WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental quality standards

  1. Environmental Quality Standards in the EC-Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirka, Gerhard H.; Burrows, Richard; Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The "combined approach" in the new EC-Water Framework Directive(WFD) consisting of environmental quality standards in addition to emission limit values promises improvements in the quality characteristics of surface water. However, the specification of where in the water body the environmental...... quality standards apply is missing in the WFD. The omission will limit its administrative implementation. A clear mixing zone regulation is needed so that the quality objectives of the WFD are not jeopardized. This need is demonstrated using the examples of point source discharges into rivers and coastal...

  2. Standard Review Plan for Environmental Restoration Program Quality Management Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Manual Environmental Restoration Program Quality System Requirements (QSR) for the Hanford Site, defines all quality requirements governing Hanford Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities. The QSR requires that ER Program participants develop Quality Management Plans (QMPs) that describe how the QSR requirements will be implemented for their assigned scopes of work. This standard review plan (SRP) describes the ER program participant responsibilities for submittal of QMPs to the RL Environmental Restoration Division for review and the RL methodology for performing the reviews of participant QMPS. The SRP serves the following functions: acts as a guide in the development or revision of QMPs to assure that the content is complete and adequate; acts as a checklist to be used by the RL staff in their review of participant QMPs; acts as an index or matrix between the requirements of the QSR and implementing methodologies described in the QMPs; decreases the time and subjectivity of document reviews; and provides a formal, documented method for describing exceptions, modifications, or waivers to established ER Program quality requirements

  3. The hazardous priority substances in Italy: National rules and environmental quality standard in marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, Chiara; Onorati, Fulvio; Lamberti, Claudia Virno; Cicero, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Article number 16 of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC) lays down the community strategy for establishment of harmonised quality standards for the priority substances and other substances posing a significant risk to the aquatic environment. In order to achieve the protection objectives of the Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of the Environment proposed the quality standards for surface water, sediments and biota related to the priority substances listed in the decision No. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of November 20 (2001) [Decision N. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2001. The list of priority substances in the field of water policy and amending Directive 2000/60/EC. Official Journal of the European Communities, 15.12.2001, p. 5]. Particularly, for the protection of the marine environment, the proposed Italian rules state that, from 1 January 2021, the concentrations of the hazardous priority substances in Italian marine and lagoon waters must be near the natural background for natural substances, like metals, and near zero for the anthropogenic one. According to Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of Environment issued in 2003 Decree 367 in which has derived 160 Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water and 27 Environmental Quality Objective (EQO) for sediment of marine coastal area, lagoons and coastal ponds. Biota quality standards have still to be fixed. The paper illustrates the criteria applied for the definition of the quality standards and some comments are presented

  4. Towards the proposal of an environmental quality standard for uranium in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Gilbin, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents elements gathered by the IRSN to contribute to the determination of the standard of environmental quality related to uranium. After a presentation of values published by different bodies for the protection of the aquatic environment (water quality criteria), this report describes the determination of the fresh water chronic PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) of uranium: method, available chronic eco-toxicity data and selection principles, PNEC obtained by applying safety factors or by statistical approach, PNEC per bio-availability domain, practical elements for a correct use of a PNEC. It finally proposes a PNEC for fresh water

  5. Standard review plan for the review of environmental restoration remedial action quality assurance program plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This plan establishes both the scope of the review and the acceptance criteria to be utilized for the review of Quality Assurance Program Plans (QAPPs) developed in accordance with the requirements of DOE/RL-90-28. DOE/RL-90-28, the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements Document (QARD) defines all quality assurance (QA) requirements governing activities that affect the quality of the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action (ERRA) program at the Hanford Site. These requirements are defined in three parts, Part 1 of Quality Management and Administration tasks, Part 2 for Environmental Data Operations, and Part 3 of the Design and Construction of items, systems, and facilities. The purpose of this document is to identify the scope of the review by the DOE Field Office, Richland staff, and establish the acceptance criteria (Parts 1, 2, and 3) that the DOE Field Office, Richland staff will utilize to evaluate the participant QAPPs. Use of the standard review plan will (1) help ensure that participant QAPPs contain the information required by DOE/RL-90-28, (2) aid program participant and DOE Field Office, Richland staff is ensuring that the information describing the participant's QAPP is complete, (3) help persons regarding DOE/RL- 90-28 to locate information, and (4) contribute to decreasing the time needed for the review process. In addition, the Standard Review Plan (SRP) ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate compliance of participant quality programs against DOE/RL-90-28

  6. Estimating the Pollution Risk of Cadmium in Soil Using a Composite Soil Environmental Quality Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2014-01-01

    Estimating standard-exceeding probabilities of toxic metals in soil is crucial for environmental evaluation. Because soil pH and land use types have strong effects on the bioavailability of trace metals in soil, they were taken into account by some environmental protection agencies in making composite soil environmental quality standards (SEQSs) that contain multiple metal thresholds under different pH and land use conditions. This study proposed a method for estimating the standard-exceeding probability map of soil cadmium using a composite SEQS. The spatial variability and uncertainty of soil pH and site-specific land use type were incorporated through simulated realizations by sequential Gaussian simulation. A case study was conducted using a sample data set from a 150 km2 area in Wuhan City and the composite SEQS for cadmium, recently set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China. The method may be useful for evaluating the pollution risks of trace metals in soil with composite SEQSs. PMID:24672364

  7. Delivering environmental benefit from the use of Environmental Quality Standards: why we need to focus on implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrington, Graham; Peters, Adam; Whitehouse, Paul; Clarke, Robin; Merckel, Dan

    2018-02-01

    The UK has adopted a broader approach to the introduction of Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for the aquatic environment than many other jurisdictions around the world, with a greater focus on the implementation of scientifically derived standards. This follows the publication of a report by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution in 1998 which drew attention to the need to recognise that whilst an EQS is often just viewed as a numerical value, it also has other important characteristics that need to be recognised if it is to be a practical and effective regulatory tool. One of the aspects that has not always been recognised was that of implementation assessment, i.e. the steps needed to ensure that a standard actually delivers environmental benefit or improvements. In many jurisdictions, there is considerable technical and sometimes political emphasis on the numerical value of the EQS (e.g. the critical concentration in an environmental matrix like water), including the method of derivation, the scrutiny of the reliability and relevance of the ecotoxicity test data and extensive deliberations of unquantified uncertainties in relation to the choice of assessment factor. The regulatory value of an EQS only comes through a comparison against a measured environmental concentration, yet only relatively limited regulatory effort has historically been expended on this component of the classic environmental risk assessment paradigm. For example, there needs to be an acceptable (i.e. small) uncertainty in the EQS, an appropriate analytical method and detection limit in the correct matrix, a method to deliver a comparison with the EQS and a robust statistical method to draw unbiased conclusions about environmental risk. In addition, we argue that there is a case for checking the consequences of introducing a standard against field data, wherever possible. This validation of the EQS rarely happens currently. We explain what implementation assessment is and why

  8. Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Data from the Third Annual Report of the United States Council of Environmental Quality are used in an editorial advocating the use of some of the money committed to cleaning air and water to create a more adequate knowledge base for action. (AL)

  9. Standards and quality

    CERN Document Server

    El-Tawil, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    The book brings together a number of subjects of prime importance for any practicing engineer and, students of engineering. The book explains the concepts and functions of voluntary standards, mandatory technical regulations, conformity assessment (testing and measurement of products), certification, quality and quality management systems as well as other management systems such as environmental, social responsibility and food safety management systems.The book also gives a comprehensive description of the role of metrology systems that underpin conformity assessment. A description is given of typical national systems of standards, quality and metrology and how they relate directly or through regional structures to international systems. The book also covers the relation between standards and trade and explains the context and stipulations of the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

  10. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-01-01

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. open-quotes It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000 close-quote, says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. open-quote We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions close-quote. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard

  11. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Water Quality Standards - Table G Lake Classifications and Use Designations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains Missouri Water Quality Standards (WQS) lake classifications and use designations described in the Missouri Code of State Regulations (CSR), 10...

  12. Environmental radiation standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    This document contains an outline of an oral presentation on environmental radiation standards presented to the American Nuclear Societies' Topical Conference on Population Exposure from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper contains several definitions, a summary of current radiation exposure limits; and numerous proposed changes to current standards. 7 figs

  13. Evaluation of the environmental epidemiologic data and methodology for the air quality standard in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Jiang, Yanfeng; Yin, Ling; Liu, Bo; Du, Pengfei; Hassan, Mujtaba; Wang, Shigong; Li, Tanshi

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory emergency room visits, a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the exposure-effect relationship between air pollutants and respiratory emergency room visits. The results showed that NO2, SO2, and PM10 have positive relationships with respiratory disease. Concentration increases of 10 μg/m3 in NO2, SO2, and PM10 corresponded to 3.90% (95%CI 3.56-4.25), 0.81% (95%CI -0.09-1.72), and 0.64% (95%CI 0.55-0.74) increases in respiratory emergency room visits. In addition, there is a strong synergic effect of PM10 and NO2 on respiratory diseases. The threshold values of the national standard grade II limits used in Beijing should be adjusted. An appropriate standard could effectively promote a significant decline in respiratory room visits and would eventually be beneficial to air quality management in residential areas.

  14. Quality of semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert

    2012-01-01

    Little scientific literature addresses the issue of quality of semantic standards, albeit a problem with high economic and social impact. Our problem survey, including 34 semantic Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs), gives evidence that quality of standards can be improved, but for improvement a

  15. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  16. New standard environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriola, Luca; Luciani, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The ISO 14001:2004 standard, like ISO 9001:2000 on quality management, transcends the preventive approach (based on a rigid and more or less adequate process-management model still mainly inspired by traditional production methods) and introduces in its stead a highly flexible approach applicable to any socio-economic activity. It is structured by processes rather than system elements, and is based on the quest for efficacy and ongoing improvement [it

  17. New directions: Future approaches to the standardized assessment of airborne pollutants affecting environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehr, Sascha; Franzen-Reuter, Isabelle; Kucejko, Catharina

    2017-10-01

    Man-made activities have caused unexampled changes of our environment during the last two centuries. Due to emissions of a vast number of pollutants the composition of the Earth's atmosphere is continuously changing, and the consequences for humans and for ecosystems are only partly understood at present. Once released to the atmosphere, the emitted substances undergo physical and chemical degradation. Many of the substances detected in ambient air are toxic or carcinogenic and might cause respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, air pollutants are influencing acidification, eutrophication, global warming, and biodiversity. Therefore soil quality, water quality, air quality, ecosystem exposure to pollutant deposition, biodiversity, and climate change are coupled problems (Schlesinger, 1997; Steffen et al., 2005; Ehlers et al., 2006; Rockström et al., 2009).

  18. Towards tributyltin quantification in natural water at the Environmental Quality Standard level required by the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasonati, Enrica; Fettig, Ina; Richter, Janine; Philipp, Rosemarie; Milačič, Radmila; Sčančar, Janez; Zuliani, Tea; Tunç, Murat; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan; Fisicaro, Paola

    2016-11-01

    The European Union (EU) has included tributyltin (TBT) and its compounds in the list of priority water pollutants. Quality standards demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) require determination of TBT at so low concentration level that chemical analysis is still difficult and further research is needed to improve the sensitivity, the accuracy and the precision of existing methodologies. Within the frame of a joint research project "Traceable measurements for monitoring critical pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive" in the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), four metrological and designated institutes have developed a primary method to quantify TBT in natural water using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SSIDMS). The procedure has been validated at the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) level (0.2ngL(-1) as cation) and at the WFD-required limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.06ngL(-1) as cation). The LOQ of the methodology was 0.06ngL(-1) and the average measurement uncertainty at the LOQ was 36%, which agreed with WFD requirements. The analytical difficulties of the method, namely the presence of TBT in blanks and the sources of measurement uncertainties, as well as the interlaboratory comparison results are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. State Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  20. Worldwide Report, Environmental Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    ..., Environmental Impact, Forest Policy, Endangers, Water Level, Air Quality, Water Shortage, Protecting Environment,Wood Resource, Drough, Crop Failure, Water Crisis, Dams, Government Aid, Water Quality...

