WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmentally safe control

  1. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  2. Possibility of environmentally-safe casing soil disinfection for control of cobweb disease of button mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Potočnik Ivana; Rekanović Emil; Stepnović Miloš; Milijašević-Marčić Svetlana; Todorović Biljana; Nikolić-Bujanović Ljiljana; Čekerevac Milan

    2014-01-01

    The soil-borne pathogen Cladobotryum dendroides causes cobweb disease of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and its significant yield losses. Casing soil disinfection by toxic formaldehyde is a widespread practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of two environmentally friendly substances, colloidal silver and peracetic acid, against C. dendroides. Their biological efficacy (impact on mushroom yield), effectiveness (disease control) ...

  3. Possibility of environmentally-safe casing soil disinfection for control of cobwebdisease of button mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil-borne pathogen Cladobotryum dendroides causes cobweb disease of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus and its significant yield losses. Casing soil disinfection by toxic formaldehyde is a widespread practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of two environmentally friendly substances, colloidal silver and peracetic acid, against C. dendroides. Their biological efficacy (impact on mushroom yield, effectiveness (disease control and type of interactions between them and the fungicide prochloraz-manganese were evaluated. Black peat/lime casing soil was applied to a colonized substrate with the white button mushroom strain 737, then inoculated with C. dendroides and treated with the fungicide prochloraz-manganse and two environmentally friendly disinfectants based on peracetic acid and colloidal silver. The effects of fungicides on mushroom productivity were evaluated as biological efficacy and calculated as a ratio of fresh weight of total mushroom yield to the weight of dry substrate. Fungicide effectiveness and synergy factor were calculated by Abbott’s (1925 formula. Tests for synergism between prochloraz-manganese and both other substances were performed using Limpel’s formula. The highest biolgical efficacy, exceeding 92.00, was achieved in treatments with prochlorazmanganese, applied alone or in combination with both other disinfectants. The highest effectiveness of 93.33% was attained in treatments with peracetic acid combined with prochloraz-manganese. Trials against cobweb disease revealed a synergistic reaction between the fungicide and peracetic acid and antagonistic between the fungicide and colloidal silver. Peracetic acid provided better disease control, compared to colloidal silver applied alone or in combination with the fungicide. Based on these findings, peracetic acid should be recomended as an environmentally friendly casing soil disinfectant against cobweb disease of A. bisporus.

  4. Safe LPV Controller Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K

    2010-01-01

    plants and controllers. Rather than relying on frequency domain methods as done in the LTI case, it is shown how to use standard LPV system identification methods. By identifying a filtered closed-loop operator rather than directly identifying the plant, more reliable results are obtained....

  5. Safe LPV Controller Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K

    2011-01-01

    plants and controllers. Rather than relying on frequency domain methods as done in the LTI case, it is shown how to use standard LPV system identification methods. It is furthermore shown how to include model uncertainty to robustify the results. By appropriate filtering, it is only necessary to evaluate...

  6. Is renewable energy 100% environmentally safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, Ali Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy (RE) concerned are usually optimistic in introducing RE as environmentally safe resource. This might be reasonably acceptable when compared with conventional energy resources, there should be some side effects however. Those effects, and critics, when considered and possibly avoided, RE sources will be environmentally more acceptable and as a result will be appreciated by consumers. In this paper we try to investigate and point out some of these critics, and negative impacts by examining examples of some RE systems and how different solutions were tackled and partially managed. Through Re resources have advantages over other resources, when environmental issues are considered, there still exists, however, some negative impacts on the environment caused by RE resources. Present study showed that the above mentioned impacts can be reduced to some reasonable level.(Author)

  7. Environmentally-safe pest control using novel bioelectrostatic techniques: Initial results and prospects for area-wide usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howse, P.E.; Underwood, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of our work is to provide an alternative to broad-scale pesticide spraying for crop protection. The need for such a development, in order to protect the environment, wildlife and human health, has never been more urgent. The project was conceived in 1992 deriving from concepts which are the subject of patent applications in 60 countries throughout the world. Since then, feasibility studies have been completed and links have been made with other organisations keen to evaluate and develop the technique. A parallel project, using similar electrostatic powder technology, was the development of an environmentally-friendly cockroach trap, which received a Prince of Wales Award for Innovation in 1997. In order to hasten the commercialisation of the technology, a new company, ExoSect Ltd, has been set up in association with the University of Southampton. The technique is based on the discovery that certain inert powders that can be electrostatically charged will adhere to the insect cuticle. The cuticle appears to be permanently electrically polarised (i.e., it functions as an electret). Powders of opposite polarity to the surface will therefore attach readily and it is extremely difficult for the insect to dislodge itself. In contrast, powders which do not charge easily or which rapidly lose their charge, quickly fall off, or can be groomed off by the insect. Male insects are lured to a source of charged powder by odour attractants (e.g., sexual pheromones). They then contaminate themselves with the powder. After leaving the trap, they pass on the powder to females in mating attempts. An insecticidal material formulated with the powder can thus be delivered to the females. The insecticide must be slow-acting in order for this transfer to take place. The components of the method are the following: Carrier Particles There are various inert or biodegradable materials with appropriate electrostatic characteristics which can be used as carriers for other biologically

  8. A safe radiation environment. Environmental Objective 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A safe radiation environment is one of the 15 environmental quality objectives that form the basis for developing a ecologically sustainable society within one generation. These objectives have been adopted by the Swedish parliament, and in the present report, the five different targets for reaching Objective 13 are defined. They are: (by year 2010) 1. The emissions of radioactive substances should be low enough to protect human beings, and the ecological diversity. 2. A generally accepted method for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive waste should be available, that does not impose any risks for human beings and for the environment. 3. Hazards to the society, human beings or the environment from radiological accidents should be eradicated, or at least severely minimized. 4. Hazards from electromagnetic fields should be understood and, if necessary, actions planned for improving the e-m field environment. 5. The number of skin cancers in year 2020 from solar radiation should not exceed those in year 2000

  9. Environmental controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1996-01-01

    Members of the public are exposed to environmental radiations from a variety of sources. In terms of average dose received the major component is from natural sources of radiation for which there is little or no scope to reduce exposure. Where such opportunities do exist, in those homes with high radon concentrations, the householders tend to ignore the risks despite the availability of comparatively straightforward and inexpensive remediation measures. By comparison there is significant public concern about radioactive waste management and the disposal and discharge of radioactivity to the environment despite strict environmental controls. This paper describes the controls and the wider policy context for radioactive waste management following a major review of policy last year. (author)

  10. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  11. Economical and environmentally safe treatment of emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, V

    1978-05-01

    The steady increase in the cost of the removal of emulsions and oil-containing liquid waste, as well as the rigid requirements concerning limiting values for discharge, have turned the disposal of spent cooling lubricants and oil-containing working fluids into a problem. The petroleum content in liquid waste is controlled with particular rigidity by the authorities. Ultrafiltration systems can keep the petroleum content at a very low level (< 2 mg/l) with great reliability. Ultrafiltration systems are easy to maintain, they have low operation costs and are easy to manipulate. The efficiency of a system is largely independent of its manipulation by the operating personnel.

  12. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable

  13. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-15

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.

  14. Evaluation of efalizumab using safe psoriasis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henninger Eric

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe Psoriasis Control (SPC is an important comprehensive measure that is validated for the assessment of benefit:risk of psoriasis treatments, combining efficacy, quality of life, and safety measures. The objective of this analysis was to assess the benefit:risk of efalizumab, a novel biologic agent indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, by applying the SPC to data from randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies of efalizumab. Methods SPC was applied to week 12 data from four placebo-controlled, Phase III studies: three retrospective and one prospective, the latter including a cohort of "high-need" patients for whom existing therapies were inadequate or unsuitable. Results In the retrospective analysis, 39.4% of patients achieved SPC after 12 weeks of treatment with efalizumab, compared with 10.4% for placebo. In the prospective analysis, 34.3% of patients achieved SPC after 12 weeks of treatment with efalizumab, compared with 7.3% on placebo. Among high-need patients, 33.0% achieved SPC, compared with 3.4% on placebo. Conclusion Efalizumab has a favorable benefit:risk profile using the comprehensive outcome measure SPC.

  15. Environmentally safe system for treatment of bio corrosion of ETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarovičová Katarína

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of microorganisms on building facades are responsible for aesthetic, bio-geophysical and biogeochemical deterioration. The process of cleaning of contaminated facades involves the removal and eradication of micro flora on the surface of insulation using chemical products, killing cells and eliminating all living mass, including organic ingredients. The removal of bio corrosion coating from ETICS structure by means of chemical and preservative substances (biocides is currently the only effective and most used technology. Uncontrolled leaching of the used biocides is unacceptable. Meantime, new technology for environmentally safe maintenance of ETICS is needed. Scientists have been working on replacement the biocides currently used in facades treatment with eco-friendly biocides that have no negative effects on the environment or human beings. While the eco- treatment will be available, safe dewatering of chemicals being leached from the surface of the facade could be provided by e.g. special drain systems adjusted to the building type, use and age. The paper gives an overview of the problem in context of Slovakia and examples of leaching systems designed for new and renovated buildings.

  16. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel approach for flexible and safe control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration science rovers,...

  17. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration...

  18. Safe Control for Spiral Recovery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jian Ru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs widely used in both military and civilian fields, many events affecting their safe flying have emerged. That UAV’s entering into the spiral is such a typical safety issue. To solve this safety problem, a novel recovery control approach is proposed. First, the factors of spiral are analyzed. Then, based on control scheduling of state variables and nonlinear dynamic inversion control laws, the spiral recovery controller is designed to accomplish guidance and control of spiral recovery. Finally, the simulation results have illustrated that the proposed control method can ensure the UAV autonomous recovery from spiral effectively.

  19. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity...

  20. Novel and viable acetylcholinesterase target site for developing effective and environmentally safe insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen; Ragsdale, David W; Zhu, Kun Yan; Suranyi, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Insect pests are responsible for human suffering and financial losses worldwide. New and environmentally safe insecticides are urgently needed to cope with these serious problems. Resistance to current insecticides has resulted in a resurgence of insect pests, and growing concerns about insecticide toxicity to humans discourage the use of insecticides for pest control. The small market for insecticides has hampered insecticide development; however, advances in genomics and structural genomics offer new opportunities to develop insecticides that are less dependent on the insecticide market. This review summarizes the literature data that support the hypothesis that an insect-specific cysteine residue located at the opening of the acetylcholinesterase active site is a promising target site for developing new insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity and low propensity for insect resistance. These data are used to discuss the differences between targeting the insect-specific cysteine residue and targeting the ubiquitous catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase from the perspective of reducing off-target toxicity and insect resistance. Also discussed is the prospect of developing cysteine-targeting anticholinesterases as effective and environmentally safe insecticides for control of disease vectors, crop damage, and residential insect pests within the financial confines of the present insecticide market.

  1. Regulatory control for safe usage of radiation sources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.K.; Sonawane, A.U.

    1998-01-01

    The widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment in the field of industry, medicine agriculture and research in India necessitated the establishment of an efficient regulatory framework and consequently the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was constituted to exercise regulatory control over the safe usage of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment. The Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 promulgated under the Act forms the basis of radiation safety in India and Chairman, AERB is the Competent Authority to enforce the regulatory provisions of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, for safe use of radiation source in the country. AERB has published a number of documents such as Radiation Surveillance Procedures, Standards, Codes, Guides and Manuals for safe use and handling of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. Apart from nuclear fuel cycle documents, these publications pertain to industrial radiography, medical application of radiation, transport of radioactive material, industrial gamma irradiators, X-ray units etc. AERB safety related publications are based on international standards e.g. BSS, IAEA, ICRP, ISO etc. This paper outlines the methodology of regulatory control exercised by AERB for safe use of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment in the country. (author)

  2. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, T.M.; Mishra, U.C.

    1999-09-01

    It was recognised quite early in India's nuclear power programme that the safe management of radioactive waste is vital for its success. An entirely self-sustained fuel cycle based on indigenous resources necessitated evaluation of hazard potential vis-a-vis radioactive wastes generated at different stages of the cycle, starting from mining and milling; fuel fabrication and through the stages of reactor operation and finally spent fuel reprocessing. Emphasis was laid on studies related to impact of radioactivity in the environment and on developing technologies to effectively isolate and contain them. The radiological safety assessment for a radioactive waste management practice is a regulatory mandate and it requires quantitative estimate of the maximum burden to the present and future generation. Safety assessment models are employed to derive this estimate that could be compared with regulatory criteria to ensure the safety of the public. Decades of experience have proved that the present practices are safe, yet there is a constant endeavour to use new technologies to further restrict the releases so that ultimate goal of radioactive waste management should go beyond merely satisfying prevailing regulations. The comprehensive system of waste management, from water generation to its disposal developed in India, is briefly presented in this report. (author)

  3. No Safe Place: Environmental Hazards & Injustice along Mexico's Northern Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.; Aguilar, Maria de Lourdes Romo; Aldouri, Raed

    2010-01-01

    This article examines spatial relationships between environmental hazards (i.e., pork feed lots, brick kilns, final assembly plants and a rail line) and markers of social marginality in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Juarez represents an opportunity for researchers to test for patterns of injustice in a recently urbanizing metropolis of the Global South.…

  4. Environmental control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    During this report period, Chem Tech identified environmental control technology (ECT) as an area of emphasis for future planning and resource allocation. The Division plans to continue to perform R and D activities in ECT for external sponsors such as the DOE Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) while striving for recognition as an R and D center for ECT within the Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Complex. Chem Tech has already played supporting roles in this area for the Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) and is currently expanding its support to organizations within ORNL responsible for environmental matters. Over the long term, the Division hopes to achieve recognition as a center for R and D in ECT within the wider DOE system. Recent initiatives supporting these plans are discussed below

  5. Power control of SAFE reactor using fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, Claude

    2002-01-01

    Controlling the 100 kW SAFE (Safe Affordable Fission Engine) reactor consists of design and implementation of a fuzzy logic process control system to regulate dynamic variables related to nuclear system power. The first phase of development concentrates primarily on system power startup and regulation, maintaining core temperature equilibrium, and power profile matching. This paper discusses the experimental work performed in those areas. Nuclear core power from the fuel elements is simulated using resistive heating elements while heat rejection is processed by a series of heat pipes. Both axial and radial nuclear power distributions are determined from neuronic modeling codes. The axial temperature profile of the simulated core is matched to the nuclear power profile by varying the resistance of the heating elements. The SAFE model establishes radial temperature profile equivalence by establishing 32 control zones as the nodal coordinates. Control features also allow for slow warm up, since complete shutoff can occur in the heat pipes if heat-source temperatures drop/rise below a certain minimum value, depending on the specific fluid and gas combination in the heat pipe. The entire system is expected to be self-adaptive, i.e., capable of responding to long-range changes in the space environment. Particular attention in the development of the fuzzy logic algorithm shall ensure that the system process remains at set point, virtually eliminating overshoot on start-up and during in-process disturbances. The controller design will withstand harsh environments and applications where it might come in contact with water, corrosive chemicals, radiation fields, etc

  6. Design strategy for control of inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor power plant safety is assured through a combination of engineered barriers to radiation release (e.g., reactor containment) in combination with active reactor safety systems to shut the reactor down and remove decay heat. While not specifically identified as safety systems, the control systems responsible for continuous operation of plant subsystems are the first line of defense for mitigating radiation releases and for plant protection. Inherently safe reactors take advantage of passive system features for decay-heat removal and reactor shutdown functions normally ascribed to active reactor safety systems. The advent of these reactors may permit restructuring of the present control system design strategy. This restructuring is based on the fact that authority for protection against unlikely accidents is, as much as practical, placed upon the passive features of the system instead of the traditional placement upon the PPS. Consequently, reactor control may be simplified, allowing the reliability of control systems to be improved and more easily defended

  7. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. A hydrostratigraphical approach to support environmentally safe siting of a mining waste facility at Rautuvaara, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howett, Peter J.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka; Hyttinen, Outi

    2015-01-01

    A hydrostratigraphical approach to support environmentally safe siting of a mining waste facility at Rautuvaara, Finland Based on the construction of a detailed sedimentological model, hydrostratigraphy and local groundwater/surface water flows, this paper analyses the Niesajoki river valley...... of the valley. The thickness and complexity of sediments varied across the study area. To the E/SE of the valley, sediments are thick (~40 m), and more complex., In contrast the S/W/NW of the area, sediments are thinner (~10 m) and more simple. Groundwater is found to flow towards the centre of the valley...... and along its axis, where a bedrock controlled divide forms two groundwater basins. Based on the results of this research, it is suggested that any future expansion of the tailings facility should be restricted to the western and southern side of the valley, where waters are more manageable....

  9. Safe electrical design of mine elevator control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkand, T.D. [Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A mine elevator recently experienced an ascending-car overspeed accident, resulting in serious injuries to four passengers. Although the four miners laid down on the floor prior to impact, the miners struck the ceiling of the elevator car as it collided into the overhead structure at an estimated speed four times faster than normal. Several electrical design precautions can be implemented to prevent elevator control system failures. This paper examines safe electrical design of elevator control systems. Supplemental circuits and devices which improve the safety integrity and maintenance of the elevator control system are presented. These circuits and devices provide protection that eliminates the potential hazard and significantly reduces the possibility of a mine elevator accident.

  10. Safe electrical design of mine elevator control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkand, T.D. [Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A mine elevator recently experienced an ascending car overspeed accident resulting in serious injuries to four passengers. Although the four miners laid down on the floor prior to impact, the miners struck the ceiling of the elevator car as it collided into the overhead structure at an estimated speed four times faster than normal. Several electrical design precautions can be implemented to prevent elevator control system failures. This paper examines safe electrical design of elevator control systems. Supplemental circuits and devices which improve the safety integrity and maintenance of the elevator control system are presented. These circuits and devices provide protection that eliminates the potential hazard and significantly reduces the possibility of a mine elevator accident.

  11. Nuclear energy: a safe and environmentally sound energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    After having recalled some data regarding the impact on health of different sources of electricity production (coal, oil, nuclear) and air pollution, the author proposes an overview of the impact of nuclear energy on health and on the environment. As far as the impact on health is concerned, he briefly describes the impact of ionizing radiations and the associated cancer risk, how to protect oneself against radioactivity and ionizing radiations. He addresses how risks are managed in nuclear industrial installations: principles (prevention, control, and return on experience), defence in-depth (example of French nuclear plants). He addresses issues of protection of persons and of the environment in different cases: normal operating conditions, releases and wastes, transport of nuclear wastes and materials, dismantling operations. He comments the consequences and lessons learned from accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima), and finally evokes the situation in France and the concerns about the Cigeo project

  12. Environmental Control Subsystem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Jacob; Zelik, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B, part of Launch Complex 39, is currently undergoing construction to prepare it for NASA's Space Launch System missions. The Environmental Control Subsystem, which provides the vehicle with an air or nitrogen gas environment, required development of its local and remote display screens. The remote displays, developed by NASA contractors and previous interns, were developed without complete functionality; the remote displays were revised, adding functionality to over 90 displays. For the local displays, multiple test procedures were developed to assess the functionality of the screens, as well as verify requirements. One local display screen was also developed.

  13. Environmental Control Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out in the Environmental Control Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA), Piracicaba , Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. Such research comprises: determination of ions and metals in waters from different sources; survey of the mineralogical composition of Amazon Basin rivers; development of specific methodologies for the determination of minerals in studies of mineral nutrition of plants and animal nutrition; development of methodologies for the determination of wood sample density, a nuclear method being developed to be applied to field conditions; study of the water flux mouvement within wood. (M.A.) [pt

  14. Mechanisms in environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeneg, K.

    1994-01-01

    The theory of implementation provides methods for decentralization of decisions in societies. By using mechanisms (game forms) it is possible (in theory) to implement attractive states in different economic environments. As an example the market mechanisms can implement Pareto-efficient and individual rational allocations in an Arrow-Debreu economic environment without market failures. And even when there exists externalities the market mechanism sometime can be used if it is possible to make a market for the goods not allocated on a market already - examples are marketable emission permits, and deposit refund systems. But environmental problems can often be explained by the existence of other market failures (e.g. asymmetric information), and then the market mechanism do not work properly. And instead of using regulation or traditional economic instruments (subsidies, charges, fees, liability insurance, marketable emission permits, or deposit refund systems) to correct the problems caused by market failures, some other methods can be used to deal with these problems. This paper contains a survey of mechanisms that can be used in environmental control when the problems are caused by the existence of public goods, externalities, asymmetric information, and indivisible goods in the economy. By examples it will be demonstrated how the Clarke-Groves mechanism, the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism, and other mechanisms can be used to solve specific environmental problems. This is only theory and examples, but a recent field study have used the Cournot-Lindahl mechanism to solve the problem of lake liming in Sweden. So this subject may be of some interests for environmental policy in the future. (au) 23 refs

  15. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Intakes, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  16. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Springs, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  17. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Wells, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  18. LHC collimator controls for a safe LHC operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, S.; Assmann, R.; Losito, R.; Donze, M.; Masi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimation system is designed to protect the machine against beam losses and consists of 108 collimators, 100 of which are movable, located along the 27 km long ring and in the transfer lines. The cleaning performance and machine protection role of the system depend critically on accurate jaw positioning. A fully redundant control system has been developed to ensure that the collimators dynamically follow optimum settings in all phases of the LHC operational cycle. Jaw positions and collimator gaps are interlocked against dump limits defined redundantly as functions of time, beam energy and the β functions, which describe the focusing property of the beams. In this paper, the architectural choices that guarantee a safe LHC operation are presented. Hardware and software implementations that ensure the required performance are described. (authors)

  19. Environmentally-safe process control and state diagnostic in chemical plants by neuronal network. Subproject 2. Final report; Umweltgerechte Prozessfuehrung und Zustandserkennung in Chemieanlagen mit neuronalen Netzen. Teilvorhaben 2: Konzipierung und Erprobung des Zustandserkennungsverfahrens. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessel, G.; Heidrich, J.; Hilpert, R.; Roth, M. [Degussa AG (Germany); Kryk, H.; Schmitt, W.; Seiler, T.; Weiss, F.P.

    2002-12-01

    In the frame of the sub-project, an on-line monitoring system for strongly exothermic reactions was developed to support the operational personnel in the optimal and environmentally compatible process control of complex or safety-difficult reactions in semibatch-mode in stirred tank reactors (batch reactor). The Monitoring System (MoSys) based on dimensionless mass and heat balances with adaptive functions has first to be trained using process data from normal and undesired courses of batches carried out in a miniplant under conditions of the industrial process. The adaptation of balance models to the target plant is done by two-layer perceptron networks. To ensure a complete scale-up, MoSys should be adapted and validated using process data of at least one normal batch course in the chemical plant. MoSys was designed for both a homogeneous exothermic esterification reaction and a heterogeneous exothermic hydrogenation process. Experimental tests were carried out in a pilot plant (esterification) and in an industrial plant (hydrogenation). For industrial testing, MoSys was integrated into a Batch-Information-Management System (BIMS) which was also developed and implemented in the Process Control System (PCS) of a multi-purpose reactor installation in the fine chemical factory at Radebeul (Degussa Inc.). As a result, the MoSys outputs can simultaneously be visualised with important process signals on the terminals of PCS. For example, the progress of hydrogenation, the predictive end of reaction and the concentration profiles of the educt, intermediate and product are displayed on the terminals of operator stations. Furthermore, when undesired operating states occur, the operational personnel is early alarmed and recommendation are given for countermeasures that are allowed to be only done by the operator. The efficiency of BIMS/MoSys could be proven during two industrial hydrogenation campaigns. (orig.)

  20. Environmental Control System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Arroyo, Elvin A.

    2018-01-01

    Since before the first men landed on the moon, human beings have aspired to reach farther into space, to discover and answer the great mysteries that exist beyond imagination. To reach where no one has gone before. To able to see all the wonderful things that can be found in space and that only satellites have revealed to us during all this time. Considering the last trip to the moon, mankind has been evolving and improving their technology to reach destinations whose distances had been impossible to transit. To reach that goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has designed and developed the largest and most powerful rocket ever created by the human race, the Space Launch System - better known as the SLS. To be able to send this large rocket to space, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is doing upgrades to their existing facilities and equipment. At Launch Pad 39B, they are setting up a new Environmental Control System (ECS) developed to supply the rocket with the correct gases and mixtures that will be needed for the rocket to launch. The ECS is similar to an air conditioning unit. The main functionality of it is to supply the SLS with the correct gas mixture for it to launch. Also the ECS has been required to reduce or eliminate the possibility of a complete system failure. The system is part of the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) for the SLS that will be going to the Moon and Mars.

  1. Controlling ventilation for safe escape from coal mine fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wala, A M [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering Dept.

    1966-04-01

    If a fire occurs outby an underground coal mine section, the immediate safe evacuation of miners from the working section should always take precedence. Unfortunately, in many cases, the dedicated escapeway (escape routes) for the evacuation of the miners become contaminated by the byproducts of fire from the adjacent entries. The purpose of this paper is to present the ventilation-control process that would keep the escapeway free from contaminants and, thus, available for travel. A few scenarios of mine fires in longwall development panels are analysed and discussed. To perform these studies, a mine-fire simulator (MFS) was used. This (MFS) provides a dynamic representation of the fire`s progress (in real time) and gives a color-graphic visualization of the spready of oxygen, combustion products and temperature of the gases throughout the ventilation system. Also presented and discussed are ways in which the MFS can be used as a training and teaching tool for miners and particularly, for ventilation and safety specialists. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  3. Industrial rag cleaning process for the environmentally safe removal of petroleum-based solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fierro, J.V.

    1993-01-01

    A process for the cleaning of industrial rags contaminated with environmentally unsafe petroleum-based solvent is described, comprising the step of: (a) placing a load of the industrial rags in a mechanically driven rotary drum; (b) revolving the drum at a high speed sufficient to physically extract liquid petroleum-based solvent contaminate from the industrial rags; (c) routing the extracted petroleum-based solvent contaminate from the rotary drum to a waste solvent collection line for environmentally safe disposal; (d) revolving the rotary drum to cause a tumbling of the industrial rags while maintaining the temperature within the drum at below the flash point of the petroleum-based solvent; (e) intermittently forcing cold air and hot air through the rotary drum to vaporize solvent from the industrial rags; (f) routing the vaporized petroleum-based solvent contaminant from the rotary drum to a condenser wherein the petroleum-based solvent contaminate is condensed and thereafter further routing said condensed solvent to a waste collection line for environmentally safe disposal; and (g) cleaning the industrial rags in the presence of a dry cleaning solvent to remove residual petroleum-based solvents and soil

  4. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  5. Novel Sample Preparation Method for Safe and Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Powders and Nasal Swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Vicki A.; King, Debra; Davis, Carisa; Rycerz, Tony; Ewert, Matthew; Cannons, Andrew; Amuso, Philip; Cattani, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis spores have been used as a biological weapon in the United States. We wanted to develop a safe, rapid method of sample preparation that provided safe DNA for the detection of spores in environmental and clinical specimens. Our method reproducibly detects B. anthracis in samples containing

  6. Technology of environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1992-01-01

    This book aims to be a comprehensive reference for technological advances in pollution control and abatement and pollution regulations. The first chapter, 'The dilemma of environmental pollution' summarises pollution legislation in the United States and discusses worldwide interest in pollution abatement. Chapter 2 describes some recent environmental disasters and discusses the major air pollutants and their harmful effects. Chapters 3 and 4 assess the various techniques for air pollution control and water pollution control. Chapter 5 is devoted to oil pollution impact and abatement. Solid waste management and methods of solid waste disposal are discussed in chapter 6, and noise pollution, its harmful effects and its control are dealt within chapter 7. Appendices contain a glossary, a summary of the US Clean Air Act and the US drinking water regulations and reference figures and tables relating to energy and the environment. Individual chapters contain many references

  7. Fuzzy control in environmental engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chmielowski, Wojciech Z

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for engineers, technicians and people who plan to use fuzzy control in more or less developed and advanced control systems for manufacturing processes, or directly for executive equipment. Assuming that the reader possesses elementary knowledge regarding fuzzy sets and fuzzy control, by way of a reminder, the first parts of the book contain a reminder of the theoretical foundations as well as a description of the tools to be found in the Matlab/Simulink environment in the form of a toolbox. The major part of the book presents applications for fuzzy controllers in control systems for various manufacturing and engineering processes. It presents seven processes and problems which have been programmed using fuzzy controllers. The issues discussed concern the field of Environmental Engineering. Examples are the control of a flood wave passing through a hypothetical, and then the real Dobczyce reservoir in the Raba River, which is located in the upper Vistula River basin in Southern Poland, th...

  8. Ensuring that patient-controlled anaesthesia is safe | Coetzee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient-controlled anaesthesia (PCA) is effective because it enables self-titration to individual requirements. PCA is ... Strategies for safety improvement include an understanding of opioid pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, appropriate dosing regimens, establishing guidelines and written orders, appropriate ...

  9. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ''Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,'' of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues

  10. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ``Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,`` of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues.

  11. Environmental restoration project configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutterman, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the approach that Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) is using for the implementation of the configuration control requirements for a major system acquisition under the guidance of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1, open-quotes Project Management System,close quotes for environmental restoration. The two major features of the WINCO environmental restoration approach relate to (1) the product and (2) the maintenance of the baseline for many sites in different phases at the same time. Historically, a project has typically produced a product. Environmental restoration in some ways produces no typical project product. Essentially, what is produced and what configuration control management is exercised on is one of the following: (1) the development of clean dirt, (2) the documentation to support clean dirt, or (3) the track record of each of the sites. It is the latter approach that this paper deals with. This approach is unique in that there are four baselines [cost, schedule, scope, and technical (the track record product)] rather than the typical three. This is essential in configuration management due to the lack of a uniquely identifiable product for each site. Essentially, the philosophy behind the four-part configuration controls allows the technical baseline to fulfill the function typically met by the identifiable product

  12. Environmental contaminants: assessment and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallero, Daniel A

    2004-01-01

    ... Understanding Policy by Understanding Science Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science Environmental Assessment and Intervention Engineering Technical Note: Cleaning up a Hazardous Waste Site Social Aspects of Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Policy The National Environmental Policy Act Issues in Environmental Science: Co...

  13. A New Approach to Environmentally Safe Unique Identification of Long-Term Stored Copper Canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikova, D.; Axell, K.; Nordlund, A.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to environmentally safe unique identification of long-term stored copper canisters is suggested in this paper. The approach is based on the use of a tungstenbased insert placed inside a copper cask between a top iron lid and a copper lid. The insert/label is marked with unique code in a form of binary number, which is implemented as a combination of holes in the tungsten plate. In order to provide a necessary redundancy of the identifier, the tungsten label marked with few identical binary codes. The position of code (i.e., holes in tungsten) corresponds to a predefined placement of the spent fuel assembles in the iron container. This is in order to avoid any non-uniformity of the gamma background at the canister surface caused by a presence of iron-filled spaces between spent nuclear fuel assembles. Due to the use of the tungsten material gamma rays emitted by the spent fuel assembles are collimated in a specific way because of strong attenuation properties of tungsten. As a result, the variation in the gamma-counting rate in a detector array placed on the top of copper lid provides the distribution of the holes in the tungsten insert or in other words the unique identifier. Thus, this way of identification of copper cask do not impair the integrity of the cask and it offers a way that the information about spent nuclear fuel is legible for a time scale up to a few thousands years. (author)

  14. Maintenance of radiation protection at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transformation into environmentally safe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, S Yu

    2015-12-01

    Special aspects of radiation protection maintenance at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transforma tion into environmentally safe system are shaped in the article. Information is provided on the basis of analysis of design plans and specifications both with project paperwork from activities at the ShO in 2002 2015 on accordance to requirements of the Ukrainian health legislation in the field of radiation hygiene regulations. Specific features of radiation factors at the ShO were identified accounting their emergency origination. Relevancy of assessment of a range of activity types and technologies impact on radiation situation in the operation environment was reviewed and substantiated. General characteristics of radiation exposure and resulting doses in personnel under the activi ty execution are provided followed by the requirements to estimates of anticipated radiation doses. Features and peculiarities of application of the Ukrainian health legislation in a field of radiation hygienic regulations are reviewed in a view of meeting the requirements of NRBU 97, NRBU 97/D 2000, OSPU 2005, SPORO 85, SP AES 88 and other health legislative regulatory documents under conditions of work at the ShO. By the virtue of analysis of radi ation hygienic factors at the ShO the special aspects of choice of individual and collective radiological protection arrangements for personnel were identified, namely the individual protective gear and respiratory protection equip ment, shielding, decontamination, dust suppression, ventilation, sanitary pass control, sanitary barriers, scope and types of radiological control, setting the design levels of radiological environment parameters, criteria for the most safe options (technologies) of work execution. S. Yu. Nechaev.

  15. The Role of Well Control Training in Developing Safe Onshore and Offshore Oil Drilling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulhassn, Aber

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the role of the International Well Control Forum (IWCF) Rotary Drilling Well Control Training Program in developing safe oil drilling operations from the perspective of onshore and offshore drilling crews. The research methodology is a qualitative case study. A total of 40 IWCF candidates were interviewed, with 10 from…

  16. Pseudo Control Hedging and its Application for Safe Flight Envelope Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaerts, T.J.J.; Looye, G.H.N.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how the previously developed concept of Pseudo Control Hedging (PCH) can be integrated in a Fault Tolerant Flight Controller (FTFC) as a safe flight envelope protection system of the first degree. This PCH algorithm adapts the reference model for the system output in case of

  17. Chemical transformations of chlorophyll and its application in the design of a new generation of environmentally safe dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, Boris D; Rumyantseva, Svetlana V; Moryganov, Andrey P; Berezin, Mikhail B [Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2004-02-28

    Chemical transformations of chlorophyll and physicochemical properties of its derivatives are considered. These compounds can be used in the design of a new generation of chlorophyll- and porphyrin-based dyes environmentally more safe than currently used arene dyes and possessing renewable sources of raw materials. The first results on the use of chlorophyll derivatives for dyeing wool, acetate fibres and cotton are reported.

  18. Chemical transformations of chlorophyll and its application in the design of a new generation of environmentally safe dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, Boris D; Rumyantseva, Svetlana V; Moryganov, Andrey P; Berezin, Mikhail B

    2004-01-01

    Chemical transformations of chlorophyll and physicochemical properties of its derivatives are considered. These compounds can be used in the design of a new generation of chlorophyll- and porphyrin-based dyes environmentally more safe than currently used arene dyes and possessing renewable sources of raw materials. The first results on the use of chlorophyll derivatives for dyeing wool, acetate fibres and cotton are reported.

  19. 76 FR 70479 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Safe Harbor Agreement for the Houston Toad Within Nine Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...] Draft Environmental Assessment and Safe Harbor Agreement for the Houston Toad Within Nine Texas Counties... of the endangered Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) as a result of conservation actions, land...: [email protected] . Include ``Clear Lake Ecological Services Field Office draft Houston Toad...

  20. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for BNL accelerator and storage ring components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C.; Lee, R.; Mitchell, G.; Quade, W.

    1996-10-01

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its UHV components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which had to be environmentally and personnel safe, was needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which was still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on Photon Stimulated Desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel and oxygen free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 ev. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 10 22 and 10 23 photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H 2 , CO, CO 2 , CH 4 and H 2 O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories

  1. 233S Decommissioning Project Environmental Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoric, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    This Environmental Control Plan is for the 233S Decommissioning activities conducted under the removal action report for the 233S Decontamination and Demolition Project. The purpose of this ECP is to identify environmental requirements for the 233S project. The ECP is a compilation of existing environmental permit conditions, regulatory requirements, and environmental requirements applicable to the specific project or functional activity

  2. The Environmental Action Internal Control Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1994-01-01

    Reports research designed to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess the relationship between locus of control of reinforcement and environmentally responsible behavior in (n=853) undergraduate students. Results suggest that the Environmental Action Internal Control Index can accurately predict environmentally responsible behavior.…

  3. General problems associated with the control and safe use of radiation sources (199)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.U.

    1993-01-01

    There are problems at various levels in ensuring safety in the use of radiation sources. A relatively new problem that warrants international action is the smuggling of radioactive material across international borders. An international convention on the control and safe use of radiation sources is essential to provide a universally harmonized mechanism for ensuring safety

  4. Environmental control for nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, A W; Wells, W H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Peaceful applications introduce some new environmental considerations into the design of nuclear explosives. Much of the experience gained in weapon work can be applied, but the requirement of survival in a very deep hole is not found in any military system. We will briefly mention the overall environment and make a few comparisons with some general characteristics of the weapon environment. The major portion of this paper is devoted to the special problems of pressure and temperature found in the emplacement environment. Potential users should know where we stand with regard to survival in hostile environments in terms of feasibility and possible effects on field operations. In all applications there are several things competing for the available diameter. Given that explosives can be made to work over a range of diameters and that necessary environmental control is feasible, all further discussions can be related to the cost of providing a hole big enough to accomplish the task. The items competing for diameter are: 1) bare nuclear assembly 2) insulation and cooling system if needed 3) pressure canister 4) shielding material 5) emplacement clearance All of these must be considered with the cost of the hole in optimizing an overall design. Conditions in a particular location will affect the shielding requirements and the emplacement clearance. The nuclear assembly can vary in size, but the long development time requires that decisions be made quite early, perhaps in ignorance of the economic details of a particular application. The pressure canister is a relatively straightforward design problem that can be resolved by giving appropriate consideration to all of the design requirements. In particular for 20,000 psi pressure in the emplacement hole, a canister of heat-treated alloy steel having a yield strength of 200,000 psi and a wall thickness which is about .07 times the outside diameter is adequate and straight- forward to fabricate. The insulation and cooling

  5. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  6. Process for environmentally safe disposal of used fluorescent lamp potted ballast assemblies with component part reclamation and/or recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardella, A.; Norian, B.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for the environmentally safe and economical disposal of used fluorescent lamp potted ballast housing assemblies comprising removing from the housing the potted assembly with its embedded electrical component assemblies including a component capacitor containing environmentally hazardous material PCB's; after or before such removing, immersing the potted assembly in a cryogenic bath and freezing the same to reader the potting sufficiently brittle to fragment into small pieces upon being impacted; impacting the potting thoroughly to crush and fragment the same into small pieces and to cleanly remove substantially all traces of the potting from all the electrical components and parts embedded therein and without imparting damage to the components and parts; disconnecting the component containing the environmentally hazardous material; and incinerating only the component containing the environmentally hazardous material, leaving all other components and parts including the housing and potting fragments for salvage, re-use and/or recycling.

  7. Evaluation of the environmental quality objective 'A Safe Radiation Environment'; Utvaerdering av miljoekvalitetsmaalet 'Saeker straalmiljoe'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asp, Helene; Brewitz, Erica; Halvarsson, Andreas; Ljungberg, Sophie; Mjoenes, Lars; Wallberg, Petra

    2007-11-15

    The evaluation of the environmental quality objective 'A Safe Radiation Environment' is a contribution to the Environmental Objective Council's assessment of progress towards the national environmental quality objectives. The report describes and evaluates the radiation environment in Sweden, the regulatory instruments, measures carried out and the monitoring programmes. Furthermore, the possibility of achieving the objective and its interim targets is evaluated. New measures and means of control are proposed. The proposals are directed to the government and Parliament, national authorities and other stakeholders in society. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) considers it possible to achieve the objective, but additional efforts are required to ensure success. Environmental monitoring, research on health effects of radiation and supervision are still important areas. Intensified efforts will be needed to change attitudes towards suntanning. Changes in the formulation of the objective and its interim targets are suggested. Today only protection against radiation in the external environment is covered by the objective. Radiation protection work has to consider all. SSI therefore suggests that the objective should extend to include workplaces and indoor environment. For the three interim targets included in 'A Safe Radiation Environment', changes are suggested for the interim targets for radioactive substances and electromagnetic fields. No change is suggested for the interim target for skin cancer

  8. Environmental control medical support team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, William J.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The activities conducted in support of the Environmental Control and Life Support Team during December 7, 1987 through September 30, 1988 are summarized. The majority of the ongoing support has focused on the ECLSS area. Through a series of initial meetings with the ECLSS team and technical literature review, an initial list of critical topics was developed. Subtasks were then identified or additional related tasks received as action items from the ECLSS group meetings. Although most of the efforts focused on providing MSFC personnel with information regarding specific questions and problems related to ECLSS issues, other efforts regarding identifying an ECLSS Medical Support Team and constructing data bases of technical information were also initiated and completed. The specific tasks are as follows: (1) Provide support to the mechanical design and integration of test systems as related to microbiological concerns; (2) Assist with design of Human Subjects Test Protocols; (3) Interpretation and recommendations pertaining to air/water quality requirements; (4) Assist in determining the design specifications required as related to the Technical Demonstration Program; (5) Develop a data base of all microorganisms recovered from previous subsystem testing; (6) Estimates of health risk of individual microbes to test subjects; (7) Assist with setting limits for safety of test subjects; (8) Health monitoring of test subjects; (9) Assist in the preparation of test plans; (10) Assist in the development of a QA/QC program to assure the validity, accuracy and precision of the analyses; and (11) Assist in developing test plans required for future man in the loop testing.

