WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental waste containment

  1. 1994 Solid waste forecast container volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Clary, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container type. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container types will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The forecast data for the 30-year period indicates that approximately 307,150 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed by the SWOC. The main container type for this waste is 55-gallon drums, which will be used to ship 36% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of 55-gallon drums is Past Practice Remediation. This waste will be generated by the Environmental Restoration Program during remediation of Hanford's past practice sites. Although Past Practice Remediation is the primary generator of 55-gallon drums, most waste generators are planning to ship some percentage of their waste in 55-gallon drums. Long-length equipment containers (LECs) are forecasted to contain 32% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of LECs is the Long-Length Equipment waste generator, which is responsible for retrieving contaminated long-length equipment from the tank farms. Boxes are forecasted to contain 21% of the waste. These containers are primarily forecasted for use by the Environmental Restoration Operations--D ampersand D of Surplus Facilities waste generator. This waste generator is responsible for the solid waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the facilities currently on the Surplus Facilities Program Plan. The remaining LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste volume is planned to be shipped in casks and other miscellaneous containers

  2. Waste container and method for containing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akira; Matsushita, Mitsuhiro; Doi, Makoto; Nakatani, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a waste container, water-proof membranes and rare earth element layers are formed on the inner surface of a steel plate concrete container in which steel plates are embedded. Further, rear earth element detectors are disposed each from the inner side of the steel plate concrete container by way of a pressure pipe to the outer side of the container. As a method for actually containing wastes, when a plurality of vessels in which wastes are fixed are collectively enhoused to the waste container, cussioning materials are attached to the inner surface of the container and wastes fixing containers are stacked successively in a plurality of rows in a bag made of elastic materials. Subsequently, fixing materials are filled and tightly sealed in the waste container. When the waste container thus constituted is buried underground, even if it should be deformed to cause intrusion of rain water to the inside of the container, the rare earth elements in the container dissolved in the rain water can be detected by the detectors, the containers are exchanged before the rain water intruding to the inner side is leached to the surrounding ground, to previously prevent the leakage of radioactive nuclides. (K.M.)

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE STORED DUST-LIKE ZINC AND IRON CONTAINING WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Lytaeva

    2017-05-01

    On the basis of laboratory research and field observations of the environmental components in the impact area of the storage of dust-like zinc and iron containing wastes, the article describes regularities of formation of hydrogeochemical halos of contamination by heavy metals and iron. Results include also the description of changes in physico-chemical groundwater composition under the storage area.

  4. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management

  5. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, Jesus; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  6. Plasma methods for metals recovery from metal-containing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changming, Du; Chao, Shang; Gong, Xiangjie; Ting, Wang; Xiange, Wei

    2018-04-27

    Metal-containing waste, a kind of new wastes, has a great potential for recycling and is also difficult to deal with. Many countries pay more and more attention to develop the metal recovery process and equipment of this kind of waste as raw material, so as to solve the environmental pollution and comprehensively utilize the discarded metal resources. Plasma processing is an efficient and environmentally friendly way for metal-containing waste. This review mainly discuss various metal-containing waste types, such as printed circuit boards (PCBs), red mud, galvanic sludge, Zircon, aluminium dross and incinerated ash, and the corresponding plasma methods, which include DC extended transferred arc plasma reactor, DC non-transferred arc plasma torch, RF thermal plasma reactor and argon and argon-hydrogen plasma jets. In addition, the plasma arc melting technology has a better purification effect on the extraction of useful metals from metal-containing wastes, a great capacity of volume reduction of waste materials, and a low leaching toxicity of solid slag, which can also be used to deal with all kinds of metal waste materials, having a wide range of applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  8. Neutron scattering applied to environmental waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcombe, M.M.; Studer, A.J.; Waring, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A major environmental problem in Australia occurs at mine sites, where rock dumps and tailings dams are still causing problems many years after the mines have ceased operation. ANSTO has developed a method of producing a neutral barrier in-situ, which reduces water flow through the waste material. This in turn prevents water carrying waste products out into the wider environment. Both the loose grained sand substrate and the Neutral Barrier produced are crystalline and therefore amenable to diffraction techniques. In recent laboratory experiments neutron scattering has been used to confirm the presence of the barrier and measure the amount of calcite forming the barrier, at centimetre depths below the surface. The results of these measurements will be presented

  9. Sustainable Supply Chain Management: The Influence of Disposal Scenarios on the Environmental Impact of a 2400 L Waste Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Galve

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of the supply chain management on the environmental impact of a 2400 L waste disposal container used in most cities of Spain. The studied functional unit, a waste disposal container, made up mostly of plastic materials and a metallic structure, and manufactured in Madrid (Spain, is distributed to several cities at an average distance of 392 km. A life cycle assessment of four different scenarios (SC has been calculated with the software EcoTool v4.0 (version 4.0; i+: Zaragoza, Spain, 2015 and using Ecoinvent v3.0 database (version 3.0; Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories: St. Gallen, Switzerland, 2013. The environmental impact has been characterized with two different methodologies, recipe and carbon footprint. In order to reduce the environmental impact, several end of life scenarios have been performed, analyzing the influence of the supply chain on a closed-looped system that increases recycling. Closed loop management of the waste and reuse of parts allows companies to stop selling products and start selling the service that their products give to the consumers.

  10. Hazardous waste database: Waste management policy implications for the US Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Policastro, A.J.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Koebnick, B.; Dovel, M.; Stoll, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    The hazardous waste risk assessment modeling (HaWRAM) database is being developed to analyze the risk from treatment technology operations and potential transportation accidents associated with the hazardous waste management alternatives. These alternatives are being assessed in the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). To support the risk analysis, the current database contains complexwide detailed information on hazardous waste shipments from 45 Department of Energy installations during FY 1992. The database is currently being supplemented with newly acquired data. This enhancement will improve database information on operational hazardous waste generation rates, and the level and type of current on-site treatment at Department of Energy installations

  11. A probabilistic approach to assessing radioactive waste container lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.M.; Naish, C.C.; Sharland, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology has been developed to make assessments of the lifetime of specific radioactive waste container designs in a repository environment. The methodology employs a statistical approach, which aims to reflect uncertainty in the corrosion rates, and the evolution of the environmental conditions. In this paper, the methodology is demonstrated for an intermediate-level waste (ILW) container in the anticipated UK repository situation

  12. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility waste acceptance criteria. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corriveau, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is designed to be an isolation structure for low-level radioactive remediation waste, chemically contaminated remediation waste, and remediation waste that contains both chemical and radioactive constituents (i.e., mixed remediation waste) produced during environmental remediation of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) past-practice units at the Hanford Site. Remedial action wastes, which will become a structural component of the ERDF, include bulk soil, demolition debris, and miscellaneous wastes from burial grounds. These wastes may originate from CERCLA past-practice sites (i.e., operable units) in the 100 Areas, the 200 Areas, and the 300 Area of the Hanford Site

  14. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP

  15. Treatment of nanomaterial-containing waste in thermal waste treatment facilities; Behandlung nanomaterialhaltiger Abfaelle in thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Julia; Weiss, Volker [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Oischinger, Juergen; Meiller, Martin; Daschner, Robert [Fraunhofer Umsicht, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    There is already a multitude of products on the market, which contain synthetic nanomaterials (NM), and for the coming years an increase of such products can be expected. Consequently, it is predictable that more nanomaterial-containing waste will occur in the residual waste that is predominately disposed in thermal waste treatment plants. However, the knowledge about the behaviour and effects of nanomaterials from nanomaterial-containing waste in this disposal route is currently still low. A research project of the German Environment Agency on the ''Investigation of potential environmental impacts when disposing nanomaterial-containing waste in waste treatment plants'' will therefore dedicate itself to a detailed examination of emission pathways in the thermal waste treatment facilities. The tests carried out i.a. on an industrial waste incineration plant and a sludge incineration plant with controlled addition of titanium dioxide at the nanoscale, showed that no increase in the emissions of NM in the exhaust gas was detected. The majority of the NM was found in the combustion residues, particularly the slag.

  16. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Dayal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Major tasks in this NRC-sponsored program include: (1) an evaluation of the acceptability of low-level solidified wastes with respect to minimizing radionuclide releases after burial; and (2) an assessment of the influence of pertinent environmental stresses on the performance of high-integrity radwaste container (HIC) materials. The waste form performance task involves studies on small-scale laboratory specimens to predict and extrapolate: (1) leachability for extended time periods; (2) leach behavior of full-size forms; (3) performance of waste forms under realistic leaching conditions; and (4) leachability of solidified reactor wastes. The results show that leach data derived from testing of small-scale specimens can be extrapolated to estimate leachability of a full-scale specimen and that radionuclide release data derived from testing of simulants can be employed to predict the release behavior of reactor wastes. Leaching under partially saturated conditions exhibits lower releases of radionuclides than those observed under the conventional IAEA-type or ANS 16.1 leach tests. The HIC assessment task includes the characterization of mechanical properties of Marlex CL-100, a candidate radwaste high density polyethylene material. Tensile strength and creep rupture tests have been carried out to determine the influence of specific waste constituents as well as gamma irradiation on material performance. Emphasis in ongoing tests is being placed on studying creep rupture while the specimens are in contact with a variety of chemicals including radiolytic by-products of irradiated resin wastes. 12 references 6 figures, 2 tables

  17. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

  18. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA's CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information

  19. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B.L.; Riley, R.G.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mong, G.M.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1993-03-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others

  20. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S C; McCulloch, M; Thomas, B L; Riley, R G; Sklarew, D S; Mong, G M; Fadeff, S K [eds.; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others.

  1. Defense Waste Processing Facility staged operations: environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Environmental information is presented relating to a staged version of the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The information is intended to provide the basis for an Environmental Impact Statement. In either the integral or the staged design, the DWPF will convert the high-level waste currently stored in tanks into: a leach-resistant form containing about 99.9% of all the radioactivity, and a residual, slightly contaminated salt, which is disposed of as saltcrete. In the first stage of the staged version, the insoluble sludge portion of the waste and the long lived radionuclides contained therein will be vitrified. The waste glass will be sealed in canisters and stored onsite until shipped to a Federal repository. In the second stage, the supernate portion of the waste will be decontaminated by ion exchange. The recovered radionuclides will be transferred to the Stage 1 facility, and mixed with the sludge feed before vitrification. The residual, slightly contaminated salt solution will be mixed with Portland cement to form a concrete product (saltcrete) which will be buried onsite in an engineered landfill. This document describes the conceptual facilities and processes for producing glass waste and decontaminated salt. The environmental effects of facility construction, normal operations, and accidents are then presented. Descriptions of site and environs, alternative sites and waste disposal options, and environmental consultations and permits are given in the base Environmental Information Document

  2. Environmental information document defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This report documents the impact analysis of a proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for immobilizing high-level waste currently being stored on an interim basis at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The DWPF will process the waste into a form suitable for shipment to and disposal in a federal repository. The DWPF will convert the high-level waste into: a leach-resistant form containing above 99.9% of all the radioactivity, and a residue of slightly contaminated salt. The document describes the SRP site and environs, including population, land and water uses; surface and subsurface soils and waters; meteorology; and ecology. A conceptual integrated facility for concurrently producing glass waste and saltcrete is described, and the environmental effects of constructing and operating the facility are presented. Alternative sites and waste disposal options are addressed. Also environmental consultations and permits are discussed

  3. Environmental restoration and waste management site-specific plan for Richland Operations Office. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This document was prepared to implement and support the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) national plan. The national plan, entitled Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (DOE 1990b) (hereinafter referred to as the DOE-HQ Five-Year Plan) is the cornerstone of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term strategy in environmental restoration and waste management. The DOE-HQ Five-Year Plan addresses overall philosophy and environmental and waste-related activities under the responsibilities of the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The plan also reaffirms DOE-HQ goals to bring its nuclear sites into environmental compliance in cooperation with its regulators and the public, and to clean up and restore the environment by 2019 (the commitment for the Hanford Site is for one year sooner, or 2018). This document is part of the site-specific plan for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). It is the first revision of the original plan, which was dated December 1989 (DOE-RL 1989a). This document is a companion document to the Overview of the Hanford Cleanup Five-Year Plan (DOE-RL 1989d) and The Hanford Site Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan Activity Data Sheets (DOE-RL 1991). Although there are three documents that make up the complete DOE-RL plan, this detailed information volume was prepared so it could be used as a standalone document. 71 refs., 40 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Test plan for buried waste containment system materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, J.; Shaw, P.

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of the FY 1997 barrier material work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory are to (1) select a waste barrier material and verify that it is compatible with the Buried Waste Containment System Process, and (2) determine if, and how, the Buried Waste Containment System emplacement process affects the material properties and performance (on proof of principle scale). This test plan describes a set of measurements and procedures used to validate a waste barrier material for the Buried Waste Containment System. A latex modified proprietary cement manufactured by CTS Cement Manufacturing Company will be tested. Emplacement properties required for the Buried Waste Containment System process are: slump between 8 and 10 in., set time between 15 and 30 minutes, compressive strength at set of 20 psi minimum, and set temperature less than 100 degrees C. Durability properties include resistance to degradation from carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates. A set of baseline barrier material properties will be determined to provide a data base for comparison with the barrier materials when tested in the field. The measurements include permeability, petrographic analysis to determine separation and/or segregation of mix components, and a set of mechanical properties. The measurements will be repeated on specimens from the field test material. The data will be used to determine if the Buried Waste Containment System equipment changes the material. The emplacement properties will be determined using standard laboratory procedures and instruments. Durability of the barrier material will be evaluated by determining the effect of carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates on the compressive strength of the barrier material. The baseline properties will be determined using standard ASTM procedures. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    DOE's Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ''roadmap'' format

  6. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

  7. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 3 contains eight appendices: a reference environment for assessing environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of waste treatment, interim storage and/or final disposition facilities; dose calculations and radiologically related health effects; socioeconomic impact assessments; release/dose factors and dose in 5-year intervals to regional and world wide population from reference integrated systems; resource availability; environmental monitoring; detailed dose results for radionuclide migration groundwater from a waste repository; and annual average dispersion factors for selected release points

  8. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 3 contains eight appendices: a reference environment for assessing environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of waste treatment, interim storage and/or final disposition facilities; dose calculations and radiologically related health effects; socioeconomic impact assessments; release/dose factors and dose in 5-year intervals to regional and world wide population from reference integrated systems; resource availability; environmental monitoring; detailed dose results for radionuclide migration groundwater from a waste repository; and annual average dispersion factors for selected release points. (LK)

  9. The Treatment of Mixed Waste with GeoMelt In-Container Vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finucane, K.G.; Campbell, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    AMEC's GeoMelt R In-Container Vitrification (ICV) TM has been used to treat diverse types of mixed low-level radioactive waste. ICV is effective in the treatment of mixed wastes containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other semi-volatile organic compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals. The GeoMelt vitrification process destroys organic compounds and immobilizes metals and radionuclides in an extremely durable glass waste form. The process is flexible allowing for treatment of aqueous, oily, and solid mixed waste, including contaminated soil. In 2004, ICV was used to treat mixed radioactive waste sludge containing PCBs generated from a commercial cleanup project regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and to treat contaminated soil from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The Rocky Flats soil contained cadmium, PCBs, and depleted uranium. In 2005, AMEC completed a treatability demonstration of the ICV technology on Mock High Explosive from Sandia National Laboratories. This paper summarizes results from these mixed waste treatment projects. (authors)

  10. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text

  11. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  12. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  13. Environmental performance and mechanical analysis of concrete containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and waste precast concrete as aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Savaş; Blankson, Marva Angela

    2014-01-15

    The overall objective of this research project was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating 100% recycled aggregates, either waste precast concrete or waste asphalt planning, as replacements for virgin aggregates in structural concrete and to determine the mechanical and environmental performance of concrete containing these aggregates. Four different types of concrete mixtures were designed with the same total water cement ratio (w/c=0.74) either by using natural aggregate as reference or by totally replacing the natural aggregate with recycled material. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) was used as a mineral addition (35%) in all mixtures. The test results showed that it is possible to obtain satisfactory performance for strength characteristics of concrete containing recycled aggregates, if these aggregates are sourced from old precast concrete. However, from the perspective of the mechanical properties, the test results indicated that concrete with RAP aggregate cannot be used for structural applications. In terms of leaching, the results also showed that the environmental behaviour of the recycled aggregate concrete is similar to that of the natural aggregate concrete. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Loehr, C.A.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions

  15. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers

  16. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  17. Generalized waste package containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.

    1985-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a performance assessment strategy to demonstrate compliance with standards and technical requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in geologic repositories. One aspect of this strategy is the development of a unified performance model of the entire geologic repository system. Details of a generalized waste package containment (WPC) model and its relationship with other components of an overall repository model are presented in this paper. The WPC model provides stochastically determined estimates of the distributions of times-to-failure of the barriers of a waste package by various corrosion mechanisms and degradation processes. The model consists of a series of modules which employ various combinations of stochastic (probabilistic) and mechanistic process models, and which are individually designed to reflect the current state of knowledge. The WPC model is designed not only to take account of various site-specific conditions and processes, but also to deal with a wide range of site, repository, and waste package configurations. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Structural optimization of reinforced concrete container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, M.

    1984-01-01

    A structural optimization study of reinforced concrete container for transportation and disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in Brazilian nuclear power plants. The code requires the structural integrity of these containers when subjected to fall from specified height, avoiding environmental contamination. The structural optimization allows material and transportation cost reduction by container wall thickness reduction. The structural analysis is performed by tridimensional mathematical model using finite element method. (Author) [pt

  19. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE's proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates

  20. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  1. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described

  2. Waste management/waste certification plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C. Jr.; Hunt-Davenport, L.D.; Cofer, G.H.

    1995-03-01

    This Waste Management/Waste Certification (C) Plan, written for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), outlines the criteria and methodologies to be used in the management of waste generated during ORNL ER field activities. Other agreed upon methods may be used in the management of waste with consultation with ER and Waste Management Organization. The intent of this plan is to provide information for the minimization, handling, and disposal of waste generated by ER activities. This plan contains provisions for the safe and effective management of waste consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) guidance. Components of this plan have been designed to protect the environment and the health and safety of workers and the public. It, therefore, stresses that investigation derived waste (IDW) and other waste be managed to ensure that (1) all efforts be made to minimize the amount of waste generated; (2) costs associated with sampling storage, analysis, transportation, and disposal are minimized; (3) the potential for public and worker exposure is not increased; and (4) additional contaminated areas are not created

  3. Concrete as secondary containment for interior wall embedded waste lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex are numerous facilities that handle hazardous waste solutions. Secondary containment of tank systems and their ancillary piping is a major concern for existing facilities. The Idaho Division of Environmental Quality was petitioned in 1990 for an Equivalent Device determination regarding secondary containment of waste lines embedded in interior concrete walls. The petition was granted, however it expires in 1996. To address the secondary containment issue, additional studies were undertaken. One study verified the hypothesis that an interior wall pipe leak would follow the path of least resistance through the naturally occurring void found below a rigidly supported pipe and pass into an adjacent room where detection could occur, before any significant deterioration of the concrete takes place. Other tests demonstrated that with acidic waste solutions rebar and cold joints are not an accelerated path to the environment. The results from these latest studies confirm that the subject configuration meets all the requirements of secondary containment

  4. Environmental development plan. LWR commercial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies the planning and managerial requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health and safety (EH and S) aspects of the Commercial Waste Management Program (CWM). Environment is defined in its broadest sense to include environmental, health (occupational and public), safety, socioeconomic, legal and institutional aspects. This plan addresses certain present and potential Federal responsibilities for the storage, treatment, transfer and disposal of radioactive waste materials produced by the nuclear power industry. The handling and disposal of LWR spent fuel and processed high-level waste (in the event reprocessing occurs) are included in this plan. Defense waste management activities, which are addressed in detail in a separate EDP, are considered only to the extent that such activities are common to the commercial waste management program. This EDP addresses three principal elements associated with the disposal of radioactive waste materials from the commercial nuclear power industry, namely Terminal Isolation Research and Development, Spent Fuel Storage and Waste Treatment Technology. The major specific concerns and requirements addressed are assurance that (1) radioactivity will be contained during waste transport, interim storage or while the waste is considered as retrievable from a repository facility, (2) the interim storage facilities will adequately isolate the radioactive material from the biosphere, (3) the terminal isolation facility will isolate the wastes from the biosphere over a time period allowing the radioactivity to decay to innocuous levels, (4) the terminal isolation mode for the waste will abbreviate the need for surveillance and institutional control by future generations, and (5) the public will accept the basic waste management strategy and geographical sites when needed

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2005 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to make WIPP environmental information available to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2004. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through defense activities and programs. TRU waste is defined, in the WIPP LWA, as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting TRU isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years except for high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools; sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in part by one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by-products management,defense nuclear materials security and safeguards and security

  6. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each

  7. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  8. Environmental issues and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Banba, Tsunetaka; Maeda, Toshikatsu; Ishiyama, Takashi

    1999-08-01

    All countries in the world are concerned about environmental issues because of their global effects. Developed industrial nations are also confronted with waste issues accompanied by mass production, mass consumption, and mass dump. We have reviewed books and reports to obtain a preliminary knowledge and to understand the trend of technology development before we start R and D for 'environmental monitoring, and environmental remediation and protection'. We lay great emphasis on municipal and industrial wastes in environmental issues and summarize the history of the earth, innovative environmental approaches in advanced nations, waste issues in Japan, and examples of technology development for environmental remediation and protection. (author)

  9. Assessing reliability and useful life of containers for disposal of irradiated fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubt, G.

    1984-06-01

    Metal containers for fuel waste isolation are to be designed to last at least 500 years to provide a redundant barrier during the decay period of the high activity components of the waste. To meet the long-life requirement, containers must have a very low failure rate during the design mission, a low incidence of 'juvenile failures' due to undetected defects, and resistance to progressive deterioration from environmental processes. This paper summarizes studies to determine: (1) precedent for low failure rates and relevance to container longevity; (b) the likelihood of initial defects perforating the container before or shortly after emplacement, and estimates of material defect distribution; (c) the utility of reliability analysis techniques for estimating reliability and life of fuel waste containers; (d) other approaches to estimating container longevity and failure versus time distribution

  10. Enviro-geotechnical considerations in waste containment system design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, H.Y.; Daniels, J.L.; Inyang, H.I.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of waste control facilities hinges on careful evaluation of the overall planning, analysis and design of the entire system prior to construction. At present, most work is focused on the waste controlling system itself, with little attention given to the local environmental factors surrounding the facility sites. Containment materials including geomembranes, geotextiles and clay amended soils have received intense scrutiny. This paper, however, focuses on three relatively important issues relating to the characterization of the surrounding geomedia. Leakage through naturally occurring low-permeability soil layers, shrinkages swelling, cracking and effects of dynamic loads on system components are often responsible for a waste containment breach. In this paper, these mechanisms and their synergistic effects are explained in terms of the particle energy field theory. It is hoped that this additional information may assist the designer to be aware or take precaution to design safer future waste control facilities

  11. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronen, V.R.

    1998-06-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) with a primary mission of environmental cleanup and restoration. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is an integral part of the DOE environmental restoration effort at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to establish the ERDF waste acceptance criteria for disposal of materials resulting from Hanford Site cleanup activities. Definition of and compliance with the requirements of this document will enable implementation of appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment, ensure the integrity of the ERDF liner system, facilitate efficient use of the available space in the ERDF, and comply with applicable environmental regulations and DOE orders. To serve this purpose, the document defines responsibilities, identifies the waste acceptance process, and provides the primary acceptance criteria and regulatory citations to guide ERDF users. The information contained in this document is not intended to repeat or summarize the contents of all applicable regulations

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2003 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-09-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to convey that performance to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2003. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through the research and production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. TRU waste is defined in the WIPP LWA as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years. Exceptions are noted as high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools, and sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. A TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in partby one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2003 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to convey that performance to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2003. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through the research and production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. TRU waste is defined in the WIPP LWA as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years. Exceptions are noted as high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools, and sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. A TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in partby one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by

  14. The market-incentive recycling system for waste packaging containers in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor Yunchang, Jeffrey; Chien, Y.-L.; Hsu, Esher

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new market-incentive (MI) system to recycle waste-packaging containers in Taiwan. Since most used packaging containers have no or insufficient market value, the government imposes a combined product charge and subsidy policy to provide enough economic incentive for recycling various kinds of packaging containers, such as iron, aluminum, paper, glass and plastic. Empirical results show that the new MI approach has stimulated and established the recycling market for waste-packaging containers. The new recycling system has provided 18,356 employment opportunities and generated NT$ 6.97 billion in real-production value and NT$ 3.18 billion in real GDP during the 1998 survey year. Cost-effectiveness analysis constitutes the theoretical foundation of the new scheme, whereas data used to compute empirical product charge are from two sources: marketing surveys of internal conventional costs of solid-waste collection, disposal and recycling in Taiwan, and benefit transfer of external environmental costs in the United States. The new recycling policy designed by the authors provides a reasonable solution for solid-waste management in a country with limited land resources such as Taiwan

  15. Environmental Assessment for Hazardous Waste Staging Facility, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared pursuant to the implementing regulations to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which require federal agencies to assess the environmental impacts of a proposed action to determine whether that action requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or if a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) can be issued. The Pantex Plant does not possess permanent containerized waste staging facilities with integral secondary containment or freeze protection. Additional deficiencies associated with some existing staging facilities include: no protection from precipitation running across the staging pads; lack of protection against weathering; and facility foundations not capable of containing leaks, spills or accumulated precipitation. These shortcomings have raised concerns with respect to requirements under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Deficiencies for these waste staging areas were also cited by a government audit team (Tiger Team) as Action Items. The provision for the staging of hazardous, mixed, and low level waste is part of the no-action altemative in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the integrated ER/WM program. Construction of this proposed project will not prejudice whether or not this integration will occur, or how

  16. Design compliance matrix waste sample container filling system for nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This design compliance matrix document provides specific design related functional characteristics, constraints, and requirements for the container filling system that is part of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This document addresses performance, external interfaces, ALARA, Authorization Basis, environmental and design code requirements for the container filling system. The container filling system will interface with the waste stream from the fluidic pumping channels of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system and will fill containers with waste that meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) criteria for waste that contains volatile and semi-volatile organic materials. The specifications for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system are described in a Level 2 Specification document (HNF-3483, Rev. 1). The basis for this design compliance matrix document is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) desk instructions for design Compliance matrix documents (PI-CP-008-00, Rev. 0)

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to make WIPP environmental information available to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2004. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through defense activities and programs. TRU waste is defined, in the WIPP LWA, as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting TRU isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years except for high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools; sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in part by one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by-products management,defense nuclear materials security and safeguards and security investigations, and defense

  18. Alternative containers for low-level wastes containing large amounts of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gause, E.P.; Lee, B.S.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Wiswall, R. Jr.

    1984-11-01

    High-activity tritiated waste generated in the United States is mainly composed of tritium gas and tritium-contaminated organic solvents sorbed onto Speedi-Dri which are packaged in small glass bulbs. Low-activity waste consists of solidified and adsorbed liquids. In this report, current packages for high-activity gaseous and low-activity adsorbed liquid wastes are emphasized with regard to containment potential. Containers for low-level radioactive waste containing large amounts of tritium need to be developed. An integrity may be threatened by: physical degradation due to soil corrosion, gas pressure build-up (due to radiolysis and/or biodegradation), rapid permeation of tritium through the container, and corrosion from container contents. Literature available on these points is summarized in this report. 136 references, 20 figures, 40 tables

  19. Nanoparticles: Their potential toxicity, waste and environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, Grazyna; Golimowski, Jerzy; Urban, Pawel L.

    2009-01-01

    This literature review discusses specific issues related to handling of waste containing nanomaterials. The aims are (1) to highlight problems related to uncontrolled release of nanoparticles to the environment through waste disposal, and (2) to introduce the topics of nanowaste and nanotoxicology to the waste management community. Many nanoparticles used by industry contain heavy metals, thus toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals contained in nanoparticles may become important environmental issues. Although bioavailability of heavy metals contained in nanoparticles can be lower than those present in soluble form, the toxicity resulting from their intrinsic nature (e.g. their size, shape or density) may be significant. An approach to the treatment of nanowaste requires understanding of all its properties - not only chemical, but also physical and biological. Progress in nanowaste management also requires studies of the environmental impact of the new materials. The authors believe Amara's law is applicable to the impact of nanotechnologies, and society might overestimate the short-term effects of these technologies, while underestimating the long-term effects. It is necessary to have basic information from companies about the level and nature of nanomaterials produced or emitted and about the expectation of the life cycle time of nanoproducts as a basis to estimate the level of nanowaste in the future. Without knowing how companies plan to use and store recycled and nonrecycled nanomaterials, development of regulations is difficult. Tagging of nanoproducts is proposed as a means to facilitate separation and recovery of nanomaterials.

  20. Multipurpose container for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Pearson, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for disposing of low-level radioactive waste, comprising the steps of (a) introducing the waste into a multipurpose container, the multipurpose container comprising a polymeric inner container disposed within a concrete outer shell, the shape of the inner container conforming substantially to the shape of the outer shell's inner surface, (b) transporting the waste in the same multipurpose container to a storage location, and (c) storing the container at the storage location

  1. Incineration of radioactive wastes containing only C-14 and H-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Corazon M.

    1992-01-01

    C-14 and H-3 arc popularly used in chemical and biological research institutions in the Philippines. Most of the solid radioactive wastes generated by these institutions consist of combustible materials such as paper and accumulated environmental samples. Liquid wastes usually contain organic substances. The method proposed for managing C-14 and H-3 wastes is incineration which is expected to provide an acceptable means of disposal for C-14 and H-3 and their hazardous organic constituent. In the incineration process) the radioactively contaminated waste will be mixed with non-radioactive combustible wastes to lower the activity concentration and to improve the efficiency of combustion which will be carried out in a locally fabricated drum incinerator. The calculations presented determines the concentration limit for the incinerable wastes and the restriction on specific activity of the particles of the incinerable wastes containing C-14 or H-3 on the basis of the accepted air concentration and on the annual dose limit for an average radiation worker in the country. In the calculations for C-14, considerations were taken on the exposure received from the deposition of radioactive particles in the lungs containing unoxidized carbon. Calculations for H-3, however, is based on the assumption that the concentration of the radionuclide in the body water is the same as that in the environment. (author)

  2. Selectivity of NF membrane for treatment of liquid waste containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Barbosa, Celina C.R.; Afonso, Julio C.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of two nanofiltration membranes were investigated for treatment of liquid waste containing uranium through two conditions permeation: permeation test and concentration test of the waste. In the permeation test solution permeated returned to the feed tank after collected samples each 3 hours. In the test of concentration the permeated was collected continuously until 90% reduction of the feed volume. The liquid waste ('carbonated water') was obtained during conversion of UF 6 to UO 2 in the cycle of nuclear fuel. This waste contains uranium concentration on average 7.0 mg L -1 , and not be eliminated to the environmental. The waste was permeated using a cross-flow membrane cell in the pressure of the 1.5 MPa. The selectivity of the membranes for separation of uranium was between 83% and 90% for both tests. In the concentration tests the waste was concentrated around for 5 times. The surface layer of the membranes was evaluated before and after the tests by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), field emission microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force spectroscopy (AFM). The membrane separation process is a technique feasible to and very satisfactory for treatment the liquid waste. (author)

  3. Characterizing the environmental impact of metals in construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danfeng; Duan, Huabo; Song, Qingbin; Li, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Yicheng; Shen, Weijun; Wang, Jinben

    2018-05-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition (C&D) waste are generated in China every year, but their potential environmental impacts on the surrounding areas are rarely assessed. This study focuses on metals contained in C&D waste, characterizing the metal concentrations and their related environmental risks. C&D waste samples were collected in Shenzhen City, China, from building demolition sites, renovation areas undergoing refurbishment, landfill sites, and recycling companies (all located in Shenzhen city) that produce recycled aggregate, in order to identify pollution levels of the metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The results showed that (1) the metal concentrations in most demolition and renovation waste samples were below the soil environmental quality standard for agricultural purposes (SQ-Agr.) in China; (2) Cd, Cu, and Zn led to relatively higher environmental risks than other metals, especially for Zn (DM5 tile sample, 360 mg/kg; R4 tile sample, 281 mg/kg); (3) non-inert C&D waste such as wall insulation and foamed plastic had high concentrations of As and Cd, so that these materials required special attention for sound waste management; and (4) C&D waste collected from landfill sites had higher concentrations of Cd and Cu than did waste collected from demolition and refurbishment sites.

  4. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five...... transformation during waste treatment processes, (2) mechanisms for the release of ENMs, (3) the quantification of nanowaste amounts at the regional scale, (4) a definition of acceptable limit values for exposure to ENMs from nanowaste and (5) the reporting of nanowaste generation data....

  5. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  6. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sump, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties

  7. Waste Characterization Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) on the proposed construction and operation of a Waste Characterization Facility (WCF) at INEL. This facility is needed to examine and characterize containers of transuranic (TRU) waste to certify compliance with transport and disposal criteria; to obtain information on waste constituents to support proper packaging, labeling, and storage; and to support development of treatment and disposal plans for waste that cannot be certified. The proposed WCF would be constructed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) requirements in 40 CFR Parts 1500-1508, the EA examined the potential environmental impacts of the proposed WCF and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, and CEQ regulations at 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  8. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Method for processing radioactive wastes containing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Takeshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To bake, solidify and process even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium. Structure: H and or NH 4 zeolites of more than 90g per chemical equivalent of sodium present in the waste is added to and left in radioactive wastes containing sodium, after which they are fed to a baker such as rotary cylindrical baker, spray baker and the like to bake and solidify the wastes at 350 to 800 0 C. Thereby, it is possible to bake and solidify even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium, which has been impossible to do so previously. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Recovery of Proteins and Chromium Complexes from Chromium – Containing Leather Waste (CCLW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gutti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium – Containing Leather Waste (CCLW constitutes an environmental pollution problem to leather industries disposing the waste by landfill. The waste mainly consists of collagen and chromium III complexes. This work is a design of reactors to recover gelatin, polypeptides and chromium from CCLW. The results of the experiment shows that 68% of protein, based on dry weight of leather scraps, could be recovered. Three reactors with a total volume of 18 m3 was designed to handle 10,431 kg of waste generated from the tanning industries.