  1. Requirements of quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture traces the development of nuclear standards, codes, and Federal regulations on quality assurance (QA) for nuclear power plants and associated facilities. The technical evolution of the last twelve years, especially in the area of nuclear technology, led to different activities and regulatory initiatives, and the present result is: several nations have their own homemade standards. The lecture discusses the former and especially current activities in standard development, and gives a description of the requirements of QA-standards used in USA and Europe, especially Western Germany. Furthermore the lecture attempts to give a comparison and an evaluation of the international quality standards from the author's viewpoint. Finally the lecture presents an outlook for the future international implications of QA-standards. There is an urgent need within the nuclear industry for simplification and standardization of QA-standards. The relationship between the various standards, and the applicability of the standards need clarification and a better transparancy. To point out these problems is the purpose of the lecture. (orig.) [de

  2. DESIRE FOR LEVELS. Background study for the policy document "Setting Environmental Quality Standards for Water and Soil"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent D; Aldenberg T; Canton JH; van Gestel CAM; Slooff W

    1990-01-01

    The report provides scientific support for setting environmental quality objectives for water, sediment and soil. Quality criteria are not set in this report. Only options for decisions are given. The report is restricted to the derivation of the 'maximally acceptable risk' levels (MAR)

  3. Environmental radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richings, L.D.G.; Morley, F.; Kelley, G.N.

    1978-04-01

    The principles involved in the setting of radiological protection standards are reviewed, and the differences in procedures used by various countries in implementing them are outlined. Standards are taken here to mean the specific numerical limits relating to radiation doses to people or to amounts of radioactive material released into the environment. (author)

  4. Sustainable urban environmental quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković Dobrivoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available MEANING as the essential element of urban quality. The role of the three main factors for the urban quality achievement: PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT and PEOPLE. Next to that, it is important to assume the identity of the local CONTEXT as the essential base for designing and shaping of form development. The problems of the quality achievements in the situation of the permanent changes. In such an environment - the RENEWAL of the towns become the basic strategic orientation requiring - evaluation of the development policy instruments. On the road of changes there are PROBLEMS of a strategic nature which should be, firstly, defined and, then, solved before entering in the process of structuring and arrangement. One of these problems is NEW versus OLD. Transition to a new policy of urbanism relying, first of all, on the private investors and international funds of the local authorities - call for a NEW STRATEGY in urbanism, in the context of the sustainability of environment. The sustainability of quality and the categories of the influencing factors. The sustainability of quality as a twofold process of urban design. The quality of environment as an aesthetic phenomenon. The urban situation and environmental quality: feasibility of changes and effects; the environmental capacity as an indicator and quality determinant. The urban quality and international experience. The evaluation of our urban situation. INSTEAD OF CONCLUSION: A general review on the visions and urban quality policy and planning. Toward an evaluation of urban environmental quality: negative and positive indicators; sustainable communities environmental ruling and urban quality planning.

  5. Temporal assessment of copper speciation, bioavailability and toxicity in UK freshwaters using chemical equilibrium and biotic ligand models: Implications for compliance with copper environmental quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathouri, Maria; Korre, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Although significant progress has been made in understanding how environmental factors modify the speciation, bioavailability and toxicity of metals such as copper in aquatic environments, the current methods used to establish water quality standards do not necessarily consider the different geological and geochemical characteristics of a given site and the factors that affect copper fate, bioavailability potential and toxicity. In addition, the temporal variation in the concentration and bioavailable metal fraction is also important in freshwater systems. The work presented in this paper illustrates the temporal and seasonal variability of a range of water quality parameters, and Cu speciation, bioavailability and toxicity at four freshwaters sites in the UK. Rivers Coquet, Cree, Lower Clyde and Eden (Kent) were selected to cover a broad range of different geochemical environments and site characteristics. The monitoring data used covered a period of around six years at almost monthly intervals. Chemical equilibrium modelling was used to study temporal variations in Cu speciation and was combined with acute toxicity modelling to assess Cu bioavailability for two aquatic species, Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex. The estimated copper bioavailability, toxicity levels and the corresponding ecosystem risks were analysed in relation to key water quality parameters (alkalinity, pH and DOC). Although copper concentrations did not vary much during the sampling period or between the seasons at the different sites; copper bioavailability varied markedly. In addition, through the chronic-Cu BLM-based on the voluntary risk assessment approach, the potential environmental risk in terms of the chronic toxicity was assessed. A much higher likelihood of toxicity effects was found during the cold period at all sites. It is suggested that besides the metal (copper) concentration in the surface water environment, the variability and seasonality of other important water quality

  6. Can Environmental Law be standardized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendler, H.

    1981-01-01

    The author makes basic considerations on standardizability both in Constitutional Law and in simple Legislative Law. He discusses in detail a key issue of Environmental Law, namely the standardization of the right of third parties affected to file suit. In painstaking detail work one has to differentiate between standards having and not having an effect which protects third parties, and how far the protection of third parties goes. The limits to standardizability are reached with the use of undetermined legal terms. The shortcomings of standardizability for the legislator could and should be made up for by the statutory power which has to reify standards in a way which could guarantee efficient execution. (HSCH) [de

  7. Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:23788854

  8. Performance, compliance and reliability of Waste stabilization pond: Effluent discharge quality and environmental protection agency standards in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Sampson, Angelina; Amponsah, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    function to establish the relationship between the statistical coefficient of variation and the coefficient of reliability based on rth moment about the origin in the moment of generation function to generate the functions of the mean and standard deviation, properties of the standard Z normal distribution...... were used to establish the coefficient of reliability relationship depending on the coefficient of variation influenced by the standard of deviation. Discharge values of Physico-chemical Parameters measured from the WSP were found be performing acceptably based on the EPA standards, whereas only four......Measuring performance has been arguerably, one of the metric with many facets with different school of thoughts, as there exist different approaches of measuring it. Several of the existing approaches measure such metric by comparison with standards esherined in policy documents and as a result...

  9. 78 FR 54517 - Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... 131 Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 [EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0606; FRL-9839-7] RIN 2040-AF 16 Water Quality Standards... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing changes to the federal water quality standards (WQS...

  10. Evaluation of air quality in environmental impact assessments. Evaluation criteria and standards with a view to effective precautionary care of the environment; Die Bewertung der Luftqualitaet bei Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefungen. Bewertungsmassstaebe und Standards zur Konkretisierung einer wirksamen Umweltvorsorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehling, W.; Peters, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    Since the beginning of the debate surrounding the environmental impact statement in Germany, opinion is divided over what yardsticks should be applied in assessing a scheme`s environmental impact, and what consequences they involve for the environment. This book is a comprehensive compilation of air quality standards by substances and objects of protection containing a definition of the term ``active precautionary care of the environment`` as mentioned in section 1 of the act on environmental impact statements (UVPG). The reasons that the book is important for day-to-day work with environmental impact statements lie, for one thing, in its technical relevance and, for the other, in the fact that the proposed assessment criteria are legally unobjectionable. The book stakes out the legal boundaries, points out differentiated criteria for the definition of standards, selects relevant substances, explains the procedure in defining standards and the evaluation grid used, demonstrates how the standards are applied, and contains a tabulated summary. Part two of the book deals with the investigated compounds and groups of compounds. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Seit der UVP-Debatte in Deutschland ist strittig, welcher Massstab bei der Beurteilung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit einer Massnahme anzulegen ist und wie deren Umweltauswirkungen zu bewerten sind. Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit liegt eine umfassende stoff- und schutzgutorientierte Zusammenstellung von Luftqualitaetsstandards und eine Interpretation des Begriffes ``wirksame Umweltvorsorge`` nach Para. 1 UVPG vor. Die Bedeutung der Arbeit fuer die UVP-Praxis liegt neben der fachwissenschaftlichen Relevanz vor allem auch in der juristischen Absicherung der vorgeschlagenen Bewertungsmassstaebe. (orig./HP)

  11. Quality and standards in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    1997-01-01

    A manufacturer or supplier of electronic equipment or components needs to know the precise requirements for component certification and quality conformance to meet the demands of the customer. This book ensures that the professional is aware of all the UK, European and International necessities, knows the current status of these regulations and standards, and where to obtain them.

  12. Dematerialization, development and environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, O.; Galli, R.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of post WW II trends in intensity of materials use (materials consumption versus gross national product) in industrialized countries indicates significant reductions due to the saturation of market demand, materials recycling (in Japan, 60% of some metals used in production processes come from recycled scrap), technological innovations, materials substitution and energy efficiency programs (e.g., the ratio between materials content and power in industrial boilers has been greatly reduced, fiber optics cables, with up to 40 times greater capacity than copper cables, are replacing the latter in telecommunications). The reduced demand for prime materials, a major source of income for developing countries, and uncontrolled population dynamics now makes it increasingly more difficult for these countries to improve their standards of living and convert to clean energy and production technologies being developed and used in the industrialized countries. Greater international cooperation is needed to enable and ensure the transfer of innovative technologies favouring economic development and environmental quality to developing countries

  13. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for most areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  14. Environmental Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    environmental effects of potential environmental contamination resulting from the use of certain Air Force materials . The 4 projects use different organisms as...unicellular algae and Project IV uses the eggs, embryo and larvae of the leopard frog. . Materials being evaluated include hydroQen FORM ,DD ,, 1473...erecta) **15. Marigold, French (Tagetes atula- **16. Nasturtium (Tropaeolum, sp.) **17. Petunia (Petu-nia, sp.) 18. Pine, ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) 19

  15. Environmental standards and project construction: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.F.; Thornberry, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    In the past decade, changes have occurred in the area of environmental regulation. This paper identifies the typical environmental standards applicable to project construction, recent environmental regulatory issues and trends, and identifies new environmental issues which must be considered in project construction. These include (1) handling hazardous chemicals in the workplace, (2) construction at formerly utilized sites, (3) disposal of debris, construction materials and hazardous waste, and (4) training and experience of construction personnel in environmental issues

  16. Memorandum on standards for environmental hygiene 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document on the influence of the memorandum on Standards for Environmental Hygiene 1976. It is a result of discussions between the Committee for Radiation Hygiene and the Commission for Toxicology. The environmental hygiene standards are defined and the difference between 150 standards and legal standards explained. Comments are given on the concepts that the memorandum covers and advice is given on the enforcement of such standards. This document deals with air and surface water pollution, radiation effects and toxicological standards. The difficulty in fixing maximum permissible doses for specific damaging agents is discussed. (C.F.)

  17. Environmental Management Department Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Emission Measurements Project for compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, D A

    1992-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) satisfies the quality assurance (QA) requirements in 40 CFR Part 61, Method 114, for ensuring that the radionuclide air emission measurements from the Y-12 Plant are representative; of a known precision and accuracy; and include administrative controls to ensure prompt response when emission measurements indicate an increase over normal radionuclide emissions. The QAPP ensures the quality of the Y-12 Plant radionuclide emission measurements data from the continuous samplers, breakthrough monitors, and minor radionuclide release points. The plan specifies the procedures for the management of the activities affecting the quality of the data for the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department (EMD) within the Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Division (HSEA).

  18. Environmental Management Department Quality Assurance Project Plan for Radionuclide Emission Measurements Project for compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, D.A.

    1992-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) satisfies the quality assurance (QA) requirements in 40 CFR Part 61, Method 114, for ensuring that the radionuclide air emission measurements from the Y-12 Plant are representative; of a known precision and accuracy; and include administrative controls to ensure prompt response when emission measurements indicate an increase over normal radionuclide emissions. The QAPP ensures the quality of the Y-12 Plant radionuclide emission measurements data from the continuous samplers, breakthrough monitors, and minor radionuclide release points. The plan specifies the procedures for the management of the activities affecting the quality of the data for the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department (EMD) within the Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Division (HSEA)

  19. Economic growth - environmental protection - quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumm, J.

    1975-01-01

    This is an investigation into the assumption that uncontrolled economic growth puts a burden on the natural environment and lowers the quality of life. This analysis of the natural, technical, economic, and social environment answers the following questions: 1) which development will production and consumption take up to the year 2000; 2) extent of environmental burden to be expected as a result thereof; 3) influence of needs and valid standard of values thus prevailing; 4) administrative measures for environmental policies; 5) influence of environmental policies on the quality of life; 6) possibility of economic growth while the natural environment is sufficiently protected at the same time. The man-environment model presented elucidates the interrelations between economic development and the natural and social environment; it checks the effectiveness of alternate environmental protection measures. (HP) [de

  20. Quality model for semantic IS standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert

    2011-01-01

    Semantic IS (Information Systems) standards are essential for achieving interoperability between organizations. However a recent survey suggests that not the full benefits of standards are achieved, due to the quality issues. This paper presents a quality model for semantic IS standards, that should

  1. Environmental factors and semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Radwan, Michal

    2009-01-01

    , trihalomethanes (THMs), mobile phones) on semen quality, by reviewing most recent published literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to environmental factors and semen quality for the last ten years were identified by a search of the Pubmed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola...... to sperm motility. In case of air pollution, studies suggest a link between ambient air pollutants and various semen characteristics. Additional research is needed to corroborate this association and to establish the causal agents. Results of few studies on subfertile men demonstrate associations between...... phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (impact on sperm concentration, morphology, motility), but the findings have not been corroborated in studies of men from the general population. Mobile phones might adversely affect the quality of semen by decreasing mostly...

  2. Assessment of Soil Environmental Quality in Huangguoshu Waterfalls Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongbin; Feng, Kaiyu; Gu, Bo; Xu, Chengcheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper concentrates on five major heavy metal pollutants as soil environmental quality evaluation factors, respectively Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), based on the National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (GB15618 - 1995), we used single factor index evaluation model of soil environmental quality and comprehensive index evaluation model to analyze surface soil environmental quality in the Huangguoshu Waterfalls scenic area. Based on surface soil analysis, our results showed that the individual contamination index, Pb, Hg, As and Cr in the Huangguoshu Waterfalls scenic area met class I according to requirements of National Soil Environmental Quality Standards, which indicated that Pb, Hg, As and Cr were not main heavy metal pollutants in this area, but the individual contamination index of Cd in soil was seriously exceeded National Soil Environmental Quality Standards’ requirement. Soil environmental quality in Shitouzhai, Luoshitan, Langgong Hongyan Power Plant have exceeded the requirement of National Soil Environmental Quality Standards “0.7soils had been slightly polluted; the classification of soil environmental quality assessment in Longgong downstream area was above “Alert Level”, it indicated that soil in this area was not polluted. Above all, relevant measures for soil remediation are put forward.