  9. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  10. Vehicle Parameter Identification and its Use in Control for Safe Path Following

    OpenAIRE

    HONG, SANGHYUN

    2014-01-01

    This thesis develops vehicle parameter identification algorithms, and applies identified parameters to a controller designed for safe path following.A tire-road friction coefficient is estimated using an in-tire accelerometer to measure acceleration signals directly from the tires. The proposed algorithm first determines a tire-road contact patch with a radial acceleration profile.The estimation algorithm is based on tire lateral deflections obtained from lateral acceleration measurements onl...

  11. Parent-Controlled PCA for Pain Management in Pediatric Oncology: Is it Safe?

    OpenAIRE

    Anghelescu, Doralina L.; Faughnan, Lane G.; Oakes, Linda L.; Windsor, Kelley B.; Pei, Deqing; Burgoyne, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia offers safe and effective pain control for children who can self-administer medication. Some children may not be candidates for PCA unless a proxy can administer doses. The safety of proxy-administered PCA has been studied, but the safety of parent-administered PCA in children with cancer has not been reported. In this study we compare the rate of complications in PCA by parent proxy versus PCA by clinician (nurse) proxy and self-administered PCA. Our pediatric in...

  12. Gas Bearing Control for Safe Operation in Critical Speed Regions - Experimental Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas R. S.; Niemann, Hans H.; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    supported by gas bearings to extend their operating range. Using H∞-design methods, active lubrication techniques are proposed to enhance the damping, which in turn reduces the vibrations to a desired safe level. The control design is validated experimentally on a laboratory test rig, and shown to allow...... and deceleration patterns and avoidance of operation near the critical speeds, which is a limiting factor during operation, specially during run-downs. An approach for reducing the vibrations is by feedback controlled lubrication. This paper addresses the challenge of reducing vibrations in rotating machines...

  13. Integrating environmental control for coal plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-01-01

    As emission control requirements for power plants have grown more stringent, utilities have added new environmental protection technology. As environmental controls have been added one after another, plant designers have rarely had the opportunity to integrate these components with each other and the balance of the plant. Consequently they often cost more to build and operate and can reduce power plant efficiency and availability. With the aim of lowering the cost of environmental systems, a design approach known as integrated environmental control (IEC) has emerged. This is based on the premise that environmental controls can function most economically if they are designed integrally with other power generation equipment. EPRI has established an IEC progam to develop integrated design strategies and evaluate their net worth to utilities. Various aspects of this program are described. (3 refs.)

  14. Inspection control and the environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milkov Dragan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is the task of many administrative bodies, but the activity of the environmental inspection is of special importance. According to the Law on Environmental Protection, inspection's tasks in this area belong to the competence of republican bodies, ie. Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection. Autonomous province and local self-government have only delegated competence in this field, under condition that this is explicitly regulated in special laws. Environmental inspection's activity consists in preventive actions, certain prior - preparatory activities and the audit itself. In addition, following the intervention of the Inspector issue of the control may be corrective or repressive. According to the Law on Inspection Control and the Law on Environmental Protection, the inspectors have a number of powers and responsibilities, which enable them to ensure the lawful and proper conduct of individuals and legal entities.

  15. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above

  16. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system

  17. Environmental situation in Austria. Sixth environmental control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deweis, M.; Kaitna, M.

    2001-01-01

    This sixth environmental control report gives an overall picture of the situation of the environment in Austria for the period from 1997 to 2000. It emphasizes the areas of the Austrian environmental policy where significant improvements were achieved, such as the reduction of air pollutant emissions and the improvement of the quality of running waters. It also deals with problem areas such as transport, climate protection and renewable energy, where new solutions will have to be found within the framework of the Austrian and European environmental policies and already agreed upon strategies will have to be translated into daily practice. This environmental control report was written by experts of the Federal Environment Agency, which is an agency subordinate to the Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, and which acquired independent status in the form of a limited company. The report gives comprehensive information on all aspects of environmental monitoring in Austria, with a huge amount of numerical, geographical and evaluated data. The report is structured by the following chapters: population and land use; air; global climate change; stratospheric ozone degradation; water; soil; forests; environmental protection; agriculture; traffic; industry; economic audit; waste; contaminated sites; energy; noise; secure handling of chemicals; plant-protective agents; gene technology; radioecology. Those chapters which are in the INIS subject scope, dealing with radioecology and ecological aspects of nuclear and non-nuclear energy are treated individually on analytical level for the INIS database. (a.n.)

  18. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, A.; Guntrum, R.; Liu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  19. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A.; Guntrum, R.; Liu, Y. (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  20. On the safe of pesticides in controlling the terrestrial mollusc pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panigrahi

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The preferred food items of the slugs Laevicaulis alte and the snails Achatina fulica were used to prepare 'poison baits'by injecting the pesticides 'Rogor'and 'Nuvan'to kill these mollusc pests. The 'poison baits'prepared with Thrichosanthes dioica and Lycopersicum esculentum were accepted by 100% individuals of both the species irrespective of the pesticides used. In all cases the slug and the snail individuals died within a considerable length of time following consuption of the bait. The importance of using 'poison bait'lies not only with the sure success in killing the pests but also with the 'safe use'of toxic materials in order to avoid environmental hazards.

  1. How safe is 1% alum irrigation in controlling intractable vesical hemorrhage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A K; Mahajan, R K; Nath, R; Sharma, S K

    1993-02-01

    A prospective study was done to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravesical instillation of 1% alum solution in 12 cases of hematuria of vesical origin, uncontrolled by saline irrigation for 24 hours via a 3-way Foley catheter. There were 10 cases of transitional cell carcinoma and 2 of radiation cystitis. Complete response was noted in 6 patients and a partial response in 4. Local side effects included suprapubic pain and vesical tenesmus, which were controlled by antispasmodic and/or analgesic drugs. Transient low grade pyrexia (maximum up to 38.2C) was noted in 4 patients. Among the other various clinical and biochemical parameters, serum aluminum level and prothrombin time showed statistically highly significant changes. Serum aluminum increased from an average baseline value of 1.68 to 3.36 mumol./l. without clinical evidence of aluminum toxicity and with levels well below the recommended safe limit. Prothrombin time increased parallel with the increase in serum aluminum level to a maximum of 1 1/2 times the control. Prothrombin values, therefore, can be used clinically, since they are readily obtainable whereas serum aluminum levels are not. Vesical irrigation with 1% alum solution is a safe method to control hematuria of vesical origin in properly selected cases.

  2. Parent-controlled PCA for pain management in pediatric oncology: is it safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelescu, Doralina L; Faughnan, Lane G; Oakes, Linda L; Windsor, Kelley B; Pei, Deqing; Burgoyne, Laura L

    2012-08-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia offers safe and effective pain control for children who can self-administer medication. Some children may not be candidates for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) unless a proxy can administer doses. The safety of proxy-administered PCA has been studied, but the safety of parent-administered PCA in children with cancer has not been reported. In this study, we compare the rate of complications in PCA by parent proxy versus PCA by clinician (nurse) proxy and self-administered PCA. Our pediatric institution's quality improvement database was reviewed for adverse events associated with PCA from 2004 through 2010. Each PCA day was categorized according to patient or proxy authorization. Data from 6151 PCA observation days were included; 61.3% of these days were standard PCA, 23.5% were parent-proxy PCA, and 15.2% were clinician-proxy PCA days. The mean duration of PCA use was 12.1 days, and the mean patient age was 12.3 years. The mean patient age was lower in the clinician-proxy (9.4 y) and parent-proxy (5.1 y) groups, respectively. The complication rate was lowest in the parent-proxy group (0.62%). We found that proxy administration of PCA by authorized parents is as safe as clinician administered and standard PCA at our pediatric institution.

  3. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives

  4. Human and Environmental Toxicity of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS): Evidence for Safe Use in Household Cleaning Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Cara Am; Marks, Julia L; Wroblewski, Lauren B; Raatikainen, Heidi S; Lenox, Shannon R; Gebhardt, Kay E

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemical exposure is a major concern for consumers of packaged goods. The complexity of chemical nomenclature and wide availability of scientific research provide detailed information but lends itself to misinterpretation by the lay person. For the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), this has resulted in a misunderstanding of the environmental health impact of the chemical and statements in the media that are not scientifically supported. This review demonstrates how scientific works can be misinterpreted and used in a manner that was not intended by the authors, while simultaneously providing insight into the true environmental health impact of SLS. SLS is an anionic surfactant commonly used in consumer household cleaning products. For decades, this chemical has been developing a negative reputation with consumers because of inaccurate interpretations of the scientific literature and confusion between SLS and chemicals with similar names. Here, we review the human and environmental toxicity profiles of SLS and demonstrate that it is safe for use in consumer household cleaning products.

  5. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Cruz, E.S. da

    1989-01-01

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs

  6. HiCAT Software Infrastructure: Safe hardware control with object oriented Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Christopher; Brooks, Keira; Soummer, Remi

    2018-01-01

    High contrast imaging for Complex Aperture Telescopes (HiCAT) is a testbed designed to demonstrate coronagraphy and wavefront control for segmented on-axis space telescopes such as envisioned for LUVOIR. To limit the air movements in the testbed room, software interfaces for several different hardware components were developed to completely automate operations. When developing software interfaces for many different pieces of hardware, unhandled errors are commonplace and can prevent the software from properly closing a hardware resource. Some fragile components (e.g. deformable mirrors) can be permanently damaged because of this. We present an object oriented Python-based infrastructure to safely automate hardware control and optical experiments. Specifically, conducting high-contrast imaging experiments while monitoring humidity and power status along with graceful shutdown processes even for unexpected errors. Python contains a construct called a “context manager” that allows you define code to run when a resource is opened or closed. Context managers ensure that a resource is properly closed, even when unhandled errors occur. Harnessing the context manager design, we also use Python’s multiprocessing library to monitor humidity and power status without interrupting the experiment. Upon detecting a safety problem, the master process sends an event to the child process that triggers the context managers to gracefully close any open resources. This infrastructure allows us to queue up several experiments and safely operate the testbed without a human in the loop.

  7. The integrated environmental control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  8. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  9. Improving disclosure and consent: "is it safe?": new ethics for reporting personal exposures to environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Julia Green; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Rudel, Ruthann A; Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Frye, Margaret; Osimo, Cheryl A; Pérez, Carla; Seryak, Liesel M

    2007-09-01

    The recent flood of research concerning pollutants in personal environmental and biological samples-blood, urine, breastmilk, household dust and air, umbilical cord blood, and other media-raises questions about whether and how to report results to individual study participants. Clinical medicine provides an expert-driven framework, whereas community-based participatory research emphasizes participants' right to know and the potential to inform action even when health effects are uncertain. Activist efforts offer other models. We consider ethical issues involved in the decision to report individual results in exposure studies and what information should be included. Our discussion is informed by our experience with 120 women in a study of 89 pollutants in homes and by interviews with other researchers and institutional review board staff.

  10. Is Central Europe Safe from Environmental Lead Intoxications? A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelclová, Daniela; Šťastná, Jana; Vlčková, Štěpánka; Vlček, Kamil; Urban, Michal; Laštovková, Andrea; Doležel, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    Preventive measures in Central Europe were successful in suppressing both occupational and environmental lead exposure so that they did not constitute a severe public health problem. However, rare lead intoxications still appear. We report on lead intoxication in four family members where the source was removed lead ceiling paint. The symptoms of the lead intoxication started several weeks after removal and the inhalational exposure to the minimum dust residues lasted for more than three months before the poisoning was diagnosed. Father developed anaemia and saturnine colics. He and his two daughters received antidotal treatment which had to be repeated in the children. Finally, all recovered completely.Lead intoxication may be easily overlooked due to the unspecific symptoms. It is necessary to think of this rare poisoning which may be caused by old paints, historical ceramics and lead shots, in addition to commercial products imported from abroad. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  11. Active Fail-Safe Micro-Array Flow Control for Advanced Embedded Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Mace, James L.; Mani, Mori

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research effort was to develop and analytically demonstrate enhanced first generation active "fail-safe" hybrid flow-control techniques to simultaneously manage the boundary layer on the vehicle fore-body and to control the secondary flow generated within modern serpentine or embedded inlet S-duct configurations. The enhanced first-generation technique focused on both micro-vanes and micro-ramps highly-integrated with micro -jets to provide nonlinear augmentation for the "strength' or effectiveness of highly-integrated flow control systems. The study focused on the micro -jet mass flow ratio (Wjet/Waip) range from 0.10 to 0.30 percent and jet total pressure ratios (Pjet/Po) from 1.0 to 3.0. The engine bleed airflow range under study represents about a 10 fold decrease in micro -jet airflow than previously required. Therefore, by pre-conditioning, or injecting a very small amount of high-pressure jet flow into the vortex generated by the micro-vane and/or micro-ramp, active flow control is achieved and substantial augmentation of the controlling flow is realized.

  12. Development of safe mechanism for surgical robots using equilibrium point control method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shinsuk; Lim, Hokjin; Kim, Byeong-sang; Song, Jae-bok

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel mechanism for surgical robotic systems to generate human arm-like compliant motion. The mechanism is based on the idea of the equilibrium point control hypothesis which claims that multi-joint limb movements are achieved by shifting the limbs' equilibrium positions defined by neuromuscular activity. The equilibrium point control can be implemented on a robot manipulator by installing two actuators at each joint of the manipulator, one to control the joint position, and the other to control the joint stiffness. This double-actuator mechanism allows us to arbitrarily manipulate the stiffness (or impedance) of a robotic manipulator as well as its position. Also, the force at the end-effector can be estimated based on joint stiffness and joint angle changes without using force transducers. A two-link manipulator and a three-link manipulator with the double-actuator units have been developed, and experiments and simulation results show the potential of the proposed approach. By creating the human arm-like behavior, this mechanism can improve the performance of robot manipulators to execute stable and safe movement in surgical environments by using a simple control scheme.

  13. Environmental management: a re-emerging vector control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, S K

    1994-01-01

    Vector control may be accomplished by environmental management (EM), which consists of permanent or long-term modification of the environment, temporary or seasonal manipulation of the environment, and modifying or changing our life styles and practices to reduce human contact with infective vectors. The primary focus of this paper is EM in the control of human malaria, filariasis, arboviruses, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis. Modern EM developed as a discipline based primarily in ecologic principles and lessons learned from the adverse environmental impacts of rural development projects. Strategies such as the suppression of vector populations through the provision of safe water supplies, proper sanitation, solid waste management facilities, sewerage and excreta disposal systems, water manipulation in dams and irrigation systems, vector diversion by zooprophylaxis, and vector exclusion by improved housing, are discussed with appropriate examples. Vectors of malaria, filariasis, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis have been controlled by drainage or filling aquatic breeding sites, improved housing and sanitation, the use of expanded polystyrene beads, zooprophylaxis, or the provision of household water supplies. Community participation has been effective in the suppression of dengue vectors in Mexico and the Dominican Republic. Alone or combined with other vector control methods, EM has been proven to be a successful approach to vector control in a number of places. The future of EM in vector control looks promising.

  14. Can control banding be useful for the safe handling of nanomaterials? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastlake, Adrienne; Zumwalde, Ralph; Geraci, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question “can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials.” A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included ‘control,’ ‘hazard,’ ‘exposure,’ and ‘risk’ banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the methodological index for nonrandomized studies. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE). A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these studies by comparing the recommended

  15. Can control banding be useful for the safe handling of nanomaterials? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastlake, Adrienne; Zumwalde, Ralph; Geraci, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question "can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials." A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included `control,' `hazard,' `exposure,' and `risk' banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the methodological index for nonrandomized studies. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE). A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these studies by comparing the recommended exposure controls using

  16. Can control banding be useful for the safe handling of nanomaterials? A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastlake, Adrienne, E-mail: aeastlake@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nanotechnology Research Center (United States); Zumwalde, Ralph [RCS Corporation (United States); Geraci, Charles [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nanotechnology Research Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question “can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials.” A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included ‘control,’ ‘hazard,’ ‘exposure,’ and ‘risk’ banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the methodological index for nonrandomized studies. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE). A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these studies by comparing the recommended

  17. Does adding ketamine to morphine patient-controlled analgesia safely improve post-thoracotomy pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Timothy J; Churchhouse, Antonia M D; Housden, Tessa; Dunning, Joel

    2012-02-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'is the addition of ketamine to morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following thoracic surgery superior to morphine alone'. Altogether 201 papers were found using the reported search, of which nine represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. This consisted of one systematic review of PCA morphine with ketamine (PCA-MK) trials, one meta-analysis of PCA-MK trials, four randomized controlled trials of PCA-MK, one meta-analysis of trials using a variety of peri-operative ketamine regimes and two cohort studies of PCA-MK. Main outcomes measured included pain score rated on visual analogue scale, morphine consumption and incidence of psychotomimetic side effects/hallucination. Two papers reported the measurements of respiratory function. This evidence shows that adding ketamine to morphine PCA is safe, with a reported incidence of hallucination requiring intervention of 2.9%, and a meta-analysis finding an incidence of all central nervous system side effects of 18% compared with 15% with morphine alone, P = 0.31, RR 1.27 with 95% CI (0.8-2.01). All randomized controlled trials of its use following thoracic surgery found no hallucination or psychological side effect. All five studies in thoracic surgery (n = 243) found reduced morphine requirements with PCA-MK. Pain scores were significantly lower in PCA-MK patients in thoracic surgery papers, with one paper additionally reporting increased patient satisfaction. However, no significant improvement was found in a meta-analysis of five papers studying PCA-MK in a variety of surgical settings. Both papers reporting respiratory outcomes found improved oxygen saturations and PaCO(2) levels in PCA-MK patients following thoracic surgery

  18. The "F" in SAFE: Reliability of assessing clean faces for trachoma control in the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila K West

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although facial cleanliness is part of the SAFE strategy for trachoma there is controversy over the reliability of measuring a clean face. A child's face with no ocular and nasal discharge is clean and the endpoint of interest, regardless of the number of times it must be washed to achieve that endpoint. The issue of reliability rests on the reproducibility of graders to assess a clean face. We report the reproducibility of assessing a clean face in a field trial in Kongwa, Tanzania.Seven graders were trained to assess the presence and absence of nasal and ocular discharge on children's faces. Sixty children ages 1-7 years were recruited from a community and evaluated independently by seven graders, once and again about 50 minutes later. Intra-and inter-observer variation was calculated using unweighted kappa statistics. The average intra-observer agreement was kappa = 0.72, and the average inter-observer agreement was kappa = 0.78.Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was substantial for the assessment of clean faces using trained Tanzania staff who represent a variety of educational backgrounds. As long as training is provided, the estimate of clean faces in children should be reliable, and reflect the effort of families to keep ocular and nasal discharge off the faces. These data suggest assessment of clean faces could be added to trachoma surveys, which already measure environmental improvements, in districts.

  19. Can Control Banding be Useful for the Safe Handling of Nanomaterials? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastlake, Adrienne; Zumwalde, Ralph; Geraci, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Control banding (CB) is a risk management strategy that has been used to identify and recommend exposure control measures to potentially hazardous substances for which toxicological information is limited. The application of CB and level of expertise required for implementation and management can differ depending on knowledge of the hazard potential, the likelihood of exposure, and the ability to verify the effectiveness of exposure control measures. A number of different strategies have been proposed for using CB in workplaces where exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) can occur. However, it is unclear if the use of CB can effectively reduce worker exposure to nanomaterials. A systematic review of studies was conducted to answer the question “can control banding be useful to ensure adequate controls for the safe handling of nanomaterials.” Methods A variety of databases were searched to identify relevant studies pertaining to CB. Database search terms included ‘control’, ‘hazard’, ‘exposure’ and ‘risk’ banding as well as the use of these terms in the context of nanotechnology or nanomaterials. Other potentially relevant studies were identified during the review of articles obtained in the systematic review process. Identification of studies and the extraction of data were independently conducted by the reviewers. Quality of the studies was assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). The quality of the evidence was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Results A total of 235 records were identified in the database search in which 70 records were determined to be eligible for full-text review. Only two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the application of the CB Nanotool in workplaces where ENMs were being handled. A total of 32 different nanomaterial handling activities were evaluated in these

  20. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, William E.

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above.

  1. Moderate glycemic control safe in critically ill adult burn patients: A 15 year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecklin, Patricia; Delodder, Frederik; Pantet, Olivier; Berger, Mette M

    2016-02-01

    Hyperglycemia is a metabolic alteration in major burn patients associated with complications. The study aimed at evaluating the safety of general ICU glucose control protocols applied in major burns receiving prolonged ICU treatment. 15 year retrospective analysis of consecutive, adult burn patients admitted to a single specialized centre. death or length of stay burned surface (TBSA), severity scores, infections, ICU stay, outcome. Metabolic variables: total energy, carbohydrate and insulin delivery/24h, arterial blood glucose and CRP values. Analysis of 4 periods: 1, before protocol; 2, tight doctor driven; 3, tight nurse driven; 4, moderate nurse driven. 229 patients, aged 45 ± 20 years (mean ± SD), burned 32 ± 20% TBSA were analyzed. SAPSII was 35 ± 13. TBSA, Ryan and ABSI remained stable. Inhalation injury increased. A total of 28,690 blood glucose samples were analyzed: the median value remained unchanged with a narrower distribution over time. After the protocol initiation, the normoglycemic values increased from 34.7% to 65.9%, with a reduction of hypoglycaemic events (no extreme hypoglycemia in period 4). Severe hyperglycemia persisted throughout with a decrease in period 4 (9.25% in period 4). Energy and glucose deliveries decreased in periods 3 and 4 (pprotocol improved the glycemic control in adult burn patients, reducing glucose variability. Moderate glycemic control in burns was safe specifically related to hypoglycemia, reducing the incidence of hypoglycaemic events compared to the period before. Hyperglycemia persisted at a lower level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental pollution and control, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesilind, P.A.; Peirce, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Most of the problems, principles, and solutions are presented here in a non-biased, easy-to-read format. The language used is non-technical for the most part, and the inclusion of a complete glossary aids when some technical terms must be used. The text itself is supported by photographs, drawings, tables, and examples. Major Sections: Environmental Pollution, Water Pollution; Measurement of Water Quality; Water Supply; Water Treatment; Collection of Wastewater; Wastewater Treatment; Sludge Treatment and Disposal; Nonpoint Source Water Pollution; Water Pollution Law; Solid Waste; Solid Waste Disposal; Resource Recovery; Hazardous Waste; Radioactive Waste; Solid and Hazardous Waste Law; Air Pollution; Meteorology and Air Quality; Measurement of Air Quality; Air Pollution Control; Air Pollution Law; Noise Pollution; Noise Measurement and Control; Environmental Impact; The Environmental Ethic; Appendix: Conversion Factors; Glossary and Abbreviations; Index

  3. Reactivity control system of a passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wols, F.J.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A worth of over 15,000 pcm ensures achieving long-term cold shutdown in thorium PBR. • Control rod worth in side reflector is insufficient due to low-power breeder zone. • 20 control rods, just outside the driver zone, can achieve long-term cold shutdown. • BF 3 gas can be inserted for reactor shutdown, but only in case of emergency. • Perturbation theory accurately predicts absorber gas worth for many concentrations. - Abstract: This work investigates the neutronic design of the reactivity control system for a 100 MW th passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor (PBR), a conceptual design introduced previously by the authors. The thorium PBR consists of a central driver zone of 100 cm radius, surrounded by a breeder zone with 300 cm outer radius. The fissile content of the breeder zone is low, leading to low fluxes in the radial reflector region. Therefore, a significant decrease of the control rod worth at this position is anticipated. The reactivity worth of control rods in the side reflector and at alternative in-core positions is calculated using different techniques, being 2D neutron diffusion, perturbation theory and more accurate 3D Monte Carlo models. Sensitivity coefficients from perturbation theory provide a first indication of effective control rod positions, while the 2D diffusion models provide an upper limit on the reactivity worth achievable at a certain radial position due to the homogeneous spreading of the absorber material over the azimuthal domain. Three dimensional forward calculations, e.g. in KENO, are needed for an accurate calculation of the total control rod worth. The two dimensional homogeneous calculations indicate that the reactivity worth in the radial reflector is by far insufficient to achieve cold reactor shutdown, which requires a control rod worth of over 15 000 pcm. Three dimensional heterogeneous KENO calculations show that placing 20 control rods just outside the driver channel, between 100 cm

  4. Reactivity control system of a passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wols, F.J., E-mail: f.j.wols@tudelft.nl; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A worth of over 15,000 pcm ensures achieving long-term cold shutdown in thorium PBR. • Control rod worth in side reflector is insufficient due to low-power breeder zone. • 20 control rods, just outside the driver zone, can achieve long-term cold shutdown. • BF{sub 3} gas can be inserted for reactor shutdown, but only in case of emergency. • Perturbation theory accurately predicts absorber gas worth for many concentrations. - Abstract: This work investigates the neutronic design of the reactivity control system for a 100 MW{sub th} passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor (PBR), a conceptual design introduced previously by the authors. The thorium PBR consists of a central driver zone of 100 cm radius, surrounded by a breeder zone with 300 cm outer radius. The fissile content of the breeder zone is low, leading to low fluxes in the radial reflector region. Therefore, a significant decrease of the control rod worth at this position is anticipated. The reactivity worth of control rods in the side reflector and at alternative in-core positions is calculated using different techniques, being 2D neutron diffusion, perturbation theory and more accurate 3D Monte Carlo models. Sensitivity coefficients from perturbation theory provide a first indication of effective control rod positions, while the 2D diffusion models provide an upper limit on the reactivity worth achievable at a certain radial position due to the homogeneous spreading of the absorber material over the azimuthal domain. Three dimensional forward calculations, e.g. in KENO, are needed for an accurate calculation of the total control rod worth. The two dimensional homogeneous calculations indicate that the reactivity worth in the radial reflector is by far insufficient to achieve cold reactor shutdown, which requires a control rod worth of over 15 000 pcm. Three dimensional heterogeneous KENO calculations show that placing 20 control rods just outside the driver channel

  5. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  6. Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects on Trypanosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. ... African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease that causes serious economic losses in livestock due to anemia, loss of condition and emaciation. The disease when neglected is lethal and untreated ...

  7. Controlled release for crop and wood protection: Recent progress toward sustainable and safe nanostructured biocidal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Bruno D; Tardy, Blaise L; Magalhães, Washington L E; Rojas, Orlando J

    2017-09-28

    We review biocide delivery systems (BDS), which are designed to deter or control harmful organisms that damage agricultural crops, forests and forest products. This is a timely topic, given the growing socio-economical concerns that have motivated major developments in sustainable BDS. Associated designs aim at improving or replacing traditional systems, which often consist of biocides with extreme behavior as far as their solubility in water. This includes those that compromise or pollute soil and water (highly soluble or volatile biocides) or those that present low bioavailability (poorly soluble biocides). Major breakthroughs are sought to mitigate or eliminate consequential environmental and health impacts in agriculture and silviculture. Here, we consider the most important BDS vehicles or carriers, their synthesis, the environmental impact of their constituents and interactions with the active components together with the factors that affect their rates of release such as environmental factors and interaction of BDS with the crops or forest products. We put in perspective the state-of-the-art nanostructured carriers for controlled release, which need to address many of the challenges that exist in the application of BDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental control system. (a) Identification. A powered environmental control system is an AC- or battery-powered device intended for medical purposes that is used by a patient to operate an environmental control... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725...

  9. [Application of nested case-control study on safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yubin; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here as a new study design used in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. In the nested case-control study, cases of a disease that occur in a defined cohort are identified and, for each, a specified number of matched controls is selected from among those in the cohort who have not developed the disease by the time of disease occurrence in the case. For many research questions, the nested case-control design potentially offers impressive reductions in costs and efforts of data collection and analysis compared with the full cohort approach, with relatively minor loss in statistical efficiency. The nested case-control design is particularly advantageous for studies in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. Some examples of the application of nested case-control study were given.

  10. Primary repair of civilian colon injuries is safe in the damage control scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashuk, Jeffry L; Cothren, C Clay; Moore, Ernest E; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Biffl, Walter L; Barnett, Carlton C

    2009-10-01

    Although the safety of primary repair/anastomosis for civilian colon injuries after standard laparotomy (SL) has been established, recent civilian and military reports have questioned the advisability of this technique in the patient requiring damage control laparotomy (DL). We hypothesized that, even in the high-risk DL group, primary repair could be safely used after patient stabilization and that the open abdomen would facilitate the safety of this procedure. All patients admitted to our level 1 trauma center with a colon injury over a 7-year period were reviewed from a prospectively collected database. Patients were categorized as having undergone either SL or DL at initial operation. Primary variables of interest were as follows: injury patterns; method of primary repair (suture repair, resection and primary anastomosis, resection and delayed anastomosis); diversion techniques (planned diversion or diversion for anastomotic dehiscence); and colon-related morbidity and mortality. High-risk status in the DL group was identified by the following physiologic variables: mean injury severity score (ISS), red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, ventilator days, and intensive care unit (ICU) duration of stay. During the study period, 309 patients had colonic wounds identified at laparotomy. Of these 309 patients, 280 (91%) underwent SL, of which 277 (98.9%) had primary colonic repair/anastomosis. In the SL group, 1 (0.3%) patient required diversion for subsequent leak and 2 (0.6%) patients had planned diversion The remaining 29 hemodynamically unstable patients required DL. Mean +/- standard deviation indices of injury severity in this group included: ISS = 36.2 +/- 15.8, RBC = 28.7 +/- 25.4 units, ventilator days = 20.1 +/- 16.3, ICU duration of stay = 29.5 +/- 21.6 days. Of the 29 patients in the DL group, 21 (72%) had bowel continuity successfully reestablished in 2.6 +/- 2 days after initial attempts at primary suture repair or resection/anastomosis. A total of 4 (16

  11. Efficacious and safe tissue-selective controlled gene therapy approaches for the cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv R Mohan

    2011-04-01

    -treated and untreated control corneas. These findings suggest that defined gene therapy approaches are safe for delivering genes into keratocytes in vivo and has potential for treating corneal disorders in human patients.

  12. Regulatory control for safe usage of ionizing radiation sources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    duly authorized by the competent authority are permitted to procure and handle radiation sources. Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Division of BAEC undertakes radiological protection surveys of radiation installations or ensuring radiation safety and suggests suitable recommendations for the use, transport and disposal of radioactive materials, which are to be implemented by the authorized user institutions. This paper outlines the methodology of regulatory control exercised by BAEC for safe use of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment in the country. (author)

  13. The challenge of improving boiling: lessons learned from a randomized controlled trial of water pasteurization and safe storage in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, K; Rocha, C A; Quick, R E; Montano, S M; Tilley, D H; Mock, C N; Carrasco, A J; Cabrera, R M; Hawes, S E

    2016-07-01

    Boiling is the most common method of household water treatment in developing countries; however, it is not always effectively practised. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 210 households to assess the effectiveness of water pasteurization and safe-storage interventions in reducing Escherichia coli contamination of household drinking water in a water-boiling population in rural Peru. Households were randomized to receive either a safe-storage container or a safe-storage container plus water pasteurization indicator or to a control group. During a 13-week follow-up period, households that received a safe-storage container and water pasteurization indicator did not have a significantly different prevalence of stored drinking-water contamination relative to the control group [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·92-1·52]. Similarly, receipt of a safe-storage container alone had no effect on prevalence of contamination (PR 1·02, 95% CI 0·79-1·31). Although use of water pasteurization indicators and locally available storage containers did not increase the safety of household drinking water in this study, future research could illuminate factors that facilitate the effective use of these interventions to improve water quality and reduce the risk of waterborne disease in populations that boil drinking water.

  14. IMPROVING GLYCEMIC CONTROL SAFELY IN CRITICAL CARE PATIENTS: A COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS APPROACH IN NINE HOSPITALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Gregory A; Holdych, Janet; Kendall, Heather; Harrison, Karen; Montgomery, Patricia A; Kulasa, Kristen

    2017-05-01

    Safely improve glycemic control in the critical care units of nine hospitals. Critical care adult inpatients from nine hospitals with ≥4 point-of-care blood glucose (BG) readings over ≥2 days were targeted by collaborative improvement efforts to reduce hyper- and hypoglycemia. Balanced glucometric goals for each hospital were set targeting improvement from baseline or goals deemed desirable from Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) benchmarking data. Collaborative interventions included standardized insulin infusion protocols, hypoglycemia prevention bundles, audit and feedback, education, and measure-vention (coupling measurement of patients "off protocol" with concurrent interventions to correct suboptimal care). All sites improved glycemic control. Six reached prespecified levels of improvement of the day-weighted mean BG. The day-weighted mean BG for the cohort decreased by 7.7 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.0 mg/dL to 8.4 mg/dL) to 151.3 mg/dL. Six of nine sites showed improvement in the percent intensive care unit (ICU) days with severe hyperglycemia (any BG >299 mg/dL). ICU severe hyperglycemic days declined from 8.6 to 7.2% for the cohort (relative risk, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.88). Patient days with any BG <70 mg/dL were reduced by 0.4% (95% CI, 0.06% to 0.6%), from 4.5 to 4.1%, for a small but statistically significant reduction in hypoglycemia. Seven of nine sites showed improvement. Multihospital improvements in ICU glycemic control, severe hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia are feasible. Balanced goals for glycemic control and hypoglycemia in the ICU using SHM benchmarks and metrics enhanced successful improvement efforts with good staff acceptance and sustainability. BG = blood glucose CMI = case-mix index CY = calendar year DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis EMR = electronic medical record GBMF = Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ICU = intensive care unit IIP = insulin infusion protocol SHM = Society of z Hospital Medicine.

  15. A study on oxidation treatment of uranium metal chip under controlling atmosphere for safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Ji, Chul Goo; Bae, Sang Oh; Woo, Yoon Myeoung; Kim, Jong Goo; Ha, Yeong Keong

    2011-01-01

    The U metal chips generated in developing nuclear fuel and a gamma radioisotope shield have been stored under immersion of water in KAERI. When the water of the storing vessels vaporizes or drains due to unexpected leaking, the U metal chips are able to open to air. A new oxidation treatment process was raised for a long time safe storage with concepts of drying under vacuum, evaporating the containing water and organic material with elevating temperature, and oxidizing the uranium metal chips at an appropriate high temperature under conditions of controlling the feeding rate of oxygen gas. In order to optimize the oxidation process the uranium metal chips were completely dried at higher temperature than 300 .deg. C and tested for oxidation at various temperatures, which are 300 .deg. C, 400 .deg. C, and 500 .deg. C. When the oxidation temperature was 400 .deg. C, the oxidized sample for 7 hours showed a temperature rise of 60 .deg. C in the self-ignition test. But the oxidized sample for 14 hours revealed a slight temperature rise of 7 .deg. C representing a stable behavior in the self-ignition test. When the temperature was 500 .deg. C, the shorter oxidation for 7 hours appeared to be enough because the self-ignition test represented no temperature rise. By using several chemical analyses such as carbon content determination, X-ray deflection (XRD), Infrared spectra (IR) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) on the oxidation treated samples, the results of self-ignition test of new oxidation treatment process for U metal chip were interpreted and supported

  16. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  17. Tests of an environmental and personnel safe cleaning process for Brookhaven National Laboratory accelerator and storage ring components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C.; Lee, R.; Mitchell, G.; Quade, W.

    1997-01-01

    A large measure of the successful operation of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for over a decade can be attributed to the cleaning of its ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components during and after construction. A new UHV cleaning process, which has to be environmentally and personnel safe, is needed to replace the harsh, unfriendly process which is still in use. Dow Advanced Cleaning Systems was contracted to develop a replacement process without the use of harsh chemicals and which must clean vacuum surfaces as well as the existing process. Acceptance of the replacement process was primarily based on photon stimulated desorption (PSD) measurements of beam tube samples run on NSLS beam line U10B. One meter long beam tube samples were fabricated from aluminum, 304 stainless steel, and oxygen-free copper. Initially, coupon samples were cleaned and passed preliminary testing for the proposed process. Next, beam tube samples of each material were cleaned, and the PSD measured on beam line U10B using white light with a critical energy of 487 eV. Prior to cleaning, the samples were contaminated with a mixture of cutting oils, lubricants, vacuum oils, and vacuum grease. The contaminated samples were then baked. Samples of each material were also cleaned with the existing process after the same preparation. Beam tube samples were exposed to between 10 22 and 10 23 photons per meter for a PSD measurement. Desorption yields for H 2 , CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , and H 2 O are reported for both the existing cleaning and for the replacement cleaning process. Preliminary data, residual gas scans, and PSD results are given and discussed. The new process is also compared with new cleaning methods developed in other laboratories. After modification, the new UHV cleaning process was accepted by BNL

  18. Environmentally safe corrosion inhibition of Mg-Al-Zn alloy in chloride free neutral solutions by amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helal, N.H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum (Egypt); Badawy, W.A., E-mail: wbadawy@cu.edu.eg [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, 12 613 Giza (Egypt)

    2011-07-30

    Highlights: > Phenyl alanine at a concentration of 2 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3} gives 93% corrosion inhibition efficiency for the corrosion of the Mg-Al-Zn alloy. > The corrosion inhibition process is based on the adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the active sites of the alloy surface by physical adsorption mechanism. > The adsorption free energy was 15.72 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Abstract: The corrosion inhibition of Mg-Al-Zn alloy was investigated in stagnant naturally aerated chloride free neutral solutions using amino acids as environmentally safe corrosion inhibitors. The corrosion rate was calculated in the absence and presence of the corrosion inhibitor using the polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental impedance data were fitted to theoretical data according to a proposed electronic circuit model to explain the behavior of the alloy/electrolyte interface under different conditions. The corrosion inhibition process was found to depend on the adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the metal surface. Phenyl alanine has shown remarkably high corrosion inhibition efficiency up to 93% at a concentration of 2 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}. The corrosion inhibition efficiency was found to depend on the concentration of the amino acid and its structure. The mechanism of the corrosion inhibition process was discussed and different adsorption isotherms were investigated. The free energy of the adsorption process was calculated for the adsorption of different amino acids on the Mg-Al-Zn alloy and the obtained values reveal a physical adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the alloy surface.

  19. An eight pushbutton control system for the PSU ultra-safe nuclear plant: Addendum to annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, M.A.

    1988-10-01

    The control system described in this report was developed for a ''Light Water Ultra-Safe Plant Concept'' studied at Penn State during a 2 year program funded by the Department of Energy. A reconfigured pressurized water reactor was designed which eliminated the conventional PWR pressurizer and added an active pumping system with a large dedicated water storage tank to control pressure. The thermal hydraulics aspects of the design were studied and reported in several master's theses and other addendum reports and first annual report. In addition to improving the inherent safety of an advanced plant by changes in the thermal hydraulic aspects of the design, a new approach to control system organization and design should also be included in an advanced plant. The study presented in this report modifies a conventional PWR plant control system to the needs of the Ultra-Safe Plant Concept and then describes implementation of the control system in a distributed network of control computers. The end result is a control system that is much simpler at the operator level. This simplicity should eliminate the possibility of operator error in the Ultra-Safe plant

  20. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  1. Environmental management control. An empirical study on the use of environmental performance measures in management control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Companies increasingly adapt their accounting systems to accommodate the internal demand of environmental-related information for making decisions and control their activities in compliance with extant environmental regulation. Prior research in environmental accounting has predominantly focused on

  2. Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Diane K; Allen, Peg; Jones, Dina L; Marquez, David X; Brown, David R; Rosenberg, Dori; Janicek, Sarah; Allen, Laila; Belza, Basia

    2016-03-01

    Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had wayfinding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking.

  3. Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Diane K.; Allen, Peg; Jones, Dina L.; Marquez, David X.; Brown, David R.; Rosenberg, Dori; Janicek, Sarah; Allen, Laila; Belza, Basia

    2016-01-01

    Background Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. Methods We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. Results All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had wayfinding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. Conclusions Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking. PMID:26181907

  4. Better well control through safe drilling margin identification, influx analysis and direct bottom hole pressure control method for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeningen, Daan [National Oilwell Varco IntelliServ (NOV), Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Currently, well control events are almost exclusively detected by using surface measurements. Measuring a volume increase in the 'closed loop' mud circulation system; a standpipe pressure decrease; or changes in a variety of drilling parameters provide indicators of a kick. Especially in deep water, where the riser comprises a substantial section of the well bore, early kick detection is paramount for limiting the severity of a well bore influx and improve the ability to regain well control. While downhole data is presently available from downhole tools nearby the bit, available data rates are sparse as mud pulse telemetry bandwidth is limited and well bore measurements compete with transmission of other subsurface data. Further, data transfer is one-directional, latency is significant and conditions along the string are unknown. High-bandwidth downhole data transmission system, via a wired or networked drill string system, has the unique capability to acquire real-time pressure and temperature measurement at a number of locations along the drill string. This system provides high-resolution downhole data available at very high speed, eliminating latency and restrictions that typically limit the availability of downhole data. The paper describes well control opportunities for deep water operations through the use of downhole data independent from surface measurements. First, the networked drill string provides efficient ways to identify pore pressure, fracture gradient, and true mud weight that comprise the safe drilling margin. Second, the independent measurement capability provides early kick detection and improved ability to analyze an influx even with a heterogeneous mud column through distributed along-string annular pressure measurements. Third, a methodology is proposed for a direct measurement method using downhole real-time pressure for maintaining constant bottom hole pressure during well kills in deep water. (author)

  5. Evaluating a Safe Space Training for School Counselors and Trainees Using a Randomized Control Group Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Rebekah; Hays, Danica G.

