this paper is to maximize frequency gaps by shape optimization of transversely vibrating...... Bernoulli–Euler beams subjected to free, standing wave vibration or forced, time-harmonic wave propagation, and to study the associated creation of periodicity of the optimized beam designs. The beams are assumed to have variable cross-sectional area, given total volume and length, and to be made...

  16. Determining optimum aging time using novel core flooding equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahkami, Mehrdad; Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Xiarchos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    to consistently investigate the change of wettability during aging. At 60°C and 100 bars a homogeneous sandstone coreplug attained optimized wettability after 5 days, a heterogeneous coreplug required 30 days of aging. Chalk coreplugs needed 45 days of aging. This shows that coreplugs originating from the same......New methods for enhanced oil recovery are typically developed using core flooding techniques. Establishing reservoir conditions is essential before the experimental campaign commences. The realistic oil-rock wettability can be obtained through optimum aging of the core. Aging time is affected...... by temperature, crude oil, formation brine, and coreplug lithology. Minimum time can significantly reduce the experimental cost while insufficient aging time can result in false conclusions. Real-time online resistivity measurements of coreplugs are presented and a novel method is introduced for determining...

  17. Optimum Skin Blending Method for Quantifying Poultry Carcass Bacteria 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avens, John S.; Miller, Byron F.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum blending fluids and blending times for use in quantifying bacteria on poultry carcass skin by the skin “blending” method were determined. Butterfield's buffered-phosphate diluent, physiological saline solution (0.85% NaCl), peptone water (0.1% peptone), and deionized water, each at four different skin blending times of 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, were compared. The comparison was based on relative numbers of bacteria per cm2 of skin, enumerated by each combination on turkey carcasses. Peptone water and physiological saline solution each yielded significantly (P diluent or deionized water. There were no significant differences among the four skin blending times and no significant interaction effect between the two factors tested. PMID:4917460

  18. Preconsolidation of Søvind Marl - a highly fissured Eocene clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2015-01-01

    Determination of the preconsolidation stresses is a key tool in geotechnical engineering used to evaluate and estimate the behavior of soils. However, it has been proven difficult to accurately estimate the preconsolidation in highly fissured overconsolidated clays, due to the effect of the fissu......Determination of the preconsolidation stresses is a key tool in geotechnical engineering used to evaluate and estimate the behavior of soils. However, it has been proven difficult to accurately estimate the preconsolidation in highly fissured overconsolidated clays, due to the effect...... of the fissured structure of the clay. This article presents oedometer tests performed on Søvind Marl, a plastic Eocene clay, with a high presence of fissures and slickensides. Four incremental loading oedometer tests and four continuous loading oedometer tests were performed in order to determine...

  19. Early Eocene fossils suggest that the mammalian order Perissodactyla originated in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth D; Holbrook, Luke T; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Jones, Katrina E; Ahrens, Heather E; Missiaen, Pieter; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

    2014-11-20

    Cambaytheres (Cambaytherium, Nakusia and Kalitherium) are recently discovered early Eocene placental mammals from the Indo-Pakistan region. They have been assigned to either Perissodactyla (the clade including horses, tapirs and rhinos, which is a member of the superorder Laurasiatheria) or Anthracobunidae, an obscure family that has been variously considered artiodactyls or perissodactyls, but most recently placed at the base of Proboscidea or of Tethytheria (Proboscidea+Sirenia, superorder Afrotheria). Here we report new dental, cranial and postcranial fossils of Cambaytherium, from the Cambay Shale Formation, Gujarat, India (~54.5 Myr). These fossils demonstrate that cambaytheres occupy a pivotal position as the sister taxon of Perissodactyla, thereby providing insight on the phylogenetic and biogeographic origin of Perissodactyla. The presence of the sister group of perissodactyls in western India near or before the time of collision suggests that Perissodactyla may have originated on the Indian Plate during its final drift toward Asia.

  20. MIDDLE EOCENE TO EARLY MIOCENE FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE EPILIGURIAN SUCCESSION (NORTHERN APENNINES, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETTA MANCIN

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative biostratigraphical study was performed on the foraminiferal assemblages from 15 stratigraphic sections of the Epiligurian Succession (Middle Eocene-Early Miocene, Northern Apennines, Italy. This study enabled us to identify the presence of some of the standard bioevents and to note that other bioevents are absent or show a different chronostratigraphic range. Other additional bioevents, identified throughout the area, have therefore been utilised to improve the biostratigraphical resolution of the Epiligurian sediments. These bioevents include the massive extinction of the muricate species at the Bartonian/Priabonian boundary; the increasing abundance of Paragloborotalia opima opima near Subzone P21a/P21b and the Rupelian/Chattian boundaries; and the FO of Globoquadrina dehiscens at the Subzone N4a/N4b boundary. 

  1. CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF PALEOCENE TO MIDDLE EOCENE SUCCESSIONS (TERTIARY FLYSCH AUCTT. OF THE NORTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA CATANZARITI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An accurate biostratigraphic study of the Paleocene-middle Eocene calcareous nannofossils was performed on the turbiditic successions that characterize the Northern Apennines Mt. Caio, Farini d’Olmo, Mt. Sporno and Mt. Penice Units, belonging to the “Tertiary Flysch Auctt.” and referable to the External Ligurides. This geologic complex accumulated in a link key area, located between the oceanic Ligure-Piedmontese domain and the Adria continental margin. The reference biostratigraphic scheme used in the study is the recently published calcareous nannofossil biozonation proposed for the Paleogene by Agnini et al. (2014. The obtained biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic data suggest that further investigation is needed to clarify the tectono-sedimentary evolution and to unravel the complex architecture of the External Ligurides.

  2. Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewissen, J G M; Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Clementz, Mark T; Bajpai, Sunil; Tiwari, B N

    2007-12-20

    Although the first ten million years of whale evolution are documented by a remarkable series of fossil skeletons, the link to the ancestor of cetaceans has been missing. It was known that whales are related to even-toed ungulates (artiodactyls), but until now no artiodactyls were morphologically close to early whales. Here we show that the Eocene south Asian raoellid artiodactyls are the sister group to whales. The raoellid Indohyus is similar to whales, and unlike other artiodactyls, in the structure of its ears and premolars, in the density of its limb bones and in the stable-oxygen-isotope composition of its teeth. We also show that a major dietary change occurred during the transition from artiodactyls to whales and that raoellids were aquatic waders. This indicates that aquatic life in this lineage occurred before the origin of the order Cetacea.

  3. Eocene lantern fruits from Gondwanan Patagonia and the early origins of Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Carvalho, Mónica R; Gandolfo, María A; Cúneo, N Rubén

    2017-01-06

    The nightshade family Solanaceae holds exceptional economic and cultural importance. The early diversification of Solanaceae is thought to have occurred in South America during its separation from Gondwana, but the family's sparse fossil record provides few insights. We report 52.2-million-year-old lantern fruits from terminal-Gondwanan Patagonia, featuring highly inflated, five-lobed calyces, as a newly identified species of the derived, diverse New World genus Physalis (e.g., groundcherries and tomatillos). The fossils are considerably older than corresponding molecular divergence dates and demonstrate an ancient history for the inflated calyx syndrome. The derived position of these early Eocene fossils shows that Solanaceae were well diversified long before final Gondwanan breakup. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Taphonomy and abundance of birds from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyke, Gareth; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2009-01-01

    . These birds are from a marine diatomite sequence (the Fur Formation), a low-energy deep-water preservational environment unique to the Cretaceous and Paleogene avian fossil record. We present taphonomic and palaeoecological information gleaned from these birds that in combination with phylogenetic data have......The pattern, pace and extent of the evolutionary radiation of modern birds (Neornithes) by the end-Cretaceous (65 Ma) has long been debated. Well-dated, taphonomically understood and phylogenetically constrained fossil birds from both sides of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary are required...... to quantify the shape of this radiation, but have largely been lacking. Here we report on a large collection of fossil birds from the Lower Eocene of Denmark (ca. 54 Ma) that includes three-dimensionally preserved, articulated specimens from carbonate concretions as well as skeletal imprints and feathers...

  5. Spicules of Litistidic sponges from the upper Eocene Verhivtsevska depression (Miiddle Dniprean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova T.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a taxonomic composition of lithistid sponges which are lived in the Late Eocene basin of Verchovtzev depression Ukrainian Shield is supposed by the spicules morphological analysis. There are sponges of ten geneses and seven families presented in paleocoenosis, but families Theonellidae (geneses Lerouxia, Rhagadinia andPlinthosellidae (genusPlinthosella are dominated. Threenewmorphospeciesof spicules aredescribed: Phyllotriaenapartita T.A.Ivanova morphosp.n., Ph. araneola T.A.Ivanova, morphosp.n., Tetracrepides semiornatus T.A.Ivanova, morphosp.n. Their stratigraphical meaning is determined. These spicules are characteristic for the Obuchovian Suite and would be used as the paleontological criterion of the Obuchovian Suite determination in geological sections of the Middle Dnieper region.