  11. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R. [Benchmark Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  12. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  13. Study on hazardous substances contained in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Ryoichiro; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary that the technical criteria is established concerning waste package for disposal of the TRU waste generated in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. And it is important to consider the criteria not only in terms of radioactivity but also in terms of chemical hazard and criticality. Therefore the environmental impact of hazardous materials and possibility of criticality were investigated to decide on technical specification of radioactive waste packages. The contents and results are as following. (1) Concerning hazardous materials included in TRU waste, regulations on disposal of industrial wastes and on environmental preservation were investigated. (2) The assessment methods for environmental impact of hazardous materials included in radioactive waste in U.K, U.S.A. and France were investigated. (3) The parameters for mass transport assessment about migration of hazardous materials in waste packages around disposal facilities were compiled. And the upper limits of amounts of hazardous materials in waste packages to satisfy the environmental standard were calculated with mass transport assessment for some disposal concepts. (4) It was suggested from criticality analysis for waste packages in disposal facility that the occurrence of criticality was almost impossible under the realistic conditions. (author)

  14. Cermets for high level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cermet materials are currently under investigation as an alternate for the primary containment of high level wastes. The cermet in this study is an iron--nickel base metal matrix containing uniformly dispersed, micron-size fission product oxides, aluminosilicates, and titanates. Cermets possess high thermal conductivity, and typical waste loading of 70 wt % with volume reduction factors of 2 to 200 and low processing volatility losses have been realized. Preliminary leach studies indicate a leach resistance comparable to other candidate waste forms; however, more quantitative data are required. Actual waste studies have begun on NFS Acid Thorex, SRP dried sludge and fresh, unneutralized SRP process wastes

  15. Final environmental assessment: TRU waste drum staging building, Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Much of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) research on plutonium metallurgy and plutonium processing is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, New Mexico. LANL's main facility for plutonium research is the Plutonium Facility, also referred to as Technical Area 55 (TA-55). The main laboratory building for plutonium work within the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) is the Plutonium Facility Building 4, or PF-4. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if DOE were to stage sealed containers of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste in a support building at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) that is adjacent to PF-4. At present, the waste containers are staged in the basement of PF-4. The proposed project is to convert an existing support structure (Building 185), a prefabricated metal building on a concrete foundation, and operate it as a temporary staging facility for sealed containers of solid TRU and TRU mixed waste. The TRU and TRU mixed wastes would be contained in sealed 55-gallon drums and standard waste boxes as they await approval to be transported to TA-54. The containers would then be transported to a longer term TRU waste storage area at TA-54. The TRU wastes are generated from plutonium operations carried out in PF-4. The drum staging building would also be used to store and prepare for use new, empty TRU waste containers

  16. IMPROVEMENTS IN CONTAINER MANAGEMENT OF TRANSURANIC (TRU) AND LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORED AT THE CENTRAL WASTE COMPLEX (CWC) AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UYTIOCO EM

    2007-01-01

    , the Department of Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency. These commitments require waste containers to be shipped off site for disposal and/or treatment within a certain time frame. Because the program was struggling to meet production demands, the Production and Planning group was tasked with developing a method to assist the LLW Program in fulfilling its requirements. Using existing databases for container management, a single electronic spreadsheet was created to visually map every waste container within the CWC. The file displays the exact location (e.g., building, module, tier, position) of each container in a format that replicates the actual layout in the facility. In addition, each container was placed into a queue defined by the LLW and TRU waste management programs. The queues were developed based on characterization requirements, treatment type and location, and potential final disposition. This visual aid allows the user to select containers from similar queues and view their location within the facility. The user selects containers in a centralized location, rather than random locations, to expedite shipments out of the facility. This increases efficiency for generating the shipments, as well as decreasing worker exposure and container handling time when gathering containers for shipment by reducing movements of waste container. As the containers are collected for shipment, the remaining containers are segregated by queue, which further reduces future container movements

  17. Method of vitrificating fine-containing liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Minoru; Matsunaka, Kazuhisa.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a vitrificating method of liquid wastes containing fines (metal powder discharged upon cutting fuel cans) used in a process for treating high level radioactive liquid wastes or a process for treating liquid wastes from nuclear power plants. Liquid wastes containing fines, slurries, etc. are filtered by a filter vessel comprising glass fibers. The fines are supplied as they are to a glass melting furnace placed in the vessel. Filterates formed upon filteration are mixed with other high level radioactive wastes and supplied together with starting glass material to the glass melting furnace. Since the fine-containing liquid wastes are processed separately from high radioactive liquid wastes, clogging of pipeways, etc. can be avoided, supply to the melting furnace is facilitated and the operation efficiency of the vitrification process can be improved. (I.N.)

  18. E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brett H

    2009-12-20

    E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed

  19. E-waste: An assessment of global production and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Brett H.

    2009-01-01

    E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed

  20. E-waste: An assessment of global production and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Brett H., E-mail: brett.robinson@lincoln.ac.nz [Department of Soil and Physical Sciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury (New Zealand)

    2009-12-20

    E-waste comprises discarded electronic appliances, of which computers and mobile telephones are disproportionately abundant because of their short lifespan. The current global production of E-waste is estimated to be 20-25 million tonnes per year, with most E-waste being produced in Europe, the United States and Australasia. China, Eastern Europe and Latin America will become major E-waste producers in the next ten years. Miniaturisation and the development of more efficient cloud computing networks, where computing services are delivered over the internet from remote locations, may offset the increase in E-waste production from global economic growth and the development of pervasive new technologies. E-waste contains valuable metals (Cu, platinum group) as well as potential environmental contaminants, especially Pb, Sb, Hg, Cd, Ni, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Burning E-waste may generate dioxins, furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), and hydrogen chloride. The chemical composition of E-waste changes with the development of new technologies and pressure from environmental organisations on electronics companies to find alternatives to environmentally damaging materials. Most E-waste is disposed in landfills. Effective reprocessing technology, which recovers the valuable materials with minimal environmental impact, is expensive. Consequently, although illegal under the Basel Convention, rich countries export an unknown quantity of E-waste to poor countries, where recycling techniques include burning and dissolution in strong acids with few measures to protect human health and the environment. Such reprocessing initially results in extreme localised contamination followed by migration of the contaminants into receiving waters and food chains. E-waste workers suffer negative health effects through skin contact and inhalation, while the wider community are exposed

  1. Mechanical and toxicological evaluation of concrete artifacts containing waste foundry sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastella, Miguel Angelo; Gislon, Edivelton Soratto; Pelisser, Fernando; Ricken, Cláudio; da Silva, Luciano; Angioletto, Elídio; Montedo, Oscar Rubem Klegues

    2014-08-01

    The creation of metal parts via casting uses molds that are generally made from sand and phenolic resin. The waste generated after the casting process is called waste foundry sand (WFS). Depending on the mold composition and the casting process, WFS can contain substances that prevent its direct emission to the environment. In Brazil, this waste is classified according to the Standard ABNT NBR 10004:2004 as a waste Class II (Non-Inert). The recycling of this waste is limited because its characteristics change significantly after use. Although the use (or reuse) of this byproduct in civil construction is a technically feasible alternative, its effects must be evaluated, especially from mechanical and environmental points of view. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of WFS in the manufacture of cement artifacts, such as masonry blocks for walls, structural masonry blocks, and paving blocks. Blocks containing different concentrations of WFS (up to 75% by weight) were produced and evaluated using compressive strength tests (35 MPa at 28 days) and toxicity tests on Daphnia magna, Allium cepa (onion root), and Eisenia foetida (earthworm). The results showed that there was not a considerable reduction in the compressive strength, with values of 35 ± 2 MPa at 28 days. The toxicity study with the material obtained from leaching did not significantly interfere with the development of D. magna and E. foetida, but the growth of the A. cepa species was reduced. The study showed that the use of this waste in the production of concrete blocks is feasible from both mechanical and environmental points of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  3. Methane from waste containing paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-24

    Waste solids containing paper are biologically treated in a system by: fermentation with lactobacilli, separation of the solids, ion exchange of the supernatant from the separation, anaerobic digestion of the ion-exchanged liquor, separation of a liquor from the fermentation, and digestion of the liquor. Thus, a municipal waste containing paper and water was inoculated with Aspergillus niger and lactobacilli for 2 days; the mixture was anaerobically treated and centrifuged; the clear liquor was ion exchanged; and the solid waste was filter pressed. The filter cake was treated with Trichoderma nigricaus and filtered. The filtrate and the ion-exchanged liquor were digested for CH/sub 4/ production.

  4. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, C.J.; Shaddoan, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a open-quotes contained landfill.close quotes These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal

  5. Evaluation of potential mixed wastes containing lead, chromium, or used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of follow-on studies conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on certain kinds of low-level waste (LLW) which could also be classified as hazardous waste subject to regulation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Such LLW is termed ''mixed waste.'' Additional data have been collected and evaluated on two categories of potential mixed waste, namely LLW containing metallic lead and LLW containing chromium. Additionally, LLW with organic liquids, especially liquid scintillation wastes, are reviewed. In light of a proposed EPA rule to list used oil as hazardous waste, the potential mixed waste hazard of used oil contaminated with radionuclides is discussed. It is concluded that the EPA test for determining whether a solid waste exhibits the hazardous characteristic of extraction procedure toxicity does not adequately simulate the burial environment at LLW disposal sites, and in particular, does not adequately assess the potential for dissolution and transport of buried metallic lead. Also, although chromates are, in general, not a normal or routine constitutent in commercial LLW (with the possible exception of chemical decontamination wastes), light water reactors which do use chromates might find it beneficial to consider alternative corrosion inhibitors. In addition, it is noted that if used oil is listed by the EPA as hazardous waste, LLW oil may be managed by a scheme including one or more of the following processes: incineration, immobilization, sorption, aqueous extraction and glass furnace processing

  6. The stress corrosion cracking of copper nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Litke, C.D.; Ikeda, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The extent of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper nuclear waste containers is being predicted on the basis of a 'limited propagation' argument. In this argument, it is accepted that crack initiation may occur, but it is argued that the environmental conditions and material properties required for a through-wall crack to propagate will not be present. In this paper, the effect of one environmental parameter, the supply of oxidant (J ox ), on the crack growth rate is examined. Experiments have been conducted on two grades of Cu in NANO 2 environments using two loading techniques. The supply of oxidant has been varied either electrochemically in bulk solution using different applied current densities or by embedding the loaded test specimens in compacted buffer material containing O 2 as the oxidant. Measured and theoretical crack growth rates as a function of J ox are compared with the predicted oxidant flux to the containers in a disposal vault and an estimate of the maximum crack depth on a container obtained. (author)

  7. The stress corrosion cracking of copper nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Litke, C.D.; Ikeda, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The extent of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper nuclear waste containers is being predicted on the basis of a limited propagation argument. In this argument, it is accepted that crack initiation may occur, but it is argued that the environmental conditions and material properties required for a through-wall crack to propagate will not be present. In this paper, the effect of one environmental parameter, the supply of oxidant (J OX ), on the crack growth rate is examined. Experiments have been conducted on two grades of Cu in NaNO 2 environments using two loading techniques. The supply of oxidant has been varied either electrochemically in bulk solution using different applied current densities or by embedding the loaded test specimens in compacted buffer material containing O 2 as the oxidant. Measured and theoretical crack growth rates as a function of J OX are compared with the predicted oxidant flux to the containers in a disposal vault and an estimate of the maximum crack depth on a container obtained

  8. Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zarka, M.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

  9. Environmental issue identification for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrell, D.J.; Jones, K.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation of environmental issues is provided in this report. It contains summary of the thought process that was used during the area characterization studies for a geological repository for high-level radioactive wastes. Environmental issues are discussed separately for construction, operation, and long term isolation aspects of a repository in basalt. During construction the primary environmental concerns are public perception and water resources; intermediate concerns are air quality, ecosystems, physical resources, and cultural and social resources. During operation, the primary environmental issues concern the transport of radioactive materials and physical resources. Long term environmental issues envolve water resources and borehole plugging

  10. Development of polymer concrete radioactive waste management containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.; Lee, M. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Won, H. J.; Kang, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lim, S.P.; Kim, Y. E.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, K. P.; Min, B. Y.; Lee, J.K.; Jang, W. S.; Sim, W. B.; Lee, J. C.; Park, M. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Shin, H. E.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, C. Y

    1999-11-01

    A high-integrity radioactive waste container has been developed to immobilize the spent resin wastes from nuclear power plants, protect possible future, inadvertent intruders from damaging radiation. The polymer concrete container is designed to ensure safe and reliable disposal of the radioactive waste for a minimum period of 300 years. A built-in vent system for each container will permit the release of gas. An experimental evaluation of the mechanical, chemical, and biological tests of the container was carried out. The tests showed that the polymer concrete container is adequate for safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. (author)

  11. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  12. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  13. Assessing the disposal of wastes containing NORM in nonhazardous waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K. P.; Blunt, D. L.; Williams, G. P.; Arnish, J. J.; Pfingston, M. R.; Herbert, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the past few years, many states have established specific regulations for the management of petroleum industry wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) above specified thresholds. These regulations have limited the number of disposal options available for NORM-containing wastes, thereby increasing the related waste management costs. In view of the increasing economic burden associated with NORM management, industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that still provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative being considered is the disposal of NORM-containing wastes in landfills permitted to accept only nonhazardous wastes. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 and lead-210 above regulated levels in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and associated health risks to workers and the general public. A variety of scenarios were considered to evaluate the effects associated with the operational phase (i.e., during landfill operations) and future use of the landfill property. Doses were calculated for the maximally exposed receptor for each scenario. This paper presents the results of that study and some conclusions and recommendations drawn from it

  14. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  15. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major new unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 1989, implementing a central purpose of DOE's first annual Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, which had appeared three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to worker and public health and the environment, containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination, and developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals

  16. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentil, Emmanuel C.; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. → Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. → Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  17. Environmental management assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Assessment was conducted by EH-24 from July 19 through July 30, 1993 to advise the Secretary of Energy of the adequacy of management systems established at WIPP to ensure the protection of the environment and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. The mission of WIPP is to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the management and operating contractors. This assessment revealed that WIPP's environmental safety and health programs are satisfactory, and that all levels of the Waste Isolation Division (WID) management and staff consistently exhibit a high level of commitment to achieve environmental excellence

  18. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  19. EVALUATION OF WASTE PACKAGE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. N. Lindner and E. F. Dembowski

    1998-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for a permanent underground repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level waste (HLW). The emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. Due to this heat, the rock temperature will rise, and then decrease when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. In addition to raising the rock temperature, the heat will vaporize water, which will condense in cooler regions. The condensate water may drain back toward the emplacement drifts or it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. Other effects, such as coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. This study examined near field environmental parameters that could have an effect on the waste package, including temperature, humidity, seepage rate, pH of seepage, chemistry (dissolved salts/minerals) of seepage, composition of drift atmosphere, colloids, and biota. This report is a Type I analysis performed in support of the development of System Description Documents (SDDs). A Type I analysis is a quantitative or qualitative analysis that may fulfill any of a variety of purposes associated with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR), other than providing direct analytical support for design output documents. A Type I analysis may establish design input, as defined in the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998). This study establishes a technical basis for emplacement drift (i.e. at the waste package surface) environment criteria to be considered in the development of the waste package design. The information will support development of several SDDs and resolve emplacement drift external environment questions in the criteria of those

  20. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  1. NEW CRITERIA FOR ASSIGNING WASTE CONTAINING TECH-NOGENIC RADIONUCLIDES TO THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains detailed description of criteria for assigning of liquid and gaseous industrial waste containing technogenicradionuclides to the radioactive waste, presented in the new Basic Sanitary Rulesof Radiation Safety (OSPORB-99/2010. The analysisof shortcomings and discrepancies of the previously used in Russia system of criteria for assigning waste to the radioactive waste is given.

  2. Characterization of Hanford tank wastes containing ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Matheson, J.D.; McKinley, S.G.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    Currently, 17 storage tanks on the Hanford site that are believed to contain > 1,000 gram moles (465 lbs) of ferrocyanide compounds have been identified. Seven other tanks are classified as ferrocyanide containing waste tanks, but contain less than 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide compounds. These seven tanks are still included as Hanford Watch List Tanks. These tanks have been declared an unreviewed safety question (USQ) because of potential thermal reactivity hazards associated with the ferrocyanide compounds and nitrate and nitrite. Hanford tanks with waste containing > 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide have been sampled. Extensive chemical, radiothermical, and physical characterization have been performed on these waste samples. The reactivity of these wastes were also studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis. Actual tank waste samples were retrieved from tank 241-C-112 using a specially designed and equipped core-sampling truck. Only a small portion of the data obtained from this characterization effort will be reported in this paper. This report will deal primarily with the cyanide and carbon analyses, thermal analyses, and limited physical property measurements

  3. Decontamination flowsheet development for a waste oil containing mixed radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Buckley, L.P.

    1993-01-01

    The majority of waste oils contaminated with both radioactive and hazardous components are generated in nuclear power plant, research lab. and uranium-refinery operations. The waste oils are complex, requiring a detailed examination of the waste management strategies and technology options. It may appear that incineration offers a total solution, but this may not be true in all cases. An alternative approach is to decontaminate the waste oils to very low contaminant levels, so that the treated oils can be reused, burned as fuel in boilers, or disposed of by commercial incineration. This paper presents selected experimental data and evaluation results gathered during the development of a decontamination flowsheet for a specific waste oil stores at Chalk River Labs. (CRL). The waste oil contains varying amounts of lube oils, grease, paint, water, particulates, sludge, light chloro- and fluoro-solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), complexing chemicals, uranium, chromium, iron, arsenic and manganese. To achieve safe management of this radioactive and hazardous waste, several treatment and disposal methods were screened. Key experiments were performed at the laboratory-scale to confirm and select the most appropriate waste-management scheme based on technical, environmental and economic criteria. The waste-oil-decontamination flowsheet uses a combination of unit operations, including prefiltration, acid scrubbing, and aqueous-leachage treatment by precipitation, microfiltration, filter pressing and carbon adsorption. The decontaminated oil containing open-quotes de minimisclose quotes levels of contaminants will undergo chemical destruction of PCBs and final disposal by incineration. The recovered uranium will be recycled to a uranium milling process

  4. Alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, and container processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, container processing systems, and onsite interim storage. Glass waste forms considered are cullet, marbles, gems, and monolithic glass. Small and large containers configured with several combinations of overpack confinement and shield casks are evaluated for these waste forms. Onsite interim storage concepts including canister storage building, bore holes, and storage pad were configured with various glass forms and canister alternatives. All favorable options include the monolithic glass production process as the waste form. Of the favorable options the unshielded 4- and 7-canister overpack options have the greatest technical assurance associated with their design concepts due to their process packaging and storage methods. These canisters are 0.68 m and 0.54 m in diameter respectively and 4.57 m tall. Life-cycle costs are not a discriminating factor in most cases, varying typically less than 15 percent

  5. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains appendices of supplementary data on waste management systems, geologic disposal, radiological standards, radiation dose calculation models, related health effects, baseline ecology, socio-economic conditions, hazard indices, comparison of defense and commercial wastes, design considerations, and wastes from thorium-based fuel cycle alternatives. (DMC)

  6. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains appendices of supplementary data on waste management systems, geologic disposal, radiological standards, radiation dose calculation models, related health effects, baseline ecology, socio-economic conditions, hazard indices, comparison of defense and commercial wastes, design considerations, and wastes from thorium-based fuel cycle alternatives

  7. Properties of concrete containing foamed concrete block waste as fine aggregate replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, K.; Budiea, A. M. A.; Zaidan, A. L. F.; Rasid, M. H.; Hazimmah, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental degradation due to excessive sand mining dumping at certain places and disposal of foamed concrete block waste from lightweight concrete producing industry are issues that should be resolved for a better and cleaner environment of the community. Thus, the main intention of this study is to investigate the potential of foamed concrete block waste as partial sand replacement in concrete production. The foamed concrete waste (FCW) used in this research that were supplied by a local lightweight concrete producing industry. The workability and compressive strength of concrete containing various percentage of foamed concrete waste as partial sand replacement has been investigated. Prior to the use, the foamed concrete waste were crushed to produce finer particles. Six concrete mixes containing various content of crushed foamed concrete waste that are 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% were used in this experimental work. Then the prepared specimens were placed in water curing until the testing age. Compressive strength test and flexural strength tests were conducted at 7, 14 and 28 days. The result shows that integration of crushed foamed concrete waste as partial sand replacement in concrete reduces the mix workability. It is interesting to note that both compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete improves when 30% crushed foamed concrete waste is added as partial sand replacement.

  8. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major new unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 1989, implementing a central purpose of DOE's first annual Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, which had appeared three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to worker and public health and the environment, containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination, and developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals.

  9. 222-S radioactive liquid waste line replacement and 219-S secondary containment upgrade, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to: (1) replace the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) radioactive liquid waste drain lines to the 219-S Waste Handling Facility (219-S); (2) upgrade 219-S by replacing or upgrading the waste storage tanks and providing secondary containment and seismic restraints to the concrete cells which house the tanks; and (3) replace the transfer lines from 219-S to the 241-SY Tank Farm. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1500-1508), and the DOE Implementing Procedures for NEPA (10 CFR 1021). 222-S is used to perform analytical services on radioactive samples in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System and Hanford Site environmental restoration programs. Activities conducted at 222-S include decontamination of analytical processing and support equipment and disposal of nonarchived radioactive samples. These activities generate low-level liquid mixed waste. The liquid mixed waste is drained through pipelines in the 222-S service tunnels and underground concrete encasements, to two of three tanks in 219-S, where it is accumulated. 219-S is a treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit, and is therefore required to meet Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, and the associated requirements for secondary containment and leak detection. The service tunnels are periodically inspected by workers and decontaminated as necessary to maintain as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation levels. Although no contamination is reaching the environment from the service tunnels, the risk of worker exposure is present and could increase. 222-S is expected to remain in use for at least the next 30 years to serve the Hanford Site environmental cleanup mission

  10. Management of wastes containing radioactivity from mining and milling uranium ores in Northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures and controls to achieve safe management of wastes containing radioactivity during the mining and processing of uranium ores are mainly site-specific depending on the nature, location and distribution of the ore and gangue material. Waste rock and below-ore-grade material containing low levels of radioactivity require disposal at the mine site. In open-cut mining the material is generally stockpiled above ground, with revegetation and collection of run-off water. Some material may be used to backfill open cuts. Management of these wastes requires a thorough investigation of groundwater hydrology and surface soil characteristics to control dissipation of radioactive material. Dust containing radon and radioactive particulate is produced during ore milling, and dusts of ore concentrate are generated during calcination and packaging of the yellowcake product. These dusts are managed by ventilation and filtration systems; working conditions and discharges to atmosphere will be according to the Australian Code of Practice on Radiation Protection during Mining and Milling of Uranium Ores. The chemical waste stream from leaching and processing of the uranium ores contains most of the radioactivity resulting from radium and its decay products. Neutralized effluent is discharged into holding ponds for settling solids. The paper describes the nature of wastes containing radioactivity resulting from the mining and milling of uranium, and illustrates modern engineering practices and monitoring procedures to manage the wastes, as described in the Environmental Impact Statement produced by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd (RUM) for public hearings. (author)

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF PLASTIC CONTAINERS BY INJECTION MOLDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. ne of the ...

  12. Radioactive wastes processing and disposing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Jiro; Kato, Hiroaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a processing and disposing container at low level radioactive wastes, excellent in corrosion and water resistance, as well as impact shock resistance for the retrieval storage over a long period of time. Constitution: The container is constituted with sands and pebbles as aggregates and glass fiber-added unsaturated polyester resins as binders. The container may entirely be formed with such material or only the entire inner surface may be formed with the material as liners. A container having excellent resistance to water, chemicals, freezing or melting, whether impact shock, etc. can be obtained, thereby enabling retrieval storage for radioactive wastes at the optimum low level. (Takahashi, M.)

  13. Application of fuel cell for pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.

    2015-12-01

    Once pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste reacts with water and air it produces acid mine drainage (AMD) and leads to the other environmental problems such as contamination of surrounding soils. Pyrite is the major source of AMD and it can be controlled using a biological-electrochemical dissolution method. By enhancing the dissolution of pyrite using fuel cell technology, not only mining waste be beneficially utilized but also be treated at the same time by. As pyrite-containing mining waste is oxidized in the anode of the fuel cell, electrons and protons are generated, and electrons moves through an external load to cathode reducing oxygen to water while protons migrate to cathode through a proton exchange membrane. Iron-oxidizing bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which can utilize Fe as an electron donor promotes pyrite dissolution and hence enhances electrochemical dissolution of pyrite from mining waste. In this study mining waste from a zinc mine in Korea containing 17 wt% pyrite and 9% As was utilized as a fuel for the fuel cell inoculated with A. ferrooxidans. Electrochemically dissolved As content and chemically dissolved As content was compared. With the initial pH of 3.5 at 23℃, the dissolved As concentration increased (from 4.0 to 13 mg/L after 20 d) in the fuel cell, while it kept decreased in the chemical reactor (from 12 to 0.43 mg/L after 20 d). The fuel cell produced 0.09 V of open circuit voltage with the maximum power density of 0.84 mW/m2. Dissolution of As from mining waste was enhanced through electrochemical reaction. Application of fuel cell technology is a novel treatment method for pyrite and heavy metals containing mining waste, and this method is beneficial for mining environment as well as local community of mining areas.

  14. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund

    2006-01-01

    A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... may not always be the most environmentally friendly. The EASEWASTE model can identify the most environmentally sustainable solution, which may differ among waste materials and regions and can add valuable information about environmental achievements from each process in a solid waste management system....... to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies. The potential environmental impacts can be traced back to the most important processes and waste fractions that contribute to the relevant impacts. A model like EASEWASTE can be used by waste planners...

  15. STABILIZATION OF A MIXED WASTE SLUDGE SURROGATE CONTAINING MORE THAN 260 PPM MERCURY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W. J.; Feizollahi, F.; Brimley, R.

    2002-01-01

    In an earlier demonstration of an innovative mercury stabilization technology for the Department of Energy, ATG's full-scale process stabilized mercury in soils that initially contained more than 260 ppm of mercury of unknown speciation. The treated waste satisfied the leaching standards for mercury that qualify wastes containing less than 260 ppm for land disposal. This paper describes the extension of that work to demonstrate a full-scale process for the stabilization of a representative sludge that contained more than 260 ppm of Hg of several mercury species. RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) regulations now require the recovery of mercury from any waste containing more than 260 ppm of mercury, usually with thermal retorts. The results of this work with a surrogate sludge, and of the previous work with an actual soil, support a proposal now before the U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) to allow such wastes to be stabilized without retorting. The full-scale demonstration with a sulfide reagent reduced the mercury concentrations in extracts of treated sludge below the relevant leaching standard, a Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 0.025 mg mercury per liter of leachate generated by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The sulfide formulation reduced the concentration to about onehalf the UTS limit

  16. Determinants of recycling common types of plastic product waste in environmental horticulture industry: The case of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ting; Klepacka, Anna M; Florkowski, Wojciech J; Braman, Kristine

    2016-02-01

    Environmental horticulture firms provide a variety of commercial/residential landscape products and services encompassing ornamental plant production, design, installation, and maintenance. The companies generate tons of waste including plastic containers, trays, and greenhouse/field covers, creating the need to reduce and utilize plastic waste. Based on survey data collected in Georgia in 2013, this paper investigates determinants of the environmental horticulture firms' recycling decision (plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly). Our findings indicate that the decision to discard vs. recycle plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly is significantly influenced by firm scope, size, location, and partnership with recycling providers, as well as whether recycling providers offer additional waste pickup services. Insights from this study are of use to local governments and environmental organizations interested in increasing horticultural firm participation in recycling programs and lowering the volume of plastic destined for landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S. A.; Nitschke, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time

  18. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for management of defense transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Appendices to this report contain the following information: INEL history of Waste Management; text of communications between Idaho and the federal government on long-term management; agency and public response to a proposed environmental impact statement; updated estimates on radiological releases from the slagging-pyrolysis incinerator; modeling studies of subsurface migration of radionuclides; nonradiological emissions and their environmental effects; methods for calculating radiological consequences; analysis of abnormal events in conceptual retrieval and processing operations; environmental contamination by accidental releases; hazards to waste management workers; environmental and other effects of rail and truck shipment of wastes; effects of hypothetical worst-case shipping accidents in urban areas; environmental and other effects of processing INEL transuranic waste at the offsite geological repository; and regulations applicable to INEL TRU waste management

  19. Beverage containers in municipal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enhoerning, B

    1979-01-01

    The composition of containers (cans, glass) in Sweden's wastes is given. Recycling and reclamation of these containers are discussed. The energy demand of fabricating the containers is analyzed for recycling rates of 0 and 100%. The free forces of the market cannot be depended on to direct the containers back to the manufacturer; only a well-functioning deposit system can do this. 7 figures. (DLC)

  20. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a “High-tech” waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a “Low-tech” waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling......Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider....... Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system...

  1. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  2. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 198, implementing the first step in fulfilling the central purpose of DOE's annually updated Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP). The first FYP had been developed three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect (and will, it is hoped, serve as a kind of appetizer for) the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: (1) focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment; (2) containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination; and (3) developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals. 101 refs

  3. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvon, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    This plan contains the Pollution Prevention (P2) Program for the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC). The plan outlines the activities and schedules developed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc.(BHI) to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste dispositioned as a result of restoration and remediation activities. The purpose of this plan is to guide ERC projects in meeting and documenting compliance with requirements for pollution prevention. This plan contains the objectives, strategy, and support activities of the ERC P2 Program

  4. Waste management of ENM-containing solid waste in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2015-01-01

    the Danish nanoproduct inventory (www.nanodb.dk) to get a general understanding of the fate of ENM during waste management in the European context. This was done by: 1. assigning individual products to an appropriate waste material fraction, 2. identifying the ENM in each fraction, 3. comparing identified...... waste fractions with waste treatment statistics for Europe, and 4. illustrating the general distribution of ENM into incineration, recycling and landfilling. Our results indicate that ╲plastic from used product containers╡ is the most abundant and diverse waste fraction, comprising a variety of both...... nanoproducts and materials. While differences are seen between individual EU countries/regions according to the local waste management system, results show that all waste treatment options are significantly involved in nanowaste handling, suggesting that research activities should cover different areas...

  5. Nuclear waste disposal: technology and environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, F.K.; Aikin, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; the nature and origin of wastes (fuel cycles; character of wastes; mining and milling operations; middle stages; irradiated fuel; reprocessing (waste generation); reactor wastes); disposal techniques and disposal of reprocessing wastes; siting of repositories; potential environmental impacts (impacts after emplacement in a rock repository; catastrophic effects; dispersion processes (by migrating ground water); thermal effects; future security; environmental survey, monitoring and modelling); conclusion. (U.K.)

  6. Contribution to draft generic environmental impact statement on commercial waste management: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This document concentrates on deep geologic isolation of wastes in bedded salt, granite, shale, and basalt with emphasis on wastes from three fuel cycles: reprocessing wastes from uranium and plutonium recycling, reprocessing wastes from uranium-only recycling, and spent unreprocessed fuel with no recycling. The analyses presented in this document are based on preconceptual repository designs. As the repository designs progress through future phases, refinements will occur which might modify some of these results. The 12 sections in the report are: introduction; selection and description of generic repository sites; LWR wastes to be isolated in geologic formations; description of waste isolation facilities; effluents from the waste isolation facility; assessment of environment impacts for various geographical locations of a waste isolation facility; environmental monitoring; decommissioning; mine decommissioning site restoration; deep geologic alternative actions; potential mechanisms of containment failure; and considerations relevant to provisional versus final storage

  7. Mass transfer from penetrations in waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that localized corrosion of a relatively small area of a waste container may impair the containment function to such an extent that larger releases may be possible than from the bare waste form. This would take place when a large number of holes coexist on the container while their concentration fields do not interact significantly with each other. After performing a steady state analysis of the release from a hole, it is shown that much fewer independent holes can coexist on a container surface than previously estimated. The calculated radionuclide release from multiple independent holes must be changed accordingly. Previous analyses did not proceed to a correct application of the linear superposition principle. This resulted in unacceptable physical conclusions and undue strain on the performance assessment necessary for a container licensing procedure. The paper also analyzes the steady state release from penetrations of finite length and whose concentration fields interact with one another. The predicted release from these penetrations is lower than the previously calculated release from holes of zero thickness. It is concluded here that the steady-state release from multiple holes on a waste container can not exceed the release from the bare waste form and that multiple perforations need not be a serious liability to container performance. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the Quarterly Briefing Book on Environmental and Waste Management Activities is to provide managers and senior staff at the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and its contractors with timely and concise information on Hanford Site environmental and waste management activities. Each edition updates the information on the topics in the previous edition, deletes those determined not to be of current interest, and adds new topics to keep up to date with changing environmental and waste management requirements and issues. Section A covers current waste management and environmental restoration issues. In Section B are writeups on national or site-wide environmental and waste management topics. Section C has writeups on program- and waste-specific environmental and waste management topics. Section D provides information on waste sites and inventories on the site. 15 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Design report for the interim waste containment facility at the Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Low-level radioactive residues from pitchblende processing and thorium- and radium-contaminated sand, soil, and building rubble are presently stored at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York. These residues and wastes derive from past NFSS operations and from similar operations at other sites in the United States conducted during the 1940s by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and subsequently by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The US Department of Energy (DOE), successor to MED/AEC, is conducting remedial action at the NFSS under two programs: on-site work under the Surplus Facilities Managemnt Program and off-site cleanup of vicinity properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. On-site remedial action consists of consolidating the residues and wastes within a designated waste containment area and constructing a waste containment facility to prevent contaminant migration. The service life of the system is 25 to 50 years. Near-term remedial action construction activities will not jeopardize or preclude implementation of any other remedial action alternative at a later date. Should DOE decide to extend the service life of the system, the waste containment area would be upgraded to provide a minimum service life of 200 years. This report describes the design for the containment system. Pertinent information on site geology and hydrology and on regional seismicity and meteorology is also provided. Engineering calculations and validated computer modeling studies based on site-specific and conservative parameters confirm the adequacy of the design for its intended purposes of waste containment and environmental protection

  11. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulesscu, G.; Tang, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M andO [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M andO 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M andQ 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M andO 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this

  12. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable

  13. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  14. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, J.R.; Moos, L.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and facility dismantlement projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized; however, there are significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced by careful planning and execution. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling, segregation of waste types, and reducing generation of secondary waste

  15. MAVL wastes containers functional demonstration and associated tests program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templier, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of studies on the MAVL wastes, the CEA develops containers for middle time wastes storage. This program aims to realize a ''B wastes containers'' demonstrator. A demonstrator is a container, parts of a container or samples which must validate the tests. This document presents the state of the study in the following three chapters: functions description, base data and design choices; presentation of the functional demonstrators; demonstration tests description. (A.L.B.)

  16. Management of wastes containing radioactivity from mining and milling of uranium ores in Northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures and controls to achieve safe management of wastes containing radioactivity during the mining and processing of uranium ores are mainly site specific depending on the nature, location and distribution of the ore and gangue material. Waste rock and below-ore-grade material containing low levels of radioactivity require disposal at the mine site. In open cut mining the material is generally stockpiled above ground, with revegetation and collection of run-off water. Some material may be used to backfill open cuts. Management of these wastes requires a thorough investigation of ground water hydrology and surface soil characteristics to control dissipation of radioactive material. Dust containing radon and radioactive particulate is produced during ore milling, and dusts of ore concentrate are generated during calcination and packaging of the yellowcake product. These dusts are managed by ventilation and filtration systems, working conditions, and discharges to atmosphere will be according to the Australian Code of Practice on Radiation Protection during Mining and Milling of Uranium Ores. The chemical waste stream from leaching and processing of the uranium ores contains the majority of the radioactivity resulting from radium and its decay products. Neutralised effluent is discharged into holding ponds for settling of solids. This paper describes the nature of wastes containing radioactivity resulting from the mining and milling of uranium, and illustrates modern engineering practices and monitoring procedures to manage the wastes, as described in the Environmental Impact statement produced by Ranger Uranium Mines Proprietary Limited for public hearings

  17. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Brown, C.H.; Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M.; Kan, T.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste

  18. Apparatus for filling a container with radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T.; Hiratake, S.

    1984-01-01

    In apparatus for filling a container suitable for storage with radioactive solid wastes arising from atomic power plants or the like, a plasma arc is irradiated toward a portion of the wastes to melt the portion of the wastes; portions of the wastes are successively moved so as to be subjected to irradiation of the plasma arc to continuously melt the wastes; and the melts obtained by melting the wastes are permitted to flow down toward the bottom of the container

  19. Optimization of Waste Collection System Using Underground Containers with Source Separation Plan (Case Study: Zone 3 of Yazd Municipality, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Morakabatchian

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Optimization of urban waste collection system using underground containers for wet waste and the use of temporary stations of dry wastes, considering the significant economic, environmental and aesthetic advantages can be considered as an appropriate option in Iranian cities especially in areas with hot and humid weather such as Yazd.