    2014-01-01

    School counselors need to advocate and act as an ally for all students. Safe Space, a training designed to facilitate competency for working with and serving LGBTQ youth (i.e., LGBTQ competency), has received increased attention in the field of school counseling. However, limited empirical support exists for training interventions such as Safe…

  6. Technical highlights of the latest upgrades to Hitachi's G-HIACS νSAFE functional safety controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, D.; Ishii, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Uemura, K.; Suenaga, M.; Koyamada, T.

    2014-01-01

    Hitachi has developed the G-HIACS νSAFE (pronounced 'nu-safe'), a Functional Safety (FS) controller compliant to IEC 61508 SIL 2, in part to satisfy the requirements of control systems for Nuclear Steam Plants (NSP). Hitachi has reported some of the main challenges, counter-measures and improvements encountered and designed during the several phases of development of controller system at previous Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS) Annual Conferences. Hitachi received initial Product Version 1 (PV1) certification from TUV Rheinland in 2010. Since then, additional functional and design improvements and changes have made product re-certification necessary, in order to cover the scope of the additional and improved capabilities. This paper describes some of these Product Version 2 (PV2) capabilities (certified by TUV Rheinland in 2013). (author)

  7. Microbial Pest Control Agents: Are they a Specific And Safe Tool for Insect Pest Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, Caroline; Siegwart, Myriam; Pauron, David; Froger, Josy-Anne; Lapied, Bruno; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents. They infect insects and have narrow host ranges. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely and successfully used bioinsecticide in the integrated pest management programs in the world. Bt mainly produces crystal delta-endotoxins and secreted toxins. However, the Bt toxins are not stable for a very long time and are highly sensitive to solar UV. So genetically modified plants that express toxins have been developed and represent a large part of the phytosanitary biological products. Finally, entomopathogenic fungi and particularly, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, are also used for their insecticidal properties. Most studies on various aspects of the safety of MPCA to human, non-target organisms and environment have only reported acute but not chronic toxicity. This paper reviews the modes of action of MPCA, their toxicological risks to human health and ecotoxicological profiles together with their environmental persistence. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity". Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. How safe is safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, C.F.; Flood, M.

    1996-01-01

    60 and 70 degree convexo-concave valve. Nine hundred and one valves were implanted in Australia. Twelve strut fractures were reported. Two other patients have been explanted and have demonstrated 'single leg separation'. This particular problem was only investigated when two patients died of a fractured valve in the same hospital on the same day. A retrospective study of all known patients in Australia has shown poor follow up, lack of knowledge and indeed lack of interest in device failure modes. Consequently, the Australian and New Zealand Heart Valve Registry was established to track all implanted valves and to notify physicians of any new information. This is perhaps the first device-specific register in Australia. The safety of individual devices is often not known by manufacturers, regulators and clinicians alike. No follow up is available and large volume long term studies are yet to be implemented for the majority of devices. Without such studies and without mandatory problem reporting, the relative safety of medical devices will continue to be measured by banner headlines, sensational TV 'grabs' and protracted law suits. At present, only schemes such as the Problem Reporting Scheme can tell us (albeit vaguely) 'how safe is safe'

  9. Biotechnology for uranium extraction and environmental control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    India is looking forward to augmenting mining and extraction of uranium mineral for its nuclear energy needs. Being a radio-active mineral, mining and processing of uranium ore deposits need be carried out in an environmentally acceptable fashion. In this respect, a biotechnological approach holds great promise since it is environment-friendly, cost-effective and energy-efficient. There are several types of microorganisms which inhabit uranium ore bodies and biogenesis plays an important role in the mineralisation and transport of uranium-bearing minerals under the earth's crust. Uranium occurrences in India are only meagre and it becomes essential to tap effectively all the available resources. Uraninite and pitchblende occurring along with sulfide mineralisation such as pyrite are ideal candidates for bioleaching. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans present ubiquitously in the ore deposits can be isolated, cultured and utilised to bring about efficient acidic dissolution of uranium. Many such commercial attempts to extract uranium from even lean ores using acidophilic autotrophic bacteria have been made in different parts of the world. Anaerobes such a Geobacter and Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) can be effectively used in uranium mining for environmental control. Radioactive uranium mined wastes and tailing dumps can be cleaned and protected using microorganisms. In this lecture use of biotechnology in uranium extraction and bioremediation is illustrated with practical examples. Applicability of environment-friendly biotechnology for mining and extraction of uranium from Indian deposits is outlined. Commercial potentials for bioremediation in uranium-containing wastes are emphasised. (author)

  10. Using safe materials to control Varroa mites with studying grooming behavior of honey bees and morphology of Varroa over winter

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam F. Abou-Shaara

    2017-01-01

    Extracts of drone larvae and propolis as safe materials are anticipated to boost the grooming behavior of honey bees against Varroa mites. It is also expected that grooming behavior of bees and morphology of Varroa are stable during the least active period of the year to bee colonies (i.e winter). Sugar syrup alone or mixed with drone larvae extract or propolis extract were examined as potential Varroa control materials to test these hypothesizes. Moreover, percentages of groomed mites along ...

  11. Chernobyl new safe confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, L.

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the new safe confinement that will be commissioned at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP in 2015. The confinement will ensure that Chernobyl Unit 4 will be placed in an environmentally safe condition for at least next 100 years. The article highlights the current work status, future perspectives and the feasibility of confinement concept [ru

  12. Strategic environmental assessment of the national programme for the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhoff, Mathias; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Claus, Manuel [Oeko-Institut e.V. Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-03-27

    The report on the strategic environmental audit for the national waste disposal program covers the following issues: aim of the study, active factors, environmental objectives; description and evaluation of environmental impact including site selection criteria for final repositories of heat generating radioactive waste, intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and waste from reprocessing plants, disposal of wastes retrieved from Asse II; hypothetical zero variants.

  13. Strategic environmental assessment of the national programme for the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhoff, Mathias; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Claus, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The report on the strategic environmental audit for the national waste disposal program covers the following issues: aim of the study, active factors, environmental objectives; description and evaluation of environmental impact including site selection criteria for final repositories of heat generating radioactive waste, intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and waste from reprocessing plants, disposal of wastes retrieved from Asse II; hypothetical zero variants.

  14. Of watchdogs and safe havens: control mechanisms and/in online sacred spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Darius Ornella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Die große Schlacht. Der Hass des Satans auf Benedikt XVI. Non prae­valebunt’ is the headline of an article the Austrian-based and Catholic news portal, kath.net, published in early June 2012. It is about how badly and unfairly the media treat the Catholic Church and its official representatives in the wake of the so-called ‘Vatileaks’ scandal and it reasons that Satan is behind the attacks of the media, society, popular culture, on saintly figures such as Pope Benedict XVI. ‘Gegen die Diktatur des Relativismus’ is another article published on the same platform in the context of a conference hosted by the Catholic Heiligenkreuz monastery. On the forum kath.net, powerful language is employed to draw the faithful in, to make them feel themselves to be safe within a community of like-minded people in the midst of turmoil. News portals and message boards such as kath.net create safe spaces within a world whose culture, values, and morals are not only not understood but despised. The analysis is informed by critical discourse analysis and based on Paul Ricœur’s understanding of narratives and how narratives create worlds. As a first step, the concept of space and Ricœur’s understanding of narrative identity are discussed. After an introduction to the news portal kath.net, a close reading of some articles shows how these safe spaces are created and guarded. To conclude, a reflection on the implications of the self-understanding of kath.net and some of its user base on the understanding of hierarchy and the role of theology in the Church, is provided.

  15. The Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure: A Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study reveals the need for extensive refinement of the Revised Perceived Environmental Control Measure purported in the past to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure the relationship between the psychological construct, "locus of control," and environmental action or environmentally responsible behavior. (MCO)

  16. Potential environmental effects of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.; Gore, B.F.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) the fusion reaction, (2) approach to the environmental analysis, (3) the reference CTR, (4) CTR environmental effects, (5) CTR accident potential, and (6) the advanced CTR

  17. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of moderate scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Barber, Kirk; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated in this study the efficacy and safety of an alternate regimen using clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo (CP shampoo) for long-term control of scalp psoriasis. Patients with moderate scalp psoriasis (Global Severity Score [GSS] of 3 on a 0-5 scale) first received CP shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Patients with a GSS shampoo or vehicle twice weekly. When relapse (GSS > 2) occurred, patients received the 4-week daily CP shampoo treatment. Patients who had a GSS shampoo, almost 4 months later than with vehicle (30.5 days;p shampoo (40.3%) than with vehicle (11.6%;p shampoo was also safe during the 7-month study period, without leading to more cases of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression or adverse events compared to vehicle. The alternate treatment regimen with CP shampoo is efficacious and safe for long-term management of moderate scalp psoriasis.

  18. Automatic feedback to promote safe walking and speech loudness control in persons with multiple disabilities: two single-case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A; Alberti, Gloria; Boccasini, Adele; Smaldone, Angela; Oliva, Doretta; Bosco, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Assessing automatic feedback technologies to promote safe travel and speech loudness control in two men with multiple disabilities, respectively. The men were involved in two single-case studies. In Study I, the technology involved a microprocessor, two photocells, and a verbal feedback device. The man received verbal alerting/feedback when the photocells spotted an obstacle in front of him. In Study II, the technology involved a sound-detecting unit connected to a throat and an airborne microphone, and to a vibration device. Vibration occurred when the man's speech loudness exceeded a preset level. The man included in Study I succeeded in using the automatic feedback in substitution of caregivers' alerting/feedback for safe travel. The man of Study II used the automatic feedback to successfully reduce his speech loudness. Automatic feedback can be highly effective in helping persons with multiple disabilities improve their travel and speech performance.

  19. Biological soil disinfestation : a safe and effective approach for controlling soilborne pests and diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, J.G.; Wanten, P.J.; Blok, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological soil disinfestation (bsd) is an environmentally friendly method to disinfest the soil from soilborne fungi and nematodes. With biological soil disinfestation a green manure crop (40 tonnes per ha) or other green biomass is homogeneously incorporated into the soil layer that has to be

  20. A managed approach to achieve a safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound demolition of a plutonium-238 contaminated building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Ralph R.; Geichman, Jack R.; Keener, Douglas E.; Farmer, Billy M.

    1992-01-01

    DOE's Mound Plant has the problem of demolishing a former plutonium-238 processing facility, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building. The building is located within 200 feet of a major public road and golf course. Previous removal efforts on appendages to the building used the technique of tenting small segments and used labor intensive segment-by-segment removal with expendable hand tools. This approach was very slow and costly, but offered good environmental control of radioactive contamination. It was realized that this method, when applied to the entire structure of the building, would not only be very costly, but would also be of high risk to worker safety and worker exposure to contamination. The new approach to overcome these problems is to dismantle the building structure using a rotating grapple to hold sections of the building structure while a portable rotating shear cuts the steel beams into appropriate lengths for loading directly into large waste containers. By the former method, the cut jagged steel would be size reduced with hand tools and loaded into waste containers manually. The additional handling has a high probability of producing minor, yet potentially contaminated, skin lacerations. The shear and grapple method eliminates this hazard. To apply this safer and more cost effective technology, Mound had to assure that the method would be environmentally sound and that neither onsite workers or the general public would be exposed to radioactivity. The Annex was decontaminated to as low as reasonably possible and the contaminated interior painted. However, there were numerous areas where contamination could be trapped. Mound conducted a formal sampling of these areas and had the results modeled for potential release during demolition. The results of this sampling and modeling effort showed that the building could be dismantled using this technology without producing a harmful effect on the environment. Application of this managed approach to the

  1. Environmental management control systems for carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Di Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to focus on a global consulting company and examine how it struggled to establish an effective environmental management control system for carbon emissions for its employees’ air travel. The organisation was motivated to reduce its carbon emissions both to comply with regulation and to enhance or maintain corporate reputation. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a case study approach, examining internal and external documents as well as conducting interviews with senior staff. Findings – The case study investigates how Beta’s management implemented a system to reduce carbon emissions. The organisation focused on air travel, but the study finds that employee travel preferences did not radically change. Rather than reduction in carbon emissions, as planned by head office, air travel carbon emissions actually increased during the period, and, as a consequence, the reported reduction targets were significantly adjusted downwards to meet the new realities. Practical implications – The study has implications for both policy and practice for organisations seeking to improve their sustainability performance. Originality/value – The study responds to calls in the literature to undertake research to identify how management practices might reduce negative sustainability impacts, as there is little evidence of what management practices and accounting tools are being adopted, particularly in relation to carbon emissions from air travel. The paper adds to the creation of new accounting, giving visibility to carbon emission management through case study analysis.

  2. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  3. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ingyu; Kim, Enhan; Keum, Dongkwon

    2012-04-01

    To develop the comprehensive environmental radiation management technology, - An urban atmospheric dispersion model and decision-aiding model have been developed. - The technologies for assessing the radiation impact to non-human biota and the environmental medium contamination have developed. - The analytical techniques of the indicator radionuclides related to decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste repository have been developed. - The national environmental radiation impact has been assessed, and the optimum management system of natural radiation has been established

  4. Examination of new environmental control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Drouin, Gilbert; Routhier, François

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the application of new Environmental Control Systems (ECSs) in the homes of users and caregivers. The research questions were: (1) Can new ECS applications improve the activities of daily living (ADL) of people with significant functional limitations who require personal assistance? (2) Can new ECS applications replace home services and lessen caregiver burden? To answer these questions, user satisfaction regarding ECS applications, impact on ADL, technical performance, and caregiver burden were examined. This collaborative investigation involving a local community health care center, a telephone monitoring service, an industrial partner, and a university research team used a case study approach. Five users with moderate cognitive problems or significant functional limitations who required personal assistance were chosen, along with their caregivers, for a 3-month in-home trial to test new ECS alternatives. The ECS in the study featured remote control functions (e.g., door lock release, outside intercom), specific verbal reminders (e.g., reminders to turn off stove elements), and automatic functions (e.g., night-lights in the bathroom and hallway). Information was collected in the users' homes with three standardized questionnaires and a company-designed questionnaire. The overall technical performance of the ECS was found to be in most cases moderately efficient. Participant satisfaction revealed that ECS alternatives needed improvement with respect to the service aspects such as follow-up services and repair/servicing. Caregiver burden was lessened for psychological aspects but not for physical tasks. Users seemed to have a positive perception of the impact of the ECS on many of their ADL. We learned six lessons from this 15-month case study, namely: (1) the use of remote control by people with moderate cognitive impairments was difficult; (2) verbal reminders were greatly appreciated; (3) the automatic ECS applications needed

  5. Safe handling of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance and recommendations on operational radiation protection aspects related to the safe handling of tritium in laboratories, industrial-scale nuclear facilities such as heavy-water reactors, tritium removal plants and fission fuel reprocessing plants, and facilities for manufacturing commercial tritium-containing devices and radiochemicals. The requirements of nuclear fusion reactors are not addressed specifically, since there is as yet no tritium handling experience with them. However, much of the material covered is expected to be relevant to them as well. Annex III briefly addresses problems in the comparatively small-scale use of tritium at universities, medical research centres and similar establishments. However, the main subject of this publication is the handling of larger quantities of tritium. Operational aspects include designing for tritium safety, safe handling practice, the selection of tritium-compatible materials and equipment, exposure assessment, monitoring, contamination control and the design and use of personal protective equipment. This publication does not address the technologies involved in tritium control and cleanup of effluents, tritium removal, or immobilization and disposal of tritium wastes, nor does it address the environmental behaviour of tritium. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices and Poison Control Centers: Collaborating to Prevent Medication Errors and Unintentional Poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaida, Allen J

    2015-06-01

    This article provides an overview on the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), the only independent nonprofit organization in the USA devoted to the prevention of medication errors. ISMP developed the national Medication Errors Reporting Program (MERP) and investigates and analyzes errors in order to formulate recommendations to prevent further occurrences. ISMP works closely with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), drug manufacturers, professional organizations, and others to promote changes in package design, practice standards, and healthcare practitioner and consumer education. By collaborating with ISMP to share and disseminate information, Poison Control centers, emergency departments, and toxicologists can help decrease unintentional and accidental poisonings.

  7. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

  8. Influence of the environmental pollution in the electrical power systems and the safe operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Borrego, German

    1996-01-01

    The present work shows the results of the Cuban researches on the influence of the environmental pollution on the power systems and the recommendations that in this regard are made when the Juragua Nuclear power Plants is in operation

  9. A Safe Supervisory Flight Control Scheme in the Presence of Constraints and Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzè Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the hybrid supervisory control architecture developed by Famularo et al. (2011 for constrained control systems is adopted with the aim to improve safety in aircraft operations when critical events like command saturations or unpredicted anomalies occur. The capabilities of a low-computational demanding predictive scheme for the supervision of non-linear dynamical systems subject to sudden switchings amongst operating conditions and time-varying constraints are exploited in the flight control systems framework. The strategy is based on command governor ideas and is tailored to jointly take into account time-varying set-points/constraints. Unpredictable anomalies in the nominal plant behaviour, whose models fall in the category of time-varying constraints, can also be tolerated by the control scheme. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, simulations both on a high altitude performance demonstrator unmanned aircraft with redundant control surfaces and the P92 general aviation aircraft are discussed.

  10. Workspace Safe Operation of a Force- or Impedance-Controlled Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Yamokoski, John D. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of controlling a robotic manipulator of a force- or impedance-controlled robot within an unstructured workspace includes imposing a saturation limit on a static force applied by the manipulator to its surrounding environment, and may include determining a contact force between the manipulator and an object in the unstructured workspace, and executing a dynamic reflex when the contact force exceeds a threshold to thereby alleviate an inertial impulse not addressed by the saturation limited static force. The method may include calculating a required reflex torque to be imparted by a joint actuator to a robotic joint. A robotic system includes a robotic manipulator having an unstructured workspace and a controller that is electrically connected to the manipulator, and which controls the manipulator using force- or impedance-based commands. The controller, which is also disclosed herein, automatically imposes the saturation limit and may execute the dynamic reflex noted above.

  11. Environmental advertisement: An alternative policy to control consumption pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Sartzetakis, Eftichios Sophocles; Xepapadeas, Anastasios P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the efficiency enhancing potential of supplementing existing policies of controlling consumption pollution with environmental advertisement. Our definition of environmental advertisement includes both information dissemination and persuasion. While incentive-based regulations that are based on coercion are effective immediately, environmental advertisement that is based on inducing voluntary action requires time. We formalise this argument by assuming that the shift of con...

  12. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) to guarantee safe water reuse and drinking water production--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewettinck, T; Van Houtte, E; Geenens, D; Van Hege, K; Verstraete, W

    2001-01-01

    To obtain a sustainable water catchment in the dune area of the Flemish west coast, the integration of treated domestic wastewater in the existing potable water production process is planned. The hygienic hazards associated with the introduction of treated domestic wastewater into the water cycle are well recognised. Therefore, the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) was used to guarantee hygienically safe drinking water production. Taking into account the literature data on the removal efficiencies of the proposed advanced treatment steps with regard to enteric viruses and protozoa and after setting high quality limits based on the recent progress in quantitative risk assessment, the critical control points (CCPs) and points of attention (POAs) were identified. Based on the HACCP analysis a specific monitoring strategy was developed which focused on the control of these CCPs and POAs.

  13. Feedback control of a primary pump for safe and stable operation of a PIUS-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, K.; Imai, S.; Masaoka, H.; Tamaki, M.; Kukita, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A new automatic pump speed control system by using a measurement of the temperature distribution in the lower density lock is proposed for the PIUS-type reactor. This control system maintains the fluid temperature at the axial center of the lower density lock at the average of the fluid temperatures below and above the density lock in order to prevent the poison water from penetrating into the core during normal operation. The effectiveness of this control system was successfully confirmed by a series of experiments such as start-up and power ramping tests for the stable normal operation and a loss-of-feedwater test for the safe shutdown in an accident condition, using a small scale atmospheric pressure test loop which simulated the PIUS principle. (orig.)

  14. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  15. Steroidal compounds as carriers of juvenile hormone bioanalogues applicable in environmentally safe insect pest control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurček, Ondřej; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Bennettová, Blanka; Kuldová, Jelena; Hrdý, Ivan; Drašar, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, Suppl. 1 (2007), A131-A132 ISSN 1738-2297. [International Congress of Insect Biotechnology and Industry. 19.08.2007-24.08.2007, Daegu] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : juvenile hormone bioanalogues * juvenoid * juvenogen Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Safe, Non-Corrosive Dielectric Fluid for Stagnating Radiator Thermal Control System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Paragon proposes to develop a single-loop, non-toxic, stagnating active pumped loop thermal control design for NASA's Orion or Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM)...

  17. A concealed observational study of infection control and safe injection practices in Jordanian governmental hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawajfah, Omar M; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    The recognized international organizations on infection prevention recommend using an observational method as the gold standard procedure for assessing health care professional's compliance with standard infection control practices. However, observational studies are rarely used in Jordanian infection control studies. This study aimed to evaluate injection practices among nurses working in Jordanian governmental hospitals. A cross-sectional concealed observational design is used for this study. A convenience sampling technique was used to recruit a sample of nurses working in governmental hospitals in Jordan. Participants were unaware of the time and observer during the observation episode. A total of 384 nurses from 9 different hospitals participated in the study. A total of 835 injections events were observed, of which 73.9% were performed without handwashing, 64.5% without gloving, and 27.5% were followed by needle recapping. Handwashing rate was the lowest (18.9%) when injections were performed by beginner nurses. Subcutaneous injections were associated with the lowest rate (26.7%) of postinjection handwashing compared with other routes. This study demonstrates the need for focused and effective infection control educational programs in Jordanian hospitals. Future studies should consider exploring the whole infection control practices related to waste disposal and the roles of the infection control nurse in this process in Jordanian hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    With growing world population, diminishing resources, and realization of the harmful effects of various pollutants, research focus in environmental management has shifted towards sustainability. The goal of a sustainable management strategy is to promote the structure and operati...

  19. Division of Environmental Control Technology program, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Environmental engineering programs are reviewed for the following technologies; coal; petroleum and gas; oil shale; solar; geothermal and energy conservation; nuclear energy; and decontamination and decommissioning. Separate abstracts were prepared for each technology. (MHR)

  20. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Guenther, Lyn; Tan, Jerry; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Clobetasol propionate (CP) shampoo 0.05% is an efficacious and safe treatment for scalp psoriasis. The aim of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to determine if CP shampoo is suitable for long-term disease control. Participants with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis (global severity score [GSS] of 3 or 4 on a scale of 0 [clear] to 5 [very severe]) first received once daily CP shampoo treatment for up to 4 weeks. Responders were subsequently randomized to receive the CP shampoo or vehicle twice weekly maintenance regimen for up to 6 months. When relapse occurred (defined as GSS > 2), participants resumed once daily CP shampoo treatment; when symptoms diminished (GSS shampoo did not relapse compared with participants treated with vehicle (P shampoo group. After 6 months 31.1% (33/106) of participants in the CP shampoo group were still relapse free versus 8.1% (9/111) of participants in the vehicle group. There was no greater incidence of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in the CP shampoo group compared with the vehicle group. Clobetasol propionate shampoo is efficacious and safe for acute management and long-term maintenance of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  1. A concept of environmental controlling for industrial enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelzl, U.

    1992-01-01

    The protection of nature is seen as a global challenge to mankind. Industrial enterprises are confronted with the question of how to contribute to the solution of environmental problems. In this study possibilities and concepts are printed out that would enable industrial enterprises to recognize and as a consequence reduce environmental pollution and risks caused by their products and production processes by means of organization. After a description of recent developments in the entrepreneur's surroundings brought about by environmental problems, and a characterization of environmental management, which can be seen as a reaction to the above mentioned developments, a concept of environmental controlling for industrial enterprises is developed deductively. Environmental controlling is here regarded as a sub-system of environmental management that supports the determination of environmental aims, the analysis, the planning and the control of environmental pollution, as well as the use of material and energy by installing and coordinating a specific environment information system. The main functions of environmental controlling are planning, controlling, informing, advising and some special functions. The specific functional instruments for carrying out these tasks are described in a special chapter. (author)

  2. The Model-Driven openETCS Paradigm for Secure, Safe and Certifiable Train Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peleska, Jan; Feuser, Johannes; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    -driven openETCS approach, a threat analysis is performed, identifying both safety and security hazards that may be common to all model-based development paradigms for safety-critical railway control systems, or specific to the openETCS approach. In the subsequent sections state-of-the-art methods suitable...

  3. Automatic cryogenic liquid level controller is safe for use near combustible substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejsa, M.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic mechanical liquid level controller that is independent of any external power sources is used with safety in the presence of combustibles. A gas filled capillary tube which leads from a pressurized chamber, is inserted into the cryogenic liquid reservoir and becomes a liquid level sensing element or probe.

  4. Safe protocols for generating power pulses with heterogeneous populations of thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Kundu, Soumya; Backhaus, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Algorithms to produce useful load response from a heterogeneous group of TCLs. ► Generation of sharp power pulses without initiating any unwanted oscillation. ► Open-loop methods, not requiring any detailed system modeling. ► One-way, utility-to-consumer, communication. ► Potential use in secondary frequency regulation, generation-load balancing, etc. - Abstract: We explore methods to use thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as water heaters and air conditioners, to provide ancillary services by assisting in balancing generation and load. We show that by adding simple imbedded instructions and a small amount of memory to temperature controllers of TCLs, it is possible to design open-loop control algorithms capable of creating short-term pulses of demand response without unwanted power oscillations associated with temporary synchronization of the TCL dynamics. By moving a small amount of intelligence to each of the end point TCL devices, we are able to leverage our knowledge of the time dynamics of TCLs to shape the demand response pulses for different power system applications. A significant benefit of our open-loop method is the reduction from two-way to one-way broadcast communication which also eliminates many basic consumer privacy issues. In this work, we focus on developing the algorithms to generate a set of fundamental pulse shapes that can subsequently be used to create demand response with arbitrary profiles. Demand response control methods, such as the one developed here, open the door to fast, nonperturbative control of large aggregations of TCLs

  5. Safe household water treatment and storage using ceramic drip filters: a randomised controlled trial in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, T; Brown, J; Suntura, O; Collin, S

    2004-01-01

    A randomised controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ceramic drip filters to improve the microbiological quality of drinking water in a low-income community in rural Bolivia. In four rounds of water sampling over five months, 100% of the samples were free of thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms (TTC) compared to an arithmetic mean TTC count of 1517, 406, 167 and 245 among control households which continued to use their customary sources of drinking water. The filter systems produced water that consistently met WHO drinking-water standards despite levels of turbidity that presented a challenge to other low-cost POU treatment methods. The filter systems also demonstrated an ability to maintain the high quality of the treated water against subsequent re-contamination in the home.

  6. Does adding ketamine to morphine patient-controlled analgesia safely improve post-thoracotomy pain?

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Timothy J.; Churchhouse, Antonia M.D.; Housden, Tessa; Dunning, Joel

    2011-01-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘is the addition of ketamine to morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following thoracic surgery superior to morphine alone’. Altogether 201 papers were found using the reported search, of which nine represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and...

  7. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies.

  8. Method of gas emission control for safe working of flat gassy coal seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, E. A.; Yaroshenko, V. V.; Kislicyn, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    The main problems at intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining are considered. For example, mine Kotinskaja JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass” shows that when conducting the work on the gassy coal seams, methane emission control by means of ventilation, degassing and insulated drain of methane-air mixture is not effective and stable enough. It is not always possible to remove the coal production restrictions by the gas factor, which leads to financial losses because of incomplete using of longwall equipment and the reduction of the technical and economic indicators of mining. To solve the problems, the authors used a complex method that includes the compilation and analysis of the theory and practice of intensive flat gassy coal seam longwall mining. Based on the results of field and numerical researches, the effect of parameters of technological schemes on efficiency of methane emission control on longwall panels, the non-linear dependence of the permissible according to gas factor longwall productivity on parameters of technological schemes, ventilation and degassing during intensive mining flat gassy coal seams was established. The number of recommendations on the choice of the location and the size of the intermediate section of coal heading to control gassing in the mining extracted area, and guidelines for choosing the parameters of ventilation of extracted area with the help of two air supply entries and removal of isolated methane-air mixture are presented in the paper. The technological scheme, using intermediate entry for fresh air intake, ensuring effective management gassing and allowing one to refuse from drilling wells from the surface to the mined-out space for mining gas-bearing coal seams, was developed.

  9. Control Of Rust Disease In Irradiated Vicia Faba By Using Safe Alternative Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; Helal, I.M.; Mohamed, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection of Vicia faba with Uromyces viciae-fabae causes significant decrease in growth and total nitrogen content and increase in the phenolic compounds. The study was carried out to investigate the effects of chemicals used as drench application in soil (e.g. saccharin), biotic agents (e.g. Bacillus subtilis) and artificial essential oils (e.g. rosemary) in irradiated (0, 5, 10, 15 Gy) broad bean Vicia faba on the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae. Bacillus subtilis was inoculated to beans at the third leaf then saccharin (5 mM/l) was used as drench application in the soil and the essential oil was used for foliar application at concentrations 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm. All treatments gave positive results to control the disease but differ in the mechanism of action. The control of the disease with saccharin application may be due to the formation of antimicrobial components (wyrone acid) by plant tissues and increase with increasing the concentration of saccharin. In case of using the essential oil, the affect on the microbe was directly observed within 28 h because the oil affect the permeability of cell membrane of the pathogen but in case of Bacillus, it acts as biological control agent induced resistance of plant by affecting the activity of antioxidant enzymes; peroxidase and chitinase. Saccharin and spore suspension induce systemic protection to rust infection after 72 and 96 hours. The disease index and the phenolic compounds were determined because they play important role in the systemic protection of rust disease 96 h after application. The results showed that the phytoalexin wyerone acid was formed in case of biotic agent (Bacillus subtilis) and the chemical (saccharin) but did not form in case of essential oil (rosemary)

  10. Inherently safe SNR shutdown system with Curie point controlled sensor/switch unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.; Norajitra, P.; Reiser, H.

    1987-02-01

    Inherent shutdown due to increase in the sodium temperature at the core outlet is triggered by interruption of the current supply to the electromagnet coupling of absorber elements via curie point controlled sensor/switch units. These switches are arranged above suitable fuel element positions and spatially independent of the shutdown elements. Compared with other similar systems very short response times are achieved. A prototype switch unit has already undergone extensive testing. These tests have confirmed that switching takes place in a very narrow temperature range. (orig./HP) [de

  11. SAFE Newsletter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Center of Excellence SAFE – “Sustainable Architecture for Finance in Europe” – is a cooperation of the Center for Financial Studies and Goethe University Frankfurt. It is funded by the LOEWE initiative of the State of Hessen (Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz). SAFE brings together more than 40 professors and just as many junior researchers who are all dedicated to conducting research in support of a sustainable financial architecture. The Center has...

  12. Use of controlled dynamic impacts on hierarchically structured seismically hazardous faults for seismically safe relaxation of shear stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhich, Valery V.; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Levina, Elena A.; Shilko, Evgeny V.; Grigoriev, Alexandr S.

    2017-12-01

    In the paper we briefly outline the experience in forecasting catastrophic earthquakes and the general problems in ensuring seismic safety. The purpose of our long-term research is the development and improvement of the methods of man-caused impacts on large-scale fault segments to safely reduce the negative effect of seismodynamic failure. Various laboratory and large-scale field experiments were carried out in the segments of tectonic faults in Baikal rift zone and in main cracks in block-structured ice cove of Lake Baikal using the developed measuring systems and special software for identification and treatment of deformation response of faulty segments to man-caused impacts. The results of the study let us to ground the necessity of development of servo-controlled technologies, which are able to provide changing the shear resistance and deformation regime of fault zone segments by applying vibrational and pulse triggering impacts. We suppose that the use of triggering impacts in highly stressed segments of active faults will promote transferring the geodynamic state of these segments from a metastable to a more stable and safe state.

  13. Range of expert system for control, modeling and safely operation in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlin, A.; Semenov, S.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes expert system projects which had been developed formerly and are under the development now in NVIIAES Institute, Moscow. One of the accomplished systems (PEX) is a ES-shell of classical type able to manipulate fuzzy expert assessments. The system is used as a shell for ES-advisor for MCP failures diagnostics and in some applications of the same sort. Another realized system (EDES) is on-line express-diagnostical ES for NPP unit emergency regimes identification. EDES is implemented now as a component of NPP system of control and operation conditions diagnostics. Both systems are realized on conventional programming languages Pascal and C, respectively. The presentation describes current developments in ES as well, including classification system for material researches, the project of training ES for second circuit diagnostics based on event tree generating and expert planner for neutron-physical three-dimensional reactor calculations. All this projects are implemented on different versions of PROLOG programming language

  14. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  15. Development of environmental radiation control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M. H.; Kim, E. H.; Keum, D. K.; Kang, M. J.; Jang, B. W.

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of the study are to development of an urban atmospheric dispersion model and data assimilation technique for improving the reliability, to develop the technology for assessing the radiation impact to biota and the surface water transport model, to develop the analytical techniques for the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites and to assess of the national environmental radiation impact and establish the optimum management bases of natural radiation. The obtained results might be used; for assessing the radiological effects due to and radiological incident in an urban area, for assessing radiation doses on biota for the environmental protection from ionizing radiation with the application of new concept of the ICP new recommendation, for analyzing the indicator radionuclides on decommissioning of nuclear facilities and nuclear waste disposal sites, and for providing the natural radionuclide database of Korea to international organizations such as UNSCEAR. It can be used for emphasizing relative nuclear safety

  16. The safe control of the transport of radioactive material in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumette, L.

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of the transport of radioactive and fissile material for civil use concerns the protection of human beings and the environment against the radiological risk which can occur by these conveyed material. That's why this regulation particularly calls upon the law of the protection of the environment, upon the law of the transport of dangerous goods and upon the nuclear law. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency [I.A.E.A.], the implementation of this regulation gives the transport a high level of safety. It comes from I.A.E.A's recommendations which have taken into account lessons from the scientific research and from technical experiences. These recommendations are implemented in international binding modal regulations so that they can be adapted to the ways of transport. Their acceptance in the inner law goes with some national specific laws, mainly connected with the operator's missions and responsibilities. So this technical and administrative regulation is rather complex, and its codification would make it clearer. Nevertheless the whole regulation meets the double aim of the law in transport of dangerous goods which is to insure the safety of this transport of dangerous goods without prejudicing exchanges. In order to apply the regulation, the operators use supervision procedure to check their activities are in conformity with the law. In addition to these procedures, the Authorities supervise this conformity from time to time, by making boring. Operators and the Authorities involve their responsibility which is dependent either on the system of civil responsibility in case of damage, or on the system of administrative responsibility in case of error or risk, or on the system of penal responsibility in case of infraction of the law. So the operators have to apply the regulation and the Administration has to enforce this regulation they have built up. However, the self-control of the safety of the transport of radioactive

  17. The development of functional fail-safe control for advanced robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Shigetaka; Shimizu, Yujiro; Hayashi, Tetsuji

    1990-01-01

    Advanced robots for the nuclear power plant maintenance are increasing the complexity in comparison with industrial robots, and severe in condition of use, and are increasing the importance of safety and reliability. In this paper, as a high reliability technology for Advanced Robot, Functional Failsafe control (FFC) is described. FFC isolates the faults, and keeps the minimum function of robot, using the remained potential redundancy of robot, with minimizing of additional parts to robot, at the occurrence of faults. We suggest the three reliability evaluation principles for Advanced robot, then define the FFC in these principles. In the proposed FFC, the method of using an amplifier between two servosystems in common, and the method of stucking the degrees of freedom of robot arm are studied and proved by experiments on the design of FFC. And, a new design method is showed, based on not only the reliability of time, but also the reliability of amount of working. So, we clarified some remained subjects to develop for the FFC. (author)

  18. The role of risk analysis in control of complex plant safe operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Maria; Preda, Irina Aida; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Carcadea, Elena

    1999-01-01

    The problem of risk estimation assessment and control is necessary to be discussed in every decision making level of an activity. Performances of a system, action or technology, by indicating the possible consequences on environment, people or property should be qualitatively assessed. The paper presents methodologies of risk assessment successful applied on isotopic separation plants. The quantitative methodologies presented, use fault tree and event tree to determine the accident states frequency, physical models to analyse the dispersion in atmosphere of dangerous substances. The qualitative methodologies use the fuzzy models for the multicriterial decision making, models based on risk matrix build on the base of combination between the severity and the probability of maximum admissible consequence. These methodologies present the following steps for applying: familiarising with the activity in study, establishing the adequate method of risk assessment, building the model of risk assessment for the activity or objective in study, developing the applications of the proposed model. Applying this methodology to isotopic separation plants have led to: analysis of operation events and establishing of principal types of events potentially dangerous, analysis of human error in these plant operations and operating experience assessment, technical specifications for optimisation by probabilistic safety assessment, reliability analysis and development of reliability and exploitation of events database, post accident events analysis (releases, fires, explosions) and mathematical modelling of dispersion in atmosphere of dangerous substances. The risk concept being complex and with multiple implications, is not the case of a rigid approaching neither of existence of some methods universally valid. Because of these reasons, choosing of the most appropriate method for the risk assessment of an activity, leads to a solution in useful time, of some problems with economic, social

  19. Technology of environmental pollution control, 2nd edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, E.I.

    1991-01-01

    The final decade of the 20th century is truly the environmental decade of the century because of the gravity of environmental challenges we are facing. This book covers the environmental spectrum in an attempt to update the reader on new technologies and topics regarding pollution control. Engineers, scientists, plant operators, and students studying the subject of pollution control will use the comprehensive text as a reference for technological advances, regulations, and pollution control. The major disasters witnessed in the last few years, such as the Bhopal gas tragedy, the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the Ashland of tank collapse are described in detail

  20. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2008 - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2008 and February 2009. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the continuation of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements and the continued manufacturing and testing of the regenerative ECLS equipment.

  1. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2010 - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011 and the continued permanent presence of six crew members on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and extension of the ISS service life from 2015 to 2020 or beyond.

  2. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  3. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2009 - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non -regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year, covering the period of time between March 2009 and February 2010. The ISS continued permanent crew operations, with the start of Phase 3 of the ISS Assembly Sequence and an increase of the ISS crew size from three to six. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements.

  4. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  5. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2014 and February 2015. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  6. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  7. Environmental control of branching in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Revel S M; Janssen, Bart J; Luo, Zhiwei; Oplaat, Carla; Ledger, Susan E; Wohlers, Mark W; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2015-06-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Environmental Licensing: an Instrument of Command and Control by Exception?

    OpenAIRE

    Sleman Chams, Juliette; Gestión Ambiental de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Atlántico-CRA, autoridad ambiental del Departamento del Atlántico,; Velásquez Muñoz, Carlos Javier; Universidad del Norte (Barranquilla)

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the situation of the most important instrument of command and control existing in the Colombian environmental legislation: the environmental license. Since its first formal regulation, on behalf of Decree 1753 of August 3, 1994, has received several modifications which, apparently, have made, in spite of its importance, in an instrument of command and control by exception. The article revises on the scope of each of the modifications and the justifications put forward by...

  9. A New Environmentally Safe Formulation and of Low Cost for Prolonged Release System of Atrazine and Diuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracy karla da Rocha Cortes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diuron and atrazine were incorporated in new formulations developed with the purpose to improve herbicides action through release systems, as well as to reduce the environmental toxicity. A low cost formulation (ALG/ESC was obtained by combining sodium alginate (ALG with fish scales of the Piau fish (ESC from the Leporinus elongatus species. From the crosslinking of ALG/ESC with CaCl2, the formulation ALG/ESC-CaCl2 was obtained. For ALG/ESC-CaCl2, the results are successful, showing a prolonged release of 3.5 and 4.5 days for atrazine and diuron, respectively. Based on parameters of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, it appears that the release systems of diuron and atrazine from ALG/ESC-CaCl2 are by diffusion processes due to anomalous transport, which did not follow Fick’s laws of diffusion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.994

  10. Safe Haven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Gail

    2003-01-01

    Discusses school libraries as safe havens for teenagers and considers elements that foster that atmosphere, including the physical environment, lack of judgments, familiarity, leisure, and a welcoming nature. Focuses on the importance of relationships, and taking the time to listen to teens and encourage them. (LRW)

  11. Environmental Control System Software & Hardware Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Daniel Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    ECS hardware: (1) Provides controlled purge to SLS Rocket and Orion spacecraft. (2) Provide mission-focused engineering products and services. ECS software: (1) NASA requires Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs); fixed-length identifier used to identify information items. (2) CUI structure; composed of nine semantic fields that aid the user in recognizing its purpose.