  3. Standardized Cost Structure for the Environmental Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, B.; Melamed, D.; Guevara, K.; Mallick, P.; Bierman, G.; Marshall, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    The underlying key to developing successful estimates, tracking project costs, and utilizing historical project cost information is the development of standardized and well-defined hierarchical listing of cost categories. Committees within the U.S. Federal agencies have pioneered efforts toward developing the Environmental Cost Element Structure (ECES), which is key in achieving these goals. The ECES was developed using an iterative process with input from federal agencies and industry. Experts from several disciplines participated including engineers, cost estimators, project/program managers, and contract personnel. The ECES benefits from an intense analytical effort, the knowledge gained from the maturation of the environmental industry, and incorporation of past user's experiences. Building upon this foundation, the E06 committee of the ASTM International has now fully developed and published a standard (ASTM 2150-04) that provides standardized cost categories with complete cost category definitions. This standard affords environmental and nuclear D and D project managers the opportunity to have a well defined hierarchical listing of their estimates and actual costs, readily adapted to performing summations and roll-ups, supported by a multi-level dictionary specifically defining the content of the cost elements as well as the summations. Owing to the dynamic nature of the environmental technologies, efforts need to be made to continue to update this standard by adding new technologies and methods as they are developed and employed in the field. Lastly, the Environmental Cost Element Structure that is embodied in this standard also presents opportunities to develop historical cost databases and comprehensive life cycle cost estimates and standardized cost estimating tools. (authors)

  4. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  5. 40 CFR 125.61 - Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable water quality standards. 125.61 Section 125.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Water Act § 125.61 Existence of and compliance with applicable water quality standards. (a) There must exist a water quality standard or standards applicable to the pollutant(s) for which a section 301(h...

  6. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  7. Proactive quality assurance in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, J.B.; Kulkarni, S.V.; Wasson, S.J.; Ford, J.S.; Harmon, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Quality Assurance policy of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) stipulates that every project involving environmentally related monitoring, measurements, and data collection activities must have a written and approved quality assurance project plan (QAPjP). A QAPjP is a written document which presents, in specific terms, the policies, organizations, objectives, functional activities, and the quality assurance/quality control activities designed to achieve the quality goals for data collection. In the research studies involving novel or non-routine measurements that use unvalidated methods, measurement quality goals are often difficult or impossible to specify at the beginning of the project for which a QAPjP must be written. Furthermore, it may not be possible for the QAPjP reviewers to evaluate the reasonableness of these goals without initial information about the system under study. For the project to evaluate chlorofluorocarbon for recycling from domestic refrigerators, the QAPjP incorporated standard analytical techniques used by industry. These techniques did not provide accuracy and precision or other validation information. For the initial version of the QAPjP, measurement quality goals were assigned based on limited experience. Quality assurance support was called upon to evaluate the performance of the measurement system for this project through a series of audits. The performance evaluation audits necessitated designing novel audit materials and sample delivery techniques. Continued interaction is necessary between the project and QA teams to permit evolution of reasonable data quality indicators for meaningful assessment of data quality. By treating the QAPjP as a living document that is updated and amended as more knowledge of a system is obtained, AQ becomes an integral part of the research program. This results in a greater understanding of the system under study

  8. Environmental policy based on economic efficiency - The case of policy instrument choice for air quality standards for nitro dioxide and particles; Miljoepolitik paa samhaellsekonomisk grund - En fallstudie om styrmedlet miljoekvalitetsnormer foer partiklar och kvaevedioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyddoke, Roger; Nerhagen, Lena

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of the present project is to examine whether or not economic analysis and quantified assessments have been part of the information used when designing and implementing these environmental quality standards. Such assessments are regularly used in the transport sector in Sweden but several studies in Sweden and abroad have found that this is not the case for environmental policies. Most of these studies argue that this type of information is important for an efficient design of policy instruments and abatement measures. Efficient policy design was also considered an important part in the new environmental policy and the Swedish EPA was commissioned to develop methods of integrating costs of environmental impacts into economic and social decision-making models but also to investigate the possibility to use economic policy instruments. In the beginning of the report we provide a theoretical discussion about the value of doing socioeconomic analysis. It is argued that structured and quantified assessments such as cost-benefit or cost-efficiency analysis can help to clarify the extent of the environmental problem and the efficiency of a policy instruments and their impact on the community. Economic reasoning also provides a basis for a discussion about possible reasons for why this type of information may not have been used on a regular basis. The main conclusion from this report is that neither the current design of these environmental quality standards nor the policy instruments chosen have been based on quantified economic assessments. This is so even though Sweden for the emissions considered in this report has adopted limit values that are more far reaching than those stated in EC directives. Moreover, although new evidence regarding the harmfulness of these pollutants has emerged, no adaptations to the original limit values have been undertaken. Nor are the action programmes, which have been implemented in cities where the environmental quality standard

  9. Elements of quality assurance in environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    Qualities of an environmental surveillance program requiring control or assurance are reviewed. Requirements of accuracy, reproducibility, sensitivity, acceptability, and time and cost effectiveness are qualities discussed. The controls applicable to sample collection, handling, chemical analysis, measurement and data presentation are identified and discussed as they pertain to environmental monitoring. Quality assurance program recommendations for developing and reporting environmental surveillance data are provided

  10. 75 FR 4173 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of...-HQ-OW-2009-0596; FRL-9105-1] RIN 2040-AF11 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to protect aquatic...

  11. Environmental radiation standards and risk limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established environmental radiation standards for specific practices which correspond to limits on risk to the public that vary by several orders of magnitude and often are much less than radiation risks that are essentially unregulated, e.g., risks from radon in homes. This paper discusses a proposed framework for environmental radiation standards that would improve the correspondence with limitation of risk. This framework includes the use of limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime, rather than limits on dose equivalent to whole body or any organ for each year of exposure, and consideration of exposures of younger age groups as well as adults; limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime no lower than 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) per practice; maintenance of all exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); and establishment of a generally applicable de minimis dose for public exposures. Implications of the proposed regulatory framework for the current system of standards for limiting public exposures are discussed. 20 refs

  12. Performance Indicators of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    environmental framework for the promotion of a healthy and comfortable ... (n.d.) consists of six metrics namely: Indoor air quality (IAQ) ..... Quality. Thermal quality measurement in the hospital ...... article/pii/S036013231300142X. Jensen, K.

  13. Higher Education Quality Assessment Model: Towards Achieving Educational Quality Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaman, Amin Y.; Ragab, Abdul Hamid M.; Madbouly, Ayman I.; Khedra, Ahmed M.; Fayoumi, Ayman G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a developed higher education quality assessment model (HEQAM) that can be applied for enhancement of university services. This is because there is no universal unified quality standard model that can be used to assess the quality criteria of higher education institutes. The analytical hierarchy process is used to identify the…

  14. British standard (BS) 5750--quality assurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D J

    1995-04-01

    BS5750 is the British Standard on "Quality Systems". Its equivalent in European Standards is EN29000 and in the International Standards Organisation ISO9000. This paper points out that these standards lay down formalised procedures and require documentation but do not ipso facto lead to quality assurance. The author points to the Japanese post-war industrial success as being an example of Total Quality Management within the framework provided by the philosophy of Dr. W. Edwards Deming (1988 and 1993). This philosophy on the management of "systems" to provide high quality products and services is briefly outlined. The author argues that improvement in prosthetic and orthotic services will not be reached through implementation of BS5750 but rather through radical rethinking and the adoption and application of the Deming philosophy.

  15. Environmental radiation protection standards for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been given the responsibility of setting site-specific health and safety standards for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The same legislation that gave the Agency that responsibility, mandated a study by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to provide input into the bases for the EPA standards. The NAS has completed and presented a report to the Agency; this paper summarizes the report's recommendations and conclusions. Following receipt of the report, the Agency opened a comment period and held public meetings to gather comments; the major issues from the comments are summarized. Based upon the report from NAS and the public comments, EPA has started formulating proposed standards which will be known as 40 CFR Part 197. It is planned for the proposal of 40 CFR Part 197 to occur in the summer of 1996

  16. 76 FR 38592 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ..., Standards and Health Protection Division, Office of Science and Technology, Mail Code: 4305T, Environmental... Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits. With this in mind, categories and entities that may ultimately be... of the water and water quality criteria necessary to protect those uses. States must submit any new...

  17. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0443; FRL-9492-3] RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of Tuesday, November 22, 2011...

  18. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator, as...

  19. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  20. Standardized quality in MOOC based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorescu Irina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality in the field of e-learning and, particularly, in the field of MOOC( Massive Open Online Courses, is a topic of growing importance in both academic institutions and in the private sector as it has generally been proved that quality management can contribute to improving the performance of organizations, regardless of their object of activity. Despite the fact that there are standards relating to quality management in a general manner, professionals, academic staff, specialists and bodies felt the need for having a standardized approach of the quality in the sector of e-learning. Therefore, in the last years, in different countries quality guidelines have been developed and used for e-Learning or distance education (for example the ASTD criteria for e- Learning, the BLA Quality Mark, Quality Platform Learning by D-ELAN etc.. The current paper aims to give insights to this new form of online education provided by MOOC platforms using the specific quality standard approach.

  1. GENERIC QUALITY STANDARDS VS. SPECIFIC QUALITY STANDARDS: THE CASE OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila El Abbadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality as a new requirement for the field of higher education leads institutions to seek to satisfy generic or specific quality standards imposed directly or indirectly by its customers. The aim of this study is to compare between ISO9001, as a generic quality standard, and the Code of Practice of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA, as a specific quality standard. A correlation matrix is drawn and correlation rates are calculated to show similarities and differences between them. This paper shows, first, that ISO9001 and QAA Code of Practice are compatible. Second, implementing a quality management system in accordance with ISO9001 requirements can constitute an adequate framework for the application of the QAA Code of Practice requirements. Third, to make the ISO9001 requirements closer to a specific quality standard in the field of higher education, it is recommended to complete these standards by specific requirements to the field of higher education.

  2. Environmental Sustainability and Quality Education: Perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Sustainability and Quality Education: Perspectives from a community living in a context of poverty. ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  3. 75 FR 9878 - Draft Principles and Standards Sections of the “Economic and Environmental Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Draft Principles and Standards Sections of the ``Economic and... the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... may be accessed at the Internet addresses indicated: ``Economic and Environmental Principles and...

  4. [Environmental quality: wellfare, confort and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Marcos, Francisco; Gallego Pulgarín, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Different ways of interpreting environmental conditions have led to the development of concepts such as the sick building, indoor air quality or indoor environment quality, for understanding the complexity of the pollutants in enclosed environments and the implications thereof on the health. The "Indoor Environment Quality" proposal is an advancement, operative and conceptual, surpassing amply prior ones, given that it orients the actions toward healthy environments without limiting the idea of pollution to the air alone. The aim is identifying the competence to preventing hazards related to exposure to pollutants within the confines of indoor environments and know the legislative framework useful for taking the actions. Optimum conditions within indoor environments must redound in health, well-being and comfort with regard to both working life as well as the environments in which everyday activities outside of work, extracurricular, leisure-time and entertainment activities are carried out. Today's society is demanding safe, clean, well-climatized places, for this is necessary to integrate the inhabitant's perceptions and demands and achieve an optimum balance among social standards, energy use and sustainable development. Legislation is being further expanded upon in the direction of occupational health and safety and the regulation of chemical substances. Environmental Health carries out prevention and control tasks, takes part in the enforcement of international pollution and waste reduction agreements and promotes measures for carrying out the European Environment and Health Strategy. It is considered useful the elaboration of protocols for the evaluation and administration gives the risks associated to the interior pollutants.