  6. Dinocyst taphonomy, impact craters, cyst ghosts, and the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lucy E.

    2012-01-01

    Dinocysts recovered from sediments related to the Chesapeake Bay impact structure in Virginia and the earliest Eocene suboxic environment in Maryland show strange and intriguing details of preservation. Features such as curled processes, opaque debris, breakage, microborings and cyst ghosts, among others, invite speculation about catastrophic depositional processes, rapid burial and biological and chemical decay. Selected specimens from seven cores taken in the coastal plain of Virginia and Maryland show abnormal preservation features in various combinations that merit illustration, description, discussion and further study. Although the depositional environments described are extreme, many of the features discussed are known from, or could be found in, other environments. These environments will show both similarities to and differences from the extreme environments here.

  7. Palaeoenvironment of Eocene prodelta in Spitsbergen recorded by the trace fossil Phycosiphon incertum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Tovar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ichnological, sedimentological and geochemical analyses were conducted on the Eocene Frysjaodden Formation in order to interpret palaeoenvironment prodelta sediments in the Central Basin of Spitsbergen. Phycosiphon incertum is the exclusive ichnotaxon showing differences in size, distribution, abundance and density, and relation to laminated/bioturbated intervals. Large P. incertum mainly occur dispersed, isolated and randomly distributed throughout the weakly laminated/non-laminated intervals. Small P. incertum occur occasionally in patches of several burrows within laminated intervals or as densely packed burrows in thin horizons in laminated intervals or constituting fully bioturbated intervals that are several centimetres thick. Ichnological changes are mainly controlled by oxygenation, although the availability of benthic food cannot be discarded. Changes in oxygenation and rate of sedimentation can be correlated with the registered variations in the Bouma sequence of the distal turbiditic beds within prodeltal shelf sediments.

  8. Earth Pressure at rest of Søvind Marl – a highly overconsolidated Eocene clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    in situ stresses to various stress levels to estimate continuous K0 development in this highly overconsolidated clay. The normally consolidated earth pressure at rest was found for two different sample ages of Søvind Marl to be between 0.42 and 0.68. Results indicated the overconsolidated K0 reached......The present study evaluated earth pressure at rest, K0, in highly overconsolidated Eocene clay called Søvind Marl, which exhibits extremely high plasticity indices of up to 300%, a highly fissured structure, and preconsolidation stresses up to 6,800 kPa. Continuous Loading Oedometer (CLO) tests......, showed congruent results using α = 1.05 independent of sample age....

  9. Xenoliths in Eocene lavas from Central Tibet record carbonated metasomatism of the lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussin, Fanny; Cordier, Carole; Boulvais, Philippe; Guillot, Stéphane; Roperch, Pierrick; Replumaz, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Cenozoic post-collisional volcanism of the Tibetan Plateau, emplaced on an accreted continental margin under compression, could bring important information regarding the edification of the Plateau. In this study, we combined petrography, whole rock geochemistry, stable isotopes and in situ mineral analysis to decipher the genesis of Eocene-Oligocene magmatic rocks from the Nangqian basin (35-38 Ma, [Spurlin et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2016]), located at the hinge between Central Tibet and the Eastern Indo-Asia Collision Zone. Our dataset includes potassic trachyandesites; amphibole-bearing potassic trachytes; and rare ultrapotassic (K2O/Na2O ≥ 4) mafic syenites. All samples have high REE abundances (La = 100 - 500 x primitive mantle). Fractionation of heavy REE (Gd/YbN > 3) indicates melting in the garnet stability field, and relative depletion in high-field strength elements (Nb, Ta) indicates a selective enrichment of the source by metasomatic fluids. This metasomatism event is also evidenced by the occurrence of re-equilibrated mantle xenocrysts of phlogopite (Mg# = 88 - 90 and Cr2O3 content = 0.9 - 1.82 wt%) in mafic syenites. Potassic trachyandesites have specific composition, with negative Zr-Hf anomaly and low Hf/Sm (0.2 - 0.4). Indeed, they include xenocrystic aggregates, composed of magmatic clinopyroxene, apatite and subordinate biotite and feldspar, with interstitial calcite and dolomite. δ18OV -SMOW (9.2 - 11.0 ) and δ13CV -PDB (-6.1 - -4.0 ) of these rocks indicate the presence of primary, mantle-derived carbonates. In situ analysis of the major and trace element compositions of the carbonates, clinopyroxenes and apatites further suggest that these aggregates represent cumulates of a carbonate-bearing magma. These xenoliths thus show that the lithospheric mantle was also metasomatized by CO2-rich fluids. Cenozoic carbonatites in China have been identified in Maoniuping in Western Sichuan (31.7 Ma), Lixian in the Western Qinlin (22-23 Ma), and

  10. Energy efficiency optimum strategies for low carbon development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sound energy efficiency policies play a critical role in fighting climate change. They are considered vital to reducing energy bills and reducing emissions and air pollution, while also improving energy security and sovereignty, and increasing access to energy. However, there are still significant barriers to the effective ...

  11. Optimum stocking rate for goat production on improved highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    Climatic information on mean monthly precipitation and air temperature in 2008 and 2009 are shown in Figure 1. Pasture survey and management. Pasture of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Huia), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Eminent) and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata cv. Amba) was established in May 2002.

  12. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the Eocene successions, east Beni Suef area, eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Shaban G.; Salama, Yasser F.

    2017-11-01

    Three Eocene stratigraphic successions east of the Beni Suef area are described and measured. These successions are made up of four rock units that are from base to top: Qarara (upper Lutetian), El Fashn (Bartonian), Beni Suef, and Maadi (Priabonian) formations. A detailed facies and sequence analysis unravels the stratigraphic framework and constructs a depositional model for the Middle-Upper Eocene succession. Ten microfacies types were grouped into four facies associations on a homoclinal ramp that compose the Upper Lutetian-Priabonian succession exposed in the east Beni Suef area. The depositional environment varied from a shallow to deep ramp setting. Four third-order depositional sequences were identified in the studied sections. The sequence boundaries are paleosoil horizons that can be traced throughout the entire outcrop area. Missing biozones are also evidence of the sequence boundaries. The history of these sequences mirrors the eustatic sea-level changes and the local tectonics in the region. Each sequence comprises facies associations that make up lowstand and/or transgressive and highstand systems tracts. The lowstand systems tract (LST) deposits are mainly sandstone facies and in Sequences 3 and 4 at Gabal Abyiad and Gabal Homret Shaibun respectively. The transgressive systems tract (TST) of Sequence 1 is dominated by nummulitic facies at Gabal Diya. The shale, mudstone and wackestone facies with planktic foraminifera and echinoids dominate the TST of Sequences 2 and 3 at Gabal Abyiad and Gabal Homret Shaibun respectively. The highstand systems tract (HST) of the studied sections is characterized by benthic foraminifera and bryozoan wackestone and packstone facies.

  13. The South Pyrenean Eocene carbonate megabreccias revisited: new interpretation based on evidence from the Pamplona Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payros, Aitor; Pujalte, Victoriano; Orue-Etxebarria, Xabier

    1999-05-01

    The South Pyrenean Foreland Basin contains numerous units of Eocene carbonate megabreccias intercalated with siliciclastic turbidites and derived by resedimentation of shallow-marine carbonate platforms. Previous studies were limited mainly to the foreland eastern part, known as the Jaca Basin. The present study from the Pamplona Basin, a western part of the foreland trough, sheds new light on the origin and regional significance of these South Pyrenean Eocene carbonate megabreccias (SPECMs). The number of the SPECM units in the foreland basin is higher than previously recognized and their age is somewhat older than originally assumed. The SPECM units appear to occur as time-stratigraphic clusters, which can be correlated with the relative sea-level lowstands and linked with phases of tectonic activity. The megabreccias were derived from a carbonate-platform system hosted by the foreland basin's southern (passive) margin. The episodic instability and mass wasting were triggered by phases of structural steepening (forebulge uplift) accompanied by high-magnitude earthquakes, with the former causing platform emergence, increased load stresses and excess pore-water pressure in the carbonate ramp. The SPECM deposits were emplaced by cohesive debris flows evolving into high-density turbidite currents. An ideal SPECM unit consists of (1) an immature, homogeneous debrite in the proximal part; (2) a differentiated, bipartite debrite and turbidite in the medial part; and (3) an incomplete, base-missing debrite overlain by turbidite, or a turbidite alone, in the distal part. The debrite component volumetrically predominates in the SPECM units, and the original terms `megaturbidite' and `seismoturbidite' thus seem to be inappropriate for these deposits.