  20. Three Mile Island Cleanup: experiences, waste disposal, and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Opelka, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    These papers were presented in a two-session symposium during the American Institute of Chemical Engineers 1981 Summer National meeting in Detroit, Michigan, August 16-19, 1981. The cleanup activities described included the venting of the gases, mostly krypton-85, from the reactor containment building and several entries of personnel into the containment building to determine the physical conditions and the levels of radiation and radioactive contamination. Results of the latest process development tests of the flowsheet for the submerged Demineralizer Water Treatment System for decontaminating the water in the containment building were presented. The status of existing knowledge of radiation effects on ion exchange materials used in radioactive waste management were reviewed. A program to demonstrate incorporation of the loaded zeolite into a glass as a final waste form was also described. The generation, classification, treatment, and disposal of solid waste forms resulting from the cleanup were discussed with special consideration of the ion exchange media used for cleanup of liquids with relatively high radionuclide concentrations. The radiological, socioeconomic, and psychological impacts of the cleanup were evaluated. This work formed the basis for the recent issuance by the NRC of a programmatic environmental impact statement relative to decontamination and disposal of the radioactive wastes resulting from the accidents

  1. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL`s existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.

  2. A DOE manual: DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Riley, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Waste Management inherently requires knowledge of the waste's chemical composition. The waste can often be analyzed by established methods; however, if the samples are radioactive, or are plagued by other complications, established methods may not be feasible. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been faced with managing some waste types that are not amenable to standard or available methods, so new or modified sampling and analysis methods are required. These methods are incorporated into DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), which is a guidance/methods document for sampling and analysis activities in support of DOE sites. It is a document generated by consensus of the DOE laboratory staff and is intended to fill the gap within existing guidance documents (e. g., the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, SW-846), which apply to low-level or non-radioactive samples. DOE Methods fills the gap by including methods that take into account the complexities of DOE site matrices. The most recent update, distributed in October 1993, contained quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), safety, sampling, organic analysis, inorganic analysis, and radioanalytical guidance as well as 29 methods. The next update, which will be distributed in April 1994, will contain 40 methods and will therefore have greater applicability. All new methods are either peer reviewed or labeled ''draft'' methods. Draft methods were added to speed the release of methods to field personnel

  3. Processing of nuclear power plant waste streams containing boric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Boric acid is used in PWR type reactor's primary coolant circuit to control the neutron flux. However, boric acid complicates the control of water chemistry of primary coolant and the liquid radioactive waste produced from NPP. The purpose of this report is to provide member states with up-to-date information and guidelines for the treatment and conditioning of boric acid containing wastes. It contains chapters on: (a) characteristics of waste streams; (b) options for management of boric acid containing waste; (c) treatment/decontamination of boric acid containing waste; (d) concentration and immobilization of boric acid containing waste; (e) recovery and re-use of boric acid; (f) selected industrial processes in various countries; and (g) the influence of economic factors on process selection. 72 refs, 23 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs

  5. Fifth international conference on radioactive waste management and environmental remediation -- ICEM '95: Proceedings. Volume 2: Management of low-level waste and remediation of contaminated sites and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.; Baker, R.; Benda, G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this conference is the broad international exchange of information on technologies, operations, management approaches, economics, and public policies in the critical areas of radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. The ICEM '95 technical program includes four parallel program tracks: Low/intermediate-level waste management; High-level waste, spent fuel, nuclear material management; Environmental remediation and facility D and D; and Major institutional issues in environmental management. Volume 2 contains approximately 200 papers divided into the following topical sections: Characterization of low and intermediate level waste; Treatment of low and intermediate level waste; LLW disposal and near-surface contaminant migration; Characterization and remediation of contaminated sites; and Decontamination and decommissioning technologies and experience. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  6. Processing method and device for radioactive waste containing surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukita, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ryozo; Izumida, Tatsuo; Nishi, Takashi; Hattori, Yasuo.

    1997-01-01

    Washing liquid wastes generated in washing facilities in a nuclear power plant are collected in a liquid waste collecting tank. A suspension containing a powdery active carbon is supplied to the liquid waste collecting tank. Organic ingredients such as of a surfactant, oil ingredients and radioactive materials in the form of ions contained in the washing liquid wastes are adsorbed to the powdery active carbon. The washing liquid wastes containing the powdery active carbon and granular radioactive materials are led into an active carbon separating and drying device. The powdery active carbon and granular radioactive materials contained in the washing liquid wastes are filtered and separated by a filtering plate, and accumulated as filtered materials on the surface of the filtering plate. The purified washing liquid wastes are discharged to the outside. The filtered materials are dried by hot steams (or hot water) and dried air. The filtered materials are peeled from the filtering plate. The filtered materials, in other word, dried powdery active carbon and granular radioactive materials are transported to and burnt in an incinerator. (I.N.)

  7. Hanford Site waste management and environmental restoration integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The ''Hanford Site Waste Management and Environmental Restoration Integration Plan'' describes major actions leading to waste disposal and site remediation. The primary purpose of this document is to provide a management tool for use by executives who need to quickly comprehend the waste management and environmental restoration programs. The Waste Management and Environmental Restoration Programs have been divided into missions. Waste Management consists of five missions: double-shell tank (DST) wastes; single-shell tank (SST) wastes (surveillance and interim storage, stabilization, and isolation); encapsulated cesium and strontium; solid wastes; and liquid effluents. Environmental Restoration consists of two missions: past practice units (PPU) (including characterization and assessment of SST wastes) and surplus facilities. For convenience, both aspects of SST wastes are discussed in one place. A general category of supporting activities is also included. 20 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  9. E-waste: Environmental Problems and Current Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aktsoglou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the environmental problems related with the discarded electronic appliances, known as e-waste, are reviewed.Moreover, the current and the future production of e-waste, the potential environmental problems associated with theirdisposal and management practices are discussed whereas the existing e-waste management schemes in Greece and othercountries (Japan, Switzerland are also quoted.

  10. Corrosion aspects of steel radioactive waste containers in cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Nick Smart from Serco, UK, gave an overview of the effects of cementitious materials on the corrosion of steel during storage and disposal of various low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Steel containers are often used as an overpack for the containment of radioactive wastes and are routinely stored in an open atmosphere. Since this is an aerobic and typically humid environment, the steel containers can start to corrode whilst in storage. Steel containers often come into contact with cementitious materials (e.g. grout encapsulants, backfill). An extensive account of different steel container designs and of steel corrosion mechanisms was provided. Steel corrosion rates under conditions buffered by cementitious materials have been evaluated experimentally. The main conclusion was that the cementitious environment generally facilitates the passivation of steel materials. Several general and localised corrosion mechanisms need to be considered when evaluating the performance of steel containers in cementitious environments, and environmental thresholds can be defined and used with this aim. In addition, the consequences of the generation of gaseous hydrogen by the corrosion of carbon steel under anoxic conditions must be taken into account. Discussion of the paper included: Is crevice corrosion really significant in cementitious systems? Crevice corrosion is unlikely in the cementitious backfill considered because it will tend to neutralise any acidic conditions in the crevice. What is the role of microbially-induced corrosion (MIC) in cementitious systems? Microbes are likely to be present in a disposal facility but their effect on corrosion is uncertain

  11. Effect on localized waste-container failure on radionuclide transport from an underground nuclear waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, S.C.H.; Chan, T.

    1983-07-01

    In the geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste, one option is to emplace the waste container in a borehole drilled into the floor of the underground vault. In the borehole, the waste container is surrounded by a compacted soil material known as the buffer. A finite-element simulation has been performed to study the effect of localized partial failure of the waste container on the steady-state radionuclide transport by diffusion from the container through the buffer to the surrounding rock and/or backfill. In this study, the radionuclide concentration at the buffer-backfill interface is assumed to be zero. Two cases are considered at the interface between the buffer and the rock. In case 1, a no-flux boundary condition is used to simulate intact rock. In case 2, a constant radionuclide concentration condition is used to simulate fractured rock with groundwater flow. The results show that the effect of localized partial failure of the waste container on the total flux is dependent on the boundary condition at the buffer-rock interface. For the intact rock condition, the total flux is mainly dependent on the location of the failure. The total flux increases as the location changes from the bottom to the top of the emplaced waste container. For a given localized failure of the waste container, the total flux remains unaffected by the area of failed surface below the top of the failure. For fractured rock, the total flux is directly proportional to the failed surface area of the waste container regardless of the failure location

  12. Waste diminution in Construction projects: Environmental Predicaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehbaghi, Koorosh; Scott-Young, Christina

    2018-03-01

    Waste diminution in construction projects is not only a behavioural issue, but also an energy consumption and reduction concern. With construction waste equating to the significant amount of exhausted energy together with increased pollution, this contributes to a series of environmental predicaments. The overall goal of construction solid Waste Management is to collect, treat and dispose of solid wastes generated by project activities in an environmentally and socially satisfactory manner, using the most economical means available. As cities expand, their construction activities and consumption patterns further drive up the solid waste quantities. Governments are usually authorized to have responsibility for providing solid Waste Management services, and various administrative laws give them exclusive ownership over the waste produced. In addition, construction waste processing can be further controlled and minimized according to specialized authorities such as Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) and their relevant acts and regulations. Moreover, a Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP) can further control the treatment of waste and therefore, reduce the amount produced. Key elements of a CEMP not only include complying with relevant legislation, standards and guidance from the EPA; however, also to ensuring that there are systems in place to resolve any potential problems associated with site activities. Accordingly, as a part of energy consumption and lessening strategies, this paper will discuss various effective waste reduction methods for construction projects. Finally, this paper will also examine tactics to further improve energy efficiency through innovative construction Waste Management strategies (including desirability rating of most favourable options) to promote the lessening of overall CO2production.

  13. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant. (LK)

  14. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Environmental effects (including accidents) associated with facility construction, operation, decommissioning, and transportation in the management of commercially generated radioactive waste were analyzed for plants and systems assuming a light water power reactor scenario that produces about 10,000 GWe-yr through the year 2050. The following alternative fuel cycle modes or cases that generate post-fission wastes requiring management were analyzed: a once-through option, a fuel reprocessing option for uranium and plutonium recycle, and a fuel reprocessing option for uranium-only recycle. Volume 1 comprises five chapters: introduction; summary of findings; approach to assessment of environmental effects from radioactive waste management; environmental effects related to radioactive management in a once-through fuel cycle; and environmental effects of radioactive waste management associated with an LWR fuel reprocessing plant

  15. Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This regulation sets environmental standards for public protection from the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level wastes and wastes that contain elements with atomic numbers higher than uranium (transuranic wastes).

  16. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase final supplemental environmental impact statement. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) is to provide information on environmental impacts regarding the Department of Energy's (DOE) proposed disposal operations at WIPP. The Proposed Action describes the treatment and disposal of the Basic inventory of TRU waste over a 35-year period. The Action Alternatives proposed the treatment of the Basic Inventory and an Additional Inventory as well as the transportation of the treated waste to WIPP for disposal over a 150- to 190-year period. The three Action Alternatives include the treatment of TRU waste at consolidation sites to meet WIPP planning-basic Waste Acceptance Criteria, the thermal treatment of TRU waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions, and the treatment of TRU waste by a shred and grout process. SEIS-II evaluates environmental impacts resulting from the various treatment options; the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP using truck, a combination of truck and regular rail service, and a combination of truck and dedicated rail service; and the disposal of this waste in the repository. Evaluated impacts include those to the general environment and to human health. Additional issues associated with the implementation of the alternatives are discussed to provide further understanding of the decisions to be reached and to provide the opportunity for public input on improving DOE's Environmental Management Program. This volume contains the following appendices: Waste inventory; Summary of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement and its use in determining human health impacts at treatment sites; Air quality; Life-cycle costs and economic impacts; Transportation; Human health; Facility accidents; Long-term consequence analysis for proposed action and action alternatives; Long-term consequence analysis for no action alternative 2; and Updated estimates of the DOE's transuranic waste volumes

  18. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  19. A container for storage and disposal of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, R.L.; Butler, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    A unique concept for corrosion-resistant containers for storing and disposing of low-level radioactive, mixed and toxic wastes has been developed. The strength and low cost of carbon steel has been combined with the corrosion and abrasion resistance of a proprietary combination of polymers to provide an inexpensive alternative to currently available waste containers. The initial development effort has focused on a 55-gallon container, the B and W ECOSAFE-55 tm . However, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) can develop a family of ECOSAFE waste containers using this technology to accommodate user-preferred configurations and volumes. The containers will be capable of accepting a wide range of low-level radioactive (LLRW) and industrial waste forms. Basic engineering design analyses and functional tests were performed to show compliance of the container with transportation functional requirements. These tests and analyses, along with chemical resistance tests, qualify the container for use in storing a wide range of radioactive and chemical wastes. For the container to be licensed for use as a high-integrity container in shallow land, low-level radioactive waste burial facilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires certain tests and analyses to demonstrate that container gross physical properties and identity can be maintained for 300 years. This paper describes the container concept in generic terms and provides information on the initial, ECOSAFE-55 container design, testing and engineering analysis efforts

  20. Materials for high-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  1. Environmental system analysis of waste management. Experiences from applications of the ORWARE model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, Anna

    2000-11-01

    stakeholders have expressed the value of participating in ORWARE case studies. It provides improved decision-basis, but also wider understanding of the complexity of waste management and of environmental issues in general. The thesis also contains a first suggestion of a framework to handle uncertainty in ORWARE, based on a review of types of uncertainty in LCA and tools to handle it.

  2. Radiochemical separation of actinides for their determination in environmental samples and waste products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleisberg, B [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The determination of low level activities of actinides in environmental samples and waste products makes high demands on radiochemical separation methods. Artificial and natural actinides were analyzed in samples form the surrounding areas of NPP and of uranium mines, incorporation samples, solutions containing radioactive fuel, solutions and solids resutling from the process, and in wastes. The activities are measured by {alpha}-spectrometry and {gamma}-spectrometry. (DG)

  3. Monitoring of wastes containing plutonium. Necessity and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Pottier, P.

    1979-01-01

    Importance of problems set by wastes containing plutonium is rapidly growing. Plutonium is not a waste, recycling limits heavily the quantity of plutonium to be stored with wastes. Optimized waste management must take definitive storage and economical limits of plutonium recovery into account. Waste monitoring is a must for safety, economy and waste management. Methods used require reliability, simplicity, sensibility and accuracy particularly for threshold detection [fr

  4. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program and outline the activities and schedules that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated as a result of restoration and remediation activities. It is intended to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness program required by DOE Order 5400.1 is included with the Pollution Prevention Program. This plan is also intended to aid projects in meeting and documenting compliance with the various requirements for WMin/P2, and contains the policy, objectives, strategy, and support activities of the WMin/P2 program. The basic elements of the plan are pollution prevention goals, waste assessments of major waste streams, implementation of feasible waste minimization opportunities, and a process for reporting achievements. Various pollution prevention techniques will be implemented with the support of employee training and awareness programs to reduce waste and still meet applicable requirements. Information about the Hanford Site is in the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan

  5. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations

  6. Reliability evaluation methodologies for ensuring container integrity of stored transuranic (TRU) waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.L.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides methodologies for providing defensible estimates of expected transuranic waste storage container lifetimes at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. These methodologies can be used to estimate transuranic waste container reliability (for integrity and degradation) and as an analytical tool to optimize waste container integrity. Container packaging and storage configurations, which directly affect waste container integrity, are also addressed. The methodologies presented provide a means for demonstrating Resource Conservation and Recovery Act waste storage requirements

  7. Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniya Arushanyan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

  8. Glass containing radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe 2 O 3 for use as a storage medium for high-level-radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90 C, with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe 2 O 3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800 C, since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800 to 1050 C temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550 C and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H 2 O at 135 C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear waste forms. (author)

  9. Environmental assessment methodologies for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The IAEA and the IMO, in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), jointly convened a Technical Committee to provide guidance to national authorities. This document contains the results of the Technical Committee Meeting in Vienna, August - September 1982 and constitutes guidance to the Contracting Parties to the LDC Convention on the nature and content of the environmental assessment required for permit applications for sea dumping of radioactive wastes

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  11. Container material and design considerations for storage of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temus, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    With the threat of increased burial site restrictions and increased surcharges; the ease with which waste is sent to the burial site has been reduced. For many generators of waste the only alternative after maximizing volume reduction efforts is to store the waste. Even after working through the difficult decision of deciding what type of storage facility to have, the decision of what type of container to store the waste in has to still be made. This paper explores the many parameters that affect not only the material selection but also the design. The proper selection of materials affect the ability of the container to survive the storage period. The material selection also directly affects the design and utilization of the storage facility. The impacts to the facility include the functional aspects as well as its operational cost and liability as related to such things as fire insurance and active environmental control systems. The advantages and disadvantages of many of the common systems such as carbon steel, various coatings, polyethylene, stainless steel, composites and concrete will be discussed and evaluated. Recognizing that the waste is to be disposed of in the future differentiates it from waste that is shipped directly to the disposal site. The stored waste has to have the capability to be handled not only once like the disposal site waste but potentially several times before ultimate disposal. This handling may be by several different systems both at the storage facility and the burial site. Some of these systems due to ALARA considerations are usually remote requiring various interfaces, while not interfering with handling, transportation or disposal operations

  12. Container for waste, identification code reading device thereof, method and system for controlling waste by using them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Tomiji; Omote, Tatsuyuki.

    1991-01-01

    In the conventional method of controlling waste containers by labels attached thereto, the data relevant to wastes contained in the waste containers are limited. Further, if the label should be peeled off, there is a possibility that the wastes therein can no more be identified. Then, in the present invention, an identification plate is previously attached, to which mechanically readable codes or visually readable letters or numerical figures are written. Then, the identification codes can be read in a remote control manner at high speed and high reliability and the waste containers can be managed only by the identification codes of the containers. Further, the identification codes on the container are made so as to be free from aging degradation, thereby enabling to manage waste containers for long time storage. With such a constitution, since data can be inputted from an input terminal and a great amount of data such as concerning the source of wastes can be managed collectively on a software, the data can be managed easily. (T.M.)

  13. UN Data- Environmental Statistics: Waste

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  14. 40 CFR 148.10 - Waste specific prohibitions-solvent wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... injection unless the solvent waste is a solvent-water mixture or solvent-containing sludge containing less... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-solvent wastes. 148.10 Section 148.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER...

  15. Environmental surveillance for the INEL radioactive waste management complex. Annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Janke, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is the 1979 annual environmental surveillance report for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are tabulated data from and discussions about routine radiological monitoring of atmospheric, hydrologic, geologic, and biotic environments of the RWMC. Also included are discussions of selected nonradiological pollutants (e.g., sodium, etc.). It is concluded that (a) RWMC operations have not adversely affected local, existing environments; (b) environmental conditions within the Transuranic Storage Area are not corrosive enough to adversely affect transuranic waste storage containers, and (c) the addition of lakebed soil to pit, trench, and soil test plot areas has altered the moisture cycle characteristic of RWMC soil

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Roy B.; Adams, Amy; Martin, Don; Morris, Randall C.; Reynolds, Timothy D.; Warren, Ronald W.

    2000-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 1999 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during calendar year 1999. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 1999, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment. Radionuclide concentrations in the environment surrounding WIPP were not statistically higher in 1999 than in 1998.

  17. Method of processing nitrate-containing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Norito; Nagase, Kiyoharu; Otsuka, Katsuyuki; Ouchi, Jin.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To efficiently concentrate nitrate-containing low level radioactive liquid wastes by electrolytically dialyzing radioactive liquid wastes to decompose the nitrate salt by using an electrolytic cell comprising three chambers having ion exchange membranes and anodes made of special materials. Method: Nitrate-containing low level radioactive liquid wastes are supplied to and electrolytically dialyzed in a central chamber of an electrolytic cell comprising three chambers having cationic exchange membranes and anionic exchange membranes made of flouro-polymer as partition membranes, whereby the nitrate is decomposed to form nitric acid in the anode chamber and alkali hydroxide compound or ammonium hydroxide in the cathode chamber, as well as concentrate the radioactive substance in the central chamber. Coated metals of at least one type of platinum metal is used as the anode for the electrolytic cell. This enables efficient industrial concentration of nitrate-containing low level radioactive liquid wastes. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Development of high integrity containers for rad-waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yung Chul; Cho, Myung Sug; Jung, Yun Sub [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear power plants are generating rad waste such as solid wastes, concentrated liquid wastes, spent resins and spent filters, and various types of imported containers which have different specifications and material properties are employed to handle the rad wastes according to facility characteristics of the plants or the type of wastes. These containers are stored at the intermediate storage facilities at the plant site due to the construction delay of permanent disposal site, and the additional construction of storage and disposal sites become more difficult with increase of the numbers and the operation time of the plants. In order to solve these difficulties, rad wastes volume reduction facilities such as High Pressure Compression Facility or Drying Facility are being installed and use of High Integrity Containers(HIC) are increasing. Therefore, we decide quality and technology standards required for the HIC, and then develop the HIC which satisfies the standards with new composite material called Steel Fiber Polymer Impregnated Concrete(SFPIC) (author). 84 refs., 118 figs.

  19. Development of high integrity containers for rad-waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yung Chul; Cho, Myung Sug; Jung, Yun Sub [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear power plants are generating rad waste such as solid wastes, concentrated liquid wastes, spent resins and spent filters, and various types of imported containers which have different specifications and material properties are employed to handle the rad wastes according to facility characteristics of the plants or the type of wastes. These containers are stored at the intermediate storage facilities at the plant site due to the construction delay of permanent disposal site, and the additional construction of storage and disposal sites become more difficult with increase of the numbers and the operation time of the plants. In order to solve these difficulties, rad wastes volume reduction facilities such as High Pressure Compression Facility or Drying Facility are being installed and use of High Integrity Containers(HIC) are increasing. Therefore, we decide quality and technology standards required for the HIC, and then develop the HIC which satisfies the standards with new composite material called Steel Fiber Polymer Impregnated Concrete(SFPIC) (author). 84 refs., 118 figs.

  20. PIC-container for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kunio; Shinji, Yoshimasa; Maki, Yasuro; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Minegishi, Keiichi; Sudoh, Giichi.

    1981-03-01

    Steel fiber reinforced polymer-impregnated concrete (SFPIC) has been investigated for low and intermediate level radioactive waste containers. The present study has been carried out by the following stages. A) Preliminary evaluation: 60 L size container for cold and hot tests. B) Evaluation of size effect: 200 L size container for cold tests. The 60 L and 200 L containers were designed as pressure-container (without equalizer) for 500 kg/cm 2 and 700 kg/cm 2 . Polymerization of impregnated methylmethacrylate monomer for stage-A and B were performed by 60 Co-γ ray radiation and thermal catalytic polymerization, respectively. Under the loading of 500 kg/cm 2 and 700 kg/cm 2 -outside hydraulic pressure, these containers were kept in their good condition. The observed maximum strains were about 1380 x 10 -6 and 3950 x 10 -6 at the outside central position of container body for circumferential direction of the 60 L and 200 L container, respectively. An accelerated leaching test was performed by charging the concentrate of the liquid radioactive waste from JMTR in JAERI into the container. Although they were immersed in deionized water for 400 days, nuclides were not leached from the container. From results of various tests, it was evaluated that the SFPIC-container was suitable for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. There was not any great difference between the two size containers for the physical and chemical properties except in their preparation process. (author)

  1. Disposal containers for radioactive waste materials and separation systems for radioactive waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. The separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. The inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and the discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by a second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes a coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. The centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized. (author)

  2. Treatment alternatives of liquid radioactive waste containing uranium in phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante Escobedo, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    The UGDR, receives annually 100 [l] of liquid radioactive waste containing, highly acid (pH=0) uranium in phosphoric acid from the Laboratory of Chemical Analysis. This waste must be chemically and radiologically decontaminated before it can be discharged in accordance with local environmental standards. Chemical precipitation and evaporation test were carried out to define the operating conditions for the radiological decontamination of this radioactive waste and to obtain a solid waste that can be conditioned in a cement matrix. The evaporation process generates excellent rates of volume reduction, over 80%, but generates a pulp that is hard handle when submitted to a drying process. Chemical precipitation generates good results for decontaminating these solutions and reducing volume (above 50%) to obtain a uranium free effluent. The treatment with calcium carbonate generated an effluent with a low concentration of polluting agents. A preliminary test was carried out condition these solids in a cement matrix, using ratios of 0.45 waste/cement and 2 of water/cement. The mix prepared with waste from the sodium hydroxide treatment had low mechanical resistance resulting from the saline incrustations. The waste from the calcium carbonate treatment was very porous due to the water evaporation from the highly exothermic reaction between the waste and the cement. The mix of the calcium carbonate generated waste and the cement matrix needs to be optimized, since it generates favorable conditions for adhering with the cement matrix (au)

  3. Container for processing and disposing radioactive wastes and industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kunio; Kasahara, Yuko; Kasai, Noboru; Sudo, Giichi; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the performance of containers for radioactive wastes for ocean disposal and on-land disposal such as impact strength, chemical resistance, fire resistance, corrosion resistance, water impermeability and the like. Constitution: Steel fiber-reinforced concrete previously molded in a shape of a container is impregnated with polymerizable impregnating agent selected from the group consisting of a polymerizable monomer, liquid mixture of a polymerizable monomer and an oligomer, a polymer solution, a copolymer solution and the liquid mixture thereof. Then, the polymerizable impregnating agent is polymerized to solidify in the concrete by way of heat-polymerization or radiation-induced polymerization to form a waste container. The container thus obtained can be improved with the impact resistance and wear resistance and further improved with salt water resistance, acid resistance, corrosion resistance and solidity by the impregnation of the polymer, as well as can effectively be prevented from leaching out of radioactive substances. (Furukawa, Y.)

  4. Determining ''Best Practicable Environmental Options'' for final waste disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses some ideas on what the Best Practical Environmental Option (BPEO) process should include. A BPEO study to help develop a radioactive waste management strategy should not only look at post-closure safety of a facility. In the UK there was a 1986 Study of BPEOs for management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. This study tried to answer important questions such as (1) What are the practical options, (2) Which wastes should go to shallow burial, (3) Which wastes should go to sea disposal, (4) How does storage compare with disposal and (5) What are the cost and environmental trade-offs. The presentation discusses what was done to answer the questions. The BPEO Study resulted in major improved effort to characterise waste, much greater quantitative understanding of where and when the real costs, and environmental and radiological impacts arise. All options would be useful within a national strategy. But there was clearly a need for resolution of political acceptance problems, integration of policy with other hazardous waste management, and stronger legal framework

  5. Life cycle modelling of environmental impacts from application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    and use of commercial fertilizers. The model is part of a larger model, Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technology (EASEWASTE), developed as a decisionsupport model, focusing on assessment of alternative waste management options. The environmental impacts of the land application......A model capable of quantifying the potential environmental impacts of agricultural application of composted or anaerobically digested source-separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. In addition to the direct impacts, the model accounts for savings by avoiding the production...... of processed organic waste are quantified by emission coefficients referring to the composition of the processed waste and related to specific crop rotation as well as soil type. The model contains several default parameters based on literature data, field experiments and modelling by the agro-ecosystem model...

  6. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  7. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-01

    Over 1,140 yd 3 of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations (approximately 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system

  8. Studies of Corrosion Resistant Materials Being Considered for High-Level Nuclear Waste Containment in Yucca Mountain Relevant Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.; Ilevbare, G.; Estill, J.; Rebak, R.

    2001-01-01

    Containment of spent nuclear fuel and vitrified forms of high level nuclear waste require use of materials that are highly corrosion resistant to all of the anticipated environmental scenarios that can occur in a geological repository. Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is proposed for the corrosion resistant outer barrier of a two-layer waste package container at the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain. A range of water compositions that may contact the outer barrier is under consideration, and a testing program is underway to characterize the forms of corrosion and to quantify the corrosion rates. Results from the testing support models for long term prediction of the performance of the container. Results obtained to date indicate a very low general corrosion rate for Alloy 22 and very high resistance to all forms of localized and environmentally assisted cracking in environments tested to date

  9. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity

  10. Assessing the potential water quality hazards caused by disposal of radium-containing waste solids by soil blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Soil blending has recently been proposed as a method for disposal of radium-containing waste solids. This approach is basically the dilution of the waste solids with ''soils'' in order to reduce the concentration of radium-226 to designated levels. While in principle this approach may be satisfactory, in practice appropriate environmental and public health protection will be difficult to achieve with this approach because of the potential for leaching of radium-226 which could contaminate surface and groundwaters, increasing the cancer risk of those using the waters. This paper reviews the factors that should be considered in developing a technically valid program for the disposal of radium-containing waste solids by soil blending that is protective of public health and the environment

  11. An arrangement for the storage of environmentally hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgii, H.

    1991-01-01

    An arrangement for the underwater storage of environmentally hazardous waste, particularly radioactive or chemical waste, includes at least one secondary capsule in the form of a cylindrical concrete body. The concrete body has a central, axially extending storage cavity. The cavity has the form of a shaft which is open at one end thereof and into which a waste-containing primary capsule can be inserted, whereafter the open end of the shaft or cavity is sealed. Arranged in spaced relationship around the circumference of the concrete body are a number of ballast chambers which can be filled with water to varying degrees and the total, combined volume of the chambers is such as to enable the concrete body to be brought to a buoyant state, by emptying the chambers. A plurality of such secondary capsules enclosing waste-containing primary capsules can be stored on the sea bed in an annular concrete structure which is provided with a large number of circumferentially distributed and vertically extending cylindrical compartments each capable of accommodating a secondary capsule. The annular concrete structure resting on the sea bed is also provided with a large number of ballast chambers which can be filled with water to varying degrees and which have a total, combined volume such as to enable the annular concrete structure to be brought to a buoyant state by emptying the ballast chambers. (author)

  12. Probe into Environmental Kuznets Characteristics and Causes of Wastewater,Waste Gas, and Solid Wastes in Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀彬; 李仁东

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Kuznets characteristics and causes of waste water, waste gas, and solid wastes in Wuhan city was researched; By comparing the variation of "three wastes", i.e. waste water, waste gas, and solid wastes, the model between standardized per capita GDP and values of "three wastes" discharge was established and the causes were analyzed based on the theory of environmental economics. The results show that 1) the total amount is fluctuantly increasing, but the discharges of the three kinds are temporarily different, 2) the curve conforms to the three-power function, in which the curve descends from 1985 to 1994, and the curve preliminary shows the environmental Kuznets characteristics from 1995 to 2001, 3) the simulated calculation illustrates that the turning point of this environmental Kuznets curve would be over 25007.25 Yuan per caprta, and 4) the economic development, changing of industry structure, energy resource structure, and environmental policies are the main factors leading to the Environmental Kuznets Curve in Wuhan city.

  13. Containers for packaging of solid and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are generated at all stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and also from the medical, industrial and research applications of radiation. These wastes can potentially present risks to health and the environment if they are not managed adequately. Their effective management will require the wastes to be safely stored, transported and ultimately disposed of. The waste container, which may be defined as any vessel, drum or box, made from metals, concrete, polymers or composite materials, in which the waste form is placed for interim storage, for transport and/or for final disposal, is an integral part of the whole package for the management of low and intermediate level wastes. It has key roles to play in several stages of the waste management process, starting from the storage of raw wastes and ending with the disposal of conditioned wastes. This report provides an overview of the various roles that a container may play and the factors that are important in each of these roles. This report has two main objectives. The first is to review the main requirements for the design of waste containers. The second is to provide advice on the design, fabrication and handling of different types of containers used in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes. Recommendations for design and testing are given, based on the extensive experience available worldwide in waste management. This report is not intended to have any regulatory status or objectives. 56 refs, 16 figs, 10 tabs

  14. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 3. Public comments hearing board report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains written public comments and hearing board responses and reports offered on the draft statement

  15. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 3. Public comments hearing board report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains written public comments and hearing board responses and reports offered on the draft statement.

  16. Environmental risks of HBCDD from construction and demolition waste: a contemporary and future issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Ziliang; Fang, Yanyan; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Xingrun; Die, Qingqi; Gao, Xingbao; Zhang, Fengsong; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2015-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), as one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is of great concern globally because of its persistence in the environment and negative impacts on humans and animals. HBCDD has been mainly used in flame-retarded expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for insulation in the construction industry. Most of these products will become a part of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste at the end of their life cycle (30-50 years) which is typically disposed of into landfills or incineration. However, the recycling of this material takes quite a low share compared with landfill and incineration. Consequently, high environmental risks will exist in these disposal approaches due to the HBCDD in C&D waste. Currently, XPS or EPS products containing HBCDD in the construction industry have not reached the end of their life cycle in most countries. Relatively little attention has been paid to this emergency issue by either the government or public. Furthermore, C&D waste is most likely disposed of by direct dumping, simple stacking, or open burning in developing countries. Therefore, this paper highlights the global environmental risks of HBCDD from C&D waste. Areas of research for key problems of HBCDD contained in C&D waste are suggested to help control and finally eliminate the impact.

  17. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-06-01

    Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five-step framework for the systematic assessment of ENM exposure during nanowaste management. The framework includes deriving EOL nanoproducts and evaluating the physicochemical properties of the nanostructure, matrix properties and nanowaste treatment processes as well as transformation processes and environment releases, eventually leading to a final assessment of potential ENM exposure. The proposed framework was applied to three selected nanoproducts: nanosilver polyester textile, nanoTiO2 sunscreen lotion and carbon nanotube tennis racquets. We found that the potential global environmental exposure of ENMs associated with these three products was an estimated 0.5-143 Mg/year, which can also be characterised qualitatively as medium, medium, low, respectively. Specific challenges remain and should be subject to further research: (1) analytical techniques for the characterisation of nanowaste and its transformation during waste treatment processes, (2) mechanisms for the release of ENMs, (3) the quantification of nanowaste amounts at the regional scale, (4) a definition of acceptable limit values for exposure to ENMs from nanowaste and (5) the reporting of nanowaste generation data.

  18. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-29

    Over 1,140 yd{sup 3} of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations ({approximately} 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system.

  19. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  20. Assessment of the Biodegradability of Containers for Low and Intermediate Level Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobenko, B.P.