  12. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  13. Evaluation of design options for improving the energy efficiency of an environmentally safe domestic refrigerator-freezer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H.

    1995-03-01

    In order to reduce greenhouse emissions from power plants and respond to regulatory actions arising from the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed, domestic refrigerator-freezer. The options, such as improved cabinet insulation and high-efficiency compressor and fans, were incorporated into a prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinet and refrigeration system to produce a unit that is superior from an environmental viewpoint due to its lower energy consumption and the use of refrigerant HFC-134a as a replacement for CFC-12. Baseline energy performance of the original 1993 production refrigerator-freezer, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. A detailed refrigerator system computer model was used to evaluate the energy savings for several design modifications that, collectively, could achieve a targeted energy consumption of 1.00 kWh/d for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 l) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. The energy consumption goal represents a 50% reduction in the 1993 NAECA standard for units of this size. Following the modeling simulation, laboratory prototypes were fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the analytical results and aid in improving the model in those areas where discrepancies occurred. While the 1.00 kWh/d goal was not achieved with the modifications, a substantial energy efficiency improvement of 22% (1.41 kWh/d) was demonstrated using near-term technologies. It is noted that each improvement exacts a penalty in terms of increased cost or system complexity/reliability. Further work on this project will analyze cost-effectiveness of the design changes and investigate alternative, more-elaborate, refrigeration system changes to further reduce energy consumption.

  14. Are engineered nano iron oxide particles safe? an environmental risk assessment by probabilistic exposure, effects and risk modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Deng, Lei; Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    Nano iron oxide particles are beneficial to our daily lives through their use in paints, construction materials, biomedical imaging and other industrial fields. However, little is known about the possible risks associated with the current exposure level of engineered nano iron oxides (nano-FeOX) to organisms in the environment. The goal of this study was to predict the release of nano-FeOX to the environment and assess their risks for surface waters in the EU and Switzerland. The material flows of nano-FeOX to technical compartments (waste incineration and waste water treatment plants) and to the environment were calculated with a probabilistic modeling approach. The mean value of the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of nano-FeOX in surface waters in the EU for a worst-case scenario (no particle sedimentation) was estimated to be 28 ng/l. Using a probabilistic species sensitivity distribution, the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was determined from ecotoxicological data. The risk characterization ratio, calculated by dividing the PEC by PNEC values, was used to characterize the risks. The mean risk characterization ratio was predicted to be several orders of magnitude smaller than 1 (1.4 × 10 - 4 ). Therefore, this modeling effort indicates that only a very limited risk is posed by the current release level of nano-FeOX to organisms in surface waters. However, a better understanding of the hazards of nano-FeOX to the organisms in other ecosystems (such as sediment) needs to be assessed to determine the overall risk of these particles to the environment.

  15. A Novel, Safe, and Environmentally Friendly Technology for Water Production Through Recovery of Rejected Thermal Energy From Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Yehia F.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we describe a novel design that utilizes seawater and a portion of rejected heat from a nuclear plant's steam cycle to operate a water desalination system using forward osmosis technology. Water produced from this process is of sufficient quality to be readily used to supply plant demands for continuous makeup water. The proposed process minimizes the environmental concerns associated with thermal pollution of public waters and the resulting adverse impact on marine ecology. To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this conceptual design of a water treatment process, we discuss a case study as an example to describe how the proposed design can be implemented in a nuclear power station with a once--through cooling system that discharges rejected heat to an open sound seawater as its ultimate heat sink. In this case study, the station uses a leased (vendor owned and operated) onsite water treatment system that demineralizes and polishes up to 500-gpm of city water (at 100 ppm TDS) to supply high-quality makeup water (< 0.01 ppm TDS) to the plant steam system. The objectives of implementing the new design are three fold: 1) forego current practice of using city water as the source of plant makeup water, thereby reducing the nuclear station's impact on the region's potable water supply by roughly 100 million gallons/year, 2) minimize the adverse impact of discharging rejected heat into the open sound seawater and, hence, protect the marine ecology, and 3) eliminate the reliance on external vendor that owns and operates the onsite water treatment system, thereby saving an annual fixed cost of $600 K plus 6 cents per 1,000 gallons of pure water. The design will also eliminate the need for using two double-path reverse osmosis (RO) units that consume 425 kW/h of electric power to operate two RO pumps (480 V, 281.6 HP, and 317.4 amps). (authors)

  16. Research and development of technologies for safe and environmentally optimal recovery and disposal of explosive wastes. Task 10, Impact assessment for environment, health and safety (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    2000-03-01

    Modern technologies like high-pressure water washout and Fluidised Bed Combustion provide safe and environmentally acceptable solutions for demilitarisation. The environmental impact from the traditional techniques Open Burning and Open Detonation can be drastically reduced. High-pressure water washout in combination with Fluidised Bed Combustion and NO{sub x}-reduction using urea-injection is the best well-demonstrated technology considered in this study. This technology can be used for large/medium sized calibre munitions, but additional removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gases is required in order to comply with European emission standards. It has been made credible at existing Rotary Kilns used for hazardous waste in general can be used also for incineration of de-sensitised, down sized munitions (slurries), with a similar performance with respect to environmental and safety aspects as Fluidised Bed Combustion. Using a Closed Detonation chamber with flue-gas cleaning has important environmental advantages compared to Open Burning and Open Detonation, especially for small munitions (e.g. fuzes, antipersonnel mines, pyrotechnics). However, because Closed Detonation is labour-intensive and requires operation of complex, pressurised systems, it poses more risk on the personnel. For that reason, it is recommended to develop other systems to demilitarise small munitions. It appears that the air pollution emissions from transport of munitions to disposal facilities is significant compared to the process emissions of the 'cleanest' technologies. Similarly, risks related to transport (due to ordinary accidents involving trucks) are not dominating, but cannot be ignored compared to process risks. These considerations need to be included when comparing less sophisticated local or mobile facilities with central facilities having advanced flue gas cleaning. (au)

  17. Administration of triclabendazole is safe and effective in controlling fascioliasis in an endemic community of the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Fidel; Angles, René; Barrientos, René; Barrios, Gary; Valero, María Adela; Hamed, Kamal; Grueninger, Heiner; Ault, Steven K; Montresor, Antonio; Engels, Dirk; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Bolivian northern Altiplano is characterized by a high prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection. In order to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of large-scale administration of triclabendazole as an appropriate public health measure to control morbidity associated with fascioliasis, a pilot intervention was implemented in 2008. Schoolchildren from an endemic community were screened for fascioliasis and treated with a single administration of triclabendazole (10 mg/kg). Interviews to assess the occurrence of adverse events were conducted on treatment day, one week later, and one month after treatment. Further parasitological screenings were performed three months after treatment and again two months later (following a further treatment) in order to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. Ninety infected children were administered triclabendazole. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. No serious adverse events were reported. Observed cure rates were 77.8% after one treatment and 97.8% after two treatments, while egg reduction rates ranged between 74% and 90.3% after one treatment, and between 84.2% and 99.9% after two treatments. The proportion of high-intensity infections (≥ 400 epg) decreased from 7.8% to 1.1% after one treatment and to 0% after two treatments. Administration of triclabendazole is a feasible, safe and efficacious public health intervention in an endemic community in the Bolivian Altiplano, suggesting that preventive chemotherapy can be applied to control of fascioliasis. Further investigations are needed to define the most appropriate frequency of treatment.

  18. Environmental control technology in petroleum drilling and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental control technology (ECT) is process integrated and relates mainly to pollution prevention and risk assessment. Mechanisms of environmental impact in petroleum drilling, well completion and production, include the generation of waste, induction of toxicity or the creation of pathways for pollutant migration. The identification and evaluation of these mechanisms constitute two parts of the scope of ECT. A third part is the development of new techniques to comply with environmental requirements without prejudicing productivity. The basic concepts of the ECT approach are presented in this chapter. The approach is then used to analyse oilfield drilling and production processes. Environmental control components developed in these technologies are described. These include: the control of the volume and toxicity of drilling fluids; source separation technology in produced water cleaning; subsurface injection of oilfield waste slurries; containment technology in the integrity of petroleum wells; subsurface reduction of produced water; oilfield pit closure technology. (37 figures; 26 tables; 227 references) (UK)

  19. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  20. Research and development of technologies for safe and environmentally optimal recovery and disposal of explosive wastes. Task 2, Preliminary impact assessment for environment, health and safety (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F. [Risoe (Denmark); Larsen, S.G. [DEMEX A/S (Denmark)

    1998-09-01

    As described in the project proposal `Research and Development of Technologies for Safe and Environmentally optimal recovery and Disposal of Explosive Wastes`, dated 31. May 1996, the objective of Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety, is to: Analyse the environmental impact of noise and emissions to air, water and soil; Assess the risk of hazards to workers` health and safety and to the public. Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety (EIA), has been performed from August 1997 to September 1998. First, a methodology has been established, based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to select the `best` technology on the basis of clearly defined objectives, including minimal impacts on environment, health and safety. This included a review of different types of explosive waste with a focus on the environment implications, identifying the issues relevant to defining the criteria or objectives with respect to environment and safety in the framework of explosive waste, as well as the preliminary definition of objectives for the final impact assessment. Second, the previously identified recovery and disposal technologies (Task 1) have been qualitatively assessed on the basis of the relevant objectives. This qualitative assessment includes also economic considerations and an attempt to rank the technologies in an MCDA framework. (au)

  1. Controlled Environmental Agriculture and Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris [Morrisville State College, NY (United States)

    2012-07-27

    Task A: Heating Plant - To design/build a Heating Plant Building with associated heating components for heating the greenhouse and to house the biomass gasification system. The subtasks for this task was and Engineering Design, Procurement and Construction activities. Overall milestones for this task were one construction permit, a code review and stamped drawings, engineered building vendor supplied sealed drawings, and the actual erection of a 1250 sq.ft. building. Task B: Heating System - The activities for this task included the procurement of the heating boilers and all ancillary components. This also included the installation of all heating system components in the new building plus the existing greenhouse structure. The milestone for this task was for the ability to heat 2500 gallons of water to 80 degrees F. Task C: Organic Matter Automated Hopper - The activities involved in this task involved design/fabrication of an automated hopper to feed the biomass gasification system. We need to procure materials and the automated motion components, have the system installed and factory acceptance test of the system. The milestone is to be able to feed wood chips at a rate of 20 Kg/Hr. Task D: Imbert Gasification System - The activities involved in this include the design/build of the gasifier with all accompany ductwork, cyclones and feeding system. Also there is a modification to the scrubber assembly with an automated ash removal system. Lastly a modification to the exhaust/flair system is made to capture heat from this component. Milestone for this task was to be able to produce 15 CFM of SynGas. Task E: Generator Powered by SynGas - Procure two 20kW 4 pole generator heads for installation on the gasifier system. Modification of the fuel plenum manifold with adjustment to the fuel curves for maximum power and load points. Milestone for this task is the ability to run two fuels, either SynGas or propane. This continues with the following tasks: Controls Heating

  2. Perturbation training to promote safe independent mobility post-stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Avril; Aqui, Anthony; Centen, Andrew; Danells, Cynthia J; DePaul, Vincent G; Knorr, Svetlana; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Brooks, Dina; Inness, Elizabeth L; McIlroy, William E; Mochizuki, George

    2015-06-06

    intervention: perturbation training. If effective, this training has the potential to not only prevent falls, but to also improve safe independent mobility and engagement in daily activities for those with stroke. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN05434601 .

  3. A safe workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittsel, Hans; Andersson, Bengt A.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: The video 'A safe workplace' has been produced by ABB Atom in order to create a tool for showing different target audiences that ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Production Plant is a safe workplace and to 'de-mystify' nuclear fuel production. The main target audiences are visitor groups and employees of the company, but the video also qualifies for use as an information tool for other target groups who ask for a proper explanation of the way nuclear fuel is produced. The summarized content of the video is as follows: All individual steps of the production process are described with focus on the safety, quality and environmental requirements. The first part shows the delivery of UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) to the plant and the following process for the conversion to UO 2 (uranium dioxide). The conversion method used is wet conversion that includes evaporation, precipitation, filtration, washing, reduction and stabilization. The next part is a description of the fuel pellet manufacture including uranium oxide blending, pellet pressing, sintering, grinding and a final visual inspection. A separate part, describing the manufacture of fuel pellets with a burnable neutron absorber, is included. The third part shows how to produce fuel rods and complete assemblies. Some of the moments of quality supervision that support the entire manufacturing process are also shown. The last part of the video comprises a brief description of the manufacture of fuel channels and other reactor core components like control rods. The video is produced with a Swedish spoken narrative. The playing time is 15 minutes. The video will be delivered with a text printed in English and copies reproduced in the PAL/VHS system may be ordered from ABB Atom Communication Dept. telefax no +4621-11 41 90, at the price of USD 100.- or SEK 750.- each. (author)

  4. A study on environmental pollution control in energy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B.M.; Son, J.E.; Lee, H.K.; Choi, W.K.; Baek, I.H.; Lee, J.S. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This report is contained such as following contents; Preparation of the stepwise pollution control strategies to reduce pollutants in energy field, which will be satisfy to tightened emission standard in the future. Analysis of the environmental pollution control technologies level, which related to energy field in domestic and other countries. Visualization of the reduction strategies of domestic carbon dioxide emission in energy field. And, discussion and proposal of the R and D program to improve the domestic environmental pollution control technologies in energy field. (author). 99 refs., 67 figs., 73 tabs.

  5. Environmental control procedures at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, E.B.

    1975-01-01

    New environmental control activities in the past year at SRP have included improved control and reporting procedures for chemical spills, reclamation of high-value scrap from wastes, new disposal methods for solid wastes not suitable for the sanitary landfill, improved oil containment, and reduction of sediment discharges to on-plant streams. Interdepartmental committees provide the primary routes for planning and coordinating environmental protection throughout SRP. An improved site-use coordination procedure, developed and implemented by ERDA-SR, has provided more effective control and communication pertaining to activities of the several organizations actively using the 300-square-mile SRP site. (auth)

  6. Study of structure of marine specialist activity in an ergative system on monitoring and managing automatic control parameters of safe navigation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholichev S. N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of structures' common features and dynamics of the technical object tuning circuit performing automatic adjustment of safe navigation options has been conducted for the first time in the theory of ergative systems. The research of the structure and process of ergative system functioning including an automatic control system with the option of safe navigation conditions has been fulfilled. The function of signals' selection performing optimal control law reconfiguration of the mentioned system has been given, and some sequence of marine specialist activities allowing solve the problem of navigation safety has been composed. The ergative system retargeted by the ship specialist has a two-tier hierarchy. The first level is an automatic control of the safe navigation parameter, and the second is the level of reconfiguration where the ship specialist changes the parameters of regulation act. The two-level hierarchical representation of the ergative navigation security settings management system makes it possible to introduce the concept of reconfiguration of regulation level as ship specialist activity which is to reduce the uncertainty in the environment in the operation of this layer. Such a reduction can be achieved as a result of exposure to the upper level associated with ideas of the ship specialist on the regulation of safe navigation parameters of the vessel on the lower level – the level of direct control automatic safe navigation option. As a result of studying the activities of the ship specialist in the ergative system on monitoring and managing automatic control parameters of safe navigation process it has been found that the main task of the ship specialist in the operation within the ergative system ensuring the navigation safety is to monitor the input and output of the automatic control system, decisions on the choice of reconfiguration laws regulating signal on the basis of information about deviations and the

  7. Using safe materials to control Varroa mites with studying grooming behavior of honey bees and morphology of Varroa over winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam F. Abou-Shaara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of drone larvae and propolis as safe materials are anticipated to boost the grooming behavior of honey bees against Varroa mites. It is also expected that grooming behavior of bees and morphology of Varroa are stable during the least active period of the year to bee colonies (i.e winter. Sugar syrup alone or mixed with drone larvae extract or propolis extract were examined as potential Varroa control materials to test these hypothesizes. Moreover, percentages of groomed mites along with body lengths and widths of Varroa were studied on weekly basis during winter. The results showed that propolis extract was able to increase the number of fallen mites under field conditions but with lethal impacts on bee workers in the laboratory than extract of drone larvae or sugar syrup. All the treatments were not able to boost the grooming behavior of bees. The results proved that grooming behavior was stable during winter. Therefore, it is better to select colonies with grooming potential against Varroa during winter in selection programs. December was significantly the minimal month in percentage of groomed mites based on the overall means. Means of measured characteristics of Varroa declined significantly over the study period. For beekeepers, using sugar syrup as spray on bees during regularly colony inspection can help managing Varroa populations without harming the bees.

  8. Advances in Targeted Pesticides with Environmentally Responsive Controlled Release by Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingna Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are the basis for defending against major biological disasters and important for ensuring national food security. Biocompatible, biodegradable, intelligent, and responsive materials are currently an emerging area of interest in the field of efficient, safe, and green pesticide formulation. Using nanotechnology to design and prepare targeted pesticides with environmentally responsive controlled release via compound and chemical modifications has also shown great potential in creating novel formulations. In this review, special attention has been paid to intelligent pesticides with precise controlled release modes that can respond to micro-ecological environment changes such as light-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity, humidity sensitivity, soil pH, and enzyme activity. Moreover, establishing intelligent and controlled pesticide release technologies using nanomaterials are reported. These technologies could increase pesticide-loading, improve the dispersibility and stability of active ingredients, and promote target ability.

  9. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  10. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  11. Greenhouse Environmental Control Using Optimized MIMO PID Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateh BOUNAAMA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate control for protected crops brings the added dimension of a biological system into a physical system control situation. The thermally dynamic nature of a greenhouse suggests that disturbance attenuation (load control of external temperature, humidity, and sunlight is far more important than is the case for controlling other types of buildings. This paper investigates the application of multi-inputs multi-outputs (MIMO PID controller to a MIMO greenhouse environmental model with actuation constraints. This method is based on decoupling the system at low frequency point. The optimal tuning values are determined using genetic algorithms optimization (GA. The inside outsides climate model of the environmental greenhouse, and the automatically collected data sets of Avignon, France are used to simulate and test this technique. The control objective is to maintain a highly coupled inside air temperature and relative humidity of strongly perturbed greenhouse, at specified set-points, by the ventilation/cooling and moisturizing operations.

  12. Administration of Triclabendazole Is Safe and Effective in Controlling Fascioliasis in an Endemic Community of the Bolivian Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Fidel; Angles, René; Barrientos, René; Barrios, Gary; Valero, María Adela; Hamed, Kamal; Grueninger, Heiner; Ault, Steven K.; Montresor, Antonio; Engels, Dirk; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background The Bolivian northern Altiplano is characterized by a high prevalence of Fasciola hepatica infection. In order to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of large-scale administration of triclabendazole as an appropriate public health measure to control morbidity associated with fascioliasis, a pilot intervention was implemented in 2008. Materials and Methods Schoolchildren from an endemic community were screened for fascioliasis and treated with a single administration of triclabendazole (10 mg/kg). Interviews to assess the occurrence of adverse events were conducted on treatment day, one week later, and one month after treatment. Further parasitological screenings were performed three months after treatment and again two months later (following a further treatment) in order to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. Results Ninety infected children were administered triclabendazole. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. No serious adverse events were reported. Observed cure rates were 77.8% after one treatment and 97.8% after two treatments, while egg reduction rates ranged between 74% and 90.3% after one treatment, and between 84.2% and 99.9% after two treatments. The proportion of high-intensity infections (≥400 epg) decreased from 7.8% to 1.1% after one treatment and to 0% after two treatments. Conclusion Administration of triclabendazole is a feasible, safe and efficacious public health intervention in an endemic community in the Bolivian Altiplano, suggesting that preventive chemotherapy can be applied to control of fascioliasis. Further investigations are needed to define the most appropriate frequency of treatment. PMID:22880138

  13. Recent developments in environmental protection in India: Pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, H [NOIDA, Disst, Ghaziabad, Pin (IN)

    1989-01-01

    In India, pollution and environmental degradation have reached alarming dimensions due to poverty, deforestation, industrial development without adequate environmental safeguards, and sheer greed. Fortunately, public concern, rooted in the country's past, has revived. Major pollutants and critically affected areas have been identified. Pollution control of water, air and land has been established by both official and private organizations and the work on environmental protection is steadily growing. The Ganga purification plan is a representative case study. Poverty alleviation is a long-term process. It is India's major problem and is being tackled with help from private enterprise and by international assistance. Simultaneously environmental protection through pollution control is also receiving administrative and legislative support and fiscal assistance through direct and indirect tax incentives. The country's courts are rendering valuable help to environmentalists by pronouncing far-reaching decisions in public-interest litigation. To boost the existing environment-protection movement, greater emphasis is urgently needed for environmental education, peoples' participation, population control, and cost-effective pollution control measures.

  14. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 2. Equipment, Safe Driving Practices, Legal Aspects, Controlling the Situation, Action Evaluation Conference. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual, the second in a set of 14 modules, is designed to train emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Ohio. The module contains five sections that cover the following course content: ambulance equipment, safe driving practices for emergency vehicle drivers, legal aspects of the EMT's job, how to maintain control at an accident scene…

  15. Environmentally safe separation and pre-concentration of rhodium and ruthenium from spent nuclear fuel using mixed-micelle cloud point extraction and determination by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjit, M.; Meeravali, N.N.; Kumar, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Recently, spend nuclear fuel waste of thermal and fast reactors are emerging as an alternative valuable resource for Rh, Ru and Pd. In addition, its presence causes the difficulty in the vitrification process. Hence, its safe extraction from these wastes has to be carried out by using the environmental friendly extraction procedure. In this study, we have reported the simple mixed-micelle cloud point extraction (MM-CPE) procedure for separation as well as pre-concentration of Rh, Ru and Pd. This MM-CPE is carried out preliminarily from aqueous chloride medium with Aliquat-336/Triton X-114 mixed-micelles in the absence and presence of tin(II) chloride. In presence of chloride medium alone, only Pd get extracted quantitatively, while extraction of Rh and Ru are negligible. In presence of tin chloride, the extraction of Rh and Ru increases and becomes quantitative, without affecting the extraction of Pd. The MM-CPE conditions are optimized under influence of variables such as HCI, Aliquat-336, Triton X-114 and tin chloride concentrations and incubation time and temperature. Under the optimized conditions, the accuracy of the procedure is verified by using recovery study carried out from real water samples. This work is under progress to apply real nuclear fuel waste samples

  16. Separation of Cd and Ni from Ni-Cd batteries by an environmentally safe methodology employing aqueous two-phase systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Vania Goncalves; Mageste, Aparecida Barbosa; Santos, Igor Jose Boggione; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes; da Silva, Maria do Carmo Hespanhol [Grupo de Quimica Verde Coloidal e Macromolecular, Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologicas, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. P.H. Rolfs s/n, Campus da UFV, Vicosa, 36570-000 (Brazil)

    2009-09-05

    The separation of Cd and Ni from Ni-Cd batteries using an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of copolymer L35, Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and water is investigated. The extraction behavior of these metals from the bottom phase (BP) to the upper phase (UP) of the ATPS is affected by the amount of added extractant (potassium iodide), tie-line length (TLL), mass ratio between the phases of the ATPS, leaching and dilution factor of the battery samples. Maximum extraction of Cd (99.2 {+-} 3.1)% and Ni (10.6 {+-} 0.4)% is obtained when the batteries are leached with HCl, under the following conditions: 62.53% (w/w) TLL, concentration of KI equal to 50.00 mmol kg{sup -1}, mass ratio of the phases equal to 0.5 and a dilution factor of battery samples of 35. This novel methodology is efficient to separate the metals in question, with the advantage of being environmentally safe, since water is the main constituent of the ATPS, which is prepared with recyclable and biodegradable compounds. (author)

  17. Environmental Control for Regional Library Facilities. RR-80-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard G., Jr.

    This report presents an overview of the damage to library materials caused by uncontrollable environmental variables. The control of atmospheric pollutants, temperature, and humidity are discussed with regard to damage, standards, and the costs of deterioration due to these factors. Twelve references are listed. (FM)

  18. Environmental Control Plan for the Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the Hanford Site's Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility, located in the 100-N Area. This facility is used for the maintenance and storage of respirators, respiratory equipment and testing, calibration and testing of industrial hygiene equipment, and asbestos fiber counting

  19. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  20. Environmental impacts of mining: monitoring, restoration and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.

    1993-01-01

    Contains 12 chapters with the following titles: mining and the environment; surface coal mining with reclamation; reclamation and revegetation of mined land; the acid mine drainage problem from coal mines; acid rock drainage and metal migration; hydrologic impact; erosion and sediment control; wetlands; blasting; mining subsidence; postmining land use; environmental effects of gold heap-leaching operations.

  1. NOx Emission in Iron and Steel Production: A Review of Control Measures for Safe and Eco-Friendly Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Mukhtar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron and steel manufacturing involved preparation of raw materials through processes such as sintering, pelletizing and coke making. During these processes, pollutants such as Sulphur (iv oxides (SO2 Carbon II oxides (CO, Nitrogen oxides (NOX, Volatile organic compounds (VOC and Particulate matter (PM etc. are emitted. The present work is aimed at describing some mitigation technologies of controlling emissions in iron and steel production. The processes involved in the production of iron and steel using Blast Furnace (BF and Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF has been described. The mitigation technologies of controlling emissions were analyzed and discussed with environmental impacts based on the economical and technical factors. In this work, the data presented is based on existing reviews. The combination of low NOX burner (LNB and Selective catalytic reduction (SCR is capable of reducing emission for up to 90% and above. Emissions of other pollutants into the atmosphere as a result of ammonia slip, formation of acids and other gases are harmful to the environment and causes damage to the SCR systems. Installation and operation cost are the major impacts of the SCR technology in the process of iron and steel production.

  2. Safely yours

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Not just a facelift but a real change in the way that safety at CERN is supported by the Organization: the Safety Commission becomes the occupational Health & Safety and Environmental protection (HSE) Unit. The new name reflects a profound change in terms of vision, mission and, above all, effectiveness.   Safety is a broad term that incorporates many concepts and related issues. In the vision of the HSE Unit, safety is built on two pillars: occupational health & safety and environmental protection, both comprising conventional and radiological aspects. “Ensuring safety in these two areas is a matter of highest importance for the Organization”, says Ralf Trant, head of the HSE Unit. “Our vision focuses on improving our efficiency in serving the Organization in all matters of safety. For example, by enhancing the collaboration with the Departmental Safety Officers”. “Safety at CERN builds on international norms and standards, best practi...

  3. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource

  4. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  5. Google Home: smart speaker as environmental control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Kenichiro

    2017-08-23

    Environmental Control Units (ECU) are devices or a system that allows a person to control appliances in their home or work environment. Such system can be utilized by clients with physical and/or functional disability to enhance their ability to control their environment, to promote independence and improve their quality of life. Over the last several years, there have been an emergence of several inexpensive, commercially-available, voice activated smart speakers into the market such as Google Home and Amazon Echo. These smart speakers are equipped with far field microphone that supports voice recognition, and allows for complete hand-free operation for various purposes, including for playing music, for information retrieval, and most importantly, for environmental control. Clients with disability could utilize these features to turn the unit into a simple ECU that is completely voice activated and wirelessly connected to appliances. Smart speakers, with their ease of setup, low cost and versatility, may be a more affordable and accessible alternative to the traditional ECU. Implications for Rehabilitation Environmental Control Units (ECU) enable independence for physically and functionally disabled clients, and reduce burden and frequency of demands on carers. Traditional ECU can be costly and may require clients to learn specialized skills to use. Smart speakers have the potential to be used as a new-age ECU by overcoming these barriers, and can be used by a wider range of clients.

  6. Nicoboxil/nonivamide cream effectively and safely reduces acute nonspecific low back pain – a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahova Z

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Zuzana Blahova,1 Janina Claudia Holm,1 Thomas Weiser,2 Erika Richter,2 Matthias Trampisch,2 Elena Akarachkova3 1Boehringer Ingelheim RCV GmbH & Co KG, Vienna, Austria; 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany; 3I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation Background/objective: Low back pain affects many patients and has a high socioeconomic impact. Topical capsaicinoids have been used for decades to treat musculoskeletal pain. This study investigated the effects of the fixed dose combination (FDC of nonivamide (a capsaicinoid and nicoboxil (a nicotinic acid ester cream in the treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain.Materials and methods: This phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, multi-center trial investigated efficacy, safety, and tolerability of topical nicoboxil 1.08%/nonivamide 0.17% (Finalgon® cream in treatment of acute nonspecific low back pain with the endpoints: pain intensity (PI difference between pre-dose baseline and 8 hours after first application and the end of treatment, mobility score, and efficacy score.Results: Patients (n=138, 21–65 years of age, were treated for up to 4 days with FDC or placebo cream. Mean baseline PI was 6.8 on a 0–10 point numerical rating scale. After 8 hours, pain was more reduced with the FDC than with placebo (adjusted means: 2.824 vs. 0.975 points; p<0.0001. On the last treatment day, mean pain reduction by the FDC was stronger than with placebo (adjusted means: 5.132 vs. 2.174 points; p<0.0001. Mobility on Day 1 was in favor of the FDC when compared to placebo (odds ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 7.200 [3.609, 14.363], p<0.0001. At the end of treatment, patients treated with the FDC rated efficacy significantly higher than placebo (odds ratio [95% CI]: 11.370 [5.342, 24.199], p<0.0001. Both treatments were tolerated well. No serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: Nicoboxil

  7. Integrated environmental control concepts for advanced power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.; Kalagnanam, J.R.; Berkenpas, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    For both conventional and advanced power systems, the capability to estimate the performance and cost of environmental control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. This paper describes a computer model developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique feature of the model allows performance and costs of integrated environmental control concepts to be modeled probabilistically as a means of characterizing uncertainties and risks. Examples are presented of model applications comparing conventional and advanced emission control designs. 13 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  8. ON THE OPTIMAL CONTROL OF A PROBLEM OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dávalos Chuquipoma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is studied the optimal control of distributed parameter systems applied to an environmental pollution problem. The model consists of a differential equation partial parabolic modeling of a pollutant transport in a fluid. The model is considered the speed with which the pollutant spreads in the environment and degradation that suffers the contaminant by the presence of a factor biological inhibitor, which breaks the contaminant at a rate that is not dependent on space and time. Using the method of Lagrange multipliers is possible to prove the existence solving the problem of control and obtaining optimality conditions for optimal control.

  9. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  10. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  11. Climate chamber for environmentally controlled laboratory airflow experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Nurit; Zaretsky, Uri; Grinberg, Orly; Davidovich, Tomer; Kloog, Yoel; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2010-01-01

    Climate chambers have been widely used in in vitro and in vivo studies which require controlled environmental temperature and humidity conditions. This article describes a new desktop climate chamber that was developed for application of respiratory airflows on cultured nasal epithelial cells (NEC) under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Flow experiments were performed by connecting the climate chamber to an airflow generator via a flow chamber with cultured NEC. Experiments at two controlled climate conditions, 25 degrees C and 40% relative humidity (RH) and 37 degrees C and 80%RH, were conducted to study mucin secretion from the cultures inresponse to the flow. The new climate chamber is a relatively simple and inexpensive apparatus which can easily be connected to any flow system for climate controlled flow experiments. This chamber can be easily adjusted to various in vitro experiments, as well as to clinical studies with animals or human subjects which require controlled climate conditions.

  12. Anions environmental monitoring control at CNEN-IPEN/SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Sabrina M.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP, to comply with guidelines and basic procedures to be observed by its installation regarding environmental control actions, related with conventional effluent release started in 2007 the Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). This program includes, besides others parameters, ionic species such as Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N and Sulfate, measured by Ion Chromatography. Among these compounds, Fluoride and Chloride are regulated in effluent discharges by CONAMA's Resolution 430/2011 and the Sao Paulo State Decree 8468/76. Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N in groundwater are regulated by CONAMA's Resolution 396/2008. Considering the legal requirements, every year this program is revised and improvement actions are planned and implemented. The present paper will discuss these improvements to determine the individual performance of the laboratory related to those tests performed by ion chromatography. The adequacy actions performed were the construction of control charts (internal quality control) and the interlaboratory proficiency tests regular participation (external quality control). With these quality control actions it was possible to monitor continuously the laboratory performance, to identify and resolve analytical problems and also interlaboratory differences, to add value to the essay quality control and to provide additional confidence to the institutional program PMA-Q. The recent change in legislation by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011 and the requirements of Resolution CONAMA 396/2008 improvement requirements are also discussed in this work. (author)

  13. Anions environmental monitoring control at CNEN-IPEN/SP-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Sabrina M.; Marques, Joyce R.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP, to comply with guidelines and basic procedures to be observed by its installation regarding environmental control actions, related with conventional effluent release started in 2007 the Environmental Monitoring Program for stable chemical compounds (PMA-Q). This program includes, besides others parameters, ionic species such as Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N and Sulfate, measured by Ion Chromatography. Among these compounds, Fluoride and Chloride are regulated in effluent discharges by CONAMA's Resolution 430/2011 and the Sao Paulo State Decree 8468/76. Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N in groundwater are regulated by CONAMA's Resolution 396/2008. Considering the legal requirements, every year this program is revised and improvement actions are planned and implemented. The present paper will discuss these improvements to determine the individual performance of the laboratory related to those tests performed by ion chromatography. The adequacy actions performed were the construction of control charts (internal quality control) and the interlaboratory proficiency tests regular participation (external quality control). With these quality control actions it was possible to monitor continuously the laboratory performance, to identify and resolve analytical problems and also interlaboratory differences, to add value to the essay quality control and to provide additional confidence to the institutional program PMA-Q. The recent change in legislation by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011 and the requirements of Resolution CONAMA 396/2008 improvement requirements are also discussed in this work. (author)

  14. Code of practice for the control and safe handling of radioactive sources used for therapeutic purposes (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Code is intended as a guide to safe practices in the use of sealed and unsealed radioactive sources and in the management of patients being treated with them. It covers the procedures for the handling, preparation and use of radioactive sources, precautions to be taken for patients undergoing treatment, storage and transport of radioactive sources within a hospital or clinic, and routine testing of sealed sources [fr

  15. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028. 1

  16. Tularemia Outbreak Investigation in Kosovo: Case Control and Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedushaj, Isuf; Gjini, Ardiana; Jorgensen, Tine Rikke; Cotter, Benvon; Lieftucht, Alfons; D’Ancona, Fortunato; Dennis, David T.; Kosoy, Michael A.; Mulliqi-Osmani, Gjyle; Grunow, Roland; Kalaveshi, Ariana; Gashi, Luljeta; Humolli, Isme

    2002-01-01

    A large outbreak of tularemia occurred in Kosovo in the early postwar period, 1999-2000. Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted to identify sources of infection, modes of transmission, and household risk factors. Case and control status was verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and microagglutination assay. A total of 327 serologically confirmed cases of tularemia pharyngitis and cervical lymphadenitis were identified in 21 of 29 Kosovo municipalities. Matched analysis of 46 case households and 76 control households suggested that infection was transmitted through contaminated food or water and that the source of infection was rodents. Environmental circumstances in war-torn Kosovo led to epizootic rodent tularemia and its spread to resettled rural populations living under circumstances of substandard housing, hygiene, and sanitation. PMID:11749751

  17. Soil bioengineering applied to the environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luria, P.

    2005-01-01

    Soil bioengineering is a discipline characterised by the capability of associating geo-technical approaches (e.g. soil stabilisation) with naturalistic rehabilitation and creation of biotopes. It is extremely suitable for the environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills, especially of area and depression landfills, mainly through soil protection and stabilisation measures. Its increasing notoriety is mainly due to the great variety and specificity of its techniques, to the capability of joining technical matters with naturalistic aspects, and to the reduced cost of some interventions. Nevertheless, its application to environmental rehabilitation of controlled landfills is still scarce in Italy. Only 3% of 87 closed landfills analysed, whose rehabilitation projects adopt natural techniques for soil stabilisation and protection, explicitly refers to Soil Bioengineering [it

  18. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  19. Significance of technical rules for environmental pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grefen, K.

    1989-01-01

    Technical rules for environmental pollution control are very important in times of intensified technical progress and especially in view of the alterations of the legislative basis of the European Market in 1992. In the fields of jurisprudence, science and technology they serve as a decision-making aid for authorities, specialists in plant development and operation and the preparatory stages of international legislation. The topic is explained by the development of guidelines with the VDI-Commission on Air Pollution Prevention. (orig.) [de

  20. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  1. How safe is safe enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnoyers, B.; Chanzy, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, were historically established with the objective to reduce the probability that persons be exposed to unacceptable doses due to normal operation or accident situations during transport of radioactive material. Based on the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation (BSS), the definition, which was adopted for an unacceptable dose for an accident situation, is the excess of the maximum dose limits permissible in a single year for the occupational exposure of a worker in the BSS. Concerning the severity of accident situations, it has always be clearly stated that the objective of the tests for demonstrating ability to withstand accident conditions of transport was not to cover every accident condition, but solely most of them. The last available evaluations regarding the rate of accidents which are covered by the standardised accident conditions of transport defined in the IAEA Regulations give a range of about 80%, plus or minus 15% which depends on transport mode and studies. Consequently, slight variations in the capabilities of the packages to meet the specified performance would probably not have significant consequences on the protection level in case of accident. In the assessment of the compliance with the regulations, the tendency of experts, taking advantage of the enhanced performances of computer calculation codes, is to ask more and more calculations, with more and more accuracy, leading to more and more restrictions. Consequently, cost and delay are considerably increased without any evidence of an equivalent effect on the level of protection. This paper will initiate a reflection on the general objectives and principles when implementing the Regulations, in such a way that demonstrations remain cost effective, taking into account evolution of the techniques and a high level of safety

  2. Quality-control activities of the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Jaquish, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to quality control (QC) has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program. The framework of quality control for the surveillance program has been documented in a QC implementation guide wherein QC requirements are specified and specific responsibilities and authorities are described. Subjects in the guide include the collection, analysis, and reporting of samples as well as equipment calibration and maintenance, training, audits, and record keeping. A QC file and library have been established to store pertinent documentation, records, and references for ready access

  3. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program; Usina Nuclear de Angra: programa de controle ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kircher, E; Cruz, E.S. da [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs.

  4. Fail-safe computer-aided operations control system for the transrapid maglev high-speed railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, S [Siemens AG, Braunschweig (Germany); Eilers, H [Siemens AG, Braunschweig (Germany); Freitag, V [Siemens AG, Braunschweig (Germany); Knigge, R [Siemens AG, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The wide variety of control and safety functions for the Transrapid need to be interlinked in the operations control system. These functions are grouped according to their main focus and located in the subsystems `operations control centre`, `decentralised operations control system` and `on-board operations control system`. The paper describes the operations control system OCS. (HW)

  5. System Identification, Environmental Modelling, and Control System Design

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    System Identification, Environmetric Modelling, and Control Systems Design is dedicated to Professor Peter Young on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Professor Young has been a pioneer in systems and control, and over the past 45 years he has influenced many developments in this field. This volume is comprised of a collection of contributions by leading experts in system identification, time-series analysis, environmetric modelling and control system design – modern research in topics that reflect important areas of interest in Professor Young’s research career. Recent theoretical developments in and relevant applications of these areas are explored treating the various subjects broadly and in depth. The authoritative and up-to-date research presented here will be of interest to academic researcher in control and disciplines related to environmental research, particularly those to with water systems. The tutorial style in which many of the contributions are composed also makes the book suitable as ...

  6. An optical brain computer interface for environmental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Bunce, Scott; Onaral, Banu

    2011-01-01

    A brain computer interface (BCI) is a system that translates neurophysiological signals detected from the brain to supply input to a computer or to control a device. Volitional control of neural activity and its real-time detection through neuroimaging modalities are key constituents of BCI systems. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new BCI design that utilizes intention-related cognitive activity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using functional near infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy. fNIR is a noninvasive, safe, portable and affordable optical technique with which to monitor hemodynamic changes, in the brain's cerebral cortex. Because of its portability and ease of use, fNIR is amenable to deployment in ecologically valid natural working environments. We integrated a control paradigm in a computerized 3D virtual environment to augment interactivity. Ten healthy participants volunteered for a two day study in which they navigated a virtual environment with keyboard inputs, but were required to use the fNIR-BCI for interaction with virtual objects. Results showed that participants consistently utilized the fNIR-BCI with an overall success rate of 84% and volitionally increased their cerebral oxygenation level to trigger actions within the virtual environment.