  14. Eocene age of the Baranowski Glacier Group at Red Hill, King George Island, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozer Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric and geochemical studies were carried out at Red Hill in the southern part of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, northern Antarctic Peninsula on the Bransfield Strait coast. The rock succession at Red Hill has been determined to represent the Baranowski Glacier Group that was previously assigned a Late Cretaceous age. Two formations were distinguished within this succession: the lower Llano Point Formation and the upper Zamek Formation. These formations have stratotypes defined further to the north on the western coast of Admiralty Bay. On Red Hill the Llano Point Formation consists of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic breccia; the Zamek Formation consist predominantly of fine to coarse tuff, pyroclastic breccia, lavas, tuffaceous mud-, silt-, and sandstone, locally conglomeratic. The lower part of the Zamek Formation contains plant detritus (Nothofagus, dicotyledonous, thermophilous ferns and numerous coal seams (vitrinitic composition that confirm the abundance of vegetation on stratovolcanic slopes and surrounding lowlands at that time. Selected basic to intermediate igneous rocks from the succession have been analysed for the whole-rock K-Ar age determination. The obtained results indicate that the Red Hill succession was formed in two stages: (1 from about 51–50 Ma; and (2 46–42 Ma, i.e. during the Early to Middle Eocene. This, in combination with other data obtained from other Baranowski Glacier Group exposures on western coast of Admiralty Bay, confirms the recently defined position of the volcano-clastic succession in the stratigraphic scheme of King George Island. The new stratigraphic position and lithofacies development of the Red Hill succession strongly suggest its correlation with other Eocene formations containing fossil plants and coal seams that commonly occur on King George Island.

  15. An extinct Eocene taxon of the daisy family (Asteraceae): evolutionary, ecological and biogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D.; Palazzesi, Luis; Katinas, Liliana; Crisci, Jorge V.; Tellería, María C.; Bremer, Kåre; Passala, Mauro G.; Bechis, Florencia; Corsolini, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Morphological, molecular and biogeographical information bearing on early evolution of the sunflower alliance of families suggests that the clade containing the extant daisy family (Asteraceae) differentiated in South America during the Eocene, although palaeontological studies on this continent failed to reveal conclusive support for this hypothesis. Here we describe in detail Raiguenrayun cura gen. & sp. nov., an exceptionally well preserved capitulescence of Asteraceae recovered from Eocene deposits of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Methods The fossil was collected from the 47·5 million-year-old Huitrera Formation at the Estancia Don Hipólito locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Key Results The arrangement of the capitula in a cymose capitulescence, the many-flowered capitula with multiseriate–imbricate involucral bracts and the pappus-like structures indicate a close morphological relationship with Asteraceae. Raiguenrayun cura and the associated pollen Mutisiapollis telleriae do not match exactly any living member of the family, and clearly represent extinct taxa. They share a mosaic of morphological features today recognized in taxa phylogenetically close to the root of Asteraceae, such as Stifftieae, Wunderlichioideae and Gochnatieae (Mutisioideae sensu lato) and Dicomeae and Oldenburgieae (Carduoideae), today endemic to or mainly distributed in South America and Africa, respectively. Conclusions This is the first fossil genus of Asteraceae based on an outstandingly preserved capitulescence that might represent the ancestor of Mutisioideae–Carduoideae. It might have evolved in southern South America some time during the early Palaeogene and subsequently entered Africa, before the biogeographical isolation of these continents became much more pronounced. The new fossil represents the first reliable point for calibration, favouring an earlier date to the split between Barnadesioideae and the rest of Asteraceae than previously

  16. Arctic hydrology during global warming at the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Mark; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Huber, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Brinkhuis, Henk; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Dickens, Gerald R

    2006-08-10

    The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum represents a period of rapid, extreme global warming 55 million years ago, superimposed on an already warm world. This warming is associated with a severe shoaling of the ocean calcite compensation depth and a >2.5 per mil negative carbon isotope excursion in marine and soil carbonates. Together these observations indicate a massive release of 13C-depleted carbon and greenhouse-gas-induced warming. Recently, sediments were recovered from the central Arctic Ocean, providing the first opportunity to evaluate the environmental response at the North Pole at this time. Here we present stable hydrogen and carbon isotope measurements of terrestrial-plant- and aquatic-derived n-alkanes that record changes in hydrology, including surface water salinity and precipitation, and the global carbon cycle. Hydrogen isotope records are interpreted as documenting decreased rainout during moisture transport from lower latitudes and increased moisture delivery to the Arctic at the onset of the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, consistent with predictions of poleward storm track migrations during global warming. The terrestrial-plant carbon isotope excursion (about -4.5 to -6 per mil) is substantially larger than those of marine carbonates. Previously, this offset was explained by the physiological response of plants to increases in surface humidity. But this mechanism is not an effective explanation in this wet Arctic setting, leading us to hypothesize that the true magnitude of the excursion--and associated carbon input--was greater than originally surmised. Greater carbon release and strong hydrological cycle feedbacks may help explain the maintenance of this unprecedented warmth.

  17. Primitive Early Eocene bat from Wyoming and the evolution of flight and echolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nancy B; Seymour, Kevin L; Habersetzer, Jörg; Gunnell, Gregg F

    2008-02-14

    Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the largest and most diverse radiations of mammals, accounting for one-fifth of extant species. Although recent studies unambiguously support bat monophyly and consensus is rapidly emerging about evolutionary relationships among extant lineages, the fossil record of bats extends over 50 million years, and early evolution of the group remains poorly understood. Here we describe a new bat from the Early Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming, USA, with features that are more primitive than seen in any previously known bat. The evolutionary pathways that led to flapping flight and echolocation in bats have been in dispute, and until now fossils have been of limited use in documenting transitions involved in this marked change in lifestyle. Phylogenetically informed comparisons of the new taxon with other bats and non-flying mammals reveal that critical morphological and functional changes evolved incrementally. Forelimb anatomy indicates that the new bat was capable of powered flight like other Eocene bats, but ear morphology suggests that it lacked their echolocation abilities, supporting a 'flight first' hypothesis for chiropteran evolution. The shape of the wings suggests that an undulating gliding-fluttering flight style may be primitive for bats, and the presence of a long calcar indicates that a broad tail membrane evolved early in Chiroptera, probably functioning as an additional airfoil rather than as a prey-capture device. Limb proportions and retention of claws on all digits indicate that the new bat may have been an agile climber that employed quadrupedal locomotion and under-branch hanging behaviour.

  18. Taphonomy of the fossil insects of the middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale E. Greenwalt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The lacustrine oil shales of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation in northwestern Montana comprise a relatively unstudied middle Eocene fossil insect locality. Herein, we detail the stratigraphic position of the fossiliferous unit, describe the insect fauna of the Coal Creek locality and document its bias towards very small but remarkably pre-served insects. In addition, the depositional environment is examined and the mineral constituents of the laminations that comprise the varves of the Kishenehn oil shale are defined. Fifteen orders of insects have been recorded with the majority of all insects identified as aquatic with the families Chironomidae (Diptera and Corixidae (Hemiptera dominant. The presence of small aquatic insects, many of which are immature, the intact nature of >90% of the fossil insects and the presence of Daphnia ephippia, all indicate that the depositional environment was the shallow margin of a large freshwater lake. The fossil insects occur within fossilized microbial mat layers that comprise the bedding planes of the oil shale. Unlike the fossiliferous shales of the Florissant and Okanagan Highlands, the mats are not a product of diatomaceous algae nor are diatom frustules a component of the sediments or the varve structure. Instead, the varves are composed of very fine eolian siliciclastic silt grains overlaid with non-diatomaceous, possibly cyanobacteria-derived microbial mats which contain distinct traces of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A distinct third layer composed of essentially pure calcite is present in the shale of some exposures and is presumably derived from the seasonal warming-induced precipitation of carbonate from the lake’s waters. The Coal Creek locality presents a unique opportunity to study both very small middle Eocene insects not often preserved as compression fossils in most Konservat-Lagerstätte and the processes that led to their preservation.

  19. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups (Eocene) in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbert, W.P.; Templain, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Rocks of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups crop out in the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain and are represented by a series of sands and shales which reflect oscillation of the strandline. The Wilcox Group (lower Eocene), usually undifferentiated in Texas, consists of very fine sands and clays and abundant lignite. The Claiborne Group (middle Eocene) comprises, in ascending order, Carrizo Sand, Reklaw Formation (clay), Queen City Sand, Weches Formation (clay), Sparta Sand, Cook Mountain Formation (clay), and Yegua Formation (sand). Fluvial systems of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups exist in east Texas and trend perpendicular to the present coastline. In central Texas, sand bodies are parallel to the present coastline and are strand-plain, barrier-bar systems. Since the time of deposition of the Queen City Sand, a significant fluvial sand buildup occurred in the area of the present Rio Grande embayment where the marine clays pinch out. Known occurrences of mineral matter in the Wilcox and Claiborne (up to the Yegua) are limited to lignite (particularly in the Wilcox), cannel coal in the upper Claiborne, and hydrocarbons throughout. No uranium mineralization is known, and no uranium is likely to be discovered in the Claiborne and Wilcox. Approximately 50 surface samples and many gamma-ray logs showed no significant anomalies. The sands are very good potential host rocks, but no uranium source was discovered. During deposition of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups, there was no volcanism to serve as a source of uranium (as with the prolific occurrences in the younger rocks of south Texas); also, Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Llano uplift were not exposed.