  5. Agroforestry systems and environmental quality: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P K Ramachandran

    2011-01-01

    exploit these environmental benefits. The relative newness of research in environmental quality of AFS will pose some additional challenges as well. These include the lack of allometric equations for tree-biomass determination, absence of standardized norms on soil sampling depth, and limitations of fixed-effect models arising from issues such as pseudo-replication and repeated measures that are common in studies on preexisting field plots. Overall, this special collection is a timely effort in highlighting the promise of AFS in addressing some of the environmental quality issues, and the challenges in realizing that potential. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  6. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro and in vivo bioassays performed on surface water extracts supporting the environmental quality standards (EQS) of the European Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Aїt-Aїssa, Selim; Behnisch, Peter A; Brack, Werner; Brion, François; Brouwer, Abraham; Buchinger, Sebastian; Crawford, Sarah E; Du Pasquier, David; Hamers, Timo; Hettwer, Karina; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Kienle, Cornelia; Tindall, Andrew J; Tuerk, Jochen; van der Oost, Ron; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Neale, Peta A

    2018-07-01

    Effect-based methods including cell-based bioassays, reporter gene assays and whole-organism assays have been applied for decades in water quality monitoring and testing of enriched solid-phase extracts. There is no common EU-wide agreement on what level of bioassay response in water extracts is acceptable. At present, bioassay results are only benchmarked against each other but not against a consented measure of chemical water quality. The EU environmental quality standards (EQS) differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable surface water concentrations for individual chemicals but cannot capture the thousands of chemicals in water and their biological action as mixtures. We developed a method that reads across from existing EQS and includes additional mixture considerations with the goal that the derived effect-based trigger values (EBT) indicate acceptable risk for complex mixtures as they occur in surface water. Advantages and limitations of various approaches to read across from EQS are discussed and distilled to an algorithm that translates EQS into their corresponding bioanalytical equivalent concentrations (BEQ). The proposed EBT derivation method was applied to 48 in vitro bioassays with 32 of them having sufficient information to yield preliminary EBTs. To assess the practicability and robustness of the proposed approach, we compared the tentative EBTs with observed environmental effects. The proposed method only gives guidance on how to derive EBTs but does not propose final EBTs for implementation. The EBTs for some bioassays such as those for estrogenicity are already mature and could be implemented into regulation in the near future, while for others it will still take a few iterations until we can be confident of the power of the proposed EBTs to differentiate good from poor water quality with respect to chemical contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality standards for bone conduction implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, Javier; Adunka, Oliver; Agrawal, Sumit; Atlas, Marcus; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Brill, Stefan; Bruce, Iain; Buchman, Craig; Caversaccio, Marco; De Bodt, Marc T; Dillon, Meg; Godey, Benoit; Green, Kevin; Gstoettner, Wolfgang; Hagen, Rudolf; Hagr, Abdulrahman; Han, Demin; Kameswaran, Mohan; Karltorp, Eva; Kompis, Martin; Kuzovkov, Vlad; Lassaletta, Luis; Li, Yongxin; Lorens, Artur; Martin, Jane; Manoj, Manikoth; Mertens, Griet; Mlynski, Robert; Mueller, Joachim; O'Driscoll, Martin; Parnes, Lorne; Pulibalathingal, Sasidharan; Radeloff, Andreas; Raine, Christopher H; Rajan, Gunesh; Rajeswaran, Ranjith; Schmutzhard, Joachim; Skarzynski, Henryk; Skarzynski, Piotr; Sprinzl, Georg; Staecker, Hinrich; Stephan, Kurt; Sugarova, Serafima; Tavora, Dayse; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Yanov, Yuri; Zernotti, Mario; Zorowka, Patrick; de Heyning, Paul Van

    2015-01-01

    Bone conduction implants are useful in patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss for whom conventional surgery or hearing aids are no longer an option. They may also be used in patients affected by single-sided deafness. To establish a consensus on the quality standards required for centers willing to create a bone conduction implant program. To ensure a consistently high level of service and to provide patients with the best possible solution the members of the HEARRING network have established a set of quality standards for bone conduction implants. These standards constitute a realistic minimum attainable by all implant clinics and should be employed alongside current best practice guidelines. Fifteen items are thoroughly analyzed. They include team structure, accommodation and clinical facilities, selection criteria, evaluation process, complete preoperative and surgical information, postoperative fitting and assessment, follow-up, device failure, clinical management, transfer of care and patient complaints.

  8. Food and environmental quality protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1975-01-01

    Radiotracer techniques are now well established as a powerful research tool. In combination with chromatographic and other fractionation techniques they are widely used for basic studies of the behaviour, fate and significance of residues of pesticides (e.g. insecticides, fungicides, herbicides), drugs, detergents, industrial chemicals and wastes, etc. which find their way as trace contaminants into food, environment and living organisms. Radiotracer studies on metabolism and fate of pesticides are no longer just a means of satisfying academic curiosity on compounds which are already in use; on the contrary, they are now generally a necessary and critical step in understanding the persistence and action of a pesticide before it enters actual use. The use of stable isotopes as tracers, as distinct from the knowledge of their existence, was effectively made possible by H.C. Urey in 1931 by his successful concentration of deuterium ( 2 H), and used as a tracer, also by Hevesy, soon afterwards. given a novel and powerful research tool it is tempting to build a programme on problems which fit the tool. The value of this approach is debatable. There is, however, no doubt at isotope techniques coupled with their almost invariably associated facilities (high standards of laboratory design and safety, instrument maintenance, expertise, etc.) have a major contribution to our understanding of the behaviour and significance of chemical and radioactive contaminants and indeed of the capacities of environmental ecosystems themselves to receive such contaminants without unacceptable effects. Moreover, it might be argued cogently that such understanding deserves higher priority than at present if the really critical situations or pathways are to be identified and 'monitoring' programmes developed more rationally

  9. Improving global environmental management with standard corporate reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareiva, Peter M.; McNally, Brynn W.; McCormick, Steve; Miller, Tom; Ruckelshaus, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Multinational corporations play a prominent role in shaping the environmental trajectory of the planet. The integration of environmental costs and benefits into corporate decision-making has enormous, but as yet unfulfilled, potential to promote sustainable development. To help steer business decisions toward better environmental outcomes, corporate reporting frameworks need to develop scientifically informed standards that consistently consider land use and land conversion, clean air (including greenhouse gas emissions), availability and quality of freshwater, degradation of coastal and marine habitats, and sustainable use of renewable resources such as soil, timber, and fisheries. Standardization by itself will not be enough—also required are advances in ecosystem modeling and in our understanding of critical ecological thresholds. With improving ecosystem science, the opportunity for realizing a major breakthrough in reporting corporate environmental impacts and dependencies has never been greater. Now is the time for ecologists to take advantage of an explosion of sustainability commitments from business leaders and expanding pressure for sustainable practices from shareholders, financial institutions, and consumers. PMID:26082543

  10. Improving global environmental management with standard corporate reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareiva, Peter M; McNally, Brynn W; McCormick, Steve; Miller, Tom; Ruckelshaus, Mary

    2015-06-16

    Multinational corporations play a prominent role in shaping the environmental trajectory of the planet. The integration of environmental costs and benefits into corporate decision-making has enormous, but as yet unfulfilled, potential to promote sustainable development. To help steer business decisions toward better environmental outcomes, corporate reporting frameworks need to develop scientifically informed standards that consistently consider land use and land conversion, clean air (including greenhouse gas emissions), availability and quality of freshwater, degradation of coastal and marine habitats, and sustainable use of renewable resources such as soil, timber, and fisheries. Standardization by itself will not be enough--also required are advances in ecosystem modeling and in our understanding of critical ecological thresholds. With improving ecosystem science, the opportunity for realizing a major breakthrough in reporting corporate environmental impacts and dependencies has never been greater. Now is the time for ecologists to take advantage of an explosion of sustainability commitments from business leaders and expanding pressure for sustainable practices from shareholders, financial institutions, and consumers.

  11. Quality leadership skills Standards of Leadership Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Leatherman, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    Would you like to really know how to empower employees to take greater charge over their careers? To teach employees how to take more responsibility for their performance appraisals? To delegate work to employees? You'll get clear direction in Quality Leadership - a practical manual that addresses today's need for quality performance and gives techniques for handling a wide array of employee problems. This how-to-do-it resource for new and future leaders explains basic leadership tasks in a simple, step-by-step manner. It is full of practical advice - not theories - and outlines clear standard

  12. Interactions between environmental quality and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ambient air quality, surface water quality and near-shore water quality from Shanghai are used as environmental indicators and per capita GDP is used as the economic indicator. We found four types of economy-environment relationships in the studied period in Shanghai. The results also show that surface water indicator ...

  13. Growth, environmental quality and institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, Juan

    1999-01-01

    The paper is about of the analysis and design of political environmental and is emphasized the necessity of avoiding the adoption of environmental politics appropriate or inappropriate, characteristic of countries already industrialized. The author shows the relationship among the entrance per capita and the contamination using the Stokey pattern; it outlines the form in that the matter of the contamination and the consumption of energy resources is minimized before the urgency of to solve the problems of the present and to form a sustained human capital, finally it contributes with opinions related to mechanisms of environmental regulation

  14. Minimum quality standards and international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domes...... prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating....

  15. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines the water quality goals of a water body, or portion thereof, by designating the use or uses to be made...

  16. Near-Facility Environmental Monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCKINNEY, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near-facility environmental monitoring directed by Waste Management Technical Services and supersedes HNF-EP-0538-4. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by Waste Management Technical Services in implementing near-facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1 (DOE 1990) as a part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE-RL 1997) and is used to define: Environmental measurement and sampling locations used to monitor environmental contaminants near active and inactive facilities and waste storage and disposal sites; Procedures and equipment needed to perform the measurement and sampling; Frequency and analyses required for each measurement and sampling location; Minimum detection level and accuracy; Quality assurance components; and Investigation levels. Near-facility environmental monitoring for the Hanford Site is conducted in accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1990), 5400.5 (DOE 1993), 5484.1 (DOE 1990), and 435.1 (DOE 1999), and DOE/EH-O173T (DOE 1991). It is Waste Management Technical Services' objective to manage and conduct near-facility environmental monitoring activities at the Hanford Site in a cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner that is in compliance with the letter and spirit of these regulations and other environmental regulations, statutes, and standards

  17. Financial Development, Environmental Quality and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationships between financial development, environmental quality and economic growth are studied based on data from 102 countries over the period 1980–2010 using the generalized method of moments (GMM estimation. The econometric results show the following three basic conclusions: First, both financial development and environmental quality have a significant impact on economic growth and should be included in the production function of the economic growth model as important variables. Second, there is a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between financial development and economic growth; with the improvement of the level of financial development, economic growth would first increase and then decrease, which is consistent with the results of previous studies. Third, there is also a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions, indicating that there exists a “critical point” at which achieving economic growth comes at the expense of environmental quality, and after passing the critical point, the deterioration of environmental quality will lead to a significant slowdown in economic growth. In addition, the econometric analysis in this paper also shows that there was a mutually promoting and strengthening relationship between financial development and environmental quality. Specifically, the degree of financial development can further strengthen the promoting effect of environmental quality on economic growth; meanwhile, an improvement in environmental quality can also strengthen the promoting effect of financial development on economic growth. Financial development and environmental quality could influence economic growth through strengthening the marginal product effects of capital and labor, which further indicates the that both financial and environmental factors play an important role in modern economic development.

  18. Measuring environmental quality. An index of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops an index of pollution based on the epidemiological dose-response function associated with each pollutant, and the welfare losses due to exposure to pollution. The probability of damage is translated into welfare losses, which provides the common metric required for aggregation. Isopollution surfaces may then be used to compare environmental quality over time and space. An Air Pollution Index (API) is computed using 1997 data for the criteria pollutants under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The results are compared with the EPA's Pollutant Standards Index (PSI). Two significant differences emerge: unlike the PSI, the API facilitates a detailed ranking of regions by air quality and API values may contradict PSI results. Some regions with PSI values of 100-200 are considered less polluted under the proposed methodology than those with PSI values between 50 and 100. The key reason for the difference is that PSI values are determined entirely by the gas with the highest relative concentration whereas the API value is based on the ambient concentrations of all pollutants. 14 refs

  19. Environmental standards as strategic outcomes: A simple model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Rabindra N.; Pal, Rupayan

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the strategic nature of choice of environmental standards considering both local and global pollution under alternative regimes of international trade. It also compares and contrasts the strategic equilibrium environmental standards and levels of pollution, local and global, with the world optimum levels. It shows that, in case of open economies, environmental standards can be either strategic substitutes or strategic complements. On the contrary, in case of closed economies, environmental standards are always strategic substitutes. It also shows that the strategic equilibrium environmental standards in case of open economies are higher than the world optimum in certain situations. Whereas, in absence of international trade, countries set, in equilibrium, lower environmental standards than the world optimum. (author)

  20. Causality Between Urban Concentration and Environmental Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Population is concentrated in urban areas can cause the external diseconomies on environment if it exceeds the carrying capacity of the space and the urban economy. Otherwise the quality of the environment is getting better, led to the concentration of population in urban areas are increasingly high. This study aims to analyze the relationship of causality between the urban concentration and environmental quality in urban agglomeration areas. The data used in the study of secondary data obtained from the Central Bureau of statistics and the City Government from 2000 to 2013. The analytical method used is the Granger causality and descriptive. Granger causality study results showed no pattern of reciprocal causality, between urban concentration and the quality of the environment, but there unidirectional relationship between the urban concentration and environmental quality. This means that increasing urban concentration led to decreased environmental quality.

  1. Activities of HPS standards committee in environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Health Physics Society (HPS) develops American National Standards in the area of radiation protection using methods approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Two of its sections, Environmental Health Physics and Contamination Limits, have ongoing standards development which are important to some environmental remediation efforts. This paper describes the role of the HPS standards process and indicates particular standards under development which will be of interest to the reader. In addition, the authors solicit readers to participate in the voluntary standards process by either joining active working groups (WG) or suggesting appropriate and relevant topics which should be placed into the standards process

  2. Urbanization, housing and environmental quality indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urbanization, housing and environmental quality indicators. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Urbanization ideally should also imply an enhancement of housing quality and other components of human settlements such as power supply, portable water, good roads, proper refuse and sewage ...

  3. Seminar on standards, standardization, quality control and interlaboratory test programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Bievre, P. [Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    1978-12-15

    The author gives a resume on the proper use of standards and standardization of measurement procedures. Results of measurements obtained on the same instrument and on the same series of standards of different isotopic compositions are displayed.

