WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmentally friendly green

  1. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its thermal and mechanical properties, and applies it to the design of food packaging. The results demonstrate that the thermal and mechanical properties of the material could satisfy the requirements of food packaging and that the material is applicable to the design of food packaging in the future. This work provides a reference for the application of green, environment-friendly materials in the design of food packaging.

  2. Green technological foresight on environmental friendly agriculture: Executive summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Christensen, S.; Jørgensen, U.

    2005-01-01

    manifested. The foresight makes the decision-makers more aware of those challenges and possibilities that exist in the long-term. The foresight is in this case carried out in dialogue with a widely combined panel ofexperts and agricultural players, where one has placed the environmental challenges...... and consideration. Focus in relation to theenvironmental challenges has especially been directed towards the quality of water, air and soil as well as the aesthetical landscape. On the other hand, the protection of nature has, in this case, had less focus....

  3. One pot environmental friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba H. El-Maghrabi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite synthesis of TiO2NT-graphene was prepared from titanium dioxide nanotubes and graphene oxide (GO by a simple environmental friendly method (green method. The structure, surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffract meter (XRD, Raman, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and selected area electron diffraction(SAED. XRD results confirm the interaction of TiO2-NT with graphene. A fast decomposition of the phenol was observed with a degradation efficiency of 70.6% within 180 min.

  4. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  5. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  6. Environmentally Friendly Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...... on the green consumer: cultural determinism, psycho-socio-demographic determinism and calculative determinism. An explanation of the green consumer in these terms, however, loses sight of the emergence and processuality of consumer behaviour. Process oriented constructionism, by contrast, is useful to recover...... these important aspects. This paper suggests a research agenda focused on socio-material processes and situated actions that lead to the emergence and stabilization of a particular type of consumer behaviour....

  7. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviv, Avi

    2005-09-01

    With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well.

  8. Environmentally-friendly practices in hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Mbasera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There has been a growing concern for a ‘green’ hotel in the view of customers as they experience an increased awareness of environmental damage and excessive consumption of goods, energy and water.Research purpose: To determine the environmentally-friendly practices in hotels in Zimbabwe and South Africa and establish the contribution that hotels are making towards mitigation of the negative environmental effects.Motivation for the study: Currently, the world is facing environmental issues, which include global climate change, ozone depletion, pollution, high consumption of resources and increasing amounts of solid waste. Hotels, as part of the tourism industry, exert a significant impact on the environment. While the extent and range of the impact that hotels exert on the environment suggest an urgent need to address this problem, the question that arises is whether hoteliers appreciate the need for environmentally-friendly initiatives in their establishments.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research was carried out in eight hotels that employ the strategy of the case study in the aforementioned countries. Main findings: Currently, no policies for green management exist, although some hotels do engage in some environmentally-friendly practices. Some hotel managers do not implement green management initiatives to mitigate the environmental problems emanating from their hotel operations.Practical and/or managerial implications: This indicates that a gap exists between managers’ awareness of appropriate environmentally-friendly practices for hotels, implying a need for training and increased awareness of green management.Contribution and/or value-add: The results could guide managers in the implementation of environmentally-friendly practices in an effort to mitigate environmental problems facing the present generation.

  9. Examination of environmentally friendly "green" logistics behavior of managers in the pharmaceutical sector using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Miray; Şar, Sevgi

    2017-12-11

    Logistics activities play a prominent role in enabling manufacturers, distribution channels, and pharmacies to work in harmony. Nowadays these activities have become increasingly striking in the pharmaceutical industry and seen as a development area for this sector. Additionally, green practices are beginning to be more attracting particularly in decreasing costs and increasing image of pharmaceutical companies. The main objective of this study was modeling green logistics (GL) behavior of the managers in the pharmaceutical sector in the theory of planned behavior (TPB) frame via structural equation modeling (SEM). A measurement tool was developed according to TPB. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine subfactors of GL behavior. In the second step, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for confirming whether there is a relationship between the observed variables and their underlying latent constructs. Finally, structural equation model was conducted to specify the relationships between latent variables. In the proposed green logistics behavior (GLB) model, the positive effect of environmental attitude towards GL, perceived behavioral control related GL, and subjective norm about GL on intention towards GL were found statistically significant. Nevertheless, the effect of attitude towards costs of GL on intention towards GL was not found statistically significant. Intention towards GL has been found to have a positive statistically significant effect on the GL behavior. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to say that TPB is an appropriate theory for modeling green logistics behavior of managers. This model can be seen as a guide to the companies in the pharmaceutical sector to participate in green logistics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pheophytin a and chlorophyll a identified from environmentally friendly cultivation of green pepper enhance interleukin-2 and interferon-γ in Peyer's patches ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Myoung-Yun; Park, Bo-kyung; Choi, Jeong June; Yang, Mihi; Yang, Hyun Ok; Cha, Jin Wook; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, In Seon; Lee, Hyang Burm; Jin, Mirim

    2013-01-01

    The oral consumption of capsicum has been reported to increase interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ production in Peyer's patches (PP); however, the active components responsible for these effects have not been completely identified. The beneficial biological effects of green peppers cultivated under environmentally friendly farming conditions (ECP), without the use of chemical pesticides, have rarely been compared with those of green peppers cultivated under conventional farming conditions (CCP). Oral administration of ECP extract significantly induced the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ in concanavalin A-treated cells from PP ex vivo; their levels were much higher than those in the CCP extract-treated group. A comparative analysis of the HPLC profiles indicated a 1.7-fold increase of a peak, named EF-1, at 415 nm in the ECP extract. The major component of EF-1 was identified as pheophytin a, which is a chlorophyll a molecule lacking a central Mg(2+) ion, as determined from NMR data. Intake of pheophytin a and chlorophyll a significantly increased IL-2 and IFN-γ production, and the percentage of IL-2- and IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T-cells in PP. Taken together, our data suggest that ECPs produce a higher content of pheophytin a than CCPs, and pheophytin a and chlorophyll a are immune-modulating components in green vegetables.

  11. Ultrasonic-assisted environmentally-friendly synergetic synthesis of nitroaromatic compounds in core/shell nanoreactor: A green protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Ali; Aghaie, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    An efficient sonochemical protocol for the nitration of aromatic compounds was described in the presence of a catalytic amount of sulfuric acid-functionalized silica-based core/shell magnetic nanocomposite at room temperature in an eco-friendly and recyclable media, deep eutectic solvent (DES), based on choline chloride and urea. The particle size, morphology and elemental analysis of the core/shell nanocatalyst were carried out by TEM, SEM, EDX and XRD analyses. The nanocatalyst and DES were easily recovered from the reaction mixture quantitatively and reused several times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Danish technology foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    A premise that is necessary for agriculture to develop into an environmentally friendly direction is that research is undertaken into environmentally friendly technologies and methods and how they can be brought into use. There is a need for a prioritised research effort that focuses on those...... problems which are related to minimising environmental problems affected by the agricultural production’s negative influence on the surroundings, improving animal welfare and finding new ways and products for agriculture. Future directions of agriculture can derive with or without dialogue; it can occur...... without any plan or with some thought. Therefore the National Forest and Nature Agency in Denmark initiated the Green Technological foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture with the aim of examining the agricultural environmental challenges and suggesting technological and structural solutions....

  13. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  14. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  15. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Handayani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this research is to test the influence of consumer attitude of green products towards purchase intention. Hypothesis testing using Partial Least Square (PLS. The result of analysis show that there is influence among consumer attitude of green product towards consumer purchase intention significantly.

  16. Electrochemical Behaviour of Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical Behaviour of Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of Aloe Secundiflora Extract in Corrosion Control of Carbon Steel in Soft Water Media. ... corrosion control in neutral and aerated soft water solutions have been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques.

  17. Environmentally Friendly Sustainable Housing Construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore it is right time, and is now both a great incentive and a great opportunity to use sustainable building construction techniques. Housing is a major sector and is responsible for about 20-30% of green house gas emissions in developed countries. Therefore an effective response to climate change can be achieved ...

  18. Going Green: Eco-Friendly Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Debra Lau

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of studies show that a school's physical condition--especially its lighting and indoor air quality--directly affect student performance. A 2005 Turner Construction survey of green buildings found that 70 percent of districts with sustainable schools reported improved student performance. It also makes perfect sense that…

  19. Qualification of environmentally friendly cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marquis, G.; Lopez, E.P.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has traditionally used chlorinated and fluorinated organic solvents for general degreasing applications. Many of these solvents have been labeled by the Federal Government as ozone depleting chemicals and as toxic and/or suspected carcinogens. As a result, these solvents will no longer be recommended for use within the DOE weapons complex. There are three major classes of materials that are of concern for cleaning: organics, metals and ceramics. Each of these materials has its own special cleaning problems. Solvents that were used in the past, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were extremely efficient at removing everything from oils and greases to salts without leaving corrosive residues or permanently absorbing into the materials. These traditional degreasing solvents were essentially ``all-inone`` cleaners: quick, reliable, and easy to use. Unfortunately, a ``drop-in`` cleaner for such a wide variety of materials and contaminants will probably never be identified. So far, it has been difficult to identify environmentally conscious cleaners that clean as well as TCE and TCA. Most alternative cleaners require more volume to do the job, and also require longer exposure to get the job done. With these things in mind, we are hoping to identify and qualify new cleaners that will take care of general classes of materials.

  20. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuexian; Zheng, Haidong

    2017-12-13

    Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents' behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader) facing emission-dependent demand, and the environmental regulator (Stackelberg follower). The firm decides on the green technology level in the first stage of the game based on its understanding of the regulator's profits function, especially an environmental concern that is introduced as an exogenous variable. In the current research, we show that high levels of the regulator's environmental concerns do not necessarily lead to the choice of green technology by the firm, and green investment level depends on the combined effects of the market and operational factors for a given level of the regulator's environmental concerns. The result also shows that increasing environmental awareness amongst the consumers is an effective way to drive the firm's green investment.

  1. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexian Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents’ behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader facing emission-dependent demand, and the environmental regulator (Stackelberg follower. The firm decides on the green technology level in the first stage of the game based on its understanding of the regulator’s profits function, especially an environmental concern that is introduced as an exogenous variable. In the current research, we show that high levels of the regulator’s environmental concerns do not necessarily lead to the choice of green technology by the firm, and green investment level depends on the combined effects of the market and operational factors for a given level of the regulator’s environmental concerns. The result also shows that increasing environmental awareness amongst the consumers is an effective way to drive the firm’s green investment.

  2. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  3. Environmentally Friendly Techniques for Wool Dyeing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antighin Simona

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of dyeing process on the quality of surface waters contaminated with heavy metals and organic compounds, resulted after the wool dyeing process. In order to mark out this aspects an environment friendly method was proposed which involves dyeing wool fiber with new complex combinations derived from a new acid dyes which were complexed, using copper, iron, nickel and zinc salts at 2:1 combination ratio. In order to point out the environmental point of view of wastewaters an experimental protocol was tested by dyeing wool fiber at different pH. Evaluation of complexed combinations impact on the environment involve the following indicators: consumption degree of dyeing solution from the process bath, treatment degree related to the organic content expressed by COD indicator and treatment degree related to the heavy metal concentration respectively.

  4. Environmentally Friendly Supplier Selection Using Prospect Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an optimal selection method to address the real-world problem of environmentally friendly supplier selection, based on prospect theory. This study adopted the manufacturer’s point of view, and considered the manufacturer’s psychological and behavioral factors in the process of choosing suppliers. The first step was to build supplier-selection indexes for manufacturers. Then, the study assessed the attribute of manufacturer expectations as a reference point. Next, index gains and losses were evaluated against the expectation reference point, yielding a payoff matrix and loss matrix. Finally, the study used prospect theory to calculate the comprehensive prospect value of each supplier; comprehensive prospect values were sorted in descending order to help manufacturers make the best choice.

  5. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Ergen; Filiz Bozkurt; Caner Giray

    2016-01-01

    The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of ...

  6. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  7. An efficient and green sonochemical synthesis of some new eco-friendly functionalized ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouslim Messali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable stress to replace a lot of volatile organic compounds which were used as solvents in synthetic organic chemistry has been done for many chemical industries. A suitable solution for these problems is found by using the ionic liquids as a clean medium of working and avoiding the solvent effect. The present work describes a facile and green ultrasound-assisted procedure as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional methods for the preparation of a series of 26 new functionalized imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Their structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1H, 13C, 11B, 19F, 31P NMR and mass spectra.

  8. Environmental and Energy Aspects of Construction Industry and Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2017-04-01

    Green building is an important component of sustainable real estate market development, and one of the reasons is that the construction industry consumes a high amount of resources. Energy consumption of construction industry results in greenhouse gas emissions, so green buildings, energy systems, building technologies and other aspects play an important role in sustainable development of real estate market, construction and environmental development. The aim of the research is to analyse environmental aspects of sustainable real estate market development, focusing on importance of green buildings at the industry level and related energy aspects. Literature review, historical, statistical data analysis and logical access methods have been used in the research. The conducted research resulted in high environmental rationale and importance of environment-friendly buildings, and there are many green building benefits during the building life cycle. Future research direction is environmental information process and its models.

  9. Environmentally Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Perlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    Production of Portland cement (PC), the ubiquitous binding material for construction works, is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Nearly half of these emissions arise from the decomposition of calcareous raw materials, and the other half from kiln fuel combustion and cement clinker grinding operations. As such, PC production contributes significantly to global warming and climate change. Lately, there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower associated green house gas emissions. An important class of such binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders have very low CO2 emissions from grinding of the starting material, and some from the production of the activating chemical. The total CO2 emission from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/5th - 1/10th of those of Portland cement concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time makes their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Perlite is a volcanic aluminosilicate glass abundant in Turkey, China, Japan, the US and several EU countries. It has been used in its expanded form, for horticulture, for insulation, and for producing lightweight concrete. Turkish perlites contain more than 70 % SiO2, and have a SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of ~5.5. This study shows that ground perlite can be mixed with alkaline activators like sodium hydroxide or sodium silicate to yield mortars with strengths comparable to those of portland cement mortars. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in 24 h or less. Since perlite is natural, perlite geopolymers can have environmental, energetic, and

  10. SOME PROBLEMS OF CREATING ELECTRIC ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kharkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions connected with the possibility of creating environmentally friendly electric aircraft are considered. It is suggested to use modern accumulators based on the lithium-thionyl chloride as a source of electrical energy.

  11. Environmental Friendly Coatings & Corrosion Prevention for Flight Hardware Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has undertaken a study to find environmentally friendly alternatives for the petroleum and solvent-based corrosion-preventive compounds...

  12. Environmentally Friendly Adhesives and Sealants for Army Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    styrene-butadiene rubber ( SBR ), and nitrile. One brush coat of the adhesive material was applied to the prepared surfaces of the rubber strips...Unclassified Title Environmentally Friendly Adhesives and Sealants for Army Applications 3. Author(s) Faye R. Toulan, Felicia Levine, Leslie...TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Environmentally Friendly Adhesives And Sealants For Army Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  13. Environmentally-friendly product development: methods and tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abele, Eberhard; Anderl, R; Birkhofer, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    ... to assess a product's environmental effects. Fig. 1. Vision of Environment as a key target for product development vvi Preface Product related environmental issues are getting more and more political and public awareness. Development of environmentally friendly products has become an action item for both, politics and industry (UNFCCC 1997). Energy...

  14. "Green-friendly" best management practices (BMPs) for interstate rest areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a research project to study and develop a list of green friendly Best : Management Practices (BMPs) for Illinois interstate rest areas. The objectives of this project are to (1) develop : energy and cost bas...

  15. Design of environmentally friendly products using indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Bey, Niki

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements of product designers towards methods for environmental evaluation; it argues that indicators can be used for rough environmental evaluations and it presents experiences made with the indicator-based Oil Point Method (OPM). This method is illustrated by means...... of three examples, a vacuum cleaner, two sweaters and a passenger car. The quality of the results is compared with two other methods for environmental evaluation....

  16. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  17. Environmentally Friendly Concept in Spatial Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Taryono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial order of a region include purpose of structure and interrelatedness of spatial order which as a unity of development mechanism. Spatial order can’t be part from law basic that is UUD’45 and GBHN, in order to the management can be integrated and keep the environment. Spatial order also take note of physical factor and non physical factor. Physical factor consist of soil, water, flora, and fauna. Non physical factors consist of environment, social, economic, and soon. The principle of arrangement of spatial order in a region include national region, regional and local, and a region as an administrative baoundary, that is local government authority, like province, district, subdistrict, and village. The effort for spatial ordering of the environment, for example ordering resource, arrangement of allocation and location, arrangement of environmental aesthetic  and arrangement of environmental quality.

  18. Environmentally Friendly Coating Technology for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Jolley, Scott T.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Gillis, Mathew; Blanton, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry.

  19. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments.

  20. Environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites: types, processing and properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinha Ray, S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available -reinforcements of environmentally benign polymers have showed a great promise in designing of eco-friendly polymeric materials with desired properties. A fairly new type of composites has emerged in which the reinforcing filler has nano-meter scale dimensions (at least one...

  1. Environmentally friendly joining of tubes by their ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Carlos M.A.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Alves, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an environmentally friendly joining process for connecting tubes by their ends that has the potential to replace current solutions based on fastened, crimped, welded, brazed or adhesive bonded joints. The process is based on a new type of tubular lap joint produced by local...

  2. Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds for Ground Support Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery Eliza L.; Calle, Luz, Marina; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The need to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. CPCs are used as temporary protective coatings and must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different oily film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing. The results for the fifteen CPC systems are presented in this paper.

  3. Testing of environmentally friendly lubricants for sheet metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    the authors have especially been involved in the development of a system of test methods for sheet metal forming and in testing of friction and limits of lubrication of new, environmentally friendly lubricants. An overview of the developed tests is presented together with selected results....

  4. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  5. A Summary of Environmentally Friendly Turbine Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odeh, Mufeed [United States Geological Survey - BRD, Turners Falls, MA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program (AHTS) was created in 1994 by the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Hydropower Research Foundation. The Program’s main goal is to develop “environmentally friendly” hydropower turbines. The Program’s first accomplishment was the development of conceptual designs of new environmentally friendly turbines. In order to do so, two contractors were competitively selected. The ARL/NREC team of engineers and biologists provided a conceptual design for a new turbine runner*. The new runner has the potential to generate hydroelectricity at close to 90% efficiency. The Voith team produced new fish-friendly design criteria for Kaplan and Francis turbines that can be incorporated in units during rehabilitation projects or in new hydroelectric facilities**. These include the use of advanced plant operation, minimum gap runners, placement of wicket gates behind stay vanes, among others. The Voith team will also provide design criteria on aerating Francis turbines to increase dissolved oxygen content. Detailed reviews of the available literature on fish mortality studies, causation of injuries to fish, and available biological design criteria that would assist in the design of fish-friendly turbines were performed. This review identified a need for more biological studies in order to develop performance criteria to assist turbine manufacturers in designing a more fish-friendly turbine.

  6. Reclamation of coalmine overburden dump through environmental friendly method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshi, Anfal

    2017-02-01

    Coal mine spoils (-the previous overburden of coal seams, inevitable by-product in the mining process) which are usually unfavorable for plant growth have different properties according to dumping years. The reclamation of overburden dumps (OBDs) through plantation by using efficient microbes with suitable bio-inoculants is an environmental friendly microbial technique for significant improvement in fertility status and biological activities of the OBD soil. A systematic greenhouse pot experiment program followed by field trial was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and NFB on the performance of plant growth which have resulted in the development of environmental friendly bio-inoculant package for soil reclamation of abandoned mine land by revegetation.

  7. Environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textiles finished with siloxane sulfopropylbetaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Xiong, Meiling; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports a novel environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textile finished with reactive siloxane sulfopropylbetaine(SSPB). The results show that SSPB can be covalently bound onto the cotton textile surface, imparting perdurable antibacterial activity. The textiles finished with SSPB have been investigated systematically from the mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydrophilic properties and antibacterial properties. It is found that the hydrophilicity and breaking strength are improved greatly after the cotton textiles are finished with SSPB. Additionally, the cotton textiles finished with SSPB exhibit good antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus, ATCC 6538), gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli, 8099) and fungi Candida albicans (C.albicans, ATCC 10231). Moreover, SSPB is nonleachable from the textiles, and it does not induce skin stimulation and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is ideal candidate for environmentally friendly antibacterial textile applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Water mediated eco-friendly green protocol for one-pot synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    793–799. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Water mediated eco-friendly green protocol for one-pot synthesis of α-aminophosphonates at ambient conditions. SANTHOSH REDDY MANDHA, MANJULA ALLA. ∗ and VITTAL RAO BOMMENA. Crop Protection Chemicals, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka,.

  9. Environmentally Friendly Coating Systems for Department of Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-11

    Modernization h tt p :/ /w w w .t h eo d o re gr ay .c o m /P er io d ic Ta b le / ARDEC Personnel Jules Senske Dan Schmidt Don Skelton 4 • “ Electrocoat ...originally targeted acrylic electrocoat development – Expanded to powder coatings and other environmentally friendly treatments for munitions applications...Acrylic electrocoat and polyurethane powder – Higher work efficiency/simplified process – Durability > 750 WOM – Salt-spray resistance > 400 hrs – High

  10. Environmentally friendly cows–reducing our environmental hoof print

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of natural resources impacts the environment in five areas: 1) Energy, 2) Water, 3) Nutrients, 4) Greenhouse gases and 5) Biodiversity. The greatest opportunities for decreasing environmental impacts of the Holstein cow would seem to be enhancing utilization of nutrients and reducing emissio...

  11. The demand for environmentally friendly packaging in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1996-01-01

    . A person always buying the same brand and variety need not consider every aspect of the purchase. Hence, the non-salience of environmental packaging attributes and the non-concerned buying can partly be explained by habitual shopping. 6. The in-depth interview showed that many more attributes than were...... and need to be activated at the appropriate moment in order to influence behaviour. 10. While German consumers have a high awareness about environmentally harmful consequences of packaging, two thirds feel that they are not able to differentiate between more and less environmentally friendly packaging...... in a specific product area (cream cheese). The inability to differentiate is due partly to lack of awareness about the packaging types in supply on the cream cheese market, par lack of knowledge about relevant differentiation criteria. 11. While more than two thirds of the respondents in the representative...

  12. Environmentally friendly pavements: Results from noise measurements 2005-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Truls Svenn; Haukland, Frode; Ustad, Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    CPX-measurements (tyre A) have been performed on a wide range of ordinary dense Norwegian road pavements and special test pavements, as part of the R&D project “Environmental friendly pavements” initiated by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. The following conclusions can be made from the investigation:- New dense asphalt concrete pavements can give a tyre/road noise level (CPX) of 4-8 dB(A) lower noise level, compared to a chosen reference level for a pavement of type AC 0/1...

  13. The Concept of Environmentally Friendly Individual Mobility in the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Golubić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cities are faced today by the phenomenon ofexpanding everyday activities, affecting directly the traffic development.Physical expansion, the growing number of cars androad networks explain the increase in car utilisation in all typesof travelling in the range of 75 to 90%.Due to the adverse effects on the environment caused bysuch growing motorisation, the efforts are made in order to establishenvironmentally friendlier traffic. The paper considersthe concept of environmentally friendly individual trafficthrough MCC (Micro Compact Car and MCC- mobility .systemwhich will provide its linking with other traffic participants,which may have a long-term positive influence on the quality ofurban life.

  14. Creating a Lean, Green, Library Machine: Easy Eco-Friendly Habits for Your Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Amy S.

    2010-01-01

    For some library media specialists, implementing the three Rs of recycling, reducing, and reusing comes easily; they've been environmentally conscious well before the concept of going green made its way into the vernacular. Yet for some of library media specialists, the thought of greening their library, let alone the entire school, can seem…

  15. Green electronics manufacturing creating environmental sensible products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, John X

    2012-01-01

    Going ""green"" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product's environmental impacts during its whole life cycle. The author discusses how to integrate the st

  16. Urban greening: environmentalism or marketable aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Bowd

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, urban greening has been conceptualized, and subsequently marketed, as a way of making cities more sustainable. Urban greening has been actualized in large global cities, regional centers, and also in many cities in the Global South, where it has been touted as a potential solution to the urban heat island (UHI effect and as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. This involves planting street trees and installing curbside gardens, bioswales, green walls, green roofs, and the redevelopment of former industrial zones into urban parklands. This paper questions the assumption that this “greening” of the city must necessarily lead to positive environmental impacts. While such infrastructure itself might be constructed with environmental principles in mind, wider questions concerning the production of such landscapes, and the consumption-orientated lifestyles of those who inhabit these urban landscapes, are seldom considered. Moreover, green aesthetics and environmental sustainability are not always as mutually inclusive as the concepts might suggest, as aesthetics are often a dominating influence in the process of planning green urban environments. This review reorients the focus on the way in which the UHI effect and CO2 emissions have been framed by utilizing Foucault's (1980 “regimes of truth,” where environmental issues are contextualized within the “colonised lifeworld” of free-market forces. This review suggests that for sustainability to be achieved in urban contexts, the process of urban greening must move beyond quick techno-fixes through engagement in the co-production of knowledge.

  17. Green Transportation External environmental communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Jasin; Persson, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a hot topic today. It is important for companies to take responsibility for the environment. For companies it is also important to communicate their environmental efforts to its customers. The aim of this study is to analyze how transportation companies communicate their environmental efforts on the web. Europe’s largest transportation companies as well as Asian and North American airlines are studied. Companies’ websites were examined and evaluated on several criteria. The ...

  18. Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbing, C

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Thermal Engineering Research Institute (Värmeforsk) initiated an applied research program "Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes", in 2002. The program aims at increasing knowledge on the by-products of energy production and their application. The goal of formulating technical and environmental guidelines and assessments is a major point of the program, which is supported by about forty authorities and private organisations. The programme has been divided into four areas: recycling of ashes to forests, geotechnical applications, use in landfilling, and environmental aspects and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progress is shown: *Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth. *A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilisation of ashes in construction. *A handbook for using non-coal fly ashes in unpaved roads. *Technical and environmental assessments of MSWI bottom ashes in road construction. *Development of the use of ashes with municipal wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills and mine tailings. *Use of ashes from bio-fuels in concrete and replacement of cement in stoop mining. *A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as a hazardous or non-hazardous compound. The Ash Programme has also made it possible to increase knowledge on ashes as valuable materials, on quality assurance and on markets for recovered materials.

  19. Use of Extracted Green Inhibitors as a Friendly Choice in Corrosion Protection of Low Alloy Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jano, A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of corrosion impact on environment is an important step in environmental protection. Use of environmentally friendly corrosion protection methods is very important. It is smart to choose cheap and safe to handle compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The use of green inhibitors (extracted inexpensively, from the seed endosperm of some Leguminosae plants, and investigation of their efficiency in corrosion protection is the aim of this study. As green inhibitor one kind of polysaccharides (galactomannan from locust bean gum (also known as carob gum, carob bean gum extracted from the seed of carob tree is used. Corrosion protection efficiency of these extracted green inhibitors was tested for carbon steel marked as: steel 39, steel 44, and iron B 500 (usually applied as reinforcing bars to concrete. Sulfuric acid solution in the presence of chloride ions was used as corrosion media. The composition of corrosion acid media used was 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 and 10-3 mol L-1 Cl- (in the form of NaCl. Electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization methods were used for inhibitor efficiency testing.

  20. Environmentally friendly health care food services: a survey of beliefs, behaviours, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elisa D; Garcia, Alicia C

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing global interest in sustainability and the environment. A hospital/health care food service facility consumes large amounts of resources; therefore, efficiencies in operation can address sustainability. Beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours about environmentally friendly practices in hospital/health care food services were explored in this study. Questionnaires addressed environmentally friendly initiatives in building and equipment, waste management, food, and non-food procurement issues. The 68 participants included hospital food service managers, clinical dietitians, dietary aides, food technicians, and senior management. Data analysis included correlation analysis and descriptive statistics. Average scores for beliefs were high in building and equipment (90%), waste management (94%), and non-food procurement (87%), and lower in food-related initiatives (61%) such as buying locally, buying organic foods, buying sustainable fish products, and reducing animal proteins. Average positive scores for behaviours were positively correlated with beliefs (waste management, p=0.001; food, p=0.000; non-food procurement, p=0.002). Average positive scores for attitude in terms of implementing the initiatives in health care were 74% for building and equipment, 81% for waste management, 70% for non-food procurement, and 36% for food. The difference in food-related beliefs, behaviours, and attitudes suggests the need for education on environmental impacts of food choices. Research is recommended to determine facilitators and barriers to the implementation of green strategies in health care. As food experts, dietitians can lead changes in education, practice, and policy development.

  1. Utilization of low temperature heat for environmentally friendly electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The focus on reduction of fossil fuelled electricity generation has increased the attention on exploitation of low grade heat as the energy source for electricity producing power plants. Low grade heat is heat, which isavailable at a low temperature, e.g. from waste heat from marine diesel engines...... and industrial processes orfrom geothermal and solar heat sources. Utilization of such heat sources makes it possible to produce electricity with no additional burning of fossil fuel, and does therefore represent an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel based electricity production. Utilization...... of low grade heat is not feasible with conventional steam Rankine cycles (steam engines) due to undesirable properties of steam. Instead the organic Rankine cycle is typically used, since it enables thechoice of a working fluid, e.g. hydrocarbons or refrigerants, with desirable properties. One of the key...

  2. Carotenoid extraction from plants using a novel, environmentally friendly solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Betty K; Chapman, Mary H

    2009-02-11

    Few environmentally friendly solvents are available to extract carotenoids for use in foods. The most effective known solvents are products of the petroleum industry and toxic for human consumption. Yet carotenoid extracts are desirable for use in dietary supplements and as additives to enhance the health benefits of processed foods. Ethyl lactate is an excellent solvent to extract both trans- and cis-lycopene isomers from dried tomato powder, the extraction efficiency of which is enhanced by the addition of the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and alpha-lipoic acid, both of which are known to benefit human health. It is also useful to extract lutein and beta-carotene from dried powders prepared from white corn and carrots. Because of its low flammability and its origin as a byproduct of the corn and soybean industries, it is more advantageous than ethyl acetate, which is a petroleum product.

  3. Melon oil methyl ester: an environmentally friendly fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Fasogbon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demand for energy is growing across the globe due to the direct relationship between the well-being and prosperity of people and energy usage. However, meeting this growing energy demand in a safe and environmentally friendly manner is a key challenge. To this end, methyl esters (biodiesels have been and are being widely investigated as alternatives to fossil fuels in compression ignition engines. In this study, melon (Colocynthis Citrullus Lanatus oil was used to synthesize biodiesel (methyl ester using the transesterification method in the presence of a sodium hydroxide promoter. The emissions profile of the biodiesel was investigated by setting up a single-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled CI engine connected to a TD115-hydraulic dynamometer and an Eclipse Flue Gas Analyzer (FGA with model number EGA4 flue gas analyzer. The engine was run at engine speeds of 675, 1200 and 1900rpm for biodiesel/diesel blends at 21°C on a volume basis of 0/100(B0, 10/90(B10, 20/80(B20, 30/70(B30, 40/60(B40 and 50/50(B50. The test showed a downward trend in the emissions profile of the biodiesel, with remarkable reductions of about 55% in the dangerous-carbon monoxide exhaust gas pollutant and 33.3% in the unfriendly SOX from 100% diesel to B30-biodiesel concentration. Increasing the speed from 675 to 1200 and then to 1900 rpm also afforded further reductions in CO and SOX exhaust emissions. NOX however increased marginally by 2.1% from the same 100% diesel to the B30-biodiesel composition. Based on the remarkable reduction in CO and SOX and the marginal increase in NOX as the concentration of the biodiesel increased in the blends, the study concludes that melon oil methyl ester is an environmentally friendly fuel.

  4. ACCOUNTING FOR SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINKO KOSTOVSKI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Socially responsible and environmentally friendly operations of the companies are equally important to the investors as their successful financial performance. This because the issues of good governance, socially and environmentally correct operations become so important to the public that mistake in any of these domains can almost instantly ruin the meticulously built value of the company shares. However, in most countries, including Republic of Macedonia, the reporting for non-financial activities is out of the domain of the accounting regulations. On the other hand, many researchers and various international organizations dealing with development and promotion of international accounting and financial reporting standards promote the idea that these only seemingly non-financial areas of operations should be addressed in the reports to shareholders together with the financial data. They only diverge in the proposed ways in which this should be done. The aim of our research is to investigate the accounting practice of recording and reporting investment and operational costs of these activities and the way in which they are presented to shareholders in case of Republic of Macedonia. The interviews in a selected large companies revealed that financial managers agree on the benefits of the sustainability and socially related activities accounting and reporting. This reporting helps more elaborated decisions on the side of the all interested parties, inside and outside of the companies. They also believe that the capital expenditure for the purposes of environmental protection is long-term investment, rather than one time cost.

  5. Survey of environmentally friendly motoring 2012; Tutkimus ympaeristoeystaevaellisestae autoilusta 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valta, K. [TNS Gallup Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    The average distance of the Finnish commute has decreased slightly from last year, but this does not yet turn the overall trend: compared to 2010, the distance people commute has increased. A similar change can be detected in the number of kilometres driven by Finnish motorists. It was slightly higher last year, but the growth has now stabilised, settling at around 20,000 kilometres. The average fuel consumption (7.24 l/100 km) estimated by the respondents is higher than last year, but lower than in the earlier years. The share of diesel-fuelled cars has continued to increase slightly at the expense of petrol-fuelled cars, although last year a minor peak could be detected in this respect as well. The clear majority of respondents own their own car, with fewer than one in six having purchased their car through hire purchase. There has been no change in the use of public transport during the year. A little over half of all motorists use public transport fewer than 1 to 2 times per month, while 17 per cent use no public transport at all. Price is by far the most important criterion when choosing a car. The willingness of motorists to make an effort towards reducing the environ-mental load of their motoring has remained practically unchanged. Many are still prepared to buy a car that is environmentally friendly or has low fuel consumption. Respondents are positive (or have no objection in principle) towards buying a block heater and towards more environmentally friendly route selection or driving habits. Few motorists are willing to pay more in the form of an environmental tax, for example. The majority are not willing to increase their use of public transport at the expense of motoring. Of the respondents, 70 per cent would prefer not to switch over to public transport for commuting; 33 per cent would not do so at any cost. Men are not keen on switching over to public transport. They also have more negative attitudes towards buying a smaller or less efficient car for

  6. Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Environmental Applications and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Sadia; Tahir, Arifa; Chen, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology have also led to the development of novel nanomaterials, which ultimately increase potential health and environmental hazards. Interest in developing environmentally benign procedures for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been increased. The purpose is to minimize the negative impacts of synthetic procedures, their accompanying chemicals and derivative compounds. The exploitation of different biomaterials for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered a valuable approach in green nanotechnology. Biological resources such as bacteria, algae fungi and plants have been used for the production of low-cost, energy-efficient, and nontoxic environmental friendly metallic nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of various reports of green synthesised zero valent metallic iron (ZVMI) and iron oxide (Fe2O3/Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) and highlights their substantial applications in environmental pollution control. This review also summarizes the ecotoxicological impacts of green synthesised iron nanoparticles opposed to non-green synthesised iron nanoparticles. PMID:28335338

  7. Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Environmental Applications and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Saif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology have also led to the development of novel nanomaterials, which ultimately increase potential health and environmental hazards. Interest in developing environmentally benign procedures for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been increased. The purpose is to minimize the negative impacts of synthetic procedures, their accompanying chemicals and derivative compounds. The exploitation of different biomaterials for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered a valuable approach in green nanotechnology. Biological resources such as bacteria, algae fungi and plants have been used for the production of low-cost, energy-efficient, and nontoxic environmental friendly metallic nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of various reports of green synthesised zero valent metallic iron (ZVMI and iron oxide (Fe2O3/Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs and highlights their substantial applications in environmental pollution control. This review also summarizes the ecotoxicological impacts of green synthesised iron nanoparticles opposed to non-green synthesised iron nanoparticles.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF GREEN MARKETING STRATEGIES TO CONSUMERS ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Yoan Nita

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the influence of eco-labelling, green packaging and branding, environmental advertisement, green premium pricing, and eco-image to consumers’ environmental behaviour. The result found that in overall all has influence consumers’ environmental behaviour. However, when it came to partial test, only eco-labelling, green packaging and branding, and green premium pricing which contributes to the consumers’ environmental behaviour.

  9. University of Illinois FRIENDS Children’s Environmental Health Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FRIENDS Children's Environmental Health Center at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, was established in 2001 to investigate the interactive effects of...

  10. Greening the Screen: An Environmental Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Gündüz Özdemirci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental themes and representations on screen are examined as a part of environmental social studies and can be considered a way of creating awareness of environmental issues. However, how often do we consider the environmental impact of a film or television shoot as an industrial process? In this article, I examine the sustainability practices in the motion picture industry and challenges to that by focusing on the British film and television industry as a case study. Using the interviews with industry representatives and some case studies, I discuss the possibilities of creating a change in behavior in the film industry, not only in terms of embedding green measures but also reconstituting industrial mechanisms on behalf of environmental sustainability.

  11. Perceived quality, perceived risk and customer trust affecting customer loyalty of environmentally friendly electronics products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalinthorn Marakanon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, industrial business competition causes producers to be aware of quality, price, and variety in developing new products to meet the consumers' needs. This research reviewed the literature on green marketing and proposes a new conceptual framework of customer loyalty. It uses four constructs—perceived quality, perceived risk, customer trust, and customer loyalty—in the context of environmentally friendly electronics products in Thailand. This research employed an empirical study using the questionnaire survey method to verify the hypotheses. Data were obtained from 420 consumers who bought and used environmentally friendly electronic products, particularly mobile phones, computers, and laptops using a purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation modeling (SEM. The results showed that perceived risk and customer trust had a direct effect on customer loyalty while perceived quality had an indirect effect on customer loyalty via customer trust. Furthermore, perceived quality had direct effects on perceived risk and customer trust. The results from the final SEM model were used to confirm the proposed relationships among the variables.

  12. Liquid Salt as Green Solvent: A Novel Eco-Friendly Technique to Enhance Solubility and Stability of Poorly Soluble Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anant A.

    As a result of tremendous efforts in past few decades, various techniques have been developed in order to resolve solubility issues associated with class II and IV drugs, However, majority of these techniques offer benefits associated with certain drawbacks; majorly including low drug loading, physical instability on storage and excessive use of environmentally challenging organic solvents. Hence, current effort was to develop an eco-friendly technique using liquid salt as green solvent, which can offer improvement in dissolution while maintaining long term stability. The liquid salt formulations (LSF) of poorly soluble model drugs ibuprofen, gemfibrozil and indomethacin were developed using 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate (EMIM ES) as a non-toxic and environmentally friendly alternate to organic solvents. Liquid medications containing clear solutions of drug, EMIM ES and polysorbate 20, were adsorbed onto porous carrier Neusilin US2 to form free flowing powder. The LSF demonstrated greater rate and extent of dissolution compared to crystalline drugs. The dissolution data revealed that more than 80% drug release from LSF within 20 mins compared to less than 18% release from pure drugs. As high as 70% w/w liquid loading was achieved while maintaining good flowability and compressibility. In addition, the LSF samples exposed to high temperature and high humidity i.e. 40°C/80% RH for 8 weeks, demonstrated excellent physical stability without any signs of precipitation or crystallization. As most desirable form of administration is tablet, the developed liquid salt formulations were transformed into tablets using design of experiment approach by Design Expert Software. The tablet formulation composition and critical parameter were optimized using Box-Behnken Design. This innovative liquid salt formulation technique offered improvement in dissolution rate and extent as well as contributed to excellent physical stability on storage. Moreover, this formulation

  13. Environmentally friendly disinfectant: Production, disinfectant action and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Milan I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a known disinfectant from ancient times, and it has been widely used for various purposes: for food and water disinfection, curing of wounds and as a universal antibiotic for a wide spectrum of diseases - until the Second World War and the discovery of penicillin. Until recently, it was assumed that silver, being a heavy metal, was toxic for humans and living beings. However, the newest research provides facts that the usage of silver, even for drinking water disinfection, is benign if it is added in small concentrations (in parts per billion. It has been shown in the newer scientific and technical literature that silver in colloidal form is a powerful (secondary disinfectant for drinking water, that it can be effectively used for the disinfection of water containers including swimming pools, installations in food industry, medicine, etc. Particularly, it has been shown that colloidal silver combined with hydrogen peroxide shows synergism having strong bactericidal and antiviral effects. The combination can be successfully used as a disinfectant in agriculture, food production and medicine. The original electrochemical process of production, the mechanism of physical-chemical reactions in that process and the mechanism of the antiseptic affect of the environmentally friendly disinfectant, based on the synergism of colloidal silver and hydrogen peroxide and the activity of electrochemically activated water, is shown. The starting solution was anolyte, obtained in electrochemical activation by water electrolysis of a highly diluted solution of K-tartarate in demineralized water (5.5-1CT4 M. The problem of electrolysis of very dilute aqueous solutions in membrane cells was particularly treated. It was shown that the efficiency of the electrolysis depends on the competition between the two processes: the rates of the processes of hydrogen and oxygen generation at the electrodes and the process of diffusion of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions

  14. Ukrainian realities of labeling of environmentally friendly products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Tsaruk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basis of life of any society is a safe environment that is not only the guarantee of welfare and quality of life, but also the guarantee of the further development of human civilization. That is why in the modern world the issue of the preservation of the natural environment is of special actuality. The gradual awareness by humanity of new threats (high degree of concentration of harmful industries; high level of resource and energy consumption; lack of modern environmental technologies; slow but inevitable degradation of the gene pool of a population due to the consumption of poor quality and in most cases harmful products, etc. forced the society to seek new approaches to socio-economic development and environmental management. One of such approaches is the introduction of ecological and organic labeling. Marking is a source of information about the purity, safety and quality of the products offered in the market; effective information mechanism, which is a kind of quality mark for the offered products. The current practice of ecological and organic labeling aimed at the increase of level consumer's awareness and the changing models of purchasing behavior in the direction of environmental protection. The feature of most marking systems of environmentally friendly and safe products is the obligation of compliance with the established requirements used by producers of raw materials and technologies taking into account their potential environmental impact. Labeling of ecologically clean and safe products is reducing the negative impact on the environment and on the human's health. It is the consequence of changes in the economic environment, namely: the improvement of socio-ethical requirements to production; the increasing level of integration of producers and service providers; the customer's satisfaction in varieties of products; globalization of economic space; reduction of time for development, standardization and production. Labeling is

  15. Effective and Environmentally Friendly Nickel Coating on the Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škugor Rončević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The low density and good mechanical properties make magnesium and its alloys attractive construction materials in the electronics, automotive, and aerospace industry, together with application in medicine due to their biocompatibility. Magnesium AZ91D alloy is an alloy with a high content of aluminum, whose mechanical properties overshadow the low corrosion resistance caused by the composition of the alloy and the existence of two phases: α magnesium matrix and β magnesium aluminum intermetallic compound. To improve the corrosion resistance, it is necessary to find an effective protection method for the alloy surface. Knowing and predicting electrochemical processes is an essential for the design and optimization of protective coatings on magnesium and its alloys. In this work, the formations of nickel protective coatings on the magnesium AZ91D alloy surface by electrodeposition and chemical deposition, are presented. For this purpose, environmentally friendly electrolytes were used. The corrosion resistance of the protected alloy was determined in chloride medium using appropriate electrochemical techniques. Characterization of the surface was performed with highly sophisticated surface-analytical methods.