    2013-01-01

    over a long-term period might have negative environmental consequences for the concretes waste containers as fungi (under certain environmental conditions) are able to dissolved the cement matrix resulting in the formation of a biofilm with accumulated structural elements. However, as microbial effects under repository conditions are unknown and difficult to study in a laboratory, no safety assessments conclusions can be made based on results from his study. Long term studies under repository conditions are needed. (author)

  1. Environmental analysis burial of offsite low-level waste at SRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poe, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    The environmental effects of receipt and burial of low-level naval waste generated at Department of Energy Laboratories are assessed in this environmental analysis. Through 1979, this low-level DOE waste was sent to the NRC-licensed burial ground operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., at Barnwell, South Carolina. DOE announced on October 26, 1979, that DOE-generated low-level waste would no longer be buried at commercial waste burial sites. SRP was selected to receive the naval waste described in this analysis. Receipt and burial of these wastes will have a negligible effect on SRP's environment and increase only slightly the environmental effects of the SRP operations discussed in the EIS on SRP waste management operations. The environmental effects of burial of this waste at Chem-Nuclear Burial Ground or at the SRP Burial Ground are described in this environmental analysis to permit assessment of incremental effects caused by the decision to bury this naval waste in the SRP Burial Ground rather than in the Barnwell Burial Ground. The radiological effects from burial of this waste in either the SRP or Chem-Nuclear Burial Ground are very small when compared to those from natural background radiation or to the annual population dose commitment from operation of SRP. The environmental effects of burial at SRP to dose commitments normally received by the population surrounding SRP are compared

  2. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste: Annual report FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1994-10-01

    The two landfills of specific interest are the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), both located at Sandia National Laboratory. The work is comprised of two subtasks: (1) In-Situ Barriers and (2) In-Situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. The main environmental concern at the CWL is a chromium plume resulting from disposal of chromic acid and chromic sulfuric acid into unlined pits. This program has investigated means of in-situ stabilization of chromium contaminated soils and placement of containment barriers around the CWL. The MWL contains a plume of tritiated water. In-situ immobilization of tritiated water with cementitious grouts was not considered to be a method with a high probability of success and was not pursued. This is discussed further in Section 5.0. Containment barriers for the tritium plume were investigated. FY 94 work focused on stabilization of chromium contaminated soil with blast furnace slag modified grouts to bypass the stage of pre-reduction of Cr(6), barriers for tritiated water containment at the MWL, continued study of barriers for the CWL, and jet grouting field trials for CWL barriers at an uncontaminated site at SNL. Cores from the FY 93 permeation grouting field trails were also tested in FY 94

  3. Waste-to-energy: Dehalogenation of plastic-containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yafei; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Xingming; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    The dehalogenation measurements could be carried out with the decomposition of plastic wastes simultaneously or successively. This paper reviewed the progresses in dehalogenation followed by thermochemical conversion of plastic-containing wastes for clean energy production. The pre-treatment method of MCT or HTT can eliminate the halogen in plastic wastes. The additives such as alkali-based metal oxides (e.g., CaO, NaOH), iron powders and minerals (e.g., quartz) can work as reaction mediums and accelerators with the objective of enhancing the mechanochemical reaction. The dehalogenation of waste plastics could be achieved by co-grinding with sustainable additives such as bio-wastes (e.g., rice husk), recyclable minerals (e.g., red mud) via MCT for solid fuels production. Interestingly, the solid fuel properties (e.g., particle size) could be significantly improved by HTT in addition with lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, the halogenated compounds in downstream thermal process could be eliminated by using catalysts and adsorbents. Most dehalogenation of plastic wastes primarily focuses on the transformation of organic halogen into inorganic halogen in terms of halogen hydrides or salts. The integrated process of MCT or HTT with the catalytic thermal decomposition is a promising way for clean energy production. The low-cost additives (e.g., red mud) used in the pre-treatment by MCT or HTT lead to a considerable synergistic effects including catalytic effect contributing to the follow-up thermal decomposition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental surveillance for the INEL Radioactive-Waste-Management complex. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, D.H.; Zahn, T.P.

    1982-09-01

    The 1981 environmental surveillance report for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory contains data and discussions about routine radiological monitoring of the atmospheric, hydrologic, and geologic environments of the RWMC. Additional discussions include results of routine monitoring of two surplus facilities, the Stationary Low-Power Reactor No. 1 Surplus Area and the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment. Each area has produced localized effects on the environment, but containment is well within the INEL site boundary

  5. Containment of solidified liquid hazardous waste in domal salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenico, P.A.; Lerman, A.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the solidification of hazardous liquid waste has become a viable option in waste management. The solidification process results in an increased volume but more stable waste form that must be disposed of or stored in a dry environment. An environment of choice in south central Texas is domal salt. The salt dome currently under investigation has a water content of 0.002 percent by weight and a permeability less than one nanodarcy. A question that must be addressed is whether a salt dome has a particular set of attributes that will prevent the release of contaminants to the environment. From a regulatory perspective, a ''no migration'' petition must be approved by the U.S.E.P.A. for the containment facility. By ''no migration'' it is implied that the waste must be contained for 10,000 years. A demonstration that this condition will be met will require model calculations and such models must be based on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste form and the geologic environment. In particular, the models must address the rate of brine infiltration into the caverns, providing information on how fast an immobile solid waste form could convert to a more mobile liquid state. Additionally, the potential for migration by both diffusion and advection is of concern. Lastly, given a partially saturated cavern, the question of how far gaseous waste will be transported over the 10,000 year containment period must also be addressed. Results indicate that the containment capabilities of domal salt are exceptional. A nominal volume of brine will seep into the cavern and most voids between the injected solidified waste pellets will remain unsaturated. Very small quantities of hazardous constituents will be leached from the waste pellets

  6. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    A process is described for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process is also disclosed. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile. 1 fig

  7. Environmental benefits and drawbacks of composite fuels based on industrial wastes and different ranks of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyashina, G S; Vershinina, K Yu; Dmitrienko, M A; Strizhak, P A

    2018-04-05

    A promising solution to many problems that thermal power industry is facing today would be switching from conventional coal dust combustion to coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Here, we perform an experimental study of the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur and nitrogen oxides) from the combustion of high-potential CWSP. We identify the main benefits and potential drawbacks of using CWSP in thermal power industry. A set of components and additives to CWSP are explored that significantly affect the environmental and energy performance of fuels. The anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of CWSP made of widespread coal and oil processing wastes are no higher than those from coal dust combustion. Using specialized additives to CWSP, we can change the concentrations of NO x and SO x several times. The most appealing additives to CWSP are sawdust, straw, charcoal, limestone, and glycerol. They provide better environmental, economic, and energy performance and improve the rheological properties of CWSP. Waste oils and oil sludge added to CWSP may impair the environmental performance but boost the cost and energy efficiency. Using coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals as a fuel at thermal power plants is an environmentally friendly as well as cost- and energy-efficient way to recover industrial wastes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection of candidate canister materials for high-level nuclear waste containment in a tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.; Weiss, H.; Juhas, M.C.; Logan, R.W.

    1983-11-01

    A repository located at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site is a potential site for permanent geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The repository can be located in a horizon in welded tuff, a volcanic rock, which is above the static water level at this site. The environmental conditions in this unsaturated zone are expected to be air and water vapor dominated for much of the containment period. Type 304L stainless steel is the reference material for fabricating canisters to contain the solid high-level wastes. Alternative stainless alloys are considered because of possible susceptibility of 304L to localized and stress forms of corrosion. For the reprocessed glass wastes, the canisters serve as the recipient for pouring the glass with the result that a sensitized microstructure may develop because of the times at elevated temperatures. Corrosion testing of the reference and alternative materials has begun in tuff-conditioned water and steam environments. 21 references, 8 figures, 8 tables

  9. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-01-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10 −5 Ci/m 3 . The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour −1

  10. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundari, Noor Anis, E-mail: nooranis@batan.go.id; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi [Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir – Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional Jl. Babarsari P.O. BOX 6101 YKBB Yogyakarta 55281 Telp : (0274) 48085, 489716, Fax : (0274) 489715 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  11. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  12. Process development for treatment of fluoride containing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahesh; Kanvinde, V Y [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Many chemical and metallurgical industries generate liquid wastes containing high values of fluorides in association of nitrates and other metals. Due to harmful effects of fluorides these type of wastes can not be disposed off in the environment without proper treatment. Bench-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to develop a process scheme to fix the fluorides as non-leachable solid waste and fluoride free treated liquid waste for their disposal. To optimize the important parameters, simulated synthetic and actual wastes were used. For this study, three waste streams were collected from Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. (author). 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-09-20

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment

  15. Treatment of radioactive wastes containing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, O.S.; Aparicio, G.; Greco, L.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Salguero, D.; Toubes, B.; Perez, A.E.; Menghini, J.E.; Esteban, A.; Adelfang, P.

    1987-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generated in the process of manufacture and control of experimental fuel rods of mixed oxides, (U,Pu)O 2 , require an specific treatment due to the plutonium content. The composition of liquid wastes, mostly arising from chemical checks, is variable. The salt content, the acidity, and the plutonium and uranium content are different, which makes necessary a chemical treatment before the inclusion in concrete. The solid waste, such as neoprene gloves, PVC sleeves, filter paper, disposable or broken laboratory material, etc. are also included in concrete. In this report the methods used to dispose of wastes at Alpha Facility are described. With regard to the liquid wastes, the glove box built to process them is detailed, as well as the applied chemical treatment, including neutralization, filtration and later solidification. As for the solid wastes, it is described the cementation method consisting in introducing them into an expanded metal matrix, of the basket type, that contains as a concentric drum of 200 liter capacity which is smaller than the matrix, and the filling with wet cement mortar. (Author)

  16. Conditioning of uranium-containing technological radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, B.; Tavcar, G.; Stepisnik, M.; Pucelj, B.

    2006-01-01

    Conditioning of mostly liquid uranium containing technological radioactive waste emerging from the past research activities at the Jozef Stefan Institute is described. The waste was first thoroughly characterised, then the radionuclides present solidified by appropriate chemical treatment, and the final product separated and prepared for storage in compliance with the legislation. The activities were carried out within the recently renewed Hot Cells Facility of the Jozef Stefan Institute and the overall process resulted in substantial volume reduction of the waste initially present. (author)

  17. Program for certification of waste from contained firing facility: Establishment of waste as non-reactive and discussion of potential waste generation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.; Garza, R.; Maienschein, J.; Pruneda, C.

    1997-01-01

    Debris from explosives testing in a shot tank that contains 4 weight percent or less of explosive is shown to be non-reactive under the specified testing protocol in the Code of Federal Regulations. This debris can then be regarded as a non-hazardous waste on the basis of reactivity, when collected and packaged in a specified manner. If it is contaminated with radioactive components (e.g. depleted uranium), it can therefore be disposed of as radioactive waste or mixed waste, as appropriate (note that debris may contain other materials that render it hazardous, such as beryllium). We also discuss potential waste generation issues in contained firing operations that are applicable to the planned new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). The goal of this program is to develop and document conditions under which shot debris from the planned Contained Firing Facility (CFF) can be handled, shipped, and accepted for waste disposal as non-reactive radioactive or mixed waste. This report fulfills the following requirements as established at the outset of the program: 1. Establish through testing the maximum level of explosive that can be in a waste and still have it certified as non-reactive. 2. Develop the procedure to confirm the acceptability of radioactive-contaminated debris as non-reactive waste at radioactive waste disposal sites. 3. Outline potential disposal protocols for different CFF scenarios (e.g. misfires with scattered explosive)

  18. Predicting the Lifetimes of Nuclear Waste Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Fraser

    2014-03-01

    As for many aspects of the disposal of nuclear waste, the greatest challenge we have in the study of container materials is the prediction of the long-term performance over periods of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Various methods have been used for predicting the lifetime of containers for the disposal of high-level waste or spent fuel in deep geological repositories. Both mechanical and corrosion-related failure mechanisms need to be considered, although until recently the interactions of mechanical and corrosion degradation modes have not been considered in detail. Failure from mechanical degradation modes has tended to be treated through suitable container design. In comparison, the inevitable loss of container integrity due to corrosion has been treated by developing specific corrosion models. The most important aspect, however, is to be able to justify the long-term predictions by demonstrating a mechanistic understanding of the various degradation modes.

  19. Process for treatment of detergent-containing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, K.; Chino, K.; Funabashi, K.; Horiuchi, S.; Motojima, K.

    1984-01-01

    A detergent-containing radioactive liquid waste originating from atomic power plants is concentrated to have about 10 wt. % detergent concentration, then dried in a thin film evaporator, and converted into powder. Powdered activated carbon is added to the radioactive waste in advance to prevent the liquid waste from foaming in the evaporator by the action of surface active agents contained in the detergent. The activated carbon is added in accordance with the COD concentration of the radioactive liquid waste to be treated, and usually at a concentration 2-4 times as large as the COD concentration of the liquid waste to be treated. A powdery product having a moisture content of not more than 15 wt. % is obtained from the evaporator, and pelletized and then packed into drums to be stored for a predetermined period

  20. Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling free convection heat transfer in an cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rack. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3--4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions

  1. Implementation of the Environmental Management System in Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabjan, M.; Kralj, M.; Rojc, J.

    2008-01-01

    Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO) is a public institution assigned to provide effective, safe and responsible management of all kinds of radioactive waste in Slovenia from the moment they arise to their final disposal. Therefore it holds an important role in environmental protection. Its main assignment is to provide conditions for permanent disposal of radioactive waste. It is also authorised to perform public service of radioactive waste management from small producers that includes: collection of the waste from small producers at the producers' premises, transportation to the storage facility, treatment, conditioning storage of RW from small producers; acceptance of radioactive waste in case of emergency situation (e.g. transport accidents); acceptance of radioactive waste in case of unknown producer; operation and management of Central Interim Storage of Radioactive Waste. The quality of ARAO performance in carrying out its mission is assured by implementing the environmental management system according to the standard ISO 14001:2004. Its effectiveness was confirmed by certification in October 2007. The ISO 14001:2004 certificate represents a permanent commitment of ARAO to implement and improve the environmental management system and to include environmental aspects in all its activities, especially in performing the public service. We developed own evaluation criteria for determination of relevant environmental impacts and aspects. ARAO has defined its environmental policy and objectives, it evaluates its environmental impacts yearly, and defines its environmental programmes that not only fulfil legal requirements but tend even to reduce the impacts below legally set levels. A very important environmental programme in the last few years was the reconstruction of the storage facility. Public information and communication programmes are considered to be important also from the environmental management point of view, because public shows great interest in

  2. The safety and environmental impact of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive matters were discovered in 1989. Exploitation and using of nuclear energy and nuclear technologies bring mankind huge benefits, but the disposal of radioactive wastes is becoming one of the safety and environmental problems. The author describes six issues related to nuclear wastes. They are as follows: (1) The origin and characteristics of the nuclear wastes; (2) The principles of management of nuclear wastes established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as well as the Chinese '40 words principles' and the major tasks of Chinese nuclear waste management; (3) The treatment and disposal technologies of nuclear wastes and the emphasis on new technologies, waste minimization and exemption and clean release; (4) The safety management of spent radiation sources including technical and administrative measures; (5) The safety management of spent nuclear fuel and the emphasis on high level radioactive wastes to be safety disposed of; (6) The environmental impact of nuclear waste. The author takes the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and the Daya bay Nuclear Power Plant I, China, as two examples to prove that nuclear wastes can be safely controlled and managed to ensure environmental safety. The Chinese north-west disposal land of nuclear wastes under operation recently is also discussed. It is believed that the suggested disposal land can ensure the isolation of radioactive wastes and the surrounding environment according to the present standards. The north-west disposal land and the Beilong disposal land, Guangdong province, China, are built according to the international standard and advanced technologies

  3. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This EIS reflects the public review of and comments offered on the draft statement. Included are descriptions of the characteristics of nuclear waste, the alternative disposal methods under consideration, and potential environmental impacts and costs of implementing these methods. Because of the programmatic nature of this document and the preliminary nature of certain design elements assumed in assessing the environmental consequences of the various alternatives, this study has been based on generic, rather than specific, systems. At such time as specific facilities are identified for particular sites, statements addressing site-specific aspects will be prepared for public review and comment.

  4. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 1 of 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This EIS reflects the public review of and comments offered on the draft statement. Included are descriptions of the characteristics of nuclear waste, the alternative disposal methods under consideration, and potential environmental impacts and costs of implementing these methods. Because of the programmatic nature of this document and the preliminary nature of certain design elements assumed in assessing the environmental consequences of the various alternatives, this study has been based on generic, rather than specific, systems. At such time as specific facilities are identified for particular sites, statements addressing site-specific aspects will be prepared for public review and comment

  5. Decontamination of organic wastes containing radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, T.J.; Pimblott, S.M.; Brown, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical oxidation treatment has been developed by Arvia Technology for organic wastes containing radionuclides, in which GIC-bisulphate is used as an adsorbent and electrode. Significant work has been carried out in the irradiation of graphite for medical and nuclear applications and in the use of carbonaceous adsorbents but knowledge of the applicability of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) in these roles is limited. This project will attempt to fill this gap. It will investigate the suitability of GIC-bisulphate as an adsorbent in an electrochemical treatment process for radioactive organic liquids. The process was initially used to treat waste-water from non-nuclear operations and now requires technical knowledge and research to adapt the treatment for the nuclear industry. Adsorption processes involving organic wastes containing mobile radionuclides such as 137 Cs are difficult to understand. The effects of gamma radiation on the chemistry of water and organics could complicate the treatment process further. To ensure the suitability and effectiveness of the electrochemical oxidation treatment for radioactive organic wastes, the following effects are being investigated: -) radiolytic degradation of GIC-bisulphate in solution, -) leaching of intercalated ions due to gamma radiation, -) effect of gamma radiation on the adsorption of organics by GIC-bisulphate, -) changes in the sorption behaviour of radioactive contaminants, -) distribution coefficients of contaminants in organic and aqueous phases, and -) selective or competitive adsorption on graphite surface sites

  6. Environmental restoration and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleman, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this Five-Year Plan is to establish an agenda for compliance and cleanup against which progress will be measured. DOE is committed to an open and participatory process for developing a national priority system for expenditure of funds. This system will be based on scientific principles and risk reduction in terms that are understandable to the public. The Plan will be revised annually, with a five-year planning horizon. For FY 1991--1995, this Plan encompasses total program activities and costs for DOE Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, Waste Management Operations, and Applied R ampersand D. It addresses hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, mixed wastes (radioactive and hazardous), and sanitary wastes. It also addresses facilities and sites contaminated with or used in the management of those wastes. The Plan does not include the Safety and Health Program (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health) or programs of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. It does include the annual Defense Programs contribution to the Nuclear Waste Fund for disposal of defense high-level waste and research toward characterizing the defense waste form for repository disposal

  7. Environmental indicators of the combustion of prospective coal water slurry containing petrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Nyashina, Galina S; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2017-09-15

    Negative environmental impact of coal combustion has been known to humankind for a fairly long time. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are considered the most dangerous anthropogenic emissions. A possible solution to this problem is replacing coal dust combustion with that of coal water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Coal processing wastes and used combustible liquids (oils, sludge, resins) are promising in terms of their economic and energy yield characteristics. However, no research has yet been conducted on the environmental indicators of fuels based on CWSP. The present work contains the findings of the research of CO, CO2, NOx, SOx emissions from the combustion of coals and CWSPs produced from coal processing waste (filter cakes). It is demonstrated for the first time that the concentrations of dangerous emissions from the combustion of CWSPs (carbon oxide and dioxide), even when combustible heavy liquid fractions are added, are not worse than those of coal. As for the concentration of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, it is significantly lower for CWSPs combustion as compared to coals. The presented research findings illustrate the prospects of the wide use of CWSPs as a fuel that is cheap and beneficial, in terms of both energy output and ecology, as compared to coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DEMONSTRATiON OF A SUBSURFACE CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR INSTALLATION AT DOE WASTE SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Crocker; Verna M. Carpenter

    2003-05-21

    Between 1952 and 1970, DOE buried mixed waste in pits and trenches that now have special cleanup needs. The disposal practices used decades ago left these landfills and other trenches, pits, and disposal sites filled with three million cubic meters of buried waste. This waste is becoming harmful to human safety and health. Today's cleanup and waste removal is time-consuming and expensive with some sites scheduled to complete cleanup by 2006 or later. An interim solution to the DOE buried waste problem is to encapsulate and hydraulically isolate the waste with a geomembrane barrier and monitor the performance of the barrier over its 50-yr lifetime. The installed containment barriers would isolate the buried waste and protect groundwater from pollutants until final remediations are completed. The DOE has awarded a contract to RAHCO International, Inc.; of Spokane, Washington; to design, develop, and test a novel subsurface barrier installation system, referred to as a Subsurface Containment System (SCS). The installed containment barrier consists of commercially available geomembrane materials that isolates the underground waste, similar to the way a swimming pools hold water, without disrupting hazardous material that was buried decades ago. The barrier protects soil and groundwater from contamination and effectively meets environmental cleanup standards while reducing risks, schedules, and costs. Constructing the subsurface containment barrier uses a combination of conventional and specialized equipment and a unique continuous construction process. This innovative equipment and construction method can construct a 1000-ft-long X 34-ft-wide X 30-ft-deep barrier at construction rates to 12 Wday (8 hr/day operation). Life cycle costs including RCRA cover and long-term monitoring range from approximately $380 to $590/cu yd of waste contained or $100 to $160/sq ft of placed barrier based upon the subsurface geology surrounding the waste. Project objectives for Phase

  9. Environmental Restoration Contractor Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This plan contains the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan outlines the activities and schedules developed by the ERC to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste dispositioned as a result of restoration and remediation activities. This plan satisfies US Department of Energy (DOE) requirements including the Pollution Prevention Awareness program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988). This plan is consistent with Executive Order 12856 and Secretary O'Leary's pollution prevention Policy Statement of December 27, 1994, which set US and DOE pollution prevention policies, respectively. It is also consistent with the DOE Pollution Prevention Crosscut Plan, 1994, which provides guidance in meeting the DOE goals in pollution prevention. The purpose of this plan is to aid ERC projects in meeting and documenting compliance with requirements for WMin/P2. This plan contains the objectives, strategy, and support activities of the ERC Team WMin/P2 program. The basic elements of the plan are pollution prevention goals, waste assessments of major waste streams, implementation of feasible waste minimization opportunities, and a process for reporting achievements. Wherever appropriate, the ERC will integrate the pollution prevention activities in this plan into regular program activities rather than establishing separate WMin/P2 activities. Moreover, wherever possible, existing documents, procedures, and activities will be used to meet WMin/P2 requirements

  10. Organic waste process containing at least one radioactive element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roy, F.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of an organic waste process containing at least one element from the group comprising strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium. It comprises the introduction of the organic waste and gaseous oxygen in a bath of melted salt containing an alkaline carbonate, the bath being maintained at a high temperature between 400 and 1000 0 C and at a pressure of 0.5 to 10 bars, so that the organic waste is burnt and oxidised at least partly, the element selected being retained by the bath of melted salt [fr

  11. Sulphate in Liquid Nuclear Waste: from Production to Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M.; Grandjean, A.; Ledieu, A.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Barre, Y.; Tronche, E. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LDMC, Batiment 208 BP17171, Bagnols sur Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Nuclear industry produces a wide range of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes which can include different radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr. In La Hague reprocessing plant and in the nuclear research centers of CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), the coprecipitation of strontium with barium sulphate is the technique used to treat selectively these contaminated streams with the best efficiency. After the decontamination process, low and intermediate level activity wastes incorporating significant quantities of sulphate are obtained. The challenge is to find a matrix easy to form and with a good chemical durability which is able to confine this kind of nuclear waste. The current process used to contain sulphate-rich nuclear wastes is bituminization. However, in order to improve properties of containment matrices and simplify the process, CEA has chosen to supervise researches on other materials such as cements or glasses. Indeed, cements are widely used for the immobilization of a variety of wastes (low and intermediate level wastes) and they may be an alternative matrix to bitumen. Even if Portland cement, which is extensively used in the nuclear industry, presents some disadvantages for the containment of sulphate-rich nuclear wastes (risk of swelling and cracking due to delayed ettringite formation), other cement systems, such as calcium sulfo-aluminate binders, may be valuable candidates. Another matrix to confine sulphate-rich waste could be the glass. One of the advantages of this material is that it could also immobilize sulphate containing high level nuclear waste which is present in some countries. This waste comes from the use of ferrous sulfamate as a reducing agent for the conversion of Pu{sup 4+} to Pu{sup 3+} in the partitioning stage of the actinides during reprocessing. Sulphate solubility in borosilicate glasses has already been studied in CEA at laboratory and pilot scales. At a pilot scale, low level liquid waste has been

  12. Concrete containers in radioactive waste management: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Bárbara L.; Tello, Clédola Cássia O. de, E-mail: barbaralacerdat@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte/MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear power is considered a clean energy, because it does not produce the gases responsible for greenhouse effect. However, like all human activities, it is susceptible to waste generation. With increasing demand for energy in Brazil, the use of nuclear power is being expanded, as a result, the implementation of correct treatment and disposal are a necessity, in order to ensure the non-contamination of the public or environment and that exposure doses are lower than limits by legislation. Most of waste produced in Brazil are classified as low and intermediate radiation level; consequently, the national repository will be near surface, in accordance with the legislation. Considering the multi-barrier concept for the repository, the radioactive waste product is the first barrier. To have a qualified radioactive waste product, it should be solid or solidified using an inert material. With the intention of standardize the disposal process, all radioactive waste products will be placed in concrete containers. These containers will be settled in a concrete cell, the final engineered barrier of the repository. The state of the art is the first part of the study of the concrete containers and its specific criteria acceptation. Since the repository’s operational and surveillance period is 60 and 300 years, respectively, tests still need to be fulfilled in order to ensure the stability and resistance of the material. (author)

  13. Concrete containers in radioactive waste management: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Bárbara L.; Tello, Clédola Cássia O. de

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered a clean energy, because it does not produce the gases responsible for greenhouse effect. However, like all human activities, it is susceptible to waste generation. With increasing demand for energy in Brazil, the use of nuclear power is being expanded, as a result, the implementation of correct treatment and disposal are a necessity, in order to ensure the non-contamination of the public or environment and that exposure doses are lower than limits by legislation. Most of waste produced in Brazil are classified as low and intermediate radiation level; consequently, the national repository will be near surface, in accordance with the legislation. Considering the multi-barrier concept for the repository, the radioactive waste product is the first barrier. To have a qualified radioactive waste product, it should be solid or solidified using an inert material. With the intention of standardize the disposal process, all radioactive waste products will be placed in concrete containers. These containers will be settled in a concrete cell, the final engineered barrier of the repository. The state of the art is the first part of the study of the concrete containers and its specific criteria acceptation. Since the repository’s operational and surveillance period is 60 and 300 years, respectively, tests still need to be fulfilled in order to ensure the stability and resistance of the material. (author)

  14. User's manual for remote-handled transuranic waste container welding and inspection fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmann, J.P.

    1985-09-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) has designed built, and tested a prototype remotely operated welding and inspection fixture to be used in making the closure weld on the remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste container. The RH-TRU waste container has an average TRU concentration in excess of 100 nCi/gm, and a surface radiation dose rate in excess of 200 mrem/h, but not exceeding 100 rem/h. The RH-TRU waste container is to be used by defense waste generator sites in the United States for final packaging of RH-TRU wastes and is compatible with the requirements of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the WIPP handling system. Standard and stacked RH-TRU container designs are available. The standard container is 26 in. in dia. by 121 in. high; the stacked containers are 26 in. in dia. by 61.25 in. high. After loading, two stacked containers are fitted and welded together to form the identical measurements of the standard 121-in. container. The prototype RH-TRU waste container welding and inspection fixture was intended for test and evaluation only, and not for installation in an operating facility. The final RH-TRU waste container welding and inspection fixture drawings (see appendix) incorporate several changes made following operational testing of the original fixture. These modifications are identified in this manual. However, not all modifications have been functionally tested. The purpose of this manual is to aid waste generator sites in designing a remotely operated welding and inspection fixture that will conform to their own requirements. Modifications to the Rockwell design must be evaluated for structural and WIPP handling requirements. This manual also provides design philosophy, component vendor information, and cost estimates

  15. Treatment of organic waste solutions containing tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnik, S.

    The two processes developed in the laboratory for treating waste solutions containing TBP, namely TBP separation with phosphoric acid and saponification were tested on a semi-industrial scale. A waste solution from the first phase of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant was used

  16. Containment and stabilization technologies for mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    A prevalent approach to the cleanup of waste sites contaminated with hazardous chemicals and radionuclides is to contain and/or stabilize wastes within the site. Stabilization involves treating the wastes in some fashion, either in situ or above ground after retrieval, to reduce the leachability and release rate of waste constituents to the environment. This approach is generally reserved for radionuclide contaminants, inorganic hazardous contaminants such as heavy metals, and nonvolatile organic contaminants. This paper describes the recent developments in the technical options available for containing and stabilizing wastes. A brief description of each technology is given along with a discussion of the most recent developments and examples of useful applications

  17. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations

  18. Plutonium waste container identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmierer, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the parameters of a method for identifying plutonium waste containers. This information will form the basis for a permanent committee to develop a complete identification program for use throughout the world. Although a large portion of the information will be on handwritten notebooks and may not be as extensive as is desired, it will all be helpful. The final information will be programmed into computer language and be available to all interested parties as well as a central control committee which will have the expertise to provide each government with advice on the packaging, storage, and measurement of the waste for which it is responsible. As time progresses, this central control committee should develop permanent storage sites and establish a system of records which will last for hundreds of years

  19. Advanced mixed waste treatment project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The AMWTP DEIS assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with four alternatives related to the construction and operation of a proposed waste treatment facility at the INEEL. Four alternatives were analyzed: The No Action Alternative, the Proposed Action, the Non-Thermal Treatment Alternative, and the Treatment and Storage Alternative. The proposed AMWTP facility would treat low-level mixed waste, alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste in preparation for disposal. Transuranic waste would be disposed of at the Waste isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Low-level mixed waste would be disposed of at an approval disposal facility depending on decisions to be based on DOE's Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Evaluation of impacts on land use, socio-economics, cultural resources, aesthetic and scenic resources, geology, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, noise, traffic and transportation, occupational and public health and safety, INEEL services, and environmental justice were included in the assessment. The AMWTP DEIS identifies as the Preferred Alternative the Proposed Action, which is the construction and operation of the AMWTP facility

  20. Possible combustion hazards in 3013 plutonium waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Are there combustion hazards in plutonium-contaminated waste containers caused by combustible gas generation? Current gas generation models in which the only reaction considered is radiolysis must inevitably predict eventual complete dissociation of any water present into hydrogen and oxygen. Waste prepared for the 3013 container should be less subject to this problem because organic material and most of the absorbed water should have been removed. Depending on the waste form, moisture content, organic content, temperature, and container material, the pressure rise due to gas generation will be bounded by backreactions, recombination of the hydrogen and oxygen, absorption of the oxygen by plutonium oxide, and possibly other chemical reactions. Examination of a variety of food pack waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shown little pressure rise, indeed often subatmospheric pressures. In a few cases large hydrogen concentrations up to 47% mole fraction were observed, but with negligible oxygen content. The only fuel seen in significant quantities was H 2 and, in one case, CO; the only oxidizer seen in significant quantities was O 2 . Considerable work on measuring gas generation is being done at Westinghouse Savannah River Company and LANL. In a mixture of H 2 , O 2 , and other diluent gases, if the hydrogen concentration is below the value at the lean flammability limit, or if the oxygen concentration is below that at the rich flammability limit, a flame will not propagate from an ignition source. Assuming H 2 is the only fuel present in significant quantities, a mixture leaner than the lean limit will get only leaner if mixed with air and is therefore no combustion hazard. However, when a mixture containing large amounts of H 2 is nonflammable because there is insufficient O 2 , there is a hazard. If the mixture should leak into a volume containing O 2 , or the container is opened into the surrounding air, the mixture will pass through the

  1. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roots, F.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  2. Open site tests on corrosion of carbon steel containers for radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.S.; Ojovan, M.I.; Ojovan, N.V.; Startceva, I.V.; Chujkova, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    Testing of waste containers under open field conditions is a component part of the research program that is being carried out at SIA Radon for more than 20 years to understand the long-term behavior of radioactive waste forms and waste packages. This paper presents the preliminary results of these ongoing studies. The authors used a typical NPP operational waste, containing 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 60 Co as the dominant radioactive constituents. Bituminized and vitrified waste samples with 30--50 wt.% waste loading were prepared. Combined effects of climatic factors on corrosion behavior of carbon steel containers were estimated using gravimetric and chemical analyses. The observations suggest that uniform corrosion of containers prevails under open field conditions. The upper limits for the lifetime of containers were derived from calculations based on the model of atmospheric steel corrosion. Estimated lifetime values range from 300 to 600 years for carbon steel containers with the wall thickness of 2 mm containing vitrified waste, and from 450 to 500 years for containers with the wall thickness of 2.5 mm that were used for bituminized waste. However, following the most conservative method, pitting corrosion may cause container integrity failure after 60 to 90 years of exposure

  3. [Methodological approaches to the development of environmentally benign technology for the use of solid waste in iron metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, K G; Vaĭsman, Ia I

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the life cycle of materials, containing wastes of iron and steel industry, new methodological approaches to the assessment of technologies of the secondary use of wastes are developed A complex criteria for selection of the technology for the use of resource potential of solid waste of iron and steel industry are developed with taking into account environmental, technological and economic indices. The technology of the use of wastes of ferrovanadium industry as bulk solid materials at the solid waste landfill is shown.

  4. Environmental surveillance of low-level radioactive waste management areas at Los Alamos during 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report was compiled as a part of the DOE-sponsored radioactive waste site surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The report is a source document for data collected in 1985. However, an attempt is made to interpret the data as it relates to radionuclide transport to serve in guiding future waste site surveillance activities. This report contains information on one active and 11 inactive radioactive waste management areas at Los Alamos. Sections include the use history, current status, and future stabilization needs for all sites; the results of detailed surveillance activities at Areas G and C; and a dose evaluation based on the waste site and Laboratory environmental surveillance data. 9 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  5. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Final Environmental Assessment for solid waste disposal, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    New solid waste regulations require that the existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) municipal landfills, which receive less than 20 tons of waste per day, be permitted or closed by October 9, 1995. In order to be permitted, the existing landfills must meet specific location, groundwater monitoring, design, operation, and closure requirements. The issuance of these regulations has resulted in the need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a practical, cost-effective, environmentally sound means of solid waste disposal at the NTS that is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations. The current landfills in Areas 9 and 23 on the Nevada Test Site do not meet design requirements specified in new state and federal regulations. The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential impacts of the proposal to modify the Area 23 landfill to comply with the new regulations and to close the Area 9 landfill and reopen it as Construction and Demolition debris landfill. Based on information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act. Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  7. Storage container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalayoud, L.; Gerard, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tightness, shock resistance and corrosion resistance of containers for storage of radioactive wastes it obtained by complete fabrication with concrete reinforced with metal fibers. This material is used for molding the cask, the cover and the joint connecting both parts. Dovetail grooves are provided on the cask and the cover for the closure [fr

  8. Environmental and waste disposal options in nuclear engineering curricula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleman, T.S.; Gilligan, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The strong national emphasis on waste and environmental issues has prompted increasing interest among nuclear engineering students in study options that will prepare them for careers in these areas. Student interest appears to focus principally on health physics, radioactive waste disposal, and environmental interactions with radionuclides. One motivation for this interest appears to be the growing national programs in environmental restoration and waste remediation that have produced fellowship support for nuclear engineering students as well as employment opportunities. Also, the recent National Academy of sciences study on nuclear engineering education specifically emphasized the importance of expanding nuclear engineering curricula and research programs to include a greater emphasis on radioactive waste and environmental issues. The North Carolina State University (NCSU) Department of Nuclear Engineering is attempting to respond to these needs through the development of course options that will allow students to acquire background in environmental subjects as a complement to the traditional nuclear engineering education

  9. Properties of dune sand concrete containing coffee waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.

  10. How reliable does the waste package containment have to be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The final rule (10 CFR Part 60) for Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories specifies that the engineered barrier system shall be designed so that, assuming anticipated processes and events, containment of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) will be substantially complete during the period when radiation and thermal conditions in the engineered barrier system are dominated by fission product decay. This requirement leads to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) being asked the following questions: What is meant by ''substantially complete''. How reliable does waste package containment have to be. How many waste packages can fail. Although the NRC has not defined quantitatively the term ''substantially complete'', a numerical concept for acceptable release during the containment period is discussed. The number of containment failures that could be tolerated under the rule would depend upon the acceptable release, the time at which failure occurs and the rate of release from a failed package

  11. Implementation Plan. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In accordance with the Department of Energy`s National Environmental Policy Act implementing procedures in Volume 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1021,312, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Implementation Plan has two primary purposes: to provide guidance for the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and to record the issues resulting from the scoping and the extended public participation process. The Implementation Plan identifies and discusses the following: background of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities, the purpose of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, and the relationship of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement to other Departmental initiatives (Chapter 1); need and purposes for action (Chapter 2); scoping process and results of the public participation program in defining the scope of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, including a summary of the comments received and their disposition (Chapter 3); planned scope and content of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 4); consultations with other agencies and the role of cooperating agencies (Chapter 5); planned schedule of major Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement milestones (Chapter 6); and responsibilities for preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Chapter 7).