  4. Standards and laws for indoor air quality in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitkolov, N.; Musijchuk, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The air quality of indoor air in Russia, including the special problems of air quality with regard to radioactive contamination, is determined by a number of statutes, standards and regulations. All these are based on the biological principles that the maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants (MAC) and the prescribed radioactive safety dose limits should not be exceeded. The standards cover the air in the working zones of all ministries and departments, and are for trade unions, public and cooperative organisations and foundations. The basic Russian law for air quality is 'The Law on Environmental Nature Protection' (19.2.1991) which assures the right to health protection from adverse environmental effects. In the field of radioactive safety 'The Federal Law on Radioactive Safety' (9.1.1996) is the primary law and in accordance with it, every citizen living in Russia has the right to protection for the present and future generations from health-related deleterious effects of atomic radiation. The laws on air quality are part of the Russian Federation legal system and are secured in the Constitution. The air quality must be controlled by the Goscomgidromet and the Sunepidnadzor of Russia. In compliance with these laws everybody has the right to a favourable environment and the duty to protect, preserve and maintain it. The air environment is unique and common to all, thus economic cooperation dictates that a dedicated approach to air quality and air quality regulations would be the most appropriate way to preserve it. It appears judicious to join forces in the name of European ecological safety. To do this, it is necessary to combine the national means and secure. (author) 4 figs

  5. Public perception of environmental quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech Cantuaria, Manuella

    outcomes. The quality of the environment and its impacts on communities’ health consist in a growing source of public and government concern and therefore, are being widely investigated in epidemiological studies. These studies are usually designed so that potential errors are minimized and high...... of the cases, investigating the impacts that these issues may have on health effect estimates and the interpretation of epidemiological results. For this purpose, the thesis is based on two distinct case studies: the first one refers to non-urban communities of Denmark living nearby agricultural and livestock...... farming activities; while the second case study analyzes urban populations living in the capital city of Switzerland, being constantly exposed to noise and air pollution from traffic sources. The following methodological issues are hereby confronted throughout the thesis: 1) misclassification...

  6. Targeting Environmental Quality to Improve Population Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key goals of health care reform are to stimulate innovative approaches to improve healthcare quality and clinical outcomes while holding down costs. To achieve these goals value-based payment places the needs of the patient first and encourages multi-stakeholder cooperation. Yet, the stakeholders are typically all within the healthcare system, e.g. the Accountable Care Organization or Patient-Centered Medical Home, leaving important contributors to the health of the population such as the public health and environmental health systems absent. And rarely is the quality of the environment regarded as a modifiable factor capable of imparting a health benefit. Underscoring this point, a PubMed search of the search terms “environmental quality” with “value-based payment”, “value-based healthcare” or “value-based reimbursement” returned no relevant articles, providing further evidence that the healthcare industry largely disregards the quality of the environment as a significant determinant of wellbeing and an actionable risk factor for clinical disease management and population health intervention. Yet, the quality of the environment is unequivocally related to indicators of population health including all-cause mortality. The EPA’s Environmental Quality Index (EQI) composed of five different domains (air, land use, water, built environment and social) has provided new estimates of the associations between environmental quality and health stat

  7. Environmental politics in the US: a study of state sulfur dioxide standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.

    2005-01-01

    What determines the environmental regulatory regime of a country or region? This paper addresses the question in detail, using the US and its widely varying environmental policies as the case study. What factors lead some US states to pass strict environmental regulations, while others are content with the baseline standards required at the national level? This work outlines the state environmental choice as a trade-off between the desires of consumers (who want better environmental quality) and of producers (who want less restrictive environmental standards). A rational state legislator maximises her chances of being re-elected by balancing these two competing forces when setting environmental policy. I test this model by directly analysing the state decision to adopt more restrictive sulfur dioxide regulations than those required by the federal government under the Environmental Protection Agency's ''National Ambient Air Quality Standards'' program. The statistical results suggest that legislators weigh the relative influence of consumer and producer groups when setting sulfur dioxide standards, in addition to accounting for meteorological influences that affect the cost of compliance with stricter environmental regulations. Limited evidence is also provided to support an inverted-U shaped relationship between income levels and environmental regulations. (author)

  8. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental standard reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, Heather M.; Schantz, Michele M.; Wise, Stephen A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Keller, Jennifer M.; Kucklick, John R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Analytical Chemistry Division, Hollings Marine Laboratory, Charleston, SC (United States); Leigh, Stefan D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Statistical Engineering Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are valuable tools in developing and validating analytical methods to improve quality assurance standards. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a long history of providing environmental SRMs with certified concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Here we report on new certified and reference concentrations for 27 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in seven different SRMs: cod-liver oil, whale blubber, fish tissue (two materials), mussel tissue and sediment (two materials). PBDEs were measured in these SRMs, with the lowest concentrations measured in mussel tissue (SRM 1974b) and the highest in sediment collected from the New York/New Jersey Waterway (SRM 1944). Comparing the relative PBDE congener concentrations within the samples, we found the biota SRMs contained primarily tetrabrominated and pentabrominated diphenyl ethers, whereas the sediment SRMs contained primarily decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209). The cod-liver oil (SRM 1588b) and whale blubber (SRM 1945) materials were also found to contain measurable concentrations of two methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-BDEs). Certified and reference concentrations are reported for 12 PBDE congeners measured in the biota SRMs and reference values are available for two MeO-BDEs. Results from a sediment interlaboratory comparison PBDE exercise are available for the two sediment SRMs (1941b and 1944). (orig.)

  9. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality standards...) The State has in good faith submitted such water quality standards and the Regional Administrator has...

  10. Evaluating Education Quality in Terms of ISO9000 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengchun, Cheng; Vogel, Linda R.; Zhaoyu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    While nations measure the quality of educational systems by different standards, many nations, such as China, have adopted the ISO9000 quality standards to assess the quality of schools. This article explores the various elements of the the ISO9000 standards and how each element relates to the various groups that are consumers or stakeholders in…

  11. A software perspective of environmental data quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, B.

    1995-01-01

    Because of the large amount of complex data in environmental projects, particularly large decontamination and decommissioning projects, the quality of the data has a profound impact on the success and cost of the mission. In every phase of the life cycle of the project, including regulatory intervention and legal proceedings, maintaining the quality of data and presenting data in a timely and meaningful manner are critical. In this paper, a systemic view of data quality management from a software engineering perspective is presented. A method of evaluation evolves from this view. This method complements the principles of the data quality objective. When graded adequately, the method of evaluation establishes a paradigm for ensuring data quality for new and renewed projects. This paper also demonstrates that incorporating good practices of software engineering into the data management process leads to continuous improvement of data quality

  12. Reconciliation with environmental quality and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmlund, Anna

    2010-12-01

    This report is an appendix to the 'Environmental Impact Assessment - Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The report makes a reconciliation with how the national and regional environmental quality and public health objectives are met in the construction, operation and decommissioning of the encapsulation plant and final disposal facility, and the Clink (encapsulation facility combined with CLAB). The starting point for reconciliation is the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This report provides reconciliations against how the environmental and health objectives are met. A more detailed description of the business and its environmental impacts is provided in the EIA.The disposal facility is planned to be constructed in Forsmark municipality, Oesthammar and the encapsulation is constructed, combined with CLAB, in Simpevarp in Oskarshamn municipality

  13. Quality Management Plan for the Environmental Assessment and Innovation Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality management plan (QMP) which identifies the mission, roles, responsibilities of personnel with regard to quality assurance and quality management for the environmental assessment and innovation division.

  14. Creating an Overall Environmental Quality Index - Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality index representing multiple domains of the ...

  15. Determination of quality standard of cemented radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johan, B.

    1997-01-01

    The standard determination of cemented low activity radioactive waste has been carried out. This study was intended to find the quality of immobilized product as a guaranty to the public and the environmental safety. As preliminary study, there parameters type have been studied i.e, the density, compressive strength and the leaching rate. By adopted the formulations of advanced country and field data, it can be concluded that the cementation waste should have the density, p, between 1.70 and 2.50 g.cm - 3, the compressive strength, S, between 20 and 50 N.mm - 2, the leaching rates R n between 1.70 x 10 - 2 and 2.50 x 10 - 3 g.cm - 2.day - 1 and after 150 days leaching time the leaching rate R n - 3 g.cm - 2.day - 1. This study is expected to be used to propose the Indonesian National Standard (INS) (author)

  16. Environmental and organizational determinants of quality management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, C.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de; Wal, G. van der

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain more insight into the organizational and environmental determinants of the implementation of quality management in health care organizations. Primary survey data were collected in 1995 in a large nationwide study within 15 fields of health care and health

  17. The biological basis for environmental quality assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.I.; Kudritsky, Y.K.; Georgievsky, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic approach is required to environmental quality assessments with regard to the Baltic regions in order to address the problem of pollution abatement. The proposed systematization of adaptive states stems from the general theory of adaptation. The various types of adaption are described. (AB)

  18. Monitoring Environmental Quality by Sniffing Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the environmental pollution and degradation in China has become a serious problem with the rapid development of Chinese heavy industry and increased energy generation. With sustainable development being the key to solving these problems, it is necessary to develop proper techniques for monitoring environmental quality. Compared to traditional environment monitoring methods utilizing expensive and complex instruments, we recognized that social media analysis is an efficient and feasible alternative to achieve this goal with the phenomenon that a growing number of people post their comments and feelings about their living environment on social media, such as blogs and personal websites. In this paper, we self-defined a term called the Environmental Quality Index (EQI to measure and represent people’s overall attitude and sentiment towards an area’s environmental quality at a specific time; it includes not only metrics for water and food quality but also people’s feelings about air pollution. In the experiment, a high sentiment analysis and classification precision of 85.67% was obtained utilizing the support vector machine algorithm, and we calculated and analyzed the EQI for 27 provinces in China using the text data related to the environment from the Chinese Sina micro-blog and Baidu Tieba collected from January 2015 to June 2016. By comparing our results to with the data from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS, we showed that the environment evaluation model we constructed and the method we proposed are feasible and effective.

  19. Quality of Standard Reference Materials for Short Time Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Oberleitner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Some environmental reference materials (CFA-1633 b, IAEA-SL-1, SARM-1,BCR-176, Coal-1635, IAEA-SL-3, BCR-146, and SRAM-5) were analysed by short-time activation analysis. The results show that these materials can be classified in three groups, according to their activities after irradiation. The obtained results were compared in order to create a quality index for determination of short-lived nuclides at high count rates. It was found that Cfta is not a suitable standard for determining very short-lived nuclides (half-lives<1 min) because the activity it produces is 15-fold higher than that SL-3. Biological reference materials, such as SRM-1571, SRM-1573, SRM-1575, SRM-1577, IAEA-392, and IAEA-393, were also investigated by a higher counting efficiency system. The quality of this system and its well-type detector for investigating short-lived nuclides was discussed

  20. Environmental quality, the macroeconomy, and intergenerational distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.; Kooiman, Jan Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic allocation effects and intergenerational welfare consequences of environmental taxes. To this end, environmental externalities are introduced in a Blanchard-Yaari overlapping generations model of a small open economy. A rise in environmental taxes - taking into account pre-existing distortionary taxes and endogenous labor supply - is shown to yield an efficiency gain if agents care enough for the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations because agents are heterogeneous in their capital ownership. An accompanying debt policy can be designed - prescribing debt accumulation at impact and debt redemption in the new steady state - to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With lump-sum recycling of environmental tax revenue, aggregate employment is unaffected in the short run, but falls in the long run. Furthermore, it raises environmental quality more in the long run than in the short run. Recycling revenue through a cut in labor taxes, however, is shown to yield a rise in employment in the short run, which disappears during transition. In the new steady state, environmental quality is higher at the expense of a lower level of employment. (author)

  1. Contact Us About Managing the Quality of Environmental Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contact us form for the EPA Quality Program regarding quality management activities for all environmental data collection and environmental technology programs performed by or for the Agency and the EPA Information Quality Guidelines.

  2. Leveraging Standards to Promote Program Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michelle D.; Mawhinney, Hanna; Reed, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Standards provide a foundation for thinking about leadership development and practice. This article explores three sets of standards that impact educational leadership preparation: (a) the recently revised Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards, which are now known as the Practice Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL);…

  3. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  4. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghani, Kishu

    2011-01-01

    It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality management. Quality control is focused on fulfilling quality requirements, whereas quality assurance is focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled. The quality systems must be commensurate with the Company business objectives and business model. Top management commitment and its active involvement are critical in order to ensure at all times the adequacy, suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of the quality systems. Effective and efficient quality systems can promote timely registration of drugs by eliminating waste and the need for rework with overall financial and social benefits to the Company.