  16. Performance appraisal for green/environmental friendliness of a supply chain department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Olasunkanmi Odeyale

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims at proposing a method for evaluating the environmental friendliness of a supply chain department in any organization. Supply chain involves activities that could affect the natural environment and if these activities are not properly evaluated and monitored, it could affect the natural environment and also generate ecological performance change. Design/methodology/approach: The model for the appraisal consists of 5 criteria and 30 subcriteria. The method is applied at 3 level; beginning with finding the relative weight of the subcriteria under each criterion using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, followed by computing the value associated with each level descriptor in a scale. Some subcriteria have 5 level descriptors (very strong/moderate /weak/very weak / no, some subcriteria have 3 level descriptors (always / sometimes/ never and some have 2 levels descriptor (yes/no. Finally the method is concluded by the means of an additive model, whereby the weight associated with each subcriteria is multiplied by the corresponding level descriptor and summed up to get the limit/state. This methodology is called the weighing multiplication and additive model (WMAAM. Finding: Supply chain (SC involves operational activities and for these activities to be environmental friendly, they have been categorized under criteria namely; green design, green procurement, green manufacturing, environmental management and green marketing. These criteria which consist of 30 subcriteria are evaluated in other to compute the overall environmental friendly appraisal of the SC department. Practical Implication: The study plays important role in understanding various areas to be monitored and considered during supply chain activities in order to achieve a green supply chain management or an environmental friendly supply chain. Originality/value: The main contribution of this work is to propose an effective methodology that guides SC practitioners on

  17. Green electricity: Tracking systems for environmental disclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biewald, B.E.; Ramey, J.A. [Synapse Energy Economics, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    For the first time, electricity consumers in the US are beginning to choose their generation providers. One of the opportunities created by the introduction of retail choice in electricity is the chance for customers to influence the mix of generating resources through their purchasing decisions. Some environmentally aware consumers will want {open_quotes}clean,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}green,{close_quotes} or renewable power. While some suppliers will attempt to differentiate themselves according to their environmental performance, such claims for green electricity can be particularly difficult to verify given the complexity of the interconnected electric system. Because electricity is delivered over an integrated transmission grid and kilowatt-hours at the point of retail sale are indistinguishable from each other; disclosure requires tracking protocols to attribute generation at power plants to sales at the customers` meters. Fortunately, it is possible to implement a workable disclosure system. Some states have already included disclosure requirements in their electric industry restructuring orders and legislation. In this paper, a set of design criteria for an environmental disclosure system are presented along with two methods for disclosure: the company approach and the product approach. In addition, the authors discuss of power pools, data availability issues, and propose a company-based disclosure system using a {open_quotes}wholesale sales first{close_quotes} approach to transaction accounting.

  18. [Environmental governance and the green economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Sinisgalli, Paulo Antonio de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    The Rio+20 Conference will mobilize the global community in 2012 to participate in a challenging debate on the global environmental reality and the existing modus operandi with respect to the broad and generic topics of development and the environment. One of the core themes of this meeting is the transition to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. The issue of Global Environmental Governance will top the agenda of the Rio +20 discussions, with a view to promoting and accelerating the transition to sustainable societies. It presents, often in a controversial way, the creation of conditions to define new institutional spaces and shared decision-making processes. Before embarking on the discussion about what king of sustainability should be behind the Green Economy, and its applicability, the scope of this article is to ask readers to reflect on what should be the priority in the discussion on environmental governance This should be explained to the extent that there is a need to change the existing mechanisms of profoundly unequal exploitation of resources, which blocks progress in decision-making processes, as decisions of the few create a perverse logic of appropriation of natural resources and the non-resolution of social exclusion.

  19. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  20. Conventional, Partially Converted and Environmentally Friendly Farming in South Korea: Profitability and Factors Affecting Farmers’ Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saem Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While organic farming is well established in Europe a nd USA, it is still catching up in Asian countries. The government of South Korea has implemented environmentally friendly farming that encompasses organic farming. Despite the promotion of environmentally friendly farming, it still has a low share in South Korea and partially converted farming has emerged in some districts of South Korea. However, the partially converted farming has not yet been investigated by the government. Thus, our study implemented a financial analysis to compare the annual costs and net returns of conventional, partially converted and environmentally friendly farming in Gangwon Province. The result showed that environmentally friendly farming was more profitable with respect to farm net returns. To find out the factors affecting the adoption of environmentally friendly farming, multinomial logistic regression was implemented. The findings revealed that education and subsidy positively and significantly influenced the probability of farmers’ choice on partially converted and environmentally friendly farming. Farm size had a negative and significant relationship with only environmentally friendly farming. This study will contribute to future policy establishment for sustainable agriculture as recommended by improving the quality of fertilizers, suggesting the additional investigation associated with partially converted farmers.

  1. Framing Violence and Serial Murder in My Friend Dahmer and Green River Killer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Earle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The comics form has not remained untouched by true crime’s massive surge in status across popular culture, especially in America. Comics as a form is uniquely positioned to represent violent and graphic narratives in such a way as to maximise reader affect and create a chronicle of crime that is both entertaining and captivating, guiding and being guided by the reader. Two comics have received massive critical acclaim for their portrayals of ‘famous’ American serial killers: Jeffrey Dahmer in Derf’s 'My Friend Dahmer' (2012 and Arthur Shawcross in Jeff Jensen & Jonathan Case’s 'Green River Killer' (2011. This article considers the framing techniques deployed in both comics. I consider how these two comics, distinct in their artistic presentation and their focus, frame their respective subjects and represent the complexities of serial murder. To conclude, I perform a close analysis of one framing aspect of 'My Friend Dahmer' and expand on what the execution of this technique can tell us about comics as a true crime form.

  2. Environmental health-do no harm: technology creates "green" opportunity for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Roy L

    2010-01-01

    With the familiar refrain of "reduce, reuse, recycle" echoing to every corner of the globe, there remains a critical question for nursing: "What can nurse leaders do to reduce the 6600 tons of medical waste the US healthcare industry generates each day?" This article details how nursing executives can help influence their hospital employers to make green-friendly choices and mobilize their staff to launch community-wide environmental protection efforts.

  3. Corrosion-Activated Micro-Containers for Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, J. W.; Zhang, X.; Johnsey, M. N.; Pearman, B. P.; Jolley, S. T.; Calle, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry. The NASA Kennedy Space Centers Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion

  4. Bio-based fillers for environmentally friendly composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokhothu, Thabang H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bio-based fillers as alternative replacement for synthetic fillers has been dictated by increasing ecological concerns as well as depleting petroleum resources. The other aspect is a growing need for eco-friendly, renewable...

  5. Green Skills for Green Economy: Case of the Environmental Education Role in Kazakhstan's Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlimbetova, Gaini; Zhylbaev, Zhanbol; Syrymbetova, Lyailya; ?liyeva, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    The research on situation with developing "green skills" in conditions of transition to "green economy" is analysed in this article. Kazakhstan like many other states has been going through transition to "green economy" since 2013. Economic reforms have made an impact on the system of environmental education. The…

  6. Green technologies for the environmental upgrading of infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Battisti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the globalization phenomenon has determined the exponential development - from an economic, cultural and political standpoint - of traffic flows, the number of means and infrastructures involved in communication and exchange. At the same time, these represent one of the most complicated environmental issues of contemporary times, but perhaps also one of the most outstanding opportunities for setting up processes aimed at upgrading the territory and its constructions, towards environmental regeneration and social reorganization. These, in turn, would produce and spread (as in some already established examples of infrastructure upgrading innovative and more sustainable forms of urban lifestyles. The present contribution aims at illustrating the former, beginning with research and experiments involving the development of eco-friendly meta-design models for the correct employment of “green technologies” in: meta-project research for small mobility facilities; expansion and redevelopment works for the Stazione Termini; experiments in design for some energy-efficient underground metro stops in Rome.

  7. Urban greening: environmentalism or marketable aesthetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dominic Bowd; Campbell McKay; Wendy S. Shaw

    2015-01-01

    ...) effect and as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This involves planting street trees and installing curbside gardens, bioswales, green walls, green roofs, and the redevelopment of former industrial zones into urban parklands...

  8. Green dialysis: the environmental challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, John W M

    2015-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation website begins: "Natural resource and energy conservation is achieved by managing materials more efficiently--reduce, reuse, recycle," yet healthcare agencies have been slow to heed and practice this simple message. In dialysis practice, notable for a recurrent, per capita resource consumption and waste generation profile second to none in healthcare, efforts to: (1) minimize water use and wastage; (2) consider strategies to reduce power consumption and/or use alternative power options; (3) develop optimal waste management and reusable material recycling programs; (4) design smart buildings that work with and for their environment; (5) establish research programs that explore environmental practice; all have been largely ignored by mainstream nephrology. Some countries are doing far better than others. In the United Kingdom and some European jurisdictions, exceptional recent progress has been made to develop, adopt, and coordinate eco-practice within dialysis programs. These programs set an example for others to follow. Elsewhere, progress has been piecemeal, at best. This review explores the current extent of "green" or eco-dialysis practices. While noting where progress has been made, it also suggests potential new research avenues to develop and follow. One thing seems certain: as global efforts to combat climate change and carbon generation accelerate, the environmental impact of dialysis practice will come under increasing regulatory focus. It is far preferable for the sector to take proactive steps, rather than to await the heavy hand of government or administration to force reluctant and costly compliance on the un-prepared. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Selecting Materials for Environmental-Friendly Buildings: The Need for Improved Environmental Impact Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachawit T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings of the future need to be more environmental-friendly. Selecting environmentally-benign materials in design stage would partly help achieving such goal. Examination of existing environmental impact data of building materials reveals that the data differ greatly from one source to another. Comparisons of environmental impact values of selected materials are presented. The sources that give rise to data variation are identified and discussed. The applicability of existing data is assessed from the designers’ perspective. Limitations of current practice in data acquisition and presentation are also discussed. It is concluded that existing environmental impact data of building materials are inconsistent and perplexing to designers. An alternative approach to data acquisition and presentation is to break the life cycle of building materials into several phases and to calculate the total impact value as the sum of the impacts of all phases. This would make the determination of the full life cycle value feasible and increase external validity of research results.

  10. "Green" nanocomposites from cellulose acetate bioplastic and clay: effect of eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwan-Man; Misra, Manjusri; Drzal, Lawrence T; Mohanty, Amar K

    2004-01-01

    "Green" nanocomposites have been successfully fabricated from cellulose acetate (CA) powder, eco-friendly triethyl citrate (TEC) plasticizer and organically modified clay. The effect of the amount of plasticizer varying from 15 to 40 wt % on the performance of the nanocomposites has been evaluated. The morphologies of these nanocomposites were evaluated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The mechanical properties of nanocomposites are correlated with the XRD and TEM observations. Cellulosic plastic-based nanocomposites with 20 wt % TEC plasticizer and 5 wt % organoclay showed better intercalation and an exfoliated structure than the counterpart having 30/40 wt % plasticizers. The tensile strength, modulus and thermal stability of cellulosic plastic reinforced with organoclay showed a decreasing trend with an increase of plasticizer content from 20 to 40 wt %. The nano-reinforcement at the lower volume fractions (phi < or = 0.02) reduced the water vapor permeability of cellulosic plastic by 2 times and the relative permeability better fits with larger platelet aspect ratios (alpha = 150).

  11. Green biotechnology, nanotechnology and bio-fortification: perspectives on novel environment-friendly crop improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashveer, Shikha; Singh, Vikram; Kaswan, Vineet; Kaushik, Amit; Tokas, Jayanti

    2014-10-01

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are prominent issues for this century. As the world's population continues to increase, ensuring that the earth has enough food that is nutritious too will be a difficult task. Today one billion people of the world are undernourished and more than a third are malnourished. Moreover, the looming threat of climate change is exasperating the situation even further. At the same time, the total acreage of arable land that could support agricultural use is already near its limits, and may even decrease over the next few years due to salination and desertification patterns resulting from climate change. Clearly, changing the way we think about crop production must take place on multiple levels. New varieties of crops must be developed which can produce higher crop yields with less water and fewer agricultural inputs. Besides this, the crops themselves must have improved nutritional qualities or become biofortified in order to reduce the chances of 'hidden hunger' resulting from malnourishment. It is difficult to envision the optimum way to increase crop production using a single uniform strategy. Instead, a variety of approaches must be employed and tailored for any particular agricultural setting. New high-impact technologies such as green biotechnology, biofortification, and nanotechnology offer opportunities for boosting agricultural productivity and enhancing food quality and nutritional value with eco-friendly manner. These agricultural technologies currently under development will renovate our world to one that can comfortably address the new directions, our planet will take as a result of climate change.

  12. Helping people build a better world? Barriers to more environmentally friendly energy production in China: the case of Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buan, Inga Fritzen

    2008-03-15

    China's rapid industrialization and economic expansion are causing massive environmental damage, with consequences beyond the country's borders, especially due to the use of fossil fuels' effect on climate change. Shell China can contribute to making energy production, if not clean and sustainable, then cleaner and more sustainable by making existing energy production more environmentally friendly; by diversifying and developing alternative energy sources; and by creating precedence influencing others to follow in its footsteps. The first goal of this report is to identify and analyze changes that have happened in the Shell Group since the 1990s when energy companies started their 'greening' processes. These changed happened due to stricter environmental legislation, increased civil society pressure and media scrutiny. Changes on the global and headquarters level in a company do not, however, necessitate similar developments in its national and local level operations. The second goal is thus to analyze to which degree the changes in the Shell Group have had relevance for Shell China and whether barriers in the Chinese context influence its prospects to operate in a more environmentally friendly way. (author). 64 refs

  13. Promoting Environmental Justice Through Urban Green Space Access: A Synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Richard Schulterbrandt Gragg

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the connection between urban green space access and environmental justice. It discusses the dynamics of the relationship as it relates to factors such as environmental quality, land use, and environmental health disparities. Urban development stresses the landscape and may compromise environmental quality. Since some communities are...

  14. USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO DESIGN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic algorithm calculations are applied to the design of chemical processes to achieve improvements in environmental and economic performance. By finding the set of Pareto (i.e., non-dominated) solutions one can see how different objectives, such as environmental and economic ...

  15. Environmental Green Chemistry Applications of Nanoporous Carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J.; Garcia, A; Poon, P

    2010-01-01

    Influence of surface properties of nanoporous carbons on activity and selectivity during the photooxidation of 4-chlorophenol on UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} was performed. Characterization by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy confirm the presence of a contact interface between both solids and suggest the coordination of some functional organic groups of the carbon surface, mainly ethers and carboxylic acids, to metallic centre Ti{sup +4} in TiO{sub 2}. Changes in surface pH of carbons from basic to neutral or acid remarkably increase the production of 4-chlorocathecol by a factor of 22 on TiO{sub 2}-Carbon in comparison of TiO{sub 2} alone. A scheme of interaction between TiO{sub 2} and carbon is proposed to the increased photoactivity of TiO{sub 2} and a reaction mechanism for the different intermediate products detected is also proposed. Results showed that TiO{sub 2}-Carbon can be used as an alternative photocatalyst for environmental green chemistry and selective organic synthesis applications.

  16. Environmentally friendly cellulose-based polyelectrolytes in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenda, Kinga; Arnold, Julien; Gamelas, José A F; Rasteiro, Maria G

    2017-09-01

    Natural-based polyelectrolytes (PELs), with all the advantages coming from being produced from renewable and biodegradable sources, are a potential solution for the removal of dyes from wastewater. In this work, surplus Eucalyptus bleached cellulose fibres from a paper mill were modified to increase the charge and solubility of cellulose. First, reactive aldehyde groups were introduced in the cellulose backbone by periodate oxidation of cellulose. Further modification with alkylammonium produced positively charged cellulose-based PELs. The final products were characterized by several analytical techniques. The PEL with the highest substitution degree of cationic groups was evaluated for its performance in decolouration processes, bentonite being used as aid. This was found to be effective for colour removal of either anionic or cationic dyes. Bio-PELs can thus be considered as very favourable eco-friendly flocculation agents for decolouration of harsh effluents from several industries, considering their biodegradable nature and thus the ability to produce less sludge.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, Professor Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, developed Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization to make polymers with copper catalysts and environmentally friendly reducing agents.

  18. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  19. Environmental sustainability assessment of family house alternatives and application of green technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moňoková, A.; Vilčeková, S.; Mečiarová, Ľ.; Krídlová Burdová, E.

    2017-10-01

    Transition to environmentally friendly technologies provides a comprehensive solution to problem of creating an economic value without destroying the nature. Buildings using green technologies lead to lower operating costs, healthier living and working environment and protect the environment more. The aim of this paper is to assess the environmental impact of two alternatives of family house designed as conventional building and building with green technologies. Evaluated family house are located in village Kokšov Bakša, which is situated 12 km south-east from city of Košice, a metropolis of eastern Slovakia. This analysis investigates the role of applied green technologies in single family houses for impact categories: global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP) and eutrophication potential (EP) expressed as CO2eq, SO2eq and PO4 3- eq within “Cradle to Grave” boundary by using the LCA assessment method. The main contribution of the study is a proof that green technologies have significant part in the reduction of environmental impacts. Results show that alternative of family house designed as green one contributes to CO2eq, SO2eq and PO4 3- eq emissions by 81%, 73% and 35% less than alternative of conventional family house, respectively.

  20. Environmental green chemistry as defined by photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, J-M; Duchamp, C; Karkmaz, M; Hoai, Bui Thu; Lachheb, H; Puzenat, E; Guillard, C

    2007-07-31

    Photocatalysis is efficient in several fields. Firstly, in selective mild oxidation: oxidation of gas and liquid hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics) into aldehydes and ketons. Primary and secondary alcohols are also oxidized into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The high selectivity was ascribed to a photoactive neutral, atomic oxygen species. Once platinized (only 0.5wt.% Pt) titania may catalyze reactions involving hydrogen (deuterium-alkane isotopic exchange and alcohol dehydrogenation). For fine chemicals, high initial selectivities enable titania to address most of the twelve principles of "green chemistry", such as the synthesis of 4-tert-butyl-benzaldehyde, an important intermediate in perfume industry by direct selective oxidation of 4-tert-butyl-toluene with air. A new field recently appeared: thio-photocatalysis. Oxygen was replaced by sulfur, using H(2)S as a convenient and reactive source. For instance, the conversion of propene in 1-propanthiol was successfully obtained. The reaction was performed using either CdS or TiO(2). The latter was much more active than CdS. In environmental photocatalysis, titania becomes a total oxidation catalyst once in presence of water because of the photogeneration of OH radicals by neutralization of OH(-) surface groups by positive holes. Many toxic inorganic ions are oxidized in their harmless upper oxidized state. The total degradation of organic pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, dyes, etc. ...) is the main field of water photocatalytic decontamination. The UVA solar spectrum can de advantageously used as demonstrated by many campaigns performed in the solar pilot plant at the "Plataforma Solar de Almeria" (Spain).

  1. Environmental green chemistry as defined by photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, J.-M. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)]. E-mail: jean-marie.herrmann@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr; Duchamp, C. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Karkmaz, M. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, UMR 5256, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Hoai, Bui Thu [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Lachheb, H. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Puzenat, E. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Guillard, C. [Laboratoire d' application de la chimie a l' environnement (LACE), UMR CNRS 5634, Universite Claude-Bernard Lyon-1, Batiment J. Raulin, 43, boulevard du 11-novembre-1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2007-07-31

    Photocatalysis is efficient in several fields. Firstly, in selective mild oxidation: oxidation of gas and liquid hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics) into aldehydes and ketons. Primary and secondary alcohols are also oxidized into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The high selectivity was ascribed to a photoactive neutral, atomic oxygen species. Once platinized (only 0.5 wt.% Pt) titania may catalyze reactions involving hydrogen (deuterium-alkane isotopic exchange and alcohol dehydrogenation). For fine chemicals, high initial selectivities enable titania to address most of the twelve principles of 'green chemistry', such as the synthesis of 4-tert-butyl-benzaldehyde, an important intermediate in perfume industry by direct selective oxidation of 4-tert-butyl-toluene with air. A new field recently appeared: thio-photocatalysis. Oxygen was replaced by sulfur, using H{sub 2}S as a convenient and reactive source. For instance, the conversion of propene in 1-propanthiol was successfully obtained. The reaction was performed using either CdS or TiO{sub 2}. The latter was much more active than CdS. In environmental photocatalysis, titania becomes a total oxidation catalyst once in presence of water because of the photogeneration of OH{center_dot} radicals by neutralization of OH{sup -} surface groups by positive holes. Many toxic inorganic ions are oxidized in their harmless upper oxidized state. The total degradation of organic pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, dyes, etc. ...) is the main field of water photocatalytic decontamination. The UVA solar spectrum can de advantageously used as demonstrated by many campaigns performed in the solar pilot plant at the 'Plataforma Solar de Almeria' (Spain)

  2. Relevance of Green Marketing on Environmental Degradation: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Business organisations need to contribute significantly to healthily environment through the adoption of green marketing. The activities of some of this business may result to environmental pollution which makes the environment becomes inimical to human habitation. Green marketing is the marketing of products that are ...

  3. Environmental friendly production of synthetic fabrics for clothing (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hjortbak, Grethe Føns; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    This report analyses and estimates the environmental strain in the lifecycle of synthetic clothing. Based on a screening it has been decided to survey the production phase in details, because that is the most important phase in which the U-landsimporten can make demands.In connection to the surve...

  4. Active Greens : An Analysis of the Determinants of Green Party Members' Activism in Environmental Movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; van Schuur, Wijbrandt

    This article investigates green party members' activism in the environmental movement and tests how a number of predictors, theoretically suggested in the past yet rarely empirically tested, can account for it. The authors' analysis is based on an extensive data set of members of 15 green parties in

  5. Borrowing green : economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands

  6. Environmental concern, attitude towards green products and green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 4 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. FY 1999 report on the feasibility study on the project for assisting introduction of an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system (Green Helmet Project). Desulfurization agent added CWM for Beijing Yanshan; 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (green helmet jigyo) chosa hokokusho. Datsuryugata CWM setsubi (Beijing Yanshan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The Green Helmet Project is aimed at demonstration of the clean coal technologies to be disseminated in China, and controlling generation of pollutants caused by coal utilization by constructing the dissemination infrastructures. It is also aimed at promotion of stable energy supply for Japan. Described herein are the FY 1999 results of the desulfurization agent added CWM project at Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Co., Ltd., where CWM is incorporated with finely crushed limestone as the desulfurization agent and the mixture is supplied to a boiler as the desulfurization agent added CWM. This removes/abates sulfur oxides without needing a desulfurization treatment after combustion. The Japanese engineers dispatched offer comprehensive technical guidance for design/fabrication/installation of the machines and equipment, test runs, performance tests and demonstration runs, which are completed in March 2000. The system starts the commercial operation in April. The follow-up project is implemented to confirm the results of the project, and further improve CWM burner reliability/performance and desulfurization rate. It is found that decreasing burner flame temperature is essential for increasing desulfurization rate. The combustion variables, e.g., air/fuel ratio, steam/CWM ratio and cooling by sprayed steam, are tested to increase desulfurization rate to around 50%. (NEDO)

  8. An environmentally friendly reflectometric method for bumetanide determination in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Fernanda; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Rufino, José Luiz; Los Weinert, Patrícia; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a green analytical procedure for the determination of bumetanide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The proposed method is based on reflectance measurements of a violet compound produced from a spot test reaction between bumetanide and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in an acid medium, using filter paper as a solid support. The best conditions for the reaction have been found by experimental design methodologies. All reflectance measurements were carried out at 525 nm, and the linear range was from 1.37 x 10(-4) to 1.37 x 10(-3) mol L(-1), with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The detection limit was estimated to be 3.98 x 10(-5) mol L(-1). Five commercial medicines containing bumetanide were analyzed by the proposed method. No interferences were observed from the common excipients present in pharmaceutical formulations. The results were favorably compared with those obtained by the United States Pharmacopoeia procedure at 95% confidence level.

  9. Environmental governance and the green economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedro Roberto Jacobi; Paulo Antonio deAlmeida Sinisgalli

    2012-01-01

    ... generic topics of development and the environment. One of the core themes of this meeting is the transition to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty...

  10. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  11. Pre-Service Teacher Opinions about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package Developed to Raise Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Sevcan; Erten, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package developed in order to raise environmental awareness in pre-service teachers and enable them to be an example of an eco-friendly teacher for their future students, and the responses about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package were investigated. The study was conducted on 75…

  12. 77 FR 68765 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and Soliciting Scoping.... c. Date filed: September 17, 2012. d. Applicant: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC. e. Name of...)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Mark R. Stover, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC, c/o Hydro...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN TO ATTITUDE TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCTS: EVIDENCES FROM INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Danish Kirmani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of environmental concern of consumers with their attitude towards green products and also to identify the predictors of environmental concern. The data was generated from a researcher controlled sample of graduate and post-graduate students enrolled in educational institutions located in the national capital of India (New Delhi and surrounding areas popularly known as National Capital Region (NCR. The data generated was analysed employing Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The study findings indicate that environmental concern has a significant and positive influence on attitude towards green products. Collectivism and eco-literacy emerged as predictors of the environmental concern of consumers. The findings of this study are expected to enhance the understanding of marketers of the role played by variables such as religiosity, collectivism, eco-literacy, and environmental concern in formation of attitude of consumers towards green products.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF "GREEN ECONOMY" RUSSIA'S ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Botavina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tells the story of the emergence of "green" economy, as opposed to the traditional "brown" ekonomike, given its concept shown shortcomings of the existing definitions of "green" economy, conclusions about the real possibilities of the transition to the growth of "green" economy. The relevance of this work lies in the fact that the changing paradigm of understanding the basis and essence of sustainable development of the national socio-economic systems necessitates the integration of economic and environmental solutions, this integration is seen as part of the concept of "green economy".The approach of this article is based on an interdisciplinary concept of quality management in relation to the specifics of functioning and development of the domestic socio-economic systems.The purpose / goal. The purpose of this article, and its main task is to systematize the areas of environmentally oriented development of economic entities, as well as the determination of the list of key provisions of environmental policy, which will provide further socio-economic development of Russia in line with the green economy. As a result, Russia as one of the great powers of the world will find a stable geopolitical situation.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are comparative, economic and statistical analysis methods.Results. This article suggests some solutions to be included in the national environmental policy as a major incentive for the further transition to a green economy.Conclusions: The material contained in this article show the special role of the concept of "green economy" in the social and economic processes in the development of Russia's geo-economic stability. The above article aspects of the further development of the green economy in Russia can complement scientific and practical base solutions that provide active creation, implementation and use of green technologies to provide environmentally responsible sustainable

  15. Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Poulin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%, which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas.

  16. Thermal Insulating Properties of Straw-Filled Environmentally Friendly Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkova-Slipets Rositsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a research for determination of a few general thermal-physical properties of environmentally friendly building materials made by clay, sand and straw. The aim of this study is to establish their heat insulating and energy-efficient capacity. All specific measurements were carried out by using the newest generation thermal conductivity analyser Mathis TCi.

  17. Environmental friendly method for the extraction of coir fibre and isolation of nanofibre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abraham, E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Carbohydrate Polymers February 2013/ Vol.9 No 2 Environmental friendly method for the extraction of coir fibre and isolation of nanofibre Eldho Abraham a,b,d, B. Deepab, L.A. Pothenb,?, J. Cintilc, S. Thomasc, M.J. Johnd, R. Anandjiwala d , S...

  18. Environmentally friendly driving feedback systems research and development for heavy duty trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    In this research project, the research team developed an environmentally-friendly driving feedback system for heavy-duty trucks, which was : adapted from a similar system previously developed for light-duty cars. The system consists of: 1) Eco-Routin...

  19. A promising environmentally-friendly manganese-based catalyst for alkyd emulsion coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyman, Z.O.; Ming, W.; Micciche, F.; Oostveen, E.; Haveren, van J.; Linde, van der R.

    2004-01-01

    A manganese(IV) complex (MnMeTACN) containing 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (MeTACN), in the presence of polyamines, significantly accelerated the oxidation of ethyl linoleate (EL) emulsions, and appeared to be a potential environmentally-friendly alternative for Co-based driers that are

  20. Environmentally-Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Portland cement (PC) is the ubiquitous binding material for constructions works. It is a big contributor to global warming and climate change since its production is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Half of this emission arises from the calcination of calcareous raw materials and half from kiln fuel burning and cement clinker grinding. Recently there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower greenhouse gas emissions. One such class of binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders use natural or industrial waste raw materials with a very low CO2 footprint from grinding of the starting materials, and some from the production of the activating chemicals. The total CO2 emissions from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/10th - 1/5th of those of PC concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes as raw materials is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time renders their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Silica sand is a natural material containing very high amounts of quartz. Silica fume is a very fine waste from silicon metal production that is mostly non-crystalline silica. This study describes the use of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions to yield mortars with mechanical properties comparable to those of portland cement mortars and with better chemical and thermal durability. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in less than 24 h. The consistency of the chemical compositions of these materials and their abundance in several large, developing countries makes silica attractive for producing sustainable concretes with reduced carbon

  1. The influence of message appeal, environmental hyperopia, and environmental locus of control on green policy communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Yu-Kang

    2013-01-01

      In this paper, the author examined the message appeal in green policy communication by clarifying the moderating roles of environmental hyperopia and individual differences in environmental locus of control...

  2. The Application of Biodiesel as an Environmental Friendly Drilling Fluid to Drill Oil and Gas Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Abdul Razak

    2014-01-01

    The oil and gas industries need to use oil based drilling fluids to drill troublesome rock layers such as sensitive shale formation or to drill very deep oil and gas wells. However, using oil based drilling fluids will create pollution and therefore, environmental regulations on discharge of such drilling fluids have become more stringent because it will give tremendous impacts on the marine life and ecosystem. This research is conducted to formulate a new environmental friendly drilling flui...

  3. Approach of pullulan derivatives to resist polymers for green lithography in eco-friendly optical NEMS and MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Oshima, Akihiro; Ito, Kenta; Sugahara, Kigenn; Kashiwakura, Miki; Oyama, Tomoko G.; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi; Hanabata, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    This presentation reported an approach of glucose derivatives to resist polymers for eco-friendly optical NEMS and MEMS. The material design concept to use the water-soluble resist material with highly efficient crosslinking, water development, and lower film thickness shrinkage was proposed for green lithography. The lithographic properties due to the glucose derivatives, and the low film thickness shrinkage due to distinctive bulky chemical structure were proposed in the resist material, and then demonstrated to be effective for creating high resolution, excellent patterning dimensional accuracy, and low line edge roughness in EB lithography. Mixing or blending of glucose and cellulose derivatives was a valuable approach to the design of resist formulations for eco-friendly optical NEMS and MEMS.

  4. Radiation processing for environmental-friendly industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majali, A.B.; Sabharwal, S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Isotope Divsion

    1997-10-01

    The Isotope Division of BARC is equipped with a 2-MeV electron beam (EB) accelerator and a 70,000 Ci Cobalt-60 source: these are mainly utilized to develop technologies of interest to our industries and needs. These include development of polyethylene `O` rings having dimensional stability above the melting point, radiation degradation of PTFE and enhancement of colour in diamonds. The viscose rayon industry is an important industry in India. This industry faces stiff regulations from environmental pollution control agencies primarily due to the emission of toxic sulphur containing gases, and is in search of ways to reduce the pollution levels associated with the process. The irradiation of cellulose with ionizing radiation results in cellulose activation and reduction in the degree of polymerization (DP). There is a keen interest in utilizing radiation technology in viscose rayon production. We have utilized the 2-MeV electron beam accelerator for reducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper pulp. Laboratory scale tests have been carried out to standardize the conditions for processing of pulp having desired degree of polymerization. Our studies show that the use of irradiated pulp can significantly reduce the consumption of CS{sub 2} and be beneficial in reducing pollution associated with the process. An electron-beam irradiation based process has been developed to convert the PTFE waste into a low molecular weight (1x10{sub 4}-1x10{sub 5}) PTFE powder that can be easily processed into a fine micropowder having industrial demand. Even carbon or metal filled PTFE has been recycled using this process. The conventional method of crosslinking linear polymers by thermo-clinical method leads to the formation of homogeneously crosslinked materials which are extremely slow for industrial applications. Electron beam irradiation has been used to create inhomogeneous crosslinking of a temperature-sensitive polymer- poly(vinyl methyl ether)(PVME) so as to produce a

  5. Going "Green": Environmental Jobs for Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Green is often used as a synonym for environmental or ecological, especially as it relates to products and activities aimed at minimizing damage to the planet. Scientists and engineers have long had important roles in the environmental movement. Their expertise is focused on a variety of issues, including increasing energy efficiency, improving…

  6. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental Management Competitive Pressure Effect on SME Environmental Innovation Activities: A Green Supply Chain Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, A. A.; Sidek, A. A.; Suffian, S. A.; Daud, M. R. C.

    2018-01-01

    The idea of assimilating green supply chain is to integrate and establish environmental management into the supply chain practices. The study aims to explore how environmental management competitive pressure influences a SME company in Malaysia to incorporate green supply chain integration, which is an efficient platform to develop environmental innovation. This study further advances green supply chain management research in Malaysia by using the method of quantitative analysis to analyze the model developed which data will be collected based on a sample of SMEs in Malaysia in manufacturing sector. The model developed in this study illustrates how environmental management competitive pressure from main competitors affects three fundamental dimensions of green supply chain integration. The research findings suggest that environmental management competitive pressure is a vital driving force for a SME company to incorporate internal and external collaboration in developing green product innovation. From the analysis conducted, the study strongly demonstrated that the best way for a company to counteract competitor’s environmental management success is to first implement strong internal green product development process then move to incorporate external environmental management innovation between their suppliers and customers. The findings also show that internal integration of green product innovation fully mediates the relationship of environmental management competitive pressure and the external integration of green product innovation.

  8. 78 FR 8683 - Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Re-evaluation has been prepared for Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick, Rhode Island. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Doucette, Environmental Program Manager, Federal... Federal Aviation Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick...

  9. Incentives for environmentally friendly vehicles. A report from the Environment and Health Protection Administration in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, Cecilia; Paedam, S. [Inregia AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    This report deals with incentives for environmentally friendly vehicles. The report includes a description of the current status of these vehicles in Sweden, Stockholm County Council, and the City of Stockholm. A forecast of possible development of zero and low emission vehicles is carried out. The major obstacles which currently hinder a market for these vehicles are noted. In order to determine market readiness and factors which affect these firms' purchase of vehicles, interviews were carried out with private firms. This analysis indicates that institutional barriers in Sweden hinder zero and low emission vehicles, with laws and tax policies which offer conflicting signals. To follow international developments, these obstacles must be reduced. Therefore, it is important that Stockholm works to create a positive climate for environmentally friendly vehicles. This means that it is important that the policies recommended in this report are implemented with adequate intensity. Because knowledge about zero and low emission vehicles is limited, there is a need to produce factual information. Information can be spread to a larger group, but it is more cost effective to reach a group which is most likely to accept environmentally friendly vehicles. This could include companies with environmental profiles, or those who drive and use company cars. To increase the effectiveness of this information campaign, we suggest that the City also maintain a demonstration fleet with loaner cars for companies who wish to test these vehicles in daily operation before deciding whether or not to purchase them. The incentive package recommended for Stockholm includes offering parking rebates to various groups who park in the city centre; residents , commercial vehicles, and temporary visitors. For equity reasons, all groups should in practice be offered the rebate. To increase the positive effect of the incentive, environmentally friendly vehicles should also be allowed to drive in

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE GREEN PHARMACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of conceited attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environme...

  11. Market Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Celulose Insulation Material in the Construction Business in Srinagar, India

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Rakhshanda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the market for environmentally-friendly cellulose insulation material in Srinagar, J&K, India. Insulation plays an important role when trying to decrease the energy consumption. At the same time, insulation creates better living conditions. Despite several benefits of insulation, the con-structions are not commonly insulated. To get a deeper understanding of this con-tradiction, this study focuses on questions: 1) what is the demand for cellulose insul...

  12. Iniating environmentally-friendly marketing campaigns : marketing ethical cosmetics in spa-facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Niiranen, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The study’s objective was to research on the customer relationship management practices applied in service-oriented businesses and make justifiable recommendations intended to further improve and apply as well as use these significant undertakings. This initiative was implemented by applying customer relationship management principles and by analysing the effects of marketing ethical and environmental friendly products and services in a spa facility. The case firm is a beauty and cosmetics fa...

  13. Implementing Environmental Practices for Accomplishing Sustainable Green Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of environmental protection as a global issue, implementing environmental practices for sustaining green supply chain management (GSCM has received a lot of attention. This study investigates the impact of integration with suppliers and supply disruption risk on environmental practices. It also examines the role of supplier integration and supply disruption risk on performance. Finally, it investigates the relationship between environmental practices and performance in order to sustain green supply chains. Based on 272 survey responses from supply and purchase managers, our research results support the positive impact of integration with suppliers and the negative impact of supply disruption risk on the adoption of environmental practices. Furthermore, they provide empirical evidence that environmental practices and integration with suppliers are positively associated with performance, while supply disruption risk is negatively associated with performance. This study identifies antecedents and establishes a research framework of GSCM. More importantly, it provides meaningful insights to managers regarding the implementation of environmental practices related to other supply chain practices for sustaining green supply chains.

  14. Production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies is to justify the feasibility of recycling different types of industrial waste instead of conventional expensive raw materials in production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties. The impact of wastes from various industries on the environmental condition of affected areas, as well as the results of their environmental assessment were analyzed to determine whether these wastes could be used in production of high-performance building materials. The assessment of industrial wastes in aerated concrete production suggests that industrial wastes of hazard class IV can be recycled to produce aerated concrete. An environmentally friendly method for large-scale waste recycling, including a two-step environmentally sustainable mechanism, was developed. The basic quality indicators of the modified aerated concrete proved that the environmental safety could be enhanced by strengthening the structure, increasing its uniformity and improving thermal insulation properties. The modified non-autoclaved aerated concrete products with improved physical and operational properties were developed. They have the following properties: density – D700; class of concrete – B3.5; thermal transmittance coefficient – 0.143 W/(m·°C; frost resistance – F75.

  15. Environmental friendly anodizing of AZ91D magnesium alloy in alkaline borate-benzoate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Wei Zhongling [Magnesium Technology Co., Ltd., Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiaxing 314051 (China); Yang Fuwei [Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Zhang Zhao, E-mail: eaglezzy@zjuem.zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory for Light Alloy Materials Technology, Jiaxing 314051 (China)

    2011-06-02

    Highlights: > Environmental friendly PEO technology for AZ91 magnesium alloy is developed. > NaBz is used as new additive and it is low-cost and environmental friendly. > The effect of NaBz additive on the properties of the anodized film was studied. > Anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. > The forming mechanism of anodized film in the presence of NaBz is approached. - Abstract: A kind of environmental friendly anodizing routine for AZ91D magnesium alloy, based on an alkaline borate-sodium benzoate electrolyte (NaBz) was studied. The effect of NaBz on the properties of the anodized film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results showed that the anodizing process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependent on the concentration of NaBz. In the presence of adequate NaBz, a thick, compact and smoothing anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance was produced. Moreover, the forming mechanism of the anodized film in the presence of NaBz additive was also approached, which was a suppression of arc discharge process by the adsorption of Bz{sup -} on the surface of magnesium alloy substrate.

  16. Environmental Justice and Green-Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an environmental justice (EJ) program adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as a part of its regulation to phase out a toxic chemical used by dry cleaners. SCAQMD provided financial incentives to switch early and gave establishments in EJ neighborhoods priority in applying for…

  17. Green girls and bored boys? Adolescents' environmental consumer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2006-01-01

    An untraditional method of data construction - written essays - was used to study consumer socialisation processes related to 'green' consumerism. The study primarily aimed at exploring how adolescents perceive of environmental issues and learn about these issues in a family context. Results show...

  18. Green School Checklist: Environmental Actions for Schools To Consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield.

    This checklist offers tips and resources to help schools identify opportunities to "green" their buildings and operations, focusing on common-sense improvements that schools can make in their daily operations to minimize or stop potential health and environmental problems before they start. The first section discusses the benefits of a…

  19. Green manufacturing processes and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davim, J. Paulo (ed.) [Aveiro Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Universitario de Santiago

    2013-02-01

    This book provides the recent advances on green manufacturing processes and systems for modern industry. Chapter 1 provides information on sustainable manufacturing through environmentally-friendly machining. Chapter 2 is dedicated to environmentally-friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids. Chapter 3 describes environmental-friendly joining of tubes. Chapter 4 contains information on concepts, methods and strategies for zero-waste in manufacturing. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to the application of hybrid MCDM approach for selecting the best tyre recycling process.

  20. Environmental Policy in a Green Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga-Gonzalez, J. Luis [Erasmus University and Tinbergen Institute, Burg. Oudlaan 50, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Padron-Fumero, N. [Dept. de Economia de las Instituciones y Estadistica, Universidad de La Laguna, Facultad de CC.EE, Campus de Guajara, 38071 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This paper studies the impact of some frequently-used environmental policies in a duopolistic market where purchasers are willing to pay more for less polluting goods. When consumers differ in their environmental awareness, a cleaner and a dirtier variant coexist in equilibrium. The higher the average willingness-to-pay for the good, the lower are variants' unit emissions but the higher are industrial aggregate effluents. A maximum unit emission standard reduces unit emissions of both variants, but boosts firms' sales and consequently increases industrial aggregate emissions. As a result, social welfare may be reduced. We also explore the effects of technological subsidies and product charges, including differentiation of charges.

  1. Green Building Pro-Environment Behaviors: Are Green Users Also Green Buyers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pro-environment behaviors play a key role in advancing the development of green buildings. This study investigated the link between two green building pro-environment behaviors that require dissimilar resources: energy savings that do not require money in order to be more environmentally friendly and willingness to pay that involves economic resources including spending money in order to be more environmentally friendly. This study points out that the two pro-environment behaviors can be positively linked to each other. People who behave in an environmentally friendly manner at work would also be likely to pay an extra cost for a green building when buying a new home. The consistency of the two pro-environment behaviors can be explained by their common environmental beliefs: limits to growth and eco-crisis. The green building movement should prioritize pro-environmental behaviors and associated environmental beliefs to support green building policies, guidelines, and tools.

  2. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Bergman

    Full Text Available Environmental DNA (eDNA is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods.

  3. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Paul S.; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California’s Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  4. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods.

  5. 78 FR 12304 - Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments, Recommendations, Terms and Conditions, and Prescriptions Take.... Date filed: September 17, 2012. d. Applicant: Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund XLII, LLC. e. Name of Project...

  6. Green Consumption: A Cross Cultural Study about Environmental Beliefs, Concerns, and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Côrtes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though young college students, from different countries, have ever growing access to information about environmental practices, this does not mean that they develop an awareness that leads to good practices of green consumption. Using a new scale, applied to 2372 college students from Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Portugal, and Spain, it was verified whether the perception of the environment of those youngsters is expressed by a construct which is reasonably structured by beliefs, concerns, and environment-friendly attitudes, through the analysis of the impacts caused by those dimensions onto their consumption practices. As a strategy for data analysis, was used exploratory factor analysis, with the use of the Mann-Whitney test on factors scores and Spearman correlation between the mean values of the factors. It was possible to conclude that, although there are similarities between the youngsters from Latin America and the group from Iberia (Spain and Portugal, there are significant differences on how such a perception is structured. The Iberians have an anthropocentric motivation, linked to the idea of preserving resources for the future, while the Latin Americans have a more holistic vision, in which the environmental beliefs play a role of an important background. Between the two groups there are also differences regarding the possibility to conciliate economical development with environmental conservation. It was noted that the green consumption is an answer to the environmental concerns for both groups, which are less influenced by other dimensions, and this fact could impact the marketing strategies towards those groups.  