  7. Bidding for blocks and environmental control; Licitacao de blocos e o controle ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinho, Magila Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Silveira Neto, Otacilio dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Direito do Petroleo e Gas Natural, PRH-36

    2004-07-01

    With the coming of the Constitutional Emend n. 9/95, the Brazilian market of oil and natural gas stopped being monopolized by PETROBRAS. Since then, the concession of blocks began to be preceded by the public tender procedure realized by ANP- National Agency of Oil. The activities of oil exploration and production are potentially damaging to environment, what brings necessary the environmental licence and the previous study of the environmental impacts caused in this activity. Considering that the environmental licence must be done after the tender process, the enterprises that bought the blocks would assume the risk of not being allowed to practice their activities because of the absence of the environmental licence. To avoid that the It's offered blocks in not viable areas for oil exploration, the ANP, responsible for the public tender must accomplish a previous environmental control, to assure to the enterprises involved the environmental viability of the blocks offered. This project will touch the question of how has been realized the previous environmental control of the blocks offered by ANP into the public tender process, detaching, the control done at the 6. Round. (author)

  8. Environmental controls on micro fracture processes in shelf ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The recent retreat and collapse of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula has been associated with regional atmospheric warming, oceanic warming, increased summer melt and shelf flexure. Although the cause of collapse is a matter of active discussion, the process is that of fracture of a creep-brittle material, close to its melting point. The environmental controls on how fracturing initiates, at a micro-scale, strongly determine the macroscopic disintegration of ice shelves. In particular the shelf temperature profile controls the plasticity of the ice shelf; the densification of shelf ice due to melting and re-freezing affects the crack tip stress intensity; the accretion of marine ice at the bottom of the shelf imposes a thermal/mechanical discontinuity; saline environments control crack tip stress corrosion; cyclic loading promotes sub-critical crack propagation. These strong environmental controls on shelf ice fracture means that assessing shelf stability is a non-deterministic problem. How these factors may be parameterized in ice shelf models, through the use of fracture mechanisms maps, is discussed. The findings are discussed in relation to the stability of Larsen C.

  9. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  10. Tuberculosis Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities: Environmental Control and Personal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon

    2016-10-01

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) is a recognized risk to patients and healthcare workers in healthcare settings. The literature review suggests that implementation of combination control measures reduces the risk of TB transmission. Guidelines suggest a three-level hierarchy of controls including administrative, environmental, and respiratory protection. Among environmental controls, installation of ventilation systems is a priority because ventilation reduces the number of infectious particles in the air. Natural ventilation is cost-effective but depends on climatic conditions. Supplemented intervention such as air-cleaning methods including high efficiency particulate air filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation should be considered in areas where adequate ventilation is difficult to achieve. Personal protective equipment including particulate respirators provides additional benefit when administrative and environmental controls cannot assure protection.

  11. Need for Robust Sensors for Inherently Fail-Safe Gas Turbine Engine Controls, Monitoring, and Prognostics (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behbahani, Alireza R

    2006-01-01

    Sensor reliability is critical to turbine engine control. Today's aircraft engines demand more sophisticated sensors in the control systems, requiring advanced engine testing for component performance demonstration...

  12. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.

  13. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls

  14. Quality control activities in the environmental radiology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llaurado, M.; Quesada, D.; Rauret, G.; Tent, J.; Zapata, D.

    2006-01-01

    During the last twenty years many analytical laboratories have implemented quality assurance systems. A quality system implementation requires documentation of all activities (technical and management), evaluation of these activities and its continual improvement. Implementation and adequate management of all the elements a quality system includes are not enough to guarantee quality of the analytical results generated at a time. That is the aim of a group of specific activities labelled as quality control activities. The Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (Environmental Radiology Laboratory; LRA) at the University of Barcelona was created in 1984 to carry out part of the quality control assays of the Environmental Radiology Monitoring Programs around some of the Spanish nuclear power plants, which are developed by the Servei Catala d'Activitats Energetiques (SCAR) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), organisations responsible for nuclear security and radiological protection. In these kind of laboratories, given the importance of the results they give, quality control activities become an essential aspect. In order to guarantee the quality of its analytical results, the LRA Direction decided to adopt the international standard UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025 for its internal quality system and to accreditate some of the assays it carries out. In such as system, it is established, the laboratory shall monitor the validity of tests undertaken and data shall be recorded in such a way that trends are detectable. The present work shows the activities carried out in this way by the LRA, which are: Equipment control activities which in the special case of radiochemical techniques include measurement of backgrounds and blanks as well as periodical control of efficiency and resolution. Activities to assure the specifications settled by method validation, which are testing of reference materials and periodical analysis of control samples. Evaluation of the laboratory work quality

  15. Towards Safe Robotic Surgical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    a controller for motion compensation in beating-heart surgery, and prove that it is safe, i.e., the surgical tool is kept within an allowable distance and orientation of the heart. We solve the problem by simultaneously finding a control law and a barrier function. The motion compensation system is simulated...... from several initial conditions to demonstrate that the designed control system is safe for every admissible initial condition....

  16. Environmental insecticide residues from tsetse fly control measures in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sserunjoji-Sebalija, J.

    1976-01-01

    Up to June 1974 areas in Uganda totalling 8600km 2 have been successfully reclaimed from tsetse fly infestation by ground spray of 3% dieldrin water emulsions. A search for equally effective but less persistent and toxic compounds against tsetse flies has been unsuccessful. Fourteen insecticide formulations have been tested for their persistence on tree bark surfaces and, therefore, their availability and toxicity to the target tsetse flies. Only those compounds with a high immediate insecticidal activity (some higher than dieldrin) like endosulfan, Chlorfenvinphos and propoxur could merit further consideration in tsetse control. While some were toxic to tsetse as fresh deposits, they lacked sufficient persistence. A study of the environmental implication from the continued use of the highly persistent and toxic dieldrin has provided useful data on residues likely to be found both in terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. These are generally low. Moreover, there is evidence of degradation in some fish species (Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias). Also, dilution factors and adsorption involving the muddy nature of water run-off, etc., and controlled burning of grasses after tsetse eradication would tend to inactivate the residual insecticide and protect aquatic systems. The general findings have indicated less risk than anticipated of the environmental contamination from tsetse control by application of persistent and toxic insecticides. (author)

  17. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  18. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  19. PETRO-SAFE '94 conference papers: Book 2. Volume 5: Emergency response ampersand spill control; Volume 6: Remediation; Volume 7: Health ampersand safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Environmental, Safety and Health Conference and Exhibition for the oil, gas and petrochemical industries was held January 25--27, 1994 in Houston, Texas. The objective of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum dealing with state-of-the-art environmental and safety issues. This volume focuses on the following: emergency response and spill control; remediation; and health and safety issues. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  20. A cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of SAFE on spousal violence against women and girls in slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Mamun, Mahfuz Al; Mourin, Sanjida Akhter; Parvin, Kausar

    2018-01-01

    Bangladesh reports one of the highest rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the world. Despite wide recognition of IPV as an important public health and human rights issue, evidence for IPV prevention is still inadequate. Lack of guidance on effective IPV prevention in Bangladesh resulted in targeting only women in most of the programmes. This paper assesses impact of SAFE, a 20-month intervention (March 2012 to October 2013) in slums of Dhaka on IPV and tests effectiveness of female only groups vs. no groups; and female + male groups vs. female only groups on IPV in the community using a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial. SAFE's core activities included interactive group sessions, community mobilisation, and services. The last two activities were common across arms. Regression analyses (female survey: baseline n = 2,666; endline n = 2,670) showed no effect of SAFE on IPV against women aged 15-29. However, sub-group analyses demonstrated 21% risk reduction of physical IPV against adolescent girls aged 15-19 in the female + male group intervention arm. A consistent reduction in sexual violence was observed in both female and female + male arms for both groups of women, but the results were not statistically significant. The findings emphasise the importance of combining male and female interventions for reducing physical IPV against adolescent girls. Implications for future research have been discussed.

  1. Microbes safely, effectively bioremediate oil field pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.; Block, C.S.; Mills, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural and augmented bioremediation provides a safe, environmental, fast, and effective solution for removing hydrocarbon stains from soil. In 1992, Amoco sponsored a study with six bioremediation companies, which evaluated 14 different techniques. From this study, Amoco continued using Environmental Protection Co.'s (EPC) microbes for bioremediating more than 145 sites near Farmington, NM. EPC's microbes proved effective on various types of hydrocarbon molecules found in petroleum stained soils from heavy crude and paraffin to volatiles such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) compounds. Controlled laboratory tests have shown that these microbes can digest the hydrocarbon molecules with or without free oxygen present. It is believed that this adaptation gives these microbes their resilience. The paper describes the bioremediation process, environmental advantages, in situ and ex situ bioremediation, goals of bioremediation, temperature effects, time, cost, and example sites that were treated

  2. Using the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental (S.A.F.E.) Acculturation Stress Scale to Assess the Adjustment Needs of Hispanic College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Westbrook, Franklin D.

    1996-01-01

    Reexamined the validity and reliability of the 24-item S.A.F.E. scale and found it to be a reliable measure of Hispanics' acculturation stress. Also studied the effect of generational status, gender, and socioeconomic status on the levels of acculturation stress experienced by this sample. (RJM)

  3. Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, N.

    2010-01-01

    To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In

  4. El control de la reproducción como resultado de decisiones seguras o riesgosas Control reproduction as result of safe or risky decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Arzuaga S

    2006-09-01

    and educational levels, with more than a year marital relationship were interviewed. The methodology is supported on grounded theory. Results: the findings show how according to feminine and masculine significants the couples assume a fixed position facing reproduction. This deal with is a decision-taking process between risky and safe decisions. Accordingly some are continually "searching security" to avoid unwanted children while others are continually "taking risks" about an unwanted pregnancy. Discussion: the couple’s strategies to face reproduction are tainted by their interpretation of the gender norms. The security looking couples assume gender norms in a flexible way whereas the risk-taking couples have a rigid perception of the gender norms and the power relationships. Conclusions: the conclusion is that the masculine and feminine significants about how males and females should be influences their reproductive behavior. The couples´ contexts and significants about reproduction define their behavior in birth control. Accordingly it is fundamental to know the context and perceptions about reproduction if we want to provide education able to transform behavior.

  5. Review on water leakage control in distribution networks and the associated environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ruiping; Chen, Qiuwen; Li, Ruonan

    2014-05-01

    Water supply is the primary element of an urban system. Due to rapid urbanization and water scarcity, maintaining a stable and safe water supply has become a challenge to many cities, whereas a large amount of water is lost from the pipes of distribution systems. Water leakage is not only a waste of water resources, but also incurs great socio-economic costs. This article presents a comprehensive review on the potential water leakage control approaches and specifically discusses the benefits of each to environmental conservation. It is concluded that water leakage could be further reduced by improving leakage detection capability through a combination of predictive modeling and monitoring instruments, optimizing pipe maintenance strategy, and developing an instant pressure regulation system. The environment could benefit from these actions because of water savings and the reduction of energy consumption as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  7. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  8. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Motaium, R A [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Ceter, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( {sup 60}Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using {sup 15}N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using {sup 32}p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is

  9. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Motaium, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15 N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32 p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to

  10. Migratory decisions in birds: Extent of genetic versus environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  11. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  12. Feed an food from desert environments. [Controlled environmental agricultural technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassham, J.A.

    1977-09-01

    Research programs on controlled environmental agricultural technology to allow a broad range of conventional and unconventional crops to be grown with very limited supplies of fresh or brackish water are reviewed. The use of water derived from the sea, from saline lakes, or from waste water treatment for crops in arid lands is discussed. Plant breeding programs to improve the nutritional value of food crops and irrigation systems to improve plant productivity are discussed. The production of liquid hydrocarbons and lubricating oils from plant species such as Euphorbic and Jojoba, and the use of leguminous plants such as mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), and other native plants, which thrive in arid regions, as important sources of proteins and carbohydrates are cited as examples of the productive potential of arid lands. 41 references.

  13. Food-specific sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs: a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, E; Pelst, M; Hesta, M; Cox, E

    2017-01-18

    were sterile. Our results demonstrate that the used peanut-SLIT protocol is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs. Further studies should evaluate tolerability, safety and efficacy in dogs with food allergy.

  14. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  15. Effect of education and health locus of control on safe use of pesticides: a cross sectional random study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber Sherine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Egypt, many pesticides are used to control pests in agricultural farms. Our study aimed to investigate knowledge and behaviors of farmers related to pesticide use and their relation to educational level and health locus of control. Health locus of control is the degree to which individuals believe that their health is controlled by internal or external factors. Methods A cross-sectional randomized approach was used to collect data from 335 farmers in Mahmoudiya region, Egypt using an interview questionnaire. Results were analyzed using Pearson Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student t-test and ANOVA. Results The average age of farmers was 34 years and 61% of them didn't receive school education. School education was related to higher levels of knowledge and behaviors. Farmers who received school education had more knowledge about the negative effects of pesticides on health and routes of contamination with pesticides. They also had higher scores on reading labels of pesticides containers and taking precautions after coming in contact with pesticides. Regarding health locus of control, higher internal beliefs were significantly related to higher knowledge and behaviors scores, while there was no significant relation between chance and powerful others beliefs with knowledge or behaviors. Conclusion In the present study, higher level of education and lower level of internal beliefs were related to better knowledge and safer use of pesticides among Egyptian farmers. We recommend that strategies for raising internal beliefs must be included in health education programs that aim to ameliorate pesticides use among farmers.

  16. Environmentally Friendly Coating Technology for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Jolley, Scott T.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Gillis, Mathew; Blanton, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry.

  17. Environmental risk assessment for Neodryinus typhlocybae, biological control agent against Metcalfa pruinosa, for Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Strauss

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of Neodryinus typhlocybae, a parasitic wasp from North America, were evaluated with regard to its safe use as an exotic biocontrol agent for the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa in Austria. Following an earlier host range study of N. typhlocybae conducted in the laboratory, the present study assessed the potential for establishment and spread as well as negative indirect effects on non-target organisms. The potential release sites in Austria were analysed for matching of the climatic requirements for establishment of N. typhlocybae. The two proposed release locations, Vienna and Graz, have a predominantly similar climate to the parasitoid’s region of origin, though the comparably cooler mean summer temperatures might result in a low emergence rate of the partial second generation. The natural spread potential of N. typhlocybae was reviewed and is considered to be sufficiently good for released individuals to reach nearby sites infested with M. pruinosa. However, a perceptible spreading of N. typhlocybae females only occurs a few years after release and seems to be strongly dependent on the host density. Gelis areator, a hyperparasitoid of N. typhlocybae known to occur in Austria, might have negative effects on the population of the beneficial organism. Advantages and disadvantages of chemical and biological control methods against M. pruinosa were evaluated. It is concluded that N. typhlocybae is very well suited as a biological control agent for M. pruinosa in Austria, as no adverse effects on non-target species are expected but its release offers advantages with regard to sustainable and environmentally friendly pest management.

  18. Cost-Effective and Environmentally Safe Corrosion Prevention for 2nd Marine Air Wing Support Equipment Using Desiccant Wheel Dehumidification (DEW)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, David

    1994-01-01

    ...: change the material, coat its surface or keep the item dry. In an effort to reduce the cost and environmental impact of maintaining contingency support equipment, the 2nd Marine Air Wing (2nd MAW...

  19. Is paromomycin an effective and safe treatment against cutaneous leishmaniasis? A meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High cost, poor compliance, and systemic toxicity have limited the use of pentavalent antimony compounds (SbV, the treatment of choice for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. Paromomycin (PR has been developed as an alternative to SbV, but existing data are conflicting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, without language restriction, through August 2007, to identify randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy or safety between PR and placebo or SbV. Primary outcome was clinical cure, defined as complete healing, disappearance, or reepithelialization of all lesions. Data were extracted independently by two investigators, and pooled using a random-effects model. Fourteen trials including 1,221 patients were included. In placebo-controlled trials, topical PR appeared to have therapeutic activity against the old world and new world CL, with increased local reactions, when used with methylbenzethonium chloride (MBCL compared to when used alone (risk ratio [RR] for clinical cure, 2.58 versus 1.01: RR for local reactions, 1.60 versus 1.07. In SbV-controlled trials, the efficacy of topical PR was not significantly different from that of intralesional SbV in the old world CL (RR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-1.89, whereas topical PR was inferior to parenteral SbV in treating the new world CL (0.67; 0.54-0.82. No significant difference in efficacy was found between parenteral PR and parenteral SbV in the new world CL (0.88; 0.56-1.38. Systemic side effects were fewer with topical or parenteral PR than parenteral SbV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Topical PR with MBCL could be a therapeutic alternative to SbV in selected cases of the old world CL. Development of new formulations with better efficacy and tolerability remains to be an area of future research.

  20. Perturbation training to promote safe independent mobility post-stroke: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Avril; Aqui, Anthony; Centen, Andrew; Danells, Cynthia J.; DePaul, Vincent G.; Knorr, Svetlana; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Brooks, Dina; Inness, Elizabeth L.; McIlroy, William E.; Mochizuki, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Falls are one of the most common medical complications post-stroke. Physical exercise, particularly exercise that challenges balance, reduces the risk of falls among healthy and frail older adults. However, exercise has not proven effective for preventing falls post-stroke. Falls ultimately occur when an individual fails to recover from a loss of balance. Thus, training to specifically improve reactive balance control could prevent falls. Perturbation training aims to improve react...

  1. Dynamic environmental control mechanisms for pneumatic foil constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Jan-Frederik; Wu, Yupeng; Beccarelli, Paolo; Chilton, John

    2017-11-01

    Membrane and foil structures have become over the last decades an attractive alternative to conventional materials and building systems with increasing implementation in different typologies and scale. The development of transparent, light, flexible and resistant materials like Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) has triggered a rethinking of the building envelope in the building industry towards lightweight systems. ETFE foil cushions have proven to fulfil the design requirements in terms of structural efficiency and aesthetic values. But the strategies to satisfy increasing demands of energy efficiency and comfort conditions are still under development. The prediction and manipulation of the thermo-optical behaviour of ETFE foil cushion structures currently remain as one of the main challenges for designers and manufacturers. This paper reviews ongoing research regarding the control of the thermo-optical performance of ETFE cushion structures and highlights challenges and possible improvements. An overview of different dynamic and responsive environmental control mechanisms for multilayer foil constructions is provided and the state of the art in building application outlined by the discussion of case studies.

  2. Genetic and Environmental Control of Neurodevelopmental Robustness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Mellert

    Full Text Available Interindividual differences in neuronal wiring may contribute to behavioral individuality and affect susceptibility to neurological disorders. To investigate the causes and potential consequences of wiring variation in Drosophila melanogaster, we focused on a hemilineage of ventral nerve cord interneurons that exhibits morphological variability. We find that late-born subclasses of the 12A hemilineage are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation. Neurons in the second thoracic segment are particularly variable with regard to two developmental decisions, whereas its segmental homologs are more robust. This variability "hotspot" depends on Ultrabithorax expression in the 12A neurons, indicating variability is cell-intrinsic and under genetic control. 12A development is more variable and sensitive to temperature in long-established laboratory strains than in strains recently derived from the wild. Strains with a high frequency of one of the 12A variants also showed a high frequency of animals with delayed spontaneous flight initiation, whereas other wing-related behaviors did not show such a correlation and were thus not overtly affected by 12A variation. These results show that neurodevelopmental robustness is variable and under genetic control in Drosophila and suggest that the fly may serve as a model for identifying conserved gene pathways that stabilize wiring in stressful developmental environments. Moreover, some neuronal lineages are variation hotspots and thus may be more amenable to evolutionary change.

  3. Designing and evaluating the effectiveness of a serious game for safe administration of blood transfusion: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Apphia Jia Qi; Lee, Cindy Ching Siang; Lin, Patrick Yongxing; Cooper, Simon; Lau, Lydia Siew Tiang; Chua, Wei Ling; Liaw, Sok Ying

    2017-08-01

    Preparing nursing students for the knowledge and skills required for the administration and monitoring of blood components is crucial for entry into clinical practice. Serious games create opportunities to develop this competency, which can be used as a self-directed learning strategy to complement existing didactic learning and simulation-based strategies. To describe the development and evaluation of a serious game to improve nursing students' knowledge, confidence, and performance in blood transfusion. An experiential gaming model was applied to guide the design of the serious game environment. A clustered, randomized controlled trial was conducted with 103 second-year undergraduate nursing students who were randomized into control or experimental groups. After a baseline evaluation of the participants' knowledge and confidence on blood transfusion procedure, the experimental group undertook a blood transfusion serious game and completed a questionnaire to evaluate their learning experience. All participants' clinical performances were evaluated in a simulated environment. The post-test knowledge and confidence mean scores of the experimental group improved significantly (pgame intervention compared to pre-test mean scores and to post-test mean scores of the control group (pgame positively. The study provided evidence on the effectiveness of a serious game in improving the knowledge and confidence of nursing students on blood transfusion practice. The features of this serious game could be further developed to incorporate additional scenarios with repetitive exercises and feedback to enhance the impact on clinical performance. Given the flexibility, practicality, and scalability of such a game, they can serve as a promising approach to optimize learning when blended with high-fidelity simulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Environmental Radiological Impact of Nuclear Power. Monitoring and Control Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the environment and public exposure to ionizing radiation may result from releases from programmed or accidental operations in regulated activities, or they may be due to preexisting situations such as contamination caused by past accidents, radioactive rain caused by nuclear tests, or increased natural radioactivity resulting from human activities. In many cases, both the emission sources and the environment should be monitored to determine the risk to the population and verify to what extent the limits and conditions established by competent authorities are being observed. Monitoring can be divided into three categories: monitoring of the emission source, of the receiving medium and of members of the public; individual monitoring of the population is extremely rare and would only be considered when estimated doses substantially exceed the annual public dose limit. In practices likely to produce significant radioactive releases, as is the case of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the limits and conditions for monitoring and controlling them and the requirements for environmental radiological monitoring are established in the licensing process. Programs implemented during normal operation of the facilities form the basis for monitoring in the event of accidents. in addition to environmental radiological monitoring associated with facilities, different countries have monitoring programs outside the facilities zones of influence, in order to ascertain the nationwide radiological fund and determine possible increases in this fund. In Spain, the facilities that generate radioactive waste have effluent storage, treatment and removal systems and radiological monitoring programs based on site and discharge characteristics. The environmental radiological monitoring system is composed of the network implemented by the owners in the nuclear fuel cycle facilities zones of influence, and by nationwide monitoring networks managed by the Consejo de

  5. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  6. Environmental Control Plan for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action Project. The purpose of this plan is to identify environmental requirements for the 300-FF-1 operable unit Remedial Action/Waste Disposal Project

  7. Cluster randomised controlled trial of 'whole school' child maltreatment prevention programme in primary schools in Northern Ireland: study protocol for Keeping Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElearney, Aisling; Brennan-Wilson, Aoibheann; Murphy, Christina; Stephenson, Phyllis; Bunting, Brendan

    2018-05-03

    Child maltreatment has a pervasive, detrimental impact on children's wellbeing. Despite a growing focus on prevention through school based education, few programmes adopt a whole- school approach, are multi-component, seek to address all forms of maltreatment, or indeed have been robustly evaluated. This paper describes a cluster randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate a school based child maltreatment prevention programme: 'Keeping Safe' in primary schools in Northern Ireland. The intervention has been designed by a non-profit agency. Programme resources include 63 lessons taught incrementally to children between four and 11 years old, and is premised on three core themes: healthy relationships, my body, and being safe. There are programme resources to engage parents and to build the capacity and skills of school staff. A cluster Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) will be conducted with children in 80 schools over a two-year period. The unit of randomisation is the school. Schools will be allocated to intervention or wait-list control groups using a computer-generated list. Data will be collected at three time points: baseline, end of year one, and end of year two of programme implementation. Primary outcomes will include: children's understanding of key programme concepts, self-efficacy to keep safe in situations of maltreatment, anxiety arising from programme participation, and disclosure of maltreatment. Secondary outcomes include teachers' comfort and confidence in teaching the programme and parents' confidence in talking to their children about programme concepts. This RCT will address gaps in current practice and evidence regarding school based child maltreatment prevention programmes. This includes the use of a whole- school approach and multi-component programme that addresses all maltreatment concepts, a two-year period of programme implementation, and the tracking of outcomes for children, parents, and teachers. Methodologically, it will extend

  8. Implications for the inter-organizational design of environmental care when changing environmental control points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, J.L.F.; Seuring, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we try to bridge the gap between two lines of thought within the environmental care literature. We differentiate between two major clusters in this literature; (1) environmental management and (2) strategic approach to environmental care. Although both approaches focus on the same

  9. Is nuclear power safe enough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, A F [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1979-01-01

    The lecture formed a commentary on the report of the Norwegian Government's Commission on Nuclear power Safety which was published in October 1978. It was introductorily pointed out that 'safe' and 'safety' are not in themselves meaningful terms and that the probability of an occurrence is the real measure. The main items in the Commission's report have been core meltdown, releases during reprocessing, waste disposal, plutonium diversion and environmental impacts. The 21 members of the Commission were unanimous in 7 of the 8 chapters. In chapter 2, 'Summary and Conclusions', 3 members dissented from the majority opinion, that, subject to certain conditions, nuclear power was a safe and acceptable source of energy.

  10. Organization and methodology applied to the control of commissioning tests to guarantee safe operation of nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausner, J.P.; Jorel, M.

    1990-12-01

    This paper describes the activities of the Safety Analysis Department (DAS), which provides technical support for the French safety authorities in the specific context of analysis and control of startup test programme quality at each of the different stages of the programme. These activities combine to ensure that the objective of the startup tests is reached, in particular that the functions of each safety-related system are guaranteed in all operating configurations, that the performance levels of all components in the system comply with design criteria and that defects revealed during previous tests have been dealt with correctly. The special case of French nuclear facilities, linked to unit standardization, has made it possible to acquire a large amount of experience with the startup of the 900 MWe units and has illustrated the importance of defining a startup test programme. In 1981, a working group, comprising operating organization and safety authority representatives, studied the lessons which had to be learned from 900 MWe unit startup and the improvements which could be made and taken into account in the 1300 MWe unit startup programme. To illustrate the approach adopted by the DAS, we go on to describe the lessons learned from startup of the first 1300 MWe (P4) units

  11. Disain dan Implementasi Kontrol PID Model Reference Adaptive Control untuk Automatic Safe Landing pada Pesawat UAV Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Sudewo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada fase penerbangan quadcopter, fase landing (pendaratan merupakan fase paling kritis, dimana resiko terjadi kecelakaan paling besar. Permasalahan tersebut muncul karena adanya beberapa kendala, seperti kendala pada struktur rangka pesawat yang kecil, peningkatan beban pada sayap pesawat serta pengaruh angin sehingga menyebabkan pesawat tidak stabil. Pada penelitian tugas akhir ini, didesain suatu sistem kontrol pada UAV quadcopter menggunakan kontrol PID dengan Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC. Sistem pengendalian berbasis MRAC menawarkan beberapa kelebihan untuk mengatasi karakteristik plant non-linear salah satunya quadcopter. MRAC merupakan kontrol adaptif dimana performansi keluaran sistem (proses akan mengikuti performansi keluaran model referensinya. Pada tugas akhir ini, model referensi sudah ditentukan diawal dan spesifikasinya tetap sehingga dapat langsung didisain mekanisme adaptasi dari MRAC. Parameter proses θ (a1,a2,b0,b1 diestimasi menggunakan metode Extended Least Square, parameter proses tersebut akan mentuning parameter kontroler (k0,k1,k2,k3 sehingga menghasilkan sinyal kontrol PID. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa ketika terjadi perubahan parameter pada plant, kontroler mampu memperbaiki respon agar tetap dapat mengikuti model referensinya dan dalam mengatasi gangguan metode adaptasi MRAC memiliki kemampuan yang baik dilihat dari waktu yang dibutuhkan yang relatif singkat.

  12. Traumatic colon injury in damage control laparotomy-A multicenter trial: Is it safe to do a delayed anastomosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Leah Carey; Jennings, Andrew; Tatebe, Ken; Handy, Alexandra; Prajapati, Purvi; Smith, Michael; Do, Tai; Ogola, Gerald O; Gandhi, Rajesh R; Duane, Therese M; Luk, Stephen; Petrey, Laura Bruce

    2017-04-01

    Delayed colonic anastomosis after damage control laparotomy (DCL) is an alternative to colostomies during a single laparotomy (SL) in high-risk patients. However, literature suggests increased colonic leak rates up to 27% with DCL, and various reported risk factors. We evaluated our regional experience to determine if delayed colonic anastomosis was associated with worse outcomes. A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed across three Level I trauma centers encompassing traumatic colon injuries from January 2006 through June 2014. Patients with rectal injuries or mortality within 24 hours were excluded. Patient and injury characteristics, complications, and interventions were compared between SL and DCL groups. Regional readmission data were utilized to capture complications within 6 months of index trauma. Of 267 patients, 69% had penetrating injuries, 21% underwent DCL, and the mortality rate was 4.9%. Overall, 176 received primary repair (26 in DCL), 90 had resection and anastomosis (28 in DCL), and 26 had a stoma created (10 end colostomies and 2 loop ileostomies in DCL). Thirty-five of 56 DCL patients had definitive colonic repair subsequent to their index operation. DCL patients were more likely to be hypotensive; require more resuscitation; and suffer acute kidney injury, pneumonia, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and death. Five enteric leaks (1.9%) and three enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF, 1.1%) were identified, proportionately distributed between DCL and SL (p = 1.00, p = 0.51). No difference was seen in intraperitoneal abscesses (p = 0.13) or surgical site infections (SSI, p = 0.70) between cohorts. Among SL patients, pancreas injuries portended an increased risk of intraperitoneal abscesses (p = 0.0002), as did liver injuries in DCL patients (p = 0.06). DCL was not associated with increased enteric leaks, ECF, SSI, or intraperitoneal abscesses despite nearly two-thirds having delayed repair. Despite this being a multicenter study, it is

  13. Environmental degradation of materials and corrosion control in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, J.; Elboujdaini, M.; Shoesmith, D.; Patnaik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials and Corrosion Control In Metals (EDMCCM), held in Quebec City in 1999, was very successful. Encouraged by this success. the Metallurgical Society of CIM organized the Second International Conference in what is hoped will be an on-going series. This meeting was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in August 2003. The objective of this conference was to provide a wide-ranging forum for the discussion of recent developments in the study and understanding of corrosion degradation of metals and alloys and the variety of processes by which corrosion damage accumulates. The scope of the meeting ranged from the fundamental to the very applied with a primary emphasis on the inter-relationships between chemical, electrochemical, mechanical and metallurgical features of corrosion. This symposium was an excellent forum for the exchange of ideas and approaches between generally disparate fields of endeavour. The success of the symposium can be gauged from the large number of papers presented and the outstanding level of international participation, with authors from China, Iran, Japan, North America, Russia, United Kingdom and Venezuela. In addition authors from six Canadian provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan) participated. Six keynote presentations covered a wide range of topics and industries in corrosion and corrosion control, and a total 45 papers were presented, spread over three days in six individual sessions; Electrochemistry and Corrosion of Metals, Corrosion and Cracking Behaviour. Hydrogen in Steel and Pipeline Corrosion, Corrosion Case Studies and Applications, Characterization of Corrosion Behaviour, and Corrosion Protection Coatings. (author)

  14. Simple Instrumental and Visual Tests for Nonlaboratory Environmental Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Eksperiandova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed are simple and available techniques that can be used for rapid and reliable environmental control specifically of natural water by means of instrumental and visual tests in outdoor conditions. Developed are the chemical colorimetric modes for fast detection of socially dangerous trace impurities in water such as Co(II, Pd(II, and Rh(III as well as NO2--ions and Fe(III serving as model impurities. Application of portable digital devices and scanner allows estimating the color coordinates and increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of the tests. The combination of complex formation with preconcentration of colored complexes replaces the sensitive but time-consuming and capricious kinetic method that is usually used for this purpose at the more convenient and reliable colorimetric method. As the test tools, the following ones are worked out: polyurethane foam tablets with sorbed colored complexes, the two-layer paper sandwich packaged in slide adapter and saturated by reagents, and polyethylene terephthalate blister with dried reagents. Fast analysis of polyurethane foam tablets is realized using a pocket digital RGB-colorimeter or portable photometer. Express analysis of two-layer paper sandwich or polyethylene terephthalate blister is realized by visual and instrumental tests. The metrological characteristics of the developed visual and instrumental express analysis techniques are estimated.

  15. Minimum power requirement for environmental control of aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, Juan Carlos; Bejan, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses two basic issues in the thermodynamic optimization of environmental control systems (ECS) for aircraft: realistic limits for the minimal power requirement, and design features that facilitate operation at minimal power consumption. Four models are proposed and optimized. In the first, the ECS operates reversibly, the air stream in the cabin is mixed to one temperature, and the cabin experiences heat transfer with the ambient, across its insulation. The cabin temperature is fixed. In the second model, the fixed cabin temperature is assigned to the internal solid surfaces of the cabin, and a thermal resistance separates these surfaces from the air mixed in the cabin. In the third model, the ECS operates irreversibly, based on the bootstrap air cycle. The fourth model combines the ECS features of the third model with the cabin-environment interaction features of the second model. It is shown that in all models the temperature of the air stream that the ECS delivers to the cabin can be optimized for operation at minimal power. The effect of other design parameters and flying conditions is documented. The optimized air delivery temperature is relatively insensitive to the complexity of the model; for example, it is insensitive to the size of the heat exchanger used in the bootstrap air cycle. This study adds to the view that robustness is a characteristic of optimized complex flow systems, and that thermodynamic optimization results can be used for orientation in the pursuit of more complex and realistic designs

  16. Measurement of Pyrethroids and Their Environmental Degradates in Fruits and Vegetables using a Modification of the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used extensively in agriculture and they, as well as their environmental degradates, may remain as residues on food products such as fruits and vegetables. Since pyrethroid degradates can be identical to the urinary markers used in human biomonitoring ...

  17. 76 FR 3076 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and... environmental assessment (EA) relative to the control of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera). The EA considers the... States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of air potato infestations. We are...

  18. Safe motherhood at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A

    1996-12-01

    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  19. A speech-controlled environmental control system for people with severe dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Mark S; Enderby, Pam; Green, Phil; Cunningham, Stuart; Brownsell, Simon; Carmichael, James; Parker, Mark; Hatzis, Athanassios; O'Neill, Peter; Palmer, Rebecca

    2007-06-01

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) can provide a rapid means of controlling electronic assistive technology. Off-the-shelf ASR systems function poorly for users with severe dysarthria because of the increased variability of their articulations. We have developed a limited vocabulary speaker dependent speech recognition application which has greater tolerance to variability of speech, coupled with a computerised training package which assists dysarthric speakers to improve the consistency of their vocalisations and provides more data for recogniser training. These applications, and their implementation as the interface for a speech-controlled environmental control system (ECS), are described. The results of field trials to evaluate the training program and the speech-controlled ECS are presented. The user-training phase increased the recognition rate from 88.5% to 95.4% (p<0.001). Recognition rates were good for people with even the most severe dysarthria in everyday usage in the home (mean word recognition rate 86.9%). Speech-controlled ECS were less accurate (mean task completion accuracy 78.6% versus 94.8%) but were faster to use than switch-scanning systems, even taking into account the need to repeat unsuccessful operations (mean task completion time 7.7s versus 16.9s, p<0.001). It is concluded that a speech-controlled ECS is a viable alternative to switch-scanning systems for some people with severe dysarthria and would lead, in many cases, to more efficient control of the home.

  20. Islet transplantation as safe and efficacious method to restore glycemic control and to avoid severe hypoglycemia after donor organ failure in pancreas transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Philipp A; Hochuli, Michel; Benediktsdottir, Bara D; Zuellig, Richard A; Tschopp, Oliver; Glenck, Michael; de Rougemont, Olivier; Oberkofler, Christian; Spinas, Giatgen A; Lehmann, Roger

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of islet transplantation after initial pancreas transplantation with subsequent organ failure. Patients undergoing islet transplantation at our institution after pancreas organ failure were compared to a control group of patients with pancreas graft failure, but without islet transplantation and to a group receiving pancreas retransplantation. Ten patients underwent islet transplantation after initial pancreas transplantation failed and were followed for a median of 51 months. The primary end point of HbA1c islet transplantation and in all three patients in the pancreas retransplantation group, but by none of the patients in the group without retransplantation (n = 7). Insulin requirement was reduced by 50% after islet transplantation. Kidney function (eGFR) declined with a rate of -1.0 mL ± 1.2 mL/min/1.73 m 2 per year during follow-up after islet transplantation, which tended to be slower than in the group without retransplantation (P = .07). Islet transplantation after deceased donor pancreas transplant failure is a method that can safely improve glycemic control and reduce the incidence of severe hypoglycemia and thus establish similar glycemic control as after initial pancreas transplantation, despite the need of additional exogenous insulin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. SAFE Journal. Volume 35, Number 1, Spring 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Division Eye Tactical, Inc. - Sales and Marketing Division First Technology Safety Systems, Inc. Fujikura Parachute Co., Ltd. FXC Corporation... markets for environmentally friendly products. The E.PA is considering using Section 6 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to regulate...CH,OH 0,N SAFE Journal - Vol 35(1) - Spring 2007 15 RESEARC H, DEVELOPMENT. TEST & EVALUATION SECTION Figure 2. Preparation of KDNP (1) using a

  2. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  3. Safe Kids Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Videos Newsletter facebook twitter instagram pinterest gplus youtube Search Menu Why It Matters Who We Are What We Do Find Your Safe Kids Safe Kids Day Main menu Keeping All Kids Safe Safety Tips Get Involved 4 Star Charity Donate Text Burns and Scalds 4 tips ...

  4. Water logging and salinity control for environmentally sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.R.; Bhutta, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation supplies at proper time and adequate quantities are imperative for potential agricultural production under arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. To achieve this goal one of the largest integrated irrigation network was established. Without adequate drainage it resulted in the problems of water logging and salinity. To control these problems a big programme of Salinity Control and Reclamation projects (SCARPs) was initiated during 1960 and 82 such SCARPs have been completed and 9 were in progress up to June, 2002 covering an area of 18.6 ma (7.5 mh) at a cost of Rs.93 billions. Under these projects 12746 tube wells in fresh, 3572 in saline groundwater and 13726 km surface and 12612 km tile pipes covering 6391.7 ha, 160 km interceptor drains have been constructed an area of 0.998 ma (GCA). In addition to this some other measures like on farm water management, canal command project, canal lining, construction of evaporation ponds, establishment of research Inst./Organizations were also taken. Many drainage plans like Master Plan (1963), Northern Regional Plan (1967), Water Sector Investment Plan Study (1990), Right Bank Master Plan (1992), Drainage Sector Environmental Assessment (1993) and National Drainage Programme (1995) were prepared and implemented. The cost of the, phase-I of the National Drainage Programme was 785 million US$. The main activities undertaken were remodeling/extension of existing surface and new drains; rehabilitation/replacement of saline ground water (SGW) tube wells; construction of interceptor drains, reclamation of waterlogged areas through biological drainage and transfer of fresh ground water tube wells to the farmers. The data indicate that all the measures taken have played a significant role in reducing the water logging, salinity/sodicity and have increased the crop production and consequently improved the socio-economic conditions of the peoples especially the farming community. The environment in these areas was also

  5. Controls on the Environmental Fate of Compounds Controlled by Coupled Hydrologic and Reactive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, J.; Ward, A. S.; McConville, M.; Remucal, C.

    2017-12-01

    Current understanding of how compounds interact with hydrologic processes or reactive processes have been well established. However, the environmental fate for compounds that interact with hydrologic AND reactive processes is not well known, yet critical in evaluating environmental risk. Evaluations of risk are often simplified to homogenize processes in space and time and to assess processes independently of one another. However, we know spatial heterogeneity and time-variable reactivities complicate predictions of environmental transport and fate, and is further complicated by the interaction of these processes, limiting our ability to accurately predict risk. Compounds that interact with both systems, such as photolytic compounds, require that both components are fully understood in order to predict transport and fate. Release of photolytic compounds occurs through both unintentional releases and intentional loadings. Evaluating risks associated with unintentional releases and implementing best management practices for intentional releases requires an in-depth understanding of the sensitivity of photolytic compounds to external controls. Lampricides, such as 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), are broadly applied in the Great Lakes system to control the population of invasive sea lamprey. Over-dosing can yield fish kills and other detrimental impacts. Still, planning accounts for time of passage and dilution, but not the interaction of the physical and chemical systems (i.e., storage in the hyporheic zone and time-variable decay rates). In this study, we model a series of TFM applications to test the efficacy of dosing as a function of system characteristics. Overall, our results demonstrate the complexity associated with photo-sensitive compounds through stream-hyporheic systems, and highlight the need to better understand how physical and chemical systems interact to control transport and fate in the environment.