  5. Columbia River final environmental impact statement. Appendix B: Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the air quality issues that were raised in the SOR scoping process and provides an overview of the study process used to evaluate air quality effects from various system operation alternatives. Chapter 2 describes the Federal, state, and local programs that regulate air quality and discusses the air quality standards that are relevant to the analysis. It also gives an overview of the limatology of the region and the existing air quality in the Columbia River Basin, including areas of non-attainment for relevant air quality standards. Chapter 3 presents the methods this study uses for the analysis of air quality and for the evaluation of human health effects from air pollutants. Chapter 4 provides the study results for the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives and potential mitigation measures. Chapter 5 compares impacts on air quality and human health across alternatives, and discusses mitigation measures and cumulative effects. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 contain the list of preparers, glossary, and references, respectively. Technical exhibits supporting the analysis are also included

  6. Making Retail Supply Chains Sustainable: Upgrading Opportunities for Developing Country Suppliers under Voluntary Quality Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); M. Danse (Myrtille); R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the sustainability claims of private quality standards, voluntary adopted by supermarket to improve the quality of products in respect of food safety, and environmental and social sustainability. The concept of ‘sustainability’ is defined as the opportunity for

  7. The new international standard ISO 14001: 2004 environmental management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oheba, Jamal Basher

    2006-01-01

    ISO 14001 is one standard in the ISO 14000 series of standards developed by International Organization of Standardization (ISO). Since it was published in 19096, it has rapidly become the most important environmental standard in the world. ISO 14001 is an environmental management system (EMS) that can be classified into environmental technologies provides a systematic procedure to all kind of organizations to prevent pollutions, protect environment and to improve their overall environmental performance. This new standard ISO 14001 2004 was published on November 15, 2004. It cancels and replaced the old ISO 14001-1996. Because the important of the previous standard for our local industries, firms, ...etc, this paper presents ISO 14001 concepts, issues, benefits and focuses on the stages of implementation to achieve ISO 14001-2004 certification which includes general requirements environmental policy, planning (objectives, targets ..), implementation and operations, checking and management review ...etc and presents how to apply isotop time saver software to design records, and to save time to implement ISO 14001 2004 and finally a conclusion is provided.(Author)

  8. Software Quality Assurance and Controls Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    dassurance a wor pro uc s an processes comply with predefined provisions and plans. • According to International Standard (IS) 12207 – of the 44...from document (plan) focus to process focus – Alignment with framework standard IS 12207 software life cycle (SLC) processes with exact...Books and P blications IEEE Software and Systems Engineering curriculum ABET u Certified Software Development Professional Standards ISO /IEC

  9. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications...-9668-2] RIN 2060-AP37 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  10. Publication and Distribution of Chinese Standard and Quality Books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Demei

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.A Brief Introduction to SPC Standards Press of China (SPC),founded in October,1963,is the largest publisher of standard and quality products in China.It publishes national standards,trade standards,and audio,video,electronic,and network products.

  11. Quality Assurance Standards for Symptomatic Breast Disease Services

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2007-01-01

    Quality Assurance Standards for Symptomatic Breast Disease Services People in Ireland have a right to expect that medical care be of good quality. They expect that standards of care are consistently high. They expect that access to care is easy, speedy, effective and efficient. Society expects quality of care to measure up to international norms of good practice. Such assurance can be given by auditing the quality of activity. Click here to download PDF 606kb

  12. Standards of Quality: Accreditation Guidelines Redesigned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Hazel; Andrews, Frances; Stanley, M. Sue; Anderson, Carol L.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure optimal standards for AAFCS program accreditation, the Council for Accreditation (CFA) conducted a review and revision of the "2001 AAFCS Standards for Accreditation." The CFA took a three-pronged approach including (a) a review of academic accreditations that had relationships to the FCS disciplines, (b) concept, content, and process…

  13. Reliability testing across the Environmental Quality Index and national environmental indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One challenge in environmental epidemiology is the exploration of cumulative environmental exposure across multiple domains (e.g. air, water, land). The Environmental Quality Index (EQI), created by the U.S. EPA, uses principle component analyses combining environmental domains (...

  14. Haugh Unit: Gold Standard of Egg Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapidly determining shell egg quality in an objective manner is not an easy task. Candling is most often utilized as a quick method for assessing egg quality in a non-destructive manner, but it is a highly subjective method. As you have experienced this week, when candling, it is almost impossibl...

  15. Alternative quality standards in qualitative research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Cindy Louise; Schildkamp, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative researchers often use other principles for judging the quality of their study than quantitative researchers. This inhibits a straightforward assessment of the quality and comparability of different types of studies, as well as decision-making about their usefulness for further research

  16. Organizational, technical, physical and clinical quality standards for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz-Czerniewicz, Marta; Kaźmierczak, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background Indisputably, radiotherapy has become an entirely interdisciplinary specialty. This situation requires efficient planning, verification, monitoring, quality control and constant improvement of all aspects of service delivery, referring both to patients’ (including diagnosis, prescription and method of treatment, its justification, realization and follow up) and organizational, technical and physics matters. Aim The aim of this work was to develop technical, physics and clinical quality standards for radiotherapy. This paper presents chosen standards for each of the aforementioned category. Materials and methods For the development of quality standards the comparison analysis of EU and Polish acts of law passed between 1980 and 2010 was conducted, the universal industrial ISO norm 9001:2008 referring to quality management system was reviewed. Recommendations of this norm were completed with detailed quality standards based on the author's 11 year work experience and the review of articles on quality assurance and quality control standards for radiotherapy published between 1984 and 2009 and the review of current recommendations and guidelines of American, International, European and National bodies (associations, societies, agencies such as AAPM, ESTRO, IAEA, and OECI) for quality assurance and quality management in radiotherapy. Results As a result 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: (1) organizational standards, (2) physics and technical standards and (3) clinical standards. Conclusions Proposed quality standards for radiotherapy, can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical procedures. Nevertheless standards are only of value if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:24377023

  17. Environmental Restoration Program quality system requirements for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, R.F.

    1993-11-01

    This document defines the quality system requirements for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Program at the Hanford Site. The Quality System Requirements (OSR) for the Hanford Site integrates quality assurance requirements from the US Department of Energy Orders, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), and applicable industry standards into a single source document for the development of quality systems applicable to the Environmental Restoration Program activities. This document, based on fifteen criteria and divided intro three parts, provides user organizations with the flexibility to incorporate only those criteria and parts applicable to their specific scopes of work. The requirements of this document shall be applied to activities that affect quality based on a graded approach that takes into consideration the risk inherent in, as well as the importance of, specific items, services, and activities in terms of meeting ER Program objectives and customer expectations. The individual quality systems developed in accordance with this document are intended to provide an integrated management control system that assures the conduct of ER Program activities in a manner that protects human health and the environment

  18. Implementation of a consolidated, standardized database of environmental measurements data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, T.L.

    1996-10-01

    This report discusses the benefits of a consolidated and standardized database; reasons for resistance to the consolidation of data; implementing a consolidated database, including attempts at standardization, deciding what to include in the consolidated database, establishing lists of valid values, and addressing quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) issues; and the evolution of a consolidated database, which includes developing and training a user community, resolving configuration control issues, incorporating historical data, identifying emerging standards, and developing pointers to other data. OREIS is used to illustrate these topics

  19. Quality control activities in the environmental radiology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llaurado, M.; Quesada, D.; Rauret, G.; Tent, J.; Zapata, D.

    2006-01-01

    During the last twenty years many analytical laboratories have implemented quality assurance systems. A quality system implementation requires documentation of all activities (technical and management), evaluation of these activities and its continual improvement. Implementation and adequate management of all the elements a quality system includes are not enough to guarantee quality of the analytical results generated at a time. That is the aim of a group of specific activities labelled as quality control activities. The Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (Environmental Radiology Laboratory; LRA) at the University of Barcelona was created in 1984 to carry out part of the quality control assays of the Environmental Radiology Monitoring Programs around some of the Spanish nuclear power plants, which are developed by the Servei Catala d'Activitats Energetiques (SCAR) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), organisations responsible for nuclear security and radiological protection. In these kind of laboratories, given the importance of the results they give, quality control activities become an essential aspect. In order to guarantee the quality of its analytical results, the LRA Direction decided to adopt the international standard UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025 for its internal quality system and to accreditate some of the assays it carries out. In such as system, it is established, the laboratory shall monitor the validity of tests undertaken and data shall be recorded in such a way that trends are detectable. The present work shows the activities carried out in this way by the LRA, which are: Equipment control activities which in the special case of radiochemical techniques include measurement of backgrounds and blanks as well as periodical control of efficiency and resolution. Activities to assure the specifications settled by method validation, which are testing of reference materials and periodical analysis of control samples. Evaluation of the laboratory work quality

  20. The Economic Impact on the Construction Industry of Additional Demands Caused by New Environmental Protection Standards (1972)

    Science.gov (United States)

    New facilities and additions to existing facilities will be required to meet the EPA's new (early 1970s) environmental quality standards. The report examines extent of these additional demands for construction and their economic impacts.

  1. The role of Health Impact Assessment in the setting of air quality standards: An Australian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spickett, Jeffery, E-mail: J.Spickett@curtin.edu.au [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Katscherian, Dianne [WHO Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health Impact Assessment (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Harris, Patrick [CHETRE — UNSW Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    The approaches used for setting or reviewing air quality standards vary from country to country. The purpose of this research was to consider the potential to improve decision-making through integration of HIA into the processes to review and set air quality standards used in Australia. To assess the value of HIA in this policy process, its strengths and weaknesses were evaluated aligned with review of international processes for setting air quality standards. Air quality standard setting programmes elsewhere have either used HIA or have amalgamated and incorporated factors normally found within HIA frameworks. They clearly demonstrate the value of a formalised HIA process for setting air quality standards in Australia. The following elements should be taken into consideration when using HIA in standard setting. (a) The adequacy of a mainly technical approach in current standard setting procedures to consider social determinants of health. (b) The importance of risk assessment criteria and information within the HIA process. The assessment of risk should consider equity, the distribution of variations in air quality in different locations and the potential impacts on health. (c) The uncertainties in extrapolating evidence from one population to another or to subpopulations, especially the more vulnerable, due to differing environmental factors and population variables. (d) The significance of communication with all potential stakeholders on issues associated with the management of air quality. In Australia there is also an opportunity for HIA to be used in conjunction with the NEPM to develop local air quality standard measures. The outcomes of this research indicated that the use of HIA for air quality standard setting at the national and local levels would prove advantageous. -- Highlights: • Health Impact Assessment framework has been applied to a policy development process. • HIA process was evaluated for application in air quality standard setting.

  2. The case for regime-based water quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.C. Poole; J.B. Dunham; D.M. Keenan; S.T. Sauter; D.A. McCullough; C. Mebane; J.C. Lockwood; D.A. Essig; M.P. Hicks; D.J. Sturdevant; E.J. Materna; S.A. Spalding; J. Risley; M. Deppman

    2004-01-01

    Conventional water quality standards have been successful in reducing the concentration of toxic substances in US waters. However, conventional standards are based on simple thresholds and are therefore poorly structured to address human-caused imbalances in dynamic, natural water quality parameters, such as nutrients, sediment, and temperature. A more applicable type...

  3. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... information indicating the relative performance of passenger car tires in the areas of treadwear, traction... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0120] RIN 2127-AL49 Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...). ACTION: Interim final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards...

  4. ISO 9001:2000--setting the standard for quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M E

    2001-04-01

    How will you approach the next quality management initiative? This article offers an introduction to the ISO 9001:2000 quality management system standards that can be applied to the HIM industry and how these standards can improve your department's policies and procedures.

  5. New international and national standards concerning quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrick, K.; Reihlen, H.

    1987-01-01

    The history and contents of the latest standards DIN ISO 9000 through DIN ISO 9004 concerning quality systems are outlined. Information is given referring to the establishment of an in-house quality system, and to quality assurance requirements put down in a three-step quality assurance system for contractual purposes. The services available for certification of quality systems by the 'DQS' and legal aspects are mentioned. (HP)

  6. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  7. Environmental impact via quality management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, A.I.A.; EL Nahas, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Power Quality (PQ) is becoming of great concern to consumers and utilities. Utility companies, equipment manufacturers and electric power customers are the main three parameters who have great interests and growing concern with PQ. Alexandria Electricity Distribution Company (AEDC) is one of the utility company who try to enhance power quality through decreasing disruptions and interruptions which occur by improving the reliability since reliability coupled with power quality and customer service are key components in delivering an effective electricity support to customers which consequently affect the global environment. One strategic solution which has been developed in recent years by AEDC is the Distribution Management System (DMS) that provide remote monitoring of currents, voltages and switch positions of various remote circuit components (direct measurements), control operation and improving the quality of customer service through the reduction of outage time and the monthly detection of reliability indices: System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI) , System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI), Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDT) in order To save energy hoping to decrease the global wanning effect and greenhouse gas effect and acid rain phenomena. This paper will cover the effect of DMS on the reliability indices: SAIFI, SAIDI, CAIDI during the last few years and their improvement due to the accuracy of information taken by DMS. In addition, it will discuss the minimization of power losses and their environmental effects on the global warming and greenhouse gas phenomena

  8. 40 CFR 262.103 - What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental management standard? 262.103 Section 262.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... University Laboratories XL Project-Laboratory Environmental Management Standard § 262.103 What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard? The Laboratory Environmental Management Standard...