  7. Implementasi Green Design Dengan Konsep Nature Pada Perancangan Interior Green Product Centre Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Fransisca, The

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is one of thephenomenon forms due today environmental problems,so that green design as an answer to respond environmental issues and human inside. Embodiment of green design into a building are important, but people still lack awareness of it. Therefore, we need a place that is environmentally friendly, educating, and can transmit eco friendly lifestyle for the public.This interior design implementing green design aspects with the facilities such as galleries, workshop, consult...

  8. Methods of Developing User-Friendly Keys to Identify Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas L. from Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R. Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying individual animals is important in understanding their ecology and behaviour, as well as providing estimates of population sizes for conservation efforts. We produce identification keys from photographs of green sea turtles to identify them while foraging in Akumal Bay, Mexico. We create three keys, which (a minimise the length of the key, (b present the most obvious differential characteristics first, and (c remove the strict dichotomy from key b. Keys were capable of identifying >99% of turtles in >2500 photographs during the six-month study period. The keys differed significantly in success rate for students to identify individual turtles, with key (c being the best with >70% success and correctly being followed further than other keys before making a mistake. User-friendly keys are, therefore, a suitable method for the photographic identification of turtles and could be used for other large marine vertebrates in conservation or behavioural studies.

  9. Optimizing Green Computing Awareness for Environmental Sustainability and Economic Security as a Stochastic Optimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Okewu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of automation in sustainable development is not in doubt. Computerization in particular has permeated every facet of human endeavour, enhancing the provision of information for decision-making that reduces cost of operation, promotes productivity and socioeconomic prosperity and cohesion. Hence, a new field called information and communication technology for development (ICT4D has emerged. Nonetheless, the need to ensure environmentally friendly computing has led to this research study with particular focus on green computing in Africa. This is against the backdrop that the continent is feared to suffer most from the vulnerability of climate change and the impact of environmental risk. Using Nigeria as a test case, this paper gauges the green computing awareness level of Africans via sample survey. It also attempts to institutionalize green computing maturity model with a view to optimizing the level of citizens awareness amid inherent uncertainties like low bandwidth, poor network and erratic power in an emerging African market. Consequently, we classified the problem as a stochastic optimization problem and applied metaheuristic search algorithm to determine the best sensitization strategy. Although there are alternative ways of promoting green computing education, the metaheuristic search we conducted indicated that an online real-time solution that not only drives but preserves timely conversations on electronic waste (e-waste management and energy saving techniques among the citizenry is cutting edge. The authors therefore reviewed literature, gathered requirements, modelled the proposed solution using Universal Modelling Language (UML and developed a prototype. The proposed solution is a web-based multi-tier e-Green computing system that educates computer users on innovative techniques of managing computers and accessories in an environmentally friendly way. We found out that such a real-time web-based interactive forum does not

  10. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome these problems, this study sets out to develop a template (the “green template” for evaluating the embodied environmental impact of using a BIM design tool as part of BIM-based building life-cycle assessment (LCA technology development. Firstly, the BIM level of detail (LOD was determined to evaluate the embodied environmental impact, and constructed a database of the impact factors of the embodied environmental impact of the major building materials, thereby adopting an LCA-based approach. The libraries of major building elements were developed by using the established databases and compiled evaluation table of the embodied environmental impact of the building materials. Finally, the green template was developed as an embodied environmental impact evaluation tool and a case study was performed to test its applicability. The results of the green template-based embodied environmental impact evaluation of a test building were validated against those of its actual quantity takeoff (2D takeoff, and its reliability was confirmed by an effective error rate of ≤5%. This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, we proposed an LCA method

  11. Green consumption: the global rise of eco-chic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, B.; Jaffe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Green lifestyles and ethical consumption have become increasingly popular strategies in moving towards environmentally-friendly societies and combating global poverty. Where previously environmentalists saw excess consumption as central to the problem, green consumerism now places consumption at the

  12. Conceptual Design of Environmentally Friendly Rotorcraft - A Comparison of NASA and ONERA Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carl; Basset, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a task was initiated under the US-French Project Agreement on rotorcraft studies to collaborate on design methodologies for environmentally friendly rotorcraft. This paper summarizes the efforts of that collaboration. The French and US aerospace agencies, ONERA and NASA, have their own software toolsets and approaches to rotorcraft design. The first step of this research effort was to understand how rotorcraft impact the environment, with the initial focus on air pollution. Second, similar baseline helicopters were developed for a passenger transport mission, using NASA and ONERA rotorcraft design software tools. Comparisons were made between the designs generated by the two tools. Finally, rotorcraft designs were generated targeting reduced environmental impact. The results show that a rotorcraft design that targets reduced environmental impact can be significantly different than one that targets traditional cost drivers, such as fuel burn and empty weight.

  13. Environmental indicators: Establishing a common language for green building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven; Elle, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Environmental indicators for buildings have the potential to serve as a means of making the environmental impacts (and possibly benefits) of buildings visible to all relevant actors. In addition, indicators facilitate the consideration and management of an array of environmental issues....... The objective of this study was to investigate if (and to what extent) consensus on environmental indicators for buildings as ‘a common language for green building’ can be reached among core actors in the Danish building sector and what such indicators could look like. Based on an analysis of current indicator...... systems and a qualitative investigation of the views of different actor groups on environmental indicators for buildings, the areas of consensus and lines of conflict between the actor groups were identified. Four different technological frames were used to identify four different perceptions...

  14. Aqueous hybrid ion batteries - An environmentally friendly alternative for stationary energy storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jens F.; Weil, Marcel

    2017-10-01

    Aqueous hybrid ion batteries (AHIB) are being promoted as an environmentally friendly alternative to existing stationary battery technologies. However, no quantification of their potential environmental impacts has yet been done. This paper presents a prospective life cycle assessment of an AHIB module and compares its performance with lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries in two different stationary energy storage applications. The findings show that the claim of being an environmentally friendly technology can only be supported with some major limitations. While the AHIB uses abundant and non-toxic materials, it has a very low energy density and requires increased amounts of material for providing a given storage capacity. Per kWh of battery, results comparable to those of the alternative lithium- or sodium-ion batteries are obtained, but significantly higher impacts under global warming and ozone depletion aspects. The comparable high cycle life of the AHIB compensates this partially, requiring less battery replacements over the lifetime of the application. On the other hand, its internal inefficiencies are higher, what becomes the dominating factor when charging majorly fossil based electricity, making AHIB unattractive for this type of applications.

  15. Introduction of Microbial Biopolymers in Soil Treatment for Future Environmentally-Friendly and Sustainable Geotechnical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil treatment and improvement is commonly performed in the field of geotechnical engineering. Methods and materials to achieve this such as soil stabilization and mixing with cementitious binders have been utilized in engineered soil applications since the beginning of human civilization. Demand for environment-friendly and sustainable alternatives is currently rising. Since cement, the most commonly applied and effective soil treatment material, is responsible for heavy greenhouse gas emissions, alternatives such as geosynthetics, chemical polymers, geopolymers, microbial induction, and biopolymers are being actively studied. This study provides an overall review of the recent applications of biopolymers in geotechnical engineering. Biopolymers are microbially induced polymers that are high-tensile, innocuous, and eco-friendly. Soil–biopolymer interactions and related soil strengthening mechanisms are discussed in the context of recent experimental and microscopic studies. In addition, the economic feasibility of biopolymer implementation in the field is analyzed in comparison to ordinary cement, from environmental perspectives. Findings from this study demonstrate that biopolymers have strong potential to replace cement as a soil treatment material within the context of environment-friendly construction and development. Moreover, continuing research is suggested to ensure performance in terms of practical implementation, reliability, and durability of in situ biopolymer applications for geotechnical engineering purposes.

  16. An Environmentally Friendly Process for the Preparation of UHMWPE As-Spun Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waqar Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extrusion of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE fibres cannot be achieved by conventional extrusion processes due to its very high melt viscosity. To overcome this limitation, UHMWPE is first dissolved in a petrochemical to form a gel before extrusion. The petrochemicals used to dissolve the polymer then need to be removed using other chemicals making the process unfriendly to the environment. This article is focused on finding an environmentally friendly, natural solution to replace these chemicals and altering the process to potentially reduce the process cost.

  17. Thermal Insulating Properties of Straw-Filled Environmentally Friendly Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova-Slipets, Rositsa; Zlateva, Penka

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents results of a research for determination of a few general thermal-physical properties of environmentally friendly building materials made by clay, sand and straw. The aim of this study is to establish their heat insulating and energy-efficient capacity. All specific measurements were carried out by using the newest generation thermal conductivity analyser Mathis TCi. The results showed that the studied composite materials are good thermal insulators with thermal conductivity less than 0.5 W/m.K, which depends on the straw amount. Even less than 0.5 wt.% straw reflects on the insulating properties by decreasing the thermal conductivity coefficient with nearly 50 %.

  18. Environmental Policy Performance Revisited: Designing Effective Policies for Green Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy...... instruments directed at the demand-side of the market. Therefore this article develops a policy typology for government intervention aimed at creating green markets. The typology distinguishes between four types of policies based on the balance between supply-side and demand-side policy instruments applied....... On the basis of the typology, a hypothesis on their ability to expand green markets is generated and tested in a comparative analysis of the performance of organic food policies in Denmark, Sweden, the UK and the US, focusing on their impact on organic consumption. Our analysis demonstrates that cross...

  19. Emerging sustainable/green cleaning products: health and environmental risks

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Mehmet Cihan; IŞIK, Ercan; Ulu, Ali Emre

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development aims to bring a new perspective to our lives without compromising customer needs and quality. Along with sustainable development many innovative solutions came out. One of them is sustainable green cleaning products and techniques. Today, emissions from conventional cleaning products may cause severe health and environmental issues. Especially sick building syndromes such as eye, skin and respiratory irritations are main health effects of them. They may also contrib...

  20. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  1. Savvy Schools Are Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the green phenomenon is spreading, especially among schools, which have found that not only are they being environmentally friendly, they are also saving big money. Green buildings focus on efficiency and renewable energy, water stewardship, environmentally preferable building materials and specifications, waste…

  2. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors Containing Microparticles for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Benjamin Pieter; Calle, Luz M.

    2015-01-01

    This poster presents the results obtained from experiments designed to evaluate the release properties, as well as the corrosion inhibition effectiveness, of several encapsulated corrosion inhibitors. Microencapsulation has been used in the development of environmentally friendly multifunctional smart coatings. This technique enables the incorporation of autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition and self-healing functionalities into many commercially available coating systems. Select environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic and inorganic pH-sensitive microparticles and their release in basic solutions was studied. The release rate results showed that the encapsulation can be tailored from fast, for immediate corrosion protection, to slow, which will provide continued long-term corrosion protection. The incorporation of several corrosion inhibitor release profiles into a coating provides effective corrosion protection properties. To investigate the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the encapsulated inhibitors, electrochemical techniques were used to obtain corrosion potential, polarization curve and polarization resistance data. These measurements were performed using the free as well as the encapsulated inhibitors singly or in combinations. Results from these electrochemical tests will be compared to those obtained from weight loss and other accelerated corrosion experiments.

  3. Transport-related lifestyle and environmentally-friendly travel mode choices: A multi-level approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a deductive cognitive approach to, and a new instrument for measuring, transport-related lifestyle (TRL) and presents a first application of the instrument for identifying national and cross-national transport-related lifestyle segments based on a survey (N = 3216) in 10...... European countries. Principal component analysis is used to reduce the TRL instrument’s 69 items to 18 dimensions within five lifestyle components. Based on multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, it is found that the instrument possesses metric, but not scalar (measurement) invariance across the 10....... Finally, a multivariate GLM analysis reveals that three behavioral tendencies of importance for transport-related environmental impacts vary significantly and substantially between lifestyle segments: vehicle ownership, everyday travel-mode choice and environmentally-friendly transport innovativeness...

  4. Consumer purchase intention towards environmentally friendly vehicles: an empirical investigation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhtar, Rulia; Islam, Md Ashraful; Duasa, Jarita Bt

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines whether attitudes towards electric vehicles (ATEVs), subjective norms (SNs) and perceived behavioural control (PBC) have significant associations with consumer purchase intention (PI) and the purchase behaviour of environmentally friendly vehicles (EFVs). The results from the survey questionnaires are analysed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings of this paper indicate that ATEV, SN and PBC significantly influence PI. This finding also indicates that environmental consequence and individual preferences do not influence the PI of the respondents. We found that Malaysian car owners are largely unaware of the greenhouse effects on the environment or attach to it little importance, which is reflected in their PI towards EFVs. The outcomes of this study could help policymakers design programmes to influence attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and purchase behaviour to prevent further air pollution and reduce CO2 emissions from the transportation sector.

  5. Cobweb as novel biomaterial for the green and eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateef, A.; Ojo, S. A.; Azeez, M. A.; Asafa, T. B.; Yekeen, T. A.; Akinboro, A.; Oladipo, I. C.; Gueguim-Kana, E. B.; Beukes, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, spider cobweb as a novel biomaterial was used for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy. The efficacy of biosynthesized particles as antibacterial agents was evaluated using multi-drug resistant clinical bacterial isolates through sensitivity testing with AgNPs and combination of AgNPs with some selected antibiotics. In addition, the potential application of the particles as additives in paints was demonstrated using some bacterial and fungal isolates. The synthesized AgNPs which were dark brown in color displayed maximum absorbance at the wavelength of 436 nm. It was observed that the reaction mixture of 1:40 (extract:AgNO3 solution) at pH of 8.5 produced particles with maximum absorbance at 436 nm. The FTIR spectrum showed peaks at 3298, 2359, 2089, and 1635 cm-1, indicating that proteins were the capping and stabilization molecules in the synthesis of AgNPs. The particles were spherical in shape with size ranging about 3-50 nm. The energy-dispersive X-ray analysis showed the presence of silver as the most prominent metal, while the selected area electron diffraction pattern conformed to the face-centered cubic phase and crystalline nature of AgNPs. The AgNPs inhibited the growth of several bacterial isolates including S. aureus, E. coli, Klebsiella granulomatis and P. aeruginosa in the range of 10-17 mm at concentration of 100 µg/ml. It was also demonstrated that AgNPs potentiated the activities of augmentin, ofloxacin and cefixime in the AgNP-antibiotic synergy studies. Similarly, the inclusion of AgNPs as additive in white emulsion paint led to the total inhibition of growth of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger and A. fumigatus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of cobweb for the green synthesis of AgNPs. The immense antimicrobial

  6. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources for both terrestrial and space...

  7. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources. Thermo-electric power generation...

  8. Peasant friendly plant breeding and the early years of the green revolution in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Despite their success in boosting cereals production overall, the Green Revolution programs of the 1950s and 1960s were often criticized for failing to achieve their declared aim of alleviating world hunger. Most critics argued that the programs had produced a technology unsuited to the needs of small peasant farmers. This paper explores why such inappropriate technology might have been developed, focusing on the early years of the Rockefeller Foundation's Mexican Agricultural Program (MAP). It shows that some foundation officers as well as agricultural advisors had prior experience of the problems faced by small farmers in the United States and elsewhere. Moreover, the foundation's expressed concern for rural poverty does not appear to have been mere posturing by an organization anxious to be seen as an agent of philanthropy. Furthermore, the program's early work in maize-breeding was well tailored to the conditions of Mexican agriculture. Once the MAP was up and running, however, it became apparent that the task of getting new varieties and cultivation practices to small farmers was going to be difficult. Needing to make some kind of impact quickly, MAP staff chose to concentrate upon projects that were likely to find a rapid uptake. This meant setting aside the needs of peasant farmers to develop high-yielding varieties suited to large commercial farms.

  9. College Students’ Perceptions and Practices Towards Environmentally Friendly Clothing: A Comparison and Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhee Nam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest of environmentally friendly clothing (EFC, there have been discrepancies among customers in defining EFC. The purposes of this study were to assess the participants’ environmental orientation and environmental knowledge toward EFC, to compare them in terms of college major and gender and identify relationships between orientation and knowledge, and to acquire the current perceptions and practices toward EFC. The revised New Environmental Paradigm scale (NEP with 15 items, the Environmental Apparel Knowledge scale (EAK with 11 items, and the developed perception and practice question sets with 12 items were used. A total of 122 undergraduate students participated through an online survey. Results indicated that students in sustainability-related majors have higher ratings in knowledge than students in other majors. Gender was not found to make a significant difference in either orientation or knowledge ratings. Orientation and knowledge were positively correlated, but not strongly. Results present the need for reinforcement of sustainable contents in university curricula. Practical feedback from this study has the potential to assist with the development of effective marketing campaigns. Sample size and grouping of majors are possible limitations in this study.

  10. The effects assessment of firm environmental strategy and customer environmental conscious on green product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Chuang, Li-Min; Chao, Shu-Tsung; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine why both parties (industry and consumer market) have mutual interests in protecting the environment but they still are hesitant to act green. The study used two-stage sampling from consumer market to depict ideal green product characteristics and reliable toy companies, and visit these companies for the second sample collection to examine whether the organizational eco-innovation strategy with customer value has a positive effect on green product development. In other words, the customer's benefit is an important factor for new product development strategy for green toys. This research shows that the willingness to buy green toys increases if most people in society buy green toys. This represents that customers are environmentally conscious and care about protecting the environment, or buying green toys is the result of a new economic trend and childhood education. The willingness to buy green toys increases if customers think that green products implies an enhancement on new product development to toy manufacturers. Further, if manufacturers are able to manage the difficulty of cooperation with all parties in the supply chain and difficulties related to production, they are willing to adopt customers' perceived value on green toys for their new product development strategy. It is rare to find academic research discussing the perspectives of both consumers and manufacturers in the same study because the research topic is very broad and many conditions must be considered. This research aims to find the effect of consumer-perceived value and company eco-innovation on green product development.

  11. Green city Banda Aceh: city planning approach and environmental aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Banda Aceh as the capital of Aceh Province is the region with the tsunami disaster that occurred on December 26, 2004 the most severe of which over 60% of the city area were destroyed mainly coastal region and settlements. One product plan for rehabilitation and reconstruction of Banda Aceh is made of Banda Aceh as Green City. To realize the Green City Banda Aceh, urban development process should be conducted in a planned and integrated way with attention to spatial and environmental aspects to ensure an efficient urban management and to create a healthy, beautiful and comfortable environment. There is a weakness of the process in urban planning and development that occurred at present where cities tend to minimize the development of green open space and land conversion into a commercial district, residential areas, industrial areas, transport networks and infrastructure and facilities for other cities. Another tendency that occurs is urban environment only developed economically but not ecologically, whereas ecological balance is as important as the development of the economic value of urban areas. Such conditions have caused unbalance of urban ecosystems including increased air temperature, air pollution, declining water table, flooding, salt water intrusion and increased content of heavy metals in the soil. From an ecological perspective, unfavorable microclimate, high-temperature increase due to the lack of trees as a sieve / filter against heavy rain, can cause flooding. These conditions result in inconvienient, arid and less beautiful urban areas. The author identifies the elements contained in the Green City Banda Aceh and how the efforts and approaches must be made toward Green City Banda Aceh.

  12. Dream in Green of Miami, Fla. awarded a nearly $30,000 Environmental Justice Small Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - An Environmental Justice Small Grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been awarded to Dream in Green of Miami, Fla. for their project titled: Green Schools Challenge: Evidence-Based Practice. Dream in Green is one of

  13. Comparison of the microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables sold at retail markets in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Minju; Kim, Eun-Gyeong; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung

    2014-09-01

    Fresh produce is usually eaten raw without cooking or heating, which may increase the probability of foodborne infection. The microbiological quality of 11 types of fresh, raw vegetables (romaine lettuce, sesame leaves, crown daisy, garlic chives, iceberg lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, leek, chili pepper, capsicum, and zucchini) purchased at retail markets in Iksan, Korea as affected by cultivation method (environmentally friendly vegetables [organic, pesticide-free, and low-pesticide vegetables] and conventionally grown vegetables) and harvest season was determined. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were not detected in all samples of vegetables tested. Aerobic mesophiles (>6 log cfu/g) were detected in environmentally friendly romaine lettuce and crown daisy and environmentally friendly and conventionally grown garlic chives, which also contained coliforms (>3 log cfu/g). Sesame leaf and crown daisy (regardless of cultivation method), as well as conventionally grown romaine lettuce and leek, contained >1 log cfu/g of E. coli. The overall microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables was not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, there were seasonal effects on populations of coliforms and generic E. coli on vegetables. The greatest numbers of microorganisms were isolated from environmentally friendly or conventionally grown vegetables purchased in winter. The vegetables, regardless of cultivation method or season, should be subjected to appropriate antimicrobial treatment to enhance their microbial safety. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. An Environmentally Friendly, Cost-Effective Determination of Lead in Environmental Samples Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Underwood, Melinda N.; Cloud, Joshua L.; Harshman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with heavy metals such as lead presents many health risks. Simple, effective, and field-portable methods for the measurement of toxic metals in environmental samples are vital tools for evaluating the risks that these contaminants pose. This article describes the use of new developments in anodic stripping…

  15. New Bis-Pyrazolones as Potential Leads for ROS Inhibition; Environment Friendly Green Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and In Vitro Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Sahar; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Salar, Uzma; Jabeen, Almas; Ahmed, Shakil; Muhammad, Munira Taj; Faheem, Aisha; Perveen, Shahnaz

    2018-01-12

    Pyrazolones have identified as significant antioxidant agents and many marketed and clinically prescribed NSAIDs have pyrazolone ring as main scaffold. Keeping in consideration the antioxidant potential of pyrazolone scaffold, new bis-pyrazolones 3-30 were synthesized by a green and enviroment friendly reaction route, in which two equivalents of 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ol were treated with one equivalent of benzaldehyde derivatives without any catalyst. All compounds were structurally characterzied by 1H-NMR and FAB analysis. 13C-NMR of selected compounds was also recorded. All compounds gave satisfactory elemental analyses and found in good agreement with calculated values. Synthetic bis-pyrazolones 3-30 were evaluated for their oxidative burst inhibitory effect of zymosan stimulated whole blood phagocytes by using luminol enhanced chemilluminescence technique. All molecules demonstrated the potent ROS inhibition activity in the range of IC50 = 1.2 ± 0.1-48.8 ± 3.9 µM as compared to the standard ibuprofen (IC50 = 54.2 ± 9.2 µM). The purity of active compounds was checked by HPLC. This study has identified a number of non-acidic lead molecules for future research on ROS inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Investigating the impact of environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concern and care for green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeilpour Majid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention to purchase green products is the tendency of a person who prefers to purchase a product with optimal environmental characteristics rather than usual products. Nowadays, the environment is very important and maintaining it is a vital issue for all groups of people, whether in the customer's position or in the distributor’s position. However, in spite of the increased environmental awareness among consumers and encouragements made by producers for them to buy green products, we require further investigation in this area in order to increase green purchasing among different group of people. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concerns and care for green products. This research is an applied research, and correlational-descriptive in terms of data analysis. The research population includes consumers from Bushehr city, sampled based on availability. In this research, 300 questionnaires were distributed among consumers. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The findings of this research showed that the environmental attitude of customers has significant and positive impact on caring for green products and environmental concerns. In addition, environmental concerns and care for green products have a significant and positive impact on green purchasing decision.

  17. Liquid Extraction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol, An Environmentally Friendly Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrollahzadeh, S.; Sadeghi Fateh, D.; Shokouhi, H.; Shahvelayati, A.; Golmohammad, F.

    Commercial hexane (AW-406) produced in Iran is actually a blend of aliphatic compounds consisting: n-hexane, 3-methyl pentane and methyl cyclopentane. Benzene and toluene can be found in few percent quantities as contaminants in AW-406. A liquid-liquid extraction process was applied to separate aromatic contents of AW-406 solvent. Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA), a novel, naturally derived and environmentally friendly solvent was used in a bench-scale extractor and water was added as co-solvent. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data were generated experimentally. After eight stages, the yields of benzene and toluene removal were 70 and 60%, respectively. Design criteria of extraction column in a pilot scale have been obtained in regard to equilibrium calculations, number of equilibrium stages, flow rates and type of column.

  18. Geothermal and Trigeneration Systems as Innovative and EnvironmentallyFriendly Solutions for Telecommunication Plant Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Trotta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a model-based analysis of innovative cooling systems, to be deployed in telecommunication (TLC plants in consideration of their size, geographical location and typology (e.g. central Offices or data-centers. Environmentally friendly systems, such as geothermal heat pumps and trigeneration plants, were considered. The trade-off between the investment and operating costs was first analyzed, followed by a comparative evaluation of economic savings achievable via each candidate solution with respect to reference benchmarks, here represented by traditional air-water heat pump and conventional interaction with electrical grid. In this way, a preliminary macroscopic assessment of the best solutions was accomplished, according to the different scenarios (i.e. small or big TLC plant under investigation. A more detailed analysis, concerning the comparison between traditional and geothermal systems, was specifically carried out to evaluate savings as a function of the external temperature and, consequently, of geographical location.

  19. Natural cork agglomerate employed as an environmentally friendly solution for quiet sandwich composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargianis, James; Kim, Hyung-ick; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fiber-synthetic foam core sandwich composites are widely used for many structural applications due to their superior mechanical performance and low weight. Unfortunately these structures typically have very poor acoustic performance. There is increasingly growing demand in mitigating this noise issue in sandwich composite structures. This study shows that marrying carbon fiber composites with natural cork in a sandwich structure provides a synergistic effect yielding a noise-free sandwich composite structure without the sacrifice of mechanical performance or weight. Moreover the cork-core sandwich composites boast a 250% improvement in damping performance, providing increased durability and lifetime operation. Additionally as the world seeks environmentally friendly materials, the harvesting of cork is a natural, renewable process which reduces subsequent carbon footprints. Such a transition from synthetic foam cores to natural cork cores could provide unprecedented improvements in acoustic and vibrational performance in applications such as aircraft cabins or wind turbine blades.

  20. Environmentally-friendly lithium recycling from a spent organic li-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Stéven; Brandell, Daniel; Edström, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    A simple and straightforward method using non-polluting solvents and a single thermal treatment step at moderate temperature was investigated as an environmentally-friendly process to recycle lithium from organic electrode materials for secondary lithium batteries. This method, highly dependent on the choice of electrolyte, gives up to 99% of sustained capacity for the recycled materials used in a second life-cycle battery when compared with the original. The best results were obtained using a dimethyl carbonate/lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide electrolyte that does not decompose in presence of water. The process implies a thermal decomposition step at a moderate temperature of the extracted organic material into lithium carbonate, which is then used as a lithiation agent for the preparation of fresh electrode material without loss of lithium. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Environmentally friendly synthesis of organic-soluble silver nanoparticles for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwi Jong; Jun, Byung Ho; Choi, Junrak; Lee, Young Il; Joung, Jaewoo; Oh, Yong Soo [eMD Center, Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Suwon, Kyunggi-Do 443-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-22

    In this study, we attempted to synthesize organic-soluble silver nanoparticles in the concentrated organic phase with an environmentally friendly method. The fully organic phase system contains silver acetate as a silver precursor, oleic acid as both a medium and a capping molecule, and tin acetate as a reducing agent. Monodisperse silver nanoparticles with average diameters of ca. 5 nm can be easily synthesized at large scale. Only a small usage of tin acetate (<0.05 eq.mol) resulted in a high synthesis yield (>90%). Also, it was investigated that the residual tin atom does not exist in the synthesized silver nanoparticles. This implied that tin acetate acts as a reducing catalyst.

  2. An easy and environmentally-friendly approach to superamphiphobicity of aluminum surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, R.; Hu, Y. M.; Wang, L.; Li, Zh. H.; Shen, T.; Zhu, Y.; Xiang, J. Zh.

    2017-04-01

    Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an easy and environmentally-friendly approach. Aqueous mixed solution of 0.7 M CuSO4 and 1 M NaCl was used to etch polished Al surfaces to fabricate a rough morphology distributed with microscale step-like pits. The uniformly distributed nanoscale petals covered on the microscale pits were obtained by subsequent 96 °C hot deionized water bathing for 13 min. Thus, the hierarchical micro/nanometer scale roughness was formed which provided the structural basic of superamphiphobic Al surfaces. By 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyl-triethoxysilane (PFDTS) derivatization, desirable superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved with the highest static contact angles of 162° for water, 156° for peanut oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the sliding angles were lower than 10° for both water and peanut oil droplets. The as-prepared Al surfaces were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical contact angle measurements. The FE-SEM images of as-prepared Al surfaces showed a hierarchical micro/nanometer scale morphology. XPS analyses demonstrated the PFDTS derivitization on Al surfaces. The superamphiphobic Al surfaces presented good mechanical durability and chemical stability which have a wide range of applications in fields such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-corrosion, oil transportation, energy harvesting, microfluidics, and so forth. The approach reported in this paper may easily realize the industrial production of superamphiphobic Al surfaces owing to the advantage of facile, low cost and environmentally-friendly.

  3. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  4. Use of natural gas, methanol, and ethanol fuel emulsions as environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, V. A.; Lopatin, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    The need for using environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants (HPPs) is grounded. Ecologically friendly sources of energy, such as natural gas as well as renewable methyl and ethyl alcohols, are investigated. In order to develop, determine, and optimize the composition of environmentally friendly energy carriers for an HPP, the latter has been tested when working on diesel fuel (DF), compressed natural gas (CNG), and methanol and ethanol fuel emulsions (MFE, EFE). It has been experimentally established that, for the application of environmentally friendly energy carriers for a 4Ch 11.0/12.5 diesel engine of a mobile fuel and power plant, it is necessary to maintain the following ratio of components when working on CNG: 80% gas and 20% DF primer portion. When working on an alcohol mixture, emulsions of the following composition were used: 25% alcohol (methanol or ethanol), 0.5% detergent-dispersant additive succinimide C-5A, 7% water, and 67.5% DF. When this diesel passed from oil DF to environmentally friendly energy sources, it allowed for the reduction of the content of exhaust gases (EG) (1) when working on CNG with recirculation of exhaust gases (EGR) (recirculation was used to eliminate the increased amount of nitric oxides by using CNG): carbon black by 5.8 times, carbon dioxide by 45.9%, and carbon monoxide by 23.8%; (2) when working on MFE: carbon black by 6.4 times, nitrogen oxides by 29.6%, carbon dioxide by 10.1%, and carbon oxide by 47.6%; (3) when working on EFE: carbon black by 4.8 times; nitrogen oxides by 40.3%, carbon dioxide by 26.6%, and carbon monoxide by 28.6%. The prospects of use of environmentally friendly energy carriers in diesels of mobile HPPs, such as natural gas, ethanol, and methanol, has been determined.

  5. Analysis of Environmental Friendly Library Based on the Satisfaction and Service Quality: study at Library “X”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Satriya Utama, Andre; Safruddin; Hidayat, Heri; Gema Zuliana Irawan, Angga; Immanuel Tjandra Muliawan, R.; Mutia Pratiwi, Diana

    2017-10-01

    One of the factor that influenced the development of science is the existence of the library, which in this case is the college libraries. Library, which is located in the college environment, aims to supply collections of literatures to support research activities as well as educational for students of the college. Conceptually, every library now starts to practice environmental principles. For example, “X” library as a central library claims to be an environmental friendly library for practicing environmental friendly management, but the X library has not inserted the satisfaction and service aspect to the users, including whether it is true that environmental friendly process is perceived by library users. Satisfaction can be seen from the comparison between expectations and reality of library users. This paper analyzes the level of library user satisfaction with library services in the campus area and the gap between expectations and reality felt by the library users. The result of the research shows that there is a disparity between the hope of library management, which is sustainable and environmentally friendly with the reality in the management of the library, so that it has not given satisfaction to the users yet. The gap value of satisfaction that has the biggest difference is in the library collection with the value of 1.57; while for the smallest gap value is in the same service to all students with a value of 0.67.

  6. Amphiphilic triblock copolymers with PEGylated hydrocarbon structures as environmentally friendly marine antifouling and fouling-release coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhaoli; Calabrese, David R; Taylor, Warren; Finlay, John A; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Fischer, Daniel; Kramer, Edward J; Ober, Christopher K

    2014-01-01

    The ideal marine antifouling (AF)/fouling-release (FR) coating should be non-toxic, while effectively either resisting the attachment of marine organisms (AF) or significantly reducing their strength of attachment (FR). Many recent studies have shown that amphiphilic polymeric materials provide a promising solution to producing such coatings due to their surface dual functionality. In this work, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) of different molecular weights (Mw = 350, 550) was coupled to a saturated difunctional alkyl alcohol to generate amphiphilic surfactants (PEG-hydrocarbon-OH). The resulting macromolecules were then used as side chains to covalently modify a pre-synthesized PS8 K-b-P(E/B)25 K-b-PI10 K (SEBI or K3) triblock copolymer, and the final polymers were applied to glass substrata through an established multilayer surface coating technique to prepare fouling resistant coatings. The coated surfaces were characterized with AFM, XPS and NEXAFS, and evaluated in laboratory assays with two important fouling algae, Ulva linza (a green macroalga) and Navicula incerta, a biofilm-forming diatom. The results suggest that these polymer-coated surfaces undergo surface reconstruction upon changing the contact medium (polymer/air vs polymer/water), due to the preferential interfacial aggregation of the PEG segment on the surface in water. The amphiphilic polymer-coated surfaces showed promising results as both AF and FR coatings. The sample with longer PEG chain lengths (Mw = 550 g mol(-1)) exhibited excellent properties against both algae, highlighting the importance of the chemical structures on ultimate biological performance. Besides reporting synthesis and characterization of this new type of amphiphilic surface material, this work also provides insight into the nature of PEG/hydrocarbon amphiphilic coatings, and this understanding may help in the design of future generations of fluorine-free, environmentally friendly AF/FR polymeric coatings.

  7. High Performance Liquid Metal Battery with Environmentally Friendly Antimony-Tin Positive Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haomiao; Wang, Kangli; Cheng, Shijie; Jiang, Kai

    2016-05-25

    For the first time, Sb-Sn alloys are reported as environmentally friendly positive electrodes for high performance liquid metal batteries (LMBs). Meanwhile, the dominant role of Sb in setting the potential and the inert "solvent" role of Sn in lowering the melting point and decreasing the cell cost are clarified on the basis of electrochemical titration and ex situ analysis. The Li||Sb-Sn LMB exhibits superior rate performance (only 13% capacity loss from 100 mA cm(-2) to 1 A cm(-2) of current densities), low materials cost (73 $ kW h(-1)), and high energy density (200.4 W h kg(-1)) at reduced operating temperature. Most notably, after 3500 h of operation (more than 430 full charge-discharge cycles), a discharge capacity of 20.6 Ah is maintained with a capacity retention of 96.7%, corresponding to a fade rate of 0.0078% per cycle, which potentially meets the metrics of large-scale energy storage without environmental concerns.

  8. BUMPER: the Bayesian User-friendly Model for Palaeo-Environmental Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Phil; Birks, John; Brooks, Steve; Bush, Mark; Hwang, Grace; Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Valencia, Bryan; van Woesik, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We describe the Bayesian User-friendly Model for Palaeo-Environmental Reconstruction (BUMPER), a Bayesian transfer function for inferring past climate and other environmental variables from microfossil assemblages. The principal motivation for a Bayesian approach is that the palaeoenvironment is treated probabilistically, and can be updated as additional data become available. Bayesian approaches therefore provide a reconstruction-specific quantification of the uncertainty in the data and in the model parameters. BUMPER is fully self-calibrating, straightforward to apply, and computationally fast, requiring 2 seconds to build a 100-taxon model from a 100-site training-set on a standard personal computer. We apply the model's probabilistic framework to generate thousands of artificial training-sets under ideal assumptions. We then use these to demonstrate both the general applicability of the model and the sensitivity of reconstructions to the characteristics of the training-set, considering assemblage richness, taxon tolerances, and the number of training sites. We demonstrate general applicability to real data, considering three different organism types (chironomids, diatoms, pollen) and different reconstructed variables. In all of these applications an identically configured model is used, the only change being the input files that provide the training-set environment and taxon-count data.

  9. BUMPER v1.0: a Bayesian user-friendly model for palaeo-environmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Philip B.; Birks, H. John B.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Bush, Mark B.; Hwang, Grace M.; Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Valencia, Bryan G.; van Woesik, Robert

    2017-02-01

    We describe the Bayesian user-friendly model for palaeo-environmental reconstruction (BUMPER), a Bayesian transfer function for inferring past climate and other environmental variables from microfossil assemblages. BUMPER is fully self-calibrating, straightforward to apply, and computationally fast, requiring ˜ 2 s to build a 100-taxon model from a 100-site training set on a standard personal computer. We apply the model's probabilistic framework to generate thousands of artificial training sets under ideal assumptions. We then use these to demonstrate the sensitivity of reconstructions to the characteristics of the training set, considering assemblage richness, taxon tolerances, and the number of training sites. We find that a useful guideline for the size of a training set is to provide, on average, at least 10 samples of each taxon. We demonstrate general applicability to real data, considering three different organism types (chironomids, diatoms, pollen) and different reconstructed variables. An identically configured model is used in each application, the only change being the input files that provide the training-set environment and taxon-count data. The performance of BUMPER is shown to be comparable with weighted average partial least squares (WAPLS) in each case. Additional artificial datasets are constructed with similar characteristics to the real data, and these are used to explore the reasons for the differing performances of the different training sets.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Anionic Polyester-Polyurethane Dispersion as Environmentally-Friendly Waterbased Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf i F. Manouchehri F., and Shaabanz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous polyurethane dispersions (PUDs have recently emerged as important alternatives to their solvent-based counterparts for various applications due to increasing health and environmental awareness (green chemistry. Anionic polyester-polyurethane dispersions were synthesized by three steps. In the first step, macromonomer diisocyanate having carboxylic acid was prepared by isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA in percent of acetone as solvent and dibutyldtin dilaurate (DBTDL as catalyst. Then, carboxylic polyurethane was prepared by reaction macromonomer diisocyanate having carboxylic acid with linear aliphatic polyester (Mw=2000, trifunctional polyester (Mw=2800 and butanediol (BDO as chain extender. The next step involved neutralization and dispersion in water, where acidic polyurethane was neutralized by the addition of triethylamine (TEA.  Factors influencing the synthesis of polyurethane dispersion mainly involve reaction temperature, reaction time, the concentration of catalyst, DMPA content and BDO content, were studied. The polymers have been characterized with DSC and FTIR.

  11. Analysis of the Correlation between Environmental Performance in Enterprise Green Management and the Competitive Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Yang, Zihan; Zhang, Peiyao

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing concern over the topics of enterprise green management and environmental performance’s influence on a company’s competitive edge. This paper mainly analyzed the effect of enterprise green management on a company’s environmental performance and its competitive advantages, as well as environmental performance’s influence over the competitive edge. Furthermore, this paper discussed the role of environmental performance between enterprise green management and competitive edge. Objects of this study are manufactures in northwestern China which have acquired the ISO 9001 certification before December, 2014. Research discoveries shows that enterprise green management would exert positive influence on the environmental performance and its competitive edge; the environmental performance could also add significant competitive edge to a company; last but not the least, environmental performance also plays an intermediary role between enterprise green management and its competitive advantages

  12. The application of deep eutectic solvent ionic liquids for environmentally-friendly dissolution and recovery of precious metals

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkin, GRT; Al-Bassam, AZM; Harris, RC; Abbott, AP; Smith, DJ; Holwell, DA; Chapman, RJ; Stanley, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: The application of deep eutectic solvent ionic liquids for environmentally-friendly dissolution and recovery of precious metals journaltitle: Minerals Engineering articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2015.09.026 content_type: article copyright: Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Greening Community Colleges: An Environmental Path to Improving Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kimberly R.; Pleasants, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The emerging and expanding green economy has the potential to create not just jobs, but career opportunities across the United States as green manufacturing, green products, and green services fuel demand for workers at all skill levels. Community colleges are leading the way in defining and addressing these opportunities. They are: developing…

  14. Performance Analysis of Solar Combined Ejector-Vapor Compression Cycle Using Environmental Friendly Refrigerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kasaeian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new model of a solar combined ejector-vapor compression refrigeration system has been considered. The system is equipped with an internal heat exchanger to enhance the performance of the cycle. The effects of working fluid and operating conditions on the system performance including COP, entrainment ratio (ω, compression ratio (rp and exergy efficiency were investigated. Some working fluids suggested are: R114, R141b, R123, R245fa, R600a, R365mfc, R1234ze(e and R1234ze(z. The results show that R114 and R1234ze(e yield the highest COP and exergy efficiency followed by R123, R245fa, R365mfc, R141b, R152a and R600a. It is noticed that the COP value of the new solar ejector-vapor compression refrigeration cycle is higher than that of the conventional ejector cycle with R1234ze(e for all operating conditions. This paper also demonstrates that R1234ze(e will be a suitable refrigerant in the solar combined ejector-vapor compression refrigeration system, due to its environmental friendly properties and better performance. ABSTRAK: Kajian ini menganalisa model baru sistem penyejukan mampatan gabungan ejektor-wap solar.Sistem ini dilengkapi dengan penukar haba dalaman untuk meningkatkan prestasi kitaran.Kesan bendalir bekerja dan keadaan operasi pada prestasi sistem termasuk COP, nisbah pemerangkapan (ω, nisbah mampatan (rp dan kecekapan eksergi telah disiasat.Beberapa bendalir bekerja yang dicadangkan adalah: R114, R141b, R123, R245fa, R600a, R365mfc, R1234ze(e dan R1234ze(z.Hasil kajian menunjukkan R114 dan R1234ze(e menghasilkan COP dan kecekapan eksergi tertinggi diikuti oleh R123, R245fa, R365mfc, R141b, R152a dan R600a.Didapati nilai COP kitaran penyejukan mampatan bagi ejektor-wap solar baru adalah lebih tinggi daripada kitaran ejektor konvensional dengan R1234ze(e bagi semua keadaan operasi.Kertas kerja ini juga menunjukkan bahawa R1234ze(e boleh menjadi penyejuk yang sesuai dalam sistem penyejukan mampatan gabungan ejektor

  15. An easy and environmentally-friendly approach to superamphiphobicity of aluminum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Hu, Y.M., E-mail: yongmaohu@163.com [College of Engineering, Dali University, Dali 671003 (China); Wang, L.; Li, Zh.H.; Shen, T. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhu, Y., E-mail: zhuyan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Xiang, J.Zh., E-mail: jzhxiang@ynu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an approach of chemical etching and low surface energy material modification. • The process of chemical etching and hot water bathing were optimized to obtain desirable hierarchical micro/nanoscale structures. • The surface morphology, chemistry and wetting properties of the as-prepared aluminum surfaces were characterized and discussed. • The mechanical robustness and chemical stability of the as-prepared superamphiphobic Al surfaces were tested and evaluated. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an easy and environmentally-friendly approach. Aqueous mixed solution of 0.7 M CuSO{sub 4} and 1 M NaCl was used to etch polished Al surfaces to fabricate a rough morphology distributed with microscale step-like pits. The uniformly distributed nanoscale petals covered on the microscale pits were obtained by subsequent 96 °C hot deionized water bathing for 13 min. Thus, the hierarchical micro/nanometer scale roughness was formed which provided the structural basic of superamphiphobic Al surfaces. By 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyl-triethoxysilane (PFDTS) derivatization, desirable superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved with the highest static contact angles of 162° for water, 156° for peanut oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the sliding angles were lower than 10° for both water and peanut oil droplets. The as-prepared Al surfaces were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical contact angle measurements. The FE-SEM images of as-prepared Al surfaces showed a hierarchical micro/nanometer scale morphology. XPS analyses demonstrated the PFDTS derivitization on Al surfaces. The superamphiphobic Al surfaces presented good mechanical durability and chemical stability which have a wide range of applications in fields such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti

  16. 75 FR 4362 - Green Island Power Authority; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...) a 34.5-kilovolt (kV) underground transmission cable; and (6) appurtenant facilities. Green Island... Energy Regulatory Commission Green Island Power Authority; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental... License. b. Project No.: 13-023. c. Date Filed: March 2, 2009. d. Applicant: Green Island Power Authority...