  20. Evidence for rapid climate change in the Mesozoic-Palaeogene greenhouse world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkyns, Hugh C

    2003-09-15

    The best-documented example of rapid climate change that characterized the so-called 'greenhouse world' took place at the time of the Palaeocene-Eocene boundary: introduction of isotopically light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, accompanied by global warming of 5-8 degrees C across a range of latitudes, took place over a few thousand years. Dissociation, release and oxidation of gas hydrates from continental-margin sites and the consequent rapid global warming from the input of greenhouses gases are generally credited with causing the abrupt negative excursions in carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios. The isotopic anomalies, as recorded in foraminifera, propagated downwards from the shallowest levels of the ocean, implying that considerable quantities of methane survived upward transit through the water column to oxidize in the atmosphere. In the Mesozoic Era, a number of similar events have been recognized, of which those at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, in the early Toarcian (Jurassic) and in the early Aptian (Cretaceous) currently carry the best documentation for dramatic rises in temperature. In these three examples, and in other less well-documented cases, the lack of a definitive time-scale for the intervals in question hinders calculation of the rate of environmental change. However, comparison with the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) suggests that these older examples could have been similarly rapid. In both the early Toarcian and early Aptian cases, the negative carbon-isotope excursion precedes global excess carbon burial across a range of marine environments, a phenomenon that defines these intervals as oceanic anoxic events (OAEs). Osmium-isotope ratios ((187)Os/(188)Os) for both the early Toarcian OAE and the PETM show an excursion to more radiogenic values, demonstrating an increase in weathering and erosion of continental crust consonant with elevated temperatures. The more highly buffered strontium-isotope system ((87)Sr/(86)Sr

  1. Magnetic minerals as recorders of weathering, diagenesis, and paleoclimate: A core-outcrop comparison of Paleocene-Eocene paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, WY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxbauer, Daniel P.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Fox, David L.; Clyde, William C.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic minerals in paleosols hold important clues to the environmental conditions in which the original soil formed. However, efforts to quantify parameters such as mean annual precipitation (MAP) using magnetic properties are still in their infancy. Here, we test the idea that diagenetic processes and surficial weathering affect the magnetic minerals preserved in paleosols, particularly in pre-Quaternary systems that have received far less attention compared to more recent soils and paleosols. We evaluate the magnetic properties of non-loessic paleosols across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (a short-term global warming episode that occurred at 55.5 Ma) in the Bighorn Basin, WY. We compare data from nine paleosol layers sampled from outcrop, each of which has been exposed to surficial weathering, to the equivalent paleosols sampled from drill core, all of which are preserved below a pervasive surficial weathering front and are presumed to be unweathered. Comparisons reveal an increase in magnetization in outcrops compared with core equivalents, which is principally driven by secondary hematite production. Authigenic hematite production in outcrops presents a complication for goethite-hematite based paleoprecipitation proxies where estimates will be biased toward drier climate regimes. The occurrence of low coercivity minerals is more consistent between core and outcrop. However, we propose an alteration process for pedogenic magnetite that is observed in both core and outcrop, where pedogenic magnetite becomes progressively oxidized leading to higher mean coercivities and broader coercivity distributions compared to modern pedogenic magnetite. This combination of diagenetic processes and surface weathering influences the magnetic properties of paleosols. Despite these changes, magnetic enhancement ratios from B-horizons correlate with independent MAP estimates from geochemical proxies, which suggests that paleoprecipitation information is preserved. Future

  2. Optimum conditions for prebiotic evolution in extraterrestrial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ousama H.

    The overall goal of the dissertation was to devise synthetic pathways leading to the production of peptides and amino acids from smaller organic precursors. To this end, eight different zeolites were tested in order to determine their catalytic potential in the conversion of amino acids to peptides. The zeolites tested were either synthetic or naturally occurring. Acidic solutions of amino acids were prepared with or without zeolites and their reactivity was monitored over a four-week time interval. The kinetics and feasibility of peptide synthesis from selected amino acid combinations was investigated via the paper chromatography technique. Nine different amino acids were tested. The nature and extent of product were measured at constant time intervals. It was found that two ZSM-5 synthetic zeolites as well as the Fisher Scientific zeolite mix without alumina salts may have a catalytic potential in the conversion of amino acids to peptides. The conversion was verified by matching the paper chromatogram of the experimental product with that of a known peptide. The experimental results demonstrate that the optimum solvent system for paper chromatographic analysis of the zeolite-catalyzed self-assembly of the amino acids L-aspartic acid, L- asparagine, L-histidine, and L-serine is a 50:50 mixture of 1-butanol and acetone by volume. For the amino acids L-alanine, L-glycine, and L-valine, the optimum solvent was found to be a 30:70 mixture of ammonia and propanol by volume. A mathematical model describing the distance traveled (spot position) versus reaction time was constructed for the zeolite-catalyzed conversion of L- leucine and L-tyrosine and was found to approximately follow the function f(t) = 25 ln t. Two case studies for prebiotic synthesis leading to the production of amino acids or peptides in extraterrestrial environments were discussed: one involving Saturn's moon Titan, and the other involving Jupiter's moon Europa. In the Titan study, it was determined

  3. Determination of Optimum Cross-section for Oran Highway Revetment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Deniz; Sogut, Erdinc; Guler, Isikhan

    2017-04-01

    Revetments are shore parallel, sloping coastal structures which are built to provide protection from the negative effects of the sea. The revetment mentioned in this study is located in the City of Oran, Algeria and is currently under construction. This study investigates the determination of the optimum revetment cross section for Oran highway, considering both the hydraulic stability of the revetment and economy. The existence of cliffs in the region and the settlement of the City of Oran created a necessity to re-align Oran highway; therefore, it was shifted towards the Gulf of Oran. Approximately 1 km of the highway is to be constructed on the Mediterranean Sea due to the new alignment. In order to protect the sea side of the road from the adverse effects of the sea, a revetment was designed. The proposed cross section had an armour layer composed of 23 tons of antifer units and regular placement of armour units was recommended. In order to check the hydraulic stability of the proposed section, physical model tests were performed in the laboratory of LEM (Laboratoire d'Etudes Maritimes) in Algeria, using the pre-determined design wave conditions. The physical model tests revealed that the trunk of the revetment was totaly damaged. Accordingly, the proposed section was found insufficient and certain modifications were required. The first modification was made in the arrangement of armour units, changing them from regular to irregular. After testing the new cross section, it was observed that the revetment was vulnerable to breaking wave attack due to the toe geometry and thus the toe of the revetment had to be re-shaped. Therefore, the second option was to reduce the toe elevation. It was observed that even though the revetment trunk was safe, the damage in the toe was not in acceptable limits. The new cross section was found insufficient and as the final option, the weight of the antifer units used in the armour layer was increased, the toe length of the

  4. A new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae) from the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Wadi El-Hitan, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Sanaa E.; Mahmoud A Kora; Sallam, Hesham M.; Claeson, Kerin M.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Mohammed S Antar

    2017-01-01

    Wadi El-Hitan, the UNESCO World Heritage Site, of the Fayum Depression in the northeast part of the Western Desert of Egypt, has produced a remarkable collection of Eocene vertebrates, in particular the fossil whales from which it derives its name. Here we describe a new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae), Qarmoutus hitanensis, from the base of the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, based on a partial neurocranium including the complete left side, partial right de...

  5. Optimum Drafting Conditions Of Polyester And Viscose Blend Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamvand Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used an experimental design to investigate the influence of the total draft, break draft, distance between the aprons (Clips and production roller pressure on yarn quality in order to obtain optimum drafting conditions for polyester and viscose (PES/CV blend yarns in ring spinning frame. We used PES fibers (1.4 dtex × 38 mm long and CV fibers (1.6 dtex × 38 mm long to spin a 20 Tex blend yarn of PES (70%/CV (30% blend ratio. When the break draft, adjustment of distance between of aprons and roller pressure is not reasonable, controlling and leading of the fibers is not sufficient for proper orientation of the fibers in the yarn structure to produce a high quality yarn. Experimental results and statistical analysis show that the best yarn quality will be obtained under drafting conditions total draft of 38, 1.2 break draft, 2.8 mm distance between of aprons and maximum pressure of the production top roller (18daN.

  6. Optimum Resource Allocation and Eliminating Waste Inside Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandru Nagarajan Sathiyabama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to allocate optimum resources for wrapping section and suggesting a suitable method that need to be in place for successful elimination of waste inside the food industry wrapping section. It also includes identifying the main reasons for various types of wastages inside wrapping section and cost of all the wastages. The paper is based on the observation and research using the approach of lean tools and techniques. The methodology used for evaluating data is value stream mapping and some statistical SPSS tools for analysis. Data’s are real and are gathered from three different production shifts inside a food industry wrapping section. The main reasons for wastages inside the wrapping section are highlighted. Finally, the paper was concluded by estimating total cost of wastages and recommended suitable way to save the wastage costs. The need of change of jaws inside the wrapping machines, regular maintenance of all machines throughout the industry and training the personnel are recommended. The possible methods along with its benefits to reduce waste, operators, improve productivity and business growth was also highlighted.

  7. Analysis of optimum density of forest roads in rural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Cipriano de Assis do Carmo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the density of roads in rural properties in the south of the Espírito Santo and compared it with the calculation of the optimal density in forestry companies in steep areas. The work was carried out in six small rural properties based on the costs of roads of forest use, wood extraction and the costs of loss of productive area. The technical analysis included time and movement study and productivity. The economic analysis included operational costs, production costs and returns for different scenarios of productivity (180m.ha-1, 220m.ha-1and 250 m.ha-1. According to the results, all the properties have densities of road well above the optimum, which reflects the lack of criteria in the planning of the forest stands, resulting in a inadequate use of plantation area. Property 1 had the highest density of roads (373.92 m.ha-1 and the property 5 presented the lowest density (111.56 m.ha-1.