  12. Mathematical models for diffusive mass transfer from waste package container with multiple perforations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Andrews, R.W.; Chambre, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    A robust engineered barrier system (EBS) is employed in the current design concept for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, US. The primary component of the EBS is a multi-barrier waste package container. Simplifying the geometry of the cylindrical waste package container and the underlying invert into the equivalent spherical configuration, mathematical models are developed for steady-state and transient diffusive releases from the failed waste container with multiple perforations (or pit penetrations) at the boundary of the invert. Using the models the steady-state and transient diffusive release behaviors form the failed waste container are studied. The analyses show that the number of perforations, the size of perforation, the container wall thickness, the geometry of the waste container and invert, and the adsorption of radionuclide in the invert are the important parameters that control the diffusive release rate. It is emphasized that the failed (or perforated) waste package container can still perform as a potentially important barrier (or diffusion barrier) to radionuclide release

  13. Synthesis of studies on primary containers for MLA-VL wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, F.; Delassale, F.; Rey, F.; Helie, M.; Levoy, R.; Moitrier, C.; Sicardy, O.; Tiquet, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is the presentation of studies realized on primary containers of medium activity long life level. These studies are realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive waste management. The specificity of this document is the presentation of container for ''random'' wastes chemically corrosive in order to complete the range of possible packages. Thus a special program has been developed to demonstrate a conditioning solution which offers to the waste producers a possibility of conditioning these wastes without a preliminary treatment. (A.L.B.)

  14. Lining materials for waste disposal containment and waste storage facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design characteristics, performance, and materials used to make liners for the waste disposal and storage industry. Liners made of concrete, polymeric materials, compacted clays, asphalt, and in-situ glass are discussed. The use of these liners to contain municipal wastes, hazardous waste liquids, and both low-level and high-level radioactive wastes is presented. Liner permeability, transport, stability, construction, and design are studied. Laboratory field measurements for specific wastes are included. (Contains a minimum of 213 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Environmental restoration/waste management-applied technology semiannual report, January--June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M.; Kline-Simon, K.

    1992-01-01

    This is the first issue from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of The Environmental Restoration/Waste Management-Applied Technology (ER/WM-AT) Semiannual Report, a continuation of the Advanced Processing Technology (APT) Semiannual Report. The name change reflects the consolidation of the APT Program with the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program to form the Environmental Restoration/Waste Management-Applied Technology (ER/WM-AT) Program. The Livermore site mirrors, on a small scale, many of the environmental and waste management problems of the DOE Complex. The six articles in this issue cover incineration- alternative technologies, process development for waste minimization, the proposed Mixed Waste Management Facility, dynamic underground stripping, electrical resistance tomography, and Raman spectroscopy for remote characterization of underground tanks

  16. Solid waste containing method and solid waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes are filled in a sealed vessel, and support spacers are inserted to the gap between the inner wall of a vessel main body and the solid wastes. The solid wastes comprise shorn pieces (crushed pieces) of spent fuel rod cladding tubes, radioactively contaminated metal pieces and miscellaneous solids pressed into a disk-like shape. The sealed vessel comprises, for example, a stainless steel. The solid wastes are filled while being stacked in a plurality of stages. A solidifying filler is filled into the gap between the inner wall and the solid wastes in the vessel main body by way of an upper opening, and the upper opening is closed by a closing lid to provide an entirely sealed state. Alumina particles having high heat conductivity and excellent heat durability are used for the solid filler. It is preferable to fill an inert gas such as a dried nitrogen gas in the sealed vessel. (I.N.)

  17. Environmentally benign destruction of waste energetic materials (EMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R. L.; Donahue, B. A.

    1998-01-01

    Studies by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers during 1991-1997 involving various methods for the destruction of waste generated by pyrotechnic, explosive and propellant materials are described. The methods assessed and evaluated include controlled incineration (CI), wet air oxidation (WAO), and hydrothermal oxidation (HTO), using a U.S. Army triple-base propellant as the initial common standard for all destructor comparative testing. All three of these methods has special feed line restrictions requiring mechanical diminution and comminution of the energetic material which, for safety reasons, cannot be used with contaminated heterogeneous production wastes. Supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, alkaline hydrolysis, electrolysis and fluid cutting with very high pressure water jets and liquid nitrogen are alternate technologies that were evaluated as pre-treatment for production wastes. Wet air oxidation and electrochemical reduction studies were conducted using the U.S. Navy double propellant NOSIH-AA2, which contains a lead-based ballistic modifier. Wet air oxidation and hydrothermal oxidation studies were done using potassium dinitramide phase-stabilized nitrate as an oxidizer. All of these technologies are considered to be suitable for the environmentally benign destruction of pyrotechnic materials, including fireworks. 17 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  18. Final Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.S.; Borgstrom, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement (HSW EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed waste management practices at the Hanford Site. The HSW EIS updates analyses of environmental consequences from previous documents and provides evaluations for activities that may be implemented consistent with the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) Records of Decision (RODs). Waste types considered in the HSW EIS include operational low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and transuranic (TRU) waste (including TRU mixed waste). MLLW contains chemically hazardous components in addition to radionuclides. Alternatives for management of these wastes at the Hanford Site, including the alternative of No Action, are analyzed in detail. The LLW, MLLW, and TRU waste alternatives are evaluated for a range of waste volumes, representing quantities of waste that could be managed at the Hanford Site. A single maximum forecast volume is evaluated for ILAW. The No Action Alternative considers continuation of ongoing waste management practices at the Hanford Site and ceasing some operations when the limits of existing capabilities are reached. The No Action Alternative provides for continued storage of some waste types. The other alternatives evaluate expanded waste management practices including treatment and disposal of most wastes. The potential environmental consequences of the alternatives are generally similar. The major differences occur with respect to the consequences of disposal versus continued storage and with respect to the range of waste volumes managed under the alternatives. DOE's preferred alternative is to dispose of LLW, MLLW, and ILAW in a single, modular, lined facility near PUREX on Hanford's Central Plateau; to treat MLLW using a combination of onsite and

  19. Pretreatment method for radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes and pretreatment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakaida, Yasuo.

    1996-01-01

    Heretofore, radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes have been discharged directly to a storing and decaying storage vessel to conduct a water draining treatment. In the present invention, the radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes to be discharged are not discharged to the storage vessel directly but injected to a filling tank, as a pretreatment, to distinguish whether proteins are mixed in the liquid wastes or not. When proteins are mixed, miscellaneous materials such as proteins are recovered and removed by a protein processing system. When proteins are not mixed, radioactive iodine is recovered and removed directly by an iodine processing system. With such procedures, water draining treatment in the storing and decaying storage vessel is mitigated, and even when the amount of the radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes is increased, the existent maintaining and decaying storage vessel can be used as it is. Accordingly, a safe water draining treatment with good efficiency can be conducted relative to radioactive iodine-containing liquid wastes at a reduced cost. (T.M.)

  20. 40 CFR 268.35 - Waste specific prohibitions-petroleum refining wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-petroleum refining wastes. 268.35 Section 268.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... generator may use knowledge of the waste. If the waste contains constituents in excess of the applicable...

  1. 40 CFR 268.36 - Waste specific prohibitions-inorganic chemical wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste specific prohibitions-inorganic chemical wastes 268.36 Section 268.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... generator may use knowledge of the waste. If the waste contains regulated constituents in excess of the...

  2. 40 CFR 273.4 - Applicability-Mercury-containing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment. 273.4 Section 273.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.4 Applicability—Mercury...-containing components have been removed. (c) Generation of waste mercury-containing equipment. (1) Used...

  3. Guidance document for the preparation of waste management plans for the Environmental Restoration Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    A project waste management (WM) plan is required for all Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program remedial investigation, decommission and decontamination (D ampersand D), and remedial action (RA) activities. The project WM plan describes the strategy for handling, packaging, treating, transporting, characterizing, storing, and/or disposing of waste produced as part of ORNL ER Program activities. The project WM plan also contains a strategy for ensuring worker and environmental protection during WM activities

  4. Challenges in waste management and environmental restoration in the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, J.

    2011-01-01

    Two components dominate the waste management efforts at conventional Canadian uranium mining and milling operations. These are the waste rock generated in the mining of ore as well as the mill tailings -- which are the residue solids remaining after uranium extraction. Much has changed in the management of these wastes over the years. Visually, current sites are generally more compact than those developed earlier, due to higher grade ores and less land disturbance. However, the more significant strides being made to better manage uranium mining wastes deal more with improved chemical and physical controls rather than those changes which are visible. Segregation of waste rock to separate out potentially problematic material within the more weakly mineralized halo surrounding the ore is now a core strategy. This segregation is based on both the waste rock's chemical and radiological characteristics. Better controls have also been introduced on tailings physical properties to minimize their permeability, along with better chemical controls to minimize tailings contaminant solubility. Efforts to engineer tailings properties are coupled with contrasting hydraulic conductivity between the consolidated tailings mass and surrounding geologic materials. This creates the necessary long-term containment controls built into modern tailings management facilities. Current challenges include selecting the correct decommissioning assumptions such as future land use and required environmental acceptance criteria, along with decisions as to when to carry out reclamation work in the life cycle of the mine and mill. Public discussion of restoration plans throughout the life of the facility is essential to build acceptable solutions. Along with challenges come successes. Most recently, improvements have been made in reducing treated water molybdenum and selenium levels. Other successes include the application of reverse osmosis technology on a large scale, recycling of uranium

  5. Challenges in waste management and environmental restoration in the uranium mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, J. [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Two components dominate the waste management efforts at conventional Canadian uranium mining and milling operations. These are the waste rock generated in the mining of ore as well as the mill tailings -- which are the residue solids remaining after uranium extraction. Much has changed in the management of these wastes over the years. Visually, current sites are generally more compact than those developed earlier, due to higher grade ores and less land disturbance. However, the more significant strides being made to better manage uranium mining wastes deal more with improved chemical and physical controls rather than those changes which are visible. Segregation of waste rock to separate out potentially problematic material within the more weakly mineralized halo surrounding the ore is now a core strategy. This segregation is based on both the waste rock's chemical and radiological characteristics. Better controls have also been introduced on tailings physical properties to minimize their permeability, along with better chemical controls to minimize tailings contaminant solubility. Efforts to engineer tailings properties are coupled with contrasting hydraulic conductivity between the consolidated tailings mass and surrounding geologic materials. This creates the necessary long-term containment controls built into modern tailings management facilities. Current challenges include selecting the correct decommissioning assumptions such as future land use and required environmental acceptance criteria, along with decisions as to when to carry out reclamation work in the life cycle of the mine and mill. Public discussion of restoration plans throughout the life of the facility is essential to build acceptable solutions. Along with challenges come successes. Most recently, improvements have been made in reducing treated water molybdenum and selenium levels. Other successes include the application of reverse osmosis technology on a large scale, recycling of uranium

  6. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for management of defense transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing and implementing methods for the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of radioactive wastes. In connection with this responsibility, the DOE is formulating a program for the long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report has been prepared to document the results of environmental and other evaluations for three decisions that the DOE is considering: (1) the selection of a general method for the long-term management of the buried TRU waste; (2) the selection of a method for processing the stored waste and for processing the buried waste, if it is retrieved; (3) the selection of a location for the waste-processing facility. This document pertains only to the contact-handled TRU waste buried in pits and trenches and the contact-handled TRU waste held in aboveground storage at the INEL. A decision has previously been made on a method for the long-term management of the stored waste; it will be retrieved and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP is also used in this report as a reference repository for evaluation purposes for the buried waste. This report is contained in two volumes. Volume I is arranged as follows: the summary is an overview of the analyses contained in this document. Section 1 is a statement of the underlying purpose and need to which the report is responding. Section 2 describes the alterntives. Section 3 describes the affected environment at the INEL and the WIPP sites. Section 4 analyzes the environmental effects of each alternative. The appendices in Volume II contain data and discussions supporting the material presented in Volume I

  7. Conditions inside Water Pooled in a Failed Nuclear Waste Container and its Effect on Radionuclide Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, L. K.; Walton, J. C.; Woocay, A.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear power use is expected to expand in the future, as part of the global clean energy initiative, to meet the world’s surging energy demand, and attenuate greenhouse gas emissions, which are mainly caused by fossil fuels. As a result, it is estimated that hundreds of thousands of metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will accumulate. SNF disposal has major environmental (radiation exposure) and security (nuclear proliferation) concerns. Storage in unsaturated zone geological repositories is a reasonable solution for dealing with SNF. One of the key factors that determine the performance of the geological repository is the release of radionuclides from the engineered barrier system. Over time, the nuclear waste containers are expected to fail gradually due to general and localized corrosions and eventually infiltrating water will have access to the nuclear waste. Once radionuclides are released, they will be transported by water, and make their way to the accessible environment. Physical and chemical disturbances in the environment over the container will lead to different corrosion rates, causing different times and locations of penetration. One possible scenario for waste packages failure is the bathtub model, where penetrations occur on the top of the waste package and water pools inside it. In this paper the bathtub-type failed waste container is considered. We shed some light on chemical and physical processes that take place in the pooled water inside a partially failed waste container (bathtub category), and the effects of these processes on radionuclide release. Our study considers two possibilities: temperature stratification of the pooled water versus mixing process. Our calculations show that temperature stratification of the pooled water is expected when the waste package is half (or less) filled with water. On the other hand, when the waste package is fully filled (or above half) there will be mixing in the upper part of water. The effect of

  8. DOE model conference on waste management and environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Reports dealing with current topics in waste management and environmental restoration were presented at this conference in six sessions. Session 1 covered the ''Hot Topics'' including regulations and risk assessment. Session 2 dealt with waste reduction and minimization; session 3 dealt with waste treatment and disposal. Session 4 covered site characterization and analysis. Environmental restoration and associated technologies wee discussed in session 5 and 6. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  9. ANSTO's radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  10. Method for solidification of radioactive iodine-containing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Yoshihiro; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Uetake, Naoto.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To process radioactive iodine containing solid wastes as non-leaching solidified wastes with no risk of iodine release. Method: It has been known for the thermal stability of CuI, PbI 2 or adsorbents containing the same that they do not release iodine in an inert gas atmosphere or in a reducing atmosphere at a temperature lower than 480 deg C. In view of the above, adsorbents containing iodine in the chemical form of CuI or PbI 2 , or CuI or powdery PbI 2 per se are sealed and solidified into low melting glass at a temperature of lower than 480 deg C at which no iodine release occurs in a non-oxidative atmosphere. Since the products are vitrified wastes, they scarcely show leaching property and are excellent in durability and stability. (Takahashi, M.)

  11. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Toxic and hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1993-12-01

    This is the second in a series of EUROCOURSES conducted under the title, ''Technologies for Environmental Cleanup.'' To date, the series consist of the following courses: 1992, soils and groundwater; 1993, Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. The 1993 course focuses on recent technological developments in the United States and Europe in the areas of waste management policies and regulations, characterization and monitoring of waste, waste minimization and recycling strategies, thermal treatment technologies, photolytic degradation processes, bioremediation processes, medical waste treatment, waste stabilization processes, catalytic organic destruction technologies, risk analyses, and data bases and information networks. It is intended that this course ill serve as a resource of state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste

  12. Corrosion process studies in a nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, Ruben A.; Lanzani, Liliana A.; Coronel, Pascual; Bruzzoni, Pablo; Semino, Carlos J.

    1999-01-01

    Latest results on corrosion behavior studies on high activity nuclear waste container are reported. Corrosion evaluation on lead base alloys and modeling to predict carbon steel external container cover generalized corrosion, are the main issues of these studies. (author)

  13. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yan; Christensen, Thomas H.; Lu Wenjing; Wu Huayong; Wang Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery. The current system, mainly involving the use of landfills, has manifested significant adverse environmental impacts caused by methane emissions from landfills and many other emissions from transfer stations. A short-term future scenario, where some of the landfills (which soon will reach their capacity because of rising amount of waste in Beijing City) are substituted by incinerators with energy recovery, would not result in significant environmental improvement. This is primarily because of the low calorific value of mixed waste, and it is likely that the incinerators would require significant amounts of auxiliary fuels to support combustion of wet waste. As for the long-term future scenario, efficient source separation of food waste could result in significant environmental improvements, primarily because of increase in calorific value of remaining waste incinerated with energy recovery. Sensitivity analysis emphasized the importance of efficient source separation of food waste, as well as the electricity recovery in incinerators, in order to obtain an environmentally friendly waste management system in Beijing City.

  14. INEL Waste and Environmental Information Integration Project approach and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, L.A.; Fairbourn, P.J.; Randall, V.C.; Riedesel, A.M.

    1994-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information

  15. Design criteria burial containers for non-transuranic solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The criteria, replace HW-83959 and apply to containers constructed specifically for the containment of beta-gamma radioactively contaminated waste removed from an area controlled by radiation work procedures, transported across an uncontrolled area where there is risk of a radiation release to the environs, and buried in an approved radioactive waste burial ground

  16. Acute and chronic environmental effects of clandestine methamphetamine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Lisa N; Knapp, Charles W; Keenan, Helen E

    2014-09-15

    The illicit manufacture of methamphetamine (MAP) produces substantial amounts of hazardous waste that is dumped illegally. This study presents the first environmental evaluation of waste produced from illicit MAP manufacture. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was measured to assess immediate oxygen depletion effects. A mixture of five waste components (10mg/L/chemical) was found to have a COD (130 mg/L) higher than the European Union wastewater discharge regulations (125 mg/L). Two environmental partition coefficients, K(OW) and K(OC), were measured for several chemicals identified in MAP waste. Experimental values were input into a computer fugacity model (EPI Suite™) to estimate environmental fate. Experimental log K(OW) values ranged from -0.98 to 4.91, which were in accordance with computer estimated values. Experimental K(OC) values ranged from 11 to 72, which were much lower than the default computer values. The experimental fugacity model for discharge to water estimates that waste components will remain in the water compartment for 15 to 37 days. Using a combination of laboratory experimentation and computer modelling, the environmental fate of MAP waste products was estimated. While fugacity models using experimental and computational values were very similar, default computer models should not take the place of laboratory experimentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) is a nationwide study examining the environmental impacts of managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes generated by past and future nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites located around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste (LLMW), low-level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRUW), high-level waste (HLW), and hazardous waste (HW)

  18. Environmental impact of PV cell waste scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, M; Pikoń, K; Landrat, M

    2017-12-01

    Rapid growth of the volume of waste from PV cells is expected in the following years. The problem of its utilization seems to be the most important issue for future waste management systems. The environmental impacts of the PV recycling scenario are presented in the manuscript. The analysis is based on the LCA approach and the average data available in specialized databases for silicon standard PV cell is used. The functional unit includes parameters like: efficiency, composition, surface area. The discussion on the environmental impact change due to the location of the PV production and waste processing plants is presented in the manuscript. Additionally, the discussion on the environmental effect of substituting different energy resources with PV cells is presented in the manuscript. The analysis of the PV cell life cycle scenario presented in the article was performed using the SIMA PRO software and data from Ecoinvent 3.0 database together with additional data obtained from other sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DOE model conference on waste management and environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Reports dealing with current topics in waste management and environmental restoration were presented at this conference in six sessions. Session 1 covered the Hot Topics'' including regulations and risk assessment. Session 2 dealt with waste reduction and minimization; session 3 dealt with waste treatment and disposal. Session 4 covered site characterization and analysis. Environmental restoration and associated technologies wee discussed in session 5 and 6. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  20. Collaboration Between Environmental Water Chemistry Students and Hazardous Waste Treatment Specialists on the University of Colorado-Boulder Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Colorado-Boulder is one of a few universities in the country that has a licensed Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF) for hazardous waste on campus. This facility, located on the bottom floor of the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building, allows CU to more economically treat hazardous waste by enabling treatment specialists on staff to safely collect and organize the hazardous waste generated on campus. Hazardous waste is anything that contains a regulated chemical or compound and most chemicals used in engineering labs (e.g., acids, solvents, metal solutions) fall into this category. The EH&S staff is able to treat close almost 33% of the waste from campus and the rest is packed for off-site treatment at various places all over the country for disposal (e.g., Sauget, IL, Port Aurthor, TX). The CU-Boulder campus produced over 50 tons of hazardous waste in 2010 costing over $300,000 in off-campus expenses. The EH&S staff assigns one of over 50 codes to the waste which will determine if the waste can be treated on campus of must be shipped off campus to be disposed of. If the waste can be treated on campus, it will undergo one of three processes: 1) neutralization, 2) UV-ozone oxidation, or 3) ion exchange. If the waste is acidic but contains no heavy metals, the acid is neutralized with sodium hydroxide (a base) and can be disposed "down the drain" to the Boulder Wastewater Treatment Plant. If the waste contains organic compounds and no metals, a UV-ozone oxidation system is used to break down the organic compounds. Silver from photography wastewater can be removed using ion exchange columns. Undergraduate and graduate students worked with the hazardous waste treatment facility at the Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) building on the CU-Boulder campus during the fall of 2011 and fall of 2012. Early in the semester, students receive a tour of the three batch treatment processes the facility is equipped with. Later in the

  1. Environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmentally sound management or ESM has been defined under the Basel Convention as 'taking all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous wastes and other wastes are managed in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such wastes'. An initiative is underway to develop and implement a Canadian Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) regime for both hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials. This ESM regime aims to assure equivalent minimum environmental protection across Canada while respecting regional differences. Cooperation and coordination between the federal government, provinces and territories is essential to the development and implementation of ESM systems since waste management is a shared jurisdiction in Canada. Federally, CEPA 1999 provides an opportunity to improve Environment Canada's ability to ensure that all exports and imports are managed in an environmentally sound manner. CEPA 1999 enabled Environment Canada to establish criteria for environmentally sound management (ESM) that can be applied by importers and exporters in seeking to ensure that wastes and recyclable materials they import or export will be treated in an environmentally sound manner. The ESM regime would include the development of ESM principles, criteria and guidelines relevant to Canada and a procedure for evaluating ESM. It would be developed in full consultation with stakeholders. The timeline for the development and implementation of the ESM regime is anticipated by about 2006. (author)

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no evidence was found of any adverse

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no

  4. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    . To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and wasteto-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide...... a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was doneby integrating...... assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related...

  5. The Welding Effect on Mechanical Strength of Low Level Radioactive Waste Drum Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah; Herlan Martono

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of compactable low level solid waste was started by compaction of 100 liter drum containing the waste using 600 kN hydraulic press in 200 liters drum. The 200 liter drum of waste container containing of compacted waste then immobilized with cement and stored in interm storage. The 200 liter drum of waste container made of carbon steel material to comply with a good mechanical strength request in order to be able to retain the waste content for long period. Welding is a one step in a waste drum container fabrication process that has an opportunity in decreasing these mechanical strength. The research is carried out by welding the waste drum container material sample by electric arc welding. Mechanical strength test carried out by measuring the tensile strength by using the tensile strength machine, hardness test by using Vickers hardness test and microstructure observation by using the optic microscope. The result shows that the welding cause the microstructure changes, its meaning of forming ferro oxide phase on welding area that leads to the brittle material, so that the mechanical strength has a decreasing slightly. Nevertheless the decreasing of mechanical strength is still in the range of safety limit. (author)

  6. Assessment of Environmental Problems and Methods of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the environmental problems and methods of waste management in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually the one produced by human activities in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or on local ...

  7. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lu, Wenjing

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery...... analysis emphasized the importance of efficient source separation of food waste, as well as the electricity recovery in incinerators, in order to obtain an environmentally friendly waste management system in Beijing City....... because of rising amount of waste in Beijing City) are substituted by incinerators with energy recovery, would not result in significant environmental improvement. This is primarily because of the low calorific value of mixed waste, and it is likely that the incinerators would require significant amounts...

  8. Environmental epidemiology, Volume 1: Public health and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 1, represents the first of several planned volumes on the uses of epidemiologic techniques to study environmental public health issues. This text focuses on environmental epidemiology as it relates to hazardous waste in the United States. This study was commissioned by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to examine available data for evidence of adverse health effects on human populations exposed to hazardous waste. The committee was also asked to identify data gaps which were impediments to analyzing hazardous waste health effects and to suggest ways that such environmental health assessments might be improved. The committee's solution to the paucity of data on this issue was to concentrate in this volume on identifying the available, peer-reviewed data and, consequently, the major data gaps. The study opens with a recapitulation of the context of hazardous waste sites in the United States, the approaches currently used by state and federal epidemiologists in analyzing hazardous waste exposure and effects, and candid assessment of the problems associated with environmental exposure assessment. From that context, the committee then presents the data currently available to assess human exposures through air, domestic water consumption, soil, and the food chain. The general focus here is on biomarker data as the date of choice. As with all NAS reports, this one closes with general conclusions and recommendations. Environmental health risk assessors will find this volume a valuable resource

  9. Speciation imperatives for waste management and environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses speciation requirements in the context of problems produced by nuclear energy and nuclear weapons production. These problems are primarily in the areas of waste management, material contamination, and environmental pollution. They pose difficult and important measurement and speciation challenges. Examples of speciation requirements in the context of national and international regulations are presented to exemplify and make quantitative the types of problems posed by waste management, material contamination, and environmental pollution. The importance of identifying species present in the natural environment as well as in wastes from chemical and physical processing and from waste management activities and accidental releases is addressed. Differing speciation requirements for macro and micro concentrations of species are discussed. The role of speciation in modelling studies is discussed. (author)

  10. Northeast Regional environmental impact study: Waste disposal technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguinsin, J. L. S.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for cumulative and interactive environmental impacts associated with the conversion of multiple generating stations in the Northeast is assessed. The estimated quantities and composition of wastes resulting from coal conversion, including ash and SO2 scrubber sludge, are presented. Regulations governing the use of ash and scrubber sludge are identified. Currently available waste disposal schemes are described. The location, capacity, and projected life of present and potential disposal sites in the region are identified. Waste disposal problems, both hazardous and nonhazardous, are evaluated. Environmental regulations within the region as they pertain to coal conversion and as they affect the choice of conversion alternatives are discussed. A regional waste management strategy for solid waste disposal is developed.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (WRES)

    2004-10-25

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  13. Waste feed delivery environmental permits and approvals plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the range of environmental actions, including required permits and other agency approvals, that may affect waste feed delivery (WFD) activities in the Hanford Site's Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This plan expands on the summary level information in the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Program Plan (HNF 1773) to address requirements that are most pertinent to WFD. This plan outlines alternative approaches to satisfying applicable environmental standards, and describes selected strategies for acquiring permits and other approvals needed for WFD to proceed. Appendices at the end of this plan provide preliminary cost and schedule estimates for implementing the selected strategies. The rest of this section summarizes the scope of WFD activities, including important TWRS operating information, and describes in more detail the objectives, structure, and content of this plan

  14. Immobilization of INEL low-level radioactive wastes in ceramic containment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, W.C.; Kelsey, P.V.

    1978-11-01

    INEL low-level radioactive wastes have an overall chemical composition that lends itself to self-containment in a ceramic-based material. Fewer chemical additives would be needed to process the wastes than to process high-level wastes or use a mixture containment method. The resulting forms of waste material could include a basalt-type glass or glass ceramic and a ceramic-type brick. Expected leach resistance is discussed in relationshp to data found in the literature for these materials and appears encouraging. An overview of possible processing steps for the ceramic materials is presented

  15. Educational initiatives in environmental restoration and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Policy-makers responding to the urgency of the demands for a clean environment are finding that America lacks the technical know-how and the pool of technicians, scientists, and engineers to meet the environmental challenges. In response to the need for a technically skilled work force, government agencies and the private sector have worked to assess the probable effect of shortages and have sought ways to prevent the problem. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have historically supported strong linkages between the academic community - the providers of scientists and engineers - and the department - the users of those workers - to assure an adequate supply of appropriately educated technicians, scientists, and engineers to conduct basic and applied research in support of the DOE's mission and to implement that mission. One of the department's challenges is the minimization, management, and cleanup of waste materials generated from departmental operations. The recently published Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan for fiscal years 1992 through 1996 reaffirms DOE's policy of compliance with environmental laws and regulations. It also maps out the newly created Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management's aggressive programs to improve training and education, to arouse interest in pursuit of science/engineering careers, and to place special emphasis on recruiting minorities and women to technical fields vital to the environmental restoration/waste management mission

  16. Radioactive waste containment - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohiuddin, G.

    1985-01-01

    One of the basic requirements of safe radioactive waste disposal is isolation of the radioactive substances to prevent leakage into the biosphere. The multi-barrier concept has been developed to meet this requirement. Within the framework of the concept, barriers can be either natural or man-made. Natural barriers, i.e. geologic formations,have been investigated for their suitability, with host rock and their different properties being determined and compared. It has been found that the qualification of a proposed repository medium cannot be defined on the basis of physical, chemical, and mineralogical criteria alone, but that these data have to be completed by a global evaluation of the entire system consisting of waste products and waste forms, host rock, and surrounding rock. The study in hand reviews the reports and also lists the studies made on engineered barriers, as e.g. immobilisation barriers, container and package barriers, of various waste forms. A review of the studies dealing with the various waste disposal techniques shows that the sub-surface waste disposal and the deep underground disposal in mines are the best developed techniques currently. A review of ultimate disposal concepts adopted abroad shows that most countries favour the mining technology approach, with the exception of Denmark where R and D work in this field is focused on deep well disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Working towards a universal container for category B waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallec, M.

    2002-01-01

    Long-lived, intermediate-level waste, known as category 8 waste, accounts for most long lived waste (> 90%), although it only accounts for a very small fraction of radiotoxicity (< 10%). It comes in a wide variety of forms. The first step to be taken is to classify it into a few families and define a standard management mode for each one. Research teams are therefore seeking to propose a range of universal containers for existing packages and waste still to be conditioned. (author)

  18. Environmental Restoration/Waste Management - applied technology. Semiannual report, July 1992--June 1993, Volume 1, Number 2, and Volume 2, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.W.; Bruner, J.M.; Price, M.E.; Talaber, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration/Waste Management-Applied Technology (ER/WM-AT) Program is developing restoration and waste treatment technologies needed for the ongoing environmental cleanup of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and treatment technologies for wastes generated in the nuclear weapons production complex. These technologies can find application to similar problems nationally and even worldwide. They can be demonstrated at the Livermore site, which mirrors (on a small scale) many of the environmental and waste management problems of the rest of the DOE complex. Their commercialization should speed cleanup, and the scope of the task should make it attractive to US industry. The articles in this semi-annual report cover the following areas: ceramic final forms for residues of mixed waste treatment; treatment of wastes containing sodium nitrate; actinide volatility in thermal oxidation processes; in situ microbial filters for remediating contaminated soils; collaboration with scientists in the former Soviet Union on new ER/WM technologies; and fiber-optic sensors for chlorinated organic solvents

  19. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposl of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) examines the potential environmental and cost impacts of strategic management alternatives for managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes that have resulted and will continue to result from nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste, low-level waste, transuranic waste, high-level waste, and hazardous waste. The WM PEIS provides information on the impacts of various siting alternatives which the Department of Energy (DOE) will use to decide at which sites to locate additional treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for each waste type.Volume II is an integral part of the Office of Environmental Management''s (EM''s) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), which portrays the impacts of EM''s waste management activities at each of the 17 major DOE sites evaluated in the WM PEIS

  20. Salt removal from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), there are 23 waste storage tanks containing high-level radioactive wastes that are to be retired. These tanks contain about 23 million liters of salt and about 10 million liters of sludge, that are to be relocated to new Type III, fully stress-relieved tanks with complete secondary containment. About 19 million liters of salt cake are to be dissolved. Steam jet circulators were originally proposed for the salt dissolution program. However, use of steam jet circulators raised the temperature of the tank contents and caused operating problems. These included increased corrosion risk and required long cooldown periods prior to transfer. Alternative dissolution concepts were investigated. Examination of mechanisms affecting salt dissolution showed that the ability of fresh water to contact the cake surface was the most significant factor influencing dissolution rate. Density driven and mechanical agitation techniques were developed on a bench scale and then were demonstrated in an actual waste tank. Actual waste tank demonstrations were in good agreement with bench-scale experiments at 1/85 scale. The density driven method utilizes simple equipment, but leaves a cake heel in the tank and is hindered by the presence of sludge or Zeolite in the salt cake. Mechanical agitation overcomes the problems found with both steam jet circulators and the density driven technique and is the best method for future waste tank salt removal

  1. The potential for stress corrosion cracking of copper containers in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    1996-09-01

    The potential for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a conceptual Canadian disposal vault has been assessed through a review of the literature and comparison of those environmental factors that cause SCC with the expected disposal environment. Stress-corrosion cracking appears to be an unlikely failure mode for Cu containers in a Canadian disposal vault because of a combination of environmental factors. Most importantly, there is only a relatively short period during which the containers will be undergoing strain when cracking should be possible at all, and then cracking is not expected because of the absence of known SCC agents, such as NH 3 , NO 2 - or organic acids. In addition, other environmental factors will mitigate SCC, namely, the presence of C1 - and its effect on film properties and the limited supply of oxidants. These arguments, to greater or lesser extent, apply to the three major mechanisms proposed for SCC of Cu alloys in aqueous solutions: film-rupture/anodic dissolution, tarnish rupture and film-induced cleavage. Detailed reviews of the SCC literature are presented as Appendices. The literature on the SCC of Cu (>99 wt.% Cu) is reviewed, including studies carried out in a number of countries under nuclear waste disposal conditions. Because of similarities with the behaviour of Cu, the more extensive literature on the SCC of α-brass in ammonia solutions is also reviewed. (author). 140 refs., 3 tabs., 25 figs

  2. Simultaneous treatment of SO2 containing stack gases and waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A process for simultaneously removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and the like and purifying waste water such as derived from domestic sewage is described. A portion of the gas stream and a portion of the waste water, the latter containing dissolved iron and having an acidic pH, are contacted in a closed loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone to effect absorption of the sulfur dioxide into the waste water. A second portion of the gas stream and a second portion of the waste water are controlled in an open loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone. The second portion of the waste water contains a lesser amount of iron than the first portion of the waste water. Contacting in the openloop scrubbing zone is sufficient to acidify the waste water which is then treated to remove solids originally present.