  17. Development and Substantiation of Parameters of Environmentally Friendly Technology for Filling the Vertical Mine Workings with Autoclaved Slag-Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglyanitca, Andrey; Solonin, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The environmentally friendly technology for filling the vertical mine workings with autoclaved slag-concrete, prefabricated on the surface of the mine is presented in the article; the optimal parameters of filling technology are proposed. The developed technology for filling the abandoned vertical mine workings allows ensuring the environmental safety of the territories adjacent to the abandoned mine, utilizing slag dumps and providing the possibility of shaft recovery, if necessary, with minimal labor and material costs.

  18. Development of advanced treatment technologies of radio-aqueous waste by an environmental friendly decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Wook; Lee, E. H.; Moon, J. K. and others

    2006-01-15

    This project was aimed at the technology developments of electrode fabrication, electrolytic reactor design and fabrication, electrolytic processes and the analyses of electroytic reaction mechanisms, which were essential elements for the development of electrolytic systems to decompose or teat environmentally- friendly the several salts contained in waste solutions which are to be generated in the fields of nuclear/non-nuclear industries. Major research items carried our in this project were as follows; - Development of technologies to choose and fabricate the anodes and cathodes for the treatments of waste solutions containing nitrogen compounds and organics. - Development of a membrane electrolyzer stacked by mono-polar unit cells with independent series flow path of electrolytes - Development of an electrolyzer with a self-pH adjustment and an electrolytic process for ammonia decomposition by using the electrolyzer - Analysis of electrolytic reaction mechanism of ammonia - Development of an ion exchange membrane electrolyzer with only one discharge of pH-controlled electrolyte solution - Development of electrolytic dechlorination technology for the treatment of chloride molten salt waste salt from pyroprocess. - Development of technologies for treatment of high concentration nitric acid and recovery of waste organic solvent.

  19. Novel environmentally friendly synthesis of superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles using mechanochemical effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiro, E-mail: iwasaki@chemeng.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kosaka, Kazunori; Watano, Satoru [Department of Chemical Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Yanagida, Takeshi; Kawai, Tomoji [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    A novel method for synthesizing superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles in water system via coprecipitation under an environmentally friendly condition has been developed. In this method, an almost neutral suspension containing ferrous hydroxide and goethite is used as the starting suspension and subjected to a ball-milling treatment. The product was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The mechanochemical effect generated by the ball-milling treatment promoted the reaction between ferrous hydroxide and goethite even at room temperature, resulting in the formation of homogeneous magnetite nanoparticles. Simultaneously, it also contributed to crystallize the formed magnetite nanoparticles while inhibiting the particle growth. This resulted in the formation of ultrafine magnetite nanoparticles of about 10 nm having a single crystal structure. This method could provide ferromagnetic magnetite nanoparticles with superparamagnetism under the moderate condition without neither heating nor any additives such as surfactant and organic solvent.

  20. NASA's Beachside Corrosion Test Site and Current Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Control Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.; Calle, Luz Marina; Johnston, Frederick; Montgomery, Eliza L.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    NASA began corrosion studies at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term corrosion protective coatings for carbon steel. KSC's Beachside Corrosion Test Site (BCTS), which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring, environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acid ic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous studies have identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosive environment at the launch pad. This paper presents a historical overview of over 45 years of corrosion and coating evaluation studies and a description of the BCTS's current capabilities. Additionally, current research and testing programs involving chromium free coatings, environmentally friendly corrosion preventative compounds, and alternates to nitric acid passivation will be discussed.

  1. Clean and Selective Catalytic C-H alkylation of Alkenes with Environmental friendly Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2016-09-14

    Bearing the alkylation of alkene substrates using alcohol as solvent, catalysed by the cationic Ru-based catalyst [(C6H6)(PCy3)(CO)RuH]+, DFT calculations have been carried out to get mechanistic insights of such an environmental friendly reaction. Hard experimental conditions of Yi and coworkers [Science2011, 333, 1613] allow the formation of a C-C bond between indene and ethanol. The predicted mechanism suggests a cationic Ru-alkenyl species once two equivalents of indene interact releasing a molecule of indane subproduct. Then, oxidative addition of the Csingle bondO bond of alcohol to Ru-alkenyl species leads to Ru-alkenyl-alkyl species, followed by the reductive elimination process produces the desired alkylation product and a Ru-hydroxo complex. Finally, vinylic Csingle bondH activation and water elimination regenerates the Ru-alkenyl species. In this paper we present a full description of the complete reaction pathway along with possible alternative pathways, which are predicted to display higher upper barriers. Furthermore, the present study explains the possible reasons for the absence of undesired products such as indene dimer or hydroxylated indene in the experiments.

  2. Environmentally friendly surface modification of silk fiber: Chitosan grafting and dyeing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davarpanah, Saideh [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Colorants, Paint and Coatings, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir; Arami, Mokhtar [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: arami@aut.ac.ir; Bahrami, Hajir; Mazaheri, Firoozmehr [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez St., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    In this paper, the surface modification of silk fiber using anhydrides to graft the polysaccharide chitosan and dyeing ability of the grafted silk were studied. Silk fiber was degummed and acylated with two anhydrides, succinic anhydride (SA) and phthalic anhydride (PA), in different solvents (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF)). The effects of anhydrides, solvents, anhydride concentration, liquor ratio (L:R) and reaction time on acylation of silk were studied. The polysaccharide chitosan was grafted to the acylated silk fiber and dyed by acid dye (Acid Black NB.B). The effects of pH, chitosan concentration, and reaction time on chitosan grafting of acylated silk were investigated. The physical properties show sensible changes regardless of weight gain. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed the presence of foreign materials firmly attached to the surface of silk. FTIR spectroscopy provided evidence that chitosan was grafted onto the acylated silk through the formation of new covalent bonds. The dyeing of the chitosan grafted-acylated silk fiber indicated the higher dye ability in comparison to the acylated and degummed silk samples. The mechanism of chitosan grafting over degummed silk through anhydride linkage was proposed. The findings of this research support the potential production of new environmentally friendly textile fibers. It is worthwhile to mention that the grafted samples have antibacterial potential due to the antibacterial property of chitosan molecules.

  3. An environmentally friendly technology for the carbonisation of low ranked coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtgen, G.; Weigandt, J.; Heil, J.; Thoste, V. [Aachen University of Technology, Aachen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Between 1997 and 2001 the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources in connection with the Coking Group of the Aachen University of Technology developed a environmentally friendly process for the carbonisation of low ranked coals and biomass. The main tasks of finished investigations have been, to produce an economically competitive carbonisate to substitute wood and charcoal on local markets and to protect local forests. So far the project covered examinations on the behaviour of the pyrolysis of brown coals and biomass in a shaft reactor at Kuching, Malaysia, and a pilot rotary kiln reactor at Aachen. During test runs burning and briquetting tests were carried out with selected coals and biomass from Brazil, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Phillipines. Also some coals from near east countries have been tested. To ensure thermally autarkic operation, the appropriate moisture and ash contents of the feed material were determined and a temperature based controlling system has been developed. Finally all tested materials allowed the production of a smokeless carbonisate under thermically autarkic operation. After finishing the test with a shaft reactor (feed up to 100 kg/h) the building of a rotary kiln pilot plant (feed 300 kg/h) as preproduction phase for commercial use (feed 3 - 5 t/h) is scheduled in 2002. First economic calculations on a rotary kiln operation demonstrated, that the carbonisate is competitive with local fuels such as kerosene, petroleum and gas. Additionally some carbonisates fit the quality standards for direct activation. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. PAN-Immobilized PVC-NPOE Membrane for Environmentally Friendly Sensing of Cd(II Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moersilah Moersilah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, cheap and environmentally friendly analytical method of Cd(II in the aqueous system has been developed by immobilization of 1-(2-pyridilazo-2-naphtol (PAN in poly vinyl chloride (PVC matrix and nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE as a plasticizer. Upon contact with Cd(II in solution, the color of sensor membrane changes from dark yellow to dark red, which is due to the formation of Cd(II–PAN complex. The best sensing results were obtained at pH 8.0 and λmax 558 nm. The dimension of the proposed sensor membrane was 0.8 cm x 2 cm with a thickness of 0.05 mm, the volume of sample was 2 mL with the Cd(II concentration range of  0 – 1.2 ppm. The limit of detection of the method was found to be 0.432 + 0.104 ppm, which was reversible. The proposed methods have been applied in the determination of Cd(II in water samples after addition of internal standard.

  5. Dispersion stability and thermophysical properties of environmentally friendly graphite oil–based nanofluids used in machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As environmentally friendly cutting fluids, vegetable-based oil and ester oil are being more and more widely used in metal cutting industry. However, their cooling and lubricating properties are required to be further improved in order to meet more cooling and lubricating challenges in high-efficiency machining. Nanofluids with enhanced heat carrying and lubricating capabilities seem to give a promising solution. In this article, graphite oil–based nanofluids with LB2000 vegetable-based oil and PriEco6000 unsaturated polyol ester as base fluids were prepared by ultrasonically assisted two-step method, and their dispersion stability and thermophysical properties such as viscosity and thermal conductivity were experimentally and theoretically investigated at different ultrasonication times. The results indicate that graphite-PriEco6000 nanofluid showed better dispersion stability, higher viscosity, and thermal conductivity than graphite-LB2000 nanofluid, which made it more suitable for application in high-efficiency machining as coolant and lubricant. The theoretical classical models showed good agreement with the thermal conductivity values of graphite oil–based nanofluids measured experimentally. However, the deviation between the experimental values of viscosity and the theoretical models was relatively big. New empirical correlations were proposed for predicting the viscosity of graphite oil–based nanofluids at various ultrasonication times.

  6. Optimization Properties of Environmentally Friendly Paper Coating Based Starch-Polyethylene glycol (PEG) Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galih Saputri, Diani; Khairuddin; Dwi Nurhayati, Nanik; Pham, Trinh

    2017-11-01

    The use of starch as biodegradable base material for packaging application was of great interest as an environmentally friendly alternative to the present use of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. However, starch tended to be brittle and had a lack of stability due to exposure to water. Several aproaches have been done to improve shellac properties including through chemical modification, mixing with polymers, clays, and plasticizers. The present study related to optimization of starch properties when mixing with polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated on the paper. The aim was to obtain the temperature and mixing time between starch and PEG so produced composites with optimal barrier properties. The composites of PEG/starch 10 % w/w were prepared using solvent casting and coated on paper surface, and dried in the oven for 12 hours at 40°C. Water Vapour Transmitter Rate (WVTR) (Payne cup method) showed that 70°C was the optimum temperature when mixing time was 30 minutes. Moreover, it showed that the optimum mixing time was 30 minutes when mixing temperature was 80 and 70 °C. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) showed a strong interaction between PEG400 and starch.

  7. An environmentally-friendly fluorescent method for quantification of lipid contents in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Jandora Severo; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Valente, Patricia; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at developing an efficient, fast and environmentally-friendly method to quantify neutral lipid contents in yeast. After optimising the fluorescence instrument parameters and influence of organic solvent concentrations, a new method to quantify neutral lipids in yeast based on fluorescence was demonstrated. Isopropanol and Nile red in concentrations of 5% (final volume%) and 500 μg/L, respectively, were added to washed cells suspended in potassium chloride phosphate buffered saline (PBSKCl). Fluorescence was measured after 10 min in the dark. Glyceryltrioleate was used as model lipid and the calibration curve showed linearity (R(2)=0.994) between 0.50 and 25 mg/L. Compared with traditional gravimetric analysis, the developed method is much faster and uses less organic solvents. Lipid contents determined by fluorescence and gravimetry were the same for some strains, but for other strains the lipid contents determined by fluorescence were less. This new method will therefore be suitable for fast screening purposes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmentally Friendly Recycling of Fuel-Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies by Using Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balva, Maxime; Legeai, Sophie; Leclerc, Nathalie; Billy, Emmanuel; Meux, Eric

    2017-07-21

    The platinum nanoparticles used as the catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) represent approximately 46 % of the total price of the cells for a large-scale production, and this is one of the barriers to their commercialization. Therefore, the recycling of the platinum catalyst could be the best alternative to limit the production costs of PEMFCs. The usual recovery routes for spent catalysts containing platinum are pyro-hydrometallurgical processes in which a calcination step is followed by aqua regia treatment, and these processes generate fumes and NOx emissions, respectively. The electrochemical recovery route proposed here is more environmentally friendly, performed under "soft" temperature conditions, and does not result in any gas emissions. It consists of the coupling of the electrochemical leaching of platinum in chloride-based ionic liquids (ILs), followed by its electrodeposition. The leaching of platinum was studied in pure ILs and in ionic-liquid melts at different temperatures and with different chloride contents. Through the modulation of the composition of the ionic-liquid melts, it is possible to leach and electrodeposit the platinum from fuel-cell electrodes in a single-cell process under an inert or ambient atmosphere. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Green Logistics Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  10. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller. Data and materials; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances, and data and materials on them were compiled into this volume. It covers the specifications (Versions 0.6 and 0.51) of a newly developed two-way controller protocol, the specification (Version 0.1) of two-way remote control IrDA-C communication unit hardware, an infrared communication protocol IrDa Control, and the like. It also accommodates information collected through surveys of technological trends as reflected in technical literature, Internet home pages, catalogs, and the like, concerning the user-friendliness of electrical home appliances, remote control, domestic consumption of electric power, and the like. Also covered is the result of surveys of patents involving environmentally friendly UC related technologies, namely, Japanese patents (from applications made in 1979 through disclosures made in 1998) and U.S. patents (registrations made in 1982 and thereafter). Furthermore, it contains the result of surveys of actualities of domestic use conducted for the purpose of clarifying the effect of environmentally friendly UC introduction, how such UCs are being accepted by the public, and the conditions that should be satisfied for their popularization. (NEDO)

  11. The effects of greening the supplier and innovation on environmental performance and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unine van den Berg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies in South Africa should realise the important influence of greening their suppliers and of innovation to achieve environmental goals and competitive advantages. In order to prove this, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 75 companies from 11 industries in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality region, South Africa. A confirmatory factor analysis was done, followed by bivariate correlations to determine the strength of association between the latent constructs. Correlations between greening the supplier, innovation, environmental performance and competitive advantages were done. The research found that a green innovative process had a significant effect on environmental performance. Green managerial innovation further had a significant correlation with competitive advantage. The primary result of the study indicated that all the constructs positively related to each other, meaning that greening suppliers, by means of green innovation, leads to an enhanced environmental performance and to competitive advantages.

  12. The Mediterranean diet, an environmentally friendly option: evidence from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ujué; Martínez-Gonzalez, Miguel-Angel; Sabaté, Joan; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2018-01-30

    How food is produced and consumed has consequences for ecosystems, such as resource use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission among others. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was proposed as a sustainable dietary model, due to its nutritional, environmental, economic and sociocultural dimensions. However, further evidence is needed. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the impact on resource (land, water and energy) use and GHG emission of better adherence to the MedDiet in a Mediterranean Spanish cohort. We analysed the dietary pattern of participants through a validated FFQ. The outcomes were land use, water and energy consumption and GHG emission according to MedDiet adherence. The specific environmental footprints of food item production and processing were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Spanish university graduates. Participants (n 20 363) in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort. Better adherence to the MedDiet was associated with lower land use (-0·71 (95 % CI -0·76, -0·66) m2/d), water consumption (-58·88 (95 % CI -90·12, -27·64) litres/d), energy consumption (-0·86 (95 % CI -1·01, -0·70) MJ/d) and GHG emission (-0·73 (95 % CI -0·78, -0·69) kg CO2e/d). A statistically significant linear trend (P<0·05) was observed in all these analyses. In this Mediterranean cohort, better adherence to the MedDiet was an eco-friendly option according to resource consumption and GHG emission.

  13. Decision-Making Tool for Cost-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Wood Mobilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Triplat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: With development of forest management technologies, the efficiency of wood production was significantly improved, and thus the impact on forests has changed as well. The article presents a practical decision-making tool for selection of most suitable harvesting system, considering given terrain as well as expected soil conditions on harvesting sites. The decision-making tool should support cost-efficient and environmentally friendly mobilisation of wood. Materials and Methods: The presented decision-making tool is based on ground bearing capacities (relevant environmental parameter and nominal ground pressure (harvesting system characteristics. Soil and terrain (slope characteristics were taken into account for selection of the most suitable harvesting system. Three-step methodological approach was suggested, where soil and terrain conditions were defined in first step, while harvesting system were described using wood process charts (“functiogramms” in second step. In final step ecological and technological requirements were matched. Results: To exemplify the three-step methodology, a decision-making tool was prepared for the three selected harvesting systems. The proposed harvesting systems differ in technological, ecological and economic aspects, but each is limited by at least one of the aspect. Conclusions: The decision-making tool in combination with the presented wood process charts (“functiogramms” can simplify and facilitate forest production planning, although it can also be used in case of unforeseen event e.g. changing of soil moisture, machinery failure and insufficient current capacities. Considering the envisaged quantities and types of forest wooden assortments, it is possible to use the decision-making tool for a basic selection of most appropriate harvesting systems. The main idea behind the suggested three step methodological approach is that forest workers can prepare individual decision

  14. Environmentally friendly recycling of hexal in medium caliber ammunition in industrial scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogle, R.; Rys, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Chemische Verfahrenstechnik; Rochat, E. [Oerlikon Contraves Pyrotec AG, Zuerich (Switzerland). Chemical Dept.

    2000-06-01

    The major task in the recycling of Hexal used in air defense ammunition is the secure, environmentally friendly and cost-saving removal of the Hexal from the case. For this purpose a production plant was constructed, by which the Hexal can be extracted in one minute from four 35 mm grenades by means of drilling and application of high pressure water. The water treatment turned out to be the key step of this process. Increasingly severe environmental regulations force the industry to clean and reuse the water in the process. The diversity of the cleaning methods available is strongly limited by the explosive as material to be separated, by the broad particle size distribution, the high water throughput and the high purity request of the high-pressure pump. The implemented separation process consists of a sedimentation and a filter part. This offers the advantage that there are no moving parts in the system and therefore the maintenance is relatively simple. (orig.) [German] Beim Recycling von hexalhaltiger Flugabwehrmunition besteht die Hauptaufgabe darin, das Hexal sicher, umweltgerecht und kostensparend aus den Granatkoerpern zu entfernen. Zu diesem Zweck wurde eine Trennanlage erstellt, die in einer Minute das Hexal aus vier 35 mm-Granaten mittels Bohren und dem Einsatz von Hochdruckwasser herausloest. In diesem Zusammenhang hat sich gezeigt, dass der Wasseraufbereitung eine zentrale Bedeutung zukommt. Verschaerfte Umweltauflagen zwingen die Betreiber das verwendete Wasser zu reinigen und wieder im Prozess zu verwenden. Die Vielfalt der verfuegbaren Reinigungsverfahren wird allerdings stark eingeschraenkt durch den Explosivstoff als abzutrennendes Material, die breite Korngroessenverteilung, den hohen Wasserdurchsatz und die hohe Reinheitsforderung der Hochdruckpumpe. Das schlussendlich realisierte Trennverfahren besteht aus einem Sedimentations- und einem Filterteil. Es bietet den Vorteil, dass im System keine beweglichen Teile vorhanden sind und sich die

  15. Current and emerging environmentally-friendly systems for fouling control in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittens, Jeanette E; Smith, Thomas J; Suleiman, Rami; Akid, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Following the ban in 2003 on the use of tributyl-tin compounds in antifouling coatings, the search for an environmentally-friendly alternative has accelerated. Biocidal TBT alternatives, such as diuron and Irgarol 1051®, have proved to be environmentally damaging to marine organisms. The issue regarding the use of biocides is that concerning the half-life of the compounds which allow a perpetuation of the toxic effects into the marine food chain, and initiate changes in the early stages of the organisms' life-cycle. In addition, the break-down of biocides can result in metabolites with greater toxicity and longevity than the parent compound. Functionalized coatings have been designed to repel the settlement and permanent attachment of fouling organisms via modification of either or both surface topography and surface chemistry, or by interfering with the natural mechanisms via which fouling organisms settle upon and adhere to surfaces. A large number of technologies are being developed towards producing new coatings that will be able to resist biofouling over a period of years and thus truly replace biocides as antifouling systems. In addition urgent research is directed towards the exploitation of mechanisms used by living organisms designed to repel the settlement of fouling organisms. These biomimetic strategies include the production of antifouling enzymes and novel surface topography that are incompatible with permanent attachment, for example, by mimicking the microstructure of shark skin. Other research seeks to exploit chemical signals and antimicrobial agents produced by diverse living organisms in the environment to prevent settlement and growth of fouling organisms on vulnerable surfaces. Novel polymer-based technologies may prevent fouling by means of unfavourable surface chemical and physical properties or by concentrating antifouling compounds around surfaces. © 2013.

  16. Environmentally Friendly Method: Development and Application to Carbon Aerogel as Sorbent for Solid-Phase Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheying; Huang, Guiqi; Su, Meiling; Huang, Tinglin

    2015-10-14

    We developed two simple, fast, and environmentally friendly methods using carbon aerogel (CA) and magnetic CA (mCA) materials as sorbents for micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) and magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) techniques. The material performances such as adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, and specific surface area were discussed by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements, ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The experimental results proved that the heterogeneities of CA and mCA were well modeled with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the sorption process well followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Moreover, plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as kinetin (6-KT), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and uniconazole (UN) in a reservoir raw water sample were selected as the evaluation of applicability for the proposed μ-SPE and MSPE techniques using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental conditions of two methods such as the amount of sorbent, extraction time, pH, salt concentration, and desorption conditions were studied. Under the optimized conditions, two extraction methods provided high recoveries (89-103%), low the limits of detection (LODs) (0.01-0.2 μg L(-1)), and satisfactory analytical features in terms of precision (relative standard deviation, RSD, 1.7-5.1%, n=3). This work demonstrates the feasibility and the potential of CA and mCA materials as sorbents for μ-SPE and MSPE techniques. Besides, it also could serve as a basis for future development of other functional CAs in pretreatment technology and make them valuable for analysis of pollutants in environmental applications.

  17. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies and Green Innovation: The Role of Internal Environmental Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Kong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Green innovation has been deemed a key corporate capability to deal with environmental issues. The usage of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMT provides important resources and knowledge for firms’ green innovation. Drawing on a resources-based approach, this study contributes to the existing literature by examining how the adoption of specific types of AMT (process, design, and planning influences two dimensions of green innovation (green product innovation and green process innovation. In particular, we explore these relationships through internal environmental collaboration. Based on data collected from 198 Chinese manufacturing firms, we found that process, design, and planning AMT can contribute to both green products and process innovation. Moreover, the findings confirm the significant mediating role of internal environmental collaboration in this relationship. Specifically, internal environmental collaboration mediates the relationship between process AMT and green product innovation as well as the relationship between design AMT and two dimensions of green innovation; it also partially mediates the relationship between process AMT and green process innovation as well as the relationship between planning AMT and two dimensions of green innovation. These findings provide novel insights into how manufacturing firms can use various types of AMT to enhance their green innovation.

  18. Genetic and environmental influences on alcohol use problems: moderation by romantic partner support, but not family or friend support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnecke, Amber M; South, Susan C

    2014-02-01

    High levels of various forms of social support (e.g., romantic partner, family, friend) have a buffering effect on alcohol use outcomes in both adolescents and adults. The etiological associations among these variables have not been well studied. One possibility is that social support may buffer against inherited genetic predispositions to alcohol problems. Previous work has examined gene-environment interactions (G×E) for alcohol use disorders, but never for social support in adult twins. In the current study, biometric modeling techniques were implemented to examine genetic and environmental components of variance of social support and alcohol use problems in a sample of 672 adult twin pairs. Using biometric moderation models that estimate G×E in the presence of gene-environment correlation (rGE), analyses examined how genetic and environmental influences on alcohol use problems varied as a function of romantic partner support, family support, and friend support. Genetic and environmental components of variance for alcohol use problems varied depending on the level of romantic partner support, with greater environmental influences found at the low level of support. Family and friend support, however, failed to show moderating effects. The current research has implications for expanding our understanding of what types of social support may trigger or suppress genetic and environmental influences on alcohol use problems. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. The Study of Environmental Crisis and Local Distribution of Green Space in Tehran City

    OpenAIRE

    K. zayyari; L. Vahedian Beiky; Z. Parnoon

    2012-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionUncontrolled development of large cities due to the increase in population and migration has led to a massive environmental destruction and pollution, and the latter has destroyed green spaces within the city and changed the land use. Therefore, the need for green space and connection with nature has an important role in human life. The best way to reduce the destructive effects of environmental hazards is the development of green space. Due to its wide range of...

  20. 78 FR 39057 - Environmental Impact Statement: T.F. Green Airport, Warwick, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Environmental Impact Statement: T.F. Green Airport, Warwick, Rhode Island... Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared for Theodore Francis Green Airport in Warwick, Rhode Island..., Rhode Island. The Re-Evaluation and ROD is available for review during normal business hours at the...

  1. Environmental performance of green building code and certification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sangwon; Tomar, Shivira; Leighton, Matthew; Kneifel, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential life-cycle environmental impact reduction of three green building code and certification (GBCC) systems: LEED, ASHRAE 189.1, and IgCC. A recently completed whole-building life cycle assessment (LCA) database of NIST was applied to a prototype building model specification by NREL. TRACI 2.0 of EPA was used for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The results showed that the baseline building model generates about 18 thousand metric tons CO2-equiv. of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and consumes 6 terajoule (TJ) of primary energy and 328 million liter of water over its life-cycle. Overall, GBCC-compliant building models generated 0% to 25% less environmental impacts than the baseline case (average 14% reduction). The largest reductions were associated with acidification (25%), human health-respiratory (24%), and global warming (GW) (22%), while no reductions were observed for ozone layer depletion (OD) and land use (LU). The performances of the three GBCC-compliant building models measured in life-cycle impact reduction were comparable. A sensitivity analysis showed that the comparative results were reasonably robust, although some results were relatively sensitive to the behavioral parameters, including employee transportation and purchased electricity during the occupancy phase (average sensitivity coefficients 0.26-0.29).

  2. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Yazhao [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Xiaoming, E-mail: liuxm@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Cementitious material was designed according to [SiO{sub 4}] polymerization degree of raw materials. • The cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag yields excellent physical and mechanical properties. • Amorphous C–A–S–H gel and rod-like ettringite are predominantly responsible for the strength development. • Leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests show the cementitious material is environmentally acceptable. - Abstract: Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C–A–S–H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH){sub 2} with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}·4H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}·H{sub 2}O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C–A–S–H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  3. NanoCrystalline Cellulose, an environmental friendly nanoparticle for pharmaceutical application – A quick study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yee Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC is probably the most abundant nano material can be found in nature. It offers not only substantial environmental advantage due to its intrinsic biocompatibility and biodegradability, but also outstanding aspect ratio, tension modulus, bioavailability and permeability. NCC can be isolated from low value biomass through a well-developed acid hydrolysis method, and the structure can be readily manipulated during extraction to obtain desirable size distribution, surface charge and degree of crystallinity. Erratic absorption of drug has been a major issue for years until the emergence of nanoparticle adopted as smart vehicle for drug delivery. However, due to inevitably severe toxicity and the side effect from ordinary nanoparticle, the exploration of green nanoparticles are catching escalating attention is now in urge. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC has long been an option, nevertheless, due to their relatively low surface charge compared to total volume, drug release in a control manner was hardly satisfied. It is suggested that the above limitation can be overcome by nanocrystalline cellulose. This article discusses and explores their potential in cosmetic, personal care and pharmaceutical application, and the recent development in term of preparation and characteristic.

  4. ADN – The new oxidizer around the corner for an environmentally friendly smokeless propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Y. Nagamachi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for a smokeless propellant has encouraged scientists and engineers to look for a chlorine-free oxidizer as a substitute for AP (ammonium perchlorate. Endeavors seemed to come to an end when ADN (ammonium dinitramide appeared in the West in the early 1990s. Although some drawbacks soon became apparent by that time, the foremost obstacle for its use in rocket-motors came from the patent originally applied for in the United States in 1990. Furthermore, environmental concerns have also increased during these two decades. Ammonium perchlorate is believed to cause thyroid cancer by contaminating soil and water. In addition, AP produces hydrogen chloride during burning which can cause acid rain and ozone layer depletion. Unlike AP, ADN stands for both smokeless and green propellant. Since then, much progress has been made in its development in synthesis, re-shaping, microencapsulation and solid propellant. The high solubility of ADN in water has also allowed its application as liquid monopropellant. Tests have revealed Isp (specific impulse superior to that normally observed with hydrazine, one of the most harmful and hazardous liquid propellants. With constraints of use, along with the patent near to expiry, scientists and engineers are rushing to complete developments and patents until then.

  5. A Lithium-Ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Prepared using an Environmentally Friendly Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Franziska; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-06-08

    A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. An environmentally friendly ball milling process for recovery of valuable metals from e-waste scraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Yao, TianQi

    2017-10-01

    The present study reports a mechanochemical (MC) process for effective recovery of copper (Cu) and precious metals (i.e. Pd and Ag) from e-waste scraps. Results indicated that the mixture of K 2 S 2 O 8 and NaCl (abbreviated as K 2 S 2 O 8 /NaCl hereafter) was the most effective co-milling reagents in terms of high recovery rate. After co-milling with K 2 S 2 O 8 /NaCl, soluble metallic compounds were produced and consequently benefit the subsequent leaching process. 99.9% of Cu and 95.5% of Pd in the e-waste particles could be recovered in 0.5mol/L diluted HCl in 15min. Ag was concentrated in the leaching residue as AgCl and then recovered in 1mol/L NH 3 solution. XRD and XPS analysis indicated that elemental metals in the raw materials were transformed into their corresponding oxidation state during ball milling process at low temperature, implying that solid-solid phase reactions is the reaction mechanism. Based on the results and thermodynamic parameters of the probable reactions, possible reaction pathways during ball milling were proposed. Suggestion on category of e-waste for ball milling process was put forward according to the experiment results. The designed metal recovery process of this study has the advantages of highly recovery rate and quick leaching speed. Thus, this study offers a promising and environmentally friendly method for recovering valuable metals from e-waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental Perceptions and Health before and after Relocation to a Green Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Spengler, John; Vallarino, Jose; Santanam, Suresh; Satish, Usha; Allen, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Green buildings are designed to have low environmental impacts and improved occupant health and well-being. Improvements to the built environment including ventilation, lighting, and materials have resulted in improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in green buildings, but the evidence around occupant health is currently centered around environmental perceptions and self-reported health. To investigate the objective impact of green buildings on health, we tracked IEQ, self-reported health, and heart rate in 30 participants from green and conventional buildings for two weeks. 24 participants were then selected to be relocated to the Syracuse Center of Excellence, a LEED platinum building, for six workdays. While they were there, ventilation, CO2, and volatile organic compound (VOC) levels were changed on different days to match the IEQ of conventional, green, and green+ (green with increased ventilation) buildings. Participants reported improved air quality, odors, thermal comfort, ergonomics, noise and lighting and fewer health symptoms in green buildings prior to relocation. After relocation, participants consistently reported fewer symptoms during the green building conditions compared to the conventional one, yet symptom counts were more closely associated with environmental perceptions than with measured IEQ. On average, participants had 4.7 times the odds of reporting a lack of air movement, 1.4 more symptoms (p-value = 0.019) and a 2 bpm higher heart rate (p-value buildings is driven by both environmental perceptions and physiological pathways.

  8. Green Tourism Marketing Model1

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Green Tourism Marketing Model research as efforts to develop environmentally friendly tourism destination, the synergy of government, business and community participation become the driving force of tourism product development with highly competitive. In the long term, this research aims to provide the marketing concept of green tourism as economic development efforts and strengthen the environment (eco-growth) through the development of green tourism marketing models. The ...

  9. 77 FR 17472 - Putnam Green Power, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Putnam Green Power, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory... Environmental Assessment (EA). In the EA, Commission staff analyzes the potential environmental effects of the...

  10. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology....... The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism...

  11. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of ‘green corridors’ as a means to develop integrated, efficient and environmentally friendly transportation of freight between major hubs and by relative long distances. The basis of this material is work conducted in the context of the EU...... SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  12. Going green? The relative importance of feelings over calculation in driving environmental intent in the Netherlands and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary environmental campaigns often communicate the benefits of acting environmentally-friendly, assuming that larger benefits will translate into stronger intentions to act environmentally-friendly – a mechanism known as “valuation by calculation”. As such, these campaigns have neglected the

  13. Development of a Green Roof Environmental Monitoring and Meteorological Network in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Rosenzweig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs (with plant cover are gaining attention in the United States as a versatile new environmental mitigation technology. Interest in data on the environmental performance of these systems is growing, particularly with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater runoff control. We are deploying research stations on a diverse array of green roofs within the New York City area, affording a new opportunity to monitor urban environmental conditions at small scales. We show some green roof systems being monitored, describe the sensor selection employed to study energy balance, and show samples of selected data. These roofs should be superior to other urban rooftops as sites for meteorological stations.

  14. Adaptive technology of environmentally - friendly production of legumes in the dry steppe zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Popov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern agronomic technologies must include environmentally- friendly technologies in crop growing. In Kazakhstan, despite its significant potential, environmentallyfriendly farming is underdeveloped with little scientific backing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop and suggest an adaptive technology for cultivation of legumes taking into account existing methodologies for environmentallyfriendly production in the dry steppe zone of Akmola region, Northern Kazakhstan. In order to achieve the objectives, the study focused on determination of a complex impact of combination of agroecological conditions (incl. agro- climatic, content of selected heavy metals such as Cu and Zn in soil, weed pressure, etc., contrasting soil cultivation technology (i.e. traditional vs zero- tillage, nutrient inputs (fertilizers, legume stimulators and pesticides on growth and productivity of selected legume crops (peas and chickpeas. The overall agroecological and growing conditions were suitable for producing economically- important legume crops (i.e. pea and chickpea, despite the temperature fluctiations and soil moisture shortage. Despite the very low content of N and P in the upper soil layer, the Cu and Zn content was within the Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL for Kazakhstan, with a low anticipated negative effect on target legume growth. The least number of weeds was recorded by the variant with application of biological preparation Respecta. The targeted legumes were better developed during the growing season under the traditional technology compared to zero- tillage technology, i.e. germination and seed viability, which might be attributed to better utilisation of soil air and improved soil porosity of the soil layer of 0- 20 cm when using traditional technology. Combinations of mineral fertilizer CaSO4 + 2H2O5 with the innoculation promoter Rizotorfin, and Izagry Phosphorus with Rizotorfin may be recommended to farmers. The application of

  15. 1 Relevance of Green Marketing on Environmental Degradation: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This value may be improved performance, function, design, visual appeal, or taste. Green marketing should take all these facts into consideration while charging a premium price. • Place: A distribution logistics is of crucial importance; main focus is on ecological packaging. Green products should be marketed to local as.

  16. The Green Studio Handbook: Environmental Strategies for Schematic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison G. Kwok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In design studio projects we often see schemes with inspired, yet unvalidated, gestural sketches related to wishful green strategies. Yellow and blue magic arrows represent hypotheses about the behavior of daylight and/or air flow in and about buildings. This paper provides an overview of The Green Studio Handbook, recently published as a resource for designers seeking clear guidelines for integrating green design strategies into the conceptual and schematic phases of design. The book contains a discussion of the integration of green strategies and how building form, orientation, and spatial layout are critical to the proper performance of certain green strategies; 40 green design strategies in six broad topic areas, each providing acatalog of information for common strategies that must be implemented at the schematic design phase; and nine case studies that show how various green strategies work together in a finished building. This paper provides excerpts of several design strategies and one case study and suggests a variety of ways that the book may be used.Keywords: green design, case studies, education, schematic design

  17. The evolving environmental marketplace, using green to make green[An introduction to the U.S. Green Building Council, Performance Rating Systems, LEED as a benchmarking tool in the United States and green economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andereck, K.J. [Skidmore Owings and Merrill LLP, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Using an economic perspective, it is possible to make a case for green buildings and green development practices by placing emphasis on Energy Efficiency and Environmental Design. Several case studies have demonstrated that green buildings save money through reduced consumption of natural resources, electricity and gas both at the building site and at the source of energy. Sound environmental practices and energy efficiency measures improve the environmental conditions throughout the state by reducing power plant emissions and reducing operations and maintenance budgets in the state. The author presented a case study where a green development project was guided and monitored using the Environmental Performance Rating System called Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), version 2.0. The work was registered to achieve LEED certification. A brief study on current construction related costs was also included. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Green roofs and environmental restoration : towards an ecological infrastructure for New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, C. [Earth Pledge Foundation, New York, NY (United States); Rosenzweig, C. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a framework to demonstrate that green roofs have the potential as an ecologically restorative building practice and solution for various environmental and human health problems affecting the population of New York City. The authors claim that green roofs represent the first step in creating a cost-efficient ecological infrastructure of sustainable urban design, green buildings and ecological restoration practices. Storm water runoff, urban heat island effect, and climate change can all be better managed with green roofs. This presentation described the scope of the first phase of the New York Ecological Infrastructure (NYEI) study undertaken through Earth Pledge Green Roofs Initiative project. The manner in which the NYEI study and the Earth Pledge Green Roofs Initiative can become a model for green roof development in other cities was outlined. 19 refs.

  19. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    of green taxes. Daugbjerg and Svendsen identify rent-seeking, party politics, and policy networks as the three main constraints in environmental regulation. This analysis forms the basis of policy recommendations on the future design of green taxation and international permit trading. Even though...... implemented. In other words, it is necessary to open the 'black box' of political decision-making and examine how real-life green tax policy making works....

  20. Organisational sustainability policies and employee green behaviour : The mediating role of work climate perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norton, Thomas A.; Zacher, Hannes; Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    Organisations are increasingly introducing sustainability policies to encourage environmentally friendly behaviours. Employees' green work climate perceptions (i.e., how they perceive their organisations' and co-workers' orientations towards environmental sustainability) may constitute psychological

  1. Green technology foresight of products and materials - some reflections and results from an ongoing Danish project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Thomas Thoning; Falch, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The article presents some methodological and theoretical reflections and some preliminary results from a Danish Green Technology Foresight project about environmental friendly products and materials, where the environmental potentials and risks from three technology areas are analysed: nano- bio...

  2. University Students' Subjective Knowledge of Green Computing and Pro-Environmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional survey examined the structure of university students' subjective knowledge of green computing--hypothesized to be a multidimensional construct with three important dimensions--and its association with pro-environmental behavior (PEB). Using a previously validated green computing questionnaire, data were collected from 842…

  3. Environmental education excursions and proximity to urban green space : Densification in a ‘compact city’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2016-01-01

    The value of urban green space for environmental education fieldwork is empirically investigated in a study among all secondary schools in Amsterdam. The article describes how the proximity of schools to green spaces emerges as a new factor in the ‘sustainable city’ and the ‘compact city’ debate.

  4. Environmental Education Excursions and Proximity to Urban Green Space--Densification in a "Compact City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    The value of urban green space for environmental education fieldwork is empirically investigated in a study among all secondary schools in Amsterdam. The article describes how the proximity of schools to green spaces emerges as a new factor in the "sustainable city" and the "compact city" debate. For fieldwork excursions…

  5. Pricing of environmental friendly herbicides appropriate for sustainable agriculture, A case study: wheat farmers in Khorasan Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghorbani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of wheat farmers’ personal preferences towards environmental issues and weed types is important in pricing bioherbicides for sustainable weed management and could consequently be a fundamental guide to agricultural authorities and policy-makers. In the present study, a survey was carried out by using data collected from 180 wheat farmers of Korasan Razavi province during 2008, together with hedonic pricing method. The role of environmental qualitative factors and weed type on pricing environmental-friendly herbicides on the basis of “willingness to pay” was studied. Results from the estimation of hedonic pricing method indicated that reduction of water pollution, human health risk, farmers information about negative effects of chemical herbicides and the virtual variable of weed type had significant effects on pricing environmental friendly herbicides. Variables of soil pollution and weed perenniality had no significant effects on pricing herbicide applicable to sustainable agricultural systems. Based on the results of this study, possibilities of using bioherbicide or less pollutant herbicides and also the rate of farmers willingness to pay for alternatives in the region are important factors recommended for additional studies

  6. Environmental Protection for Sale : Strategic Green Industrial Policy and Climate Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Industrial policy has long been criticized as subject to protectionist interests; accordingly, subsidies to domestic producers face disciplines under World Trade Organization agreements, without exceptions for environmental purposes. Now green industrial policy is gaining popularity as governments

  7. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Sungwoo Lee; Sungho Tae; Seungjun Roh; Taehyung Kim

    2015-01-01

    The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM) for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome thes...

  8. Tri-Service Green Gun Barrel (PP 1074)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rusch, Lawrence F

    2003-01-01

    ...) PP 1074 Tri-Service Green Gun Barrel. The program's goal was to develop an environmentally friendly process for depositing wear and erosion resistant materials onto gun bores replacing the current hazardous aqueous electro-deposition...

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by Pulicaria glutinosa extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Tremel, Wolfgang; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H

    2013-01-01

    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted tremendous attention in recent years because these protocols are low cost and more environmentally friendly than standard methods of synthesis...

  10. Value of environmental factors and willingness to pay for green apartments in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Zalejska-Jonsson, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of environmental factors in the residential property market and investigates avowed willingness to pay for green apartments. The paper presents results from a quasi-experimental study and survey responses from 733 occupants of green and conventional buildings. The analysis indicates that people are prepared to pay approximately five per cent more for very low-energy buildings; however, they are not equally willing to pay for a building with an environmental ...

  11. Book Review: Jessica F Green, Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keremis, Anestis

    2017-01-01

    Book review of "Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance" by Jessica F Green. Princeton,NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014.215 pp., £16.95 (p/b), ISBN 9780691157597......Book review of "Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance" by Jessica F Green. Princeton,NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014.215 pp., £16.95 (p/b), ISBN 9780691157597...