  8. Optimum Water Chemistry in radiation field buildup control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien, C. [Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Nuclear utilities continue to face the challenGE of reducing exposure of plant maintenance personnel. GE Nuclear Energy has developed the concept of Optimum Water Chemistry (OWC) to reduce the radiation field buildup and minimize the radioactive waste production. It is believed that reduction of radioactive sources and improvement of the water chemistry quality should significantly reduce both the radiation exposure and radwaste production. The most important source of radioactivity is cobalt and replacement of cobalt containing alloy in the core region as well as in the entire primary system is considered the first priority to achieve the goal of low exposure and minimized waste production. A plant specific computerized cobalt transport model has been developed to evaluate various options in a BWR system under specific conditions. Reduction of iron input and maintaining low ionic impurities in the coolant have been identified as two major tasks for operators. Addition of depleted zinc is a proven technique to reduce Co-60 in reactor water and on out-of-core piping surfaces. The effect of HWC on Co-60 transport in the primary system will also be discussed.

  9. Fixation identification: the optimum threshold for a dispersion algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blignaut, Pieter

    2009-05-01

    It is hypothesized that the number, position, size, and duration of fixations are functions of the metric used for dispersion in a dispersion-based fixation detection algorithm, as well as of the threshold value. The sensitivity of the I-DT algorithm for the various independent variables was determined through the analysis of gaze data from chess players during a memory recall experiment. A procedure was followed in which scan paths were generated at distinct intervals in a range of threshold values for each of five different metrics of dispersion. The percentage of points of regard (PORs) used, the number of fixations returned, the spatial dispersion of PORs within fixations, and the difference between the scan paths were used as indicators to determine an optimum threshold value. It was found that a fixation radius of 1 degrees provides a threshold that will ensure replicable results in terms of the number and position of fixations while utilizing about 90% of the gaze data captured.

  10. Optimum microcurrent stimulation intensity for galvanotaxis in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, M; Maeshige, N; Honda, H; Yoshikawa, Y; Uemura, M; Yamamoto, M; Terashi, H

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we develop methods to measure galvanotaxis of fibroblasts and determined the optimum conditions of electrical stimulation. An inverted 35mm dish containing cell suspensions (3×105 primary human skin fibroblasts, DMEM, and 10% FBS) was placed on the centre of a 100mm dish. The 35mm dish was removed 24 hours later, and culture medium was added to the 100mm dish. Fibroblasts were randomised (double-blind) into three groups, where electrical stimulation was given at varying intensities: 0UA (control), 50UA, and 100UA. Electrical stimulation (frequency=0.3Hz) was conducted, for a duration of 4 hours, with platinum electrodes in a CO2 incubator. We took pictures immediately before and 20 hours after stimulation. We calculated the migration ratio to the negative pole by dividing the area of attached fibroblasts after stimulation with that before stimulation. The migration ratio to the negative pole was significantly higher in the 100UA group than in the control group (pmicrocurrent efficacy for pressure ulcer healing. Electrical stimulation based on our in vitro experiment might be important for the development of physical therapy for pressure ulcers.

  11. Optimum Path Synthesis of a Geared Five-Bar Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yi Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on path synthesis problems are to trace simple or smooth trajectories. In this work, an optimum synthesis for several special trajectories generated by a geared five-bar mechanism is studied using the one-phase synthesis method. The synthesis problem for the special trajectories, which is originally studied using the two-phase synthesis method discussed in the literature, is a real challenge due to very few dimensionally proportioned mechanisms that can generate the special trajectories. The challenging special trajectories with up to 41 discrete points include a self-overlapping curve, nonsmooth curves with straight segments and vertices, and sophisticated shapes. The error function of the square deviation of positions is used as the objective function and the GA-DE evolutionary algorithm is used to solve the optimization problems. Findings show that the proposed method can obtain approximately matched trajectories at the cost of a tremendous number of evaluations of the objective function. Therefore, the challenging problems may serve as the benchmark problems to test the effectiveness and efficiency of synthesis methods and/or optimization algorithms. All the synthesized solutions have been validated using the animation of the SolidWorks assembly so that the obtained mechanisms are sound and usable.

  12. Optimum Heart Rate to Minimize Pulsatile External Cardiac Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2011-11-01

    The workload on the left ventricle is composed of steady and pulsatile components. Clinical investigations have confirmed that an abnormal pulsatile load plays an important role in the pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and progression of LVH to congestive heart failure (CHF). The pulsatile load is the result of the complex dynamics of wave propagation and reflection in the compliant arterial vasculature. We hypothesize that aortic waves can be optimized to reduce the left ventricular (LV) pulsatile load. We used an in-vitro experimental approach to investigate our hypothesis. A unique hydraulic model was used for in-vitro experiments. This model has physical and dynamical properties similar to the heart-aorta system. Different compliant models of the artificial aorta were used to test the hypothesis under various aortic rigidities. Our results indicate that: i) there is an optimum heart rate that minimizes LV pulsatile power (this is in agreement with our previous computational study); ii) introducing an extra reflection site at the specific location along the aorta creates constructive wave conditions that reduce the LV pulsatile power.

  13. A simulation of optimum power requirements of selected grain threshers

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    V. I. O. Ndirika

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A power requirement model was simulated at three factor interaction of process variables in order to select a combination of optimum crop and machine variables (crop moisture content, feed rate, cylinder speed that will yield minimum grain losses for millet and sorghum threshers. The viability of the model was demonstrated in selecting minimum grain loss for various combinations of process variables and power requirement. Result obtained from the simulations revealed that a minimum grain loss of 0.09% was obtained for millet thresher and 0.35% for the sorghum thresher at 9% grain moisture content, 5m/s cylinder speed, and feed rate of 0.03 kg/s. The power requirements obtained at these levels were 2.5kW and 4.6kW for millet and sorghum threshers respectively. This compares well with actual measurements using the same values of the parameters with a minimum grain loss of 0.10% for millet and 0.46% for sorghum threshers, at 2.45kW and 4.5kW power requirements for millet and sorghum threshers respectively

  14. Determination of Optimum Compression Ratio: A Tribological Aspect

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    L. Yüksek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines are the primary energy conversion machines both in industry and transportation. Modern technologies are being implemented to engines to fulfill today's low fuel consumption demand. Friction energy consumed by the rubbing parts of the engines are becoming an important parameter for higher fuel efficiency. Rate of friction loss is primarily affected by sliding speed and the load acting upon rubbing surfaces. Compression ratio is the main parameter that increases the peak cylinder pressure and hence normal load on components. Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of compression ratio on total friction loss of a diesel engine. A variable compression ratio diesel engine was operated at four different compression ratios which were "12.96", "15:59", "18:03", "20:17". Brake power and speed was kept constant at predefined value while measuring the in- cylinder pressure. Friction mean effective pressure ( FMEP data were obtained from the in cylinder pressure curves for each compression ratio. Ratio of friction power to indicated power of the engine was increased from 22.83% to 37.06% with varying compression ratio from 12.96 to 20:17. Considering the thermal efficiency , FMEP and maximum in- cylinder pressure optimum compression ratio interval of the test engine was determined as 18.8 ÷ 19.6.

  15. Optimum design of a gearbox for low vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsumi; Townsend, Dennis P.; Coy, John J.

    1992-01-01

    A computer program was developed for designing a low vibration gearbox. The code is based on a finite element shell analysis, a modal analysis, and a structural optimization method. In the finite element analysis, a triangular shell element with 18 degrees-of-freedom is used. In the optimization method, the overall vibration energy of the gearbox is used as the objective function and is minimized at the exciting frequency by varying the finite element thickness. Modal analysis is used to derive the sensitivity of the vibration energy with respect to the design variable. The sensitivity is representative of both eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The optimum value is computed by the gradient projection method and a unidimensional search procedure under the constraint condition of constant weight. The computer code is applied to a design problem derived from an experimental gearbox in use at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The top plate and two side plates of the gearbox are redesigned and the contribution of each surface to the total vibration is determined. Results show that optimization of the top plate alone is effective in reducing total gearbox vibration.

  16. A methodological approach for optimum preservation results: The packaging paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Kanavouras

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The food preservation hypothesis as impacted by overall packaging applications is considered in this work. The objective was to devise a decision supportive method for the selection of “just-right” packaging materials, techniques and procedures. For that, food preservation was critically approached in order to identify the optimum outcome at experimental and packaging selection decision-making levels. A mathematically supported and proven knowledge classification, and the establishment of a straightforward coherence mode among the principles of the natural systemic phenomena, were used. The ultimate aim of this work was to justifiably surpass a simple description of packaging according to its measurable specifications, and instead, engage its inherent properties into a cyclic 8-steps-process for eventually understanding its potential to support any particular preservation hypothesis in question. The proposed methodology includes primarily, the consideration of the study hypothesis and, in parallel, the conclusive remarks and claims with respect to the experimental factors involved (properties, parameters, relations and conditions. Considering the experimentally controlled set-ups that a researcher has to expose the food system to and the role of packaging in obtaining its preservation potential, our method supports the experimenters in selecting the experimental conditions under which the preservation hypothesis can be disclaimed and furthermore, it could indicate the way to reduce experimentation research waste. 