  3. Planning for and managing environmental restoration waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.Q.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used to support the management of environmental restoration (ER) waste. A general description is provided of the tools and techniques that have been developed and applied to produce waste generation forecast data and treatment, storage, and disposal capacity needs. The ER Program can now consistently manage ER waste streams from initial generation through ultimate disposal. Utilizing the valuable information that results from application of strategically planned systems and techniques demonstrates the ability to provide the necessary waste management support for the ER cleanup process

  4. Cement-Polymer Composite Containers for Radioactive Wastes Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.; Bayoumi, T.A.; Saleh, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Improving cement-composite containers using polymer as organic additives was studied extensively. Both unsaturated styrenated polyester (SPE) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were used to fill the pores in cement containers that used for disposal of radioactive wastes. Two different techniques were adopted for the addition of organic polymers based on their viscosity. The low density PMMA was added using impregnation technique. On the other hand high density SPE was mixed with cement paste as a premix process. Predetermined weight of dried borate radioactive powder waste simulate was introduced into the Cement-polymer composite (CPC) container and then closed before subjecting it to leaching characterization. The effect of the organic polymers on the hydration of cement matrix and on the properties of the obtained CPC container has been studied using X-ray diffraction, IR-analysis, thermal effects and weight loss. Porosity, pore parameters and rate of release were also determined. The results obtained showed that for the candidate CPC container positive effect of polymer dominates and an improvement in the retardation rate of PMMA release radionuclides was observed

  5. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCNs) behavior in the thermal destruction process of wastes containing PCNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noma, Y.; Sakai, Shin-ichi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Giraud, R. [DuPont Engineering Technology Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) can compose a mixture of up to 75 congeners and eight CN homologue groups. The large-scale manufacture of PCNs and their main use from 1910 to 1980 as popular industrial compounds become a main source of environmental pollution. The production and use of PCNs were phased out in the US and Europe in the 1980s due to their toxicity and environmental persistence. Although PCNs were also banned for import and manufacture from the year 1979 in Japan, PCN wax was accidentally imported during 1998-2000 to manufacture Neoprene FB polymer, which is a special grade of synthetic rubber product. Rubber belts (FB belts) were made from Neoprene FB and used for the domestic market during 1999-2001. Large efforts recalled all FB polymer as well as finished products containing FB polymer from distribution channels. Most of the remaining finished products in the marketplace will probably be incinerated as wastes after usage in the near future. Therefore, testing was conducted using the thermal testing plant equipment in order to evaluate the emissions from thermal destruction of FB belts containing PCNs, determining TEQ emissions, studying PCNs behavior, considering the mixture effect of FB belts co-incinerated with municipal solid waste (MSW) and examining the effect of two-stage combustion and post-combustion controls. Material balances were analyzed to grasp input and output of PCNs and the destruction behaviors are examined by congener specific analysis of PCNs.

  6. Environmental pollution from solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Krishnan, S.S.; Accetone, P.; Arifin, N.; Ko, M.M.C.; Nhan, C.; Nguyen, L.; Vela, L.; Yee, T.

    1992-01-01

    Research completed under the CRP during the past two years has encompassed several related aspects of environmental problems associated with solid wastes: assessment of major sources of toxic elements in a variety of solid waste forms, their leachability by simulated groundwater or rain/acid rain and the determination of the contribution of hospital incinerator to atmospheric releases. The summary of the findings of these investigations are given in this report. Unexpected high levels of cadmium have been found in many solid wastes. Leaching tests indicate that, in some cases, over 70% of this can be leached out into the nearby waterways. Combustibility tests indicated that 35 to 45% of it is emitted to the atmosphere during burning. This explains the increased levels of cadmium in air particulates sampled downwind from waste incinerators. Plastic items in municipal and hospital wastes were particularly elevated in Cd, Cl, Cr, Ba and Zn. Up to 1300 μg/g of Cd was found in some domestic items. By inference, Pb also is found in some common plastics but the current studies did not permit Pb determination in solid wastes, but only in aerosols. (author). 8 tabs

  7. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting...... was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of −6 to 8mPEMg−1ww...... from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly....

  8. Environmental Behavior's Dirty Secret: The Prevalence of Waste Management in Discussions of Environmental Concern and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Rachelle K.; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Biggar, Matt; Cravens, Amanda E.; Wojcik, Deb

    2016-08-01

    Humankind and the planet face many thorny environmentally related challenges that require a range of responses, including changing behaviors related to transportation, eating habits, purchasing, and myriad other aspects of life. Using data from a 1201-person survey and 14 Community Listening Sessions (CLSs), we explore people's perceptions of and actions taken to protect the environment. Our data indicate a striking prevalence of waste management-related actions. Survey respondents described actions and concerns related to trash, recycling, and composting as the most common environmental behaviors; similarly, participants in CLSs discussed waste-related topics, for which we did not prompt, as frequently as those topics for which we specifically prompted. Explanations for this prevalence emerging from the data include (1) the nature of waste-related behaviors (concrete, supported by infrastructure, simple, compatible with lifestyle); (2) norms and social dynamics (family interactions, feelings of belonging/participation, government policy); and (3) internal psychological processes (internalized norms and environmental concern). We also found that many waste-related discussions were relatively superficial, focusing on immediate waste-related issues (e.g., litter or recycling) rather than larger issues such as consumption. Our results may provide insight into future efforts to encourage pro-environmental behavior. Given that most pro-environmental behavior involves tasks more complex and lifestyle-changing than those related to simple aspects of waste management, we suggest focusing on the latter two intertwined categories that our data suggest are important: encouraging social dynamics and related development of norms concerning environmental behavior (category 2), and fostering internalized norms and environmental concern (category 3).

  9. Incineration of urban solid waste containing radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchin, G.P., E-mail: giulio.ronchin@mail.polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Porta, A.A. [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Incineration of urban solid waste accidentally contaminated by orphan sources or radioactive material is a potential risk for environment and public health. Moreover, production and emission of radioactive fumes can cause a heavy contamination of the plant, leading to important economic detriment. In order to prevent such a hazard, in February 2004 a radiometric portal for detection of radioactive material in incoming waste has been installed at AMSA (Azienda Milanese per i Servizi Ambientali) 'Silla 2' urban solid waste incineration plant of Milan. Radioactive detections performed from installation time up to December 2006 consist entirely of low-activity material contaminated from radiopharmaceuticals (mainly {sup 131}I). In this work an estimate of the dose that would have been committed to population, due to incineration of the radioactive material detected by the radiometric portal, has been evaluated. Furthermore, public health and environmental effects due to incineration of a high-activity source have been estimated. Incineration of the contaminated material detected appears to have negligible effects at all; the evaluated annual collective dose, almost entirely conferred by {sup 131}I, is indeed 0.1 man mSv. Otherwise, incineration of a 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq (1 Ci) source of {sup 137}Cs, assumed as reference accident, could result in a light environmental contamination involving a large area. Although the maximum total dose, owing to inhalation and submersion, committed to a single individual appears to be negligible (less than 10{sup -8} Sv), the environmental contamination leads to a potential important exposure due to ingestion of contaminated foods. With respect to 'Silla 2' plant and to the worst meteorological conditions, the evaluated collective dose results in 0.34 man Sv. Performed analyses have confirmed that radiometric portals, which are today mainly used in foundries, represent a valid public health and environmental

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Draft Supplement Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this supplement to the 1980 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in order to assess the environmental impacts that may occur from the continued development of the WIPP as a minced geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) waste. Since the publication of the FEIS in October 1980, new data collected at the WIPP have led to changes in the understanding of the hydrogeologic characteristics of the area and their potential implications for the long-term performance of the WIPP. In addition, there have been changes in the FEIS Proposed Action and new regulatory requirements. This supplement to the FEIS (SEIS) evaluates the environmental consequences of the Proposed Action as modified since 1980 in light of new data and assumptions. The new information pertains mainly to the geologic and hydrologic systems at the WIPP site and their effect on the long-term performance of the WIPP. The SEIS includes new data indicating that: the permeability of the Salado Formation, the geologic formation in which the WIPP underground facilities are located, is lower than previously believed; the moisture content of the Salado Formation and the consequent brine inflow is higher than previously believed; a higher transmissivity zone is present in the Rustler Formation in the southeastern portion of the WIPP site; and ''salt creep'' (convergence) in the repository occurs faster than previously believed. Volume 2 contains 11 appendices

  11. Environmental and waste management issues, causes, characteristics, and cures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    The department of Energy (DOE) views as one of its most challenging problems the minimization, management, and cleanup of waste materials generated from Departmental operations. The challenges for the DOE have striking similarities to the environmental restoration and waste management challenges associated with energy production and the mining and mineral processing industries. Their challenges relate to uranium mining and the resulting mill tailings; decontamination and decommissioning of facilities; processing of nuclear materials and production of weapons components. Add to this the challenge of environmental restoration solutions for waste disposal practices of the past. The fundamental goal of the DOE is to ensure that risks to human health and safety and to the environment posed by the department's past, present, and future operations are either eliminated to reduced to prescribed levels by the year 2019. To achieve this goal they must be able to assess environmental and health impacts resulting from the low concentrations of contaminants. This paper presents an overview of the causes, characteristics, and cures for these environmental restoration and waste management issues

  12. Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

  13. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2010-01-01

    A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been...... used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste...... fractions. Impact potentials are estimated for 1 tonne of mixed waste disposed off in a conventional landfill with bottom liner, leachate collection and treatment and gas collection and utilization for electricity generation. All the environmental aspects are accounted for 100 years after disposal...

  14. Comparative environmental evaluation of construction waste management through different waste sorting systems in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Uzzal; Wu, Zezhou; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the environmental performance of building construction waste management (CWM) systems in Hong Kong. Life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was applied to evaluate the performance of CWM systems holistically based on primary data collected from two real building construction sites and secondary data obtained from the literature. Different waste recovery rates were applied based on compositions and material flow to assess the influence on the environmental performance of CWM systems. The system boundary includes all stages of the life cycle of building construction waste (including transportation, sorting, public fill or landfill disposal, recovery and reuse, and transformation and valorization into secondary products). A substitutional LCA approach was applied for capturing the environmental gains due to the utilizations of recovered materials. The results showed that the CWM system by using off-site sorting and direct landfilling resulted in significant environmental impacts. However, a considerable net environmental benefit was observed through an on-site sorting system. For example, about 18-30kg CO 2 eq. greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission were induced for managing 1 t of construction waste through off-site sorting and direct landfilling, whereas significant GHGs emission could be potentially avoided (considered as a credit -126 to -182kg CO 2 eq.) for an on-site sorting system due to the higher recycling potential. Although the environmental benefits mainly depend on the waste compositions and their sortability, the analysis conducted in this study can serve as guidelines to design an effective and resource-efficient building CWM system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  16. Environmental monitoring and radiation protection programs of Novi Han radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoskova, M.; Kostova, M.; Sheherov, L.; Bekiarov, P.; Iovtchev, M.

    2000-01-01

    The system for monitoring and control as an important part of the safety management of the Novi Han Radioactive Waste Repository contains two independent programs: environmental monitoring of the site (controlled area), the restricted access area and the surveillance area (supervised area) of the repository and radiation protection program including personal dosimetric control and indoor dosimetric control of workplaces in the buildings of the repository. The main activities related to the programs implementation are presented

  17. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE's mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies

  18. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-07-07

    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE`s mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies.

  19. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, J.; Chateau, L.; Gin, St.

    2001-01-01

    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. Characterization of hazardous waste residuals from Environmental Restoration Program activities at DOE installations: Waste management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Esposito, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Investigators at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with support from associates at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), have assembled an inventory of the types and volumes of radioactive, toxic or hazardous, and mixed waste likely to be generated over the next 30 years as the US Department of Energy (DOE) implements its nationwide Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The inventory and related analyses are being considered for integration into DOE's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) covering the potential environmental impacts and risks associated with alternative management practices and programs for wastes generated from routine operations. If this happens, the ER-generated waste could be managed under a set of alternatives considered under the PEIS and selected at the end of the current National Environmental Policy Act process

  1. Progress in reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flemming, D; Candler, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:Over the past several years, great progress has been made in understanding and reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes. Our understanding of sea floor impacts has been helped along by new environmental assessment tools such us computer modeling of sea floor deposition of drilling discharges, sediment profile imaging, and in situ sediment toxicity bioassays. To further reduce environmental impacts, new pollution prevention technologies have been developed that can shrink the environmental footprint of offshore drilling. These technologies reduce the total amount of drilling wastes discharged and include cuttings dryers and centrifuges that can reduce the drilling fluid content of drill cuttings to below 10 percent. In conclusion, the oil and gas industry is adopting more environmentally compatible drilling fluids, new environmental assessment tools and pollution prevention technologies that dramatically reduce the amount of drilling wastes discharged. Together, all of these elements have the potential to reduce environmental impacts of offshore drilling

  2. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums containing cemented intermediate level nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffó, Gustavo S.; Farina, Silvia B.; Schulz, Fátima M.; Marotta, Francesca

    2010-10-01

    Cementation processes are used as immobilization techniques for low or intermediate level radioactive waste for economical and safety reasons and for being a simple operation. In particular, ion-exchange resins commonly used for purification of radioactive liquid waste from nuclear reactors are immobilized before being stored to improve the leach resistance of the waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability. Combustible solid radioactive waste can be incinerated and the resulting ashes can also be immobilized before storage. The immobilized resins and ashes are then contained in steel drums that may undergo corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The work described in this paper was aimed at evaluating the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins and incineration ashes containing different concentrations of aggressive species (mostly chloride and sulphate ions). A special type of specimen was designed to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 1 year. The results show the deleterious effect of chloride on the expected lifespan of the waste containers.

  3. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums containing cemented intermediate level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, Gustavo S.; Farina, Silvia B.; Schulz, Fatima M.; Marotta, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Cementation processes are used as immobilization techniques for low or intermediate level radioactive waste for economical and safety reasons and for being a simple operation. In particular, ion-exchange resins commonly used for purification of radioactive liquid waste from nuclear reactors are immobilized before being stored to improve the leach resistance of the waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability. Combustible solid radioactive waste can be incinerated and the resulting ashes can also be immobilized before storage. The immobilized resins and ashes are then contained in steel drums that may undergo corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The work described in this paper was aimed at evaluating the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins and incineration ashes containing different concentrations of aggressive species (mostly chloride and sulphate ions). A special type of specimen was designed to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 1 year. The results show the deleterious effect of chloride on the expected lifespan of the waste containers.

  4. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO2-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  5. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg -1 ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg -1 ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  6. Mercury recovery from mercury-containing wastes using a vacuum thermal desorption system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Rim; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2017-02-01

    Mercury (Hg)-containing waste from various industrial facilities is commonly treated by incineration or stabilization/solidification and retained in a landfill at a managed site. However, when highly concentrated Hg waste is treated using these methods, Hg is released into the atmosphere and soil environment. To eliminate these risks, Hg recovery technology using thermal treatment has been developed and commercialized to recover Hg from Hg-containing waste for safe disposal. Therefore, we developed Hg recovery equipment to treat Hg-containing waste under a vacuum of 6.67kPa (abs) at 400°C and recover the Hg. In addition, the dust generated from the waste was separated by controlling the temperature of the dust filtration unit to 230°C. Additionally, water and Hg vapors were condensed in a condensation unit. The Hg removal rate after waste treatment was 96.75%, and the Hg recovery rate as elemental Hg was 75.23%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The consequences of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project: Report of the DOE/Nevada Independent Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Hansen, W.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) convened a panel of independent scientists to assess the performance impact of shallow burial of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, in light of a transportation incident in December 1997 involving this waste stream. The Fernald waste has been transported to the Nevada Test Site and disposed in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) since 1993. A separate DOE investigation of the incident established that the waste has been buried in stress-fractured metal boxes, and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high-volumetric water contents). The Independent Panel was charged with determining whether disposition of this waste in the Area 5 RWMS has impacted the conclusions of a previously completed performance assessment in which the site was judged to meet required performance objectives. To assess the performance impact on Area 5, the panel members developed a series of questions. The three areas addressed in these questions were (1) reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) excess moisture in the waste. The panel has concluded that there is no performance impact from reduced container integrity--no performance is allocated to the container in the conservative assumptions used in performance assessment. Similarly, the process controlling post-closure subsidence results primarily from void space within and between containers, and the container is assumed to degrade and collapse within 100 years

  8. Trends in U.S.A. on environmental assessment of the common industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    1994-01-01

    In Japan, the waste materials are divided to two parts of radioactive wastes and common wastes according to the law on treatment and cleaning of the wastes, and the latter is divided further to two parts of life type wastes and business type wastes. Among them, a part of wastes called the industrial wastes in the business wastes causes some troubles. In Japan, maintenance of approval level of the wastes treatment was conducted by selection of treating method due to feature of the wastes, selection of treating matters due to the treating site and method, and environmental assessment of each treatment project program. However, in U.S.A., regulation on environmental impact due to various human actions has been executed since 1960, and environmental assessment is controlled by a law. And, regulations on the wastes, the treating facilities and the formed pollution were also determined by laws. Furthermore, technical field of the environmental assessment is already executed in U.S.A. but some parts are not in Japan. On the evaluation method, there are some differences between in U.S.A. and in Japan, but are some common points in technical informations, estimating methods and so on, where future technical cooperations and movements between them in environmental assessment on both common industrial wastes and high level radioactive wastes. (G.K.)

  9. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  10. Development of advanced treatment technologies of radio-aqueous waste by an environmental friendly decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Wook; Lee, E. H.; Moon, J. K. and others

    2006-01-15

    This project was aimed at the technology developments of electrode fabrication, electrolytic reactor design and fabrication, electrolytic processes and the analyses of electroytic reaction mechanisms, which were essential elements for the development of electrolytic systems to decompose or teat environmentally- friendly the several salts contained in waste solutions which are to be generated in the fields of nuclear/non-nuclear industries. Major research items carried our in this project were as follows; - Development of technologies to choose and fabricate the anodes and cathodes for the treatments of waste solutions containing nitrogen compounds and organics. - Development of a membrane electrolyzer stacked by mono-polar unit cells with independent series flow path of electrolytes - Development of an electrolyzer with a self-pH adjustment and an electrolytic process for ammonia decomposition by using the electrolyzer - Analysis of electrolytic reaction mechanism of ammonia - Development of an ion exchange membrane electrolyzer with only one discharge of pH-controlled electrolyte solution - Development of electrolytic dechlorination technology for the treatment of chloride molten salt waste salt from pyroprocess. - Development of technologies for treatment of high concentration nitric acid and recovery of waste organic solvent.

  11. Environmental control aspects for fabrication, reprocessing and waste disposal of alternative LWR and LMFBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.M.; Lewallen, M.A.; McNair, G.W.

    1979-11-01

    Environmental control aspects of alternative fuel cycles have been analyzed by evaluating fabrication, reprocessing, and waste disposal operations. Various indices have been used to assess potential environmental control requirements. For the fabrication and reprocessing operations, 50-year dose commitments were used. Waste disposal was evaluated by comparing projected nuclide concentrations in ground water at various time periods with maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs). Three different fabrication plants were analyzed: a fuel fabrication plant (FFP) to produce low-activity uranium and uranium-thorium fuel rods; a plutonium fuel refabrication plant (PFRFP) to produce plutonium-uranium and plutonium-thorium fuel rods; and a uranium fuel refabrication plant (UFRFP) to produce fuel rods containing the high-activity isotopes 232 U and 233 U. Each plant's dose commitments are discussed separately. Source terms for the analysis of effluents from the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) were calculated using the fuel burnup codes LEOPARD, CINDER and ORIGEN. Effluent quantities are estimated for each fuel type. Bedded salt was chosen for the waste repository analysis. The repository site is modeled on the Waste Isolation Pilot Program site in New Mexico. Wastes assumed to be stored in the repository include high-level vitrified waste from the FRP, packaged fuel residue from the FRP, and transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes from the FFP, PFRFP, and UFRFP. The potential environmental significance was determined by estimating the ground-water concentrations of the various nuclides over a time span of a million years. The MPC for each nuclide was used along with the estimated ground-water concentration to generate a biohazard index for the comparison among fuel compositions

  12. Characterization of cement and bitumen waste forms containing simulated low-level waste incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Incinerator ash from the combustion of general trash and ion exchange resins was immobilized in cement and bitumen. Tests were conducted on the resulting waste forms to provide a data base for the acceptability of actual low-level waste forms. The testing was done in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Position on Waste Form. Bitumen had a measured compressive strength of 130 psi and a leachability index of 13 as measured with the ANS 16.1 leach test procedure. Cement demonstrated a compressive strength of 1400 psi and a leachability index of 7. Both waste forms easily exceed the minimum compressive strength of 50 psi and leachability index of 6 specified in the Technical Position. Irradiation to 10 8 Rad and exposure to 31 thermal cycles ranging from +60 0 ) to -30 0 C did not significantly impact these properties. Neither waste form supported bacterial or fungal growth as measured with ASTM G21 and G22 procedures. However, there is some indication of biodegradation due to co-metabolic processes. Concentration of organic complexants in leachates of the ash, cement and bitumen were too low to significantly affect the release of radionuclides from the waste forms. Neither bitumen nor cement containing incinerator ash caused any corrosion or degradation of potential container materials including steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. However, moist ash did cause corrosion of the steel

  13. Proposed integrated hazardous waste disposal facility. Public environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This Public Environmental Report describes a proposal by the Health Department of Western Australia to establish a disposal facility for certain hazardous wastes and seeks comments from governments agencies and the public that will assist the EPA to make its recommendations to. The facility would only be used for wastes generated in Western Australia.The proposal specifically includes: a high temperature incinerator for the disposal of organo-chlorines (including agricultural chemicals and PCBs), and other intractable wastes for which this is the optimum disposal method; an area for the burial (after any appropriate conditioning) of low level radioactive intractable wastes arising from the processing of mineral sands (including monazite, ilmenite and zircon) and phosphate rock. Detailed information is presented on those wastes which are currently identified as requiring disposal at the facility.The proposed facility will also be suitable for the disposal of other intractable wastes including radioactive wastes (from industry, medicine and research) and other solid intractable wastes of a chemical nature including spent catalysts etc. Proposals to dispose of these other wastes at this facility in the future will be referred to the Environmental Protection Authority for separate assessment

  14. Characteristics of metal waste forms containing technetium and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortner, J.A.; Kropf, A.J.; Ebert, W.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    2 prototype alloys: RAW-1(Tc) and RAW-2(UTc) suitable for a wide range of waste stream compositions are being evaluated to support development of a waste form degradation model that can be used to calculate radionuclide source terms for a range of waste form compositions and disposal environments. Tests and analyses to support formulation of waste forms and development of the degradation model include detailed characterizations of the constituent phases using SEM/EDS and TEM, electrochemical tests to quantify the oxidation behavior and kinetics of the individual and coupled phases under a wide range of environmental conditions, and corrosion tests to measure the gross release kinetics of radionuclides under aggressive test conditions.

  15. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste is produced at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) during the recovery of spent highly enriched nuclear fuels. Liquid waste is stored safely in doubly contained tanks made of steel. The liquid waste is calcined to a solid and stored safely in a retrievable form in doubly contained underground bins. The calcine can be treated further or left untreated in anticipation of ultimate storage. Fluidized bed calcination has been applied to many kinds of high-level waste. The environmental impact of high-level waste management at the ICcP has been negligible and should continue to be negligible. 13 refs

  16. In-situ containment of buried waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Heiser, J.; Stewart, W.; Phillips, S.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to further develop close-coupled barrier technology for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and chemically resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of issues concerning barriers and barrier materials to a pilot-scale, multiple individual column injections at Sandia National Labs (SNL) to full scale demonstration. The feasibility of this barrier concept was successfully proven in a full scale 'cold test' demonstration at Hanford, WA. Consequently, a full scale deployment of the technology was conducted at an actual environmental restoration site at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), Long Island, NY. This paper discusses the installation and performance of a technology deployment implemented at OU-1 an Environmental Restoration Site located at BNL

  17. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste shipping package/container identification and requirements study. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyacke, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies a variety of shipping packages (also referred to as casks) and waste containers currently available or being developed that could be used for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level waste (LLW). Since GTCC LLW varies greatly in size, shape, and activity levels, the casks and waste containers that could be used range in size from small, to accommodate a single sealed radiation source, to very large-capacity casks/canisters used to transport or dry-store highly radioactive spent fuel. In some cases, the waste containers may serve directly as shipping packages, while in other cases, the containers would need to be placed in a transport cask. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed that the generator is responsible for transporting the waste to a Department of Energy (DOE) storage, treatment, or disposal facility. Unless DOE establishes specific acceptance criteria, the receiving facility would need the capability to accept any of the casks and waste containers identified in this report. In identifying potential casks and waste containers, no consideration was given to their adequacy relative to handling, storage, treatment, and disposal. Those considerations must be addressed separately as the capabilities of the receiving facility and the handling requirements and operations are better understood.

  18. Site specific plan. [Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.; Jernigan, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) covers the period for FY 1989 through FY 1995. The plan establishes a Department of Energy -- Headquarters (DOE-HQ) agenda for cleanup and compliance against which overall progress can be measured. The FYP covers three areas: Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Operations. Corrective Activities are those activities necessary to bring active or standby facilities into compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. Environmental restoration activities include the assessment and cleanup of surplus facilities and inactive waste sites. Waste management operations includes the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes which are generated as a result of ongoing operations. This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show how environmental restoration and waste management activities that were identified during the preparation of the FYP will be implemented, tracked, and reported. The SSP describes DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) and operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), organizations that are responsible, for undertaking the activities identified in this plan. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. 8 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Method and apparatus for disposing a radioactive waste container to submarine bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Shoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To completely eliminate a danger occurred by the rolling of a hull in the ocean in a method and apparatus for disposing radioactive waste container to submarine bottom by independently handling the radioactive waste containers when loading the container in a compartment carried on a barge and sinking the containers together with the compartment to the submarine bottom at its disposing time. Method: Radioactive waste containers are carried into a compartment loaded on a barge floating completely, and the barge is then applied with external force thereto by a ship or the like and sailed to the marine disposal area. Then, water is filled in the ballast tank of the barge to submerge the barge, the compartment is floated and separated from the containers, and water is charged into the compartment to sink the compartment. (Aizawa, K.)

  20. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  1. Utilization of crushed radioactive concrete for mortar to fill waste container void space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko; Oguri, Daiichiro; Ueki, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Minimizing the volume of radioactive waste generated during dismantling of nuclear power plants is a matter of great importance. In Japan waste forms buried in a shallow burial disposal facility as low level radioactive waste must be solidified by cement or other materials with adequate strength and must provide no harmful opening. The authors have developed an improved method to minimize radioactive waste volume by utilizing radioactive concrete for fine aggregate for mortars to fill void space in waste containers. Tests were performed with pre-placed concrete waste and with filling mortar using recycled fine aggregate produced from concrete. It was estimated that the improved method substantially increases the waste fill ratio in waste containers, thereby decreasing the total volume of disposal waste. (author)

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE facility that conducts significant environmental protection programs to prepare an Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER). The purpose of the ASER is to summarize environmental data in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts. This ASER not only documents the required data, it also documents new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1994 calendar year. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) (DOE/WIPP 94-024). The EMP defines a comprehensive set of parameters that must be monitored to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radiological and nonradiological activity levels. The baseline radiological surveillance program covers the broader geographic area that encompasses nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Nonradiological studies focus on the area immediately surrounding the WIPP site.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE facility that conducts significant environmental protection programs to prepare an Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER). The purpose of the ASER is to summarize environmental data in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts. This ASER not only documents the required data, it also documents new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1994 calendar year. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) (DOE/WIPP 94-024). The EMP defines a comprehensive set of parameters that must be monitored to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radiological and nonradiological activity levels. The baseline radiological surveillance program covers the broader geographic area that encompasses nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Nonradiological studies focus on the area immediately surrounding the WIPP site

  4. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP)

  7. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - An example of 7 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas H; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-11-01

    An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies. The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering the benefits of recycling of materials and recovering and utilization of energy. Environmental benefits come from paper recycling and, to a lesser extent, the recycling of metals and glass. Waste-to-energy plants can lead to an environmental load (as in France) or a saving (Germany and Denmark), depending mainly on the composition of the energy being substituted. Sensitivity analysis and a data quality assessment identified a range of critical parameters, suggesting from where better data should be obtained. The study concluded that household waste management is environmentally the best in European countries with a minimum reliance on landfilling, also induced by the implementation of the Waste Hierarchy, though environmental performance does not correlate clearly with the rate of material recycling. From an environmental point of view, this calls for a change in the waste management paradigm, with less focus on where the waste is routed and more of a focus on the quality and utilization of recovered materials and energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of cyanide-contained Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheglov, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    This work contains results of theoretical and experimental investigations of possibility to apply industrial ionites of different kinds for recovering complex cyanide of some d-elements (Cu, Zn, an dso on) and free CN-ions with purpose to develop technology and unit for plating plant waste water treatment. Finally, on basis of experimental data about equilibrium kinetic and dynamic characteristic of the sorption in model solutions, strong base anionite in CN- and OH-forms was chosen. This anionite has the best values of operational sorption uptake. Recommendations of using the anionite have been developed for real cyanide-contained wastewater treatment

  9. Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling free convection heat transfer in a cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rock. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters just below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3-4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions. The borehole wall temperature history has been found in the previous study, and was estimated to reach a maximum temperature of about 218 degrees C after 18 years from the emplacement. The temperature history of the rock surface is then used for the air-gap simulation. The problem includes convection and radiation heat transfer in a vertical enclosure. This paper will present the results of the convection in the air-gap over one thousand years after the containers' emplacement. During this long simulation period it was also observed that a multi-cellular air flow pattern can be generated in the air gap

  10. Preliminary assessment of the controlled release of radionuclides from waste packages containing borosilicate waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Apted, M.J.; Engle, D.W.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the release-rate for an engineered barriers subsystem (EBS) containing waste packages of defense high-level waste borosilicate glass at geochemical and hydrological conditions similar to the those at Yucca Mountain. The relationship between the proposed Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) test of glass- dissolution rate and compliance with the NRC's release-rate criterion is also evaluated. Calculations are reported for three hierarchical levels: EBS analysis, waste-package analysis, and waste-glass analysis. The following conclusions identify those factors that most acutely affect the magnitude of, or uncertainty in, release-rate performance

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, 'Environmental Standards for Management and Storage'; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] 7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. 300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. 2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  12. Urban observatories opportunities for environmental monitoring: solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Caldelas, R I; Corona Zambrano, E A

    2008-01-01

    Towns concentrate around 50% of world-wide population and the trend is oriented to underscore an urban profile of population. In addition, towns have become important for their economic contribution to the Gross Internal Product. The negative side of towns is the environmental and social impacts as a result of productive and domestic activities, besides the lack of available data. In order to overcome these shortcomings, the United Nations has established a project of urban monitoring throughout the Global Network of Urban Observatories; Mexico joined the project in 2005. The Local Urban Observatory of Mexicali has the task to produce information about cities that is useful to design public policies. Some of this information deals with a set of environmental indicators in the United Nations Habitat Agenda, which includes solid wastes. Therefore, this paper deals with two main topics; firstly, from the Habitat Agenda, a comparative urban analysis of waste production and coverage of domestic waste collection services; secondly, from the Local Agenda, the identification and ranking of environmental problems according to public perception coming from people involved in the municipal planning and decision making process. Results will be used to develop local indicators and public environmental policies.

  13. Nuclear waste: Department of Energy's Transuranic Waste Disposal Plan needs revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Transuranic waste consists of discarded tools, rags, machinery, paper, sheet metal, and glass containing man-made radioactive elements that can be dangerous if inhaled, ingested, or absorbed into the body through an open wound. GAO found that the Defense Waste Management Plan does not provide the Congress with complete inventory and cost data or details on environmental and safety issues related to the permanent disposal of TRU waste; the Plan's $2.8 billion costs are understated by at least $300 million. Further, it does not include costs for disposing of buried waste, contaminated soil, and TRU waste that may not be accepted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Lastly, the Plan provides no details on the environmental and safety issues related to the permanent disposal of TRU waste, nor does it discuss the types of or timing for environmental analyses needed before WIPP starts operating

  14. Treatment of low and intermediate aqueous waste containing Cs-137 by chemical precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Marcelo, E.A.; Alamares, A.L.; Junio, J.B.; Dela Cruz, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials in various applications has been increasing since its introduction in the early sixties. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute has established a centralized facility for treating radioactive wastes i.e. aqueous wastes with assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency - Technical Cooperation Programme. Liquid wastes containing Cs-137 are generated from aqueous wastes containing Cs-137 by nickel ferrocyanide precipitation will be presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency treatment in removing Cs-137 from an aqueous effluent. Actual aqueous wastes known to contain Cs-137 were used in the experiments. Low cost and simple nickel ferrocyanide precipitation method with the aid of a flocculant has been selected for the separation of Cs-137 from low and intermediate aqueous waste. By varying the chemical dosage added into the aqueous waste, different decontamination factors were obtained. Hence, the optimum dosage of the chemicals that give the highest decontamination factor can be determined. (author)

  15. Feasibility study using hypothesis testing to demonstrate containment of radionuclides within waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.E.

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to apply methods of statistical hypothesis testing to demonstrate the performance of containers of radioactive waste. The approach involves modeling the failure times of waste containers using Weibull distributions, making strong assumptions about the parameters. A specific objective is to apply methods of statistical hypothesis testing to determine the number of container tests that must be performed in order to control the probability of arriving at the wrong conclusions. An algorithm to determine the required number of containers to be tested with the acceptable number of failures is derived as a function of the distribution parameters, stated probabilities, and the desired waste containment life. Using a set of reference values for the input parameters, sample sizes of containers to be tested are calculated for demonstration purposes. These sample sizes are found to be excessively large, indicating that this hypothesis-testing framework does not provide a feasible approach for demonstrating satisfactory performance of waste packages for exceptionally long time periods

  16. Development of biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    Hazardous chemicals in the environment have received ever increasing attention in recent years. In response to ongoing problems with hazardous waste management, Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976. In 1980, Congress adopted the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly called Superfund to provide for emergency spill response and to clean up closed or inactive hazardous waste sites. Scientists and engineers have begun to respond to the hazardous waste challenge with research and development on treatment of waste streams as well as cleanup of polluted areas. The magnitude of the problem is just now beginning to be understood. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List as of September 13 1985, contained 318 proposed sites and 541 final sites (USEPA, 1985). Estimates of up to 30,000 sites containing hazardous wastes (1,200 to 2,000 of which present a serious threat to public health) have been made (Public Law 96-150). In addition to the large number of sites, the costs of cleanup using available technology are phenomenal. For example, a 10-acre toxic waste site in Ohio is to be cleaned up by removing chemicals from the site and treating the contaminated groundwater. The federal government has already spent more than $7 million to remove the most hazardous wastes and the groundwater decontamination alone is expected to take at least 10 years and cost $12 million. Another example of cleanup costs comes from the State of California Commission for Economic Development which predicts a bright economic future for the state except for the potential outlay of $40 billion for hazardous waste cleanup mandated by federal and state laws.

  17. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO 2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO 2 -eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. - Highlights: • A comprehensive

  18. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso, E-mail: alaranda@unizar.es; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO{sub 2}-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. - Highlights: • A

  19. Hanford site tank waste remediation system programmatic environmental review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haass, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) committed in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Record of Decision (ROD) to perform future National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis at key points in the Program. Each review will address the potential impacts that new information may have on the environmental impacts presented in the TWRS EIS and support an assessment of whether DOE's plans for remediating the tank waste are still pursuing the appropriate plan for remediation or whether adjustments to the program are needed. In response to this commitment, DOE prepared a Supplement Analysis (SA) to support the first of these reevaluations. Subsequent to the completion of the SA, the Phase IB negotiations process with private contractors resulted in several changes to the planned approach. These changes along with other new information regarding the TWRS Program have potential implications for Phase 1 and Phase 2 of tank waste retrieval and waste storage and/or disposal that may influence the environmental impacts of the Phased Implementation alternative. This report focuses on identifying those potential environmental impacts that may require NEPA analysis prior to authorization to begin facility construction and operations

  20. Management of commercial high-level and transuranium-contaminated radioactive wastes. Environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-09-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement is issued to assess the environmental impact of the AEC's program to manage commercial high-level and transuranium-contaminated radioactive wastes. These are the types of commercial radioactive wastes for which AEC custody is required by present or anticipated regulations. The program consists of three basic parts: development of a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) for commercial high-level waste, using existing technology; evaluating geological formations and sites for the development of a Geological Disposal Pilot Plant (GDPP) which would lead to permanent disposal; and providing retrievable storage for the transuranium-contaminated waste pending availability of permanent disposal. Consideration has been given to all environmental aspects of the program, using waste generation projections through the year 2000. Radiological and other impacts of implementing the program are expected to be minimal, but will be discussed in further environmental statements which will support budget actions for specific repositories. The alternatives discussed in this Draft Environmental Statement are presented. (U.S.)