  12. Application of supercritical water to decompose brominated epoxy resin and environmental friendly recovery of metals from waste memory module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-02-03

    Waste Memory Modules (WMMs), a particular kind of waste printed circuit board (WPCB), contain a high amount of brominated epoxy resin (BER), which may bring a series of environmental and health problems. On the other hand, metals like gold and copper are very valuable and are important to recover from WMMs. In the present study, an effective and environmental friendly method using supercritical water (SCW) to decompose BER and recover metals from WMMs was developed instead of hydrometallurgy or pyrometallurgy simultaneously. Experiments were conducted under external-catalyst-free conditions with temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 °C, pressures from 25 to 40 MPa, and reaction times from 120 to 360 min in a semibatch-type reactor. The results showed that BER could be quickly and efficiently decomposed under SCW condition, and the mechanism was possibly free radical reaction. After the SCW treatments, the glass fibers and metal foils in the solid residue could be easily liberated and recovered, respectively. The metal recovery rate reached 99.80%. The optimal parameters were determined as 495 °C, 33 MPa, and 305 min on the basis of response surface methodology (RSM). This study provides an efficient and environmental friendly approach for WMMs recycling compared with electrolysis, pyrometallurgy, and hydrometallurgy.

  13. Choice of organic foods is related to perceived consequences for human health and to environmentally friendly behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Maria K; Arvola, Anne; Hursti, Ulla Kaisa Koivisto; Aberg, Lars; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2003-04-01

    We designed a questionnaire concerned with attitudes and behaviour towards organic foods, environmentally friendly behaviour (EFB), and perceived consequences of organic food choice in terms of human health, the environment and animal welfare. It was mailed in 1998 to a random nation-wide sample of 2000 Swedish citizens, ages 18-65 years, and 1154 (58%) responded. Self-reported purchase of organic foods was most strongly related to perceived benefit for human health. Performance of EFBs such as refraining from car driving was also a good predictor of purchase frequency. The results indicate that egoistic motives are better predictors of the purchase of organic foods than are altruistic motives.

  14. A hybrid discrete choice model to assess the effect of awareness and attitude towards environmentally friendly travel modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sottile, Eleonora; Meloni, Italo; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The need to reduce private vehicle use has led to the development of soft measures aimed at re-educating car users through information processes that raise their awareness regarding the benefits of environmentally friendly modes, encouraging them to voluntarily change their mode choice behaviour...... are not sufficient to overcome the effect of cognitive dissonance, one of the main factors hindering change. In fact it is not unusual to find discrepancies between attitudes and behaviour in travel behaviour research. The objective of the present work is to understand the relationship between awareness, attitude......&R) instead of their car, we estimated a hybrid mode choice model....

  15. Corporate Initiatives and Strategies to Meet the Environmental Challenges – Contributions Towards a Green Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ogrean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize, based on an interdisciplinary and multi-level approach, on the actual and potential contributions of businesses towards a green economic development - through the positive integration of the environmental challenges within their initiatives and strategies. The main objectives that the paper will target in order to accomplish this mission are: (1. to outline the general framework of the green economic development; (2. to identify the specific environmental challenges businesses could and have to address in order to support the green economic development; (3. to analyze particular initiatives and strategies which have been successfully developed by companies aiming at internalizing the environmental imperative - and to argue in favor of a new business model, able to end, through the green economic development, a virtuous circle of co-evolution between businesses and the environment.

  16. Proposal of index of cyclic material use in green environmental profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Shiga, Akira; Umezawa, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    The author has developed a method for evaluation green environmental profiles. In the definition of eco-efficiency, the factors responsible for ang kind of environmental burden were clarified. The eight evaluation criteria - new processes to eliminate emissions of hazardous substances; greenhouse gases; environmental emission in the atmosphere, water, and soil; industrial water; exhaust heat; and final disposal - can be used to evaluate each environmental burden. Emission targets were also sp...

  17. Environmental Chemistry and Chemical Ecology of "Green Tide" Seaweed Blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Nelson, Timothy A; Ridgway, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Green tides are large growths or accumulations of green seaweeds that have been increasing in magnitude and frequency around the world. Because green tides consist of vast biomasses of algae in a limited area and are often seasonal or episodic, they go through periods of rapid growth in which they take up large amounts of nutrients and dissolved gases and generate bioactive natural products that may be stored in the plants, released into the environment, or broken down during decomposition. As a result of the use and production of inorganic and organic compounds, the algae in these blooms can have detrimental impacts on other organisms. Here, we review some of the effects that green tides have on the chemistry of seawater and the effects of the natural products that they produce. As blooms are developing and expanding, algae in green tides take up inorganic nutrients, such as nitrate and ortho-phosphate, which can limit their availability to other photosynthetic organisms. Their uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon for use in photosynthesis can cause localized spikes in the pH of seawater during the day with concomitant drops in the pH at night when the algae are respiring. Many of the algae that form green-tide blooms produce allelopathic compounds, which are metabolites that affect other species. The best documented allelopathic compounds include dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), dopamine, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their breakdown products. DMSP and dopamine are involved in defenses against herbivores. Dopamine and ROS are released into seawater where they can be allelopathic or toxic to other organisms. Thus, these macroalgal blooms can have harmful effects on nearby organisms by altering concentrations of nutrients and dissolved gas in seawater and by producing and releasing allelopathic or toxic compounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved

  18. A review on green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles – An eco-friendly approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy Agarwal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology deals with the production and usage of material with nanoscale dimension. Nanoscale dimension provides nanoparticles a large surface area to volume ratio and thus very specific properties. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs had been in recent studies due to its large bandwidth and high exciton binding energy and it has potential applications like antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antioxidant and optic properties. Due to the large rate of toxic chemicals and extreme environment employed in the physical and chemical production of these NPs, green methods employing the use of plants, fungus, bacteria, and algae have been adopted. This review is a comprehensive study of the synthesis and characterization methods used for the green synthesis of ZnO NPs using different biological sources. Keywords: Zinc oxide nanoparticles, Biosynthesis, Plant, Microbes, Algae

  19. Methods of Developing User-Friendly Keys to Identify Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas L.) from Photographs

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Jane R.; Maldonado, Miguel Á.; Stafford, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Identifying individual animals is important in understanding their ecology and behaviour, as well as providing estimates of population sizes for conservation efforts. We produce identification keys from photographs of green sea turtles to identify them while foraging in Akumal Bay, Mexico. We create three keys, which (a) minimise the length of the key, (b) present the most obvious differential characteristics first, and (c) remove the strict dichotomy from key b. Keys were capable of identify...

  20. A recycled environmental friendly flame retardant by modifying para-aramid fiber with phosphorus acid for thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xilei; Wang, Wenduo; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2017-06-05

    The application of fibers is more and more extensive, and the pollution caused by abandoned fibers is getting more serious, which has aroused wide attention. So it is necessary to find a way to solve the problem. In this paper, the para-aramid fiber (AF) was recycled and modified by phosphoric acid, and then was applied as environmental friendly flame retardant for thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU). The flame retardant properties of TPU were tested using cone calorimeter test (CCT) and thermogravimetric/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR). The CCT test showed that AF-P had better flame retardant effect on TPU than pure AF. Remarkably, the pHRR value for the sample with 1.00wt% content of AF-P was decreased by 48.1%; AF-P had improved the char forming progress and the residual mass was 30.6%, which was much more than pure TPU. TG test showed that AF-P could improve the thermal stability of TPU at high temperature. The TG-IR test revealed that AF-P had reduced the release of CO2 at the beginning. Based on the above results, it will make a great influence on the study of reuse of fibers and environmental friendly flame retardant of polymer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Solution-Processed Environmentally Friendly Ag2S Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Broad Spectral Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor A. Öberg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A facile heat-up synthesis route is used to synthesize environmentally friendly Ag2S colloidal quantum dots (CQDs that are applied as light absorbing material in solid state p-i-n junction solar cell devices. The as-synthesized Ag2S CQDs have an average size of around 3.5 nm and exhibit broad light absorption covering ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared wavelength regions. The solar cell devices are constructed with a device architecture of FTO/TiO2/Ag2S CQDs/hole transport material (HTM /Au using a solution-processed approach. Different HTMs, N2,N2,N2′,N2′,N7,N7,N7′,N7′-octakis(4-methoxyphenyl-9,9′-spirobi(9H-fluorene-2,2′,7,7′ tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT, and poly((2,3-bis(3-octyloxyphenyl-5,8-quinoxalinediyl-2,5-thiophenediyl TQ1 are studied for maximizing the device photovoltaic performance. The solar cell device with P3HT as a hole transport material gives the highest performance and the solar cell exhibit broad spectral absorption. These results indicate that Ag2S CQD have high potential for utilization as environmentally friendly light absorbing materials for solar cell application and that the hole transport material is critical to maximize the solar cell photovoltaic performance.

  2. Green criminology and (constructions of) environmental crime and harm: a review essay

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, Hanneke

    2016-01-01

    Brisman and South: Green Cultural Criminology: Constructions of Environmental Harm, Consumerism, and Resistance to Ecocide. Routledge, Oxford and New York,\\ud 2014, 162 pp\\ud Brisman, South, and White: Environmental Crime and Social Conflict: Contemporary and emerging issues. Ashgate, Farnham and Burlington, 2015, 328 pp

  3. Evaluating ecological monitoring of civic environmental stewardship in the Green-Duwamish watershed, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob C. Sheppard; Clare M. Ryan; Dale J. Blahna

    2017-01-01

    The ecological outcomes of civic environmental stewardship are poorly understood, especially at scales larger than individual sites. In this study we characterized civic environmental stewardship programs in the Green-Duwamish watershed in King County, WA, and evaluated the extent to which stewardship outcomes were monitored. We developed a four-step process based on...

  4. Greening Social Work Education: Teaching Environmental Rights and Sustainability in Community Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androff, David; Fike, Chris; Rorke, John

    2017-01-01

    Green issues such as protecting environmental rights and promoting sustainability are growing in importance to social work practice but are largely ignored in social work curricula. This article uses comparative case studies of three student-led community practice projects to demonstrate how environmental rights can be incorporated into social…

  5. Theoretical Explanations of Environmental Motivations and Expectations of Clients on Green Building Demand and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheanyichukwu Joachim, Onuoha; Kamarudin, Norhaya; Uche Aliagha, Godwin; Ufere, Kalu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In building industry, green demand and investment creates a positive footprint on the environment. However, these environmental opportunities have not been adequately harnessed and explored by Clients of green building apparently because of poor understanding of the motivating drivers and benefits accruing from green building demand and investment. The decision to demand for or invest in green building is influenced by certain environmental motivating drivers and expectations which have not been fully examined by researchers and not well understood by stakeholders. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and Theory of Value Belief Norm (VBN) explanations, this study focused on the Clients, purchasers and users' motivations and intentions to go for green building. Based on the reviewed theories, we hypothesized that environmental motivations and expectations for green building demand and investment are embedded in the environmental quest for protection of eco-system and bio-diversity, improvement of water and air quality, reduction of solid waste, conservation of natural resources, reduction of societal costs of landfill creation and maintenance, minimization of site impact and reduction emission to air and enhanced energy efficiency. However, the predictive validity of these propositions depends on the client's beliefs, values, social pressure, and perceived behavioural control.

  6. It's Not Easy Being Green: Green Marketing and Environmental Consumerism in Continuing Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeen, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    The current focus on all things "green--greener--greenest" has found its way into the realm of continuing higher education through a proliferation of courses and programs. A recent Internet search on the phrase "sustainability certificate" produced over 7,600 results, reflecting a strong perceived or real demand. In this…

  7. Is Formal Environmental Education Friendly to Nature? Environmental Ethics in Science Textbooks for Primary School Pupils in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increased interest in ecology, global warming and numerous environmental problems, ecological issues are becoming extremely important in education. Many researchers and thinkers believe that solutions to environmental problems are affected by the environmental ethics adopted. This article identifies which of the three branches of…

  8. Fungal volatiles: an environmentally friendly tool to control pathogenic microorganisms in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalchli, H; Tortella, G R; Rubilar, O; Parra, L; Hormazabal, E; Quiroz, A

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are an extraordinary and immensely diverse group of microorganisms that colonize many habitats even competing with other microorganisms. Fungi have received recognition for interesting metabolic activities that have an enormous variety of biotechnological applications. Previously, volatile organic compounds produced by fungi (FVOCs) have been demonstrated to have a great capacity for use as antagonist products against plant pathogens. However, in recent years, FVOCs have been received attention as potential alternatives to the use of traditional pesticides and, therefore, as important eco-friendly biotechnological tools to control plant pathogens. Therefore, highlighting the current state of knowledge of these fascinating FVOCs, the actual detection techniques and the bioactivity against plant pathogens is essential to the discovery of new products that can be used as biopesticides.

  9. Fostering Pre-service Teachers' Self-Determined Environmental Motivation Through Green Chemistry Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-10-01

    The global environmental crisis intensifies particularly in developing nations. Environmental educators have begun to understand that changing the environmental impact requires not only changes in pro-environmental knowledge and attitudes but also in associated, self-determined motivation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a green chemistry curriculum changes Malaysian pre-service teachers' environmental motivation. Two comparable groups of pre-service teachers participated in this study. The students in the experimental group ( N = 140) did green chemistry experiments whereas the control group ( N = 123) did equivalent experiments in a traditional manner. Posttest results indicate that there is significant difference between both the groups for intrinsic motivation, integration, identification, and introjections scales and no differences for external regulation and amotivation scales. The qualitative analysis of interview data suggests that the changes are predominantly due to the personal satisfaction that participants derived from engaging in pro-environmental behavior.

  10. Effects of Green Innovation on Environmental and Corporate Performance: A Stakeholder Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Hung (Robin Weng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “Going green” has become an important environmental issue in contemporary business practice worldwide. This study examined the influence of a number of factors on green innovation and the consequences in terms of performance. The stakeholder theory was adopted to observe the effects of each stakeholder on the green innovation practices of companies and to determine how green innovation practices influence environmental and business performance. A research model with eight hypotheses was proposed to determine the associations between the variables of interest. An empirical survey was conducted of 202 Taiwanese service and manufacturing companies. The survey found that pressure from competitors and the government, along with employee conduct, all had significant and positive effects on green innovation practices. Additionally, a moderating effect of innovation orientation existed only in the relationship between green product innovation practices and employee conduct. This study not only provides a systematic way to analyze the effects of green innovation practices but also suggests the best means for companies to adopt green innovation practices.

  11. The Evolution of Green Growth Policy: An Unwelcome Intrusion on Global Environmental Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwon Park

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of green growth emerged in 2009. Since then, policy makers and practitioners have largely adopted the term. Although rather intermittently, there have been academic observations on green growth, with the term often being cited as a paradigm and a policy guide for generating new sources of growth. The most important reasons for the surge in green growth today as a new trend and an international agenda item are the rather unsatisfactory results and pitfalls of sustainable development, which has failed at promoting a tangible international environmental principle or a concrete policy framework. Green growth has been proposed as an alternative simultaneously to foster the dynamics of global environmental governance and to reinvigorate the world economy. This study examines to what extent green growth plays a complementary role in existing global environmental governance. Available evidence provides reasonable grounds for arguing that a positive outcome may well be expected from the evolution of green growth architecture and followed by practical policies. It became a global agenda out of a few influential national governments' control. However, decision makers in the leading countries, both developed and developing must be willing to continue implementing what has been discussed and agreed thus far, beyond changes in political leadership and administrations.

  12. Integrated studies for automobile wastes management in developing countries; in the concept of environmentally friendly mechanic village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Michael Amamechi; Feng, Huan; Achilike, Kennedy

    2011-07-01

    More cities in developing countries now consider mechanic village (MV) as superior to the city wide auto-workshop practice following the increasing influx of used or waste automobile from industrialized nations. This is because of the numerous advantages of the mechanic village concept as a capacity building, and in poverty alleviation. Nevertheless, mechanic villages are poorly developed with no waste management plan. They are now identified with severe to excessive heavy metal soil pollution, causing ecological and public health hazards. This paper has a wider explanation of what it takes for a mechanic village to be environmentally friendly based on spectroscopic analysis and physical measurements conducted in three MVs. Heavy metal concentrations (mg kg( -1)) above background levels in the upper 100 cm soil profiles of the Okigwe, the Orji, and the Nekede MVs in the Imo River basin collectively range 748-70,606 for Fe; 99-1,090 for Pb; 186-600 for Mn; 102-1,001 for Cu; 8-23 for Cd; 4-27 for Cr; and 3-10 for Ni. The most abundant metals of environmental concerns are Pb, Mn, and Cu, in the order of Pb > Mn > Cu. Three-phase storm water treatment, emission testing, minimum safe farming distance (350 m), extended producer responsibility for disposal or recycling of used motor oil, phyto-remediation using local plants, groundwater monitoring wells, and continuous education of mechanics are recommended. Exporters of waste automobiles to developing countries and the United Nations may assist developing countries in establishing environmentally friendly MVs.

  13. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Santoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawanggede Village, Lowokwaru Sub-district, Malang City. The sampling method used nonprobability accidential sampling techniques. The numbers of respondents were 113 consumers in study site. Data were collected by interview using questionnaires. The method of analysis used Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA. The analysis showed that the green packaging, green products, and green advertising had positive significant influence on consumer perceptions. Meanwhile, green product and consumer perception had positive significant influence on purchasing interest, but the green packaging and green advertising has not found sufficient evidence in influencing purchasing intention.

  14. Little Green Lies. The Environmental Miseducation of America's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jonathan H.

    1992-01-01

    Critiques environmental education in elementary school and secondary school education by reviewing 10 myths that give children an incomplete understanding of environmental issues. Discusses recycling, plastics, garbage, pesticides, acid rain, consumption, overpopulation, air pollution, global warming, and the ozone layer. Offers suggestions to…

  15. Environmental Management Systems: A Framework for Planning Green Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keniry, Julian

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on recent survey data from the National Wildlife Federation and other publications, explains what an environmental management system is and identifies its components; examines how environmental management systems have been applied in higher education settings; reports on trends in implementation; and illustrates how the environmental…

  16. Do 'green' taxes work? Decoupling environmental pressures and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2005-01-01

    This essay intends to shed light on whether environmental taxation can help to decouple environmental pressures from economic growth, a policy outcome widely desired and particularly pressing in the context of climate change where radical measures are needed to curb CO2 build up....

  17. Going Green and Renewing Life: Environmental Education in Faith Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzhusen, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    Faith communities, such as churches, synagogues, temples, and mosques, are providing new venues for innovative adult environmental education. As faith communities turn their concerns to issues of sustainability, environmental teaching is emerging in many forms across diverse religious traditions, as evidenced by the development of denominational…

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA EXPOSURE, SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS, AND SELF-EFFICACY ON ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS ELECTRONIC GREEN PRODUCTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iman Khalid A. Qader; Yuserrie Zainuddin

    2011-01-01

    .... This study intends to understand consumers' environmental attitudes towards electronic green products and to identify the effect of three factors, namely, media exposure, safety and health concerns...

  19. Environmentally friendly procedure for in-situ coating of regenerated cellulose fibres with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivec, Tanja; Hribernik, Silvo; Kolar, Mitja; Kleinschek, Karin Stana

    2017-05-01

    This study introduces a novel green in-situ procedure for introduction of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on and into cellulose fibres in a three-stage process. First-stage of the process includes the activation of cellulose fibres in alkaline solution, followed by reduction of silver nitrate to Ag NPs in the second stage, while the last stage of process involves washing and neutralization of fibres. Efficiency of the method towards incorporation of silver particles into the fibres' internal structure was characterized; the coatings' morphology and determination of spatial presence of Ag particles were imagining by the scanning electron microscopy and accompanying energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis; prepared fibres have superior durability of particles' coating against washing and excellent antimicrobial activity even after 20 washing cycles. Additionally, the water retention of silver treated fibres was improved, while the mechanical properties were not significantly impaired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of RPC operation with new environmental friendly mixtures for LHC application and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, R.; Capeans, M.; Mandelli, B.

    2016-07-01

    The large muon trigger systems based on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) at the LHC experiments are currently operated with R134a based mixture. Unfortunately R134a is considered a greenhouse gas with high impact on the enviroment and therefore will be subject to regulations aiming in strongly reducing the available quantity on the market. The immediat effects might be instability on the price and incertitude in the product availability. Alternative gases (HFO-1234yf and HFO-1234ze) have been already identified by industry for specific applications as replacement of R134a. Moreover, HFCs similar to the R134a but with lower global warming potential (GWP) are already available (HFC-245fa, HFC-32, HFC-152a). The present contribution describes the results obtained with RPCs operated with new enviromemtal friendly gases. A particular attention has been addressed to the possibility of maintening the current operation conditions (i.e. currently used applied voltage and front-end electronics) in order to be able to use a new mixture for RPC systems even where the common infrastructure (i.e. high voltage and detector components) cannot be replaced for operation at higher applied voltages.

  1. Low-cost, environmentally friendly route for producing CFRP laminates with microfibrillated cellulose interphase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. B. Uribe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cost-effective and eco-friendly method to improve mechanical performance in continuous carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP matrix composites is presented. Unsized fiber fabric preforms are coated with self-assembling sugarcane bagasse microfibrillated cellulose, and undergo vacuum-assisted liquid epoxy resin infusion to produce solid laminates after curing at ambient temperature. Quasi-static tensile, flexural and short beam testing at room temperature indicated that the stiffness, ultimate strength and toughness at ultimate load of the brand-new two-level hierarchical composite are substantially higher than in baseline, unsized fiber-reinforced epoxy laminate. Atomic force microscopy for height and phase imaging, along with scanning electron microscopy for the fracture surface survey, revealed a 400 nm-thick fiber/matrix interphase wherein microfibrillated cellulose exerts strengthening and toughening roles in the hybrid laminate. Market expansion of this class of continuous fiber-reinforced-polymer matrix composites exhibiting remarkable mechanical performance/cost ratios is thus conceivable.

  2. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  3. Green Tribology Biomimetics, Energy Conservation and Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of “green tribology” as “the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts” was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.

  4. Greening the work force in Brazilian hotels: the role of environmental training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Angelo, Fernanda; Jabbour, Charbel J C; Calderaro, José Armando

    2014-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly required to reduce their environmental impact through the adoption of environmental management, which requires the support of human resource practices. The objective of this study is to determine whether human resource management practices, especially training, are supporting environmental management practices at four hotels located in Brazil. This research is qualitative, based on the analysis of four hotels in Brazil. Based on the systematized empirical evidence collected from four hotels (Hotels A, B, C, and D), it can be concluded that: (1) human resource management is still not fully aligned with environmental objectives at the hotels studied; (2) only Hotel B has implemented environmental management practices and aligned with human resource management in a more developed manner, which may indicate that these two variables of analysis could have interrelations; (3) environmental training as a human resource management practice was verified in all hotels analyzed. The greening of human resources practices is not fully aligned with environmental objectives in the hotels studied. If these hotels really wish to "go green," environmental training will be necessary. Hotel stakeholders play a major role in implementing the greening of the hotel industry.

  5. Thermoluminescence Properties of Novel Self-Agglomerating CaSO4:Eu Phosphors Obtained by an Environmentally Friendly Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. García-Haro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the thermoluminescence (TL properties of self-agglomerating CaSO4:Eu samples obtained by an environmentally friendly coprecipitation technique. No binding material is needed to form solid CaSO4:Eu samples. Samples exposed to beta particle irradiation exhibit a TL maximum at 473.15 K when a 5 K/s heating rate is used, they are two times more sensitive than the TLD-100 commercial dosimeter, and their lower detection limit was determined to be less than 0.69 mGy. The computerized glow curve deconvolution carried out fitting the residual glow curves from McKeever method revealed that the whole glow curve is composed of four individual TL peaks with intermediate-order kinetics. The main peak order kinetics is b = 1.48. This result agrees with that computed using Chen’s formula.

  6. Eco-scavenging : environmental friendly manual scavenging of M.S.W. : a pilot study in Karachi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, W.; Khan, A.F. [NED Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2000-07-01

    A proposed municipal waste management system for the coastal city of Karachi, Pakistan was discussed. The system includes an organized, sustainable and environmentally friendly manual sorting system, called eco-scavenging, in which a high machined technology is replaced by scavengers, people hired to sort municipal landfill refuse. This paper presented the results of a pilot scale operation at a landfill site which was designed to accommodate scavengers on both sides of a concrete platform to sort salable items including paper, plastics, glass, metals, bread and bones. The scavengers are provided with protective hand gloves, shoes, rubber aprons, caps and masks. The speed and efficiency of separating the desired salable items was determined. Results showed that the system is technically and economically sustainable. It would make a significant contribution to the city's revenue, and would provide employment opportunities for operators. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. Environmentally friendly chitosan/PEI-grafted magnetic gelatin for the highly effective removal of heavy metals from drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Kai; Wang, Yipei; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai; Jing, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The development of environmentally friendly sorbents with a high adsorption capacity is an essential problem in the removal of heavy metals from drinking water. In this study, magnetic gelatin was prepared using transglutaminase as a cross-linker, which could only catalyze an acyl-transfer reaction between lysine and glutamine residues of the gelatin and not affect other amino groups. Therefore, it was beneficial for the further modification based on the amino groups, and did not affect the spatial structure of gelatin, which can effectively prevent the embedding of active sites in the polymer matrix. After modification with the chitosan/polyethylenimine copolymers, the numbers of amino groups was greatly increased, and the magnetic composites exhibited a high adsorption capacity, excellent water compatibility and simple magnetic separation. The adsorption capacities of lead and cadmium were 341 mg g-1 and 321 mg g-1, respectively, which could be used for the removal of metal ions in drinking water.

  8. Note: Fabrication of a fast-response and user-friendly environmental chamber for atomic force microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Han, Tingting; Song, Xiaoxue; Pan, Chengbin; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials, Soochow University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science & Technology, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The atomic force microscope is one of the most widespread tools in science, but many suppliers do not provide a competitive solution to make experiments in controlled atmospheres. Here, we provide a solution to this problem by fabricating a fast-response and user-friendly environmental chamber. We corroborate the correct functioning of the chamber by studying the formation of local anodic oxidation on a silicon sample (biased under opposite polarities), an effect that can be suppressed by measuring in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. The usefulness of this chamber goes beyond the example here presented, and it could be used in many other fields of science, including physics, mechanics, microelectronics, nanotechnology, medicine, and biology.

  9. Note: Fabrication of a fast-response and user-friendly environmental chamber for atomic force microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Han, Tingting; Song, Xiaoxue; Pan, Chengbin; Lanza, Mario

    2015-10-01

    The atomic force microscope is one of the most widespread tools in science, but many suppliers do not provide a competitive solution to make experiments in controlled atmospheres. Here, we provide a solution to this problem by fabricating a fast-response and user-friendly environmental chamber. We corroborate the correct functioning of the chamber by studying the formation of local anodic oxidation on a silicon sample (biased under opposite polarities), an effect that can be suppressed by measuring in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. The usefulness of this chamber goes beyond the example here presented, and it could be used in many other fields of science, including physics, mechanics, microelectronics, nanotechnology, medicine, and biology.

  10. Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated by Using an Environmental Friendly Aprotic Polar Additive of 1,3-Dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Lili; Li, Yanqing; Cao, Xiaobing; Li, Yahui; Cui, Xian; Ci, Lijie; Wei, Jinquan

    2017-12-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have great potentials in photovoltaics due to their high power conversion efficiency and low processing cost. PSCs are usually fabricated from PbI2/dimethylformamide solution with some toxic additives, such as N-methyl pyrrolidone and hexamethylphosphoramide. Here, we use an environmental friendly aprotic polar solvent, 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI), to fabricate perovskite films. By adding 10 vol% DMI in the precursor solution, high-quality perovskite films with smooth surface are obtained. By increasing annealing temperature from 100 to 130 °C, the average grain size of the perovskite increases from 216 to 375 nm. As a result, the efficiency of the PSCs increases from 10.72 to 14.54%.

  11. Eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using salmalia malabarica: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial, and catalytic activity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali Krishna, I.; Bhagavanth Reddy, G.; Veerabhadram, G.; Madhusudhan, A.

    2016-06-01

    An economically viable and "green" process has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with an average size of 7 nm using non-toxic and renewable salmalia malabarica gum (SMG) as reducing and capping agent without using any chemical reducing agent. The effect of various parameters such as concentration of SMG and silver nitrate and reaction time for the synthesis of AgNPs was studied. The synthesized AgNPs are systematically characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. The resultant SMG-capped AgNPs are highly stable and had significant antibacterial action on both Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus). The catalytic action of the SMG-capped AgNPs to initiate the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in the presence of NaBH4 has also been reported. The kinetics of the reaction was found to be of pseudo-first-order with respect to the 4-NP.

  12. New insights on the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant and waste biomaterials: current knowledge, their agricultural and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, Rijuta Ganesh; Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya; Shin, Han Seung; Jacob, Jaya Mary; Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan; Bhaisare, Mukesh; Kumar, Gopalakrishanan

    2017-08-16

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing scientific field and has attracted a great interest over the last few years because of its abundant applications. Green nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that has emerged as a rapidly developing research area, serving as an important technique that emphasize on making the procedure which are clean, non-hazardous, and especially environmentally friendly, in contrast with chemical and physical methods currently employed for nanosynthesis. The biogenic routes could be termed green as these do not involve the use of highly toxic chemicals or elevated energy inputs during the synthesis. Differences in the bio-reducing agents employed for nanosynthesis can lead to the production of nanoparticles (NPs) having distinct shapes, sizes, and bioactivity. The exquitiveness of the green fabricated NPs have capacitated their potential applications in various sectors such as biomedicine, pharmacology, food science, agriculture, and environmental engineering. The present review summarizes current knowledge on various biogenic synthesis methods, relying on plants, waste biomass, and biopolymers and their reducing and stabilizing agents to fabricate nanomaterials. The main emphasis has been given on the current status and future challenges related to the wide-scale fabrication of nanoparticles for environmental remediation, pathogenicity, and agricultural applications.

  13. The Sustainability of green gas. A comparison of six green gas production scenarios for the environmental economic and social aspects of sustainability based on the current Dutch situation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, Anne

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The use of fossil fuels has environmental consequences, which drives developments in bio-energy. For the Netherlands, green gas is a potential, new emerging form of bio-energy. Gener-ally, green gas is anaerobic digested biomass upgraded to natur

  14. Telling friend from foe : Environmental cues improve recognition of individuals with hostile intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijn, R.; Kleij, R. van der; Kallen, V.L.; Stekkinger, M.; Vries, P. de

    2017-01-01

    Detecting deviant behaviours that precede and are related to crimes can help prevent these crimes. Research suggests that the psychological mindset of wrongdoers may differ from others, such that they are more anxious, self-focussed, and vigilant. As a result, their responses to environmental cues,

  15. Current and Future Friends of the Earth: Assessing Cross-National Theories of Environmental Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Stenner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies of public opinion on environmental protection have typically been grounded in Inglehart’s post-materialism thesis, proposing that societal affluence encourages materially-sated publics to look beyond their interests and value the environment. These studies are generally conducted within, or at best across, Western, democratic, industrialized countries. Absence of truly cross-cultural research means the theory’s limitations have gone undetected. This article draws on an exceptionally broad dataset—pooling cross-sectional survey data from 80 countries, each sampled at up to three different points over 15 years—to investigate environmental attitudes. We find that post-materialism provides little account of pro-environment attitudes across diverse cultures, and a far from adequate explanation even in the affluent West. We suggest that unique domestic interests, more than broad value systems, are driving emerging global trends in environmental attitudes. The environment’s future champions may be the far from ‘post-material’ citizens of those developing nations most at risk of real material harm from climate change and environmental degradation.

  16. Operationalizing sustainability: exploring options for environmentally friendly flower bulb production systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Jansma, J.E.; Ruijter, de F.J.; Schans, J.

    1997-01-01

    Current production systems for flower bulbs in the Netherlands employ considerable quantities of pesticides and nutrients per unit area. In 1993, an association of growers and environmentalists set out to design new farming systems that meet environmental objectives in addition to economic

  17. Organic Food Perception: Fad, or Healthy and Environmentally Friendly? A Case on Romanian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to explore consumers’ perceptions of organic food and examine whether organic food products are perceived in the North-West Region of Romania as offering health and environmental benefits or as simply another sine qua non condition to be integrated into the luxurious yuppie lifestyle. The inspiration for our study came from witnessing the stereotypical image of organic food consumers as “stylish, trendy, fancy consumers” in the last three to five years. Scientific evidence on the perceptions of organic food is based on a probabilistic survey. The results indicate an environmental consciousness of organic food consumers in North-Western Region of Romania in terms of organic food: a high percentage of consumers believe that organic food is healthier than conventional food (87% and that it contributes to environmental protection more than conventional food (75%. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed between people with higher education and those without higher education concerning the following beliefs: belief that most people consume organic products because they are in fashion, and belief that organic food contributes to environmental protection.

  18. A game theoretical approach for cooperative environmentally friendly cellular networks powered by the smart grid

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the collaboration between multiple mobile operators to optimize the energy efficiency of cellular networks, maximize their profits or achieve or tradeoff between both objectives. Mobile operators cooperate together by eliminating redundant base stations (BSs) using a low complexity algorithm that aims to maximize their objective functions subject to a quality of service constraint. The problem is modeled as a two-level Stackelberg game: a mobile operator level and a smart grid level. Indeed, in our framework, we assume that cellular networks are powered by multiple energy providers existing in the smart grid characterized by different pollutant levels in addition to renewable energy source deployed in BS sites. The objective is to find the best active BS combination and the optimal procurement decision needed to the network operation during collaboration by considering electricity real-time pricing. Our study includes the daily traffic variation in addition to the daily green energy availability. Our simulation results show a significant saving in terms of CO2 emissions compared to the non-collaboration case and that cooperative mobile operators exploiting renewables are more awarded than traditional operators. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Long-term environmental assessment of waste from PyroGreen system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Heejae; Hahm, Inhye; Sohn, Sungjune; Hwang, Il-Soon [Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    We have conducted a long-term environmental assessment of a geological repository for Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) arising from PyroGreen processes that has been developed to decontaminate all HLW from the pyrochemical partitioning of spent nuclear fuels (SNF). PyroGreen process has been designed so that final ILW can meet conservative acceptance criteria such as one established for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in U.S.A. The nuclide inventory of final vitrified PyroGreen waste is calculated using ORIGEN 2.1 based on the design decontamination factor of PyroGreen processes applied to 18,171 metric tons of PWR SNF with 45 GWD/MTU burnup. Using GoldSim model, the environmental impact of ILW upon geological disposal at an intermediate depth. Among radioactive nuclides, Ra{sup 226}, Rn{sup 222} and Sn{sup 126} are identified as key contributors to radiological dose for general public. The environmental impact of PyroGreen wastes satisfies the Korean dose limit of 0.1 mSv/year with sufficiently high margin. Sensitivity studies have shown that the predicted dose can vary significantly by distribution coefficient of Ra{sup 226} and Rn{sup 222}, solubility limit of Se{sup 79}. (authors)

  20. Development of high melting point, environmentally friendly solders, using the calphad approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2008-01-01

    of promising solder alloy candidates. The ternary combinations that satisfied the primary solidification requirement were scrutinized taking into account the commercial interests i.e. availability, cost-effectiveness, recyclability and toxicity issues. Technical issues like manufacturability and surface...... tension have also been considered. Special focus has been given to toxicity related issues since the main ideology of looking for an alternative to high lead containing solders is not related to technical issues but due to environmental concerns....

  1. Environmentally friendly paint and varnish additives based on isobutyrate aldehyde condensation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guziałowska-Tic Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents selected results of ecotoxicological tests on the environmental impact of hydroxyester HE-1. It was found that the substance is biodegradable and has no negative impact on algae growth rate, however it may inhibit algae biomass growth. The results of Daphnia immobilization test shows that the substance is safe for the aquatic environment. Whereas, at higher concentrations, hydroxyester HE-1 may exhibit acute toxicity to rainbow trout.

  2. Polyester-Based (Biodegradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rydz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (biodegradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (biodegradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields.

  3. Polyester-Based (Bio)degradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydz, Joanna; Sikorska, Wanda; Kyulavska, Mariya; Christova, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields. PMID:25551604

  4. George Glasson and George Bogg's prospects on the environmental friendly relationship and ecojustice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico, Eduardo

    2011-06-01

    This rejoinder to George Glasson and George Bogg's papers provides additional conversation for considering the idea that we try to develop: leaving the classroom to continue teaching. Converting the teaching-learning process into research experiences brings our students not only scientific knowledge, but also an understanding of the research procedures. To be involved in field work, students can connect more personally the local action with global issues. On the ground in which we operate, environmental science, teaching of knowledge is insufficient if not accompanied by ecological experiences where students can see and share the needs of environmental protection and the idea of sustainability. Both response authors tell us about their own experiences in research in this regard. In their essays we can appreciate the desire to investigate human activities on ecosystems. Reading it makes us look with passion and awareness at the different consequences for our ecological environments: if we develop environmentally consequential behavior or harmful lifestyles for the planet. Furthermore, they warn us of the need to follow the development of students learning and reflect on the ways in which it produces time-causal relationship between persons and the environment.

  5. Public green areas and urban environmental quality of the city of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini,M. A.; Rufino,R. R.; Fushita,A. T.; Lima,M. I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Assess the state of public green areas, their importance and influence on environmental quality and living in urban centers is an arduous task considering the conceptual and scientific regarding quantification and data analysis methods divergence. In this study, we aimed to determine two indicators of public green areas relative to the percentage of public green areas (PPGA) and the public green areas index (PGAI) in the urban area of São Carlos, SP. The study area was organized into...

  6. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy, E-mail: jlundholm@smu.ca

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%–26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21 °C–36 °C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  7. Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R

    2016-04-15

    European maritime companies have adopted programs to limit operational impacts on the environment. For maritime companies in North America, the Green Marine Environmental Program (GMEP) offers a framework to establish and reduce environmental footprints. Green Marine (GM) participants demonstrate annual improvements of specific environmental performance indicators (e.g., reductions in air pollution emissions) to maintain certification. Participants complete annual self-evaluations with results determining rankings for performance indicators on a 1-to-5 scale. Self-evaluations are independently verified every two years to ensure rigor and individual results are made publicly available annually to achieve transparency. GM benefits the marine industry across North America by encouraging sustainable development initiatives. GM's credibility is reflected through a diverse network of environmental groups and government agencies that endorse and help shape the program. Merits of this relatively new maritime certification (not previously described in the academic literature), are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Can Market Capitalism Be Greened? Environmental Education Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Deb J.; Tulloch, Lynley

    2013-01-01

    Widespread recognition of the detrimental effects that human activities have had on nature and its ecosystems can now be found in every domain of public policy. Since the inception of international accords in the 1970s provoked greater engagement by nations in environmental amelioration measures, "education" has been lauded as an important panacea…

  9. Environmental literacy with green chemistry oriented in 21st century learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarlis, Ibnu, Suhadi; Rahayu, Sri; Sutrisno

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the design of chemistry subject with green chemistry oriented to improve students' environmental literacy as one of the important requirements of 21st century learning. This research used R&D design which consisted of four stages, i.e. preliminary study, the study of literature, development of materials, and expert and empirical validation. This article presents the results of preliminary study and the study of literature. It can be concluded from the results of an analysis that environmental literacy is one of the important components of learning outcomes which should be pursued in 21st century teaching. Philosophy of green chemistry plays an important role to reduce and prevent pollution of environment. Principles of green chemistry can be integrated into learning environment as learning outcomes or nurturant effects of learning.

  10. The green entrepreneur's challenge: The influence of environmental ambition in new product development

    OpenAIRE

    Berchicci, L.

    2005-01-01

    Studies dealing with environmental issues in New Product Development have made significant progress explaining how firms can develop greener new products that succeed in the market and Environmental New Product Development (ENPD) has become a wide-spread practice within an increasing number of firms. Nevertheless, green entrepreneurs and product developers who have tried to develop more sustainable products have had mixed experiences. Through an empirical study in the human powered vehicle se...

  11. Environmentally Friendly, Rheoreversible, Hydraulic-fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Hongbo; Kabilan, Senthil; Stephens, Sean A.; Suresh, Niraj; Beck, Anthon NR; Varga, Tamas; Martin, Paul F.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Bonneville, Alain; Heldebrant, David J.; Carroll, KC; Moore, Joseph; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-07-01

    Cost-effective creation of high-permeability reservoirs inside deep crystalline bedrock is the primary challenge for the feasibility of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Current reservoir stimulation entails adverse environmental impacts and substantial economic costs due to the utilization of large volumes of water “doped” with chemicals including rheology modifiers, scale and corrosion inhibitors, biocides, friction reducers among others where, typically, little or no information of composition and toxicity is disclosed. An environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid has recently been developed that significantly enhances rock permeability at effective stress significantly lower than current technology. We evaluate the potential of this novel fracturing fluid for application on geothermal sites under different chemical and geomechanical conditions, by performing laboratory-scale fracturing experiments with different rock sources under different confining pressures, temperatures, and pH environments. The results demonstrate that CO2-reactive aqueous solutions of environmentally amenable Polyallylamine (PAA) represent a highly versatile fracturing fluid technology. This fracturing fluid creates/propagates fracture networks through highly impermeable crystalline rock at significantly lower effective stress as compared to control experiments where no PAA was present, and permeability enhancement was significantly increased for PAA compared to conventional hydraulic fracturing controls. This was evident in all experiments, including variable rock source/type, operation pressure and temperature (over the entire range for EGS applications), as well as over a wide range of formation-water pH values. This versatile novel fracturing fluid technology represents a great alternative to industrially available fracturing fluids for cost-effective and competitive geothermal energy production.

  12. Low-cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Prunus japonica (Rosaceae) leaf extract and their antibacterial, antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Arthanari; Peng, Mei Mei; Ganesh, Mani; Jayaprakash, Jayabalan; Mohankumar, Murugan; Jang, Hyun Tae

    2017-09-01

    Low cost and eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate (AgNO3) using Prunus japonica leaves extract as reducing agent by a simple method at room temperature. The biosynthesized nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by UV-Vis, tunneling electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectrophotometer (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In UV-Vis spectroscopy results, the λmax was observed at 441 nm. The AgNPs synthesized were spherical, hexagonal, and irregular in shapes. The EDAX and XRD spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ions and crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. FTIR showed the functional groups such as C = O, N-H and C-N groups involved in the reduction of Ag(+ )to Ag. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was performed and it showed the percentage inhibition in concentration-dependent manner. The synthesized AgNPs showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus to different extents and the higher activity was observed in Proteus vulgaris.

  13. Mixed crop-livestock systems: an economic and environmental-friendly way of farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryschawy, J; Choisis, N; Choisis, J P; Joannon, A; Gibon, A

    2012-10-01

    Intensification and specialisation of agriculture in developed countries enabled productivity to be improved but had detrimental impacts on the environment and threatened the economic viability of a huge number of farms. The combination of livestock and crops, which was very common in the past, is assumed to be a viable alternative to specialised livestock or cropping systems. Mixed crop-livestock systems can improve nutrient cycling while reducing chemical inputs and generate economies of scope at farm level. Most assumptions underlying these views are based on theoretical and experimental evidence. Very few assessments of their environmental and economic advantages have nevertheless been undertaken in real-world farming conditions. In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of the environmental and economic performances of mixed crop-livestock farms v. specialised farms among the farm population of the French 'Coteaux de Gascogne'. In this hilly region, half of the farms currently use a mixed crop-livestock system including beef cattle and cash crops, the remaining farms being specialised in either crops or cattle. Data were collected through an exhaustive survey of farms located in our study area. The economic performances of farming systems were assessed on 48 farms on the basis of (i) overall gross margin, (ii) production costs and (iii) analysis of the sensitivity of gross margins to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs. The environmental dimension was analysed through (i) characterisation of farmers' crop management practices, (ii) analysis of farm land use diversity and (iii) nitrogen farm-gate balance. Local mixed crop-livestock farms did not have significantly higher overall gross margins than specialised farms but were less sensitive than dairy and crop farms to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs considered. Mixed crop-livestock farms had lower costs than crop farms, while beef farms had the lowest costs as they are grass

  14. The Green Launching Plan for New Hampshire's Environmental and Economic Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittell, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Economic vitality and environmental protection have long been linked in New England, and will be again with efforts to address climate change in the region. There is an emerging body of literature to support the potential economic benefits of a so-called "green economy" in the region and the nation. In New Hampshire, economic studies of…

  15. Chinese Students' Awareness of Relationship between Green Finance, Environmental Protection Education and Real Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Zhu, Zhengguo; Fang, Shuqiong; Pan, Wentsao

    2017-01-01

    Chinese government puts forward a concept: five in one, putting environment in the same significant position as economy, politics, society and culture, which highlights the significance of environment. With the continuous increase of environmental awareness, many scholars pay more attention to green finance. However, the researches based on…

  16. Environmentally benign novel green pigments: Pr1–xCaxPO4 (x = 0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Environmentally benign novel green pigments: Pr1–xCaxPO4 (x = 0–0⋅4). V SIVAKUMAR and U V VARADARAJU*. Materials Science Research Centre and Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036,. India. MS received 31 March 2005. Abstract. Rare earth based materials have ...