  17. Optimum filtration for time-activity curves in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Pant, G S

    2000-09-01

    Insufficient filtration and over-smoothing are misleading processes in the quantification of time-activity curves. The optimum filtration requires a good knowledge of the frequency spectrum and relative amplitudes of the data and superimposed noise. Due to variations in biomedical data, it is very difficult to adjust the filter for individual cases. To overcome this problem a new method of noise reduction is proposed. In this method the time-activity curves are transformed into a low frequency (linear) curve that can be filtered heavily without significant distortion of the real data. The theory of the proposed filter and the results of its comparison with three-point filter, five-point filter and data bounding methods are presented. The comparison was performed using deconvolution analyses of simulated renograms. The results show that the proposed filter causes minimum distortion of the renogram and impulse retention function in terms of the root mean square error and the peak of the renogram. Moreover, the filter is much less sensitive to over-smoothing (number of filter iterations), the signal-to-noise ratio and the mean transit time of the renogram compared with other filters.

  18. Agriculture: Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  19. Climate aberrations during the middle Miocene: evidence from the eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaijtaal, W.; Donders, T.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872; Schouten, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Louwye, S.

    2013-01-01

    During the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO; 17-14.5 Ma) the relatively warm climate of the Miocene reached peak temperatures. After the MMCO, the global climate started cooling through several short-lived cooling events, represented by positive oxygen isotope excursions: the Mi-events (Miocene

  20. Paleocene-Lower Eocene paleontological record of the Ulyanovsk-Syzran facial district, Volga-Peri-Caspian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkina, T. V.; Aleksandrova, G. N.

    2017-05-01

    The stratigraphic subdivisions of the Paleogene included in the updated regional stratigraphic scheme of the Ulyanovsk-Syzran facial district with a wide development of biosiliceous deposits, are described and paleontologically characterized. The biostratigraphic subdivision of the reference sections using diatoms and dinocysts is discussed. The recently recognized stratigraphic units, Smyshlyaevka and Karanino within the Kamyshin (Upper Paleocene) and Proleyka (Lower Eocene) regional stages are described.

  1. The first fossil record of the Emesinae genus Emesopsis Uhler (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Reduviidae) from Eocene Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Yuri A; Chłond, Dominik

    2015-11-06

    Two new fossil representatives of the assassin bug family Reduviidae are described as new from Baltic amber (Upper Eocene), belonging to the genus Emesopsis of the tribe Ploiariolini (Emesinae): Emesopsis putshkovi sp. nov. and E. similis sp. nov. These representatives of the Emesinae are the oldest fossil bugs of the genus Emesopsis known so far, and reported for the first time. This genus is also briefly diagnosed.

  2. A Newly Proposed Method to Predict Optimum Occlusal Vertical Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuichiro; Shimizu, Mariko; Katada, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    Establishing the optimum occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) in prosthetic treatment is an important clinical procedure. No methods are considered to be scientifically accurate in determining the reduced OVD in patients with missing posterior teeth. The purpose of this study was to derive a new formula to predict the lower facial height (LFH) using cephalometric analysis. Fifty-eight lateral cephalometric radiographs of Japanese clinical residents (mean age, 28.6 years) with complete natural dentition were used for this study. Conventional skeletal landmarks were traced. Not only the LFH, but six angular parameters and four linear parameters, which did not vary with reduced OVD, were selected. Multiple linear regression analysis with a stepwise forward approach was used to develop a prediction formula for the LFH using other measured parameters as independent variables. The LFH was significantly correlated with Gonial angle, SNA, N-S, Go-Me, Nasal floor to FH, Nasal floor to SN, and FH to SN. By stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, the following formula was obtained: LFH (degree) = 65.38 + 0.30* (Gonial angle; degree) - 0.49* (SNA; degree) - 0.41* (N-S; mm) + 0.21* (Go-Me; mm) - 15.45* (Nasal floor to FH; degree) + 15.22* (Nasal floor to SN; degree) - 15.40* (FH to SN; degree). Within the limitations of this study for one racial group, our prediction formula is valid in every LFH range (37 to 59°), and it may also be applicable to patients in whom the LFH deviated greatly from the average. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. A theoretical analysis of optimum consumer population and its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Mao, Z; Wang, H

    1994-01-01

    consumption structure elasticity. This model was used in the correlation analysis of the coordinated healthy development of optimum consumer population and the economy.

  4. Optimum dose of radiotherapy for chemodectomas of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.A.; Elkon, D.; Lim, M.L.; Constable, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    Forty patients with chemodectomas of the middle ear were seen at the University of Virginia Hospital from 1932 to 1978. Surgery, post-operative radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone were the treatment modalities employed depending on the extent of the disease. These have been reviewed with regard to the clinical presentation and results of treatment with long term follow-up of 1 to 30 years. An attempt was made to determine the optimum dose of radiotherapy based on our data and reported cases in the literature. The majority of patients complaining of tinnitus, otalgia and pulsation obtained significant if not complete relief of symptoms. Cranial nerve defects, however, ofter persisted after therapy. Tumor was considered to be controlled if there was no increase in its size or progression of symptoms. Tumor control was obtained in eight of 10 early patients but only in two of seven more patients with advanced disease with total resection. Control rate with post-operative radiotherapy after subtotal resection was 85%. Radiotherapy alone was used for inoperable or recurrent tumors and control was obtained in 88% of them. In addition to our data, the radiation dose used in over 200 patients reported in the literature was analyzed. There was only a 2% recurrence rate in patients who received 4000 rad/4 weeks or higher. Twenty-two percent of patients treated with less than 4000 rad developed recurrence. The tendency is to use a lower dose of postoperative treatment and a higher dose for gross inoperable tumors. 4000 rad/4 weeks seems to be adequate for control of postoperative residual disease and no more than 5000 rad/5 weeks are required even for advanced inoperable cases. By keeping the dose below 5000 rad/5 weeks, the incidence of complications such as brain necrosis is greatly decreased.

  5. Foraminifera from Paleocene -early Eocene rocks of Bir El Markha section (West Central Sinai), Egypt: Paleobathymetric and paleotemperature significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabi, Orabi H.; Hassan, Hatem F.

    2015-11-01

    In the studied section, there is cooling event started during the earliest Paleocene Pα till P1b Subzones. The warming event started at P1c Subzone and continued till P2 Zone. Nevertheless, during the late Paleocene (Zone P3) there is a cooling trend. Zone P4 is characterized by a warming episode and reached its maximum at the latest Paleocene and continued till the earliest Eocene (Subzone P5b), which indicate that the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene was the warmest period of the Cenozoic. It was possible to recognize four sea-level cycles during the Paleocene/Eocene; the first cycle marks the upper part of P3a Zone and represents shallow depth to ∼50 m; the second cycle (P3b/P4) marks another stratigraphic gap at the top of this zonal boundary, the third sea-level cycle (Zone P5a) marks the greatest paleodepth of ∼600 m whereas the fourth cycle represents gradual return to middle-shallow outer neritic.

  6. High resolution taxonomic study of the late Eocene (~34 Ma) Florissant palynoflora, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is located in Teller County in central Colorado, at approximate latitude 38°54'N and longitude 105°13'. The lithologies of the Florissant Formation consist of coarse-grained arkosic and volcanoclastic sandstones and conglomerates, finer shale, and tuffaceus mudstone and siltstone. It is divided into six units, mostly of lacustrine and fluvial origin with volcanic sediments interfingering and topping the strata. Volcanic units have been dated using the 40Ar/39Ar single-crystal method, giving an absolute age of ca. 34 Ma for the upper fossiliferous sedimentary unit. This pinpoints the formation of the Florissant sediments at the end of the Eocene, providing fruitful insight into the changing palaeoecosystem of the region at the dawn of the Oligocene. The formation is very well known for its rich fossil insect fauna and well preserved plant macrofossils found in the shale units, and the silicified tree stumps occurring in the lower mudstone unit. The sample used for this study originates from the upper shale unit, the fifth unit from the base of the formation. Previous studies on the plant macrofossils, mesofossils and the palynoflora have shown that during the late Eocene the surroundings of Florissant palaeo-lake were covered by diverse mixed broad-leaved evergreen/deciduous and needle-leafed forests. Until now pollen from the Florissant Formation has mostly been described according to conventional morphological nomenclature, using light microscopy (LM) only. In this study the same individual pollen grains are investigated using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by means of single grain technique. This provides best exploitable results concerning a more detailed resolution regarding taxonomy and more accurate identifications. The main goal of this study is to compile a well resolved taxonomic species list based on the palynoflora, to clarify the generic and species diversity of selected families (e

  7. NEW WAY OF DEFINITION OF OPTIMUM FREQUENCY ROTATION THE CANS AT ROTATIONAL THERMAL STERILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Achmedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In work results of researches on development of a new way of determination of optimum frequency of rotation of cans at rotational sterilization are presented.Optimum frequencies of rotation for various product range are specified in various banks. It is established that the optimum speed of rotation of cans can be determined on the maximum speed of heating of a product in the least warmed up point.