  9. Quality assurance requirements in various codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, H.I.; EL-Sayed, A.; Aly, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The quality assurance requirements in various countries and according to various international codes and standards are presented, compared and critically discussed. Cases of developing countries are also discussed, and the use of IAEA code of practice and other codes for quality assurance in these countries is reviewed. Recommendations are made regarding the quality assurance system to be applied for Egypt's nuclear power plants

  10. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its role in environmental standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The NRC and its predecessors in the Atomic Energy Commission represent considerable experience in environmental standards setting. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, the 1970 Supreme Court decision on Federal pre-emption of radiation standards, the Calvert Cliffs decision of 1971, the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and the Appendix I ''as low as reasonably achievable'' decision of 1975, to name a few of our landmarks, are representative of the scars and the achievements of being in a role of national leadership in radiation protection. The NRC, through a variety of legislative authorities, administrative regulations, regulatory guides, and national consensus standards regulates the commercial applications of nuclear energy. The purposes of regulation are the protection of the environment, public health and safety, and national security. To understand NRC's responsibilities relative to those of other Federal and state agencies concerned with environmental protection, we will briefly review the legislative authorities which underlie our regulatory program. Then we will examine the intent or the spirit of that program as embodied in our system of regulations, guides, and standards. Finally we will speak to what's happening today and what we see in the future for environmental standards

  11. 75 FR 39252 - Release of Final Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk and Exposure Assessment and Particulate Matter... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OAR-2007-0492; FRL-9171-8] Release of Final Documents...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The Office of Air Quality...

  12. An Approach to Establishing International Quality Standards for Medical Travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej eKácha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traveling abroad to receive a non-elective treatment is expanding each year. Such rising popularity of medical travel and the absence of clear minimum quality requirements in this area urgently calls for setting international standards to ensure good practice and patient safety. The aim of this study is to identify the key domains in medical travel where such quality standards should be established. Drawing from the evidence-based OECD framework and an extensive literature review, this study proposes three critical areas for international quality standards in medical travel: minimum standards of health care facilities and third-party agencies, financial responsibility and patient-centeredness. Several cultural challenges are subsequently introduced that may pose a barrier to the development of the guidelines and should be additionally taken into consideration. Establishing international quality standards in medical travel enhances the benefits to patients and providers, which is urgently needed given the rapid growth in this industry.

  13. Air Quality and Indoor Environmental Exposures: Clinical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes as it relates to the health and comfort of the occupants. Many ambient (outdoor) air pollutants readily permeate indoor spaces. Because indoor air can be considerably more polluted than ambient air, the USEPA lists poor IAQ as a major environmental concern. In the sections that follow, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. In some cases, exposure may be acute, with one or more pets (and owners) experiencing signs within a relatively short period. However, most exposures are episodic or chronic, making it difficult to definitively link poor IAQ to respiratory or other adverse health outcomes. Age or underlying immunologic, cardiac, or respiratory disease may further complicate the clinical picture, as those patients may be more sensitive to (and affected by) lower concentrations than prove problematic for healthy housemates. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoors, we will discuss how certain home conditions can worsen indoor air quality and will briefly discuss measures to improve IAQ for owners and their pets. In this overview presentation, health effects associated with commonly encountered ambient air pollutants and indoor contaminants will be broken down by agent class. Because pets, like their owners, spend most of their lives indoo

  14. Research report 1987-1989: Environmental Quality Laboratory and Environmental Engineering Science, W. M. Keck Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Norman H.

    1990-01-01

    This research biennial report for 1987-89 covers the activities of both the Environmental Engineering Science program and the Environmental Quality Laboratory for the period October 1987-November 1989. Environmental Engineering Science is the degree-granting academic program housed in the Keck Laboratories, with associated research projects. The Environmental Quality Laboratory is a research center focusing on large scale problems of environmental quality and natural resources. All the facult...

  15. Environmental Quality and the U.S. Power Sector: Air Quality, Land Use and Environmental Justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massetti, Emanuele [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradbury, James [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cunliff, Colin [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-04

    This baseline report summarizes key environmental quality issues associated with electricity generation, transmission, distribution, and end use in the United States. Its scope includes non-greenhouse gas air pollution (i.e., sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and hazardous air pollutants), land use, water pollution, ecological impacts, human health, and environmental justice. The discussion characterizes both current impacts and recent trends, as well as assessments of key drivers of change. For example, the air emissions section includes a quantitative decomposition analysis of the drivers of change in sulfur dioxide emissions reductions from coal-fired power plants. The report is divided into four topical sections: air emissions, land use and ecology, water quality, and environmental justice.

  16. Quality control with R an ISO standards approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cano, Emilio L; Prieto Corcoba, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Presenting a practitioner's guide to capabilities and best practices of quality control systems using the R programming language, this volume emphasizes accessibility and ease-of-use through detailed explanations of R code as well as standard statistical methodologies. In the interest of reaching the widest possible audience of quality-control professionals and statisticians, examples throughout are structured to simplify complex equations and data structures, and to demonstrate their applications to quality control processes, such as ISO standards. The volume balances its treatment of key aspects of quality control, statistics, and programming in R, making the text accessible to beginners and expert quality control professionals alike. Several appendices serve as useful references for ISO standards and common tasks performed while applying quality control with R.

  17. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  18. Quality standards of the European Pharmacopoeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouin, Anne-Sophie; Wierer, Michael

    2014-12-02

    The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) provides a legal and scientific reference for the quality control of medicines. It is legally binding in the 38 signatory parties of the Convention on the elaboration of a European Pharmacopoeia (37 member states and the European Union). The requirements for a specific herbal drug are prescribed in the corresponding individual monograph and the relevant general monographs. Criteria for pesticides and heavy metals for example are defined in the general monograph on Herbal drugs. The Ph. Eur. also provides general methods including methods for determination of aflatoxins B1 and ochratoxin A. Screening methods for aristolochic acids are applied for herbal drugs that may be subject to adulteration or substitution with plant material containing aristolochic acids. The Ph. Eur. collaborate in many areas with the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to ensure close collaboration as regards the respective work programmes and approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Do semantic standards lack quality? A survey among 34 semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of standards to improve interoperability in the automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding and other sectors could save billions. While interoperability standards have been created for a number of industries, problems persist, suggesting a lack of quality of the standards themselves. The issue

  20. Do semantic standards lack quality? A survey among 34 semantic standards.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Oude Luttighuis, Paul; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of standards to improve interoperability in the automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding and other sectors could save billions. While interoperability standards have been created for a number of industries, problems persist, suggesting a lack of quality of the standards themselves. The issue

  1. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  2. Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishu Manghani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is mandatory for sponsors of clinical trials and contract research organizations alike to establish, manage and monitor their quality control and quality assurance systems and their integral standard operating procedures and other quality documents to provide high-quality products and services to fully satisfy customer needs and expectations. Quality control and quality assurance systems together constitute the key quality systems. Quality control and quality assurance are parts of quality management. Quality control is focused on fulfilling quality requirements, whereas quality assurance is focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled. The quality systems must be commensurate with the Company business objectives and business model. Top management commitment and its active involvement are critical in order to ensure at all times the adequacy, suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of the quality systems. Effective and efficient quality systems can promote timely registration of drugs by eliminating waste and the need for rework with overall financial and social benefits to the Company.

  3. Providing better indoor environmental quality brings economicbenefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Seppanen, Olli

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes the current scientific evidence that improved indoor environmental quality can improve work performance and health. The review indicates that work and school work performance is affected by indoor temperature and ventilation rate. Pollutant source removal can sometimes improve work performance. Based on formal statistical analyses of existing research results, quantitative relationships are provided for the linkages of work performance with indoor temperature and outdoor air ventilation rate. The review also indicates that improved health and related financial savings are obtainable from reduced indoor tobacco smoking, prevention and remediation of building dampness, and increased ventilation. Example cost-benefit analyses indicate that many measures to improve indoor temperature control and increase ventilation rates will be highly cost effective, with benefit-cost ratios as high as 80 and annual economic benefits as high as $700 per person.

  4. Overview of the EPA quality system for environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Formalized quality assurance program requirements for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been established for more than a decade. During this period, the environmental issues and concerns addressed by the EPA have changed. Many issues, such as ozone depletion and global climate warming, have become international concerns among the world environmental community. Other issues, such as hazardous waste cleanup and clean air, remain a focus of national environmental concerns. As the environmental issues of the 1980`s evolved, the traditional quality assurance (QA) program was transformed through the use of quality management principles into a Quality System to help managers meet the needs of the 1990`s and beyond.

  5. Overview of the EPA quality system for environmental programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Formalized quality assurance program requirements for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been established for more than a decade. During this period, the environmental issues and concerns addressed by the EPA have changed. Many issues, such as ozone depletion and global climate warming, have become international concerns among the world environmental community. Other issues, such as hazardous waste cleanup and clean air, remain a focus of national environmental concerns. As the environmental issues of the 1980's evolved, the traditional quality assurance (QA) program was transformed through the use of quality management principles into a Quality System to help managers meet the needs of the 1990's and beyond

  6. The development of STS payload environmental engineering standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    The presently reported effort to provide a single set of standards for the design, analysis and testing of Space Transportation System (STS) payloads throughout the NASA organization must be viewed as essentially experimental, since the concept of incorporating the diverse opinions and experiences of several separate field research centers may in retrospect be judged too ambitious or perhaps even naive. While each STS payload may have unique characteristics, and the project should formulate its own criteria for environmental design, testing and evaluation, a reference source document providing coordinated standards is expected to minimize the duplication of effort and limit random divergence of practices among the various NASA payload programs. These standards would provide useful information to all potential STS users, and offer a degree of standardization to STS users outside the NASA organization.

  7. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ..., respectively, and to make corresponding revisions to the data handling conventions for PM and ambient air.... Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Ariel Rios Building, 1200...

  8. DOE standard: Quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    This standard establishes essential elements for the quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters by US Department of Energy (DOE)-accepted Filter Test Facilities (FTF). The standard specifies HEPA filter quality assurance inspection and testing practices established in DOE-STD-3022-98, DOE HEPA Filter Test Program, and provides a basis for the preparation of written operating procedures for primary FTF functions

  9. Using SWE Standards for Ubiquitous Environmental Sensing: A Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Huerta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although smartphone applications represent the most typical data consumer tool from the citizen perspective in environmental applications, they can also be used for in-situ data collection and production in varied scenarios, such as geological sciences and biodiversity. The use of standard protocols, such as SWE, to exchange information between smartphones and sensor infrastructures brings benefits such as interoperability and scalability, but their reliance on XML is a potential problem when large volumes of data are transferred, due to limited bandwidth and processing capabilities on mobile phones. In this article we present a performance analysis about the use of SWE standards in smartphone applications to consume and produce environmental sensor data, analysing to what extent the performance problems related to XML can be alleviated by using alternative uncompressed and compressed formats.

  10. Overall environmental quality and cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is associated with individual ambient environmental exposures such as fine particulate matter and arsenic in drinking water. However, the role of the overall ambient environment is not well-understood. To estimate cumulative environmental exposures, an Environmental Qualit...

  11. Free Trade and Labour and Environmental Standards in MERCOSUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Olmos Giupponi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main argument put forward in the article is that MERCOSUR accommodated the protection of human rights as non-trade issues in its institutional framework, analysing the conflict between the protection of human rights and trade issues at the sub-regional level. In order to give a complete and clear picture of these developments, the paper examines member states' constitutional provisions and the implementation of MERCOSUR labour and environmental standards before national courts.

  12. standards used for quality control of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guereli, L; Can, S.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fuels and fuel materials are subject to stringent restrictions as to their quality. The standards and regulations that apply vary according to reactor type and country and the standards are stated in the quality assurance documents. The concept of quality assurance has altered the conventional quality control tests and procedures, defining which control tests are to be applied and how. Although most of the tests and measurements allow the determination of tolerances to be decided according to the agreement between the buyer and the seller, exacting procedures apply to which instruments and equipment are used for these tests and measurements, how these instruments are standardized.Detailed explanations of test methods and their documentation is a requirement in all standards. The purpose of this work is to study which standards, tests and measurements apply to the nuclear fuel production. Only the standards that apply to various stages of the nuclear fuel production (powder preparation, pellet production, fuel element and fuel assembly fabrication) are reviewed. Process and documentation control, design and licensing requirements and the frequency of inspections are quality assurance subjects. Some ASTM standards are given as examples

  13. Developing quality standards for physical properties of mineral wool plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Berg, van den C.C.; Winkel, van A.

    2014-01-01

    The KIWA certification guidelines for mineral wool products contain standards for slabs and blocks. Propagators would like to introduce quality standards for mineral wool plugs as well. Main concerns were effects of too dense plugs on plant growth, and handling problems with too fluffy or broken

  14. 42 CFR 493.1289 - Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Analytic systems quality assessment. 493.1289 Section 493.1289 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... through 493.1283. (b) The analytic systems quality assessment must include a review of the effectiveness...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1299 - Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Postanalytic systems quality assessment. 493.1299 Section 493.1299 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH....1291. (b) The postanalytic systems quality assessment must include a review of the effectiveness of...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1249 - Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Preanalytic systems quality assessment. 493.1249 Section 493.1249 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH....1241 through 493.1242. (b) The preanalytic systems quality assessment must include a review of the...

  17. Standard setting and quality of assessment: A conceptual approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality performance standards and the effect of assessment outcomes are important in the educational milieu, as assessment remains the representative ... not be seen as a methodological process of setting pass/fail cut-off points only, but as a powerful catalyst for quality improvements in HPE by promoting excellence in ...

  18. Quality standards and requirements for solid recovered fuels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Sabine; Geiping, Julia

    2012-04-01

    The utilization of solid recovered fuels (SRF) for energy recovery has been increasing steadily in recent years, and this development is set to continue. In order to use SRF efficiently, it is necessary to define quality standards and introduce targeted quality assurance measures. SRF can be used both in mono-incineration and in co-incineration systems, for instance in power generation and cement plants; but as quality requirements differ, it is necessary to unambiguously define the term 'solid recovered fuel'. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the origin, development and the current status of quality assurance for SRF. The basic principles of quality assurance for SRF are explained with reference to the development of the German RAL Quality Assurance System and in addition specifications that have emerged from European standardization work of CEN/TC 343 are analysed.