  17. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  18. Sulfide ore looping oxidation : an innovative process that is energy efficient and environmentally friendly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, L.F.; Balliett, R.; Mozolic, J.A. [Orchard Material Technology, North Andover, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Many sulphide ore processing methods use different types of roasting technologies. These technologies are generally quite effective, however, they represent significant energy use and environmental cost. This paper discussed and validated the use of a two-step looping oxidation process that effectively removes sulphur while producing materials of adequate purity in an energy efficient and environmentally sound manner. This paper described the process in detail and compared it to existing technologies in the area of energy efficiency, and off-gas treatment energy requirements. Validation of the looping oxidation concept was described and the starting chemistries of each chemical were listed. Thermodynamic modeling was used to determine the temperature at which the reaction should begin and to predict the temperature at which the reaction should be complete. The test apparatus and run conditions were also described. It was concluded that there are several critical stages in the looping process where energy recovery is economically attractive and could easily be directed or converted for other plant operations. All reactions were fast and efficient, allowing for reduced equipment size as well as higher throughput rates. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluids as environmentally-friendly processing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Pierce, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Physical Organic Chemistry Group; Tiefert, K. [Hewlett-Packard Co., Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The production of integrated circuits involves a number of discrete steps that utilize hazardous or regulated solvents. Environmental, safety and health considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign, solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}) is an excellent choice for IC manufacturing processes since it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, and is compatible with all substrate and metallizations systems. Also, conditions of temperature and pressure needed to achieve the supercritical state are easily achievable with existing process equipment. The authors first describe the general properties of supercritical fluids, with particular emphasis on their application as alternative solvents. Next, they review some of the work which has been published involving the use of supercritical fluids, and particularly CO{sub 2}, as they may be applied to the various steps of IC manufacture, including wafer cleaning, thin film deposition, etching, photoresist stripping, and waste treatment. Next, they describe the research work conducted at Los Alamos, on behalf of Hewlett-Packard, on the use of SCCO{sub 2} in a specific step of the IC manufacturing process: the stripping of hard-baked photoresist.

  20. Eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book contains precisely referenced chapters, emphasizing environment-friendly polymer nanocomposites with basic fundamentals, practicality and alternatives to traditional nanocomposites through detailed reviews of different environmental friendly materials procured from different resources, their synthesis and applications using alternative green approaches. The book aims at explaining basics of eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites from different natural resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and automotive industry. The book attempts to present emerging economic and environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites that are free from side effects studied in the traditional nanocomposites. This book is the outcome of contributions by many experts in the field from different disciplines, with various backgrounds and expertises. This book will appeal to researchers as well as students from different disciplines. The co...

  1. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm 3 ). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SOLAR POWER PLANTS IN THE EU. AN ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY ENGINE FOR THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea SAVEANU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We establish that the European Union is facing severe ecological problems, by analysing the ecological footprint of selected member states. Many of these problems are related to carbon and carbon equivalent emissions, some of which are generated by fossil fuel power plants. It is then shown that the European Union has potential in the solar power renewable energy sector. Finally, we calculate roughly how much land would be necessary in order to replace fossil fuel power plants, as well as nuclear plants, which are largely seen as environmentally dangerous. It is concluded that developing this alternative energy sector would help improve the ecological sustainability of the Union, by diminishing a significant part of its carbon footprint.

  3. Environmentally friendly paint and varnish additives based on isobutyrate aldehyde condensation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziałowska-Tic, Joanna; Jan Tic, Wilhelm

    2017-10-01

    The demand for exploitation of new plasticizers and coalescents to be used for production of water dispersion adhesives based on poli(vinyl acetate), turned to be recently of particular significance because the use of all kind of toxic phthalates was banned and certain restrictions were made to use glycol derivatives classified as volatile organic compounds. An alternative for toxic plasticizers used for production of adhesives is hydroxyester (HE-1) obtained from isobutanal during the process of aldol condensation under subsequent Cannizaro and Tischenko reactions. The paper presents selected results of ecotoxicological tests on the environmental impact of hydroxyester HE-1. It was found that the substance is biodegradable and has no negative impact on algae growth rate, however it may inhibit algae biomass growth. The results of Daphnia immobilization test shows that the substance is safe for the aquatic environment. Whereas, at higher concentrations, hydroxyester HE-1 may exhibit acute toxicity to rainbow trout.

  4. Bioassays as one of the Green Chemistry tools for assessing environmental quality: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczerzak, M; Namieśnik, J; Kudłak, B

    2016-09-01

    For centuries, mankind has contributed to irreversible environmental changes, but due to the modern science of recent decades, scientists are able to assess the scale of this impact. The introduction of laws and standards to ensure environmental cleanliness requires comprehensive environmental monitoring, which should also meet the requirements of Green Chemistry. The broad spectrum of Green Chemistry principle applications should also include all of the techniques and methods of pollutant analysis and environmental monitoring. The classical methods of chemical analyses do not always match the twelve principles of Green Chemistry, and they are often expensive and employ toxic and environmentally unfriendly solvents in large quantities. These solvents can generate hazardous and toxic waste while consuming large volumes of resources. Therefore, there is a need to develop reliable techniques that would not only meet the requirements of Green Analytical Chemistry, but they could also complement and sometimes provide an alternative to conventional classical analytical methods. These alternatives may be found in bioassays. Commercially available certified bioassays often come in the form of ready-to-use toxkits, and they are easy to use and relatively inexpensive in comparison with certain conventional analytical methods. The aim of this study is to provide evidence that bioassays can be a complementary alternative to classical methods of analysis and can fulfil Green Analytical Chemistry criteria. The test organisms discussed in this work include single-celled organisms, such as cell lines, fungi (yeast), and bacteria, and multicellular organisms, such as invertebrate and vertebrate animals and plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Green chemical incorporation of sulphate into polyoxoanions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    forefront of development of clean production process and products (Sanghi and Srivastava 2007). 'Green chemistry' is a science-based non-regulatory and economically driven approach for achieving the goals of environmental protec- tion and sustainable development. In order to be eco-friendly, green chemical synthesis ...

  6. Environmental-Friendly Solid Synthesis of Fe-N-C Electrocatalyst with Fe Exclusively in Atomically Dispersed Fe-N4 Moieties for High-Power Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingtao; Liu, Xiaofang; Zheng, Lirong; Shui, Jianglan

    2017-12-05

    Environmental-friendly synthesis of highly active Fe-N-C electrocatalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is desirable but remains challenging. Herein, we report a green, simple and scalable method to fabricate Fe(II)-doped ZIF-8, which can be further pyrolyzed into Fe-N-C with 3 wt.% of Fe exclusively in Fe-N4 active moieties. Significantly, this Fe-N-C derived acidic PEMFC exhibits an unprecedented current density of 1.65 A cm-2 at 0.6 V and the highest power density of 1.14 W cm-2 compared with previously reported NPMCs. The excellent PEMFC performance can be attributed to the densely and atomically dispersed Fe-N4 active moieties on the small and uniform catalyst nanoparticles. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An environmentally friendly process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent refinery catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Fonti, Viviana; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca

    2013-06-01

    The present study dealt with the whole valorization process of exhaust refinery catalysts, including metal extraction by ferric iron leaching and metal recovery by precipitation with sodium hydroxide. In the leaching operation the effects on metal recovery of the concentration and kind of acid, the concentration of catalyst and iron (III) were determined. The best operating conditions were 0.05 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid, 40 g L(-1) iron (III), 10% catalyst concentration; almost complete extraction of nickel and vanadium, and 50%extraction efficiency of aluminium and less than 20% for molybdenum. Sequential precipitation on the leach liquor showed that it was not possible to separate metals through such an approach and a recovery operation by means of a single-stage precipitation at pH 6.5 would simplify the procedures and give a product with an average content of iron (68%), aluminium (13%), vanadium (11%), nickel (6%) and molybdenum (1%) which would be potentially of interest in the iron alloy market. The environmental sustainability of the process was also assessed by means of life cycle assessment and yielded an estimate that the highest impact was in the category of global warming potential with 0.42 kg carbon dioxide per kg recovered metal.

  8. Environmentally friendly drive for gas compression applications: enhanced design of high-speed induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Karina Velloso; Pradurat, Jean Francois; Mercier, Jean Charles [Institut National Polytechncique, Lorrain (France). Converteam Motors Div.; Truchot, Patrick [Nancy Universite (France). Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs (ERPI)

    2008-07-01

    Taking into account the key issues faced by gas compressors users, this paper aims to help optimize the choice of the drive equipment as well as the driven equipment, in function of the cost of the whole installation life cycle. The design of the enhanced high-speed induction motor (MGV-Moteuer a Grande Vitesse) represents a technological breakthrough for the industry, it allows the direct coupling to the compressor, without using a gearbox making the system more efficient and reliable. From both micro and macro-economic viewpoints, the high-speed electric driver becomes a more efficient use of natural gas energy resources. This new technology associated with the electric option offers challenging and rewarding work to those responsible for the operation and maintenance of the compressor station. The electric option is not only conceptually viable but has a proven track record that justifies serious consideration as an alternative for reliably powering. Once an operator becomes comfortable with the prospects of motor-driven compression, the analysis of machine options requires only a few new approaches to fairly evaluate the alternatives. The application of this reasoning in projects using compression units is especially opportune, in view of the great variations of operational conditions and environmental issues. (author)

  9. Trenchless rehabilitation of buried pipelines via cured-in-place pipe -- an environmentally friendly solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.L. [Insituform Technologies, Inc., Kingwood, TX (United States); Sorrell, P. [Insituform Technologies, Inc., Memphis, TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Refiners and petrochemical producers are faced with a number of issues related to aging infrastructure in their processing facilities. Many of these facilities were initially constructed in the 1960s or earlier and have a large number of plant-wide utilities, general facilities and underground piping systems that are at least 30 years old. Many underground piping systems are approaching the end of their useful life which can be extended only by substantial reconstruction or rehabilitation. This paper will focus on the rehabilitation of underground effluent piping systems such as process sewers, contaminated storm sewers, low-pressure effluent force mains and sanitary sewers. While the technology that will be discussed is also used to rehabilitate water lines in raw, treated and cooling water service, the environmental issues involved with these effluent piping systems justify this focus. A number of options for reconstruction or rehabilitation of process effluent piping will be reviewed briefly. The rehabilitation method that will be discussed in detail is the trenchless or so-called no dig technique using a Cured-In-Place Pipe (CIPP). This technology was originally developed in the early 1970s for rehabilitating municipal sewer lines and has been adapted or further developed for industrial use. Since then, the technology has been used to rehabilitate more than 22 million feet of buried pipelines, including more than 200,000 feet of industrial effluent lines in the past three years.

  10. A Fuzzy MCDM Approach for Green Supplier Selection from the Economic and Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu Mei Wang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the challenge of rising public awareness of environmental issues and governmental regulations, green supply chain management (SCM has become an important issue for companies to gain environmental sustainability. Supplier selection is one of the key operational tasks necessary to construct a green SCM. To select the most suitable suppliers, many economic and environmental criteria must be considered in the decision process. Although numerous studies have used economic criteria such as cost, quality, and lead time in the supplier selection process, only some studies have taken into account the environmental issues. This study proposes a comprehensive fuzzy multicriteria decision making (MCDM approach for green supplier selection and evaluation, using both economic and environmental criteria. In the proposed approach, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP is employed to determine the important weights of criteria under vague environment. In addition, a fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to evaluate and rank the potential suppliers. Finally, a case study in Luminance Enhancement Film (LEF industry is presented to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. A Research-Based Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Project: Investigation of a One-Pot, Multicomponent, Environmentally Friendly Prins-Friedel-Crafts-Type Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintzner, Matthew R.; Maresh, Justin J.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Arena, Anthony F.; Speltz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Students in the undergraduate organic laboratory synthesize tetrahydro-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-phenyl-2"H"-pyran via the Montmorillonite K10 clay-catalyzed reaction of p-nitrobenzaldehye with methanol, 3-buten-1-ol, and benzene. The synthesis comprises an environmentally friendly tandem Prins-Friedel-Crafts-type multicomponent reaction (MCR) and sets…

  12. A Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Environmental Protection Education Model for Policies Decision Support in Green Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lin Hsueh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents’ participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies.

  13. ACEEE's green book: The environmental guide to cars and trucks, Model year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCicco, J.; Kliesch, J.; Thomas, M.

    2000-07-01

    This pathbreaking guide ranks cars and trucks according to environmental friendliness. Buyers can compare cars, vans, pickups, and sport utility vehicles by their environmental impacts, including air pollution, global warming, and fuel efficiency. Inside the guide: how to buy the cleanest and most efficient vehicle that meets your needs; Green Scores for all 2000 makes and models, listed by class--compact, mid-size, and large cars, vans, pickups, and sport utilities; Best of 2000 section featuring the greenest models in each class; Green by Design chapter highlighting advanced technologies and what makes some vehicles greener than others; listings for electric and other alternative fuel vehicles in addition to gasoline and diesel vehicles; tips on keeping your vehicle running cleanly and efficiently; and the environmental impacts of vehicles, including global warming and the health effects of vehicle pollution.

  14. Is Environmental Concern Transformed Into the Intention to Purchase for Green Products in Retail?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Silva Braga Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concern influences the purchase intention for green products in retail? In order to assess whether the consumer has intention to purchase green products for retail, in this study is investigated the influence of environmental concern on the buying behavior of the individual in the acquisition of green products at retail. Therefore, we performed an exploratory quantitative through a survey with a sample of 176 consumers residing in the southern city of São Paulo, answering about their perception about how he believes that other individuals of society respond to the same items. A scale was developed based on two previous studies. That scale was applied and validated for ten experts has proven effective for measuring environmental perception and purchase intention of the respondents. Data analysis was done by structural equation modeling, using the PLS measurement model. Results show that the consumer has intention to purchase green products for retail. However, not observed in the same proportion when it comes to its perception as a member of society, that is, the answers provided have a tendency for social desirability, ie, the consumer responds to the concern about being politically correct.

  15. greening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utpal

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Rapid molecular detection of ... rescence tests with monoclonal antibodies and DNA-DNA hybridization with radioprobes have been used for .... efficiency in amplification of DNA of greening bacterium based on the number of sample amplified and intensity of ...

  16. Development of environmentally friendly non-chrome conversion coatings for cold-rolled steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming

    Steel producers use various organic and inorganic coatings to protect cold-rolled steel (CRS) sheets from corrosion during shipment and storage. It is well known that CRS sheets can be protected from corrosion by galvanizing, phosphating, chromating, topcoating with organic, or their combinations. The chromate rinsing is particularly effective for preventing white rusting of galvanized steel. But there is an increasing interest in a replacement for the chromating process because of environmental and health concerns. The objective of the present work is to develop a chrome-free conversion coating for steel sheets. Various carboxylic acids and their salts have been studied for coating phosphated electrogalvanized (EG) steel sheets, including 10-undecenoic acid (UA), oleic acid (OA), and other fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA) and palmitic acid (PA). When they were used alone, or subsequently coated with resin, they could produce a highly hydrophobic surface and improve the corrosion resistance. Thiols such as 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) can form a self-assembled monolayer on metal substrates. This close-packed monolayer could provide an excellent corrosion resistance for EG steel sheets. It was capable of withstanding 50˜60 hours of salt spray test (SST) although its thickness was only a few nanometers. The EG steel itself usually started rusting only after 2˜4 hours of salt spray. In another coating system, thiols were mixed with a conventional resin to improve the corrosion resistance of EG steel. This new technique gave 100˜120 hours of corrosion resistance. When the resin was applied directly on EG steel surface, its corrosion resistance was less than 72 hours. It was shown that further optimization of this technique increased the corrosion resistance to 200 hours and more in the standard SST.

  17. Ink-jet printing of graphene for flexible electronics: An environmentally-friendly approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, A.; Del Rio Castillo, A. E.; Sun, H.; Ansaldo, A.; Pellegrini, V.; Bonaccorso, F.

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical flexibility is considered an asset in consumer electronics and next-generation electronic systems. Printed and flexible electronic devices could be embedded into clothing or other surfaces at home or office or in many products such as low-cost sensors integrated in transparent and flexible surfaces. In this context inks based on graphene and related two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are gaining increasing attention owing to their exceptional (opto)electronic, electrochemical and mechanical properties. The current limitation relies on the use of solvents, providing stable dispersions of graphene and 2DMs and fitting the proper fluidic requirements for printing, which are in general not environmentally benign, and with high boiling point. Non-toxic and low boiling point solvents do not possess the required rheological properties (i.e., surface tension, viscosity and density) for the solution processing of graphene and 2DMs. Such solvents (e.g., water, alcohols) require the addition of stabilizing agents such as polymers or surfactants for the dispersion of graphene and 2DMs, which however unavoidably corrupt their properties, thus preventing their use for the target application. Here, we demonstrate a viable strategy to tune the fluidic properties of water/ethanol mixtures (low-boiling point solvents) to first effectively exfoliate graphite and then disperse graphene flakes to formulate graphene-based inks. We demonstrate that such inks can be used to print conductive stripes (sheet resistance of ~13 kΩ/□) on flexible substrates (polyethylene terephthalate), moving a step forward towards the realization of graphene-based printed electronic devices.

  18. Keeping the peace green: Integrating arms control and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ. College of Law, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-10-21

    This talk is about how to avoid turning swords into Superfund sites. The problem we address is the potential conflict between the desire to take advantage of the greater international security brought by the end of the Cold War by entering arms control agreements requiring various military weapons to be dismantled, and the desire to avoid further degrading the environment in the process of destroying them. We will use as an illustration of these issues the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which is intended to cause the destruction of all chemical weapons in the world. First, we will provide a brief overview of the CWC, then we will focus in on its environmental provisions, and, finally, we will discuss potential conflicts with United States law and how they might be resolved.

  19. DECO FRECASE (drywall eco-friendly from eggshell and cane bagasse) as an innovation of eco-friendly interior construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imron, M. A.; Ahkam, D. N. I.; Hidayat, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    The number of factories and home industries, both upper and lower middle class certainly adds waste generated, resulting in environmental pollution. The development of buildings is one of the largest contributors to global warming. For that, it takes technological innovations that lead to the criteria of green building. The application of green material is important aspects of environmentally friendly development, the selection of materials on the green material criteria of both roles should be applied continuously in order to realize the environmental sustainability of the material. Utilization Waste eggshell and bagasse which is a community waste, has the potential to become innovative environmentally friendly building materials. The eggshell is composed of 94% calcium carbonate, 1% magnesium carbonate, 1% calcium phosphate, and 4% organic material, especially protein, while the bagasse has a high content of silica (SiO2). In this study, the compounds are used as raw material for making alternative drywall in the form of DECO FRECASE. DECO FRECASE is an innovation of environmentally friendly building materials as an interior wall construction. Through DECO FRECASE, it is expected that building material innovation in Indonesia can be improved and of course environmental problems can be minimized by utilizing it as raw material for building construction.

  20. Study on green technologies and skills of tourism enterprises in Huangshan City based on environmental protection perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jun

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, air pollution, environmental degradation and other ecological problems emerge in an endless stream, a great threat to human health. In this context, the ecological civilization, sustainable development, economic transformation and upgrading and other green ideas emerge as the times require, and are highly concerned by the government, enterprises, academia and the public. From the perspective of tourism enterprises, through empirical research, this paper analyzes the influencing factors of green technologies and skills in tourism enterprises, and constructs the impact mechanism model of green technologies and skills. Put forward to promote enterprises to implement green management intention, suggestions to promote the practice of green technologies and skills.

  1. "Green" pyrotechnics: a chemists' challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Fireworks are probably the application of chemistry which resonates best with the general public. However, fireworks and (civil and military) pyrotechnic applications cause environmental pollution and thus have given rise to the development of new, environmentally friendly pyrotechnic compounds and formulations. Nitrogen-rich energetic materials, such as the derivatives of tetrazoles and tetrazines, are about to revolutionize traditional pyrotechnic compositions. This Review summarizes the sources of pollution in current formulations and recent efforts toward "green" pyrotechnics.

  2. Green tribology: principles, research areas and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-10-28

    In this introductory paper for the Theme Issue on green tribology, we discuss the concept of green tribology and its relation to other areas of tribology as well as other 'green' disciplines, namely, green engineering and green chemistry. We formulate the 12 principles of green tribology: the minimization of (i) friction and (ii) wear, (iii) the reduction or complete elimination of lubrication, including self-lubrication, (iv) natural and (v) biodegradable lubrication, (vi) using sustainable chemistry and engineering principles, (vii) biomimetic approaches, (viii) surface texturing, (ix) environmental implications of coatings, (x) real-time monitoring, (xi) design for degradation, and (xii) sustainable energy applications. We further define three areas of green tribology: (i) biomimetics for tribological applications, (ii) environment-friendly lubrication, and (iii) the tribology of renewable-energy application. The integration of these areas remains a primary challenge for this novel area of research. We also discuss the challenges of green tribology and future directions of research.

  3. Trivalent manganese as an environmentally friendly oxidizing reagent for microwave- and ultrasound-assisted chemical oxygen demand determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domini, Claudia E; Vidal, Lorena; Canals, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    In the present work manganese(III) has been used as oxidant and microwave radiation and ultrasound energy have been assessed to speed up and to improve the efficiency of digestion step for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Microwave (MW) and ultrasound-assisted COD determination methods have been optimized by means of experimental design and the optimum conditions are: 40psi pressure, 855W power and 1min irradiation time; and 90% of maximum nominal power (180W), 0.9s (s(-1)) cycles and 1min irradiation time for microwaves and ultrasound, respectively. Chloride ion interference is removed as hydrochloric acid gas from acidified sample solutions at 150 degrees C in a closed reaction tube and captured by bismuth-based adsorbent suspended above the heated solution. Under optimum conditions, the evaluated assisted digestion methods have been successfully applied, with the exception of pyridine, to several pure organic compounds and two reference materials. COD recoveries obtained with MW and ultrasound-assisted digestion for five real wastewater samples were ranged between 86-97% and 68-91%, respectively, of the values obtained with the classical method (open reflux) used as reference, with relative standard deviation lower than 4% in most cases. Thus, the Mn(III) microwave-assisted digestion method seems to be an interesting and promising alternative to conventional COD digestion methods since it is faster and more environmentally friendly than the ones used for the same purpose.

  4. An environmental friendly method for the automatic determination of hypochlorite in commercial products using multisyringe flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, N Ornelas; Horstkotte, B; March, J G; López de Alba, P L; López Martínez, L; Cerdá Martín, V

    2008-03-24

    A multisyringe flow injection analysis system was used for the determination of hypochlorite in cleaning agents, by measurement of the native absorbance of hypochlorite at 292 nm. The methodology was based on the selective decomposition of hypochlorite by a cobalt oxide catalyst giving chloride and oxygen. The difference of the absorbance of the sample before and after its pass through a cobalt oxide column was selected as analytical signal. As no further reagent was required this work can be considered as a contribution to environmental friendly analytical chemistry. The entire analytical procedure, including in-line sample dilution in three steps was automated by first, dilution in a stirred miniature vessel, second by dispersion and third by in-line addition of water using multisyringe flow injection technique. The dynamic concentration range was 0.04-0.78 gL(-1) (relative standard deviation lower than 3%), where the extension of the hypochlorite decomposition was of 90+/-4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial cleaning products. The accuracy of the method was established by iodometric titration.

  5. Development of High-speed and Environmentally Friendly Photoresist Removal Process using Pulsed Microwave Plasma in Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishijima, Tatsuo; Kitano, Takuya; Ito, Takuya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Yasunori; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Nishiyama, Takashi; Horibe, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    A novel photoresist removing technique using a pulsed microwave excited plasma produced in vaporized water bubble (MWBP) has remarkable properties such as environmentally-friendly and low temperature process. This photoresist removal method has been studied to apply a practical semiconductor manufacturing process. On the other hand, the minimal-fabrication system (minimal-fab) without using a clean room has been proposed and developed in order to adapt a high-variety low-volume semiconductor manufacturing process. Recently MOS device production has been succeeded using the minimal-fab. It is expected to evaluate the proposed MWBP ashing technology ability and clarify the possibility for a practical semiconductor manufacturing process to be incorporated in the minimal-fab. In order to apply MWBP for the minimal-fab, reduction of the input microwave power is necessary because the size of the minimal-fab is a compact and is highly standardized to maximize the convenience of the fabrication system utilization. In this study, we have investigated MWBP production methods to reduce the MWBP production power. We found that the decrease in the MWBP production power can be achieved by introducing a new bubble-control-structure to keep the bubble around the microwave antenna.

  6. LiNbO3 Coating on Concrete Surface: A New and Environmentally Friendly Route for Artificial Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit K. Nath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of a photocatalyst to ordinary building materials such as concrete creates environmentally friendly materials by which air pollution or pollution of the surface can be diminished. The use of LiNbO3 photocatalyst in concrete material would be more beneficial since it can produce artificial photosynthesis in concrete. In these research photoassisted solid-gas phases reduction of carbon dioxide (artificial photosynthesis was performed using a photocatalyst, LiNbO3, coated on concrete surface under illumination of UV-visible or sunlight and showed that LiNbO3 achieved high conversion of CO2 into products despite the low levels of band-gap light available. The high reaction efficiency of LiNbO3 is explained by its strong remnant polarization (70 µC/cm2, allowing a longer lifetime of photoinduced carriers as well as an alternative reaction pathway. Due to the ease of usage and good photocatalytic efficiency, the research work done showed its potential application in pollution prevention.

  7. LiNbO3 coating on concrete surface: a new and environmentally friendly route for artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ranjit K; Zain, M F M; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H

    2013-01-01

    The addition of a photocatalyst to ordinary building materials such as concrete creates environmentally friendly materials by which air pollution or pollution of the surface can be diminished. The use of LiNbO3 photocatalyst in concrete material would be more beneficial since it can produce artificial photosynthesis in concrete. In these research photoassisted solid-gas phases reduction of carbon dioxide (artificial photosynthesis) was performed using a photocatalyst, LiNbO3, coated on concrete surface under illumination of UV-visible or sunlight and showed that LiNbO3 achieved high conversion of CO2 into products despite the low levels of band-gap light available. The high reaction efficiency of LiNbO3 is explained by its strong remnant polarization (70 µC/cm(2)), allowing a longer lifetime of photoinduced carriers as well as an alternative reaction pathway. Due to the ease of usage and good photocatalytic efficiency, the research work done showed its potential application in pollution prevention.

  8. Environmentally-Friendly Synthesis of Carbonate-Type Macrodiols and Preparation of Transparent Self-Healable Thermoplastic Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Mi Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate-type macrodiols synthesized by base-catalyzed polycondensation of co-diols and dimethyl carbonate as an environmentally-friendly route were subsequently utilized for the preparation of transparent and self-healable thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs containing a carbonate-type soft segment. Three types of macrodiols, obtained from mono, dual and triple diol-monomers for target molecular weights of 1 and 1.5 kg mol−1, were analyzed by 1H NMR integration and the OH titration value. Colorless transparent macrodiols in a liquid state at a room temperature of 20 °C were obtained, except the macrodiol from mono 1,6-hexanediol. Before TPU synthesis, macrodiols require pH neutralization to prevent gelation. TPUs synthesized by a solution pre-polymer method with 4,4′-methylene(bisphenyl isocyanate and 1,4-butanediol as a chain extender exhibited moderate molecular weights, good transparencies and robust mechanical properties. Especially, the incorporation of 3-methyl-1,5-pentanediol within carbonate-type macrodiols enhanced the transparency of the resultant TPUs by decreasing the degree of microphase separation evidenced by ATR-FTIR and DSC. Interestingly, packing density of hard segments and the degree of microphase separation determined the self-healing efficiency of TPUs, which showed good performances in the case of sourced macrodiols from triple diol-monomers.

  9. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  10. Effective recovery of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biopolymer from Cupriavidus necator using a novel and environmentally friendly solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Tao; Cazeneuve, Stacy; Wen, Zhiyou; Wu, Lei; Wang, Tong

    2016-05-01

    This work demonstrates a significant advance in bioprocessing for a high-melting lipid polymer. A novel and environmental friendly solvent mixture, acetone/ethanol/propylene carbonate (A/E/P, 1:1:1 v/v/v) was identified for extracting poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a high-value biopolymer, from Cupriavidus necator. A set of solubility curves of PHB in various solvents was established. PHB recovery of 85% and purity of 92% were obtained from defatted dry biomass (DDB) using A/E/P. This solvent mixture is compatible with water, and from non-defatted wet biomass, PHB recovery of 83% and purity of 90% were achieved. Water and hexane were evaluated as anti-solvents to assist PHB precipitation, and hexane improved recovery of PHB from biomass to 92% and the purity to 93%. A scale-up extraction and separation reactor was designed, built and successfully tested. Properties of PHB recovered were not significantly affected by the extraction solvent and conditions, as shown by average molecular weight (1.4 × 10(6) ) and melting point (175.2°C) not being different from PHB extracted using chloroform. Therefore, this biorenewable solvent system was effective and versatile for extracting PHB biopolymers. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:678-685, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Public green areas and urban environmental quality of the city of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, M A; Rufino, R R; Fushita, A T; Lima, M I S

    2016-04-19

    Assess the state of public green areas, their importance and influence on environmental quality and living in urban centers is an arduous task considering the conceptual and scientific regarding quantification and data analysis methods divergence. In this study, we aimed to determine two indicators of public green areas relative to the percentage of public green areas (PPGA) and the public green areas index (PGAI) in the urban area of São Carlos, SP. The study area was organized into administrative regions (ARs), using satellite images, topographical maps of 1:10,000 Geographic and Cartographic Institute (1990) and data provided by the Municipality of São Carlos. The results show that public green areas comprise 6.55% of the municipality, with a public green areas index (PGAI) of 18.85 m2/inhabitant, indicating good urban environmental quality when compared to rates of 15 m2/capita for public green areas for recreation, suggested by the Brazilian Society of Urban Forestry. The differences between the administrative regions are concern with situations from 4.16 to 36.30 m2/inhabitant. In this context, it is recommend specific public policies and popular participation in the process of continuous improvement for increasing public green areas in the less favored regions. The Genebrino method applied to indicators of public green areas (GPGA - amount of public green areas divided by population density), showed a commendable goal above 40% for urban environmental quality.

  12. Public green areas and urban environmental quality of the city of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bertini

    Full Text Available Abstract Assess the state of public green areas, their importance and influence on environmental quality and living in urban centers is an arduous task considering the conceptual and scientific regarding quantification and data analysis methods divergence. In this study, we aimed to determine two indicators of public green areas relative to the percentage of public green areas (PPGA and the public green areas index (PGAI in the urban area of São Carlos, SP. The study area was organized into administrative regions (ARs, using satellite images, topographical maps of 1:10,000 Geographic and Cartographic Institute (1990 and data provided by the Municipality of São Carlos. The results show that public green areas comprise 6.55% of the municipality, with a public green areas index (PGAI of 18.85 m2/inhabitant, indicating good urban environmental quality when compared to rates of 15 m2/capita for public green areas for recreation, suggested by the Brazilian Society of Urban Forestry. The differences between the administrative regions are concern with situations from 4.16 to 36.30 m2/inhabitant. In this context, it is recommend specific public policies and popular participation in the process of continuous improvement for increasing public green areas in the less favored regions. The Genebrino method applied to indicators of public green areas (GPGA – amount of public green areas divided by population density, showed a commendable goal above 40% for urban environmental quality.

  13. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  14. The mere green effect: An fMRI study of pro-environmental advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezich, I Stephanie; Gunter, Benjamin C; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    Self-report evidence suggests that consumers prefer green products (i.e., pro-environmental) to standard products, but this is not reflected in purchase behaviors. To understand this disconnect, we exposed participants in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to green and standard ads. After viewing each ad, participants rated liking and perceived sustainability. Ratings were more favorable for green ads than for control ads, but the functional MRI data suggested an opposite pattern-participants showed greater activation in regions associated with personal value and reward (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) in response to control ads relative to green ads. In addition, participants showed greater activity in these regions to the extent that they reported liking control ads, but there was no such trend for green ads. In line with a neuroeconomic account, we suggest that activity in these regions may be indexing a value signal computed during message exposure that may influence downstream purchase decisions, in contrast to self-reported evaluations that may reflect social desirability concerns absent at the point of purchase.

  15. A multimethodology contractor assessment model for facilitating green innovation: the view of energy and environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin; Yan, Min-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and utility theory focus on the customer's attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  16. A Multimethodology Contractor Assessment Model for Facilitating Green Innovation: The View of Energy and Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lin Hsueh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and utility theory focus on the customer’s attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  17. Designing green taxes in a political context: From optimal to feasible environmental regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugbjerg, C.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    2001-07-01

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous. This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation demonstrates that relatively high tax levels can be implemented if an equal relationship between the tax object and the object determining the level of refunds exists throughout the sector. This means that revenues can be reimbursed without creating redistribution within producer communities. (au)

  18. Production and release of selenocyanate by different green freshwater algae in environmental and laboratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Kelly L; Smith, Matthew S; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2012-06-05

    In a previous study, selenocyanate was tentatively identified as a biotransformation product when green algae were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of selenate. In this follow-up study, we confirm conclusively the presence of selenocyanate in Chlorella vulgaris culture medium by electrospray mass spectrometry, based on selenium's known isotopic pattern. We also demonstrate that the observed phenomenon extends to other green algae (Chlorella kesslerii and Scenedesmus obliquus) and at least one species of blue-green algae (Synechococcus leopoliensis). Further laboratory experiments show that selenocyanate production by algae is enhanced by addition of nitrate, which appears to serve as a source of cyanide produced in the algae. Ultimately, this biotransformation process was confirmed in field experiments where trace amounts of selenocyanate (0.215 ± 0.010 ppb) were observed in a eutrophic, selenium-impacted river with massive algal blooms, which consisted of filamentous green algae (Cladophora genus) and blue-green algae (Anabaena genus). Selenocyanate abundance was low despite elevated selenium concentrations, apparently due to suppression of selenate uptake by sulfate, and insufficient nitrogen concentrations. Finally, trace levels of several other unidentified selenium-containing compounds were observed in these river water samples; preliminary suggestions for their identities include thioselenate and small organic Se species.

  19. WHY RESTAURANTS SHOULD GO GREEN? – MAIN ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES IN RESTAURANTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan-Dragos CÎRSTEA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospitality businesses influence the sustainability of their natural environment by consuming significant amounts of natural resources. Restaurant industry employs one in every three retail workers and consumes one-third of all retail electricity use and almost 30% of all meals were eaten away from home, last year. This study attempted to identify the most important benefits obtained from green practices implementation and which are the basic environmental practices that can be adopted by the organisations in order the improve their image and reduce their costs. Moreover, our research has been undertaken in parallel with worldwide existing trends in order to better understand the direction in which green restaurants are moving. This study results inventories the main environmental practices and actions that can be implemented in restaurants.

  20. Green analytical chemistry--theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Mechlińska, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-08-01

    This tutorial review summarises the current state of green analytical chemistry with special emphasis on environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. Green analytical chemistry is a part of the sustainable development concept; its history and origins are described. Miniaturisation of analytical devices and shortening the time elapsing between performing analysis and obtaining reliable analytical results are important aspects of green analytical chemistry. Solventless extraction techniques, the application of alternative solvents and assisted extractions are considered to be the main approaches complying with green analytical chemistry principles.

  1. WHY RESTAURANTS SHOULD GO GREEN? – MAIN ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES IN RESTAURANTS INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan-Dragos CÎRSTEA

    2015-01-01

    Hospitality businesses influence the sustainability of their natural environment by consuming significant amounts of natural resources. Restaurant industry employs one in every three retail workers and consumes one-third of all retail electricity use and almost 30% of all meals were eaten away from home, last year. This study attempted to identify the most important benefits obtained from green practices implementation and which are the basic environmental practices that can be adopted by t...

  2. Environmentally friendly AND cheap?

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the initiative to make CERN a greener laboratory (see the Word from the DG in issue 20-21/2009 of the Bulletin), the Safety Commission’s General Safety Group has acquired CERN’s first electric bicycle. Picture of a cyclist wearing personal protective equipment riding the new bike at CERN.What with the Medical Service’s "Be active" health campaign, the emphasis placed on two-wheel safety this spring and the sheds for two-wheeled vehicles that are springing up all over the CERN site, it’s time to get on your bike… or one of the bikes available to the personnel, such as the DG/SCG’s new electric cycle. On Tuesday, 21 July, Building 57 welcomed CERN’s first electric bicycle, and the message to the DG/SCG group is clear: "Use it rather than taking one of the CERN cars as often as you can". With this new means of transport that’s easy on the environment (no direct gas emissions) as well as on the walle...

  3. Environmentally Friendly Coolant System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Jackson Principal Investigator

    2011-11-08

    Energy reduction through the use of the EFCS is most improved by increasing machining productivity. Throughout testing, nearly all machining operations demonstrated less land wear on the tooling when using the EFCS which results in increased tool life. These increases in tool life advance into increased productivity. Increasing productivity reduces cycle times and therefore reduces energy consumption. The average energy savings by using the EFCS in these machining operations with these materials is 9%. The advantage for end milling stays with flood coolant by about 6.6% due to its use of a low pressure pump. Face milling and drilling are both about 17.5% less energy consumption with the EFCS than flood coolant. One additional result of using the EFCS is improved surface finish. Certain machining operations using the EFCS result in a smoother surface finish. Applications where finishing operations are required will be able to take advantage of the improved finish by reducing the time or possibly eliminating completely one or more finishing steps and thereby reduce their energy consumption. Some machining operations on specific materials do not show advantages for the EFCS when compared to flood coolants. More information about these processes will be presented later in the report. A key point to remember though, is that even with equivalent results, the EFCS is replacing petroleum based coolants whose production produces GHG emissions and create unsafe work environments.

  4. Environmentally friendly consumer behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Andersen, Alf K.

    1996-01-01

    To uafhængige stikprøver á ca. 200 er interviewet om deres holdninger til og køb af hhv. økologisk mælk og økologiske gulerødder. Undersøgelsen finder, at over halvdelen af befolkningen har en positiv holdning til og intentioner om køb af økologis fødevarer. V.h.a. hierarkisk regressionsanalyse f...

  5. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  6. Towards a green economy in Europe. EU environmental policy targets and objectives 2010-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The 'green economy' has emerged as a priority in policy debate in recent years. But what does the concept mean in practice and how can decision-makers measure progress towards this strategic goal? This report provides some answers, presenting a detailed overview of the key objectives and targets in EU environmental policy and legislation for the period 2010-2050. It focuses on selected environmental and resource policy areas, specifically: energy; greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ozone-depleting substances; air quality and air pollution; transport sector emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants; waste; water; sustainable consumption and production (SCP); chemicals; biodiversity and land use. (Author)

  7. Institutionalizing environmental reform with sense-making: West and Central Africa ports and the ‘green port’ phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes Dabban, H.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Harmonizing economic activities with environmental considerations has emerged as a new globalizing phenomenon for ports. The phenomenon is labelled as ‘green port’. There is however no canonical way of turning green port into business reality. Some advanced ports have adapted it and African ports

  8. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm2, and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p+−n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5–10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method. PMID:26632759

  9. CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 perovskites as environmentally friendly photovoltaic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce the toxicity of Pb in perovskite solar cells, the band structures, electron and hole effective masses, and electronic and optical properties of the novel perovskites CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 were predicted using density functional theory with the scalar relativistic generalized gradient approximation. The calculation results indicated that the introduction of the Mg component caused the band gaps of the CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 compounds to exceed that of CH3NH3PbI3. The calculated absorption coefficients of the CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 perovskites revealed that substituting 12.5 mol % of the Pb in CH3NH3PbI3 with Mg had little effect on the absorption ability. Surprisingly, it was also found that CH3NH3Pb0.75Mg0.25I3 retained up to 83% of the absorption performance relative to CH3NH3PbI3. This indicates that the amount of toxic Pb used in perovskite solar cells could be reduced by a quarter while retaining over 80% of the light-absorbing ability. In general, these novel CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 (x ≤ 0.25 perovskites represent promising candidates for environmentally friendly light-harvesting materials for use in solar cells.

  10. The Effect of Environmental Capabilities on Environmental Strategy and Environmental Performance of Korean Exporters for Green Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Sung Bae

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to verify the relationships between environmental capabilities, environmental strategy and environmental performance. To achieve the objective, this research collects and analyzes 219 data responded by the members of the Korea International Trade Association. Reliability and validity of the data are tested by an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis. The relationships between the variables are tested by an analysis of structural equation modeling. The results are as follows. First, environmental capabilities of Korean exporters have a positive effect on environmental strategy. Capabilities of the firms as an internal resource are based on performing strategy. Firms which have superior environmental capabilities can be possible to make an effort on cooperative environmental improvement among departments and this is based on environmental collaboration with customers and suppliers. Second, external environmental strategy of Korean exporters has a positive effect on environmental performance. Environmental collaboration with customers and suppliers is based on attaining superior environmental performance. Third, environmental capabilities of Korean exporters have a positive effect on environmental performance. Environmental capabilities as a strategic resource of the firms are based on achieving a high level of environmental performance, and the firms can attain a sustainable competitive advantage in the market. Therefore, environmental capabilities of Korean exporters have a direct effect of environmental strategy and environmental performance.

  11. Green Kidz: Young learners engage in intercultural environmental citizenship in the English language classroom in Argentina and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto, Melina; Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Arcuri, Maria Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Projektet "Green Kidz. Intercultural environmental citizenship in the English language classroom in Argentina and Denmark" er en del af et internationalt udviklingsprojekt, der er ledet af Michael Byram, Durham University. Projektet belyser, hvordan interkulturelt medborgerskab kan styrkes i folk...

  12. Report: EPA Needs to Assess Environmental and Economic Benefits of Completed Clean Water State Revolving Fund Green Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0162, May 2, 2016. The EPA needs to collect and evaluate data on the environmental and economic benefits of over $3.24 billion in public funds invested in green projects from 2009 through 2014.