  6. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant

  7. Pollution control and environmental management measures in NTPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Modern industrial activities have severely interfered with the natural environment either through deforestation or through discharge of solid and liquid effluents and gaseous emissions. Power generation, though important in achievement economic self-reliance, has interface with the natural surroundings with serious impacts the world over. National Thermal Power Corporation shares the concern for environmental issues for sustainable growth of power sectors and has been incorporating various environmental protection measures in all its business decisions and activities

  8. [Comparative study of some clinical and laboratory indicators in a group of patients using wells as source of drinking water and a control group using safe water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, L; Ciochină, D A

    2011-01-01

    In time, well water, as a source of drinking and coking water, with physical-chemical, bacteriological, and biological indicators suggestive of alteration in water potability, determines complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders. Sixty individuals residing in a rural community were divided into 2 groups: study group -30 subjects using well water, and control group--30 subjects using safe water. For the study group the selection criteria were: age, sex, use of well water as drinking and cooking water, history suggestive of chronic poisoning (pregnancy course, birth weight, susceptibility to infectious agents, and current chronic diseases). In the study group, gestosis, prematurity, and altered body mass index are more frequent as compared to the subjects in the control group. The identified laboratory changes indicate moderate anemia, hepatic cytolysis, dyslipidemia, presence of nitrites in urine, and positive urine cultures. Long-term use of water with mineral constituents in excess, absent, or inadequate, the direct biological and chemical water pollution, or most frequently the indirect pollution through the soil determine, in time, complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders.

  9. A knowledge-based operator advisor system for integration of fault detection, control, and diagnosis to enhance the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, R.

    1989-01-01

    A Knowledged-Based Operator Advisor System has been developed for enhancing the complex task of maintaining safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The operator's activities have been organized into the four tasks of data interpretation for abstracting high level information from sensor data, plant state monitoring for identification of faults, plan execution for controlling the faults, and diagnosis for determination of root causes of faults. The Operator Advisor System is capable of identifying the abnormal functioning of the plant in terms of: (1) deviations from normality, (2) pre-enumerated abnormal events, and (3) safety threats. The classification of abnormal functioning into the three categories of deviations from normality, abnormal events, and safety threats allows the detection of faults at three levels of: (1) developing faults, (2) developed faults, and (3) safety threatening faults. After the identification of abnormal functioning the system will identify the procedures to be executed to mitigate the consequences of abnormal functioning and will help the operator by displaying the procedure steps and monitoring the success of actions taken. The system also is capable of diagnosing the root causes of abnormal functioning. The identification, and diagnosis of root causes of abnormal functioning are done in parallel to the task of procedure execution, allowing the detection of more critical safety threats while executing procedures to control abnormal events

  10. Differential influence of safe versus threatening facial expressions on decision-making during an inhibitory control task in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Gilbert, J E; Killgore, W D S; White, C N; Schwab, Z J; Crowley, D J; Covell, M J; Sneider, J T; Silveri, M M

    2014-03-01

    Social cognition matures dramatically during adolescence and into early adulthood, supported by continued improvements in inhibitory control. During this time, developmental changes in interpreting and responding to social signals such as facial expressions also occur. In the present study, subjects performed a Go No-Go task that required them to respond or inhibit responding based on threat or safety cues present in facial expressions. Subjects (N = 112) were divided into three age groups: adolescent (12-15 years), emerging adult (18-25 years) and adult (26-44 years). Analyses revealed a significant improvement in accuracy on No-Go trials, but not Go trials, during both safe and threat face conditions, with changes evident through early adulthood. In order to better identify the decision-making processes responsible for these changes in inhibitory control, a drift diffusion model (DDM) was fit to the accuracy and reaction time data, generating measures of caution, response bias, nondecision time (encoding + motor response), and drift rate (face processing efficiency). Caution and nondecision time both increased significantly with age while bias towards the Go response decreased. Drift rate analyses revealed significant age-related improvements in the ability to map threat faces to a No-Go response while drift rates on all other trial types were equivalent across age groups. These results suggest that both stimulus-independent and stimulus-dependent processes contribute to improvements in inhibitory control in adolescence with processing of negative social cues being specifically impaired by self-regulatory demands. Findings from this novel investigation of emotional responsiveness integrated with inhibitory control may provide useful insights about healthy development that can be applied to better understand adolescent risk-taking behavior and the elevated incidence of related forms of psychopathology during this period of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Intra-articular Autologous Conditioned Plasma Injections Provide Safe and Efficacious Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis: An FDA-Sanctioned, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick A

    2016-04-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have become an intriguing treatment option for osteoarthritis (OA), particularly OA of the knee. Despite the plethora of PRP-related citations, there is a paucity of high-level evidence that is comparable, cohort specific, dose controlled, injection protocol controlled, and double-blinded. To determine the safety and efficacy of leukocyte-poor PRP autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) for knee OA treatment through a feasibility trial regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. In accordance with FDA protocol, patient selection was based on strict inclusion/exclusion criteria; 114 patients were screened, and 30 were ultimately included in the study. These patients were randomized to receive either ACP (n = 15) or saline placebo (n = 15) for a series of 3 weekly injections. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores served as the primary efficacy outcome measure. Patients were followed for 1 year. No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. Furthermore, the results demonstrated no statistically significant difference in baseline WOMAC scores between the 2 groups. However, in the ACP group, WOMAC scores at 1 week were significantly decreased compared with baseline scores, and the scores for this group remained significantly lower throughout the study duration. At the study conclusion (12 months), subjects in the ACP group had improved their overall WOMAC scores by 78% from their baseline score, compared with 7% for the placebo group. ACP is safe and provides quantifiable benefits for pain relief and functional improvement with regard to knee OA. No adverse events were reported for ACP administration. After 1 year, WOMAC scores for the ACP subjects had improved by 78% from their baseline score, whereas scores for the placebo control group had improved by only 7%. Other joints affected with OA may also benefit from this

  12. "Same Room, Safe Place".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene Woods, Nikki

    2017-04-01

    There are many different professional stances on safe sleep and then there is the reality of caring for a newborn. There is a debate among professionals regarding safe sleep recommendations. The continum of recommendations vary from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Safe Sleep Guidelines to the bed-sharing recommendations from the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory. The lack of consistent and uniform safe sleep recommendations from health professionals has been confusing for families but has more recently raised a real professional ethical dilemma. Despite years of focused safe sleep community education and interventions, sleep-related infant deaths are on the rise in many communities. This commentary calls for a united safe sleep message from all health professionals to improve health for mothers and infants most at-risk, "Same Room, Safe Place."

  13. Government’s Responsibility for Control of Agricultural Environmental Pollution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfang; CHEN

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the current situation of agricultural environmental pollution caused by the increase of chemicals input in agriculture in China was analyzed,and it is found that agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies,urban-rural economic structure,funds input in pollution control,comprehensive environmental management,laws of pollution control,and so forth. To control agricultural pollution effectively,it is needed to implement integration of agricultural and environmental policies,establish environmentally friendly agricultural technology popularizing system,implement integrated planning and management of a basin,and set up and improve legislation to protect agricultural environment.

  14. Environmental control integrated system for abnormal conditions of CNAAA-Angra-1 operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Silva, R.A. da.

    1986-01-01

    A system of computer codes named NUCSICA (Calculation Nucleus of Environmental Control Integrated System) to be used in the Environmental Control Integrated System (SICA) and integrated to the supervision system of Safety Parameters (SSPS), is described. The system is based on a model compatible with local characteristics of Angra-I reactor, relating to micrometeorology, topography, population distribution and socio-economic activities. The model was constructed to foresee the environmental impact. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Environmental controls on barium incorporation into planktic foraminifer, Globorotalia truncatulinoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, J. N.; Reynolds, C. E.; Fehrenbacher, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Ba/Ca of planktic foraminifera in marine sediment cores has been used primarily to track changes in riverine input over time, and thus may be a potentially powerful proxy for reconstructing past changes in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle. Using Ba/Ca as a proxy for riverine freshwater input requires the assumption that Ba/Ca in foraminiferal calcite reflects the Ba/Ca of seawater, and that the partition coefficient for barium between seawater and foraminiferal calcite is independent of the influence of temperature, salinity, pH, alkalinity and light availability. Although it has been shown that this partition coefficient is nearly identical for common species of spinose planktic foraminifera (e.g., Globigerinoides ruber, Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides sacculifer), some non-spinose species have been demonstrated to have Ba/Ca ratios that are much higher than that of co-occurring spinose specimens. We investigate environmental controls on Ba/Ca in the tests of Globorotalia truncatulinoides, a planktic species of foraminifera with a unique life history in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). G. truncatulinoides experiences 92% of its annual flux to the sediment trap during winter (JFM) in the GoM. The Mg/Ca and ∂18O of the ontogenetic calcite suggests that primary calcification occurs within the surface mixed layer (0-150 meters), and a thick secondary crust is added at depths below the thermocline. We use LA-ICP-MS to analyze the Ba/Ca of both encrusted and non-encrusted G. truncatulinoides from a sediment trap time series in the GoM and find that the Ba/Ca in ontogenetic calcite of non-encrusted specimens varies between 10 and 200 mmol/mol, while the Ba/Ca of the secondary crust varies between 0 and 3 mmol/mol. The Ba/Ca of the non-encrusted G. truncatulinoides specimens is two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of co-occurring spinose planktic foraminifera (O. universa and G. ruber) in the GoM sediment trap, while the secondary crust has Ba/Ca similar to

  16. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in ammonia safety and environmental control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D.L.; Athey, G.F.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report characterizes the ammonia industry operations, reviews current knowledge of ammonia release and subsequent impacts, summarizes the status of release prevention and control methods and identify research and development needs for safety and environmental control. Appendices include: accidental spills and human exposure; adiabatic mixing of liquid nitrogen and air; fire and explosion hazards; and environmental impact rating tables. (PSB)

  17. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2010 and February 2011. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to no later than 2028.

  18. Can patient involvement improve patient safety? A cluster randomised control trial of the Patient Reporting and Action for a Safe Environment (PRASE) intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Rebecca; O'Hara, Jane Kathryn; Sheard, Laura; Armitage, Gerry; Cocks, Kim; Buckley, Hannah; Corbacho, Belen; Reynolds, Caroline; Marsh, Claire; Moore, Sally; Watt, Ian; Wright, John

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the Patient Reporting and Action for a Safe Environment intervention. A multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial. Clusters were 33 hospital wards within five hospitals in the UK. All patients able to give informed consent were eligible to take part. Wards were allocated to the intervention or control condition. The ward-level intervention comprised two tools: (1) a questionnaire that asked patients about factors contributing to safety (patient measure of safety (PMOS)) and (2) a proforma for patients to report both safety concerns and positive experiences (patient incident reporting tool). Feedback was considered in multidisciplinary action planning meetings. Primary outcomes were routinely collected ward-level harm-free care (HFC) scores and patient-level feedback on safety (PMOS). Intervention uptake and retention of wards was 100% and patient participation was high (86%). We found no significant effect of the intervention on any outcomes at 6 or 12 months. However, for new harms (ie, those for which the wards were directly accountable) intervention wards did show greater, though non-significant, improvement compared with control wards. Analyses also indicated that improvements were largest for wards that showed the greatest compliance with the intervention. Adherence to the intervention, particularly the implementation of action plans, was poor. Patient safety outcomes may represent too blunt a measure. Patients are willing to provide feedback about the safety of their care. However, we were unable to demonstrate any overall effect of this intervention on either measure of patient safety and therefore cannot recommend this intervention for wider uptake. Findings indicate promise for increasing HFC where wards implement ≥75% of the intervention components. ISRCTN07689702; pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Gregory N., E-mail: gregory.gan@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Weickhardt, Andrew J.; Scheier, Benjamin; Doebele, Robert C. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Gaspar, Laurie E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Camidge, D. Ross [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival.

  20. The energy policy turnaround in Germany. With safe, costs affordable and environmentally-friendly energy by the year 2050. Special edition; Die Energiewende in Deutschland. Mit sicherer, bezahlbarer und umweltschonender Energie ins Jahr 2050. Sonderheft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    Within the contribution under consideration, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the energy policy turnaround in Germany under special consideration of safe, costs affordable and environmentally-friendly energy by the year 2050. This contribution consists of the following chapters: (1) The Federal Government starts a new chapter in the energy policy; (2) The transformation of the energy markets should be cost-efficient as possible; (3) The grid extension is the fundament for a further extension of renewable energies; (4) New gas and coal power plants also are necessary in the future for maintaining the security of supply; (5) The renewable energy moved a step closer to the market; (6) Capital investments in new energy technologies are worthwhile; (7) Increased energy efficiency is a central requirement for the transformation of the energy supply; (8) We need Europe as a partner for the transformation of the energy supply in Germany; (9) A good foreign energy policy is a guarantor for a safe energy supply.

  1. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  2. Project management plan for Reactor 105-C Interim Safe Storage project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagge, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Reactor 105-C (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington) will be placed into an interim safe storage condition such that (1) interim inspection can be limited to a 5-year frequency; (2) containment ensures that releases to the environmental are not credible under design basis conditions; and (3) final safe storage configuration shall not preclude or significantly increase the cost for any decommissioning alternatives for the reactor assembly.This project management plan establishes plans, organizational responsibilities, control systems, and procedures for managing the execution of Reactor 105-C interim safe storage activities to meet programmatic requirements within authorized funding and approved schedules

  3. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-05

    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  4. The development of new environmental policies and processes in response to a crisis: the case of the multiple barrier approach for safe drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, Ryan; Velaniskis, Jonas; Grosbois, Danuta de; Kreutzwiser, Reid D.; Loe, Rob de

    2010-01-01

    While new environmental policies and procedures often are developed incrementally, they can also result from crises or other significant events. In situations where policies and procedures are introduced in response to a crisis, questions about the strengths and weaknesses of existing mechanisms, and the extent to which they can be used to address concerns, may be ignored. This paper explores the complexities of introducing new policies and processes where planning systems and procedures already exist. Drinking water source protection policies that are being developed in response to the tragic events in Walkerton, Ontario, Canada serve as the context for the inquiry. Three case study watersheds were selected to reflect the diversity of municipal jurisdictions and water supply systems in Ontario. A content analysis was undertaken on regulatory and non-regulatory policy documents to determine the extent to which they addressed elements of the multi-barrier approach for drinking water safety. Findings from the research reveal considerable evidence of the multi-barrier approach in the policy and guiding documents analyzed. Policy development in response to a crisis can advance progress on the issue of drinking water safety and coincide with emerging governance strategies. Policy effectiveness may be enhanced by considering existing policies as well as contextual and jurisdictional differences.

  5. Cutting edge SRU control : improved environmental compliance with Jacobs advanced burner control+ (ABC+)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenaar, G. [Jacobs Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Henning, A.; Kobussen, S. [Jacobs Nederland BV, Hoogvliet (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands bitumen contains approximately 4 to 5 per cent sulphur by weight and the bitumen is upgraded to produce lighter fractions. During coking the bitumen is heated and cracked into lighter molecules and a mixture of kerosene, naphtha and gas oil is recovered via fractionation. Then, the vapors leaving the fractionator are processed through hydrodesulphurization, followed by removal by amine based sweetening units. The acid gas from the ASUs is sent to the sulphur recovery units (SRUs) where most of the sulphur is recovered as elemental sulphur. The oil sands industry faces many challenges with respect to environmental impact, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions including the recovery of sulphur and minimizing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions from the oil sands production facilities. In order to improve the SRU control response to acid gas feed variations, Jacobs Comprimo Sulphur Solutions implemented advanced burner control+ (ABC+) at Suncor's Simonette Gas Plant's SRU in northern Alberta. This control system used an acid gas feed analyzer and dynamic algorithms to control the combustion air to the reaction furnace. The analyzer measures H{sub 2}S, total hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water (H{sub 2}O) accurately and quickly, which is important for having effective and fast air-to-acid gas ratio control. The paper provided background information on the Suncor Simonette Gas Plant and discussed ABC+ versus conventional control. An overview of the simplified ABC and ABC+ systems was then illustrated and presented. The ABB multiwave process photometer was also explained. Last, a dynamic simulation of the potential benefits of ABC+ was discussed and the ABC+ benefits for oil sands were presented. It was concluded that ABC+ provides improved SRU performance, reduced SO{sub 2} emissions and violations, and reduced flaring. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  6. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... equilibriums are likely to exist where a certain regulation is substantially lower in a small country than in its big neighbor. This generates a large capital inflow to the safe havens. The pool of funds that may reach the safe havens is shown to be huge. It is far in excess of the absorptive capacity...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  7. The INTERVAL trial to determine whether intervals between blood donations can be safely and acceptably decreased to optimise blood supply: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carmel; Sambrook, Jennifer; Walker, Matthew; Tolkien, Zoe; Kaptoge, Stephen; Allen, David; Mehenny, Susan; Mant, Jonathan; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Thompson, Simon G; Ouwehand, Willem; Roberts, David J; Danesh, John

    2014-09-17

    Ageing populations may demand more blood transfusions, but the blood supply could be limited by difficulties in attracting and retaining a decreasing pool of younger donors. One approach to increase blood supply is to collect blood more frequently from existing donors. If more donations could be safely collected in this manner at marginal cost, then it would be of considerable benefit to blood services. National Health Service (NHS) Blood and Transplant in England currently allows men to donate up to every 12 weeks and women to donate up to every 16 weeks. In contrast, some other European countries allow donations as frequently as every 8 weeks for men and every 10 weeks for women. The primary aim of the INTERVAL trial is to determine whether donation intervals can be safely and acceptably decreased to optimise blood supply whilst maintaining the health of donors. INTERVAL is a randomised trial of whole blood donors enrolled from all 25 static centres of NHS Blood and Transplant. Recruitment of about 50,000 male and female donors started in June 2012 and was completed in June 2014. Men have been randomly assigned to standard 12-week versus 10-week versus 8-week inter-donation intervals, while women have been assigned to standard 16-week versus 14-week versus 12-week inter-donation intervals. Sex-specific comparisons will be made by intention-to-treat analysis of outcomes assessed after two years of intervention. The primary outcome is the number of blood donations made. A key secondary outcome is donor quality of life, assessed using the Short Form Health Survey. Additional secondary endpoints include the number of 'deferrals' due to low haemoglobin (and other factors), iron status, cognitive function, physical activity, and donor attitudes. A comprehensive health economic analysis will be undertaken. The INTERVAL trial should yield novel information about the effect of inter-donation intervals on blood supply, acceptability, and donors' physical and mental well

  8. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  9. Effluent controls and environmental monitoring programs for uranium milling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maixner, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Controls will reduce gaseous, particulate, and liquid discharges. Monitoring programs are used to determine effectiveness. The controls and programs discussed are used at Cotter Corporation's Canon City Mill in Colorado. 3 refs

  10. A review of the environmental survivability of telerobotic control sensor systems for use in nuclear waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, D.E.; Burks, B.L.

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP). During the next few years field deployment of remotely operated systems in nuclear waste cleanup operations will increase dramatically as DOE strives to efficiently and safely remediate the many waste storage sites. Typically, the most fragile components in remote systems are the sensors that provide feedback to the operators or to computer control algorithms. The purpose of this review is to determine the availability of environmentally hardened sensors to support control of a manipulator or vehicle system in a waste tank environment. The emphasis of the report is on the environmental ruggedness of currently available sensors. For the purpose of this review a set of nominal requirements for survivability were adopted conditions in the single-shell tanks at Hanford. This report is designed to be a practical guide to the state of the art in commercially available environmentally tolerant sensors for use with robotic systems. It is neither intended to be an exhaustive review of the technical literature on potential measurement techniques nor a complete physical review of the functioning of particular sensor systems. This report is intended to be a living document. As additional, corrected, or updated information is received from sensor manufacturers, it will be incorporated into the report database. The physical report will then be periodically revised and released in updated format. The authors wish to apologize to any sources of environmentally hardened sensors that were omitted during this review and encourage submission of new or updated data

  11. Overview: Applicability of U.S. environmental control technologies for Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, S.W. [DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the applicability of US environmental control technologies for Korea is presented in outline form. The following topics are discussed: PETC coal research activities, environmental costs, environmental challenges, Clean Air Act requirements, additional regulations for air toxics, clean coal technologies (CCT) approach, CCT help meet environmental challenges, utility options, research goals for advanced power systems, PETC Programs, the NO{sub x} SO process, flue gas cleanup program, air toxics emissions, and retrofit NO{sub x} control for coal-burning boilers.

  12. Integrated environmental control and monitoring in the intelligent workplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This project involved the design and engineering of the control and monitoring of environmental quality - visual, thermal, air - in the Intelligent Workplace. The research objectives were to study the performance of the individual systems, to study the integration issues related to each system, to develop a control plan, and to implement and test the integrated systems in a real setting. In this project, a control strategy with related algorithms for distributed sensors, actuators, and controllers for negotiating central and individual control of HVAC, lighting, and enclosure was developed in order to maximize user comfort, and energy and environmental effectiveness. The goal of the control system design in the Intelligent Workplace is the integration of building systems for optimization of occupant satisfaction, organizational flexibility, energy efficiency and environmental effectiveness. The task of designing this control system involves not only the research, development and demonstration of state-of-the-art mechanical and electrical systems, but also their integration. The ABSIC research team developed functional requirements for the environmental systems considering the needs of both facility manager and the user. There are three levels of control for the environmental systems: scheduled control, sensor control, and user control. The challenges are to achieve the highest possible levels of energy effectiveness simultaneously with the highest levels of user satisfaction. The report describes the components of each system, their implementation in the Intelligent Workplace and related control and monitoring issues.

  13. Environmental control of Tinto and Odiel river basins by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respaldiza, M.A.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Lopez-Tarrida, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the elemental concentrations of sediments of the rivers Tinto and Odiel, in Huelva, Spain, has been performed using PIXE. Thirteen samples have been collected, seven in the Tinto and six in the Odiel. Concentrations of 19 elements have been determined in each of them. The analysis of the data illustrates the environmental impact of the mining and fertilizer plants in the area. (orig.)

  14. A randomised control crossover trial of a theory based intervention to improve sun-safe and healthy behaviours in construction workers: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nioi, Amanda; Wendelboe-Nelson, Charlotte; Cowan, Sue; Cowie, Hilary; Rashid, Shahzad; Ritchie, Peter; Cherrie, Mark; Lansdown, Terry C; Cherrie, John W

    2018-02-15

    Exposure to sunlight can have both positive and negative health impacts. Excessive exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer, however insufficient exposure to sunlight has a detrimental effect on production of Vitamin D. In the construction industry there are onsite proactive behaviours for safety, but sun-safety remains a low priority. There is limited research on understanding the barriers to adopting sun-safe behaviours and the association this may have with Vitamin D production. This paper reports a protocol for an intervention study, using text messaging in combination with a supportive smartphone App. The intervention aims to both reduce UV exposure during months with higher UV levels and promote appropriate dietary changes to boost Vitamin D levels during months with low UV levels. Approximately 60 construction workers will be recruited across the United Kingdom. A randomised control crossover trial (RCCT) will be used to test the intervention, with randomisation at site level - i.e. participants will receive both the control (no text messages or supportive App support) and intervention (daily text messages and supportive App). Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) the intervention focuses on supporting sun-safety and healthy dietary decisions in relation to Vitamin D intake. The intervention emphasises cultivating the perception of normative support in the workplace, increasing awareness of control and self-efficacy in taking sun-protective behaviours, making healthier eating choices to boost Vitamin D, and tackling stigmas attached to image and group norms. Each study epoch will last 21 days with intervention text messages delivered on workdays only. The supportive App will provide supplementary information about sun protective behaviours and healthy dietary choices. The primary outcome measure is 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D [25(OH)D] level (obtained using blood spot sampling), which will be taken pre and post control and

  15. Early sheath removal after percutaneous coronary intervention using Assiut Femoral Compression Device is feasible and safe. Results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman K.M. Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that AFCD2 is a simple and effective alternative to MC for hemostasis following PCI. Early sheath removal 2 h post PCI is feasible, safe, and improves the patient’s comfort.

  16. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  17. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  18. Intelligent automated control of robotic systems for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC) for application to remote system control. Of primary interest to the OTD is the development of technologies which result in faster, safer, and cheaper cleanup of hazardous waste sites than possible using conventional approaches. The objective of the GISC development project is to support these goals by developing a modular robotics control approach which reduces the time and cost of development by allowing reuse of control system software and uses computer models to improve the safety of remote site cleanup while reducing the time and life cycle costs

  19. International conference on safe decommissioning for nuclear activities: Assuring the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Thousands of operations involving the use of radioactive substances will end during the current century. While there is considerable regulatory experience in the 'front end' of the regulatory system for practices, the experience at the back end is more limited as fewer practices have actually been terminated. When a practice is terminated because the facility has reached the end of its useful life, action has to betaken to ensure the safe shutdown of the facility and allow the removal of regulatory controls. There are many issues involved in the safe termination of practices. These include setting criteria for the release of material and sites from regulatory control; determining the suitability of the various options for decommissioning nuclear facilities, managing the waste and material released from control (recycling, reuse or disposal), and the eventual remediation of the site. Some countries have put in place regulatory infrastructures and have developed programmes to manage the associated decommissioning and remediation activities. Other countries are at the stage of assessing what is involved in terminating such practices. The purpose of this Conference is to foster an information exchange on the safe an orderly termination of practices that involve the use of radioactive substances, including both decommissioning and environmental remediation, and to promote improved coherence internationally on strategies and criteria for the safe termination of practices.

  20. International conference on safe decommissioning for nuclear activities: Assuring the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Thousands of operations involving the use of radioactive substances will end during the current century. While there is considerable regulatory experience in the 'front end' of the regulatory system for practices, the experience at the back end is more limited as fewer practices have actually been terminated. When a practice is terminated because the facility has reached the end of its useful life, action has to betaken to ensure the safe shutdown of the facility and allow the removal of regulatory controls. There are many issues involved in the safe termination of practices. These include setting criteria for the release of material and sites from regulatory control; determining the suitability of the various options for decommissioning nuclear facilities, managing the waste and material released from control (recycling, reuse or disposal), and the eventual remediation of the site. Some countries have put in place regulatory infrastructures and have developed programmes to manage the associated decommissioning and remediation activities. Other countries are at the stage of assessing what is involved in terminating such practices. The purpose of this Conference is to foster an information exchange on the safe an orderly termination of practices that involve the use of radioactive substances, including both decommissioning and environmental remediation, and to promote improved coherence internationally on strategies and criteria for the safe termination of practices

  1. Zeolites as catalyzer to environmental control. Nitric oxide removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, C.; Zapata N, M; Villa H, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Zeolites and the microporous materials related to them are a class of environmental catalysts, it which are used to remove the produced gases in combustion process (as mobile sources). In this work the importance that has catalysis for environment improvement is emphasized. A review of recent progress in the use of certain zeolitic material as catalysts for nitric oxide elimination of combustion systems is presented. More used nitric oxide removal methods are presented, as well as its advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, it is emphasized on the need of accomplishing more investigation projects on the development of an active catalyst for the decomposition of the nitric oxide in its elements (N and O)

  2. Eye-based Direct Interaction for Environmental Control in Heterogeneous Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Fulvio; Gale, Alastair; Majaranta, Päivi; Räihä, Kari-Jouko

    environmental control is the control, operation, and monitoring of an environment via intermediary technology such as a computer. Typically this means control of a domestic home.Within the scope of COGAIN, this environmental control concerns the control of the personal environment of a person (with or without a disability). This defines environmental control as the control of a home or domestic setting and those objects that are within that setting. Thus, we may say that environmental control systems enable anyone to operate a wide range of domestic appliances and other vital functions in the home by remote control. In recent years the problem of self-sufficiency for older people and people with a disability has attracted increasing attention and resources. The search for new solutions that can guarantee greater autonomy and a better quality of life has begun to exploit easily available state-of-the-art technology. Personal environmental control can be considered to be a comprehensive and effective aid, adaptable to the functional possibilities of the user and to their desired actions.

  3. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) to evaluate the impact and operational assessment of "safe motherhood and newborn health promotion package": study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir; Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Billah, Sk Masum; Bari, Sanwarul; Tahsina, Tazeen; Hasan, Mohammad Mehedi; Islam, Sajia; Islam, Tajul; Mori, Rintaro; Arifeen, Shams El

    2018-05-03

    Despite considerable progress in reduction of both under-five and maternal mortality in recent decades, Bangladesh is still one of the low and middle income countries with high burden of maternal and neonatal mortality. The primary objective of the current study is to measure the impact of a comprehensive package of interventions on maternal and neonatal mortality. In addition, changes in coverage, quality and utilization of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, social capital, and cost effectiveness of the interventions will be measured. A community-based, cluster randomized controlled trial design will be adopted and implemented in 30 unions of three sub-districts of Chandpur district of Bangladesh. Every union, the lowest administrative unit of the local government with population of around 20,000-30,000, will be considered a cluster. Based on the baseline estimates, 15 clusters will be paired for random assignment as intervention and comparison clusters. The primary outcome measure is neonatal mortality, and secondary outcomes are coverage of key interventions like ANC, PNC, facility and skilled provider delivery. Baseline, midterm and endline household survey will be conducted to assess the key coverage of interventions. Health facility assessment surveys will be conducted periodically to assess facility readiness and utilization of MNH services in the participating health facilities. The current study is expected to provide essential strong evidences on the impact of a comprehensive package of interventions to the Bangladesh government, and other developmental partners. The study results may help in prioritizing, planning, and scaling-up of Safe Motherhood Promotional interventions in other geographical areas of Bangladesh as well as to inform other developing countries of similar settings. NCT03032276 .

  4. Digital Environmental Governance in China: Information Disclosure, Pollution Control, and Environmental Activism in the Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Tan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese water bureaucracy increasingly utilises information and communications technology (ICT in order to strengthen interaction with the population, which is severely affected by industrial pollution. Government webpages, mailboxes, and online interviews with officers have become prevalent tools for environmental governance, including information disclosure, and a virtual communication forum between the state and its citizens. The present study employs a mixed methods approach with a qualitative emphasis to explore the process of communication and interaction between government agencies and local residents in Dongying, Shandong Province. The results show that information disclosure of pollution data remains far from being transparent, despite the fact that the local government has implemented digital environmental governance, as encouraged by the central Chinese state. Internet technologies empower resource-poor environmental activists in Dongying to strengthen their social network and build communication with the authorities. The application of bureaucratic techniques, however, is key for them to enter the communication interface with government agencies in order to influence political decisions. Results suggest that local cadres tend to send mixed signals to activists and display wariness towards them. They also tend to take preventive measures to keep the situation under control when environmental disputes arise. The proposed communication interface approach sheds a clearer light on the complexity among the emergent ICTs, environmental activism, and digital governance.

  5. Case Studies in Crewed Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support System Process Compatibility and Cabin Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of a crewed spacecraft's cabin environment leading to environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) functional capability and operational margin degradation or loss can have an adverse effect on NASA's space exploration mission figures of merit-safety, mission success, effectiveness, and affordability. The role of evaluating the ECLSS's compatibility and cabin environmental impact as a key component of pass trace contaminant control is presented and the technical approach is described in the context of implementing NASA's safety and mission success objectives. Assessment examples are presented for a variety of chemicals used in vehicle systems and experiment hardware for the International Space Station program. The ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact assessment approach, which can be applied to any crewed spacecraft development and operational effort, can provide guidance to crewed spacecraft system and payload developers relative to design criteria assigned ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact ratings can be used by payload and system developers as criteria for ensuring adequate physical and operational containment. In additional to serving as an aid for guiding containment design, the assessments can guide flight rule and procedure development toward protecting the ECLSS as well as approaches for contamination event remediation.

  6. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  7. Environmental controls on multiscale spatial patterns of salt marsh vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Cairns, David; Bartholdy, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    In coastal environments, biogeographic patterns are generally influenced by surface elevation and horizontal distance from sea water. However, it is still unclear whether these major topographic factors are significant controls of vegetation patterns across spatial scales at which different physi...

  8. Analytical quality control in studies of environmental exposure to mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Prosenc, N.; Smerke, J.; Horvat, M.

    1995-01-01

    The work of the laboratory for quality control in this co-ordinated project for the period from November 1993 to June 1994 is presented. The major effort was devoted to assisting in establishing the homogeneity and total methylmercury levels in two new hair reference materials prepared as control materials for the project, numbered 085 (spiked) and 086 (natural level). Results for some hair materials from participants are also given. (author)

  9. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY... States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid... beetle from the western United States, into the eastern United States for use as a biological control...

  10. 75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY..., into the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of... biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) infestations. HWA, an...

  11. Effect of Intrafix® SafeSet infusion apparatus on phlebitis in a neurological intensive care unit: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Chen, D; Liao, Y; Diao, L; Liu, Y; Wu, M; Xue, X; You, C; Kang, Y

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the Intrafix(®) SafeSet infusion apparatus on the incidence of phlebitis in patients being intravenously infused in a neurological intensive care unit (ICU). Patients aged > 12 years, with no history of diabetes mellitus and no existing phlebitis, requiring a daily peripheral intravenous infusion of ≥ 8 h with the total period lasting ≥ 3 days, were enrolled. Infusions were performed using the Intrafix(®) SafeSet or normal infusion apparatus. Incidence of phlebitis (scored according to the Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice of the American Infusion Nurses Society) was analysed. Patients (n = 1545) were allocated to Intrafix(®) SafeSet (n = 709) or normal infusion (n = 836) groups, matched for age, gender and preliminary diagnosis. Incidence of phlebitis was significantly higher using normal infusion apparatus compared with the Intrafix(®) SafeSet (23.4% versus 17.9%, respectively). Intrafix(®) SafeSet infusion apparatus significantly reduced the incidence of phlebitis in patients in the neurological ICU, compared with normal infusion apparatus, and may be suitable for use in routine clinical practice.

  12. Smart City Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Design Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, He; Bohong, Zheng; Qinpei, Kuang

    2017-11-01

    Due to increasingly serious urban pollution, this paper proposes an environmental pollution prevention and control system in combination with Internet of things. The system transfers data through the Internet, which also utilizes sensor, pH sensor and smoke sensor to obtain environmental data. Besides, combined with the video data acquired through monitoring, the data are transferred to data center to analyze the haze pollution, water pollution and fire disaster in environment. According to the results, multi-purpose vehicles are mobilized to complete the tasks such as spraying water to relieve haze, water source purification and fire fighting in city environment. Experiments show that the environmental pollution prevention and control system designed in this paper can automatically complete the urban environmental pollution detection, prevention and control, which thus reduces human and material resources and improves the efficiency of pollution prevention and control. Therefore, it possesses greatly practical significance to the construction of smart city.

  13. Environmental Control of Branching in Petunia1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplaat, Carla; Wohlers, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. PMID:25911529

  14. Predictive control techniques for energy and indoor environmental quality management in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotsa, D. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, 3, Romanou str., 73133, Hania, Crete (Greece); Pouliezos, A. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Production Engineering and Management, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece); Stavrakakis, G.; Lazos, C. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the present paper is to present a model-based predictive controller, combined with a Building Energy Management System (BEMS). The overall system predicts the indoor environmental conditions of a specific building and selects the most appropriate actions so as to reach the set points and contribute to the indoor environmental quality by minimizing energy costs. The controller is tested using a BEMS installation in Hania, Crete, Greece. (author)

  15. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Fossil energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume I contains papers relating to coal preparation, oil shales, coal combustion, advanced coal utilization (fluidized bed combustion, MHD generators, OCGT, fuel cells), coal gasification, coal liquefaction, and fossil resource extraction (enhanced recovery). Separate abstracts for individual papers are prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  16. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods

  17. Fault diagnosis for the heat exchanger of the aircraft environmental control system based on the strong tracking filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger.

  18. Fault diagnosis for the heat exchanger of the aircraft environmental control system based on the strong tracking filter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ma

    Full Text Available The aircraft environmental control system (ECS is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger.

  19. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  20. Safe operating envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, N [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs.

  1. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  2. Buying & Using Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reducers Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Medication Health Fraud Resources for You FDA Consumer Updates (Drugs) Page ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  3. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  4. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, N.

    1997-01-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs

  5. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  6. Removing Hair Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  7. Medications: Using Them Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Safely Give Ibuprofen Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Medicines for Diabetes Complementary and Alternative Medicine How Do Pain Relievers Work? What Medicines Are and What They Do Medicines ...

  8. Environmental control and waste management system design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Passive device contains both solid and liquid animal waste matter for extended period without being cleaned and without contaminating animal. Constant airflow dries solid waste and evaporates liquid matter. Technique will maintain controlled atmospheric conditions and cage cleanliness during periods of 6 months to 1 year.

  9. Air contamination control as an element of state environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of air contamination control on the base of gamma and beta radioactivity of aerosols collected on filters and in precipitation samples have been shown. The data have been gathered from 12 monitoring stations in Poland during 1993. No significant differences between actual results and those obtained in previous years have been noticed. 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  11. A-State-of-the-Art Report on Application of Radiation Technology to Environmental Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Myun Joo

    2004-06-15

    Radiation technology has been rapidly developed for decades and its applicability also enlarged to many fields such as environmental protection, medical care, manufacturing industry, agriculture, and bio technology. In this report, we focused on the present situation of the development of radiation facilities and state-of-the-art on application of radiation to environmental pollution control including purification of flue gas, waste water treatment, and recycling of biological waste. We especially discussed the radiation technology for environmental pollution control and described the capability of its application to the industrial plants in Korea.

  12. Pollution control through innovation and technological development. Environmental policy concepts of the BDI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, E

    1987-02-01

    Increasing acceptance of pollution control tasks call for enhanced innovative power both of industry and politics. One pre-requisite of boosting innovation is an environmental policy concept fit into the framework of the economic policy: A clear environmental strategy stating priorities and foreseeable, fixed data for the required adjustment of industry, selection of pollution control measures by means of verifiable cost-benefit analyses in cooperation with industry, embedding environmental policy in the context of the free market system and harmonization of means and methods on an international level. (orig./HSCH).

  13. DroidSafe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Massachusetts Avenue, Build E19-750 Cambridge , MA 02139-4307 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...Activity objects illustrating the challenges of points-to and information flow analysis...measure how many malicious flows Droid- Safe was able to detect). As these results illustrate , DroidSafe implements an analysis of unprece- dented

  14. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sue I [Berkeley, CA; Fergenson, David P [Alamo, CA; Srivastava, Abneesh [Santa Clara, CA; Bogan, Michael J [Dublin, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA; Frank, Matthias [Oakland, CA

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  15. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.

  16. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage

  17. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage. (DMC)

  18. Environmental controls on pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus initiation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Lareau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the first direct observational evidence that the condensation level in pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus clouds can be significantly higher than the ambient lifted condensation level. In addition, we show that the environmental thermodynamic profile, day-to-day variations in humidity, and ambient wind shear all exert significant influence over the onset and development of pyroconvective clouds. These findings are established using a scanning Doppler lidar and mobile radiosonde system during two large wildfires in northern California, the Bald Fire and the Rocky Fire. The lidar is used to distinguish liquid water from smoke backscatter during the plume rise, and thus provides a direct detection of plume condensations levels. Plume tops are subsequently determined from both the lidar and nearby radar observations. The radiosonde data, obtained adjacent to the fires, contextualize the lidar and radar observations, and enable estimates of the plume ascent, convective available potential energy, and equilibrium level. A noteworthy finding is that in these cases, the convective condensation level, not the lifted condensation level, provides the best estimate of the pyrocumulus initiation height.

  19. Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Poulin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%, which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas.

  20. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Supply Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.