  1. Why energy from waste incineration is an essential component of environmentally responsible waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteous, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the key factors involved in adopting energy from waste incineration (EfWI) as part of a waste management strategy. Incineration means all forms of controlled direct combustion of waste. 'Emerging' technologies, such as gasification, are, in the author's view, 5 to 10 years from proven commercial application. The strict combustion regimen employed and the emissions therefrom are detailed. It is shown that EfWI merits consideration as an integral part of an environmentally responsible and sustainable waste management strategy, where suitable quantities of waste are available

  2. Environmental assessment of waste incineration and alternatives; Miljoevurdering af affaldsforbraending og alternativer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, J.; Fruergaard, T.; Riber, C.; Astrup, T.; Hoejlund Christensen, T.

    2008-06-15

    Life cycle environmental assessment of waste combustion and alternatives were made using the LCA model EASEWASTE. Possible environmental effects for nine effect categories and the resource consumption of fossil fuels through treating 1 ton combustible waste were defined for several waste systems, including waste-only incineration, co-combustion in a fossil-fueled cogeneration plant, and combined biogas and compost production from household waste. The main conclusions of the analyses are: 1) with an optimum location, i.e. in the vicinity to a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration, co-combustion , and combined biogas and compost production are all equal environmentally viable alternatives . 2) Regarding potential toxic impacts in the area of a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration and combined biogas and compost production will result in slightly less net emissions compared to co-combustion because of better flue gas cleaning of heavy metals in incinerators than in power plants. 3) Siting the incinerator in a decentralized natural gas cogeneration area, co-combustion in a cogeneration plant is a better solution. 4) Combined biogas and compost production and waste-only combustion are environmentally equal treatments in all power plant areas. (ln)

  3. Status of containment integrity studies for continued in-tank storage of Hanford defense high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, R.G.; Beitel, G.A.; Mercier, P.F.; Moore, E.L.; Vollert, F.R.

    1978-09-01

    Information is provided on the technical studies that have been implemented for evaluating the containment integrity of the single-shell waste storage tanks. The major areas of study are an analysis of storage tank integrity, a failure mode analysis, and storage tank improvements. Evaluations of tank structural integrity include theoretical studies on static and dynamic load responses, laboratory studies on concrete durability, and experimental studies on the potential for exothermic reactions of salt cake. The structural analyses completed to date show that the tanks are in good condition and have a safety margin against overload. Environmental conditions that could cause a loss of durability are limited to the waste chemicals stored (which do not have access to the concrete). Concern that a salt cake exothermic reaction may initiate a loss of containment is not justifiable based on extensive testing completed. A failure mode analysis of a tank liner failure, a sidewall failure, and a dome collapse shows that no radiologic hazard to man results. Storage tank improvement studies completed show that support of a tank dome is achievable. Secondary containment provided by chemical grouts and bentonite clay slurry walls does not appear promising. It is now estimated that the single-shell tanks will be serviceable for the storage of salt cake waste for decades under currently established operating temperature and load limits

  4. LLNL/YMP Waste Container Fabrication and Closure Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a suitable site for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing and developing the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. This report is a summary of the technical activities for the LLNL/YMP Nuclear Waste Disposal Container Fabrication and Closure Development Project. Candidate welding closure processes were identified in the Phase 1 report. This report discusses Phase 2. Phase 2 of this effort involved laboratory studies to determine the optimum fabrication and closure processes. Because of budget limitations, LLNL narrowed the materials for evaluation in Phase 2 from the original six to four: Alloy 825, CDA 715, CDA 102 (or CDA 122) and CDA 952. Phase 2 studies focused on evaluation of candidate material in conjunction with fabrication and closure processes

  5. Evaluation of doses during the handling and transport of radioactive wastes containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik, I.; Kusovska, Z.; Hanusik, V.; Mrskova, A.; Kapisovsky, V.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive waste products from the nuclear power plants (NPPs) must be isolated from contact with people for very long period of time. Low and intermediate-level waste will be disposed of in Slovakia in specially licensed Regional disposal facility which is located near the NPP Mochovce site. Radioactive waste accumulated in the Jaslovsk. Bohunice site, during the decommissioning process of the NPP A-1 and arising from the NPP V-1 and NPP V-2 operation, will be processed and shipped in standard concrete containers to the Mochovce Regional disposal facility. The treatment centre was build at the NPP Jaslovsk? Bohunice site which is in the trial operation now. It is supposed that radioactive waste containers will be transported by train from the treatment centre Jaslovsk? Bohunice to the site of Radioactive Waste Repository at Mochovce and by truck in the area of repository. To estimate the occupational radiation exposure during the transport the calculations of dose rates from the containers are necessary. The national regulations allow low level of radiation to emanate from the casks and containers. The maximum permissible volume radioactivity of wastes inside the container is limited in such a way that irradiation level should not exceed 2 mGy/h for the contact irradiation level and 0,1 mGy/h at 2-meter distance. MicroShield code was used to analyse shielding and assessing exposure from gamma radiation of containers to people. A radioactive source was conservatively modelled by homogenous mixture of radionuclides with concrete. Standard rectangular volume source and shield geometry is used in model calculations. The activities of the personnel during the transport and storage of containers are analysed and results of the evaluation of external dose rates and effective doses are described. (author)

  6. Corrosion of radioactive waste containers, case of a container made of low allow steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataillon, C.; Musy, C.; Roy, M.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: radioactive waste concept ANDRA, low alloy steel (XC38) container corrosion under representative storage conditions, corrosion rate and passivation effects, micrographic investigations

  7. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  8. Case histories of environmental assessment documents for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocke, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear power programs and policies in the United States have been subject to environmental assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) since 1971. NEPA documentation prepared for programmatic policy decision-making fuel cycle and concurrent federal policy are examined as they relate to radioactive waste management in this paper. Key programmatic environmental impact statements that address radioactive waste management include: the Atomic Energy Commission document on management of commercial high level and transuranium-contaminated radioactive waste, which focussed on development of engineered retrievable surface storage facilities (RSSF); the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) document on use of recycled plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors, which focussed on plutonium recycle and RSSF; the NRC statement on handling of spent light water power reactor fuel, which focussed on spent fuel storage; and the Department of Energy (DOE) statement on management of commercially generated radioactive wastes, which focussed on development of deep geologic repositories. DOE is currently pursuing the deep geologic repository option, with monitored retrievable storage as a secondary option

  9. Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Babu, Balakrishnan; Parande, Anand Kuber; Ahmed Basha, Chiya

    2007-08-01

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste recycling, including a description of how it is generated and classified, strategies and technologies for recovering materials, and new scientific developments related to these activities. Finally, the e-waste recycling industry in India is also discussed.

  10. POLYMER COMPOSITES MODIFIED BY WASTE MATERIALS CONTAINING WOOD FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Dębska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the idea of sustainable development has become one of the most important require-ments of civilization. Development of sustainable construction involves the need for the introduction of innovative technologies and solutions that will combine beneficial economic effects with taking care of the health and comfort of users, reducing the negative impact of the materials on the environment. Composites obtained from the use of waste materials are part of these assumptions. These include modified epoxy mortar containing waste wood fibres, described in this article. The modification consists in the substitution of sand by crushed waste boards, previously used as underlays for panels, in quantities of 0%, 10%, 20%, 35% and 50% by weight, respectively. Composites containing up to 20% of the modifier which were characterized by low water absorption, and good mechanical properties, also retained them after the process of cyclic freezing and thawing.

  11. Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document

  12. Characterisation of concrete containers for radioactive waste in the engineering tranches system at the Yugoslav R.A waste storing center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Peric, A.; Drljaca, J.; Kostadinovic, A.

    1987-10-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste represents 90% of total R.A. waste. It is conditioned into special concrete containers. Since these concrete containers are to protect safely the radioactive waste for 300 years, the selection of materials and precise control of their physical and mechanical properties is very important. In this paper results obtained with some concrete compositions are described. (author)

  13. ERG review of waste package container materials selection and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, D.P.; Perrin, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The October 1984 meeting of the ERG reviewed the waste package container materials selection and corrosion. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by the ERG

  14. Modeling the corrosion of high-level waste containers: CAM-CRM interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Bedrossian, P.J.; McCright, R.D.

    1998-06-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological respository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 825, 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as A516 or Monel 400. At the present time, Alloy C-22 and A516 are favored. This publication addresses the development of models to account for corrosion of Alloy C-22 surfaces exposed directly to the Near Field Environmental (NFE), as well as to the exacerbated conditions in the CAM-CRM crevice

  15. Department of the Navy final environmental impact statement for a container system for the management of naval spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) addresses six general alternative systems for the loading, storage, transport, and possible disposal of naval spent nuclear fuel following examination. This EIS describes environmental impacts of (1) producing and implementing the container systems (including those impacts resulting from the addition of the capability to load the containers covered in this EIS in dry fuel handling facilities at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)); (2) loading of naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility or at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant with subsequent storage at INEL; (3) construction of a storage facility (such as a paved area) at alternative locations at INEL; and (4) loading of containers and their shipment to a geologic repository or to a centralized interim storage site outside the State of Idaho once one becomes available. As indicated in the EIS, the systems and facilities might also be used for handling low-level radiological waste categorized as special case waste. The Navy's preferred alternative for a container system for the management of naval spent fuel is a dual-purpose canister system. The primary benefits of a dual-purpose canister system are efficiencies in container manufacturing and fuel reloading operations, and potential reductions in radiation exposure

  16. Method of processing liquid wastes containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kaname; Shirai, Takamori; Nemoto, Kuniyoshi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Matsuda, Takeshi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the number of solidification products by removing, particularly, Co-60 that is difficult to remove in a radioactive liquid wastes containing a water-soluble chelating agent, by adsorbing Co-60 to a specific chelating agent. Method: Liquid wastes containing radioactive cobalt and water-soluble chelating agent are passed through the layer of less water-soluble chelating agent that forms a complex compound with cobalt in an acidic pH region. Thus, the chelating compound of radioactive cobalt (particularly Co-60) is eliminated by adsorbing the same on a specific chelating agent layer. The chelating agent having Co-60 adsorbed thereon is discarded as it is through the cement- or asphalt-solidification process, whereby the number of solidification products to be generated can significantly be suppressed. (Moriyama, K.)

  17. Multi-method characterization of low-level radioactive waste at two Sandia National Laboratories environmental restoration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E. Jr.; Galloway, R.B.; Dotson, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of multiple characterization methods to radioactive wastes generated by the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Environmental Restoration (ER) Project during the excavation of buried materials at the Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF) and the Radioactive Waste Landfill (RWL). These waste streams include nuclear weapon components and other refuse that are surface contaminated or contain sealed radioactive sources with unknown radioactivity content. Characterization of radioactive constituents in RWL and CWLF waste has been problematic, due primarily to the lack of documented characterization data prior to burial. A second difficulty derives from the limited information that ER project personnel have about weapons component design and testing that was conducted in the early days of the Cold War. To reduce the uncertainties and achieve the best possible waste characterization, the ER Project has applied both project-specific and industry-standard characterization methods that, in combination, serve to define the types and quantities of radionuclide constituents in the waste. The resulting characterization data have been used to develop waste profiles for meeting disposal site waste acceptance criteria

  18. From waste to technology. An environmental acceptable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasaran, O.

    2001-01-01

    Modern thermal waste treatment has the task to produce deposit capable inert products and is able to reduce contaminants emitted to the environment. In addition waste to energy plants enable the recovery of energy by a maximum amount of environmental protection even in the comparison with modern power stations or other industrial plants. Over that, regarding modern technical solutions, today's waste to energy plants can no more be turned on financial reasons [it

  19. Waste management research abstracts vols. 23/24. Information on radioactive waste management research in progress or planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The research abstracts contained in this issue have been collected during recent months and cover the period between March 1994 - June 1998. The abstracts reflect research currently in progress in the field of radioactive waste management: environmental impacts, site selection, decontamination and decommissioning, environmental restoration and legal aspects of radioactive waste management. This issue contains 678 abstracts that present ongoing work in 33 countries and an international organization

  20. Waste management research abstracts vols. 23/24. Information on radioactive waste management research in progress or planned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The research abstracts contained in this issue have been collected during recent months and cover the period between March 1994 - June 1998. The abstracts reflect research currently in progress in the field of radioactive waste management: environmental impacts, site selection, decontamination and decommissioning, environmental restoration and legal aspects of radioactive waste management. This issue contains 678 abstracts that present ongoing work in 33 countries and an international organization.

  1. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-03-01

    A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste fractions. Impact potentials are estimated for 1 tonne of mixed waste disposed off in a conventional landfill with bottom liner, leachate collection and treatment and gas collection and utilization for electricity generation. All the environmental aspects are accounted for 100 years after disposal and several impact categories have been considered, including standard categories, toxicity-related categories and groundwater contamination. Amongst the standard and toxicity-related categories, the highest potential impact is estimated for human toxicity via soil (HTs; 12 mPE/tonne). This is mostly caused by leaching of heavy metals from ashes (e.g. residues from roads cleaning and vacuum cleaning bags), batteries, paper and metals. On the other hand, substantial net environmental savings are estimated for the categories Global Warming (GW; -31 mPE/tonne) and Eco-Toxicity in water chronic (ETwc; -53 mPE/tonne). These savings are mostly determined by the waste fractions characterized by a high content of biogenic carbon (paper, organics, other combustible waste). These savings are due to emissions from energy generation avoided by landfill gas utilization, and by the storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill due to incomplete waste degradation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiolytic gas production from concrete containing Savannah River Plant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the extent of gas production from radiolysis of concrete containing radioactive Savannah River Plant waste, samples of concrete and simulated waste were irradiated by 60 Co gamma rays and 244 Cm alpha particles. Gamma radiolysis simulated radiolysis by beta particles from fission products in the waste. Alpha radiolysis indicated the effect of alpha particles from transuranic isotopes in the waste. With gamma radiolysis, hydrogen was the only significant product; hydrogen reached a steady-state pressure that increased with increasing radiation intensity. Hydrogen was produced faster, and a higher steady-state pressure resulted when an organic set retarder was present. Oxygen that was sealed with the wastes was depleted. Gamma radiolysis also produced nitrous oxide gas when nitrate or nitrite was present in the concrete. With alpha radiolysis, hydrogen and oxygen were produced. Hydrogen did not reach a steady-state pressure at 137 Cs and 90 Sr), hydrogen will reach a steady-state pressure of 8 to 28 psi, and oxygen will be partially consumed. These predictions were confirmed by measurement of gas produced over a short time in a container of concrete and actual SRP waste. The tests with simulated waste also indicated that nitrous oxide may form, but because of the low nitrate or nitrite content of the waste, the maximum pressure of nitrous oxide after 300 years will be 238 Pu and 239 Pu will predominate; the hydrogen and oxygen pressures will increase to >200 psi

  3. Technique for Reduction of Environmental Pollution from Construction Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Klimenko, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the research on the negative impact construction wastes have on the urban environment and construction ecological safety are described. The research results are based on the statistical data and indicators calculated with the use of environmental pollution assessment in the restoration system of urban buildings technical conditions. The technique for the reduction of environmental pollution from construction wastes is scientifically based on the analytic summary of scientific and practical results for ecological safety ensuring at major overhaul and current repairs (reconstruction) of the buildings and structures. It is also based on the practical application of the probability theory method, system analysis and disperse system theory. It is necessary to execute some stages implementing the developed technique to reduce environmental pollution from construction wastes. The stages include various steps starting from information collection to the system formation with optimum performance characteristics which are more resource saving and energy efficient for the accumulation of construction wastes from urban construction units. The following tasks are solved under certain studies: basic data collection about construction wastes accumulation; definition and comparison of technological combinations at each system functional stage intended for the reduction of construction wastes discharge into the environment; assessment criteria calculation of resource saving and energy efficiency; optimum working parameters of each implementation stage are created. The urban construction technique implementation shows that the resource saving criteria are from 55.22% to 88.84%; potential of construction wastes recycling is 450 million tons of construction damaged elements (parts).

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report, for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires DOE facilities, that conduct environmental protection programs, to annually prepare a Site Environmental Report (SER). The purpose of the SER is to provide an abstract of environmental assessments conducted in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit. The content of this SER is not restricted to a synopsis of the required data, in addition, information pertaining to new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1995 calendar year are also included. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). The EMP provides inclusive guidelines implemented to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater. air, soil, and biotic matrices are monitored for an array of radiological and nonradiological factors. The baseline radiological surveillance program encompasses a broader geographic area that includes nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Most elements of nonradiological assessments are conducted within the geographic vicinity of the WIPP site.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report, for calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires DOE facilities, that conduct environmental protection programs, to annually prepare a Site Environmental Report (SER). The purpose of the SER is to provide an abstract of environmental assessments conducted in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit. The content of this SER is not restricted to a synopsis of the required data, in addition, information pertaining to new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1995 calendar year are also included. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). The EMP provides inclusive guidelines implemented to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater. air, soil, and biotic matrices are monitored for an array of radiological and nonradiological factors. The baseline radiological surveillance program encompasses a broader geographic area that includes nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Most elements of nonradiological assessments are conducted within the geographic vicinity of the WIPP site

  6. A holistic approach to the environmental evaluation of food waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Font Vivanco, David; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J

    2017-01-01

    The environmental evaluation of food waste prevention is considered a challenging task due to the globalised nature of the food supply chain and the limitations of existing evaluation tools. The most significant of these is the rebound effect: the associated environmental burdens of substitutive consumption that arises as a result of economic savings made from food waste prevention. This study introduces a holistic approach to addressing these challenges, with a focus on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household food waste in the UK. It uses a hybrid life-cycle assessment model coupled with a highly detailed multi-regional environmentally extended input output analysis to capture environmental impacts across the global food supply chain. The study also takes into consideration the rebound effect, which was modelled using a linear specification of an almost ideal demand system. The study finds that food waste prevention could lead to substantial reductions in GHG emissions in the order of 706-896kg CO 2 -eq. per tonne of food waste, with most of these savings (78%) occurring as a result of avoided food production overseas. The rebound effect may however reduce such GHG savings by up to 60%. These findings provide a deeper insight into our understanding of the environmental impacts of food waste prevention: the study demonstrates the need to adopt a holistic approach when developing food waste prevention policies in order to mitigate the rebound effect and highlight the importance of increasing efficiency across the global food supply chain, particularly in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the Swedish nuclear facilities 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in 1999. A summary of the inspections during 1999 and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given. The inspections during 1999 have focused on the management of liquid discharges and components containing induced activity at some of the nuclear facilities. Also, routines for filing environmental samples, discharge water samples and documents were inspected at all the different nuclear facilities. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  8. A review of the Hanford Site soil corrosion applicable to solid waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, J.R.

    1991-05-01

    The first phase of the assessment of the soil corrosion in the solid waste burial grounds of the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site is completed with this review of both existing information developed at the site and relevant offsite information. Detailed soil corrosion data are needed for several reasons: (1) the possibility of predicting the damage to the containers of the retrievable stored transuranic waste that are under soil cover, (2) the feasibility of forecasting the state of waste containers being retrieved in remedial investigation/feasibility studies, (3) the capability of predicting subsidence of the soil over the waste containers, and (4) the capability of forecasting when stored lead shielding or hazardous chemicals might be exposed to the environment. Because corrosion in soils is dependent on the soil type, site-specific data are required even though offsite data can provide guidance on the type and the approximate extent of corrosion to expect. These data permit rough estimations of the corrosion rates of a variety of materials -- including carbon steels, cast irons, stainless steels, and lead -- in the Hanford Site soils. This report attempts to compile these data to facilitate current estimates of waste container longevity. However, because of the lack of well-documented, site-specific data, it is difficult to provide a definite life expectancy for waste containers and other structures. Consequently, additional data are essential for reliable container life estimates. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Waste Acceptance Decisions and Uncertainty Analysis at the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redus, K. S.; Patterson, J. E.; Hampshire, G. L.; Perkins, A. B.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Attainment Team (AT) routinely provides the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations with Go/No-Go decisions associated with the disposition of over 1.8 million yd3 of low-level radioactive, TSCA, and RCRA hazardous waste. This supply of waste comes from 60+ environmental restoration projects over the next 15 years planned to be dispositioned at the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF WAC AT decision making process is accomplished in four ways: (1) ensure a clearly defined mission and timeframe for accomplishment is established, (2) provide an effective organization structure with trained personnel, (3) have in place a set of waste acceptance decisions and Data Quality Objectives (DQO) for which quantitative measures are required, and (4) use validated risk-based forecasting, decision support, and modeling/simulation tools. We provide a summary of WAC AT structure and performance. We offer suggestions based on lessons learned for effective transfer to other DOE

  10. Waste Acceptance Decisions and Uncertainty Analysis at the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, K. S.; Patterson, J. E.; Hampshire, G. L.; Perkins, A. B.

    2003-02-25

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Attainment Team (AT) routinely provides the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations with Go/No-Go decisions associated with the disposition of over 1.8 million yd3 of low-level radioactive, TSCA, and RCRA hazardous waste. This supply of waste comes from 60+ environmental restoration projects over the next 15 years planned to be dispositioned at the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF WAC AT decision making process is accomplished in four ways: (1) ensure a clearly defined mission and timeframe for accomplishment is established, (2) provide an effective organization structure with trained personnel, (3) have in place a set of waste acceptance decisions and Data Quality Objectives (DQO) for which quantitative measures are required, and (4) use validated risk-based forecasting, decision support, and modeling/simulation tools. We provide a summary of WAC AT structure and performance. We offer suggestions based on lessons learned for effective transfer to other DOE.

  11. Environmental assessment of waste incineration in a life-cycle-perspective (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2008-01-01

    of the wet waste incinerated. Emissions are either process-specific (related to the amount of waste incinerated) or input-specific (related to the composition of the waste incinerated), while mass transfer to solid outputs are governed by transfer coefficients specified by the user. The waste input......A model for life-cycle assessment of waste incinerators is described and applied to a case study for illustrative purposes. As life-cycle thinking becomes more integrated into waste management, quantitative tools for assessing waste management technologies are needed. The presented model...... in identifying the various processes and substances that contributed to environmental loadings as well as to environmental savings. The model was instrumental in demonstrating the importance of the energy recovery system not only for electricity but also heat from the incinerator....

  12. Process equipment waste and process waste liquid collection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The US DOE has prepared an environmental assessment for construction related to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) and Process Waste Liquid (PWL) Collection System Tasks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. This report describes and evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed action (and alternatives). The purpose of the proposed action would be to ensure that the PEW and PWL collection systems, a series of enclosed process hazardous waste, and radioactive waste lines and associated equipment, would be brought into compliance with applicable State and Federal hazardous waste regulations. This would be accomplished primarily by rerouting the lines to stay within the buildings where the lined floors of the cells and corridors would provide secondary containment. Leak detection would be provided via instrumented collection sumps locate din the cells and corridors. Hazardous waste transfer lines that are routed outside buildings will be constructed using pipe-in-pipe techniques with leak detection instrumentation in the interstitial area. The need for the proposed action was identified when a DOE-sponsored Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance assessment of the ICPP facilities found that singly-contained waste lines ran buried in the soil under some of the original facilities. These lines carried wastes with a pH of less than 2.0, which were hazardous waste according to the RCRA standards. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  13. Human health and ecological risks from environmental restoration and waste management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehlman, P.A.; Wollert, D.A.; Phillippi, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodologies for estimating human health and ecological risks resulting from Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE is currently assessing these activities as part of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM-PEIS)

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-12

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, "Environmental Standards for Management and Storage"; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. §§300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. §§2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. §§9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  15. Gas flow in and out of a nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwahlen, E.D.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-05-01

    We analyze the flow of gases out of and into a high-level-waste container in the unsaturated tuff of Yucca Mountain. Containers are expected to fail eventually by localized cracks and penetrations. Even though the penetrations may be small, argon gas initially in the hot container can leak out. As the waste package cools, the pressure inside the container can become less than atmospheric, and air can leak in. 14 C released from the hot fuel-cladding surface can leak out of penetrations, and air inleakage can mobilize additional 14 C and other volatile radioactive species as it oxidizes the fuel cladding and the spent fuel. In an earlier paper we studied the gas flow through container penetrations occurring at the time of emplacement. Here we analyze the flow of gas for various penetration sizes occurring at 300 years. 3 refs., 2 figs

  16. Characteristics of solidified products containing radioactive molten salt waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong-Zun; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Joon-Hyung

    2007-11-01

    The molten salt waste from a pyroprocess to recover uranium and transuranic elements is one of the problematic radioactive wastes to be solidified into a durable wasteform for its final disposal. By using a novel method, named as the GRSS (gel-route stabilization/solidification) method, a molten salt waste was treated to produce a unique wasteform. A borosilicate glass as a chemical binder dissolves the silicate compounds in the gel products to produce one amorphous phase while most of the phosphates are encapsulated by the vitrified phase. Also, Cs in the gel product is preferentially situated in the silicate phase, and it is vitrified into a glassy phase after a heat treatment. The Sr-containing phase is mainly phosphate compounds and encapsulated by the glassy phase. These phenomena could be identified by the static and dynamic leaching test that revealed a high leach resistance of radionuclides. The leach rates were about 10(-3) - 10(-2) g/m2 x day for Cs and 10(-4) - 10(-3) g/m2 x day for Sr, and the leached fractions of them were predicted to be 0.89% and 0.39% at 900 days, respectively. This paper describes the characteristics of a unique wasteform containing a molten salt waste and provides important information on a newly developed immobilization technology for salt wastes, the GRSS method.

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase final supplemental environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) is to provide information on environmental impacts regarding the Department of Energy''s (DOE) proposed disposal operations at WIPP. The Proposed Action describes the treatment and disposal of the Basic inventory of TRU waste over a 35-year period. The Action Alternatives proposed the treatment of the Basic Inventory and an Additional Inventory as well as the transportation of the treated waste to WIPP for disposal over a 150- to 190-year period. The three Action Alternatives include the treatment of TRU waste at consolidation sites to meet WIPP planning-basic Waste Acceptance Criteria, the thermal treatment of TRU waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions, and the treatment of TRU waste by a shred and grout process. SEIS-II evaluates environmental impacts resulting from the various treatment options; the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP using truck, a combination of truck and regular rail service, and a combination of truck and dedicated rail service; and the disposal of this waste in the repository. Evaluated impacts include those to the general environment and to human health. Additional issues associated with the implementation of the alternatives are discussed to provide further understanding of the decisions to be reached and to provide the opportunity for public input on improving DOE''s Environmental Management Program

  18. Radiation-protection standards and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the difficult questions to be addressed in the development of fundamental environmental criteria and standards for radioactive waste management. A short discussion is included of the need to develop more precise definitions of terminology, better conceptualization of long-term problems, and new concepts to express risks from waste management and to evaluate the ability of proposed technical alternatives to control such risks. EPA's plans to develop fundamental environmental criteria and generally applicable environmental radiation-protection standards for waste disposal are summarized. Finally, the principal projects in EPA's planned near-future programs are reviewed in the areas of high-level waste, transuranic solid waste, low-level waste, residual decommissioning waste, ocean disposal, and wastes containing natural radioactivity

  19. Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations

  20. Technical status report on environmental aspects of long-term management of high-level defense waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Since 1944, radioactive wastes have accumulated at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) 1500-km 2 Hanford Site in southeastern Washington, where nine nuclear reactors have produced nuclear materials for National defense. Today, only one production reactor is still operating, but a large inventory of radioactive high-level waste (HLW), the residue from processing the spent fuel to recover plutonium and uranium, remains stored in underground tanks and in metal capsules in water basins. So that this waste will pose no significant threat to the public health and safety, it must be isolated from the biosphere for thousands of years. This document contains an evaluation of environmental impacts of four alternative methods for long-term management of these HLW. The alternatives range from continuing the present action of storing the waste near the surface of the ground to retrieving the waste and disposing of it deep underground in a mined geologic repository. The alternatives are: near-term geologic disposal of stored waste; deferred geologic disposal of in-tank waste; in situ disposal of in-tank waste; and continued present action for stored waste. The environmental impacts of the four alternatives are small relative to that radiation received from natural sources or the available natural resources in the earth

  1. Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State University, North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Stratton, Glenn W [Department of Plant and Animal Sciences and Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3 (Canada); Pincock, James [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4J3 (Canada); Butler, Stephanie [Department of Plant and Animal Sciences and Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3 (Canada); Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A [Mississippi State University, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Nedkov, Nedko K [Research Institute for Roses and Aromatic Crops, 49 Osvobojdenie Blv., Kazanluk (Bulgaria); Gerard, Patrick D [Department of Applied Economics and Statistics, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO{sub 3}-N and NH{sub 4}-N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants.

  2. Wool-waste as organic nutrient source for container-grown plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Stratton, Glenn W.; Pincock, James; Butler, Stephanie; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A.; Nedkov, Nedko K.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2009-01-01

    A container experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that uncomposted wool wastes could be used as nutrient source and growth medium constituent for container-grown plants. The treatments were: (1) rate of wool-waste application (0 or unamended control, 20, 40, 80, and 120 g of wool per 8-in. pot), (2) growth medium constituents [(2.1) wool plus perlite, (2.2) wool plus peat, and (2.3) wool plus peat plus perlite], and (3) plant species (basil and Swiss chard). A single addition of 20, 40, 80, or 120 g of wool-waste to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in pots with growth medium provided four harvests of Swiss chard and five harvests of basil. Total basil yield from the five harvests was 1.6-5 times greater than the total yield from the unamended control, while total Swiss chard yield from the four harvests was 2-5 times greater relative to the respective unamended control. The addition of wool-waste to the growth medium increased Swiss chard and basil tissue N, and NO 3 -N and NH 4 -N in growth medium relative to the unamended control. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis of wool fibers sampled at the end of the experiments indicated various levels of decomposition, with some fibers retaining their original surface structure. Furthermore, most of the wool fibers' surfaces contained significant concentrations of S and much less N, P, or K. SEM/EDX revealed that some plant roots grow directly on wool-waste fibers suggesting either (1) root directional growth towards sites with greater nutrient concentration and/or (2) a possible role for roots or root exudates in wool decomposition. Results from this study suggest that uncomposted wool wastes can be used as soil amendment, growth medium constituent, and nutrient source for container-grown plants.

  3. An assessment methodology of environmental risks associated with radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.M.; Logan, S.E.; Berbano, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    One major environmental concern associated with the projected increase in nuclear power generation is the treatment and storage or disposal of radioactive wastes. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, has been developing a detailed assessment methodology of short- and long-term quantitative risks to the environment resulting from release of radionuclides during all phases of radioactive waste management operations. The paper describes a comprehensive model developed during 1976 for the public health and environmental impacts from the disposal of high-level and transuranic waste in geological formations. Parametric studies have been performed with this model for various geological disposal media and for waste in different forms. EPA has planned to utilize these parametric risk calculations to translate probabilities and consequences of risk occurrences into a cost-effectiveness perspective for decision-making purposes. This comprehensive model consisted of a release or fault-tree model, an environmental model and an economic model. Fault trees have been constructed to provide the relationships between various geophysical, meteorological and man-caused events which are potential mechanisms for release of radioactive material to the environment from waste repositories. The environmental model includes transport to and accumulations at various receptors in the biosphere, including a determination of pathways from environmental input concentrations to radiation dose to man. Finally, the economic results are used to compare and assess the various disposal concepts as a basis for formulating policy decisions. Implementation of this assessment methodology is possible for a whole range of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous materials which require perpetual care. Further, the output will be used by EPA in the short term to develop general environmental standards applicable to any radioactive waste management

  4. An assessment methodology of environmental risks associated with radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.M.; Logan, S.E.; Brebano, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    One of the major environmental concerns associated with the projected increase in nuclear power generation is the treatment and storage or disposal of radioactive wastes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in collaboration with the University of New Mexico has been developing a detailed assessment methodology of both the short-term as well as long-term quantitative risks on the environment resulting from the release of radionuclides during all phases of radioactive waste management operations. This past year a comprehensive model has been developed for the public health and environmental impacts from the disposal of high-level and transuranic waste in geological formations. Parametric studies have been performed with this model for various geological disposal media and for waste in different forms. EPA has planned to utilize these parametric risk calculations to translate probabilities and consequences of risk occurrences into a cost-effectiveness perspective for decision-making purposes. This comprehensive model has consisted of a release or fault tree model, an environmental model, and an economic model. Fault trees have been constructed to provide the relationships between various geophysical, meteorological, and man-caused events which are potential mechanisms for release of radioactive material to the environment from waste repositories. The environmental model includes the transport to and accumulations at various receptors in the biosphere, including a determination of pathways from environmental input concentrations to radiation dose to man. Finally, the economic results are used to compare and assess the various disposal concepts as a basis for formulating policy decisions. Implementation of this assessment methodology is possible for a whole range of both radioactive as well as non-radioactive hazardous materials which require perpetual care. Further, the output will be used by EPA in the short-term to develop general environmental standards

  5. Method of processing liquid waste containing fission product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Kawamura, Fumio; Matsuda, Masami; Komori, Itaru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prepare solidification products of low surface dose by removing cesium which is main radioactive nuclides from re-processing plants. Method: Liquid wastes containing a great amount of fission products are generated accompanying the reprocessing for spent nuclear fuels. After pH adjustment, the liquid wastes are sent to a concentrator to concentrate the dissolved ingredients. The concentrated liquid wastes are pumped to an adsorption tower in which radioactive cesium contributing much to the surface dose is removed. Then, the liquid wastes are sent by way of a surge tank to a mixing tank, in which they are mixed under stirring with solidifying agents such as cements. Then, the mixture is filled in a drum-can and solidified. According to this invention, since radioactive cesium is removed before solidification, it is possible to prepare solidification products at low surface dose and facilitate the handling of the solidification products. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document.

  7. Comprehensive Environmental Management Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjeresen, D.L.; Roybal, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information about Los Alamos National Laboratory's Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan. The topics covered include: waste minimization, waste generation, environmental concerns, public relations of the laboratory, and how this plan will help to answer to the demands of the laboratory as their mission changes

  8. Risks attached to container- and bunker-storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, D. de

    1987-12-01

    The results are presented of a literature study into the risks attached to the two dry-storage options selected by the Dutch Central Organization For Radioactive Waste (COVRA): the container- and the bunker-storage for irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and nuclear waste. Since the COVRA does not make it clear how these concepts should have to be realized, the experiences abroad with dry interim-storage are considered. In particular the Castor-container-storage and the bunker storage proposed in the committee MINSK (Possibilities of Interim-storage in the Netherlands of Irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and Nuclear waste) are studied further in depth. The committee MINSK has performed a study into the technical realizability of various interim-storage facilities, among which a storage in bunkers. (author). 75 refs.; 14 figs.; 16 tabs

  9. Energy recovery from containerized waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, M.R.; Hansen, E.R.; Reese, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for achieving environmentally sound disposal of solid waste in an operating rotary kiln. It comprises: a heated, rotated cylinder containing in-process mineral material, the method comprising the steps of packaging the waste in containers and charging the containerized waste into the kiln to contact the mineral material at a point along the length of the kiln cylinder where the kiln gas temperature is sufficient to decompose volatile components of the waste released upon contact of the waste with the in-process mineral material

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2000-12-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2000-01-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period

  12. Process for denitrating waste solutions containing nitric acid actinides simultaneously separating the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    1984-01-01

    The invention should reduce the acid and nitrate content of waste solutions containing nitric acid as much as possible, should reduce the total salt content of the waste solution, remove the actinides contained in it by precipitation and reduce the α radio-activity in the remaining solution, without having to worry about strong reactions or an increase in the volume of the waste solution. The invention achieves this by mixing the waste solution with diethyl oxalate at room temperature and heating the mixture to at least 80 0 C. (orig.) [de

  13. Radiological dose assessment of Department of Energy Pinellas Plant waste proposed for disposal at Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolof, M.L.; Lee, D.W.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant in Largo, FL is proposing to ship and dispose of hazardous sludge, listed as F006 waste, to the Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc. (Laidlaw) treatment, storage, and disposal facility in Pinewood, South Carolina. This sludge contains radioactive tritium in concentrations of about 28 pCi/g. The objective of this study is to assess the possible radiological impact to workers at the Laidlaw facility and members of the public due to the handling, processing, and burial of the DOE waste containing tritium

  14. Radiological dose assessment of Department of Energy Pinellas Plant waste proposed for disposal at Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolof, M.L.; Lee, D.W.