  13. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system. Green helmet project for briquette production plant - Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo chosa hokokusho. Briquette seizo setsubi ni kakawaru green helmet jigyo (Thai koku Mae Moh tanko)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This Green Helmet Project is intended to suppress generation of environment polluting substances in association with coal utilization in Thailand by demonstrating and improving the proliferation infrastructure for the clean coal technology to be used widely in Thailand. The project is also intended to serve for stabilized assurance of energies for Japan. The demonstration project related to briquette manufacturing facilities executed as one of the 'Projects to support introduction of environment friendly coal utilization system' is intended to manufacture at low cost a briquette which is low in odor, free of smoke, and suppressed largely of sulfur oxide generation. The briquette is made by adding clayish minerals, sulfur, a fixing agent and a binder into brown coal being a low grade coal. The project implements proliferation of the technology to reduce environmental load associated with coal utilization in developing countries according to the situation and needs of the counterpart countries. The present project has performed the site surveys and guidance of operation and maintenance techniques as follow-up works of the demonstration project having been completed by cooperation between Japan and Thailand. It is considered that what had been intended in the beginning has been achieved sufficiently. (NEDO)

  14. Environmentally friendly heat from modern heating technology. Optimal heat distribution using jet pumps; Umweltschonende Waerme durch moderne Heiztechnik. Optimale Waermeverteilung mit Strahlpumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpper, Renate; Baelz, Uwe [W. Baelz und Sohn GmbH und Co., Heilbronn (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The wood chip fired district heating plant in Olang in South Tyrol produces environmentally friendly heat from domestic wood. Its heat is delivered directly to the consumer using electricity-saving, durable jet pumps in combination with reliable, low-maintenance heating equipment as well as modern control technology. Consumers can regulate the jet pumps individually and use the heat optimally according to their demand.

  15. Use of collard green stalks as environmental enrichment for cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus kept in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S.G. Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of collard green stalks as environmental enrichment on the behavior of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus maintained in captivity. Sixteen birds were housed individually in cages and fed a commercial diet for parrots and seed mix, with water ad libitum during 12 days in climatic chamber with temperature and relative humidity simulating tropical conditions. The animals (n = 8 were divided into two groups, control and enriched, and the experimental period was divided into two phases (during and after enrichment of four days each. The collard green stalks were used as enrichment only during the first period of the experiment, daily changed and maintained only during the day. The stalks increased the feed intake and decreased the sleep activities. No effect was observed on the body surface temperature, locomotion, maintenance and other resting activities. Small undesirable activities were detected. It was concluded that collard green stalks can be used as environmental enrichment, becoming part of food preferences of cockatiels. However, its use does not significantly alter the behavior of birds kept in captivity

  16. An Integrated Environmental Assessment of Green and Gray Infrastructure Strategies for Robust Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal-Campos, Arturo; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Moore, Andrew

    2015-07-21

    The robustness of a range of watershed-scale "green" and "gray" drainage strategies in the future is explored through comprehensive modeling of a fully integrated urban wastewater system case. Four socio-economic future scenarios, defined by parameters affecting the environmental performance of the system, are proposed to account for the uncertain variability of conditions in the year 2050. A regret-based approach is applied to assess the relative performance of strategies in multiple impact categories (environmental, economic, and social) as well as to evaluate their robustness across future scenarios. The concept of regret proves useful in identifying performance trade-offs and recognizing states of the world most critical to decisions. The study highlights the robustness of green strategies (particularly rain gardens, resulting in half the regret of most options) over end-of-pipe gray alternatives (surface water separation or sewer and storage rehabilitation), which may be costly (on average, 25% of the total regret of these options) and tend to focus on sewer flooding and CSO alleviation while compromising on downstream system performance (this accounts for around 50% of their total regret). Trade-offs and scenario regrets observed in the analysis suggest that the combination of green and gray strategies may still offer further potential for robustness.

  17. Sustainable green composites of thermoplastic starch and cellulose fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnuay Wattanakornsiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Green composites have gained renewed interest as environmental friendly materials and as biodegradable renewable resources for a sustainable development. This review provides an overview of recent advances in green composites based on thermoplastic starch (TPS and cellulose fibers. It includes information about compositions, preparations, and properties of starch, cellulose fibers, TPS, and green composites based on TPS and cellulose fibers. Introduction and production of these recyclable composites into the material market would be important for environmental sustainability as their use can decrease the volume of petroleum derived plastic waste dumps. Green composites are comparable cheap and abundant, but further research and development is needed for a broader utilization.

  18. C-TEC: Ohio's First All-Green School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Angie

    2009-01-01

    In Ohio's Licking County, the Career and Technology Education Centers (C-TEC) is a leader in the green movement. This eco-friendly school incorporates environmental sustainability in all aspects of its programming and is the first Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified public building in the state. While eco-friendly…

  19. Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Using Tea: A Green Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. K.; Gulati, Shikha; Mehta, Shilpa

    2012-01-01

    Assimilating green chemistry principles in nanotechnology is a developing area of nanoscience research nowadays. Thus, there is a growing demand to develop environmentally friendly and sustainable methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles that utilize nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents, and renewable materials to avoid their…

  20. Lobbying friends and foes in climate policy: The case of business and environmental interest groups in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Anne Therese [CICERO, Pb 1129 Blindern, N-0318 Oslo (Norway)

    2008-08-15

    Drawing on two conflicting hypotheses from the theoretical literature on lobbying, I consider the strategies applied by interest groups lobbying to influence climate policy in the European Union (EU). The first hypothesis claims that interest groups lobby their 'friends', decision-makers with positions similar to their own. The second claims that interest groups lobby their 'foes', decision-makers with positions opposed to their own. Using interviews with lobbyists and decision-makers, I demonstrate that in the field of climate policy, interest groups in the EU lobby both friends and foes, but under different conditions. Moreover, I find that the interest groups' motives are not always in line with the theoretical hypotheses. Interest groups lobby their friends on single policy decisions to exchange information, to further a common cause and to exert pressure, and their foes because a foe on one issue might prove to be a friend on another issue. Interest groups direct general lobbying towards both friends and foes. This paper provides a new empirical contribution to a literature that has so far been heavily dominated by studies focusing on lobbying in the US. (author)

  1. Green procurement in Kenyan hospitals : exploring the awareness and opportunities for Kenyan hospitals to implement green procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Mwacharo, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    The significance of having a positive environmental impact has rapidly been growing. More and more industries are beginning to identify and implement the ways in which they can be environmentally friendly. One such way is green procurement. In many developed countries where green public procurement is at the fore-front of procurement activities, many industries have implemented it, including the healthcare industry. In Kenya, a developing country in East Africa, sustainability is a well-known...

  2. Overall Environmental Equipment Effectiveness as a Metric of a Lean and Green Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Domingo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new metric for describing the sustainability improvements achieved, relative to the company’s initial situation, after implementing a lean and green manufacturing system. The final value of this metric is identified as the Overall Environmental Equipment Effectiveness (OEEE, which is used to analyze the evolution between two identified states of the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE and the sustainability together, and references, globally and individually, the production steps. The OEE is a known measure of equipment utilization, which includes the availability, quality and performance of each production step, In addition to these factors, the OEEE incorporates the concept of sustainability based on the calculated environmental impact of the complete product life cycle. Action research based on the different manufacturing processes of a tube fabrication company is conducted to assess the potential impact of this new indicator. The case study demonstrates the compatibility between green and lean manufacturing, using a common metric. The OEEE allows sustainability to be integrated into business decisions, and compares the environmental impact of two states, by identifying the improvements undertaken within the company’s processes.

  3. The Green Dialysis Survey: Establishing a Baseline for Environmental Sustainability across Dialysis Facilities in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Katherine A; Gleeson, Alice; Holt, Stephen G; Agar, John Wm

    2017-11-02

    The Green Dialysis Survey aimed to 1) establish a baseline for environmental sustainability (ES) across Victorian dialysis facilities, and 2) guide future initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of dialysis delivery. Nurse unit managers of all Victorian public dialysis facilities received an online link to the survey, which asked 107 questions relevant to the ES of dialysis services. Responses were received from 71/83 dialysis facilities in Victoria (86%), representing 628/660 dialysis chairs (95%). Low energy lighting was present in 13 facilities (18%), 18 (25%) recycled reverse osmosis water and 7 (10%) reported use of renewable energy. Fifty-six facilities (79%) performed comingled recycling but only 27 (38%) recycled polyvinyl chloride plastic. A minority educated staff in appropriate waste management (n=30;42%) or formally audited waste generation and segregation (n=19;27%). Forty-four (62%) provided secure bicycle parking but only 33 (46%) provided shower and changing facilities. There was limited use of tele- or video-conferencing to replace staff meetings (n=19;27%) or patient clinic visits (n=13;18%). A minority considered ES in procurement decisions (n=28;39%) and there was minimal preparedness to cope with climate change. Only 39 services (49%) confirmed an ES policy and few had ever formed a green group (n=14; 20%) or were currently undertaking a green project (n=8;11%). Only 15 facilities (21%) made formal efforts to raise awareness of ES. This survey provides a baseline for practices that potentially impact the environmental sustainability of dialysis units in Victoria, Australia. It also identifies achievable targets for attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  5. Divisi Program Manager Dalam Kampanye PR Undip Environmentally Friendly Campus "Grenade (Green Action to Avoid Earth Destruction)"

    OpenAIRE

    Wulandari, Irawati Sri; Naryoso, Agus; Nugroho, Adi; Ulfa, Nurrist Suraya

    2014-01-01

    Pemanasan global sedang menjadi perbincangan hangat di tengah masyarakat dunia. Karena ulah manusia, planet ini sedang mengalami pemanasan global, atau yang biasa disebut sebagai global warming. Global warming adalah suatu proses meningkatnya suhu rata-rata atmosfer, laut, dan daratan di bumi. Universitas sebagai salah satu bagian penting dari masyarakat memiliki andil yang sangat besar dalam USAha pelestarian lingkungan sebagai USAha melindungi dan memperbaiki kerusakan yang telah terjadi di...

  6. Can green consumerism replace environmental regulation? A differentiated-products example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Clas [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7013, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    This paper assumes that consumers are willing to pay an extra premium for a good if it has a low impact on the environment. We examine if a little dose of such idealistic behavior has a large impact on the market equilibrium, and to what extent it can replace the environmental regulation. The analysis is carried out in a model with product differentiation, where consumers differ in their preferences for product quality. Consumers' willingness to pay the environmental premium may be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. Green consumerism will only be modestly influential in both cases, despite the fact that product differentiation leads to relaxed competition and increased profits, and thereby creates leverage.

  7. Practices for Green it in an Educational Company to Promote Environmental Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana Nascimento Pontes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems and preservation of natural resources, global warming, energy economy and sustainability have been the subject of interest organizations, especially with regard to information technology, as electronics waste can seriously impact the environment. Practices are adopted by various organizations and the study in question is about an education company, analyzing its actions, strategies and the media used for awareness of its customers and society, the IT (Information Technology Green techniques employed so there is sustainability and in order to serve as a reference for companies in the same business. The method used to carry out the survey information was through an opinion poll conducted among employees who work in IT areas, purchase of materials and organization infrastructure maintenance, and they reported the amounts of equipment and parts discarded by the institution and Green IT practices they that are wanting to adopt, and these employees act as influencers on managers so decision-making for managing their technology ecosystems had as little impact as possible on the environment. The results of the analysis, quantification of discarded parts and what is the most prevalent type, such as ink cartridges, toner and CRT monitors, were relevant to the company managers, who take action, but did not have a dimension of the amount of e-waste discarded annually, and they can later state the predominant chemical elements in each that can cause environmental impact and can serve as model for other similar companies.

  8. The Influence of Green Restaurant Decision Formation Using the VAB Model: The Effect of Environmental Concerns upon Intent to Visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Man Teng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates consumers’ intent to patron green restaurants by application of the Value-Attitude-Behavior model. The present study examines the interrelationships among consumers’ values, attitudes, and environmental concerns, and explores how they relate to their intentions to visit green restaurants in Taiwan. Data were gathered by face-to-face surveys, conducted by trained interviewers in a variety of locations, including at train stations, supermarkets, department stores, shopping malls, and adult education classes to obtain data from a representative demographic profile. The findings of this study suggest that the personal values and general attitudes positively affect consumers’ intentions to visit a green restaurant. Additionally, the results found personal values and environmental concern have significant influence on the attitude toward green restaurants. Managerial implications and future directions of these findings were also discussed.

  9. The Influence of Green Restaurant Decision Formation Using the VAB Model: The Effect of Environmental Concerns upon Intent to Visit

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Man Teng; Kun-Shan Wu; Di-Man Huang

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates consumers’ intent to patron green restaurants by application of the Value-Attitude-Behavior model. The present study examines the interrelationships among consumers’ values, attitudes, and environmental concerns, and explores how they relate to their intentions to visit green restaurants in Taiwan. Data were gathered by face-to-face surveys, conducted by trained interviewers in a variety of locations, including at train stations, supermarkets, department stores, shoppin...

  10. Green technology meets ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Radošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying concept and principles of green chemistry into different technological processes, green technologies are developed. The environmental and economic benefits of “green” approach is achieved through several directions, such as the use of renewable raw materials, creation of economic efficiency, the use of alternative reaction conditions, as well as the application of non-conventional solvents. From the point view of green chemistry, alternative solvents, in order to be a “green“ substitution to hazardous organic solvents, should be: non-volatile, non-flammable, stabile, synthesized by an environmentally friendly procedure, nontoxic and biodegradable. The toxic impact of all newly synthesized chemicals, such as alternative solvents, could be determined by methods and techniques of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology, an interdisciplinary scientific field, can serve as a way of monitoring the greenness of the processes. In vivo and in vitro experiments are used to study the effects of chemicals on different levels of organizations, from molecules to communities and ecosystem. The usage of in vitro methods is encouraged by a scientific community and regulatory agencies as an alternative to in vivo studies in order to reduce the number of laboratory animals used in the toxicological studies. Therefore, in this paper we gave a brief overview on the usage of animal cell cultures within the field of green chemistry and technology.

  11. The green and virtual data center

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Greg

    2009-01-01

    The Green and Virtual Data Center sets aside the political aspects of what is or is not considered green to instead focus on the opportunities for organizations that want to sustain environmentally-friendly economical growth. If you are willing to believe that IT infrastructure resources deployed in a highly virtualized manner can be combined with other technologies to achieve simplified and cost-effective delivery of services in a  green, profitable manner, this book is for you. Savvy industry veteran Greg Schulz provides real-world insight, addressing best practices, server, software, storag

  12. Incentives for development and application of environmentally friendly biotechnological products and processes; Anreize fuer die Entwicklung und Anwendung umweltfreundlicher biotechnischer Produkte und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhein, Hans-Bernhard; Endler, Katharina [Umweltkanzlei Dr. Rhein, Sarstedt (Germany); Ulber, Roland; Muffler, Kai; Mueller, Felix [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Studies assign a tremendous growth potential related to biotechnology. However, the predicted proportion of biotechnological manufactured products in the chemical industry for the year 2010 by 20 % will more likely remain by today's 5 %. The study deals with the question why biotechnological products are currently established at the market in the obvious slow way. Therefore, the current constraints and existing respectively new incentive instruments referring to the white (industrial) biotechnology are analyzed to focus on the promotion of the development and application of environmentally friendly biotechnology products and methods. In addition to a search concerning environmental relevance and further development of white biotechnology, the postulated constraints and incentives as well as new promotions are discussed with the help of expert interviews. On the basis of a preliminary study - after further discussion with experts - concrete proposals on improvements related to an ongoing establishment of biotechnology will be derived. Based on case studies (2nd generation biofuels, polyhydroxybutyrate as biopolymer and phytase as an animal feed additive), the practical effects and specific conditions to incentives, from the perspective of biotechnological processes and environmentally friendly products are investigated. Overall, about 40 activities were recommended, which could be assigned to areas of direct government incentives (tax policy/subsidies, subsidies, education and research policy, basic political conditions, government demand and information policy/consumer intelligence) as well as non-governmental incentives (knowledge transfer and cooperation, organisation-related policy, capital market financing). (orig.)

  13. GREEN: MARKETING, PRODUCTS AND CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Mihaela SANDU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive literature review of green marketing, eco-friendly products and green consumers. Nowadays, awareness on different environmental problems increased significantly and it is of global concern to reduce negative impact on the environment. In relation to this, there has been a change in consumption patterns. As a result, a new segment of consumers was introduced, the so called green consumers. Green marketing tries to adapt by putting in the center of attention theneeds of such a consumer. An increase of organic products exists in both parts, in demand and offer. To maintain the welfare of present and future generations, a sustainable development is essentially.

  14. Environmental evaluation of green concretes versus conventional concrete by means of LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Janez; Cotič, Zvonko; Mladenovič, Ana; Šajna, Aljoša

    2015-11-01

    A number of green concrete mixes having similar basic properties were evaluated from the environmental point of view by means of the Life Cycle Assessment method, and compared with a corresponding conventional concrete mix. The investigated green concrete mixes were prepared from three different types of industrial by-products, i.e. (1) foundry sand, and (2) steel slag, both of which were used as manufactured aggregates, and (3) fly ash, which was used as a mineral admixture. Some green concrete mixes were also prepared from a recycled aggregate, which was obtained from reinforced concrete waste. In some of the green concrete mixes the recycled aggregate was used in combination with the above-mentioned types of manufactured aggregate and fly ash. All of these materials are able, to some extent, to replace natural aggregate or Portland cement in concrete mixes, thus providing an environmental benefit from the point of view of the saving of natural resources. Taking into account consequential modelling, the credit related to the avoidance of the need to dispose of the waste materials is considered as a benefit. In case of the recycling of waste concrete into aggregate, credit is attributed to the recovery of scrap iron from the steel reinforcement. In the case of the use of steel slag, credit is attributed to the recovery of metals, which are extracted from the slag before being used as an alternative material. The disadvantage of using alternative materials and recycled aggregates can sometimes be their relatively long delivery distance. For this reason, a transport sensitivity analysis was carried out. The results indicate that the use of the discussed alternative and recycled materials is beneficial in the concrete production industry. Preference is given to the fly ash and foundry sand scenarios, and especially to those scenarios which are based on the combined use of recycled aggregate with these two alternative materials. It was found that longer delivery

  15. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  16. The Protagonism of Biocatalysis in Green Chemistry and Its Environmental Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Santana Ferreira-Leitão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a bioeconomy era requires not only a change of production pattern, but also a deep modernization of the production processes through the implementation of novel methodologies in current industrial units, where waste materials and byproducts can be utilized as starting materials in the production of commodities such as biofuels and other high added value chemicals. The utilization of renewable raw resources and residues from the agro-industries, and their exploitation through various uses and applications through technologies, particularly solid-state fermentation (SSF, are the main focus of this review. The advocacy for biocatalysis in green chemistry and the environmental benefits of bioproduction are very clear, although this kind of industrial process is still an exception and not the rule. Potential and industrial products, such as biocatalysts, animal feed, fermentation medium, biofuels (biodiesel, lignocelulose ethanol, CH4, and H2, pharmaceuticals and chemicals are dealt with in this paper. The focus is the utilization of renewable resources and the important role of enzymatic process to support a sustainable green chemical industry.

  17. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1 protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases.

  18. Green Supply Chain Network Design with Economies of Scale and Environmental Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a design problem in the supply chain network of an assembly manufacturing enterprise with economies of scale and environmental concerns. The study aims to obtain a rational tradeoff between environmental influence and total cost. A mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is developed to determine the optimal location and size of regional distribution centers (RDCs and the investment of environmental facilities considering the effects of economies of scale and CO2 emission taxes. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the applications of the proposed model. Moreover, comparative analysis of the related key parameters is conducted (i.e., carbon emission tax, logistics demand of customers, and economies of scale of RDC, to explore the corresponding effects on the network design of a green supply chain. Moreover, the proposed model is applied in an actual case—network design of a supply chain of an electric meter company in China. Findings show that (i the optimal location of RDCs is affected by the demand of customers and the level of economies of scale and that (ii the introduction of CO2 emission taxes will change the structure of a supply chain network, which will decrease CO2 emissions per unit shipment.

  19. Internal and external influences on pro-environmental behavior: participation in a green electricity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.F.; Moore, M.R. [XENERGY, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kotchen, M.J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Economics; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment

    2003-09-15

    This paper integrates themes from psychology and economics to analyze pro-environmental behavior. Increasingly, both disciplines share an interest in understanding internal and external influences on behavior. In this study, we analyze data from a mail survey of participants and non-participants in a premium-priced, green electricity program. Internal variables consist of a newly developed scale for altruistic attitudes based on the Schwartz norm-activation model, and a modified version of the New Ecological Paradigm scale to measure environmental attitudes. External variables consist of household income and standard socio-demographic characteristics. The two internal variables and two external variables are significant in a logit model of the decision to participate in the program. We then focus on participants in the program and analyze their specific motives for participating. These include motives relating to several concerns: ecosystem health, personal health, environmental quality for residents in southeastern Michigan, global warming, and warm-glow (or intrinsic) satisfaction. In a statistical ranking of the importance of each motive, a biocentric motive ranks first, an altruistic motive ranks second, and an egoistic motive ranks third. (author)

  20. External Knowledge Sourcing and Green Innovation Growth with Environmental and Energy Regulations: Evidence from Manufacturing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the slacks-based measure-directional distance function (SBM-DDF, 2009 method for deriving the “Green Innovation Growth” rates of 28 manufacturing industries in China. The results indicate that the overall level of green innovation growth in China’s manufacturing is relatively low, with a declining trend. The tradeoffs among energy, environment and economy are rather sharp, and the “Porter Effect (1995” (environmental regulation will promote green technology innovation is not currently realized quickly in manufacturing. These evaluations imply an unsustainable development model in China, with significant differences among industries. By using a dynamic panel threshold model and employing an industry-level panel dataset for 2008–2014, we show that external knowledge sourcing has a significant negative impact on green innovation growth but with different constraints on R&D levels among industries. With the strengthening of R&D levels, gradually surpassing “critical mass”, the negative role of external knowledge sourcing in driving this mechanism becomes smaller and smaller; it has a non-linear relationship with the “threshold effect”. Consequently, we provide insights into the relationship among energy consumption, environmental pollution and technology innovation, and show how the heterogeneity of the R&D threshold affects differences in external knowledge sourcing and green innovation growth. These insights lead to a better understanding of the driving force, realizing path and policy design for green innovation growth.

  1. A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangirian, Hossein; Lemraski, Ensieh Ghasemian; Webster, Thomas J; Rafiee-Moghaddam, Roshanak; Abdollahi, Yadollah

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed "green nanomedicine". Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms) are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field. In this review, the use of green chemistry design, synthesis, and application principles and eco-friendly synthesis techniques with low side effects are discussed. The review ends with a description of key future efforts that must ensue for this field to continue to grow.

  2. FROM ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND «GREEN ECONOMY»: NATIONAL PROJECT OF EDUCATION GREENING IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanbol O. Zhilbaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to show an education system role during transition to "green economy" – to a new stage of development of world economy.Methods. The methods involve the analysis and generalization of contents of the international and interstate documents of the Republic of Kazakhstan urged to provide sustainable social and economic development. Retrospective and project analysis of course processes features of social and economic system greening of Kazakhstan is also applied.Results and scientific novelty. The essence of the concepts «green economy», "ecological enlightenment", "ecological education" and "greening of society" are disclosed. The Kazakh national specifics of implementation of the international documents on implementation of model of a sustainable development are shown. The Concept of ecological formation of the Republic of Kazakhstan according to which the education system of the country is urged to create, develop and fix effectively, along with a necessary complex of knowledge, stereotypes of behavior of the people capable to make reasonable decisions is provided and to work according to legislatively consolidated nature protection regulations and standards. It is stated that greening of content of education in the republic has the developed regulatory framework, however additional measures for upgrade of an education system are necessary: its theoretical and methodological reasons, preparation and advanced training of pedagogical personnel, development of the new methodical means bring into focus an ecological orientation of training and education, etc.Practical significance. Measures for further improvement of ecological education and ecological education at all steps of education are listed. 

  3. Green chemistry applied to corrosion and scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, D.; Rakshpal, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Numerous breakthroughs in environmental protection and pollution prevention have been realized in recent years by both industry and academia through the application of green chemistry principles. Green chemistry, or pollution prevention at the molecular level, is chemistry designed to reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous materials associated with the manufacture and application of chemicals. The application of the green chemistry principles to the areas of corrosion and scale inhibitors has resulted in the reduction/elimination of many of the more toxic inhibitors and the development of newer, more environmentally friendly ones.

  4. Eco-Efficiency and Sustainable Development as Efforts to Produce Environmentally Friendly Product: An Exploratory Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Basuki

    2015-09-01

    The research’s implications is academically it will enrich management accounting literature by introducing environmental-based management accounting, and push academicians to restructure the content of management accounting subject as well as it will inform companies to aware to possible environmental problem in their production process.

  5. The Role of Green Chemistry Activities in Fostering Secondary School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts and Argumentation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff Michael; Sinniah, Devananthini

    2016-01-01

    In a world where environmental degradation is taking on alarming levels, understanding, and acting to minimize, the individual environmental impact is an important goal for many science educators. In this study, a green chemistry curriculum--combining chemistry experiments with everyday, environmentally friendly substances with a student-centered…

  6. Green Architecture Approach on Mosque Design in Cipendawa Village, Cianjur, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisari, Rahma; Safitri, Ratna; Permanasari, Eka; Hendola, Feby

    2017-06-01

    Climate change has been a global concern as many buildings are constructed and maintained without considering environmental impacts. Global warming, flood and environmental damage have become everyday phenomena. Architecture plays a vital role to in shifting design paradigm green architecture that is sustainable and environmental friendly. This research-based design investigates the implementation of green architectural approach on a mosque design at a waqf land in Cipendawa Village, Cianjur. The site is located on the hill where water catchment is required. Green architecture approach is expected to minimize negative environmental impacts and provide solution for low budget mosque.

  7. Science supporting the economic and environmental benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Ritter; Kenneth Skog; Richard Bergman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scientific findings that support the environmental and economic benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction. Despite documented advantages in many peer-reviewed scientific articles, most building professionals and members of the public do not recognize wood as a renewable resource or the role...

  8. Performance of Green Stormwater Management Practices at EPA’s Edison Environmental Center: Permeable Pavement and Bioretention

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the departmental Chemistry and Environmental Science weekly seminar series at NJIT in Newark, NJ, Rowe and Stander have been invited to conduct a joint presentation on UWMB’s green infrastructure research program, including the parking lot and rain garden studies. The...

  9. A Train-the-Trainer Design for Green Ambassadors in an Environmental Education Programme on Plastic Waste Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yannes Tsz-Yan; Chow, Cheuk-Fai; So, Winnie Wing-Mui

    2018-01-01

    To educate a sustainable future, a train-the-trainer (TTT) approach was adopted to train student teachers (STs) from a teacher education institute to be green ambassadors (GAs) in an environmental education (EE) programme with the aim of promoting plastic waste recycling among primary school pupils. The design of the TTT course for the GAs not…

  10. True Friends and False Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengeling, M. Martha

    A discussion of cognates in second language teaching, particularly in English as a Second Language (ESL), looks at reasons and methods for teaching both true and false cognates ("friends"). A definition of cognates is offered, and a distinction is made between a cognate and a borrowed word, with examples from several languages.…

  11. Environmentally friendly alternatives to bean and corn seeds production on the “Soterrado” farm in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailiu Díaz Peña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to evaluate the environmental impact associated with the life cycle of seed production of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. CC 25-9 N and maize (Zea mays L. var. TGH on the Soterrado farm. The life cycle assessment (LCA methodology is applied, according to the NC-ISO14040, which includes the life cycle inventory of the crop, the assessment of the environmental impact of beans and maize crops and the assessment of the alternatives for environmental, agricultural and economic improvement. The environmental impact assessment helped determine the most affected impact categories: the non-renewable energy, global warming and respiratory inorganics. The most affected damage categories were damage to resources, human health and climate change. The consumption of urea, NPK and diesel represented an environmental impact with the highest contribution percentage. Two alternatives of environmental, agricultural and economic improvement for each crop were evaluated. They could reduce the environmental impact of the production of beans in 53.28 % and 79.25 % respectively and corn on 47.64 % and 63.48 % respectively. These alternatives would increase yields and soil characteristics, and help to reduce the production cost. It is recommended to inform the results of research to producers of Soterrado farm, validate the results, and apply this methodology to other crops in order to reduce the impact associated with agriculture.

  12. An interesting and efficient green corrosion inhibitor for aluminium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interesting and efficient green corrosion inhibitor for aluminium from extracts of Moringa oleifera in acidic solution. ... The environmentally friendly inhibitor could find possible applications in metal surface anodizing and surface coating in industries. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Aluminium, Hydrochloric acid, Langmuir ...

  13. Lean, green and resilient practices influence on supply chain performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, K.; Azevedo, S. G.; Carvalho, H.

    2015-01-01

    performance and to classify them according to their driving or dependence power. According to this research, the practices with the main driving power are just-in-time (lean practice), flexible transportation (resilient practice) and environmentally friendly packaging (green practice). Customer satisfaction...

  14. Green Flame Retardant Cotton Highlofts for Mattresses and Upholstered Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric is environmentally-friendly because it is from a natural renewable resource, biodegradable, economical, employing greige cotton that is soft to touch. Greige unbleached cotton is cheaper and softer than bleached cotton, thus, increasing its marketability par...

  15. Green chemistry principles in organic compound synthesis and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review focus on various green chemistry approaches which could be utilized in the organic compounds in practical classes for undergraduate level in comparison of conventional methods. These methods avoid the usage of hazardous substances and are environmental friendly.

  16. Effects of green manure crops and mulching technology on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green manure crops are primarily used in environmentally friendly agricultural practices to reduce the application of chemical fertilizer and herbicide. In this study, a two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of paper and plastic mulching with hairy vetch alone or in combination with barley on weed ...

  17. A new green approach for the reduction of graphene oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple and green chemistry approach for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets was successfully demonstrated through the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using caffeine as the reductant. Without using toxic and harmful chemicals, this method is environmentally friendly and suitable for the large-scale ...

  18. Characterizing Green Fiber Bottle Prototypes Using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano; Stolfi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Due to ever increasing demand of sustainability and biodegradability, there arises a need to develop environmental friendly packaging products. Green fiber bottle is a packaging product for carbonated beverages, made out of cellulose fibers. The production process accounts for moulding paper pulp...

  19. Green open location-routing problem considering economic and environmental costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Toro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new bi-objective vehicle routing problem that integrates the Open Location Routing Problem (OLRP, recently presented in the literature, coupled with the growing need for fuel consumption minimization, named Green OLRP (G-OLRP. Open routing problems (ORP are known to be NP-hard problems, in which vehicles start from the set of existing depots and are not required to return to the starting depot after completing their service. The OLRP is a strategic-level problem involving the selection of one or many depots from a set of candidate locations and the planning of delivery radial routes from the selected depots to a set of customers. The concept of radial paths allows us to use a set of constraints focused on maintaining the radiality condition of the paths, which significantly simplifies the set of constraints associated with the connectivity and capacity requirements and provides a suitable alternative when compared with the elimination problem of sub-tours traditionally addressed in the literature. The emphasis in the paper will be placed on modeling rather than solution methods. The model proposed is formulated as a bi-objective problem, considering the minimization of operational costs and the minimization of environmental effects, and it is solved by using the epsilon constraint technique. The results illustrate that the proposed model is able to generate a set of trade-off solutions leading to interesting conclusions about the relationship between operational costs and environmental impact.

  20. New Eco-Friendly 1-Alkyl-3-(4-phenoxybutyl Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids Derivatives: A Green Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis, Characterization, Antibacterial Activity and POM Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouslim Messali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the emerging importance of the ILs as “green” materials with wide applications and our general interests in green processes, a series of a twenty five new 1-alkyl-3-(4-phenoxybutyl imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs derivatives is synthesized using a facile and green ultrasound-assisted procedure. Their structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 11B, 19F, 31P, and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial screens of some selected ILs were conducted against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of each compound was measured by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC yielding very interesting and promising results. Their antibacterial activities are reported, and, on the basis of the experimental and virtual POM screening data available, attempt is also made to elucidate the structure activity relationship.

  1. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2015 Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2015 award winner, Algenol, blue-green algae to produce ethanol and other fuels, uses CO2 from air or industrial emitters, reduces the carbon footprint, costs and water usage, no reliance on food crops

  2. Magnetic fields of green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building.

  3. Up to what point is loss reduction environmentally friendly?: The LCA of loss reduction scenarios in drinking water networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillot, Julie; Catel, Laureline; Renaud, Eddy; Augeard, Bénédicte; Roux, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    In a context of increasing water shortage all over the world, water utilities must minimise losses in their distribution networks and draw up water loss reduction action plans. While leak reduction is clearly an important part of sustainable water management, its impacts have to be reconsidered in a broader objective of environmental protection than strictly the avoided losses in cubic metres of water. Reducing the volume of water abstracted reduces also environmental impacts associated to water production (the operation and infrastructure needed for abstraction, treatment, supply). In the mean time, activities for reducing water losses generate their own environmental impacts, notably as a result of the work, equipment, and infrastructures used for this purpose. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to assess and compare two sets of environmental impacts: those resulting from the production and supply of water which will never reach subscribers, and those caused by water loss reduction activities. This information can then be used to establish whether or not there is a point beyond which loss reduction is no longer effective in reducing the environmental impacts of drinking water supply. Results show that the improvement actions that start from a low water supply efficiency are clearly beneficial for ecosystems, human health and preservation of resources. When seeking to improve the efficiency beyond certain values (about 65%), the uncertainty makes it impossible to conclude for an environmental benefit on all impact categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Study on Consumer Perspective towards Green Products in Bengaluru City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusarla Lakshmi Padmaja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trending concept of the 21st century. With an increase in global warming and carbon emissions, green marketing gained importance and subsequently encouraging green products, which can further contribute to sustainable environment. The consumer play a major role in determining the demand for any product and since green products are eco-friendly, they have created niche for those environmental consciousness customers. In this context, a study on consumer perspective and attitude towards green products will be quite useful for marketers, to understand both, consumers and market. This study focus on the consumer awareness, attitude and purchase intention towards green products.

  5. Life-cycle Economic and Environmental Effects of Green, Gray and Hybrid Stormwater Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Draut, J. R.; Taptich, M. N.; Horvath, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cities throughout the U.S. are seeking efficient ways to manage stormwater for many reasons, including flood control, pollution management, water supply augmentation and to prepare for a changing climate. Traditionally, cities have relied primarily on gray infrastructure, namely sewers, storage and treatment facilities. In these systems, urban runoff, its volume increasing as impervious surfaces expand, is channeled to a wastewater plant where it is mixed with raw sewage prior to treatment or it is discharged, generally untreated, to local water bodies. These facilities are inflexible and expensive to build and maintain. Many systems are deteriorating and/or approaching, if not exceeding, their design capacity. Increasingly, more innovative approaches that integrate stormwater management into the natural environment and that make sense at both local and regional scales are sought. Identifying the best stormwater solution will require evaluating the life-cycle economic costs associated with these alternatives, including costs associated with construction, operation, and maintenance including regulatory and permitting costs, financing, as well as other indirect costs (e.g., avoided wastewater processing or system capacity expansion, increased property value) and non-economic co-benefits (i.e, aesthetics, habitat provision). Beyond conventional life-cycle costing, applying life-cycle assessment (LCA) will contribute to more holistic and sustainable decision-making. LCA can be used to quantitatively track energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and other environmental effects associated with constructing, operating, and maintaining green and gray infrastructure, including supply chain contributions. We will present the current state of knowledge for implementing life-cycle costing and LCA into stormwater management decisions for green, gray and hybrid infrastructure.

  6. Earning capacity of environmentally friendly companies and social responsible investing; Miljoevennlige bedrifter gir like hoey avkastning som andre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerk, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption.

  7. Spillover of environment-friendly consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes empirical input to current reasoning about consumers' propensity to behave in an environmentally friendly way in different domains. Spe-cifically, we investigate whether environmentally friendly behaviours spread to more and more areas of the consumption pattern in a virtuo...... of spillover is marginally but significantly higher when respondents give high priority to the value domain that Schwartz (1994) termed universalism or hold strong personal norms for envi-ronmentally friendly behaviour. Udgivelsesdato: SEP...

  8. EPA Calls for the 21st Presidential Green Chemistry Award Nominations/Program promotes environmental and economic benefits of using novel green technologies in chemical design, manufacture, and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced its request for nominations for its 2016 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards for companies or institutions that have developed a process or product that better pr

  9. Green ergonomics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the causes and consequences of environmental degradation presents significant challenges for humankind. This paper considers what ergonomics/human factors (E/HF) professionals can contribute to understanding and tackling some of the issues that arise through the movement towards a more environmentally sustainable economy. These issues are considered in relation to work in green industries (specifically, sustainable energy production, recycling and organic food production), and there is a need to ensure that these jobs are safe and healthy; the design of products and systems that are 'environmentally friendly' to facilitate their acceptability and use and how E/HF professionals can contribute to understanding and promoting behavioural change relating to environmental choices. The activities of some international organisations in this area are identified and the potential for E/HF involvement is considered. The implications for the E/HF profession are discussed. This paper considers how ergonomics/human factors professionals can contribute to the movement towards more sustainable and 'environmentally friendly' design and work. Potential challenges and opportunities are discussed in relation to jobs in green industries, products and systems and behaviour change.

  10. The green turtle Chelonia mydas as a marine and coastal environmental sentinels: anthropogenic activities and diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Guarnier Domiciano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The green turtle Chelonia mydas is a widely distributed, slowly maturing species with a complex life cycle, using both oceanic and coastal environments. The species is exposed to different threats and is considered an environmental sentinel that indicates variation among, and the severity of hazards to marine ecosystems. This study aimed to describe both anthropogenic impacts, and infectious and parasitic diseases in C. mydas - including cases along the Brazilian coast - and implications for conservation. Bycatch is reported as the main threat to the conservation of this species, followed by debris ingestion, collisions with boats, dredging, and chronic environmental contamination. All of these impacts may directly or indirectly cause death, by facilitating contact with pathological agents and by increasing vulnerability to secondary diseases. The pathological agents associated with lesions include viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths. Fibropapillomatosis is an example of a chronic disease characterized by cutaneous and visceral tumors that affects mostly juvenile C. mydas worldwide and is associated with the Chelonid herpesvirus 5. The bacterias Vibrio alginolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas fluorescens are found in the aquatic environment and among C. mydas lesions in various organs. Trematode adults and eggs of the family Spirorchiidae are also frequent in systemic cardiovascular diseases of C. mydas. The direct impacts of anthropogenic activities and diseases are synergistic and may affect the specie’s health and conservation. Therefore, the monitoring and systematic diagnosing of diseases and causes of death - including necropsy, histopathology, and molecular exams - are necessary to assess a population’s health, to support appropriate decisions of coastal management and to target future research topics that optimize C. mydas conservation.

  11. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Tuong Vi; Kaiprommarat, Sunanta; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Guan, Guoqing; Nguyen, Manh Huan; Samart, Chanatip

    2016-06-01

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86m(2)/g and 1.38mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110°C, duration time of 4h, and catalyst loading of 10wt% under elevated pressure 2.3bar and 1.4bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fieldwork measurement of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in Malaysian platinum-rated green office buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharim, Asniza Hamimi Abdul; Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Ismail, Mazran

    2017-10-01

    An Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) fieldwork assessment was conducted in the Platinum-rated GBI office building located in Putrajaya Malaysia. The aim of the study is to determine the current indoor performance of the selected green office building. The field measurement consists of several IEQ parameters counted under the GBI Malaysia namely the Thermal Comfort of temperature, relative humidity, air movement and heat transfer as well as solar radiation. This field measurement also comprises of the measurement for the background noise, visual lighting and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) focusing on the aspect of carbon dioxide concentration. All the selected indoor parameters were measured for the period of five working days and the results were compared to the Malaysian Standard. Findings of the field measurement show good indoor performance of the Platinum rated office building that complies with the GBI standard. It is hoped that the research findings will be beneficial for future design and construction of office building intended to be rated under the GBI Malaysia.

  13. Promoting energy-saving and environmentally friendly generation dispatching model in China: Phase development and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Yang, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving and environmental protection are important conditions for the sustainable development of Chinese economy. However current widely used generation scheduling model based on predefined production quota and tariff results in heavy energy consumption and severe environment pollution. From...... scheduling models in China. The institutional and technical barriers impeding the implementation of energy-saving generation dispatching model are identified. The development of advanced energy-saving generation scheduling models towards competitive market models and phased planning programs are emphasized...

  14. Environmental friendly crush-magnetic separation technology for recycling metal-plated plastics from end-of-life vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-03-06

    Metal-plated plastics (MPP), which are important from the standpoint of aesthetics or even performance, are increasingly employed in a wide variety of situations in the automotive industry. Serious environmental problems will be caused if they are not treated appropriately. Therefore, recycling of MPP is an important subject not only for resource recycling but also for environmental protection. This work represents a novel attempt to deal with the MPP. A self-designed hammer crusher was used to liberate coatings from the plastic substrate. The size distribution of particles was analyzed and described by the Rosin-Rammler function model. The optimum retaining time of materials in the crusher is 3 min. By this time, the liberation rate of the materials can reach 87.3%. When the density of the suspension is 31,250 g/m(3), the performance of liberation is the best. Two-step magnetic separation was adopted to avoid excessive crushing and to guarantee the quality of products. Concerning both the separation efficiency and grade of products, the optimum rotational speed of the magnetic separator is 50-70 rpm. On the basis of the above studies about the liberating and separating behavior of the materials, a continuous recycling system (the technology of crush-magnetic separation) is developed. This recycling system provides a feasible method for recycling MPP efficiently, economically, and environmentally.