  1. Fiscal federalism approach for controlling global environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, M.N.

    1996-01-01

    It is found that optimal international carbon taxes are country specific and we can decompose a tax on a domestically produced carbon-intensive commodity into a revenue tax, a tax to control local atmospheric pollution and an international carbon tax. It shows that an institutional arrangement for the world economy similar to the fiscal federalism in the federal countries can be useful to internalize the global externalities of atmospheric pollution. 18 refs

  2. Intelligent automated control of robotic systems for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Remote systems are needed to accomplish many tasks, such as the cleanup of waste sites in which the exposure of personnel to radiation, chemical, explosive, and other hazardous constituents is unacceptable. In addition, hazardous operations, which in the past have been completed by technicians, are under scrutiny because of the high costs and low productivity associated with providing protective clothing and environments. Traditional remote operations have, unfortunately, proven to also have very low productivity when compared with unencumbered human operators. However, recent advances in the integration of sensors and computing into the control of remotely operated equipment has shown great promise for reducing the cost of remote systems by providing faster and safer remote systems. The US Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (OTD) has sponsored the development of the generic intelligent system controller (GISC) for application to remote system control. The GISC employs a highly modular architecture employing distributed real-time computing resources for speed and efficiency of computation. Currently, the graphics interface of GISC has been implemented on a Unix-based Silicon Graphics computer using commercial animation graphics software modified for real-time updating from sensory systems. A first implementation of GISC has been completed and is currently in use at Hanford, Washington, as part of the underground storage tank robotics technology development program

  3. Environmental emissions control programs at Lambton TGS [Thermal Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's air emissions control programs at Lambton thermal generating station, both committed and planned, are reviewed, and their potential impacts on emissions, effluents and wastes are discussed. Control technologies examined include flue gas conditioning, wet limestone scrubbing, combustion process modifications, urea injection, and selective catalytic reduction. The implementation of these technologies has the potential to create new solid and liquid waste disposal problems, the full extent of which is often not realized at the process selection stage. For example, selective noncatalytic reduction using urea injection can lead to increased CO emissions, escape of unreacted ammonia from the stack at levels of 5-50 ppM, increase in N 2 O emissions, contamination of fly ash, gypsum and waste water with ammonia, and an increase in CO 2 emissions of less than 0.4% due to increased power consumption. Optimum performance of the air emissions control systems, with minimum negative impact on the environment, requires consideration of the impact of these systems on all waste streams. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Weed control technology for environmentally, economically and socially sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Srivastava, R.C.; Ghorai, A.K.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-04-01

    Studies were conducted through a series of experiments for five consecutive wet seasons with a variety of alternative biological weed control techniques by means of soil solarization. This is a method of heating soil surface by using transparent polyethylene sheets placed on soil surface to trap solar radiation. This raises soil temperature to a level lethal for many soil borne pathogens and weed seeds, thus killing weeds before crop emergence. The use of black low density polyethylene sheets reduces weed growth and increases rice yield

  5. Weed control technology for environmentally, economically and socially sustainable agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, Phulwari Sharif, Patna, Bihar (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Srivastava, R C [Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region (ICAR), Bhubaneswar (India); Ghorai, A K [CRIJAF (ICAR), Barrackpore, West Bengal (India); Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, Phulwari Sharif, Patna, Bihar (India)

    2001-04-01

    Studies were conducted through a series of experiments for five consecutive wet seasons with a variety of alternative biological weed control techniques by means of soil solarization. This is a method of heating soil surface by using transparent polyethylene sheets placed on soil surface to trap solar radiation. This raises soil temperature to a level lethal for many soil borne pathogens and weed seeds, thus killing weeds before crop emergence. The use of black low density polyethylene sheets reduces weed growth and increases rice yield.

  6. Design and quality control of an environmental data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FANJIRINDRATOVO, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present work is focused on the design of a microcontroller based measurement system and the control quality to validate it. So, a mobile instrument called DALENPA was designed to measure and log the following data: atmospheric pressure, ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, air dose rate, geographical coordinates by an embedded GPS receiver. The instrument is autonomous in energy by solar panel and can be connected to a PC directly or by modem. After, the quality control is based on the calibartion in a secondary laboratory. The target is to get its calibration curve and the estimation of global uncertainties. This estimation wants to include all sources of uncertainty belonging to the instrument and the secondary laboratory, and follows the method estabilished by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The calibration curve is fitted by the least squares method with uncertainties in the two variables. We got an efficient instrument with uncertainties under the limits estabilished by the regulating standards [fr

  7. Cooperative Control of Mobile Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring: An Event-Triggered Finite-Time Control Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Han, Qing-Long; Zhang, Botao; Liu, Dongliang; Liu, Shirong

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the problem of environmental monitoring by developing an event-triggered finite-time control scheme for mobile sensor networks. The proposed control scheme can be executed by each sensor node independently and consists of two parts: one part is a finite-time consensus algorithm while the other part is an event-triggered rule. The consensus algorithm is employed to enable the positions and velocities of sensor nodes to quickly track the position and velocity of a virtual leader in finite time. The event-triggered rule is used to reduce the updating frequency of controllers in order to save the computational resources of sensor nodes. Some stability conditions are derived for mobile sensor networks with the proposed control scheme under both a fixed communication topology and a switching communication topology. Finally, simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme for the problem of environmental monitoring.

  8. Assessing environmental DNA detection in controlled lentic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Gregory R; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Hill, Jeffrey E; Shea, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling strategies for rare species. The certainty of species detection relies on understanding false positive and false negative error rates. We used artificial ponds together with logistic regression models to assess the detection of African jewelfish eDNA at varying fish densities (0, 0.32, 1.75, and 5.25 fish/m3). Our objectives were to determine the most effective water stratum for eDNA detection, estimate true and false positive eDNA detection rates, and assess the number of water samples necessary to minimize the risk of false negatives. There were 28 eDNA detections in 324, 1-L, water samples collected from four experimental ponds. The best-approximating model indicated that the per-L-sample probability of eDNA detection was 4.86 times more likely for every 2.53 fish/m3 (1 SD) increase in fish density and 1.67 times less likely for every 1.02 C (1 SD) increase in water temperature. The best section of the water column to detect eDNA was the surface and to a lesser extent the bottom. Although no false positives were detected, the estimated likely number of false positives in samples from ponds that contained fish averaged 3.62. At high densities of African jewelfish, 3-5 L of water provided a >95% probability for the presence/absence of its eDNA. Conversely, at moderate and low densities, the number of water samples necessary to achieve a >95% probability of eDNA detection approximated 42-73 and >100 L, respectively. Potential biases associated with incomplete detection of eDNA could be alleviated via formal estimation of eDNA detection probabilities under an occupancy modeling framework; alternatively, the filtration of hundreds of liters of water may be required to achieve a high (e.g., 95%) level of certainty that African jewelfish eDNA will be detected at low densities (i.e., <0.32 fish/m3 or 1.75 g/m3).

  9. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  10. Trade off between costs and environmental effects of weed control on pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempenaar, C.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Horst, van der C.L.M.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Leemans, K.J.M.; Bannink, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    An actor-participative project on sustainable weed control on pavements was started in 2000 in the Netherlands. The aim of the project was to develop a new concept of weed management that provides cost-effective and environmentally sound weed control. Early in 2002, practical guidelines were drawn

  11. The control and prevention of seizures in children, a developmental and environmental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinn, E. B.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness of neurophysiological and developmental factors in controlling and preventing seizure mechanisms is detailed. It is shown that as cortical control advances with maturation, it requires increasingly severe environmental adversity to release this residual defensive reflex mechanism. Administration of anticonvulsant drugs is discouraged because of possible undesirable neuronal effects on the very young brain.

  12. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO 2 control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  13. Environmental control technology activities of the Department of Energy in FY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Department of Energy is responsible for the research, development, and demonstration of emerging energy technologies and the promotion of energy conservation. An integral and significant part of that responsibility includes the balancing of energy goals with environmental requirements to protect and enhance the general health, safety, and welfare of the nation. This requires that environmental effects be considered and mitigating measures be taken in all energy processes through incorporation of environmental and safety controls which are developed as an integral part of energy system design. This inventory of environmental control technology activities was initiated by the Administrator, ERDA, prior to the incorporation of that administration within the Department of Energy. This compilation of total Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) environmental control technology activities, and associated funding, related to environmental control technology identifies the resources committed by ERDA to demonstrate its objective to protect and enhance the general health, safety, and welfare of the nation in the research, development, and demonstration of energy systems. Only ERDA research, development, and demonstration activities are covered in this report. The compilation for FY 1978 will encompass all of the DOE activities

  14. A case study of the Australian Plague Locust Commission and environmental due diligence: why mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for environmentally responsible locust control in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Paul G; Walker, Paul W; McRae, Heath; Hamilton, John G

    2005-07-01

    The Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) manages locust populations across 2 million square kilometers of eastern Australia using the aerial application of chemical and biological control agents to protect agricultural production. This occurs via a preventative control strategy involving ultralow-volume spray equipment to distribute small droplets of control agent over a target area. The economic costs of, and potential gains stemming from, locust control are well documented. The application of insecticides, however, to fragile arid and semiarid ecosystems is a task that brings with it both real and perceived environmental issues. The APLC is proactive in addressing these issues through a combination of targeted environmental operational research, an ISO-14001-aligned Environmental Management System (EMS), and links with environmental regulatory and research institutions. Increasing due diligence components within Australian environmental legislation dictate that mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for industries to ensure that they meet their environmental obligations. The development of external research links and the formulation of an EMS for locust control have enabled the APLC to identify environmental issues and trends, quantify objective environmental targets and strategies, and facilitate continuous improvement in its environmental performance, while maintaining stakeholder support. This article outlines the environmental issues faced by the APLC, the research programs in place to address these issues, and the procedures in place to incorporate research findings into the organization's operational structure.

  15. Environmental forcing, invasion and control of ecological and epidemiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, J V; Norman, R A

    2007-08-07

    Destabilising a biological system through periodic or stochastic forcing can lead to significant changes in system behaviour. Forcing can bring about coexistence when previously there was exclusion; it can excite massive system response through resonance, it can offset the negative effect of apparent competition and it can change the conditions under which the system can be invaded. Our main focus is on the invasion properties of continuous time models under periodic forcing. We show that invasion is highly sensitive to the strength, period, phase, shape and configuration of the forcing components. This complexity can be of great advantage if some of the forcing components are anthropogenic in origin. They can be turned into instruments of control to achieve specific objectives in ecology and disease management, for example. Culling, vaccination and resource regulation are considered. A general analysis is presented, based on the leading Lyapunov exponent criterion for invasion. For unstructured invaders, a formula for this exponent can typically be written down from the model equations. Whether forcing hinders or encourages invasion depends on two factors: the covariances between invader parameters and resident populations and the shifts in average resident population levels brought about by the forcing. The invasion dynamics of a structured invader are much more complicated but an analytic solution can be obtained in quadratic approximation for moderate forcing strength. The general theory is illustrated by a range of models drawn from ecology and epidemiology. The relationship between periodic and stochastic forcing is also considered.

  16. Approaches to achieving inherently safe fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Achieving inherently safe fusion facilities and conceptual designs is a challenge to the fusion community. Success should provide fusion with important competitive advantages versus other energy technologies. Inherent safety should mean a facility designed with passive safety features such that the public is protected from any acute fatalities under all credible accidental circumstances. A key aspect to inherent safety is demonstrability - the ability to prove that a deign is as safe as claimed. Three complementary approaches to achieving inherent safety are examined: toxin inventory reduction, energy source reduction and design fault tolerance. Four levels of assurance are defined, associated with uncertainty in the words ''credible' and ''demonstrable.'' Sound reasons exist for believing that inherent safety puts a modest upper bound on all accident consequences; it should be considered a part of the collection of safety and environmental issues, which also include lower consequence accidents, waste management, and effluent control

  17. The Connection between Environmental Attitude-Behavior Gap and Other Individual Inconsistencies: A Call for Strengthening Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Ignacio; Puelles, María

    2017-01-01

    What is going on with environmental education, which is currently unable to promote pro-environmental behaviors as effectively as it promotes pro-environmental attitudes? A tentative answer is that the environmental attitude-behavior gap observed in some individuals is just one manifestation of their lack of self-control for maintaining…

  18. Cost-effectiveness of environmental management for vector control in resource development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, R

    1991-01-01

    Vector control methods are traditionally divided in chemical, biological and environmental management approaches, and this distinction also reflected in certain financial and economic aspects. This is particularly true for environmental modification, usually engineering or other structural works. It is highly capital intensive, as opposed to chemical and biological control which require recurrent expenditures, and discount rates are therefore a prominent consideration in deciding for one or the other approach. Environmental manipulation requires recurrent action, but can often be carried out with the community participation, which raises the issue of opportunity costs. The incorporation of environmental management in resource projects is generally impeded by economic considerations. The Internal Rate of Return continues to be a crucial criterion for funding agencies and development banks to support new projects; at the same time Governments of debt-riden countries in the Third World will do their best to avoid additional loans on such frills as environmental and health safeguards. Two approaches can be recommended to nevertheless ensure the incorporation of environmental management measures in resource projects in an affordable way. First, there are several examples of cases where environmental management measures either have a dual benefit (increasing both agricultural production and reducing vector-borne disease transmission) or can be implemented at zero costs. Second, the additional costs involved in structural modifications can be separated from the project development costs considered in the calculations of the Internal Rate of Return, and financial support can be sought from bilateral technical cooperation agencies particularly interested in environmental and health issues. There is a dearth of information in the cost-effectiveness of alternative vector control strategies in the developing country context. The process of integrating vector control in the

  19. Vehicle navigation in populated areas using predictive control with environmental uncertainty handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczyk Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of navigating an autonomous vehicle using environmental dynamics prediction. The usefulness of the Game Against Nature formalism adapted to modelling environmental prediction uncertainty is discussed. The possibility of the control law synthesis on the basis of strategies against Nature is presented. The properties and effectiveness of the approach presented are verified by simulations carried out in MATLAB.

  20. Advance Planning, Programming and Production Control as key Activities Now the Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the evolution of Planning, Programming and Control of Production (PPCP as essential activities of the company towards the insertion of environmental education. The approach is based on an exploratory research and a critical bibliographic revision. Two main objectives were established: i a new way of production organization, by considering cleaner production from company utilities to production capacity, technology and outsourcing and ii infrastructure changes related to market attendance and environmental education dissemination. Needs that arise can be grouped as follows: utilities adequacy, cleaner technologies and ecochains implementation; instruction and dissemination of environmental education; and necessity of the adoption of new paradigms.

  1. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by.... Relationship to environmental situation. Non-target organisms and integrated pest management programs. 2...

  2. Lower Colorado River GRP Drinking Water Protection Area Buffers for Non-Transient Wells, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Water Pollution Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). Buffers include community wells and non-transient non-community...

  3. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-27

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  4. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  5. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  6. The safe home project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Jiraniratisai, Sopaphan; Rungtakul, Rungsri; Phutta, Nikom

    2011-12-01

    The Thai Health Promotion Foundation supported the Improvement of Quality of Life of Informal Workers project in Ban Luang District, Amphur Photaram, Ratchaburi Province. There were many informal workers in Ban Luang District. Sweet-crispy fish producers in Ban Luang were the largest group among the sweet-crispy fish producers in Thailand. This project was aimed at improving living and working conditions of informal workers, with a focus on the sweet-crispy fish group. Good practices of improved living and working conditions were used to help informal workers build safe, healthy and productive work environments. These informal workers often worked in substandard conditions and were exposed to various hazards in the working area. These hazards included risk of exposure to hot work environment, ergonomics-related injuries, chemical hazards, electrical hazards etc. Ergonomics problems were commonly in the sweet-crispy fish group. Unnatural postures such as prolonged sitting were performed dominantly. One hundred and fifty informal workers participated in this project. Occupational health volunteers were selected to encourage occupational health and safety in four groups of informal workers in 2009. The occupational health volunteers trained in 2008 were farmers, beauty salon workers and doll makers. The occupational health and safety knowledge is extended to a new informal worker group: sweet-crispy fish producer, in 2009. The occupational health and safety training for sweet-crispy fish group is conducted by occupational health volunteers. The occupational health volunteers increased their skills and knowledge assist in to make safe home and safe community through participatory oriented training. The improvement of living and working condition is conducted by using a modified WISH, Work Improvement for Safe Home, checklist. The plans of improvement were recorded. The informal workers showed improvement mostly on material handling and storage. The safe uses and safe

  7. Waste management and environmental controls in the Australian uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.G.; Morison, I.W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the waste management and related environmental controls applied to uranium mining and processing in Australia is described. Major uranium deposits occur in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, a world heritage tropical wetland area with deep significance to Aboriginal people. The formulation of environmental controls took into consideration the unique features of the region in addition to experiences from earlier uranium mining operations. A description is given of the operations at Rum Jungle, the pollutants released and their effects on the environment. Commonwealth and State responsibilities for waste management and environmental control and the establishment of Codes of Practice are noted and proposed water management and tailings management programs at the four Alligator Rivers sites are described

  8. Computer-controlled environmental test systems - Criteria for selection, installation, and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.

    1972-01-01

    Applications for presently marketed, new computer-controlled environmental test systems are suggested. It is shown that capital costs of these systems follow an exponential cost function curve that levels out as additional applications are implemented. Some test laboratory organization changes are recommended in terms of new personnel requirements, and facility modification are considered in support of a computer-controlled test system. Software for computer-controlled test systems are discussed, and control loop speed constraints are defined for real-time control functions. Suitable input and output devices and memory storage device tradeoffs are also considered.

  9. Effects of environmental factors on child survival in Bangladesh: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, B A; Chakraborty, J; Chowdhury, J T; Chowdhury, U K; Ali, M; el Arifeen, S; Sack, R B

    1999-03-01

    The need for further studies on relationships between deaths and environmental variables has been reported in the literature. This case-control study was, therefore, carried out to find out the associations between several social and environmental variables and deaths of children due to infectious diseases such as those leading to diarrhoea, acute respiratory infection, measles and other diseases. Six hundred and twenty-five deaths (cases) and an equal number of matched living children (controls) aged 1-59 months, were studied in rural Matlab. An analysis of crude and adjusted odds ratio showed differential associations. Sources of drinking water, amount of stored water, conditions of latrines, number of persons sleeping with the child and the type of cooking site were statistically significantly associated with deaths due to infectious diseases after controlling for breast feeding, immunization, and the family size. Significant associations were also observed between: (i) the sources of drinking water and deaths due to ARI, and (ii) conditions of latrines and deaths due to diarrhoeal diseases, after controlling for the confounding variables. Several other environmental factors also showed associations with these various death groups, but they were not statistically significant. The size of the samples in death groups (small) and the prevalence of more or less homogeneous environmental health conditions probably diminished the magnitude of the effects. The results of the study reconfirm the importance of environmental health intervention in child survival, irrespective of breast-feeding, immunization, and selected social variables.

  10. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  11. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  12. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller. Data and materials; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances, and data and materials on them were compiled into this volume. It covers the specifications (Versions 0.6 and 0.51) of a newly developed two-way controller protocol, the specification (Version 0.1) of two-way remote control IrDA-C communication unit hardware, an infrared communication protocol IrDa Control, and the like. It also accommodates information collected through surveys of technological trends as reflected in technical literature, Internet home pages, catalogs, and the like, concerning the user-friendliness of electrical home appliances, remote control, domestic consumption of electric power, and the like. Also covered is the result of surveys of patents involving environmentally friendly UC related technologies, namely, Japanese patents (from applications made in 1979 through disclosures made in 1998) and U.S. patents (registrations made in 1982 and thereafter). Furthermore, it contains the result of surveys of actualities of domestic use conducted for the purpose of clarifying the effect of environmentally friendly UC introduction, how such UCs are being accepted by the public, and the conditions that should be satisfied for their popularization. (NEDO)

  13. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller. Data and materials; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances, and data and materials on them were compiled into this volume. It covers the specifications (Versions 0.6 and 0.51) of a newly developed two-way controller protocol, the specification (Version 0.1) of two-way remote control IrDA-C communication unit hardware, an infrared communication protocol IrDa Control, and the like. It also accommodates information collected through surveys of technological trends as reflected in technical literature, Internet home pages, catalogs, and the like, concerning the user-friendliness of electrical home appliances, remote control, domestic consumption of electric power, and the like. Also covered is the result of surveys of patents involving environmentally friendly UC related technologies, namely, Japanese patents (from applications made in 1979 through disclosures made in 1998) and U.S. patents (registrations made in 1982 and thereafter). Furthermore, it contains the result of surveys of actualities of domestic use conducted for the purpose of clarifying the effect of environmentally friendly UC introduction, how such UCs are being accepted by the public, and the conditions that should be satisfied for their popularization. (NEDO)

  14. Development of a Framework for the Evaluation of the Environmental Benefits of Controlled Traffic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mounem Mouazen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although controlled traffic farming (CTF is an environmentally friendly soil management system, no quantitative evaluation of environmental benefits is available. This paper aims at establishing a framework for quantitative evaluation of the environmental benefits of CTF, considering a list of environmental benefits, namely, reducing soil compaction, runoff/erosion, energy requirement and greenhouse gas emission (GHG, conserving organic matter, enhancing soil biodiversity and fertiliser use efficiency. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the European Commission Soil Framework Directive, the choice of and the weighting of the impact of each of the environmental benefits were made. The framework was validated using data from three selected farms. For Colworth farm (Unilever, UK, the framework predicted the largest overall environmental benefit of 59.3% of the theoretically maximum achievable benefits (100%, as compared to the other two farms in Scotland (52% and Australia (47.3%. This overall benefit could be broken down into: reducing soil compaction (24%, tillage energy requirement (10% and GHG emissions (3%, enhancing soil biodiversity (7% and erosion control (6%, conserving organic matter (6%, and improving fertiliser use efficiency (3%. Similar evaluation can be performed for any farm worldwide, providing that data on soil properties, topography, machinery, and weather are available.

  15. Environmental control and control of the environment: the basis of longevity in bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Doris; Philipp, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Longevity and ageing are two sides of a coin, leaving the question open as to which one is the cause and which one the effect. At the individual level, the physiological rate of ageing determines the length of life (= individual longevity, as long as death results from old age and not from disease or other impacts). Individual longevity depends on the direct influence of environmental conditions with respect to nutrition, and the possibility for and timing of reproduction, as well as on the energetic costs animals invest in behavioural and physiological stress defence. All these environmental effectors influence hormonal and cellular signalling pathways that modify the individual physiological condition, the reproductive strategy, and the rate of ageing. At the species level, longevity (= maximum lifespan) is the result of an evolutionary process and, thus, largely determined by the species' behavioural and physiological adaptations to its ecological niche. Specifically, reproductive and breeding strategies have to be optimized in relation to local environmental conditions in different habitats. As a result of adaptive and evolutionary processes, species longevity is genetically underpinned, not necessarily by a few ageing genes, but by an evolutionary process that has hierarchically shaped and optimized species genomes to function in a specific niche or environmental system. Importantly, investigations and reviews attempting to unravel the mechanistic basis of the ageing process need to differentiate clearly between the evolutionary process shaping longevity at the species level and the regulatory mechanisms that alter the individual rate of ageing. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  17. Plutonium safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract, prepared on the basis of materials of the IAEA new leadership on the plutonium safe handling and its storage (the publication no. 9 in the Safety Reports Series), aimed at presenting internationally acknowledged criteria on the radiation danger evaluation and summarizing the experience in the safe management of great quantities of plutonium, accumulated in the nuclear states, is presented. The data on the weapon-class and civil plutonium, the degree of its danger, the measures for provision of its safety, including the data on accident radiation consequences with the fission number 10 18 , are presented. The recommendations, making it possible to eliminate the super- criticality danger, as well as ignition and explosion, to maintain the tightness of the facility, aimed at excluding the radioactive contamination and the possibility of internal irradiation, to provide for the plutonium security, physical protection and to reduce irradiation are given [ru

  18. Spark-safe power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mester, I M; Konushkin, N A; Nevozinskiy, A K; Rubinshteyn, B Sh; Serov, V I; Vasnev, M A

    1981-01-01

    A shortcoming of the known power sources is their low reliability. The purpose of the invention is to improve the reliability of the device. This is achieved because the spark-safe power source is equipped with a by-passing transistor and potentiometer, and also a generator of control interruptions in the circuit, an I-element, first separating transformer, control block, second separating transformer whose secondary winding has a relay winding whose contacts are connected to the load circuit are connected in series. The generator of control separations of the circuit is connected to the base of the by-passing transistor and to the power source outlet, the potentiometer is connected in series to the main thyristor. The middle point of the potentiometer is connected to the second inlet of the I-element.

  19. Overview of environmental control aspects for the gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    Environmental control aspects relating to release of radionuclides have been analyzed for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Information on environmental control systems was obtained for the most recent GCFR designs, and was used to evaluate the adequacy of these systems. The GCFR has been designed by the General Atomic Company as an alternative to other fast breeder reactor designs, such as the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). The GCFR design includes mixed oxide fuel and helium coolant. The environmental impact of expected radionuclide releases from normal operation of the GCFR was evaluated using estimated collective dose equivalent commitments resulting from 1 year of plant operation. The results were compared to equivalent estimates for the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). A discussion of uncertainties in system performances, tritium production rates, and radiation quality factors for tritium is included

  20. Eleventh annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 75 papers contained in this volume are divided into the following sections: compliance technology; technology base activities; high efficiency preparation; air toxics (especially mercury); air toxics and CO{sub 2} control; superclean emissions; Combustion 2000; advanced research; commercial and industrial combustion systems; alternative fuels; environmental control; and coal utilization. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: combustion 2000 session; advanced research and technology development session; commercial/industrial combustion systems session; alternative fuels utilization session; environmental control poster session; and advanced combustion technology poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in LPG safety and environmental control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    The report characterizes the LPG industry covering all operations from production to end use, reviews current knowledge of LPG release phenomenology, summarizes the status of current LPG release prevention and control methodology, and identifies any remaining safety and environmental problems and recommends R and D strategies that may mitigate these problems. (ACR)

  3. Impact of cruise control on traffic safety, energy consumption and environmental pollution : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, D.M.; Brouwer, R.F.T.; Malone, K.; Klunder, G.; et al

    2006-01-01

    In this subproject, the impact of Cruise Control (CC) was analysed with respect to traffic safety, energy consumption, and environmental pollution. In order to work on this topic from a European perspective, a team of European experts in the fields of driver assistance systems, human factors,

  4. Environmental Control Plan for the Industrial Hygiene Field Services Facility; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. W. Donnelly

    2001-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the Hanford Site's industrial hygiene field services facility, located in the 100-N Area. The facility is used for the maintenance and storage of respirators, respiratory equipment and testing, calibration and testing of industrial hygiene equipment, and asbestos fiber counting

  5. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-11-12

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  6. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  7. A tuneable switch for controlling environmental degradation of bioplastics: addition of isothiazolinone to polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolnough, Catherine Anne; Yee, Lachlan Hartley; Charlton, Timothy Stuart; Foster, Leslie John Ray

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV)) bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV) films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications.

  8. TEST DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) OF ADD-ON NOX CONTROL UTILIZING OZONE INJECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the test design for environmental technology verification (ETV) of add-0n nitrogen oxides (NOx) control utilizing ozone injection. (NOTE: ETV is an EPA-established program to enhance domestic and international market acceptance of new or improved commercially...

  9. Environmental control and life support testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Humphries, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is addressed. The immediate goals and current activities of the test program are discussed. Also described are the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) and the initial ECLSS test configuration. Future plans for the ECLSS test program and the CMIF are summarized.

  10. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  11. Electrical Procedures and Environmental Control Systems. Building Maintenance. Module IV. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Garry

    This curriculum guide, one of six modules keyed to the building maintenance competency profile developed by industry and education professionals, provides materials for two units on electrical procedures and environmental control systems. Unit 1, on electrical procedures, includes the following lessons: electrical safety; troubleshooting and…

  12. A primary care, electronic health record-based strategy to promote safe drug use: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przytula, Kamila; Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Galanter, William L; Lambert, Bruce L; Shrestha, Neeha; Dickens, Carolyn; Falck, Suzanne; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-01-27

    The Northwestern University Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERT), funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, is one of seven such centers in the USA. The thematic focus of the Northwestern CERT is 'Tools for Optimizing Medication Safety.' Ensuring drug safety is essential, as many adults struggle to take medications, with estimates indicating that only half of adults take drugs as prescribed. This report describes the methods and rationale for one innovative project within the CERT: the 'Primary Care, Electronic Health Record-Based Strategy to Promote Safe and Appropriate Drug Use'. The overall objective of this 5-year study is to evaluate a health literacy-informed, electronic health record-based strategy for promoting safe and effective prescription medication use in a primary care setting. A total of 600 English and Spanish-speaking patients with diabetes will be consecutively recruited to participate in the study. Patients will be randomized to receive either usual care or the intervention; those in the intervention arm will receive a set of print materials designed to support medication use and prompt provider counseling and medication reconciliation. Participants will be interviewed in person after their index clinic visit and again one month later. Process outcomes related to intervention delivery will be recorded. A medical chart review will be performed at 6 months. Patient outcome measures include medication understanding, adherence and clinical measures (hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol; exploratory outcomes only). Through this study, we will be able to examine the impact of a health literacy-informed, electronic health record-based strategy on medication understanding and adherence among diabetic primary care patients. The measurement of process outcomes will help inform how the strategy might ultimately be refined and disseminated to other sites. Strategies such as these are needed to address the

  13. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-07-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing the heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in Earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a data set with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, and 500 m and 1, 2, 5, and 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83-0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 m to ~ 500 m, and remained

  14. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed

  15. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  16. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science ... or www.earth911.com . Think before disposing of extra pesticides and containers: Never reuse empty pesticide containers. ...

  17. Financial and environmental costs of manual versus automated control of end-tidal gas concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S; Weinberg, L; Peyton, P; Story, D; Briedis, J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies that reduce the economic and environmental costs of anaesthesia have had limited assessment. We hypothesised that automated control of end-tidal gases, a new feature in anaesthesia machines, will consistently reduce volatile agent consumption cost and greenhouse gas emissions. As part of the planned replacement of anaesthesia machines in a tertiary hospital, we performed a prospective before and after study comparing the cost and greenhouse gas emissions of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane when using manual versus automated control of end-tidal gases. We analysed 3675 general anaesthesia cases with inhalational agents: 1865 using manual control and 1810 using automated control. Volatile agent cost was $18.87/hour using manual control and $13.82/hour using automated control: mean decrease $5.05/hour (95% confidence interval: $0.88-9.22/hour, P=0.0243). The 100-year global warming potential decreased from 23.2 kg/hour of carbon dioxide equivalents to 13.0 kg/hour: mean decrease 10.2 kg/hour (95% confidence interval: 2.7-17.7 kg/hour, P=0.0179). Automated control reduced costs by 27%. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 44%, a greater than expected decrease facilitated by a proportional reduction in desflurane use. Automated control of end-tidal gases increases participation in low flow anaesthesia with economic and environmental benefits.

  18. Inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Anders

    1992-01-01

    A rethinking of nuclear reactor safety has created proposals for new designs based on inherent and passive safety principles. Diverging interpretations of these concepts can be found. This article reviews the key features of proposed advanced power reactors. An evaluation is made of the degree of inherent safety for four different designs: the AP-600, the PIUS, the MHTGR and the PRISM. The inherent hazards of today's most common reactor principles are used as reference for the evaluation. It is concluded that claims for the new designs being inherently, naturally or passively safe are not substantiated by experience. (author)

  19. Requirements for quality control of analytical data for the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, J.

    1992-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program was established for the investigation and remediation of inactive US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and facilities that have been declared surplus in terms of their previous uses. The purpose of this document is to Specify ER requirements for quality control (QC) of analytical data. Activities throughout all phases of the investigation may affect the quality of the final data product, thus are subject to control specifications. Laboratory control is emphasized in this document, and field concerns will be addressed in a companion document Energy Systems, in its role of technical coordinator and at the request of DOE-OR, extends the application of these requirements to all participants in ER activities. Because every instance and concern may not be addressed in this document, participants are encouraged to discuss any questions with the ER Quality Assurance (QA) Office, the Analytical Environmental Support Group (AESG), or the Analytical Project Office (APO)

  20. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of multiple environmental factors for swine building assessment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuju; Ni, Ji-Qin; Su, Zhongbin

    2017-10-15

    In confined swine buildings, temperature, humidity, and air quality are all important for animal health and productivity. However, the current swine building environmental control is only based on temperature; and evaluation and control methods based on multiple environmental factors are needed. In this paper, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) theory was adopted for multi-factor assessment of environmental quality in two commercial swine buildings using real measurement data. An assessment index system and membership functions were established; and predetermined weights were given using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) combined with knowledge of experts. The results show that multi-factors such as temperature, humidity, and concentrations of ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can be successfully integrated in FCE for swine building environment assessment. The FCE method has a high correlation coefficient of 0.737 compared with the method of single-factor evaluation (SFE). The FCE method can significantly increase the sensitivity and perform an effective and integrative assessment. It can be used as part of environmental controlling and warning systems for swine building environment management to improve swine production and welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Formulation of advanced consumables management models: Environmental control and electrical power system performance models requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Software design specifications for developing environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) and electrical power system (EPS) programs into interactive computer programs are presented. Specifications for the ECLSS program are at the detail design level with respect to modification of an existing batch mode program. The FORTRAN environmental analysis routines (FEAR) are the subject batch mode program. The characteristics of the FEAR program are included for use in modifying batch mode programs to form interactive programs. The EPS program specifications are at the preliminary design level. Emphasis is on top-down structuring in the development of an interactive program.

  2. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the Make Safe Happen® app-a mobile technology-based safety behavior change intervention for increasing parents' safety knowledge and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Clark, Roxanne; McAdams, Rebecca; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Klein, Elizabeth G; Keim, Sarah A; Kristel, Orie; Szymanski, Alison; Cotton, Christopher G; Shields, Wendy C

    2018-03-12

    Many unintentional injuries that occur in and around the home can be prevented through the use of safety equipment and by consistently following existing safety recommendations. Unfortunately, uptake of these safety behaviors is unacceptably low. This paper describes the design of the Make Safe Happen® smartphone application evaluation study, which aims to evaluate a mobile technology-based safety behavior change intervention on parents' safety knowledge and actions. Make Safe Happen® app evaluation study is a randomized controlled trial. Participants will be parents of children aged 0-12 years who are recruited from national consumer online survey panels. Parents will complete a pretest survey, and will be randomized to receive the Make Safe Happen® app or a non-injury-related app, and then complete a posttest follow-up survey after 1 week. Primary outcomes are: (1) safety knowledge; (2) safety behaviors; (3) safety device acquisition and use, and (4) behavioral intention to take safety actions. Anticipated study results are presented. Wide-reaching interventions, to reach substantial parent and caregiver audiences, to effectively reduce childhood injuries are needed. This study will contribute to the evidence-base about how to increase safety knowledge and actions to prevent home-related injuries in children. NCT02751203 ; Pre-results.

  3. National Spill Control School. A pilot program in environmental training. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholtzer, G.R.; Acuff, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness and the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 required an increased level of expertise by the American Public in the field of oil spill prevention and control. The National Spill Control School was created at Corpus Christi State University to help meet this need. Drawing on the talents of a nationwide sample of experts in this field, the project team created a unique management oriented course. A review of the origination and experiences of two years of classes of this pilot program is provided in this report.

  4. Smoking behaviours and attitudes toward tobacco control among assistant environmental health officer trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Hairi, N N; Zarihah, Z; Fadzilah, K

    2013-12-01

    Assistant environmental health officers (AEHO) are health care providers (HCPs) who act as enforcers, educators and trusted role models for the public. This is the first study to explore smoking behaviour and attitudes toward tobacco control among future HCPs. Almost 30% of AEHO trainees did not know the role of AEHOs in counselling smokers to stop smoking, but 91% agreed they should not smoke before advising others not to do so. The majority agreed that tobacco control regulations may be used as a means of reducing the prevalence of smoking. Future AEHOs had positive attitudes toward tobacco regulations but lacked understanding of their responsibility in tobacco control measures.

  5. A restrictive dose of crystalloids in patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and cost-effective: prospective, two-arm parallel, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belavić M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Matija Belavić,1 Vlatka Sotošek Tokmadžić,2 Antonija Brozović Krijan,1 Ines Kvaternik,1 Kristina Matijaš,1 Nedjeljko Strikić,3,4 Josip Žunić1,4 1Department of Anesthesiology, Reanimatology, and Intensive Medicine, Karlovac General Hospital, Karlovac, Croatia; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Reanimatology, and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia; 3Department of Abdominal Surgery, Karlovac General Hospital, Karlovac, Croatia; 4Department of Nursing Science, Karlovac University of Applied Sciences, Karlovac, Croatia Purpose: There are no evidence-based guidelines for volume replacement during surgical procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, the administration of a restrictive volume of crystalloids could be more cost-effective and safe. This trial aimed to determine the effectiveness and safety of a restrictive regimen of crystalloids in patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy by analyzing its cost-effectiveness and 1-year morbidity rate. Patients and methods: In this randomized, prospective study, patients were assigned to one of three groups based on the volume of fluid administered: the restrictive group received 1 mL/kg/hr, the low liberal group received 5 mL/kg/hr, and the high liberal group received 15 mL/kg/hr of Ringer’s solution intraoperatively. There were 40 patients in each group. Each patient’s hemodynamic parameters and laboratory values (arterial blood gas and lactate levels were measured together with their consumption of crystalloids, volatile anesthetics, and analgesics. Results: Analysis of the hemodynamic and laboratory parameters revealed no signs of global hypoperfusion in any of the groups analyzed. There was no significant difference in the duration of surgery and anesthesia, but the consumption of crystalloids, volatile anesthetics, and opioids was significantly lower in the restrictive group, compared with the low and high liberal groups. Although

  6. A prospective randomized, controlled trial deems a drainage of 300 ml/day safe before removal of the last chest drain after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong-Ya; Xu, Kai; Tang, Jin-Xing; Bian, Wen; Ma, Hai-Tao; Zhao, Jun; Ni, Bin

    2015-08-01

    To study the feasible and safe volume threshold for chest tube removal following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical lobectomy. One hundred and sixty-eight consecutive patients (18 were excluded) who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy or bilobectomy with two incisions between August 2012 and February 2014 were included. Eligible patients were randomized into three groups: Group A (chest tube was removed at a drainage volume of 150 ml/day or less. n = 49); Group B (chest tube was removed when the drainage volume was less than 300 ml/day. n = 50); Group C (chest tube was removed when the drainage volume was less than 450 ml/day. n = 51). The postoperative care of all patients was consistent. The time of extracting the drainage tube, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative visual analogue scale grades, dosage of analgesic, and the incidence of complications and thoracocentesis were measured. Group B and C had a much shorter drainage time and postoperative hospital stay than Group A (P 0.05). The mean dosage of pethidine hydrochloride was 248.9 ± 33.3 mg in Group B and 226.1 ± 32.7 mg in Group C (P > 0.05). The dosage of pethidine hydrochloride of Group A was significantly higher than that of Group B and C (P 0.05), Group A had a significantly higher total VAS score than Group B and C (P drains among the three groups (P > 0.05). A 300-ml/day volume threshold for chest tube removal after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy is feasible and safe, demonstating more advantages than the 150-ml/day volume threshold. However, a 450-ml/day volume threshold for chest tube removal may increase the risk of thoracentesis compared with the 300- and the 150-ml/day volume threshold. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. Dust control products at Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge, Texas: environmental safety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bethany K.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling fugitive dust while protecting natural resources is a challenge faced by all managers of unpaved roads. Unfortunately, road managers choosing between dust control products often have little objective environmental information to aid their decisions. To address this information gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collaborated on a field test of three dust control products with the objectives of (a) evaluating product performance under real-world conditions, (b) verifying the environmental safety of products identified as practically nontoxic in laboratory tests, and (c) testing the feasibility of several environmental monitoring techniques for use in dust control tests. In cooperation with refuge staff and product vendors, three products (one magnesium chloride plus binder, one cellulose, and one synthetic fluid plus binder) were applied in July 2012 to replicated road sections at the Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge in Texas. These sections were monitored periodically for 12 months after application. Product performance was assessed by mobile-mounted particulate-matter meters measuring production of fugitive dust and by observations of road conditions. Environmental safety was evaluated through on-site biological observations and leaching tests with samples of treated aggregate. All products reduced dust and improved surface condition during those 12 months. Planned environmental measurements were not always compatible with day-to-day refuge management actions; this incompatibility highlighted the need for flexible biological monitoring plans. As one of the first field tests of dust suppressants that explicitly incorporated biological endpoints, this effort provides valuable information for improving field tests and for developing laboratory or semifield alternatives.

  8. Temporal Variability of Canopy Light Use Efficiency and its Environmental Controls in a Subtropical Mangrove Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.

    2016-12-01

    Mangrove wetlands play an important role in global carbon cycle due to their strong carbon sequestration resulting from high plant carbon assimilation and low soil respiration. However, temporal variability of carbon sequestration in mangrove wetlands is less understood since carbon processes of mangrove wetlands are influenced by many complicated and concurrent environmental controls including tidal activities, site climate and soil conditions. Canopy light use efficiency (LUE), is the most important plant physiological parameter that can be used to describe the temporal dynamics of canopy photosynthesis, and therefore a better characterization of temporal variability of canopy LUE will improve our understanding in mangrove photosynthesis and carbon balance. One of our aims is to study the temporal variability of canopy LUE and its environmental controls in a subtropical mangrove wetland. Half-hourly canopy LUE is derived from eddy covariance (EC) carbon flux and photosynthesis active radiation observations, and half-hourly environmental controls we measure include temperature, humidity, precipitation, radiation, tidal height, salinity, etc. Another aim is to explore the links between canopy LUE and spectral indices derived from near-surface tower-based remote sensing (normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, photochemical reflectance index, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, etc.), and then identify potential quantitative relationships for developing remote sensing-based estimation methods of canopy LUE. At present, some instruments in our in-situ observation system have not yet been installed (planned in next months) and therefore we don't have enough measurements to support our analysis. However, a preliminary analysis of our historical EC and climate observations in past several years indicates that canopy LUE shows strong temporal variability and is greatly affected by environmental factors such as tidal activity. Detailed and

  9. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  10. Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M, cow pea sole crop (C, within row intercropping (I1, row intercropping (I2 and mix cropping (I3. The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants. The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P?0.05 affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.