  8. Role of population genetics in guiding ecological responses to climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeldt, Gerald E; Leites, Laura P; Joyce, Dennis G; Weiskittel, Aaron R

    2017-09-01

    Population responses to climate were assessed using 3-7 years height growth data gathered for 266 populations growing in 12 common gardens established in the 1980s as part of five disparate studies of Pinus contorta var. latifolia. Responses are interpreted according to three concepts: the ecological optimum, the climate where a population is competitively exclusive and in which, therefore, it occurs naturally; the physiological optimum, the climate where a population grows best but is most often competitively excluded; and growth potential, the innate capacity for growth at the physiological optimum. Statistical analyses identified winter cold, measured by the square root of negative degree-days calculated from the daily minimum temperature (MINDD0(1/2) ), as the climatic effect most closely related to population growth potential; the colder the winter inhabited by a population, the lower its growth potential, a relationship presumably molded by natural selection. By splitting the data into groups based on population MINDD0(1/2) and using a function suited to skewed normal distributions, regressions were developed for predicting growth from the distance in climate space (MINDD0(1/2) ) populations had been transferred from their native location to a planting site. The regressions were skewed, showing that the ecological optimum of most populations is colder than the physiological optimum and that the discrepancy between the two increases as the ecological optimum becomes colder. Response to climate change is dependent on innate growth potential and the discrepancy between the two optima and, therefore, is population-specific, developing out of genotype-environment interactions. Response to warming in the short-term can be either positive or negative, but long term responses will be negative for all populations, with the timing of the demise dependent on the amount of skew. The results pertain to physiological modeling, species distribution models, and climate

  9. Non-Destructive Sensor-Based Prediction of Maturity and Optimum Harvest Date of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Overbeck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The aim of the study was to use innovative sensor technology for non-destructive determination and prediction of optimum harvest date (OHD, using sweet cherry as a model fruit, based on different ripening parameters. (2 Methods: Two cherry varieties in two growing systems viz. field and polytunnel in two years were employed. The fruit quality parameters such as fruit weight and size proved unsuitable to detect OHD alone due to their dependence on crop load, climatic conditions, cultural practices, and season. Coloration during cherry ripening was characterized by a complete decline of green chlorophyll and saturation of the red anthocyanins, and was measured with a portable sensor viz. spectrometer 3–4 weeks before expected harvest until 2 weeks after harvest. (3 Results: Expressed as green NDVI (normalized differential vegetation index and red NAI (normalized anthocyanin index values, NAI increased from −0.5 (unripe to +0.7 to +0.8 in mature fruit and remained at this saturation level with overripe fruits, irrespective of variety, treatment, and year. A model was developed to predict the OHD, which coincided with when NDVI reached and exceeded zero and the first derivative of NAI asymptotically approached zero. (4 Conclusion: The use of this sensor technology appears suitable for several cherry varieties and growing systems to predict the optimum harvest date.

  10. Optimum coagulant forecasting by modeling jar test experiments using ANNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haghiri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the proper utilization of water treatment plants and optimizing their use is of particular importance. Coagulation and flocculation in water treatment are the common ways through which the use of coagulants leads to instability of particles and the formation of larger and heavier particles, resulting in improvement of sedimentation and filtration processes. Determination of the optimum dose of such a coagulant is of particular significance. A high dose, in addition to adding costs, can cause the sediment to remain in the filtrate, a dangerous condition according to the standards, while a sub-adequate dose of coagulants can result in the reducing the required quality and acceptable performance of the coagulation process. Although jar tests are used for testing coagulants, such experiments face many constraints with respect to evaluating the results produced by sudden changes in input water because of their significant costs, long time requirements, and complex relationships among the many factors (turbidity, temperature, pH, alkalinity, etc. that can influence the efficiency of coagulant and test results. Modeling can be used to overcome these limitations; in this research study, an artificial neural network (ANN multi-layer perceptron (MLP with one hidden layer has been used for modeling the jar test to determine the dosage level of used coagulant in water treatment processes. The data contained in this research have been obtained from the drinking water treatment plant located in Ardabil province in Iran. To evaluate the performance of the model, the mean squared error (MSE and correlation coefficient (R2 parameters have been used. The obtained values are within an acceptable range that demonstrates the high accuracy of the models with respect to the estimation of water-quality characteristics and the optimal dosages of coagulants; so using these models will allow operators to not only reduce costs and time taken to perform

  11. New findings in the Eocene stratigraphy of Siwa-El Qara stretch, north western desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, R.; Orabi, H.

    2017-10-01

    The Upper Hamra Member of Said and Issawi (1964) is a clastic/carbonate succession at Qor El Hamra east of the Bahariya Oasis in the Western Desert, Egypt. Earlier, the authors changed this member into a new informal name, the Al Humaymat formation (Priabonian) at the Siwa Oasis, which consists generally of carbonate sediments and overlays the mushroom rock of the Mokattam Formation (Late Lutetian). The thickness of the Al Humaymat formation is about 22 m recorded at the El Qara section and at the El Arag section reaches 5 m, where the collected fauna from this formation is represented by larger foraminifera Nummulites fabianii retiatus, Gaziryina aff. pulchellus, Silvestriella tetraedra and Grzybowskia sp. are assigned to Late Eocene (Priabonian). The base of the Al Humaymat formation is composed of grey marl to varicolored small scale tabular cross-bedded limestone, which reflects sheet flood deposits with a great unconformity surface; the middle part is composed of reefal limestone and sandy limestone. The upper part of this formation is characterized by earthy white limestone, which is overlain by very hard brown ferruginous paleosol bands and pockets, which represent distal floodplain deposits. Here it is interesting to notice that the Early and Late Priabonian decrease in depth of the sea over the studied area seems to be a reflection of a global decrease in depth of the sea as suggested from eustatic curves published by Haq et al., l987.

  12. Long-term legacy of massive carbon input to the Earth system: Anthropocene versus Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, Richard E; Zachos, James C

    2013-10-28

    Over the next few centuries, with unabated emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), a total of 5000 Pg C may enter the atmosphere, causing CO2 concentrations to rise to approximately 2000 ppmv, global temperature to warm by more than 8(°)C and surface ocean pH to decline by approximately 0.7 units. A carbon release of this magnitude is unprecedented during the past 56 million years-and the outcome accordingly difficult to predict. In this regard, the geological record may provide foresight to how the Earth system will respond in the future. Here, we discuss the long-term legacy of massive carbon release into the Earth's surface reservoirs, comparing the Anthropocene with a past analogue, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, approx. 56 Ma). We examine the natural processes and time scales of CO2 neutralization that determine the atmospheric lifetime of CO2 in response to carbon release. We compare the duration of carbon release during the Anthropocene versus PETM and the ensuing effects on ocean acidification and marine calcifying organisms. We also discuss the conundrum that the observed duration of the PETM appears to be much longer than predicted by models that use first-order assumptions. Finally, we comment on past and future mass extinctions and recovery times of biotic diversity.

  13. Liquidambar maomingensis sp. nov. (Altingiaceae) from the late Eocene of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Natalia P; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Song, Yunsheng; Volkova, Lyudmila D; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-08-01

    • Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data has changed our view on the evolution and systematics of plant taxa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of several molecular markers, fruit anatomy, and pollen morphology, the genera Altingia and Semiliquidambar were formally transferred to the genus Liquidambar. The new species of Liquidambar from the Eocene of South China significantly extends our knowledge of the variability of the morphological characters of this genus in the geological past. Fossil leaves in conjunction with data on the associated reproductive structures allow us to make inferences about patterns in the evolutionary history of Liquidambar.• Fossil leaves and associated reproductive structures preserved as impressions were described and compared with the corresponding organs of extant and fossil relatives. The morphological variation of numerous leaves was examined by stereomicroscopy.• Liquidambar maomingensis sp. nov. is characterized by polymorphic leaves including both palmately lobed and unlobed leaves. This study presents the first observations of such dimorphism in the fossil record of Liquidambar leaves. Two distinct leaf groups are interpreted as sun and shade leaves.• The fossil leaves and associated infructescences from Maoming probably belong to the same plant. The occurrence of fossil leaves similar to those of extant species previously considered within Semiliquidambar and Liquidambar with the associated infructescences close to those of Altingia provide paleobotanical evidence that justifies combining the genera Liquidambar, Altingia, and Semiliquidambar into the single genus Liquidambar as recently proposed based on molecular markers. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  14. Diverse early dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium), ecological keystones of the Eocene Baltic amber biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Wilson, Carol A; Calvin, Clyde L; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2017-05-01