  15. A novel water-based process produces eco-friendly bio-adhesive made from green cross-linked soybean soluble polysaccharide and soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cheng; Chen, Mingsong; Luo, Jing; Li, Xiaona; Gao, Qiang; Li, Jianzhang

    2017-08-01

    In this study, an eco-friendly soy protein adhesive was developed that utilized two components from soybean meal without addition of any toxic material. A plant-based, water-soluble and inexpensive soybean soluble polysaccharide was used as the novel renewable material to combine with soy protein to produce a soy protein adhesive. Three-plywood was fabricated with the resulting adhesive, and its wet shear strength was measured. The results showed the wet shear strength of plywood bonded by the adhesive reached 0.99MPa, meeting the water resistance requirement for interior use panels. This improvement was attributed to the following reasons: (1) Combination of cross-linked soybean soluble polysaccharide and soy protein formed an interpenetrating network structure, improving the thermal stability and water resistance of the cured adhesive. (2) Adding CL-SSPS decreased the adhesive viscosity to 15.14Pas, which increased the amount of the adhesive that penetrate the wood's surface and formed more interlocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Governança ambiental e economia verde Environmental governance and the green economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Roberto Jacobi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Conferência Rio+20 mobiliza a comunidade global em 2012 para participar de um desafiador debate sobre a realidade ambiental global e modus operandi existente quanto à temática ampla e genérica do desenvolvimento e do ambiente. Um dos temas estruturantes desta reunião é a transição para uma economia verde no contexto do desenvolvimento sustentável e da erradicação da pobreza. O tema da Governança Ambiental Global um dos carros chefe do debate na Rio+20, no intuito de promover e acelerar a transição rumo a sociedades sustentáveis, configura a construção muitas vezes, de forma controversa, das condições para a definição de novos espaços institucionais e processos decisórios compartilhados. Este artigo propõe aos leitores uma reflexão para discutir que tipo de sustentabilidade está por trás da economia verde, a sua aplicabilidade e o que deva ser priorizada na discussão de governança ambiental. Isto se explica na medida em que existe a necessidade de mudar os mecanismos de utilização dos recursos, profundamente injustos, e que impedem avanços nos processos decisórios, pois as decisões de poucos tem configurado uma lógica perversa de expropriação de recursos naturais e não resolução da exclusão social.The Rio+20 Conference will mobilize the global community in 2012 to participate in a challenging debate on the global environmental reality and the existing modus operandi with respect to the broad and generic topics of development and the environment. One of the core themes of this meeting is the transition to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. The issue of Global Environmental Governance will top the agenda of the Rio +20 discussions, with a view to promoting and accelerating the transition to sustainable societies. It presents, often in a controversial way, the creation of conditions to define new institutional spaces and shared decision-making processes

  17. Assessing cycling-friendly environments for children: are micro-environmental factors equally important across different street settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghekiere, Ariane; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Mertens, Lieze; Clarys, Peter; de Geus, Bas; Cardon, Greet; Nasar, Jack; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-05-02

    As physical activity levels decrease as children age, sustainable and accessible forms of physical activity are needed from a young age. Transportation cycling is one such physical activity and has been associated with many benefits. The aims of the study were to identify whether manipulating micro-environmental factors (e.g. speed limits, evenness of cycle path) within a photographed street influences the perceived supportiveness for transportation cycling; and whether changing these micro-environmental factors has the same effect across different street settings. We recruited 305 fifth and sixth grade children and their parents from twelve randomly selected primary schools in Flanders, Belgium. They completed a web-based questionnaire including 12 choice-based conjoint tasks, in which they had to choose between two possible routes depicted on manipulated photographs, which the child would cycle along. The routes differed in four attributes: general street setting (enclosed, half open, open), evenness of cycle path (very uneven, moderately uneven, even), speed limit (70 km/h, 50 km/h, 30 km/h) and degree of separation between a cycle path and motorised traffic (no separation, curb, hedge). Hierarchical Bayes analyses revealed the relative importance of each micro-environmental attribute across the three street settings. For each attribute, children and their parents chose routes that had the best alternative (i.e. open street setting, even cycle path, 30 km/h, a hedge separating the cycle path from motorised traffic). The evenness of the cycle path and lower speed limit had the largest effect for the children, while the degree of separation and lower speed limit had the largest effect for their parents. Interactions between micro-scale and macro-scale factors revealed differences in the magnitude but not direction of their effects on route choice. The results held across the different kinds of street settings tested. Improving micro-scale attributes may increase

  18. Identification of fungal proteases potentially suitable for environmentally friendly cleaning-in-place in the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Angela; Walsh, Gary

    2012-06-01

    Fourteen fungi were screened for ability to produce proteases with activity on milk protein. The proteases produced were assessed on a lab-scale in terms of their potential suitability for cleaning-in-place (CIP) in the dairy industry. Cleaning performance was assessed by determining the ability of the enzymes to remove an industrial-like milk fouling deposit from stainless steel. Based on the results observed, the extracellular protease activity produced by Schizophyllum commune was selected as most suitable for potential CIP application. A CIP procedure involving a sodium carbonate rinse followed by enzymatic cleaning with this fungal enzyme activity was developed. Satisfactory cleaning, judged by quantification of residual organic matter and protein on the stainless steel surface after cleaning, was achieved using the developed CIP procedure at 40°C. This CIP procedure, based on biodegradable enzymes working at low temperature is more environmentally favourable than conventional CIP methods using caustic based cleaning solutions at 70-80°C. Potential environmental benefits of the developed enzymatic CIP procedure include reduced energy consumption, decreased chemical usage and a reduced requirement for pH neutralisation of the resultant waste prior to release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmentally Friendly Solution to Ground Hazards in Design of Bridges in Earthquake Prone Areas Using Timber Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.

  20. Why Does 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorophenol Generate the Strongest Intrinsic Chemiluminescence among All Nineteen Chlorophenolic Persistent Organic Pollutants during Environmentally-friendly Advanced Oxidation Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Ying; Mao, Li; Shao, Bo; Huang, Chun-Hua; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2016-10-01

    We found recently that intrinsic chemiluminescence (CL) could be produced by all 19 chlorophenolic persistent organic pollutants during environmentally-friendly advanced oxidation processes. Interestingly and unexpectedly, the strongest CL was produced not by the most-highly chlorinated pentachlorophenol (PCP), but rather by the less chlorinated 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,5,6-TeCP), one of the three tetrachlorophenol (TeCPs) isomers. However, it remains unclear what is the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we show that not only chlorinated quinoid intermediates, but more interestingly, semiquinone radicals were produced during the degradation of the three TeCPs and PCP by Fenton reagents, and the type and yield of which were found to be well correlated with CL generation. We propose that hydroxyl radical-dependent formation of more tetrachlorinated quinoids, quinone-dioxetanes and electronically excited carbonyl species might be responsible for the exceptionally strong CL production by 2,3,5,6-TeCP as compared to PCP and its two isomers. This is the first report showing the critical role of quinoid intermediates and semiquinone radicals in CL generation from polychlorinated phenols and Fenton system. These new findings may have broad chemical and environmental implications for future studies on remediation of other halogenated persistent aromatic pollutants by advanced oxidation processes.

  1. Optimized Choice for Pollution Control Systems in Smelting Furnaces with Green Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Jafari-Fesharaki; Elham Ghazanchaei; Beheshteh Jebelli

    2015-01-01

     Furnace division is one of the most polluted divisions ever known in the steel industry associated with several environmental pollutions. This study attempted to choose optimally, a pollution control system for dust emission from steel furnaces with the Green and environmentally friendly approach. Three electric smelting furnaces with 3, 6 and 12-ton output capacity were selected. The level of energy cost and consumption, capital and environmental damage, and indexes of environmental sustain...

  2. Tax and Environmental Experts Opinion in Yazd City about the Effect of Green Tax System Establishment to Reduce of Environmental Pollutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mirzabagheri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Correct and efficient use of various sources of energy and natural resources for sustainable development is necessary to achieve economic growth. Based on the importance preservation of non-renewable resources and reducing the negative impacts of industrial and economic activities more than ever are evident for governments. So, a descriptive study was conducted entitled “Tax and Environmental Experts Opinion in Yazd City about the Green Tax System Establishment and Reduce of Environmental Pollutions. Methods: In order to gather the survey information and verify our research hypothesis, we designed a questionnaire with the five-item Likert’s scale which was completed by 126 tax and environmental experts that has been chosen by stratified random sampling. The extracted information is analyzed by t-Student test in SPSS software.  Results: Given that all three statistics obtained by t-test for air pollution, water and soil is bigger than the critical Alpha value at level of 5% (Z0.05=1.645, according to experts opinion can be expressed with 95% confidence that the establishment of green tax system reduce all three types of environmental  pollutions including; air, water and soil. Conclusion:Based on the results, the establishment of green tax system with reduce of environmental pollutions could have an important role in health promotion, social welfare and economic situation. It is mentioned that Increasing the VAT on gasoline, sustainable cleaning products, toxins and pesticides factors Unlike other factors can not reduce environmental pollutions.

  3. A Methodology for Off-line Evaluation of New Environmentally Friendly Tribo-systems for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Increasing focus on environmental issues in industrial production has urged sheet stamping companies to look for new tribo-systems in order to substitute hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils. Production testing of new lubricants is, however, costly and makes industry reluctant...... towards testing alternative solutions. The present paper presents a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems based on numerical modelling of production process as well as laboratory test to adjust the latter combined with testing of selected tribo-systems on a new automatic sheet......-tribo-tester emulating typical sheet forming production processes. Final testing of the tribo-systems in production verifies the methodology. © 2013 CIRP....

  4. The Current State of Malaysia’s Journey towards a Green Economy: The Perceptions of The Companies on Environmental Efficiency and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Hussin; Bakar, Nor’Aznin Abu; Jali, Mohd Razani Mohd; Ibrahim, Fatimah Wati

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is committed to fostering the development of a clean and efficient economy; that is, a “green” economy. This means encouraging the development of green businesses and green products, which in turn will create “green jobs”. The current economic and environmental crises have accelerated during the last two decades: global warming in climate; fuel, food, water and the economy as a whole. At the fundamental level, there exists a misallocation of resources. Relatively little capital was i...

  5. An environmentally friendly and cost effective technique for the commercial cultivation of oyster mushroom [Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjikkaran, Seeja Thomachan; Mathew, Deepu

    2013-03-15

    The existing protocol for the cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) in polyethylene bags leads to environmental pollution amounting to 18 g of polyethylene per 450 g of mushroom, which is the average biological efficiency achieved from a bag. Thus the projected annual global pollution amounts to 2 million tones, corresponding to the production of 48 million tones. Experiments were conducted at Kerala Agricultural University, India, to formulate an oyster mushroom cultivation strategy that reduces this pollution level. Pooled results of experiments at the institute's and farmers' units have shown that reusable plastic buckets having perforations of 1.5 cm × 1.0 cm throughout the side walls could be used to substitute polyethylene bags, while following the standard cultivation protocols. Cultivation in perforated buckets has recorded a biological efficiency of 435.69 ± 56.75 g in 47.07 ± 5.22 days against 459.11 ± 53.52 g in 38.05 ± 4.54 days in polyethylene bags. The rate of contamination in buckets was significantly lower than that in bags: 9.28 ± 2.12 and 12.60 ± 3.73% respectively. Reusable plastic buckets with perforations on the side walls could be used to substitute the conventional polyethylene bags in oyster mushroom cultivation, with no significant difference in yield. Losses due to slight increase in crop duration in buckets will be compensated with a lower rate of contamination. For a unit having a daily output of 100 kg, it was estimated that during 10 years of permanent cultivation following this technique, the cost of cultivation could be reduced to one-tenth and the environmental pollution reduced by at least 730 000 non-degradable polyethylene bags. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Green-synthesised nanoparticles from Melia azedarach seeds and the cyclopoid crustacean Cyclops vernalis: an eco-friendly route to control the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbu, Priya; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    The impact of green-synthesised mosquitocidal nanoparticles on non-target aquatic predators is poorly studied. In this research, we proposed a single-step method to synthesise silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the seed extract of Melia azedarach. Ag NP were characterised using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In laboratory assays on Anopheles stephensi, Ag NP showed LC50 ranging from 2.897 (I instar larvae) to 14.548 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of Ag NP (10 × LC50) lead to complete elimination of larval populations after 72 h. The application of Ag NP in the aquatic environment did not show negative adverse effects on predatory efficiency of the mosquito natural enemy Cyclops vernalis. Overall, this study highlights the concrete possibility to employ M. azedarach-synthesised Ag NP on young instars of malaria vectors.

  7. Environmental friendly method for urban wastewater monitoring of micropollutants defined in the Directive 2013/39/EU and Decision 2015/495/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Pedrosa, Marta; Moreira, Nuno F F; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-10-30

    The fate and removal of organic micropollutants in the environment is a demanding issue evidenced by the recent European policy. This work presents an analytical method for the trace quantification of 37 micropollutants including Priority Substances (Directive 2013/39/EU), substances of the recent watch list (Decision 2015/495/EU) and contaminants of emerging concern: pesticides, multi-class pharmaceuticals and a metabolite, estrogens and one industrial compound. The analytical method was based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), using eco-friendly solvents (ethanol and ultrapure water) both in the SPE and UHPLC, according to green analytical chemistry principles. Briefly, Oasis(®) HLB cartridges were used to preconcentrate 100mL of water samples and the reconstituted extracts were analyzed with a Kinetex™ column under reversed mode, the linear ranges extended to 200ngL(-1) (R(2)>0.99) for all the analytes. The method detection limits were between 0.04 and 2.26ngL(-1) and the method quantification limits were between 0.13 and 6.85ngL(-1). The identity of the compounds was confirmed using two MS/MS transitions and its ion ratios, according to Decision 2002/657/EC. The validated method was applied to wastewater treatment plant samples, assessing the concentration of micropollutants after secondary biological and tertiary UV treatments. Lab-scale photolysis and ozonation experiments were also performed with the secondary effluents, with ozonation showing the best performance for the removal of most of the determined micropollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Grasping the present situation of coal utilization technology in the Philippines, the paper proposed a feasibility study of introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system which seems to be needed in the future. (1) Introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the electric power generation sector: there are only four full-scale running coal thermal power plants in the Philippines. In the future, several coal thermal plants are planned to be constructed by 2005, but for the new installation, it is desirable to adopt fluidized bed boilers with wide application to coal kinds. In case of 0.3-1.0 million MW class plants, it is planned to adopt high grade import coals, and it will be natural to fire pulverized coal. For the processing of flue gas, it is a must to install desulfurization facilities and smoke/soot removal devices. (2) Utilization/development of domestic low grade coals: at the mine-mouth generating plant, it is necessary to investigate the economically minable amount of coal, confirm productivity, survey coal quality, etc., and select boiler. As to coal briquetting technology, it is necessary to examine coal quality for tests and make a thorough study of what technology is most suitable. 50 figs., 78 tabs.

  9. Going Green: A Holistic Approach to Transform Business

    OpenAIRE

    Kabiraj, Sajal; Topkar, Vinay; Walke, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years environmental and energy conservation issues have taken the central theme in the global business arena. The reality of rising energy cost and their impact on international affairs coupled with the different kinds of environmental issues has shifted the social and economic consciousness of the business community. Hence, the business community is now in search of an eco-friendly business model. This paper highlights the concept of green business and their needs in the current gl...

  10. Determinant Factors of Green Marketing Adoption in the Hospitality Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad, Liviu B.; Dragoş C. Vasile; Octav-Ionuţ Macovei; Claudia E. Ţuclea

    2016-01-01

    Green marketing is falling into the category of answers provided by the business world to the requirement to combine the economic development with the preservation of natural resources which represents a pressing concern of the modern times. In this context, the hospitality sector is facing as well an increasing pressure to pay attention to environmental issues, hotel organizations are increasingly tending to use environmentally friendly products and services, and to implement programs to man...

  11. Environmentally-Friendly Dense and Porous Geopolymers Using Fly Ash and Rice Husk Ash as Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ziegler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the feasibility of two industrial wastes, fly ash (FA and rice husk ash (RHA, as raw materials for the production of geopolymeric pastes. Three typologies of samples were thus produced: (i halloysite activated with potassium hydroxide and nanosilica, used as the reference sample (HL-S; (ii halloysite activated with rice husk ash dissolved into KOH solution (HL-R; (iii FA activated with the alkaline solution realized with the rice husk ash (FA-R. Dense and porous samples were produced and characterized in terms of mechanical properties and environmental impact. The flexural and compressive strength of HL-R reached about 9 and 43 MPa, respectively. On the contrary, the compressive strength of FA-R is significantly lower than the HL-R one, in spite of a comparable flexural strength being reached. However, when porous samples are concerned, FA-R shows comparable or even higher strength than HL-R. Thus, the current results show that RHA is a valuable alternative to silica nanopowder to prepare the activator solution, to be used either with calcined clay and fly ash feedstock materials. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of the global warming potential (GWP was performed for the three investigated formulations. With the mix containing FA and RHA-based silica solution, a reduction of about 90% of GWP was achieved with respect to the values obtained for the reference formulation.

  12. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  13. Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Patrícia Is; Matsumura, Hideo; Thorne, Michael As; Power, Deborah M; Terauchi, Ryohei; Reinhardt, Richard; Canário, Adelino Vm

    2010-08-17

    Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE) of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ ) and low (0.01 mM Ca2+) calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers) in gills. Of these 869 tags (65%) were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57%) were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation response. This study is the first genome-wide transcriptome

  14. Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Patrícia IS

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Results Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ and low (0.01 mM Ca2+ calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers in gills. Of these 869 tags (65% were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57% were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. Conclusions The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation

  15. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    Careful attention to ‘choice architecture’ promises to open up new possibilities for environmental protection—possibilities that may be more effective than the standard tools of economic incentives, mandates, and bans. How, for example, do consumers choose between environmentally friendly product...

  16. Effects and characterization of an environmentally-friendly, inexpensive composite Iron-Sodium catalyst on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterroso, Rodolfo

    Coal gasification has been commercially used for more than 60 years in the production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, and due to the lowered environmental impacts and high efficiency derived from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), this process has received increased attention. Furthermore, upcoming strict CO2 emissions regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will no longer be achievable by traditional means of coal combustion, therefore, growing dependence on different energy sources has drawn attention to clean coal technologies, such as coal-to-liquids processing, and the core of this process is also gasification. Gasification is an energy intensive process that can be substantially improved in terms of efficiency through the use of catalysts. In this study, the effect of the composite catalyst, FeCO3-Na2CO3, on gasification of a low-sulfur sub-bituminous Wyodak coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming was investigated. The catalytic effects of the composite catalysts were evaluated by comparing their effluent gas compositions and carbon conversion kinetics to those achieved in the presence of either FeCO3 or Na2CO3 catalyst alone or without the presence of any catalyst. All of the evaluation work was conducted in a fixed bed gasifier at atmospheric pressure. Compared to raw coal with no catalyst, the composite catalyst is efficient in increasing the carbon conversion rate constant by as much as two times within the 700-800°C range due to its ability to reduce the activation energy of gasification by about 30-40%. Compared to pure sodium and iron catalysts, the composite catalyst can increase the yields of desired products H2 and CO at 800°C by 15% and 40%, respectively. The composite catalyst can not only synergize the advantages, but also overcome the challenges of pure iron or pure sodium based catalytic coal gasification processes. Moreover, the mechanisms of this particular catalytic coal gasification process

  17. Green Marketing: A Study of Consumer Perception and Preferences in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Mayank; Jain, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed by manufacturers and customers about the environmental impact of products during recent decades. Consumers and manufacturers have directed their attention toward environment friendly products that are presumed to be “green” or environment friendly like low power consuming (energy-efficient) electrical appliances, organic foods, lead free paints, recyclable paper, and phosphate free detergents. Indian marketers are also realizing the importance of the Green Marketi...

  18. Green Campus Study by using 10 UNEP’s Green University Toolkit Criteria in IPB Dramaga Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisriany, Saraswati; Sitti Fatimah, Indung

    2017-10-01

    Campus landscape is an important part of campus life, because it is regarded as a physical manifestation of the value of a college. Green campus is a concept to build sustainable living practices that are environmentally friendly in educational institutions around the world, including in IPB Dramaga Campus. The main objective of this study is to identified and analyze IPB Dramaga Campus sustainability used green campus criteria from UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). The methods stages are data collection, analysis and assessment, and recommendation as the synthesis. All the data analyzed with gap analysis, then it assess with Likert Scale scoring. The results showed that green level of IPB Dramaga Campus is classified as Moderate, with total score 32. The result from each criterias are, Energy, Carbon and Climate Change is Moderate; Water is Not Good; Waste is Moderate; Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services is Very Good; Planning Design & Development is Good; Procurement is Moderate; Green Office is Very Not Good; Green Lab is Moderate; Green IT is Good; and Transport is Good. The Green Level of IPB Dramaga Campus will reach Very Good if these recommendation of strategies applied. The strategies are Green Office, Green Campus Audit, Green Champion, Green Financial Strategies, Water Treatment, Green Lab dan Off Campus Transportation.

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Designing Greener Chemicals and Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Newlight Technologies, developed a net carbon negative plastic made from methane-based GHG. It is cheaper than petroleum-based plastic; used to make cell phone cases, furniture, and other products.

  20. Research on the Implementation of Technological Measures for Controlling Indoor Environmental Quality in Green Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruozhu; Liu, Pengda; Qian, Yongmei

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the design technology of controlling indoor quality in engineering practice, it is proposed that, in framework system of green residential building design, how to realize the design idea of controlling the indoor environment quality, and the design technology with feasibility, including the sunshine and lighting, indoor air quality and thermal environment, sound insulation and noise reduction measures, etc.. The results of all will provide a good theoretical supportting for the design of green residential building.

  1. Modern coolant additives. Environmental friendly and light metal compatible coolant additives for modern combustion engines; Moderne Kuehlmittelzusaetze. Umwelt- und leichtmetallvertraegliche Kuehlmittelzusaetze fuer moderne Verbrennungskraftmaschinen. Abschlussbericht. Vorhaben Nr. 777

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gugau, M.; Kaiser, M.

    2004-01-31

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the influence of the enhanced thermal stress on the impact of environmental friendly and light metal compatible coolant additives. The application and advancement of new research methods under mechanism-oriented objective led to a validation of a new guideline to the examination of the suitability of coolant additives for the coolant of internal combustion engines. Moreover, the authors create a knowledge base, on which a purposeful development can take place from suitable formulations of inhibitor for magnesium. For aluminium with silicate containing corrosion anti-freezes a close relationship between the surface temperature and the impoverishment of silicate exists. During the excess of limit temperatures, cooling agent-specific damage features arise reproducibly. The comparison of the different methods for the investigation of cavitation showed that one cannot dispense with both methods in order to evaluate a demand of insulating cavitation and a cavitative / corrosive complex regarding to the development of a test guideline. By the comprehensive electro-chemical and cavitative investigations for the magnesium alloy AZ91hp, a broad knowledge base could be formed, on which a purposeful development and evaluation of inhibitors under the use can take place from different glycols.

  2. Evaluation of alternative environmentally friendly matrix solid phase dispersion solid supports for the simultaneous extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes from drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Karina Lotz; Cerqueira, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the development, optimization and validation of a method for the extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes in drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) by vortex-assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) with determination by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It focused on the application of alternative and different solid supports to the extraction step of the MSPD. The main parameters that influenced the extraction were studied in order to obtain better recovery responses. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% with RSD below 20% for all analytes. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of the method ranged from 5 to 500 μg kg-1 whereas the analytical curves showed correlation coefficients above 0.997. The method under investigation used low volume of solvent (5 mL), low sample mass (1.5 g) and low mass of chitin (0.5 g), an environmentally friendly support. It has advantages, such as speed, simplicity and low cost material, over other methods. When the method was applied, 4 out of 15 pesticides were detected in the DWTS samples in concentrations below the LOQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part One: What Is the Optimum City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to select the optimum city from five touristic Egyptian cities (Luxor, Giza, Alexandria, Qena and Aswan to establish an environmentally-friendly tourist village. The selection of the city, according to the economic cost (cost of energy (COE, net present cost (NPC and the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG emitted, is carried out with respect to four cases, based on the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties. According to the simulation results, using the well-known Homer software, Alexandria is the economic city for hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery and wind/diesel/battery systems, while Aswan is the most economic city for a hybrid PV/diesel/battery system. However, for a diesel/battery system there is no significant economic difference between the cities in the study. On the other hand, according to the amount of GHG emitted from a hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system, Qena is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered. However, if the GHG emission penalties are applied, Aswan will be the optimum city. Furthermore, Alexandria is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered and the GHG emission penalties are applied. Additionally, the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties are studied on hybrid PV/diesel/battery, wind/diesel/battery and diesel/battery systems in this study.

  4. Research report. Environmentally friendly energy community research business (Minami-guchi District, Sapporo Railway Station); Sapporoeki minamiguchi chiku chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Feasibility of commercialization is discussed of an environmentally friendly heat supply system for the above-named district. The research centers on the configuration and optimum dimensions of heat source equipment for a large-scale cogeneration-aided district heat supply system to be selected for introduction into the district. Discussion is made about the energy efficiency and environment preserving features of a system selected for employment. A study is then conducted on a plant consisting of two high-efficiency 4800kW gas turbine cogeneration systems and heat storing water tanks. Such when introduced will contribute to the levelling-off of urban power loads and to the enhancement of power peak cut through the utilization of cogeneration system-generated power and midnight power. When the exhaust heat from the cogeneration system is fully exploited, the system will achieve an energy saving effect approximately 9% higher than that exhibited by separately functioning heat source systems. Furthermore, CO2 will be reduced by 20% or more, NOx by 45% or more, and SOx by 46% or more, as compared with separately functioning heat source systems. The conclusive evaluation is that the above-selected system will sufficiently contribute to the preservation of environments. (NEDO)

  5. The effects of urban green space on environmental health equity and resilience to extreme weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Exposure to environmental hazards and beneficial factors varies with income and other socioeconomic and demographic factors. The resulting environmental inequalities have direct and indirect impacts on health and wellbeing. Many environmental inequalities relate to n...

  6. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

  7. Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy, Environmental, and Economic Resource Guide for Federal Facility Managers and Designers; Second Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.

    2001-05-16

    Greening Federal Facilities, Second Edition, is a nuts-and-bolts resource guide compiled to increase energy and resource efficiency, cut waste, and improve the performance of Federal buildings and facilities. The guide highlights practical actions that facility managers, design and construction staff, procurement officials, and facility planners can take to save energy and money, improve the comfort and productivity of employees, and benefit the environment. It supports a national effort to promote energy and environmental efficiency in the nation's 500,000 Federal buildings and facilities. Topics covered include current Federal regulations; environmental and energy decision-making; site and landscape issues; building design; energy systems; water and wastewater; materials; waste management, and recycling; indoor environmental quality; and managing buildings.

  8. GREEN MARKETING - A STUDY ON GREEN PRODUCT INTENTIONS OF CONSUMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeetha, B.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Green Marketing is still in the stage of infancy. Even till date it has not been inculcated as a subject in identifying the key ideas in relation to the awareness of green products that may be most relevant to eco-friendly environment. This paper, will attempt to identify the extent to which consumers are concerned to purchase green products, to study the various factors which affect consumers purchasing green products, to evaluate attitudes of consumers regarding green product...

  9. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  10. Fostering Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Determined Environmental Motivation through Green Chemistry Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    The global environmental crisis intensifies particularly in developing nations. Environmental educators have begun to understand that changing the environmental impact requires not only changes in pro-environmental knowledge and attitudes but also in associated, self-determined motivation. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a…

  11. EXAMINING THE INFLUENCE OF GREEN MANAGEMENT ON OPERATION FUNCTIONS: CASE OF A BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Uygur, Akyay; Musluk, Berat Yasin; Ilbey, Nail

    2015-01-01

    Green management is a paradigm that includes improving environmental awareness, using energy resources and eco-friendly technologies, reuse of wastes, and recycling activities starting from production activities of businesses to packaging and delivering to consumers. Businesses have now become aware that environment must be preserved and tended towards green management as a result of destructed and demolished environment, and the effect of hunger, scarcity, global problems despite developed s...

  12. Environmentally benign novel green pigments: Pr1–xCaxPO4 (x= 0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rare earth based materials have recently attracted considerable attention as potential eco-friendly colourants for low temperature as well as high temperature applications. In the present study, we have synthesized a series of Ca-doped PrPO4 compounds with the general formula, Pr1–CaPO4 ( = 0–0.4 in steps of 0.1) ...

  13. Environmentally Friendly Zirconium Oxide Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    treatment with heat and alkaline solution drives condensation, and consequently, leads to film cracking. Each of the two post-treated films peeled from...the fluorozirconate salts are used in abrasives , aluminum production, ceramics, glass manufacturing, and in the preparation of fluxes. However, the

  14. Oxides gets environmentally-friendly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    A large amount of thermal energy is available from the waste heat associated with many industrial and social activities of mankind. However, it is difficult to reclaim this heat due to the dispersed nature and relative smallness of its sources. Thermoelectric conversion offers a very promising...... be stable at high temperatures and be composed of nontoxic and low-cost elements, and must be able to be processed and shaped cheaply. Oxides are among the strongest candidate materials for this purpose. This talk provides an overview of the development on such materials at DTU Energy Conversion. In order...

  15. Environmentally Friendly Advanced Gun Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-15

    yellow and had the consistency of cookie dough . Total mix cycle was 90 to 120 minutes. Quarter-pint mixes were 80 grams and one-pint mixes were 275...Elastomer Laminated Propellant Development,” 34th JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee and Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee and Airbreathing

  16. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  17. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  18. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in India); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Indo ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was conducted of the present situation of coal utilization and the present coal situation such as the environmental state of India which is a coal producing/consuming country next to China in Asia. The paper studied a feasibility of the introduction of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system` to be planned in India. The items for survey are the present situation of economy and energy and the future trend, environmental problems on coal utilization, the present status of the coal distribution system and study subjects, the present status of coal utilization by field and study subjects, a possibility of briquette use, a possibility of coal fluidization, electric power development plans and coal combustion technology in each industry, etc. The subjects are the obligation of coal preparation to coal thermal power plants 1000 km away from coal mines starting 2001, measures taken for effective ash use, measures taken for superannuated gas furnaces, etc. Based on the results of these site surveys and reports of the investigation under consignment from CMPDI, the paper studied/analyzed possibilities of introducing the coal utilization system having actual introduction results in Japan to India, and made an investigational report. 39 refs., 12 figs., 56 tabs.

  19. Green economy: the environmental imperatives for economic development of the Russian Arctic”: Resolution of the round table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arctic Centre for Strategic Studies

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we publish the resolution of the round table “Green economy: the environmental imperatives for economic development of the Russian Arctic”, held within the framework of the 2nd meeting of the Arctic Expert Club on the 23rd of October 2015. The organizers of the round table: the Institute of Regional Studies and Urban-planning of the Higher School of Economics, Arctic Center for Strategic Studies NArFU named after M.V. Lomonosov. Co-organizers the Russian Institute of Strategic Studies (RISS.

  20. Analysing green supply chain management practices in Brazil's electrical/electronics industry using interpretive structural modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika; Mathiyazhagan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Industries need to adopt the environmental management concepts in the traditional supply chain management. The green supply chain management (GSCM) is an established concept to ensure environment-friendly activities in industry. This paper identifies the relationship of driving and dependence...

  1. Green synthesis of nano-silver particles from leaf and stem extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Secondary metabolites derived from plant extracts can be used in the reduction of metal salts into their respective nanoparticles using simple, environmentally friendly and cost effective green synthesis techniques. Metal nanoparticles have important applications in medicine and agriculture. The leaves of ...

  2. The green economy mirage? Examining the environmental implications of low-carbon growth plans in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, C.-W.; Heijungs, R.; Ma, H.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Taiwan is attempting to implement the concept of a green economy through a Low Carbon Growth Plan (LCGP). However, the existing decision support tools for this measure have three key limitations: ignorance regarding the open economy; a lack of life cycle thinking; and limited categories of

  3. A piscicultura e o ambiente: o uso de alimentos ambientalmente corretos em piscicultura Fish farming and the environment: the use of environmental friendly feeds in fish culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Embora a ciência da nutrição de peixes esteja longe de estabelecer um padrão geral de exigências nutricionais, a necessidade de desenvolvimento de alimentos de baixo impacto poluente há muito faz parte da agenda das comunidades científica e empresarial internacional da aqüicultura. Não só é absolutamente possível formular alimentos ambientalmente corretos, como é necessário modelar a formulação destes alimentos. Porém, é necessária absoluta acurácia para atender formulações espécie-específicas, considerando-se as interações da biologia e fisiologia nutricional das espécies com os alimentos e com as variações abióticas do meio. O conhecimento disponível sobre as mais de 200 espécies de peixe produzidas comercialmente no mundo é ainda incipiente e os sistemas de produção de peixe, nos diferentes regimes de exploração, estão implantados em todas as condições ecológicas possíveis. Neste cenário, produzir rações ambientalmente corretas é, senão impossível, pelo menos muito difícil e depende da ação coordenada e positiva de produtores, indústria da alimentação, agências regulatórias, e instituições de ensino e pesquisa para definir os parâmetros necessários à consecução deste objetivo.Although fish nutrition science is far from establishing general standards of nutritional requirements, the need for developing low impact feeds has long been included in the agenda of aquaculture's international scientific and business communities of. Not only is absolutely possible to formulate environmental friendly feeds, as it is necessary modeling the formulation of these feeds. However, it is necessary higher accuracy to develop species-specific formulations, considering interactions of the biology and nutritional physiology of the species with the feedstuffs and variations of abiotic environment. The knowledge on more than 200 species of commercially farmed fish is still incipient and fish production

  4. Green synthesis of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartick, B; Srivastava, S K; Srivastava, I

    2013-06-01

    The present work reports a green route to synthesis of graphene by reduction of graphite oxide with cocos nucifera L. (coconut water) as reducing agent which is naturally available, non-toxic and environmental friendly. The graphite oxide has been prepared by oxidation of graphite with KCIO3/NaNO3/H2SO4 as reported in our earlier findings. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-Visible and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of graphene. SEM, TEM and AFM analyses have also been carried out to study the morphological characteristics of the obtained product. Also, TG analysis presents the thermal stability behavior of the formed product. Zeta potential measurements were also carried out to determine the surface charge characteristics.

  5. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part Two: A Net Zero Energy Tourist Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to discuss the economical and the environmental analysis of a net zero energy (NZE tourist village in Alexandria, Egypt, by maximizing the renewable energy fraction and minimizing the greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. The hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery system is found to be the optimum hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for the proposed tourist village under the study. The optimum HRES consists of 1600 kW of PV panels (58.09% solar energy penetration, 1000 kW of wind turbines (41.34% wind energy penetration, 1000 kW of power converters, 200 kW diesel generator (only 0.57% diesel generator penetration in addition to 2000 batteries with the capacity of 589 Ah each. The levelized cost of energy (COE from the optimum HRES is $0.17/kWh and the total net present cost (NPC of this system is $15,383,360. Additionally, the maximum renewable energy fraction is 99.1% and the amount of GHG emitted from the optimum HRES is only 31,289 kg/year, which is negligible in comparison with the other system configurations, therefore the optimum HRES can be considered as a green system. In addition to this, the achieved percentage of the capacity shortage and the unmet load in the optimal HRES is only 0% for both.

  6. Red and green algal origin of diatom membrane transporters: insights into environmental adaptation and cell evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Xin Chan

    Full Text Available Membrane transporters (MTs facilitate the movement of molecules between cellular compartments. The evolutionary history of these key components of eukaryote genomes remains unclear. Many photosynthetic microbial eukaryotes (e.g., diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates appear to have undergone serial endosymbiosis and thereby recruited foreign genes through endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer (E/HGT. Here we used the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum as models to examine the evolutionary origin of MTs in this important group of marine primary producers. Using phylogenomics, we used 1,014 diatom MTs as query against a broadly sampled protein sequence database that includes novel genome data from the mesophilic red algae Porphyridium cruentum and Calliarthron tuberculosum, and the stramenopile Ectocarpus siliculosus. Our conservative approach resulted in 879 maximum likelihood trees of which 399 genes show a non-lineal history between diatoms and other eukaryotes and prokaryotes (at the bootstrap value ≥70%. Of the eukaryote-derived MTs, 172 (ca. 25% of 697 examined phylogenies have members of both red/green algae as sister groups, with 103 putatively arising from green algae, 19 from red algae, and 50 have an unresolved affiliation to red and/or green algae. We used topology tests to analyze the most convincing cases of non-lineal gene history in which red and/or green algae were nested within stramenopiles. This analysis showed that ca. 6% of all trees (our most conservative estimate support an algal origin of MTs in stramenopiles with the majority derived from green algae. Our findings demonstrate the complex evolutionary history of photosynthetic eukaryotes and indicate a reticulate origin of MT genes in diatoms. We postulate that the algal-derived MTs acquired via E/HGT provided diatoms and other related microbial eukaryotes the ability to persist under conditions of fluctuating ocean chemistry, likely

  7. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in biological or environmental samples. Due to low consumption of eluent (usually 0.3-1mL/run) mainly composed of water-alcohol binary mixtures, this method can be considered as environmentally friendly and green chemistry focused analytical tool, supplementary to analytical protocols involving column chromatography or planar micro-fluidic devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Green Warriors: Army Environmental Considerations for Contingency Operations from Planning through Post-Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mosher, David E; Lachman, Beth E; Greenberg, Michael D; Nichols, Tiffany; Rosen, Brian; Willis, Henry H

    2008-01-01

    .... Army conducts overseas. Countries in which the Army conducts operations tend to have environmental problems caused by industrialization, lack of environmental protection, long-running conflict, and natural conditions...

  9. Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Hilary F.

    The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

  10. Green designed: Future cars. Bio fuel, hybrid, electric, hydrogen, fuel economy in all sizes and shapes; Green designed: Future cars. Bio-Treibstoff, Hybrid, Elektro, Wasserstoff, sparsame Autos in allen Klassen und Formen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethscheider-Kieser, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    From the environmentalist niche to a mega-trend: Green thinking is in - even in the world of cars. In view of the increasingly limited oil resources and the discussion about CO{sub 2} emissions, cars must become more environmentally friendly. The car manufacturers are working more intensively on alternative and eco-friendly drives. Car customers can look forward to innovative technologies that for the most part have been created in fascinating forms by the designers. (orig.)

  11. Determinant Factors of Green Marketing Adoption in the Hospitality Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu B. Vlad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing is falling into the category of answers provided by the business world to the requirement to combine the economic development with the preservation of natural resources which represents a pressing concern of the modern times. In this context, the hospitality sector is facing as well an increasing pressure to pay attention to environmental issues, hotel organizations are increasingly tending to use environmentally friendly products and services, and to implement programs to manage energy and water consumption and waste. The adoption of green marketing in hospitality industry is significantly facilitated by internal and external factors. The paper focuses on the analysis of determinant internal factors: first and foremost on the pro-environmental behavior of the hotel managers and employees, and also on the already implemented green practices in the daily hotel activity. The implementation of green marketing strategies further examined being taken into account the organizational change theory, discloses a third determinant factor, namely, to what extent the process of changing is prepared. This paper is advancing an integrated model of determinant internal factors of green marketing implementation in the hospitality sector. The proposed research model has been tested and validated after analyzing the data collected in a quantitative research conducted on 330 managers and employees from the hospitality industry in Romania. The results show that the three predictors - pro-environmental behavior, current green practices and the change readiness - are having a significant influence on the implementation of green marketing.

  12. Environmental remediation and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into useful green products by accelerated carbonation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of carbonation technology to the environmental industry as a way of reducing carbon dioxide (CO(2)), a green house gas, including the presentation of related projects of our research group. An alternative technology to very slow natural carbonation is the co-called 'accelerated carbonation', which completes its fast reaction within few hours by using pure CO(2). Carbonation technology is widely applied to solidify or stabilize solid combustion residues from municipal solid wastes, paper mill wastes, etc. and contaminated soils, and to manufacture precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). Carbonated products can be utilized as aggregates in the concrete industry and as alkaline fillers in the paper (or recycled paper) making industry. The quantity of captured CO(2) in carbonated products can be evaluated by measuring mass loss of heated samples by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. The industrial carbonation technology could contribute to both reduction of CO(2) emissions and environmental remediation.

  13. Optimized Solvent for Energy-Efficient, Environmentally-Friendly Capture of CO{sub 2} at Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, G. A.; Rimpf, L. M.

    2014-04-30

    The overall goal of this project, as originally proposed, was to optimize the formulation of a novel solvent as a critical enabler for the cost-effective, energy-efficient, environmentally-friendly capture of CO{sub 2} at coal-fired utility plants. Aqueous blends of concentrated piperazine (PZ) with other compounds had been shown to exhibit high rates of CO{sub 2} absorption, low regeneration energy, and other desirable performance characteristics during an earlier 5-year development program conducted by B&W. The specific objective of this project was to identify PZ-based solvent formulations that globally optimize the performance of coal-fired power plants equipped with CO{sub 2} scrubbing systems. While previous solvent development studies have tended to focus on energy consumption and absorber size, important issues to be sure, the current work seeks to explore, understand, and optimize solvent formulation across the full gamut of issues related to commercial application of the technology: capital and operating costs, operability, reliability, environmental, health and safety (EH&S), etc. Work on the project was intended to be performed under four budget periods. The objective of the work in the first budget period has been to identify several candidate formulations of a concentrated PZ-based solvent for detailed characterization and evaluation. Work in the second budget period would generate reliable and comprehensive property and performance data for the identified formulations. Work in the third budget period would quantify the expected performance of the selected formulations in a commercial CO{sub 2} scrubbing process. Finally, work in the fourth budget period would provide a final technology feasibility study and a preliminary technology EH&S assessment. Due to other business priorities, however, B&W has requested that this project be terminated at the end of the first budget period. This document therefore serves as the final report for this project. It

  14. Green connector design for conservation campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihanto, Teguh

    2017-03-01

    Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) as a green campus of conservation must be comfortable, safe and fit for the users. As the growth of several new campus buildings, the need for integration means building green connectors adjacent buildings. The design is in line with their internal transportation policies that encourage the academic community to walk in the campus area. This effort is also to make the walk as a cultural activity, not merely implement policies campus only. So that the future is expected to create a built environment conservation campus humane, environmentally friendly and an inspiration for the region around the campus environment in an effort to better environmental management. The connector provided is considered still can not fully meet the eligibility aspect and comfort. Based on the extent of the problem can be formulated green connector design of the building to meet the comfort of pedestrians on campus. This study has the objective to: (1) assess the development potential point green connectors; (2) develop alternative design green connectors. Alternative green connector design that is more convenient to replace the connector campus that are currently lacking to provide comfort for pedestrians.

  15. Climate-friendly Default Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...

  16. Green auctions and reduction of information rents in payments for environmental services: an experimental investigation in Sunan County, northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Deng

    Full Text Available Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the "Grain for Green" Payments for environmental services (PES program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. "Perfect information" in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions.

  17. Green auctions and reduction of information rents in payments for environmental services: an experimental investigation in Sunan County, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the "Grain for Green" Payments for environmental services (PES) program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. "Perfect information" in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions.

  18. Approaching environmental health disparities and green spaces: an ecosystem services perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Gaither, Cassandra Johnson

    2015-02-10

    Health disparities occur when adverse health conditions are unequal across populations due in part to gaps in wealth. These disparities continue to plague global health. Decades of research suggests that the natural environment can play a key role in sustaining the health of the public. However, the influence of the natural environment on health disparities is not well-articulated. Green spaces provide ecosystem services that are vital to public health. This paper discusses the link between green spaces and some of the nation's leading health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular health, heat-related illness, and psychological health. These associations are discussed in terms of key demographic variables—race, ethnicity, and income. The authors also identify research gaps and recommendations for future research.

  19. Approaching Environmental Health Disparities and Green Spaces: An Ecosystem Services Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities occur when adverse health conditions are unequal across populations due in part to gaps in wealth. These disparities continue to plague global health. Decades of research suggests that the natural environment can play a key role in sustaining the health of the public. However, the influence of the natural environment on health disparities is not well-articulated. Green spaces provide ecosystem services that are vital to public health. This paper discusses the link between green spaces and some of the nation’s leading health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular health, heat-related illness, and psychological health. These associations are discussed in terms of key demographic variables—race, ethnicity, and income. The authors also identify research gaps and recommendations for future research.

  20. Machinery Options for Green Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Sherbaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Shipping is critical to global economy being means of transportation for 90 % of world trade goods. Shipping continues to remain the most environmental friendly transportation option compared to other available means due to lowest gCO2/ton.km emissions. It can however not be overlooked that shipping is responsible for 3 % of global CO2 emissions, 14-15 % of global NOX emissions and 16 % of global SOX emissions. International Maritime Organization (IMO is committed to reducing shipping emissions through policy and regulatory measures. Marine Pollution (MARPOL regulations have been increasingly demanding to tackle aggravating environmental concerns. IMO has been introducing measures for better energy-effectiveness (i.e. SEEMP in addition to better environmental performance (i.e. EEDI. Green ship concepts require exploring and implementing technologies and practices on ships to reduce emissions and increase energy-efficiency. Ship machinery is an important area with large potential to reduce emissions and increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the machinery options for green ship. The author will discuss basic concepts, principles and potential of machinery options for green ship in detail.