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant in Largo, FL is proposing to ship and dispose of hazardous sludge, listed as F006 waste, to the Laidlaw Environmental Services of South Carolina, Inc. (Laidlaw) treatment, storage, and disposal facility in Pinewood, South Carolina. This sludge contains radioactive tritium in concentrations of about 28 pCi/g. The objective of this study is to assess the possible radiological impact to workers at the Laidlaw facility and members of the public due to the handling, processing, and burial of the DOE waste containing tritium.

  15. Environment, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Field Organization Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This directory was developed by the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231) from an outgrowth of the Departments efforts to identify and establish the regulatory response lead persons in the Field Organizations. The directory was developed for intemal EH-231 use to identify both the DOE and DOE contractor Field Organizations in the Environment, Environmental Restoration and Waste Management areas. The Field Organization directory is divided into three substantive sections: (1) Environment; (2) Environmental Restoration; and (3) Waste Management which are organized to correspond to the management hierarchy at each Field Organization. The information provided includes the facility name and address, individual managers name, and telephone/fax numbers

  16. Hazardous-waste landfill research, US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomaker, N.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Land Pollution Control Division (LPCD), Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Lab. (HWERL), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has responsibility for research in solid- and hazardous-waste management with respect to land disposal of wastes. To fulfill the responsibility, the LPCD is developing concepts and is documenting the environmental effects of various waste-disposal practices; and is collecting data necessary to support implementation of disposal guidelines mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). This paper presents an overview of the land-disposal research associated with the LPCD hazardous waste program plan and will report the current status of work in the following categorical areas: Hazardous-waste facilities - landfills and surface impoundments; Non-Hazardous waste facilities; and Technology transfer.

  17. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Species in Tank Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Hobbs, David T.; Wang, Li-Qiong; Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum-containing phases represent the most prevalent solids that can appear or disappear during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes such as sludge washing and leaching are designed to dissolve Al-containing phases and thereby minimize the volume of high-level waste glass required to encapsulate radioactive sludges. Unfortunately, waste-processing steps that include evaporation can involve solutions that are supersaturated with respect to cementitious aluminosilicates that result in unwanted precipitation and scale formation. Of all the constituents of tank waste, limited solubility cementitious aluminosilicates have the greatest potential for clogging pipes and transfer lines, fouling highly radioactive components such as ion exchangers, and completely shutting down processing operations. For instance, deposit buildup and clogged drain lines experienced during the tank waste volume-reduction process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) required an evaporator to be shut down in October 1999. The Waste Processing Technology Section of Westinghouse Savannah River Company at SRS now is collaborating with team members from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to verify the thermodynamic stability of aluminosilicate compounds under waste tank conditions in an attempt to solve the deposition and clogging problems. The primary objectives of this study are (1) to understand the major factors controlling precipitation, heterogeneous nucleation, and growth phenomena of relatively insoluble aluminosilicates; (2) to determine the role of organics for inhibiting aluminosilicate formation, and (3) to develop a predictive tool to control precipitation, scale formation, and cementation under tank waste processing conditions. The results of this work will provide crucial information for (1) avoiding problematical sludge processing steps and (2) identifying and developing effective technologies to process retrieved sludges and supernatants before ultimate

  18. Containment of Solid Wastes in some Large Scandinavian Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du-Thinh, Kien

    1998-01-01

    to the geological-geotechnical characteristics of the subsoil of the waste sites which determine to a large extent the risks of infiltration and transport of leachates. The role of the barrier, its design and construction or the consequences arising from the lack of abarrier are dealt with herein. The monitoring......Two kinds of containment of solid wastes - one in the vicinity of Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, another on the outskirts of Gothenburg, the second largest city of sweden - are reviewed in this article. They represent two different approaches to waste management. Special attention is given...

  19. Treatment and minimization of heavy metal-containing wastes 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hager, J.P.; Mishra, B.; Litz, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This symposium was held in conjunction with the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society in Las Vegas, Nevada, February 12--16, 1995. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on treating and minimizing heavy metal-containing wastes. Papers were categorized under the following broad headings: aqueous processing; waste water treatment; thermal processing and stabilization; processing of fly ash, flue dusts, and slags; and processing of lead, mercury, and battery wastes. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  20. Low-level waste management alternatives and analysis in DOE`s programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, J.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The PEIS has been divided into an Environmental Restoration section and a Waste Management section. Each section has a unique set of alternatives. This paper will focus on the waste management alternatives and analysis. The set of alternatives for waste management has been divided into waste categories. These categories are: high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, greater-than-class C and low-level waste from commercial sources, hazardous waste, and spent nuclear fuel. This paper will discuss the alternatives and analytical approach that will be used to evaluate these alternatives for the low-level waste section. Although the same alternatives will be considered for all waste types, the analysis will be performed separately for each waste type. In the sections that follow, information will be provided on waste management configurations, the analysis of waste management alternatives, waste types and locations, facility and transportation activities, the facility and transportation impacts assessment, and the compilation of impacts.

  1. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - an example of 7 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies......An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1 ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste....... The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering...

  2. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  3. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste shipping package/container identification and requirements study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyacke, M.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies a variety of shipping packages (also referred to as casks) and waste containers currently available or being developed that could be used for greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level waste (LLW). Since GTCC LLW varies greatly in size, shape, and activity levels, the casks and waste containers that could be used range in size from small, to accommodate a single sealed radiation source, to very large-capacity casks/canisters used to transport or dry-store highly radioactive spent fuel. In some cases, the waste containers may serve directly as shipping packages, while in other cases, the containers would need to be placed in a transport cask. For the purpose of this report, it is assumed that the generator is responsible for transporting the waste to a Department of Energy (DOE) storage, treatment, or disposal facility. Unless DOE establishes specific acceptance criteria, the receiving facility would need the capability to accept any of the casks and waste containers identified in this report. In identifying potential casks and waste containers, no consideration was given to their adequacy relative to handling, storage, treatment, and disposal. Those considerations must be addressed separately as the capabilities of the receiving facility and the handling requirements and operations are better understood

  4. Lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radionuclides and organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radio nuclides and organics. Lime is wellknown for its use in softening drinking water the treatment of municipal wastewaters. It is becoming important in the treatment of industrial wastewater and liquid inorganic hazardous waste; however, there are many questions regarding the use of lime for the treatment of liquid hazardous waste

  5. Investigations on the populations of introduced and resident micro-organisms in deep repositories and their effects on containment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.; Arme, S.C.; Christofi, N.; Philp, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The present study has sought to establish basic facts concerning the importance of microbial presence in a radioactive waste repository. These are: (1) establishing the presence of microbes in relevant geological formations; (2) defining the importance of isolated groups to radioactive waste containment; (3) establishing the ability of sampled microbes to tolerate repository environmental conditions; (4) conducting preliminary work on microbial ability to influence radionuclide migration characteristics; (5) attempting basic modelling of the effects of micro-organisms on containment and radionuclide migration. Results have shown that micro-organisms of significance (e.g. sulphur cycle bacteria) are present in relevant formations. These groups can tolerate repository conditions and influence migration studies. Their growth, however, would seem to be limited by the nutrient availability. Simple modelling has concentrated on conservative calculations on the constraints of maximum effects of microbial contamination of a high-level waste repository

  6. Waste management, decommissioning and environmental restoration for Canada's nuclear activities. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Society conference on Waste Management, Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration for Canada's Nuclear Activities was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on September 11-14, 2011. The conference provided a forum for discussion of the status and proposed future directions of technical, regularly, environmental, social and economic aspects of radioactive waste management, nuclear facility decommissioning, and environmental restoration activities for Canadian nuclear facilities. The conference included both plenary sessions and sessions devoted to more detailed technical issues. The plenary sessions were focussed on three broad themes: the overall Canadian program; low and intermediate waste; and, international perspectives. Topics of the technical sessions included: OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste; stakeholder interactions; decommissioning projects; uranium mine waste management; used fuel repository - design and safety assessment; federal policies, programs and oversight; regulatory considerations; aboriginal traditional knowledge; geological disposal - CRL site classification; geological disposal - modelling and engineered barriers; Port Hope Area Initiative; waste characterization; LILWM - treatment and processing; decommissioning projects and information management; international experience; environmental remediation; fuel cycles and waste processing.

  7. Nanoporous Glasses for Nuclear Waste Containment

    OpenAIRE

    Woignier, Thierry; Primera, Juan; Reynes, Jerôme

    2016-01-01

    Research is in progress to incorporate nuclear waste in new matrices with high structural stability, resistance to thermal shock, and high chemical durability. Interactions with water are important for materials used as a containment matrix for the radio nuclides. It is indispensable to improve their chemical durability to limit the possible release of radioactive chemical species, if the glass structure is attacked by corrosion. By associating high structural stability and high chemical dura...

  8. Challenges of solid waste management and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of solid waste management and environmental sanitation in Ibadan North ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... inadequate manpower and welfare, poor provision of health services, negative attitudes, ...

  9. Design and testing of wood containers for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.S.; Barry, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    A wood container for shipping and storing radioactive waste was designed to eliminate the problems caused by the weight, cost, and shape of the steel containers previously used. Tests specified by federal regulations (compression, free-drop, penetration, and vibration) were conducted on two of the containers, one loaded to 2500 lb and one loaded to 5000 lb. The 5000-lb container failed the free-drop test, but the 2500-lb container easily passed the tests and therefore qualifies as a Type A container. Its simplicity of design, low weight, and ease in handling have proved to be time-saving and cost-effective

  10. Environmental audits and process flow mapping to assess management of solid waste and wastewater from a healthcare facility: an Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Mentore; Montasser, Waleed; Tudor, Terry; Leone, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    In Europe, there are an increasing number of policy and legislative drivers for a more sustainable approach to the management of natural resources as well as for the mitigation of environmental health risks. However, despite significant progress in recent years, there is still some way to go to achieve circularity of process, as well as risk mitigation within organisations. Using a case study of the Gardone Val Trompia hospital in northern Italy, this manuscript offers a novel holistic examination of strategies to enhance resource efficiency and environmental health within a key sector, i.e. the healthcare sector. Through the use of environmental audits and process flow mapping, trends in waste and wastewater arisings and the associated financial and environmental costs and risks were identified. Recommendations for developing more resource efficient approaches as well as mitigating the environmental and public health risks are suggested. These include strategies for improved resource efficiency (including reduction in the hazardous waste) and reduced environmental impacts during the containment, transport and treatment of the waste.

  11. The management of high level waste and its environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarises the techniques that are used for the management of the radioactive wastes that result from the nuclear generation of electricity and that cannot be released directly into the environment. The quantities and characteristics of the wastes are outlined and a description is given of current and probable future stores and their environmental impact. The research and development programme that is being undertaken to establish the safety and environmental impact of an ultimate repository is discussed and a comparison is made between the activities and toxic potentials of the wastes and those of naturally occurring materials, fossil fuels and fertilisers. It is concluded that the wastes can be managed without undue risk to man or to the environment. (author)

  12. Environmental impact of coal utilization (from raw material to waste resources): Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, K.C.

    1991-10-01

    The proceedings contains 27 papers presented at the conference on environmental impact of coal utilization from raw material to waste resources which was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, during 14-15 January 1991. The conference was held as a follow-up of the research project to study the impact of coal utilization. The project was undertaken jointly by the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay and the University of Western Ontario, Canada. The project was funded by the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa (Canada). The principle themes of the conference were : occurrence of trace elements in coal, fate of trace elements during combustion of coal, characterisation of fly ash and its properties and utilization, and environmental impact of ash disposal. (M.G.B.)

  13. Preliminary environmental impact assessment for the final disposal of vanadium hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Bombuse, D.; Peralta, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is the environmental impact assessment for the final management of vanadium wastes. The assessed practice is proposed as a final solution for a real problem in Cuba, related with the combustion fossil fuel burn in the electric generation. The study case, embrace the interim storage of hazardous wastes with high vanadium contents (5.08 T) and other heavy metals traces (Cr, Zn). According to the Cuban conditions (tacking into account the environmental regulations and infrastructure lack for the hazardous wastes disposal), it was decided the terrestrial dilution as a final disposal way. The environmental impact assessment methodology used, take into account, in the analyzed management practice, the actions, factors and environmental impacts. The positives and more relevant impacts were obtained for the socioeconomic means. The negative and irrelevant impacts were associated to the biotic and abiotic means. Socioeconomic factors were the most affected and the biotic and abiotic factors were less affected. The waste handling was the most relevant environmental action. According to the evaluated conditions, the obtained results showed that is feasible the terrestrial dilution as a sustainability way for the final disposal of vanadium hazardous wastes

  14. Waste management - an integral part of environmental management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Ulrich

    1998-12-01

    To consider waste as a resource instead of an annoyance with which the management has to cope with, has become an unavoidable task for modern managers. The task the management has to take to secure competitiveness in an environment of rising complexity of production processes and further increasing legal requirements, is to manage waste as much as other recourses are managed. Waste has to be considered an aspect of planning and decision process just as business plans or logistics are. Main themes discussed in this publication comprise waste management, implementation of waste management as an integral part of environmental management systems, and management approach to waste - the results. 4 figs.

  15. Passive 3D imaging of nuclear waste containers with Muon Scattering Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J.; Poffley, T.; Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Frazão, L.

    2016-03-01

    The non-invasive imaging of dense objects is of particular interest in the context of nuclear waste management, where it is important to know the contents of waste containers without opening them. Using Muon Scattering Tomography (MST), it is possible to obtain a detailed 3D image of the contents of a waste container on reasonable timescales, showing both the high and low density materials inside. We show the performance of such a method on a Monte Carlo simulation of a dummy waste drum object containing objects of different shapes and materials. The simulation has been tuned with our MST prototype detector performance. In particular, we show that both a tungsten penny of 2 cm radius and 1 cm thickness, and a uranium sheet of 0.5 cm thickness can be clearly identified. We also show the performance of a novel edge finding technique, by which the edges of embedded objects can be identified more precisely than by solely using the imaging method.

  16. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-level Waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-06-30

    The DOE proposes to construct, operate, and decontaminate/decommission a TRU Waste Treatment Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The four waste types that would be treated at the proposed facility would be remote-handled TRU mixed waste sludge, liquid low-level waste associated with the sludge, contact-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids, and remote-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids. The mixed waste sludge and some of the solid waste contain metals regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and may be classified as mixed waste. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with five alternatives--No Action, the Low-Temperature Drying Alternative (Preferred Alternative), the Vitrification Alternative, the Cementation Alternative, and the Treatment and Waste Storage at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Alternative.

  17. Construction Waste Recycling Technologies: How to Define and Assess Their Economic, Environmental and Social Effects by the use of Input-Output Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2012-01-01

    aggregates that due to the less quality are used mainly in road construction and less in buildings. Within the EU FP7 project Advanced Technologies for the Production of Cement and Clean Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste (C2CA), an innovative technology for CDW recycling to clean aggregates......Concrete is one of the most important building materials and it entails a big environmental impact making recycling relevant from an environmental perspective. Recycling of construction and demolition waste (CDW) containing concrete is being performed in the Netherlands resulting in recycled...

  18. Potential use of feebate systems to foster environmentally sound urban waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2004-01-01

    Waste treatment facilities are often shared among different municipalities as a means of managing wastes more efficiently. Usually, management costs are assigned to each municipality depending on the size of the population or total amount of waste produced, regardless of important environmental aspects such as per capita waste generation or achievements in composting or recycling. This paper presents a feebate (fee+rebate) system aimed to foster urban waste reduction and recovery. The proposal suggests that municipalities achieving better results in their waste management performance (from an ecological viewpoint) be recompensated with a rebate obtained from a fee charged to those municipalities that are less environmentally sound. This is a dynamic and flexible instrument that would positively encourage municipalities to reduce waste whilst increasing the recycling

  19. Environmental impact statements: Nuclear-industry waste-disposal and isotope-separation projects. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning draft and final impact statements relating to environmental radiation hazards. Prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and others, these reports examine environmental data affecting DOE decisions on proposed construction and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, radioactive waste disposal facilities and sites, and isotope separation projects. The effects of Federal guidelines and atomic facility location on community awareness is briefly mentioned. (Contains a minimum of 120 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.316 Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment...

  1. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.316 Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment...

  2. Environmental assessment of waste management in Greenland: current practice and potential future developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    ) for a system serving 56 000 inhabitants), but significant environmental loads are caused by air emissions from the incinerators and leachate from the landfills. Several alternative management scenarios were modelled and results show that increased use of incineration, full utilization of the heat production...... for district heating and separation of hazardous waste probably could improve Greenland’s waste management system. Segregation of recyclable materials as paper, cardboard and biowaste will do little to environmentally improve the waste management system due to loss of energy recovery from incineration...... and the long transport of the recyclables to markets. Export of waste to Denmark for incineration at modern waste incinerators with advanced flue gas cleaning could also be considered as a means to achieve better environmental performance of the waste management system....

  3. Savannah River Site Waste Management Final Environmental Impact Statement Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this environmental impact statement is to help DOE decide how to manage over the next 30 years liquid high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, mixed, hazardous, and transuranic wastes generated during 40 years of past operations and on-going activities (including management of wastes received from offsite) at Savannah River Site (SRS) in southwestern South Carolina. The wastes are currently stored at SRS. DOE seeks to dispose of the wastes in a cost-effective manner that protects human health and the environment. In this document, DOE assesses the cumulative environmental impacts of storing, treating, and disposing of the wastes, examines the impacts of alternatives, and identifies measures available to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socio-economic, and the health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

  4. Savannah River Site waste management. Final environmental impact statement - addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this environmental impact statement is to help DOE decide how to manage over the next 30 years liquid high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, mixed, hazardous, and transuranic wastes generated during 40 years of past operations and on-going activities (including management of wastes received from offsite) at Savannah River Site (SRS) in southwestern South Carolina. The wastes are currently stored at SRS. DOE seeks to dispose of the wastes in a cost-effective manner that protects human health and the environment. In this document, DOE assesses the cumulative environmental impacts of storing, treating, and disposing of the wastes, examines the impacts of alternatives, and identifies measures available to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socio-economics, and the health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

  5. Microbial control on decomposition of radionuclides-containing oily waste in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanovskaya, Svetlana; Galitskaya, Polina

    2014-05-01

    The oily wastes are formed annually during extraction, refinement, and transportation of the oil and may cause pollution of the environment. These wastes contain different concentrations of waste oil (40-60%), waste water (30-90%), and mineral particles (5-40%). Some oily wastes also contain naturally occurring radionuclides which were incorporated by water that was pumped up with the oil. For assessment of the hazard level of waste treated soil, not only measurements of contaminants content are needed, because bioavailability of oily components varies with hydrocarbon type, and soil properties. As far as namely microbial communities control the decomposition of organic contaminants, biological indicators have become increasingly important in hazard assessment and the efficiency of remediation process. In this study the decomposition of radionuclides-containing oily waste by soil microbial communities were estimated. Waste samples collected at the Tikchonovskii petroleum production yard (Tatarstan, Russia) were mixed with Haplic greyzem soil at ratio 1:4 and incubated for 120 days. During incubation period, the total hydrocarbon content of the soil mixed with the waste reduced from 156 ± 48 g kg-1 to 54 ± 8 g kg-1 of soil. The concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th were found to be 643 ± 127, 254 ± 56 Bq kg-1 and not changed significantly during incubation. Waste application led to a soil microbial biomass carbon decrease in comparison to control (1.9 times after 1 day and 1.3 times after 120 days of incubation). Microbial respiration increased in the first month of incubation (up to 120% and 160% of control after 1 and 30 days, correspondingly) and decreased to the end of incubation period (74% of control after 120 days). Structure of bacterial community in soil and soil/waste mixture was estimated after 120 days of incubation using SSCP method. The band number decreased in contaminated soil in comparison to untreated soil. Besides, several new dominant DNA

  6. Cellulose-containing Waste and Bituminized Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcke, E.

    2005-01-01

    In Belgium, Medium-Level radioactive Waste (MLW) would be eventually disposed off in an underground repository in a geological formation such as the Boom Clay, which is studied as a reference host rock formation. MLW contains large quantities of non-radioactive chemicals that are released upon contact with pore water. It could be the case, for instance, for plutonium bearing cellulosic waste - such as paper tissues used to clean alpha glove boxes - issued from nuclear fuel fabrication (Belgonucleaire). At high pH, as in a disposal gallery backfilled with cement, the chemical degradation of cellulose will generate water-soluble products that may form strong complexes with actinides such as Am, Pu, Np, and U. This could lower the sorption of these elements onto the clay minerals, and hence increase their migration through the clay barrier. Another chemical perturbation could occur from the 3000 m 3 of so-called Eurobitum bituminised MLW, with precipitation sludges from the chemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel, and containing about 750 tons of NaNO 3 . The presence of NaNO 3 in this waste will give rise to several processes susceptible to affect the safety of the disposal system. Amongst others, it is necessary to verify that the swelling pressure of bitumen on the gallery wall and the osmotic pressure within the near-field are not too high to induce a fissuration of the host rock, leading to the formation of preferential migration pathways. The major objective of our work is to obtain a broad understanding of the different processes induced by the release of non-radioactive chemicals in the clay formation, to assess the chemical compatibility of different MLW forms with the clay

  7. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction: Measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental cleanup is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not controlled, concentrated, and moved from one medium to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in wastewater sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over $2 billion has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to the management and disposal of these wastes. To meet this challenge, the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has explored the value of a multimedia approach by designing an innovative Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model. The model consists of several fundamental elements (Fig. 1) and addresses the two major objectives of data gathering and establishing performance measures. Because the majority of projects are in the remedial investigation phase, the focus is on the prevention of unnecessary generation of investigation-derived waste and multimedia transfers at the source. A state-of-the-art tool developed to support the life-cycle model for meeting these objectives is the Numerical Scoring System (NSS), which is a computerized, user-friendly data base system for information management, designed to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention activities in each phase of the ER Program. This report contains a discussion of the development of the Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model and the role the NSS will play in the pollution prevention programs in the remedial investigation phase of the ER Program at facilities managed by Energy Systems for DOE

  8. Environmental control and waste management system design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Passive device contains both solid and liquid animal waste matter for extended period without being cleaned and without contaminating animal. Constant airflow dries solid waste and evaporates liquid matter. Technique will maintain controlled atmospheric conditions and cage cleanliness during periods of 6 months to 1 year.

  9. Preliminary selection criteria for the Yucca Mountain Project waste package container material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for construction of a geologic repository for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Nuclear Waste Management Project (NWMP) has the responsibility for design, testing, and performance analysis of the waste packages. The design is performed in an iterative manner in three sequential phases (conceptual design, advanced conceptual design, and license application design). An important input to the start of the advanced conceptual design is the selection of the material for the waste containers. The container material is referred to as the 'metal barrier' portion of the waste package, and is the responsibility of the Metal Barrier Selection and Testing task at LLNL. The selection will consist of several steps. First, preliminary, material-independent selection criteria will be established based on the performance goals for the container. Second, a variety of engineering materials will be evaluated against these criteria in a screening process to identify candidate materials. Third, information will be obtained on the performance of the candidate materials, and final selection criteria and quantitative weighting factors will be established based on the waste package design requirements. Finally, the candidate materials will be ranked against these criteria to determine whether they meet the mandated performance requirements, and to provide a comparative score to choose the material for advanced conceptual design activities. This document sets forth the preliminary container material selection criteria to be used in screening candidate materials. 5 refs

  10. Waste management programmatic environmental impact statement methodology for estimating human health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergenback, B.; Blaylock, B.P.; Legg, J.L.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has produced large quantities of radioactive and hazardous waste during years of nuclear weapons production. As a result, a large number of sites across the DOE Complex have become chemically and/or radiologically contaminated. In 1990, the Secretary of Energy charged the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM) with the task of preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS should identify and assess the potential environmental impacts of implementing several integrated Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) alternatives. The determination and integration of appropriate remediation activities and sound waste management practices is vital for ensuring the diminution of adverse human health impacts during site cleanup and waste management programs. This report documents the PEIS risk assessment methodology used to evaluate human health risks posed by WM activities. The methodology presents a programmatic cradle to grave risk assessment for EM program activities. A unit dose approach is used to estimate risks posed by WM activities and is the subject of this document

  11. Hydrothermal waste package interactions with methane-containing basalt groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrothermal waste package interaction tests were conducted with a mixture of crushed glass, basalt, and steel in methane-containing synthetic basalt groundwater. In the absence of gamma radiolysis, methane was found to have little influence on the corrosion behavior of the waste package constituents. Under gamma radiolysis, methane was found to significantly lower the solution oxidation potential when compared to identical tests without methane. In addition, colloidal hydrocarbon polymers that have been produced under the irradiation conditions of these experiments were not formed. The presence of the waste package constituents apparently inhibited the formation of the polymers. However, the mechanism which prevented their formation was not determined

  12. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches

  13. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  14. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R ampersand D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R ampersand D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action

  15. TRU waste characterization chamber gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) is participating in the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Transuranic Waste Program in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Laboratory's support currently consists of intrusive characterization of a selected population of drums containing transuranic waste. This characterization is performed in a complex of alpha containment gloveboxes termed the Waste Characterization Gloveboxes. Made up of the Waste Characterization Chamber, Sample Preparation Glovebox, and the Equipment Repair Glovebox, they were designed as a small production characterization facility for support of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This paper presents salient features of these gloveboxes

  16. Glassceramics obtained from industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimdins, R.; Rozenstrauha, I.; Berzina, L. [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Biomaterials R and D Laboratory, 14/24 Azenes St., LV-1048 Riga (Latvia); Bossert, J.; Buecker, M. [Technisches Institut Materialwissenschaft, Friedrich-Schiller Universitaet, Loebdegraben 32, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    Large areas of Latvia are contaminated with industrial waste: metallurgical slag, fly-ash, etching refuse, peat, and coal ash as well as glass waste which often contain dangerous substances. From the environmental point of view this waste should be neutralised. As this waste also contains valuable chemical compounds, it can be considered as a raw material for the generation of new materials. One method of utilisation is to produce recycled materials - street plates, decorative tiles, or floor tiles. Dense sintered glassceramics with a water uptake of 0.34-3.23 wt.%, a final density of 2.93-3.05 g/cm{sup 3}, and a bending strength of 80-96 MPa have been created from industrial waste. The mast chemically durable glassceramics contained clay additions. Thus, the material containing only waste had a durability (mass loss) of 3.02% in 0.1 N HCl, while the composition containing 30% clay addition had a durability of 0.2% in 0.1 N HCl.

  17. Tritium containment in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The key environmental control systems that have been identified and are being developed are listed. A brief description of each of the following systems is given: primary process materials, permeation barriers, secondary containment, tritium waste treatment, emergency tritium cleanup, maintenance procedures, and tertiary containment

  18. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  19. Waste management and chemical inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site

  20. Waste management research abstracts No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The eighteenth issue of this publication contains over 750 abstracts from 33 IAEA member countries comprehending various aspects of radioactive waste management. Radioactive waste disposal, processing and storage, geochemical and geological investigations related to waste management, mathematical models and environmental impacts are reviewed

  1. Radiological health review of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0026-D) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, US Department of Energy. Report EEG-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Channell, J.K.; Wofsy, C.; Greenfield, M.A.

    1979-08-01

    This review of radiological health considerations contains a number of concerns, questions and recommendations that should be addressed by the Department of Energy in the final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Using the assumptions contained in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS), the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) calculated a number of radiation doses and the results were found to be in general agreement with those presented in the DEIS. The doses resulting from the operational and long-range releases from WIPP to the general population are no more than a fraction of existing radiation doses to the public. However, there are a number of technical considerations in the assessment of radiation exposure that were not adequately evaluated in the DEIS. They are discussed in this review. A number of additional dosage estimates have been identified that need to be calculated by both DOE and EEG. As the DEIS did not contain estimates of the amounts of radioactivity to be permanently located in the repository, it was necessary to calculate these amounts. Health effects, transportation, waste acceptance criteria, site evaluation, site selection criteria, operational exposure, the experimental waste program, long term radiation releases, retrievability, and decommissioning are the categories of the DEIS which were evaluated

  2. French processes for waste embedding. The use of epoxy resin for waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, X.; Gauthey, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The low- and medium-level wastes generated by nuclear facilities when operating as well as during their decommissioning (dismantling, decontamination, etc.) are embedded for the purpose of obtaining a product suitable for disposal. Due to the varieties of waste produced, it was necessary to resort to multi-purpose techniques to solve problems relating to their embedding. The process for waste embedding in thermosetting polymer (polyester, epoxy) developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and its subsidiary TECHNICATOME is easy to operate and yields excellent results having regard to volume reduction and containment of radioisotopes (particularly caesium). The industrial development of this process has led to the design of small, flexible, fixed or mobile, embedding stations. Examples illustrating the increasing use of this process during facility dismantling are described

  3. Processing method and processing device for liquid waste containing surface active agent and radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Baba, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Ryozo; Yukita, Atsushi.

    1998-01-01

    Washing liquid wastes containing surface active agents and radioactive materials are sent to a deaerating vessel. Ozone is blown into the deaerating vessel. The washing liquid wastes dissolved with ozone are introduced to a UV ray irradiation vessel. UV rays are irradiated to the washing liquid wastes, and hydroxy radicals generated by photodecomposition of dissolved ozone oxidatively decompose surface active agents contained in the washing liquid wastes. The washing liquid wastes discharged from the UV ray irradiation vessel are sent to an activated carbon mixing vessel and mixed with powdery activated carbon. The surface active agents not decomposed in the UV ray irradiation vessel are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Then, the activated carbon and washing liquid wastes are separated by an activated carbon separating/drying device. Radioactive materials (iron oxide and the like) contained in the washing liquid wastes are mostly granular, and they are separated and removed from the washing liquid wastes in the activated carbon separating/drying device. (I.N.)

  4. Russian Containers for Transportation of Solid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified

  5. Water supply, waste water cleaning and waste disposal. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoch, W.

    1994-01-01

    The first part of the book contains fundamentals of chemistry, always having environmental protection in mind. Numerous examples are calculated. The second part gives detailed explanations of the material-scientific and analytical bases of the indispensable resource water and its conditioning, waste water cleaning and sludge treatment. Collection, transport, handling, disposal and recycling of unavoidable wastes and toxic wastes are finally dealt with. (orig./EF) [de

  6. Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required

  7. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-18

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches.

  8. Projection of Environmental Pollutant Emissions From Different Final Waste Disposal Methods Based on Life Cycle Assessment Studies in Qazvin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Torkashvand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the life cycle assessment (LCA method was used to expect the emissions of different environmental pollutants through qualitative and quantitative analyses of solid wastes of Qazvin city in different final disposal methods. Therefore, four scenarios with the following properties considering physical analysis of Qazvin’s solid wastes, the current status of solid waste management in Iran, as well as the future of solid waste management of Qazvin were described. In order to detect the quantity of the solid wastes, the volume-weighted analysis was used and random sampling method was used for physical analysis. Of course, regarding the method of LCA, it contains all stages from solid wastes generation to its disposal. However, since the main aim of this study was final disposal stage, the emissions of pollutants of these stages were ignored. Next, considering the mixture of the solid waste, the amount of pollution stemming from each of final disposal methods from other cities having similar conditions was estimated. The findings of the study showed that weight combination of Qazvin solid wastes is entirely similar to that of other cities. Thus, the results of this study can be applied by decision makers around the country. In scenarios 1 and 2, emission of leachate containing high amounts of COD and BOD is high and also the highest content of nitrate, which can contaminate water and soil resulting in high costs for their management. In scenarios 3 and 4, the amounts of gaseous pollutants, particularly CO2, as well as nitrogen oxides are very high. In conclusion, the LCA methods can effectively contribute to the management of municipal solid wastes (MSW to control environmental pollutants with least expenses.

  9. Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye, Lu; Widjaya, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    Waste from traditional markets in Indonesia is the second largest stream of municipal solid waste after household waste. It has a higher organic fraction and may have greater potential to be managed on a business scale compared to household wastes. The attributed reason is that in general the wastes generated from traditional markets are more uniform, more concentrated and less hazardous than waste from other sources. This paper presents the results of environmental and economic assessments to compare the options available for traditional market waste disposal in Indonesia. The options compared were composting in labour intensive plants, composting in a centralised plant that utilised a simple wheel loader, centralised biogas production and landfill for electricity production. The current open dumping practice was included as the baseline case. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for environmental analysis. All options compared have lower environmental impacts than the current practice of open dumping. The biogas production option has the lowest environmental impacts. A cost-benefit analysis, which considered greenhouse gas savings, was used for the economic assessment. It was found that composting at a centralised plant is the most economically feasible option under the present Indonesian conditions. The approach reported in this study could be applied for 'a pre-feasibility first cut comparison' that includes environmental aspects in a decision-making framework for developing countries even though European emission factors were used

  10. Waste management research abstracts no. 16. Information on radioactive waste programmes in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-11-01

    The research abstracts contained in this issue have been collected during recent months ending August 1985. The abstracts reflect research currently in progress in the field of radioactive waste management: environmental impacts, site selection, decontamination and decommissioning, environmental restoration and legal aspects of radioactive waste management. The abstracts have been printed in the language and in the form of submittal and without any changes other than minor editorial ones.

  11. Waste management research abstracts no. 16. Information on radioactive waste programmes in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The research abstracts contained in this issue have been collected during recent months ending August 1985. The abstracts reflect research currently in progress in the field of radioactive waste management: environmental impacts, site selection, decontamination and decommissioning, environmental restoration and legal aspects of radioactive waste management. The abstracts have been printed in the language and in the form of submittal and without any changes other than minor editorial ones

  12. Method for ultimate disposition of borate containing radioactive wastes by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bege, D.; Faust, H.J.; Puthawala, A.; Stunkel, H.

    1984-01-01

    Method for the ultimate disposition of radioactive wastes by vitrification, in which weak to medium radioactive waste concentrates from borate-containing radioactive liquids are mixed with added glass-forming materials, maximally in a ratio of 1:3, and the mixture heated to obtain a glass-forming melt

  13. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume III of V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) examines the potential environmental and cost impacts of strategic management alternatives for managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes that have resulted and will continue to result from nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste, low-level waste, transuranic waste, high-level waste, and hazardous waste. The WM PEIS provides information on the impacts of various siting alternatives which the Department of Energy (DOE) will use to decide at which sites to locate additional treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for each waste type

  14. Radiolysis effects on fuel corrosion within a failed nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; Shoeshmith, D.W.; Christensen, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of geological disposal of used nuclear f