    Extant dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium M. Bieb., Viscaceae) are hemiparasites with complex roles in nature. They are one of the most severe pests in northern hemisphere conifer forests, but they also enhance the structural complexity and species diversity of the forests. Here, we describe the first pre-Miocene macrofossils of dwarf mistletoes. The fossils from Eocene Baltic amber provide new insights into the morphological evolution of the Arceuthobium lineage and its paleobiogeography. The amber inclusions were investigated with light microscopy and compared with extant Viscaceae and to historic descriptions of lost Baltic amber fossils with affinities to Viscaceae. Six fossil species of the Arceuthobium lineage, A. johnianum comb. nov., A. mengeanum comb. nov., A. conwentzii sp. nov., A. groehnii sp. nov., A. viscoides comb. nov. and A. obovatum sp. nov., occurred in source forests of Baltic amber, representing the oldest macrofossil evidence of dwarf mistletoes. They share morphological features of their bracts, internodes, fruits, and stomata with extant Arceuthobium. Differences from extant dwarf mistletoes, such as the perianth merosity, the nonfusion of squamate bracts and presence of oblanceolate expanded leaves, indicate their affiliation to an ancient lineage of the genus. The occurrence of six species of dwarf mistletoes in a single amber deposit suggests Arceuthobium was a keystone taxon of the Baltic amber source area. As in extant conifer forests, they probably influenced the structural complexity of the forest, not only leading to more open woodlands but also increasing species diversity, at least at a microhabitat scale. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  15. Youngest representative of the extinct genus Microphorites in the Eocene amber of France (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Microphorinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramuzzo, Simone; Nel, André

    2017-02-13

    Prior to the present study, seven species of the fossil microphorine (Dolichopodidae s. lat.) genus Microphorites Hennig, 1971 have been described: Microphorites extinctus Hennig, 1971 (type species), M. oculeus Grimaldi & Cumming, 1999, and M. similis Grimaldi & Cumming, 1999 (all from the Early Cretaceous Lebanese amber), M. deploegi Nel et al., 2004 (from the Early Cretaceous of France), M. utrillensis Peñalver, 2008 (from the Early Cretaceous amber of Spain), M. magaliae Perrichot & Engel, 2014 (from the Late Cretaceous amber of France), M. moravicus Tkoč et al., 2016 (possibly from the Paleogene amber of Moravia) (Hennig 1971; Grimaldi & Cumming 1999; Nel et al. 2004; Arillo et al. 2008; Perrichot & Engel 2014; Tkoč et al. 2016). Based on the dating of these amber species, Microphorites could be among the rare insect genera recorded from both the Cretaceous and the Paleogene. Here we describe Microphorites erikai sp. nov., first accurate Eocene Microphorites from the Oise amber (France), on the basis of a complete female specimen.

  16. The anamorphic genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota) from Eocene amber and from modern Agathis resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Beimforde, Christina; Gube, Matthias; Rikkinen, Jouko; Singh, Hukam; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Heinrichs, Jochen; Nascimbene, Paul C; Reitner, Joachim; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2012-10-01

    The anamorphic fungal genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes) has been reco-vered from a piece of Early Eocene Indian amber, as well as from the surface of extant resin flows in New Caledonia. The fossil fungus was obtained from the Tarkeshwar Lignite Mine of Gujarat State, western India, and was part of the biota of an early tropical angiosperm rainforest. The amber inclusion represents the second fossil record of Sordariomycetes, as well as the first fossil of its particular order (either Savoryellales or Chaetosphaeriales). The fossil fungus is distinguished from extant representatives by possessing both short conidiophores and small two-septate pyriform conidia, and is described as Monotosporella doerfeltii sp. nov. Inside the amber, the anamorph is attached to its substrate, which is likely the degraded thallus of a cladoniform lichen. The extant New Caledonian species is assigned to Monotosporella setosa. It was found growing on semi-solidified resin flows of Agathis ovata (Araucariaceae), and is the first record of Monotosporella from modern resin substrates. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Zeolites in Eocene basaltic pillow lavas of the Siletz River Volcanics, Central Coast Range, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Terry E.C.; Staplese, Lloyd W.

    1985-01-01

    Zeolites and associated minerals occur in a tholeiitic basaltic pillow lava sequence that makes up part of the Eocene Siletz River Volcanics in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Regional zoning of zeolite assemblages is not apparent; the zeolites formed in joints, fractures, and interstices, although most occur in central cavities of basalt pillows. The zeolites and associated minerals identified, in general order of paragenetic sequence, are smectite, pyrite, calcite (small spheres), thomsonite, natrolite, analcime, scolecite, mesolite, stilbite, heulandite, apophyllite, chahazite, mordenite, calcite (scalenohedra and twinned rhombohedra), laumontite, and amethystine quartz. Common three-mineral assemblages are: natrolite-analcime-sfilbite, stilbite-heulandite-chabazite, stilbite-apophyllie-chabazite, and natrolite-mesolite-laumontite.Alteration of basaltic glass, which was initially abundant, appears to have been an important factor in formation of the zeolites. Isotopic data suggest that zeolitization occurred during a low-temperature (60 ~ 70°C submarine hydrothermal event, or by reactions of cold (~ 10°C meteoric water with basalt over a long time. The occurrence of different mineral assemblages in cavities of adjacent basalt pillows indicates that these minerals crystallized in dosed systems that were isolated as fractures and joints were sealed by deposition of smectite and early zeolites. Although the total chemical composition of the mineral assemblages in cavities is similar, different mineral species formed because of the sensitivity of zeolite minerals to slight variations in physical and chemical conditions within individual cavities.

  18. Characterization of organics consistent with β-chitin preserved in the Late Eocene cuttlefish Mississaepia mississippiensis.

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    Patricia G Weaver

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preservation of original organic components in fossils across geological time is controversial, but the potential such molecules have for elucidating evolutionary processes and phylogenetic relationships is invaluable. Chitin is one such molecule. Ancient chitin has been recovered from both terrestrial and marine arthropods, but prior to this study had not been recovered from fossil marine mollusks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Organics consistent with β-chitin are recovered in cuttlebones of Mississaepia mississippiensis from the Late Eocene (34.36 million years ago marine clays of Hinds County, Mississippi, USA. These organics were determined and characterized through comparisons with extant taxa using Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM/EDS, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (Hyperprobe, Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Immunohistochemistry (IHC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study presents the first evidence for organics consistent with chitin from an ancient marine mollusk and discusses how these organics have been degraded over time. As mechanisms for their preservation, we propose that the inorganic/organic lamination of the cuttlebone, combined with a suboxic depositional environment with available free Fe(2+ ions, inhibited microbial or enzymatic degradation.

  19. Characterization of organics consistent with β-chitin preserved in the Late Eocene cuttlefish Mississaepia mississippiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Patricia G; Doguzhaeva, Larisa A; Lawver, Daniel R; Tacker, R Christopher; Ciampaglio, Charles N; Crate, Jon M; Zheng, Wenxia

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of original organic components in fossils across geological time is controversial, but the potential such molecules have for elucidating evolutionary processes and phylogenetic relationships is invaluable. Chitin is one such molecule. Ancient chitin has been recovered from both terrestrial and marine arthropods, but prior to this study had not been recovered from fossil marine mollusks. Organics consistent with β-chitin are recovered in cuttlebones of Mississaepia mississippiensis from the Late Eocene (34.36 million years ago) marine clays of Hinds County, Mississippi, USA. These organics were determined and characterized through comparisons with extant taxa using Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM/EDS), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (Hyperprobe), Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Our study presents the first evidence for organics consistent with chitin from an ancient marine mollusk and discusses how these organics have been degraded over time. As mechanisms for their preservation, we propose that the inorganic/organic lamination of the cuttlebone, combined with a suboxic depositional environment with available free Fe(2+) ions, inhibited microbial or enzymatic degradation.

  20. Fish production and diversity in the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum—Increased production but no novel faunas during a "Future Earth" analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczik, D. W.; Norris, R. D.; Gaskell, D. E.

    2014-12-01

    A partial analog for future global change is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum—a transient episode of warming, acidification, and biogeographic change at ~55.5 Ma. The PETM is known to have triggered extinction in some deep sea biotas, extensive biogeographic range shifts, and the common occurrence of 'excursion biotas'—non-analog occurrences of species that are typically rare in the open ocean before or after the PETM. Here we report on the impact of the PETM on fish production and biodiversity. Our data include the mass accumulation rate of fish teeth and denticles as well as an analysis of tooth morphotypes for three PETM sites: ODP 1220 and 1209 in the Pacific, and ODP 1260 in the equatorial Atlantic. Tooth morphotypes hardly change through the PETM and consist of abundant midwater species (angler fish and flashlight fish) in addition to sharks and epipelagic fish. There is no evidence for a non-analog 'excursion biota' during the PETM, suggesting that fish experienced fewer geographic range shifts than the calcareous and organic-walled plankton where excursion biotas are commonplace. Fish mass accumulation rates are also relatively stable before and after the PETM although all sites show a transient rise in fish production at the onset of the PETM or within the later part of the "PETM Core". These results broadly match published estimates of PETM export production from biogenic barium fluxes. Our findings run counter to "Future Earth" models that use climate forecasts for the next century to predict the impact of global change on fish stocks. These models suggest that future warming and ocean stratification will decrease most tropical and subtropical ocean fish production, accentuate fish production in the boundary currents and generally shift production toward higher latitudes. A resolution of "Future Earth" models and PETM data may reflect the different timescales of observation and stages of ecological response to severe global change.