  11. Worksite Environmental Interventions for Obesity Prevention and Control: Evidence from Group Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Becerra, Adan; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-06-01

    Worksites provide multiple advantages to prevent and treat obesity and to test environmental interventions to tackle its multiple causal factors. We present a literature review of group-randomized and non-randomized trials that tested worksite environmental, multiple component interventions for obesity prevention and control paying particular attention to the conduct of formative research prior to intervention development. The evidence on environmental interventions on measures of obesity appears to be strong since most of the studies have a low (4/8) and unclear (2/8) risk of bias. Among the studies reviewed whose potential risk of bias was low, the magnitude of the effect was modest and sometimes in the unexpected direction. None of the four studies describing an explicit formative research stage with clear integration of findings into the intervention was able to demonstrate an effect on the main outcome of interest. We present alternative explanation for the findings and recommendations for future research.

  12. Offspring ADHD as a risk factor for parental marital problems: controls for genetic and environmental confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S; Emery, Robert E; Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD.Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds,as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD-marital problems association. Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology,when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.

  13. Scope of application of bio-technology for fire control and ameliorating environmental pollution of coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    A few technology knowledge gaps in the control of mine fires and environmental pollution control and abatement programmes have been identified and examined the scope of application of bio-technological approach in resolving them. (author). 16 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Nuclear techniques for the study of environmental pollution and control: experience and facilities at PINSTECH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.; Butt, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a worldwide problem. Developed countries have already gone in the clutches of pollution. Now the rapid industrialization and modernization process has also started in the developing countries. This is posing a serious threat to their own environment. One of the important factors in the pollution control measures is to investigate the levels of environmental pollution, from time to time, by effective and reliable methods. Nuclear techniques due to their high sensitivities play an important role in this regard. These techniques have the potential to determine the concentration of pollutants in trace level quantities (ppm and ppb) and for locating the possible pollution sources such as power plants, refineries, municipal waste, industries etc. Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) has qualified and experienced scientists and has nearly all the major nuclear facilities that are needed for environmental research such as mass spectrometry, tracer techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic emission spectrometry (AES), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) etc. This paper discusses the importance of environmental pollution with a particular reference to the pollution aspects in Pakistan and the associated environmental research experience based on nuclear methods available at PINSTECH. 308 refs. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple pest control strategies using pesticide risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Agnello, Arthur M; Martini, Fabrizio; Kovach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment. The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation of silver nanoparticles in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongguang; Yang, Xiaoya; Zhou, Xiaoxia; Wang, Weidong; Yu, Sujuan; Liu, Jingfu; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable release of engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into aquatic environments has drawn great concerns about its environmental toxicity and safety. Although aggregation and transformation play crucial roles in the transport and toxicity of AgNPs, how the water chemistry of environmental waters influences the aggregation and transformation of engineered AgNPs is still not well understood. In this study, the aggregation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated AgNPs was investigated in eight typical environmental water samples (with different ionic strengths, hardness, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentrations) by using UV-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Raman spectroscopy was applied to probe the interaction of DOM with the surface of AgNPs. Further, the photo-transformation and morphology changes of AgNPs in environmental waters were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy. The results suggested that both electrolytes (especially Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and DOM in the surface waters are key parameters for AgNP aggregation, and sunlight could accelerate the morphology change, aggregation, and further sedimentation of AgNPs. This water chemistry controlled aggregation and photo-transformation should have significant environmental impacts on the transport and toxicity of AgNPs in the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Environmental control policy change in the EU between ideas and reality; Umweltpolitischer Steuerungswechsel in der EU zwischen Ideen und Realitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heumader, Katja

    2014-07-01

    The study on the environmental policy change in the EU covers the following issues: theoretical frame work: the scientific policy debate on political control and governance; boom of ideas: development in the discussion on European environmental policy; discrepancies: the change of political control between intention and realization; case studies: EU policy concerning the enhancement of energy efficiency, the groundwater guideline, waste policy and waste stream priorities, the European emission trading system, access to jurisdiction for environmental issues, the soil protection guideline.

  18. Environmental viral contamination in a pediatric hospital outpatient waiting area: implications for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Nikki; Cloutman-Green, Elaine; Klein, Nigel; Spratt, David A

    2014-08-01

    Nosocomial outbreaks of viral etiology are costly and can have a major impact on patient care. Many viruses are known to persist in the inanimate environment and may pose a risk to patients and health care workers. We investigate the frequency of environmental contamination with common health care-associated viruses and explore the use of torque-teno virus as a marker of environmental contamination. Environmental screening for a variety of clinically relevant viruses was carried out over 3 months in a UK pediatric hospital using air sampling and surface swabbing. Swabs were tested for the presence of virus nucleic acid by quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Viral nucleic acid was found on surfaces and in the air throughout the screening period, with adenovirus DNA being the most frequent. Door handles were frequently contaminated. Torque-teno virus was also found at numerous sites. Evidence of environmental contamination with viral pathogens is present in health care environments and may be indicative of an infectious virus being present. Screening for viruses should be included in infection control strategies. Torque-teno virus may provide a better marker of contamination and reduce time and cost of screening for individual viruses. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Waste management and environmental controls in the Australian uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.G.; Morison, I.W.

    1983-01-01

    An outline is given of the development of the waste management and related environmental controls currently applied to uranium mining and processing in Australia, reflecting three decades of experience. The Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry of the mid-1970s was, inter alia, a focus for the expression of public concerns over the environmental effects of uranium mining. The report of the Inquiry established a framework for controls over uranium mining in the Northern Territory and, by association, in other States of the Commonwealth. The interaction between Federal and State jurisdictions, and the establishment of Codes of Practice and their implications are briefly described. Current procedures are based on the experience of other countries but are much influenced by studies of the environmental impact of uranium production in Australia during the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, laboratory investigations have been made of specific processes, such as the impact of heavy metal contaminants on biota and the uptake of radium in the human food cycle. Such studies are continuing and research is being expanded, particularly in relation to Northern Territory developments. Australia is contributing the results of this work to appropriate international forums. (author)

  20. Environmental sustainability control by water resources carrying capacity concept: application significance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwansyah, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reviews the use of Water Resources carrying capacity concept to control environmental sustainability with the particular note for the case in Indonesia. Carrying capacity is a capability measure of an environment or an area to support human and the other lives as well as their activities in a sustainable manner. Recurrently water-related hazards and environmental problems indicate that the environments are exploited over its carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity (ECC) assessment includes Land and Water Carrying Capacity analysis of an area, suggested to always refer to the dimension of the related watershed as an incorporated hydrologic unit on the basis of resources availability estimation. Many countries use this measure to forecast the future sustainability of regional development based on water availability. Direct water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) assessment involves population number determination together with their activities could be supported by available water, whereas indirect WRCC assessment comprises the analysis of supply-demand balance status of water. Water resource limits primarily environmental carrying capacity rather than the land resource since land capability constraints are easier. WRCC is a crucial factor known to control land and water resource utilization, particularly in a growing densely populated area. Even though capability of water resources is relatively perpetual, the utilization pattern of these resources may change by socio-economic and cultural technology level of the users, because of which WRCC should be evaluated periodically to maintain usage sustainability of water resource and environment.

  1. Bipolar impedance-controlled sealing of the pulmonary artery with SealSafe G3 electric current: determination of bursting pressures in an ex vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Andreas; Kunz, Julia; Steinfeldt, Thorsten; Pehl, Anika; Meyer, Christian; Bartsch, Detlef K

    2014-12-01

    In every anatomic lung resection operation, the pulmonary artery itself or its branches must be sealed. This involves either stapling or ligating the vessels. Based on the positive results with the bipolar vessel sealing ≤7 mm in abdominal surgery the present study aimed to evaluate burst pressures of the pulmonary artery after sealing with the sealing instrument SealSafe G3 (Gebrüder Martin & CoKG, Tuttlingen, Germany). The whole pulmonary artery above the pulmonary valve was exposed up to the periphery of the left lung in freshly removed pig heart-lung blocks. A pressure-measuring cylinder was then implanted in the prepared vessel on the side at the main trunk of the pulmonary artery to determine the pressure in the vessel. After either ligation or bipolar sealing of the pulmonary artery, the pneumatic burst pressure (millimeters of mercury) was determined in a water bath. Three groups (n = 12 for each seal type) with different vessel diameters were examined: group 1: 0-6 mm, group 2: 7-12 mm, and group 3: >12 mm. In all cases, vessel sealing was performed with a MARSEAL 5 instrument (Gebrüder Martin & Co KG, Tuttlingen, Germany) and the SealSafe G3 current. The mean burst pressures of the individual groups (ligature and bipolar sealing) were compared using two-tailed, nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. The mean burst pressures in group 1 were measured by 340 ± 13.4 mm Hg with ligature and 205 ± 44.4 mm Hg with bipolar sealing (P < 0.001). In group 2, the mean values obtained were 270 ± 28.2 mm Hg for ligature and 162 ± 36.0 mm Hg for bipolar sealing (P < 0.001). In group 3, the mean burst pressures for bipolar sealing were only 52.1 ± 15.1 mm Hg, whereas those for ligated vessels were 253 ± 46.9 mm Hg (P < 0.001). For this size of vessel the burst pressure was also determined after stapling. The mean value in this case was 230 ± 21.8 mm Hg. In all groups, the mean burst

  2. Efficacious and safe management of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis using clobetasol propionate shampoo 0·05% combined with ketoconazole shampoo 2%: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P; Nikkels, A F; Reich, K; Ponce Olivera, R M; Lee, J H; Kerrouche, N; Sidou, F; Faergemann, J

    2011-07-01

    Topical antifungals and corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for seborrhoeic dermatitis. The short-contact clobetasol propionate 0·05% shampoo (CP) is an efficacious and safe once-daily treatment for scalp psoriasis. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CP alone and combined with ketoconazole shampoo 2% (KC) in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis. This randomized and investigator-blinded study consisted of three phases, each lasting 4 weeks. During the treatment phase, subjects were randomized to receive KC twice weekly (K2), CP twice weekly (C2), CP twice weekly alternating with KC twice weekly (C2 + K2) or CP four times weekly alternating with KC twice weekly (C4+K2). All subjects received KC once weekly during the maintenance phase and were untreated during the follow-up phase. At the end of the treatment phase, all three CP-containing regimens were significantly more efficacious than K2 in decreasing the overall disease severity (P < 0·05). Both combination regimens were also significantly more efficacious than K2 in decreasing each individual sign of the disease (P < 0·05). While the C2 and C4 + K2 groups experienced slight worsening during the maintenance phase, the efficacy of C2 + K2 was sustained and remained the highest among all groups. All regimens were well tolerated without inducing any skin atrophy. Similarly low incidences of telangiectasia, burning and adverse events were observed among the four groups. The combination therapy of twice-weekly CP alternating with twice-weekly KC provided significantly greater efficacy than KC alone and a sustained effect in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  3. Safe Driving After Propofol Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin-Grady, Lee; Austin, Paul N; Gabaldon, Dion A

    2017-10-01

    Propofol is a short-acting medication with fast cognitive and psychomotor recovery. However, patients are usually instructed not to drive a motor vehicle for 24 hours after receiving propofol. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence examining when it is safe to drive after receiving propofol for sedation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is a systematic review of the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for the time period 1990 to 2015. Two randomized controlled trials and two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simulator, investigators examined driving ability of subjects who received modest doses (about 100 mg) of propofol for endoscopic procedures and surveyed subjects who drove immediately after discharge. There were methodological concerns with the studies such as small sample sizes, modest doses of propofol, and three of the four studies were done in Japan by the same group of investigators limiting generalizability. This limited research suggests that it may be safe for patients to drive sooner than 24 hours after receiving propofol. However, large multicenter trials using heterogenous samples using a range of propofol doses are needed to support an evidence-based revision to the current discharge guidelines for patients receiving propofol. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality control in the application of flow cytometric assays of genetic damage due to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreedy, C.D.; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Wentworth, R.W.; Dallas, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical technologies, such as flow cytometry, are increasingly adopted by environmental toxicologists to identify resource damage associated with exposure to xenobiotics. One application of flow cytometry allows the rapid determination of the DNA content of large numbers of individual cells, and can be used to detect aneuploidy or other genetic abnormalities. The laboratory has used this methodology in studies of genetic toxicology of fish, birds, arid mammals exposed to organic pollutants, metals and radionuclides, However, without appropriate quality controls, false positive results and other artifacts can arise from sample handling and preparations, inter and intra-individual variations, instrument noise and other sources. The authors describe the routine measures this laboratory employs to maintain quality control of genomic DNA analysis, including the control of staining conditions, machine standardization, pulse-width doublet discrimination, and, in particular, the use of internal controls and the use of time as a cytometric parameter. Neglect of these controls can produce erroneous results, leading to conclusions of genetic abnormalities when none are present. Conversely, attention to these controls, routinely used in clinical settings, facilitates the interpretation of flow cytometric data and allows the application of this sensitive indicator of genotoxic effects to a variety of environmental problems

  5. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  6. Software and Human-Machine Interface Development for Environmental Controls Subsystem Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the next premier launch vehicle for NASA. It is the next stage of manned space exploration from American soil, and will be the platform in which we push further beyond Earth orbit. In preparation of the SLS maiden voyage on Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), the existing ground support architecture at Kennedy Space Center required significant overhaul and updating. A comprehensive upgrade of controls systems was necessary, including programmable logic controller software, as well as Launch Control Center (LCC) firing room and local launch pad displays for technician use. Environmental control acts as an integral component in these systems, being the foremost system for conditioning the pad and extremely sensitive launch vehicle until T-0. The Environmental Controls Subsystem (ECS) required testing and modification to meet the requirements of the designed system, as well as the human factors requirements of NASA software for Validation and Verification (V&V). This term saw significant strides in the progress and functionality of the human-machine interfaces used at the launch pad, and improved integration with the controller code.

  7. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  8. District heating systems' control for cost effective and environmentally compatible operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balati, J.

    1999-01-01

    District heating systems are being developed in accordance with the growing of large European cities. These systems are formed by enlarging networks of heat distribution from heat sources to heat consumers and, simultaneously, by gradually connecting newly built heat sources. District heating control consists in optimum control of the output of heat sources and in control of heat distribution and consumption. The aim of the paper is to inform about the works in the field of creating a mathematical-physical model of extensive hot water and steam supply circle network and heat sources for the purpose of creating unconventional control algorithms for the complex control of the technological sequence ''heat production distribution- consumption''. For the optimum control algorithms the artificial intelligence methods are also utilised. The aim of the complex access to the solution of new control algorithms will be to decrease the cost of the consumed heat unit and increase environmental protection. The function of the Extensive Heating System District Heating System (DHS) is to ensure permanently the economically justified requirements of heat supply for all consumers with minimum cost per heat supply unit and with enhanced level of environmental protection. The requirements of heat consumers have to be in harmony with the requirements of the maximum possible economy of the whole DHS when adhering to the required qualitative parameters of supplied energy. Therefore, it offers the application of optimised control methods as artificial intelligence methods for the control of the operational circle of DHS heat networks. It is obvious that a higher level of DHS control is required from the technological, economic and ecological point of view. (author)

  9. Strategies for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-02-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative was launched in 1988 as a global effort to halve maternal mortality and morbidity by the year 2000. The program uses a combination of health and nonhealth strategies to emphasize the need for maternal health services, extend family planning services, and improve the status of women. The maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) is 390 for the world, 20-30 for developed countries, 450 for developing countries, and 420 for Asia. This translates into 308,000 maternal deaths in Asia, of which 100,000 occur in India. The direct causes of maternal mortality include sepsis, hemorrhage, eclampsia, and ruptured uterus. Indirect causes occur when associated medical conditions, such as anemia and jaundice, are exacerbated by pregnancy. Underlying causes are ineffective health services, inadequate obstetric care, unregulated fertility, infections, illiteracy, early marriage, poverty, malnutrition, and ignorance. India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program seeks to achieve immediate improvements by improving health care. Longterm improvements will occur as nutrition, income, education, and the status of women improve. Improvements in health care will occur in through the provision of 1) essential obstetric care for all women (which will be essentially designed for low-risk women), 2) early detection of complications during pregnancy and labor, and 3) emergency services. Services will be provided to pregnant women at their door by field staff, at a first referral hospital, perhaps at maternity villages where high risk cases can be housed in the latter part of their pregnancies, and through the continual accessibility of government vehicles. In addition, family planning services will be improved so that fertility regulation can have its expected beneficial effect on the maternal mortality rate. The professional health organizations in India will also play a vital role in the success of this effort to reduce maternal mortality.

  10. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use

  11. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (air pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Air pollution from flue gases, exhaust gases, odors, dust, smog, microorganisms, etc.; Control techniques and equipment; Sampling and analytical techniques, and equipment; Waste gas recovery; Biological and ecological effects; Air pollution chemistry; Acid precipitation; Atmospheric motion; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  12. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (water pollution and control). E-mail newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Pollution by municipal wastes, agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, mine wastes, radioactive contaminants; Chemistry and analysis of pollutants; Thermal pollution; Oil pollution; Control techniques and equipment; Sewage treatment; Industrial waste water pretreatment; Hydrology and limnology; Biological and ecological effects; Waste water reuse; Laws, legislation, and regulations; Public administration; Economics; Land use.

  13. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: third status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    This Status Report contains contributions from all contractors currently participating in the DOE Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LG) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program and is presented in two principal sections. Section I is an Executive Summary of work done by all program participants. Section II is a presentation of fourteen individual reports (A through N) on specific LGF Program activities. The emphasis of Section II is on research conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Reports A through M). Report N, an annotated bibliography of literature related to LNG safety and environmental control, was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of its LGF Safety Studies Project. Other organizations who contributed to this Status Report are Aerojet Energy Conversion Company; Applied Technology Corporation; Arthur D. Little, Incorporated; C/sub v/ International, Incorporated; Institute of Gas Technology; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for Reports A through N for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. Lunar Module ECS (Environmental Control System) - Design Considerations and Failure Modes. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Design considerations and failure modes for the Lunar Module (LM) Environmental Control System (ECS) are described. An overview of the the oxygen supply and cabin pressurization, atmosphere revitalization, water management and heat transport systems are provided. Design considerations including reliability, flight instrumentation, modularization and the change to the use of batteries instead of fuel cells are discussed. A summary is provided for the LM ECS general testing regime.

  15. Evaluation of environmentally friendly products for control of fungal diseases of grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Schilder, A.M.C.; Gillett, J.M.; Sysak, R.W.; Wise, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Various environmentally friendly products were tested for efficacy in controlling powdery mildew, downy mildew, black rot, Phomopsis, and Botrytis bunch rot in grapes over several years. The products tested were: JMS stylet oil (paraffinic oil), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis), Croplife (citrus and coconut extract) + Plant food (foliar fertilizer), Armicarb (potassium bicarbonate), Elexa (chitosan), Milsana (giant knotweed extract), and AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqua/is). JMS Stylet Oil, Armicarb, Se...

  16. Dataset on usnic acid from Cladonia substellata Vainio (Lichen) schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and environmental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade de Araújo, Hallysson Douglas; Dos Santos Silva, Luanna Ribeiro; de Siqueira, Williams Nascimento; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique; de Albuquerque Melo, Ana Maria Mendonça; Barroso Martins, Mônica Cristina; de Menezes Lima, Vera Lúcia

    2018-04-01

    This text presents complementary data corresponding to schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and enviromental toxicity using usnic acid. These informations support our research article "Toxicity of Usnic Acid from Cladonia substellata (Lichen) to embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata " by Araújo et al. [1], and focuses on the analysis of the detailed data regarding the different concentrations of Usnic Acid and their efficiency to B. glabrata mortality and non-viability, as also to environmental toxicity, evaluated by A. salina mortality.

  17. SIR - small is safe [in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.

    1989-01-01

    A joint USA-UK venture has been initiated to design a small nuclear reactor which offers low capital cost, greater flexibility and a potentially lower environmental impact. Called Safe Integral Reactor (SIR), the lead unit could be built in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's (UKAEA's) Winfrith site if the design is accepted by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). This article describes the 320 MWe reactor unit that is the basis of the design being developed. (author)

  18. Design of a Clean Room for Quality Control of an Environmental Sampling in KINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jongho; Ahn, Gil Hoon; Seo, Hana; Han, Kitek; Park, Il Jin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of environmental sampling and analysis for safeguards is to characterize the nuclear materials handled and the activities conducted at the specific locations. The KINAC is responsible for the conclusions drawn from the analytical results provided by the analytical laboratories. To assure the KINAC of the continuity of the quality of the analytical results provided by the laboratories, the KINAC will implement a quality control(QC) programme. One of the QC programme is to prepare QC samples. The establishment of a clean room is needed to handle QC samples due to stringent control of contamination. The KINAC designed a clean facility with cleanliness of ISO Class 6, the Clean Room for Estimation and Assay of trace Nuclear materials(CREAN) to meet conflicting requirements of a clean room and for handling of nuclear materials according to Korean laws. The clean room will be expected to acquire of a radiation safety license under these conditions in this year and continue to improve it. The construction of the CREAN facility will be completed by the middle of 2015. In terms of QC programme, the establishment of a clean room is essential and will be not only very helpful for setting of quality control system for the national environmental sampling programme but also be applied for the environmental sample analysis techniques to the nuclear forensics

  19. Speech-driven environmental control systems--a qualitative analysis of users' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Simon; Robertson, Zoë; Hawley, Mark; Enderby, Pam

    2009-05-01

    To explore users' experiences and perceptions of speech-driven environmental control systems (SPECS) as part of a larger project aiming to develop a new SPECS. The motivation for this part of the project was to add to the evidence base for the use of SPECS and to determine the key design specifications for a new speech-driven system from a user's perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 users of SPECS from around the United Kingdom. These interviews were transcribed and analysed using a qualitative method based on framework analysis. Reliability is the main influence on the use of SPECS. All the participants gave examples of occasions when their speech-driven system was unreliable; in some instances, this unreliability was reported as not being a problem (e.g., for changing television channels); however, it was perceived as a problem for more safety critical functions (e.g., opening a door). Reliability was cited by participants as the reason for using a switch-operated system as back up. Benefits of speech-driven systems focused on speech operation enabling access when other methods were not possible; quicker operation and better aesthetic considerations. Overall, there was a perception of increased independence from the use of speech-driven environmental control. In general, speech was considered a useful method of operating environmental controls by the participants interviewed; however, their perceptions regarding reliability often influenced their decision to have backup or alternative systems for certain functions.

  20. The use of institutional controls at Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office environmental restoration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.K.; Swindle, D.W.; Redfearn, A.; King, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes some of the major issues related to the use of institutional controls at hazardous waste sites under the auspices of the Department of Energy Field Office, Oak Ridge/Environmental Restoration (DOE-OR/ER) Division. In particular, the report addresses the impacts that assumptions regarding institutional controls have on the results and interpretation of the risk assessment, both in the Remedial Investigation (RI) and the Feasibility Study (FS). Environmental restoration activities at DOE-OR/ER sites are primarily driven by CERCLA. Therefore, the report focuses on the approaches and assumptions relating to institutional controls under CERCLA. Also the report briefly outlines approaches adopted under other authorities such as RCRA and radiation regulatory authorities (such as NRC regulations/guidance, DOE orders, and EPA standards) in order to contrast these approaches to those adopted under CERCLA. In order to demonstrate the implications of the use of institutional controls at DOE facilities, this report summarizes the approaches and results of the recent baseline risk assessment for Solid Waste Storage Area 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report concludes with possible options on the use of institutional controls at DOE-OR/ER sites

  1. Working safely with electronics racks

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head

    2016-01-01

    Think of CERN and you’ll probably think of particle accelerators and detectors. These are the tools of the trade in particle physics, but behind them are the racks of electronics that include power supplies, control systems and data acquisition networks.   Inside an electronics rack: danger could be lurking if the rack is not powered off. In routine operation, these are no more harmful than the home entertainment system in your living room. But unscrew the cover and it’s a different matter. Even after following appropriate training, and with formal authorisation from your group leader or equivalent to carry out electrical work or any work in the vicinity of electrical hazards, and even with extensive experience of carrying out such operations, it’s important to incorporate safe working practices into your routine. At CERN, before the racks of electronics reach their operational configurations for the accelerators and detectors, they play a vital role in test set-ups ...

  2. Different Phylogenetic and Environmental Controls of First-order Root Morphological and Chemical Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, N.; Yu, G.; He, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fine roots are the most distal roots that act as the primary belowground organs in acquiring limiting nutrients and water from the soil. However, limited by the inconsistency in definitions of fine roots and the different protocols among studies, knowledge of root system traits has, to date, still lagged far behind our understanding of above-ground traits. In particular, whether variation in fine root traits among the plant species along a single root economics spectrum and this underlying mechanism are still hotly debated. In this study, we sampled the first-order root using the standardized protocols, and measured six important root traits related to resource use strategies, from 181 plant species from subtropical to boreal forests. Base on this large dataset, we concluded that different phylogenetic and environmental factors affected on root thickness and nutrient, resulting in the decoupled pattern between them. Specifically, variation in species-level traits related to root thickness (including root diameter, RD and specific root length, SRL) was restricted by common ancestry and little plastic to the changing environments, whereas the large-scale variation in woody root nutrient was mainly controlled by environmental differences, especially soil variables. For community-level traits, mean annual temperature (MAT) mainly influenced the community-level root thickness through the direct effect of changes in plant species composition, while soil P had a positive influence effect on community-level root nitrogen concentration (CWM_RN), reflecting the strong influence of soil fertility on belowground root nutrient. The different environmental constraints and selective pressures acting between root thickness and nutrient traits allows for multiple ecological strategies to adapt to complex environmental conditions. In addition, strong relationships between community-level root traits and environmental variables, due to environmental filters, indicate that in contrast

  3. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  4. Behavioral Determinants of Switching to Arsenic-Safe Water Wells: An Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Health Education Interventions Coupled With Water Arsenic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Inauen, Jennifer; Perin, Jamie; Tighe, Jennifer; Hasan, Khaled; Zheng, Yan

    2017-01-01

    More than 100 million people globally are estimated to be exposed to arsenic in drinking water that exceeds the World Health Organization guideline of 10 µg/L. In an effort to develop and test a low-cost sustainable approach for water arsenic testing in Bangladesh, we conducted a randomized controlled trial which found arsenic educational…

  5. Is a long-term high-intensity exercise program effective and safe in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Zuzana; Munneke, Marten; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Kroon, Herman M.; Jansen, Annemarie; Ronday, Karel H.; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Dijkmans, Ben A. C.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P. M.; Hazes, Johanna M. W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are insufficient data on the effects of long-term intensive exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We undertook this randomized, controlled, multicenter trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of a 2-year intensive exercise program (Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

  6. Is a long-term high-intensity exercise program effective and safe in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Z. de; Munneke, M.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Kroon, H.M.; Jansen, A.; Ronday, K.H.; Schaardenburg, D. van; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Breedveld, F.C.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Hazes, J.M.W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are insufficient data on the effects of long-term intensive exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We undertook this randomized, controlled, multicenter trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of a 2-year intensive exercise program (Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

  7. Analytical quality control in environmental analysis - Recent results and future trends of the IAEA's analytical quality control programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschny, O; Heinonen, J

    1973-12-01

    The significance of analytical results depends critically on the degree of their reliability, an assessment of this reliability is indispensable if the results are to have any meaning at all. Environmental radionuclide analysis is a relatively new analytical field in which new methods are continuously being developed and into which many new laboratories have entered during the last ten to fifteen years. The scarcity of routine methods and the lack of experience of the new laboratories have made the need for the assessment of the reliability of results particularly urgent in this field. The IAEA, since 1962, has provided assistance to its member states by making available to their laboratories analytical quality control services in the form of standard samples, reference materials and the organization of analytical intercomparisons. The scope of this programme has increased over the years and now includes, in addition to environmental radionuclides, non-radioactive environmental contaminants which may be analysed by nuclear methods, materials for forensic neutron activation analysis, bioassay materials and nuclear fuel. The results obtained in recent intercomparisons demonstrate the continued need for these services. (author)

  8. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Tozan, Y; Singer, B H

    2001-09-01

    Roll back malaria (RBM) aims at halving the current burden of the disease by the year 2010. The focus is on sub-Saharan Africa, and it is proposed to implement efficacious and cost-effective control strategies. But the evidence base of such information is scarce, and a notable missing element is the discussion of the potential of environmental management. We reviewed the literature and identified multiple malaria control programmes that incorporated environmental management as the central feature. Prominent among them are programmes launched in 1929 and implemented for two decades at copper mining communities in Zambia. The full package of control measures consisted of vegetation clearance, modification of river boundaries, draining swamps, oil application to open water bodies and house screening. Part of the population also was given quinine and was sleeping under mosquito nets. Monthly malaria incidence rates and vector densities were used for surveillance and adaptive tuning of the environmental management strategies to achieve a high level of performance. Within 3-5 years, malaria-related mortality, morbidity and incidence rates were reduced by 70-95%. Over the entire 20 years of implementation, the programme had averted an estimated 4173 deaths and 161,205 malaria attacks. The estimated costs per death and malaria attack averted were US$ 858 and US$ 22.20, respectively. Over the initial 3-5 years start-up period, analogous to the short-duration of cost-effectiveness analyses of current studies, we estimated that the costs per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted were US$ 524-591. However, the strategy has a track record of becoming cost-effective in the longer term, as maintenance costs were much lower: US$ 22-92 per DALY averted. In view of fewer adverse ecological effects, increased sustainability and better uses of local resources and knowledge, environmental management--integrated with pharmacological, insecticidal and bednet interventions

  9. Dissipation pattern of flubendiamide residues on capsicum fruit (Capsicum annuum L.) under field and controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddidathi, Radhika; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Siddamallaiah, Lekha; Manikrao, Gourishankar; Hebbar, Shibara Shankara

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to compare the dissipation pattern of flubendiamide in capsicum fruits under poly-house and open field after giving spray applications at the recommended and double doses of 48 g a.i. ha(-1) and 96 g a.i. ha(-1). Extraction and purification of capsicum fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method. Residues of flubendiamide and its metabolite, des-iodo flubendiamide, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array, and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 mg kg(-1), and recovery of the insecticides was in the range of 89.6-104.3%, with relative standard deviation being 4.5-11.5%. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was in the range of 10.7-15.7%. Initial residue deposits of flubendiamide on capsicum fruits grown under poly-house conditions were (0.977 and 1.834 mg kg(-1)) higher than that grown in the field (0.665 and 1.545 mg kg(-1)). Flubendiamide residues persisted for 15 days in field-grown and for 25 days in poly-house-grown capsicum fruits. The residues were degraded with the half-lives of 4.3-4.7 and 5.6-6.6 days in field and poly-house respectively. Des-iodo flubendiamide was not detected in capsicum fruits or soil. The residues of flubendiamide degraded to below the maximum residue limit notified by Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) after 1 and 6 days in open field, and 3 and 10 days in poly-house. The results of the study indicated that flubendiamide applied to capsicum under controlled environmental conditions required longer pre-harvest interval to allow its residues to dissipate to the safe level.

  10. Protection and control of modeled local power systems and simulation of safe power feeding systems; Proteccion y control local de sistemas electricos de potencia modelado y simulacion de sistemas de alimentacion segura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothschild, Marcelo A. [SADE SKANSKA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: mrothsch@sade.com.ar

    2001-07-01

    This document presents a guideline for modeling and simulation of safe feeding systems. Examples of systems currently in operation are presented for which, based on attended project by simulation, it has been possible to introduce substantial improvements in relation to the reliability and security of those installations.

  11. Safe percutaneous suprapubic catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, N K; Goel, A; Sankhwar, S N

    2012-11-01

    We describe our technique of percutaneous suprapubic catheter insertion with special reference to steps that help to avoid common complications of haematuria and catheter misplacement. The procedure is performed using a stainless steel reusable trocar under local infiltrative anaesthesia, usually at the bedside. After clinical confirmation of a full bladder, the trocar is advanced into the bladder through a skin incision. Once the bladder is entered, the obturator is removed and the assistant inserts a Foley catheter followed by rapid balloon inflation. Slight traction is applied to the catheter for about five minutes. Patients with previous lower abdominal surgery, an inadequately distended bladder or acute pelvic trauma do not undergo suprapubic catheterisation using this method. The procedure was performed in 72 men (mean age: 42.4 years, range: 18-78 years) with urinary retention with a palpable bladder. The average duration of the procedure was less than five minutes. No complications were noted in any of the patients. Trocar suprapubic catheter insertion is a safe and effective bedside procedure for emergency bladder drainage and can be performed by resident surgeons. The common complications associated with the procedure can be avoided with a few careful steps.

  12. Making Our Food Safe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Full text: As civilization has progressed societies have strived to make food safer; from using fire to cook our food, and boiling our water to make it safe to drink, advances in technology have helped kill microorganisms that can make food unsafe. The FAO/IAEA Joint Division helps provide technical assistance to Member States that want to implement irradiation technology in making their food safer. Food and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases are estimated to kill roughly 2.2 million people annually, of which 1.9 million are children. Irradiating some of the foods we eat can save many of these lives by reducing the risk of food poisoning and killing the organisms that cause disease. Irradiation works by treating food with a small dose of ionizing radiation, this radiation disrupts the bacteria’s DNA and cell membranes structure stopping the organism from reproducing or functioning, but does not make the food radioactive. It can be applied to a variety of foods from spices and seasonings, to fruits and vegetables and is similar to pasteurization, but without the need for high temperatures that might impair food quality. (author)

  13. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  14. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  15. Environmental controls on the elemental composition of a Southern Hemisphere strain of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Roleda, Michael Y.; Armstrong, Evelyn; Law, Cliff S.; Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    2018-01-01

    A series of semi-continuous incubation experiments were conducted with the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain NIWA1108 (Southern Ocean isolate) to examine the effects of five environmental drivers (nitrate and phosphate concentrations, irradiance, temperature, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2)) on both the physiological rates and elemental composition of the coccolithophore. Here, we report the alteration of the elemental composition of E. huxleyi in response to the changes in these environmental drivers. A series of dose-response curves for the cellular elemental composition of E. huxleyi were fitted for each of the five drivers across an environmentally representative gradient. The importance of each driver in regulating the elemental composition of E. huxleyi was ranked using a semi-quantitative approach. The percentage variations in elemental composition arising from the change in each driver between present-day and model-projected conditions for the year 2100 were calculated. Temperature was the most important driver controlling both cellular particulate organic and inorganic carbon content, whereas nutrient concentrations were the most important regulator of cellular particulate nitrogen and phosphorus of E. huxleyi. In contrast, elevated pCO2 had the greatest influence on cellular particulate inorganic carbon to organic carbon ratio, resulting in a decrease in the ratio. Our results indicate that the different environmental drivers play specific roles in regulating the elemental composition of E. huxleyi with wide-reaching implications for coccolithophore-related marine biogeochemical cycles, as a consequence of the regulation of E. huxleyi physiological processes.

  16. Environmental radiation control and quality management system in design and operation of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    New environmental regulations and radiation safety standards are being implemented almost daily to ensure radiation safety, in particular for practices causing exposures to undue radiation doses. A particular emphasis of real challenge for organizations and users of radiation sources has to be for proper radiological safety assessment and is becoming cost effectively to be prepared for auditing. Special concern for the environment is of global . nature, and hence environmental auditing has been and will continue to be an essential practice for improving the environment and for meeting the relevant regulations and standards. In general, most facilities that deal with radioactive sources undertake strict safety measures in terms of personnel radiation protection, handling procedures and security. Hence, those measures should comply with the requirements of the environmental protection standards. Accordingly, a successful quality management system must balance realities of organization and personnel in achieving quality objectives. Organizational principles are found in the technical aspects of' quality management, such as, charting, requirements, measurements, procedures, ... , etc. Human principles are found in the communication side of quality management (e.g. meetings, ,decision making, ,teams, ... , etc). The quality management must understand and balance skills needed to blend them together. Large gamma irradiators present a high potential radiation hazard to the surrounding environment, since the amount of radioactivity is of the order of (P Bq) and a very high dose rates are produced during irradiation. Application of environmental radiation control deemed by regulatory authority and a proper quality management system by the utility would serve public health and safety

  17. Safe management of waste from health-care activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, A.; Giroult, E.; Rushbrook, P.

    1999-01-01

    The waste produced in the course of health-care activities, from contaminated needles to radioactive isotopes, carries a greater potential for causing infection and injury than any other type of waste, and inadequate or inappropriate management is likely to have serious public health consequences and deleterious effects on the environment. This handbook - the result of extensive international consultation and collaboration - provides comprehensive guidance on safe, efficient, and environmentally sound methods for the handling and disposal of health-care wastes. The various categories of waste are clearly defined and the particular hazards that each poses are described. Considerable prominence is given to the careful planning that is essential for the success of waste management; workable means of minimizing waste production are outlined and the role of reuse and recycling of waste is discussed. Most of the text, however, is devoted to the collection, segregation, storage, transport, and disposal of wastes. Details of containers for each category of waste, labelling of waste packages, and storage conditions are provided, and the various technologies for treatment of waste and disposal of final residues are discussed at length. Advice is given on occupational safety for all personnel involved with waste handling, and a separate chapter is devoted to the closely related topic of hospital hygiene and infection control. The handbook pays particular attention to basic processes and technologies that are not only safe but also affordable, sustainable, and culturally appropriate. For health-care settings in which resources are severely limited there is a separate chapter on minimal programmes; this summarizes all the simplest and least costly techniques that can be employed for the safe management of health-care wastes. The guide is aimed at public health managers and policy-makers, hospital managers, environmental health professionals, and all administrators with an

  18. Safe and green nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Energy development plays an important role in the national economic growth. Presently the per capita consumption of energy in our country is about 750 kWh including captive power generation which is low in comparison to that in the developed countries like USA where it is about 12,000 kWh. As of now the total installed capacity of electricity generation is about 152,148 MW(e) which is drawn from Thermal (65%), Hydel (24%), Nuclear (3%) power plants and Renewables (8%). It is expected that by the end of year 2020, the required installed capacity would be more than 3,00,000 MW(e), if we assume per capita consumption of about 800-1000 kWh for Indian population of well over one billion. To meet the projected power requirement in India, suitable options need to be identified and explored for generation of electricity. For choosing better alternatives various factors such as availability of resources, potential to generate commercial power, economic viability, etc. need to be considered. Besides these factors, an important factor which must be taken into consideration is protection of environment around the operating power stations. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the nuclear power generation is an environmentally benign option for meeting the future requirement of electricity in India. It also discusses the need for creating the public awareness about the safe operations of the nuclear power plants and ionising radiation. (author)

  19. Babies Living Safe & Smokefree: randomized controlled trial of a multilevel multimodal behavioral intervention to reduce low-income children’s tobacco smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley N. Collins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addressing children’s tobacco smoke exposure (TSE remains a public health priority. However, there is low uptake and ineffectiveness of treatment, particularly in low-income populations that face numerous challenges to smoking behavior change. A multilevel intervention combining system-level health messaging and advice about TSE delivered at community clinics that disseminate the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC, combined with nicotine replacement and intensive multimodal, individual-level behavioral intervention may improve TSE control efforts in such high-risk populations. Methods/Design This trial uses a randomized two-group design with three measurement points: baseline, 3-month and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome is bioverified child TSE; the secondary outcome is bioverified maternal quit status. Smoking mothers of children less than 6 years old are recruited from WIC clinics. All participants receive WIC system-level intervention based on the “Ask, Advise, Refer (AAR” best practices guidelines for pediatrics clinics. It includes training all WIC staff about the importance of maternal tobacco control; and detailing clinics with AAR intervention prompts in routine work flow to remind WIC nutrition counselors to ask all mothers about child TSE, advise about TSE harms and benefits of protection, and refer smokers to cessation services. After receiving the system intervention, mothers are randomized to receive 3 months of additional treatment or an attention control intervention: (1 The multimodal behavioral intervention (MBI treatment includes telephone counseling sessions about child TSE reduction and smoking cessation, provision of nicotine replacement therapy, a mobile app to support cessation efforts, and multimedia text messages about TSE and smoking cessation; (2 The attention control intervention offers equivalent contact as the MBI and includes nutrition

  20. A cost/schedule and control system for the environmental restoration program Albuquerque Field Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiske, Wanda S.; Bischoff, Edward L.; Rea, Kenneth H.; Dwain Farley, P.; Biedermann, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Office Albuquerque (AL), Environmental Restoration Project Office (ERPO), has developed a project management system used to plan, document, and control Environmental Restoration (ER) work at eight installations and one superfund site managed by AL. This system emphasizes control of the cost, schedule, and technical elements of the Program. It supports programmatic documentation such as the Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Five-Year Plan, Site Specific Plan, and budget requests. The System provides information used to manage the ER Program at all levels of management (i.e., from low-level day-to-day activities to high-level upper management). The System requires substantial effort to ensure reliability; however, the benefit to ERPO is an effective, proactive project management tool. This paper provides an overview of the ERPO System, an explanation of how it is implemented, and lessons learned from this process. Application of the System to cost estimating, annual and five-year budget preparation, resource projections, scheduling, and cost/schedule performance measurement is discussed. Also discussed are cost/schedule review procedures, along with variance identification and resolution. Examples are taken from the Pinellas ER Program. (author)