  19. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities – A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-01-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities. - Highlights: • The index provides a new framework for analyzing the overall urban environmental quality. • The index scores are calculated based on environmental standards and desired optimum benchmark values. • The paper demonstrates the gap between the state of existing urban environmental quality and the desired goals. - Introducing a multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index, which measures urban environmental quality related to environmental benchmarks.

  20. 78 FR 14773 - U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit-Landfill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...--Landfill Standards AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comment... or services relevant to landfill environmental standards. The Department of Commerce continues to..., Web site address, contact information, and landfill environmental standards category of interest from...

  1. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto Rico, and California's San Francisco Bay. In 1992, EPA promulgated the National Toxics Rule or NTR to establish numeric water quality...

  2. FACTORS DESCRIBING STUDENTS´ PERCEPTION ON EDUCATION QUALITY STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Vnoučková

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Education quality assurance is the necessity for today’s competitive environment in university education. Quality assurance standards and strategies are being used in most of universities and higher education institutions. But the perception of quality standards is being usually seen from the perspective of a university management. This study aims to analyze and present perceptions of students towards a measurement of education quality standards and to identify significant groups of students according to their preferences in education quality. Students’ questionnaires and focus groups collected the data. Two dimensional and multi-dimensional statistical methods were used to evaluate the results. The outputs show five groups of students based on their perception of the education quality. Examination of students’ interest in specific areas, subjects and courses leads to identification of factors which affect their preferences in education. The paper found five significant groups of perceived quality by students. These are Quality receptionists, Business oriented, Expert innovators, Distance learners and Arrangement oriented. Limit of the study is a narrow focus on one private university. This study may encourage other papers to develop and test further the impact of education quality on students’ preferences for measurable improvements. The paper is an extension of the conference paper presented on ERIE conference 2017.

  3. The role of field auditing in environmental quality assurance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, D R

    2000-01-01

    Environmental data quality improvement continues to focus on analytical laboratoryperformance with little, if any, attention given to improving the performance of field consultants responsible for sample collection. Many environmental professionals often assume that the primary opportunity for data error lies within the activities conducted by the laboratory. Experience in the evaluation of environmental data and project-wide quality assurance programs indicates that an often-ignored factor affecting environmental data quality is the manner in which a sample is acquired and handled in the field. If a sample is not properly collected, preserved, stored, and transported in the field, even the best laboratory practices and analytical methods cannot deliver accurate and reliable data (i.e., bad data in equals bad data out). Poor quality environmental data may result in inappropriate decisions regarding site characterization and remedial action. Field auditing is becoming an often-employed technique for examining the performance of the environmental sampling field team and how their performance may affect data quality. The field audits typically focus on: (1) verifying that field consultants adhere to project control documents (e.g., Work Plans and Standard Operating Procedures [SOPs]) during field operations; (2) providing third-party independent assurance that field procedures, quality assurance/ quality control (QA/QC)protocol, and field documentation are sufficient to produce data of satisfactory quality; (3) providing a defense in the event that field procedures are called into question; and (4) identifying ways to reduce sampling costs. Field audits are typically most effective when performed on a surprise basis; that is, the sampling contractor may be aware that a field audit will be conducted during some phase of sampling activities but is not informed of the specific day(s) that the audit will be conducted. The audit also should be conducted early on in the

  4. Environmental Quality Laboratory Research Report, 1985-1987

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Norman H.

    1988-01-01

    The Environmental Quality Laboratory at Caltech is a center for research on large-scale systems problems of natural resources and environmental quality. The principal areas of investigation at EQL are: 1. Air quality management. 2. Water resources and water quality management. 3. Control of hazardous substances in the environment. 4. Energy policy, including regulation, conservation and energy-environment tradeoffs. 5. Resources policy (other than energy); residuals m...

  5. Implementation of quality standards in an individual monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyvoenen, H.; Vartiainen, E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a quality system to the procedures of an individual monitoring service (IMS) is described from the practical perspective. The IMS of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is used as an example. The IMS of STUK monitors about 8500 persons mainly working in hospitals, industry and research centres. The current thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system was introduced in 1992 and the whole service changed to TLDs in 1995. The quality system compatible with the quality standards was introduced in 1999. An application for accreditation to full EN45001 and ISO/IEC Guide 25 was made in December 1999, accreditation was achieved in August 2000 by the Finnish Accreditation Service (FINAS). The considerations needed for the quality system to fulfil the requirements of the quality standards are reported. (author)

  6. Implementation of quality standards in an individual monitoring service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyvoenen, H.; Vartiainen, E

    2001-07-01

    In this paper the implementation of a quality system to the procedures of an individual monitoring service (IMS) is described from the practical perspective. The IMS of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is used as an example. The IMS of STUK monitors about 8500 persons mainly working in hospitals, industry and research centres. The current thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system was introduced in 1992 and the whole service changed to TLDs in 1995. The quality system compatible with the quality standards was introduced in 1999. An application for accreditation to full EN45001 and ISO/IEC Guide 25 was made in December 1999, accreditation was achieved in August 2000 by the Finnish Accreditation Service (FINAS). The considerations needed for the quality system to fulfil the requirements of the quality standards are reported. (author)

  7. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  8. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  9. Industrial effluent quality, pollution monitoring and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S; Hammad, Waleed S

    2008-12-01

    Royal Commission Environmental Control Department (RC-ECD) at Yanbu industrial city in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has established a well-defined monitoring program to control the pollution from industrial effluents. The quality of effluent from each facility is monitored round the clock. Different strategic measures have been taken by the RC-ECD to implement the zero discharge policy of RC. Industries are required to pre-treat the effluent to conform pretreatment standards before discharging to central biological treatment plant. Industries are not allowed to discharge any treated or untreated effluent in open channels. After treatment, reclaimed water must have to comply with direct discharge standards before discharge to the sea. Data of industrial wastewater collected from five major industries and central industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) is summarized in this report. During 5-year period, 3,705 samples were collected and analyzed for 43,436 parameters. There were 1,377 violations from pretreatment standards from all the industries. Overall violation percentage was 3.17%. Maximum violations were recorded from one of the petrochemical plants. The results show no significant pollution due to heavy metals. Almost all heavy metals were within RC pretreatment standards. High COD and TOC indicates that major pollution was due to hydrocarbons. Typical compounds identified by GC-MS were branched alkanes, branched alkenes, aliphatic ketones, substituted thiophenes, substituted phenols, aromatics and aromatic alcohols. Quality of treated water was also in compliance with RC direct discharge standards. In order to achieve the zero discharge goal, further studies and measures are in progress.

  10. Iowa Department of Environmental Quality, 1976-1977. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Iowa Department of Environmental Quality's Annual Report for fiscal year 1976-77 is organized into three major program areas: Air Quality, Land Quality and Water Quality. Activities of each area are reviewed along with goals for the future. The Department's organizational structure and financial summary complete the report

  11. The Relation of Environmental Quality and Fishery Sector in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavilia, Shanty; Habibah Yusfi, Reikha; Firmansyah; Sugiyanto, FX

    2018-02-01

    The condition of fishery sector is currently stagnating, even tending to decline, which is indicated by the decrease of production in some areas in Indonesia. Environmental degradation in marine waters is due to global climate change and uncontrolled fish exploitation impact on the decline of marine fisheries production. While in aquaculture, the environmental quality is also indicated to influence the production. Nevertheless, the increase of production of both marine and terrestrial fisheries has an effect on the quality of the environment. This study aims to analyze the interrelationship between the influence of environmental quality on the production of fishery sub-sector and the influence of fishery subsector production on environmental quality. This research employs environmental quality data and output of fishery of 34 provinces in Indonesia during 2011-2015. The study finds that output of fishery sector affects the environmental quality, which proves the Environment Kuznets Curve in the fishery sector in Indonesia. Since a certain threshold is achieved, the increase in revenue followed by the increase in environmental quality. The study also finds that the environmental quality has a positive effect on the production of fishery. Implication of the study is the increase of income of fishery households can be encouraged the ability of the community to protect the environment and increases the willingness of households to sacrifice other goods to environmental protection.

  12. Consensus values for NIST biological and environmental Standard Reference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandts, I.; Gladney, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards or NBS) has produced numerous Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for use in biological and environmental analytical chemistry. The value listed on the ''NIST Certificate of Analysis'' is the present best estimate of the ''true'' concentration of that element and is not expected to deviate from that concentration by more than the stated uncertainty. However, NIST does not certify the elemental concentration of every constituent and the number of elements reported in the NIST programs tends to be limited.Numerous analysts have published concentration data on these reference materials. Major journals in analytical chemistry, books, proceedings and ''technical reports'' have been surveyed to collect these available literature values. A standard statistical approach has been employed to evaluate the compiled data. Our methodology has been developed in a series of previous papers. Some subjective criteria are first used to reject aberrant data. Following these eliminations, an initial arithmetic mean and standard deviation (S.D.) are computed from remaining data for each element. All data now outside two S.D. from the initial mean are dropped and a second mean and S.D. recalculated. These final means and associated S.D. are reported as ''consensus values'' in our tables. (orig.)

  13. Calculations supporting evaluation of potential environmental standards for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Andrews, R.W.; Brandstetter, E.; Dale, T.F.; Reeves, M.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 801 (US Congress, 1992) provides for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to contract the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to conduct a study and provide findings and recommendations on reasonable standards for the disposal of high-level wastes at the Yucca Mountain site. The NAS study is to provide findings and recommendations which include, among other things, whether a health-based standard based on dose to individual members of the public from releases to the accessible environment will provide a reasonable standard for the protection of the health and safety of the public. The EPA, based upon and consistent with the findings and recommendations of the NAS, is required to promulgate standards for protection of the public from releases from radioactive materials stored or disposed of in a repository at the Yucca Mountain site. This document presents a number of different ''simple'' analyses of undisturbed repository performance that are intended to provide input to those responsible for setting appropriate environmental standards for a potential repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Each of the processes included in the analyses has been simplified to capture the primary significance of that process in containing or isolating the waste from the biosphere. In these simplified analyses, the complex waste package interactions were approximated by a simple waste package ''failure'' distribution which is defined by the initiation and rate of waste package ''failures''. Similarly, releases from the waste package and the engineered barrier system are controlled by the very near field environment and the presence and rate of advective and diffusive release processes. Release was approximated by either a simple alteration-controlled release for the high solubility radionuclides and either a diffusive or advective-controlled release for the solubility-limited radionuclides

  14. Standardization and quality management in next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrullat, Christoph; Glökler, Jörn; Franke, Philipp; Frohme, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    DNA sequencing continues to evolve quickly even after > 30 years. Many new platforms suddenly appeared and former established systems have vanished in almost the same manner. Since establishment of next-generation sequencing devices, this progress gains momentum due to the continually growing demand for higher throughput, lower costs and better quality of data. In consequence of this rapid development, standardized procedures and data formats as well as comprehensive quality management considerations are still scarce. Here, we listed and summarized current standardization efforts and quality management initiatives from companies, organizations and societies in form of published studies and ongoing projects. These comprise on the one hand quality documentation issues like technical notes, accreditation checklists and guidelines for validation of sequencing workflows. On the other hand, general standard proposals and quality metrics are developed and applied to the sequencing workflow steps with the main focus on upstream processes. Finally, certain standard developments for downstream pipeline data handling, processing and storage are discussed in brief. These standardization approaches represent a first basis for continuing work in order to prospectively implement next-generation sequencing in important areas such as clinical diagnostics, where reliable results and fast processing is crucial. Additionally, these efforts will exert a decisive influence on traceability and reproducibility of sequence data.

  15. Environmental quality, the macroeconomy, and intergenerational distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Kooiman, J.P.; Ligthart, J.E.

    The paper studies the dynamic allocation effects and intergenerational welfare consequences of environmental taxes. To this end, environmental externalities are introduced in a Blanchard-Yaari overlapping generations model of a small open economy. A rise in environmental taxes - taking into account

  16. Accounting quality and the adoption of IASB standards: portuguese evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Morais

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Through rule 1606/2002 by the European Commission, Portuguese listed firms were required to adopt IASB standards in the preparation and presentation of consolidated accounts for the periods beginning on or after 2005. IASB standards are developed in environments where accounting practices are especially directed at the private sector, reporting rules are largely unaffected by taxation requirements and capital is traditionally raised in public markets. However, in Portugal, financial reporting is closely related to tax reporting and banks play a key role in providing finance and inside access to information. We investigate whether adopting IASB standards is associated with higher earnings quality and higher value relevance. We compare the earnings quality and value relevance of accounting data of 34 Portuguese listed firms before (1995-2004 and after (2004-2005 the adoption of IASB standards. We find that firms, during the period when they adopt IASB standards, report less smooth earnings than those firms in periods when they adopted national accounting standards, which seems to suggest an improvement in earnings quality. However, we also find that the value relevance of accounting information decreases with the adoption of IASB standards.

  17. STANDARDIZING QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF FUSED REMOTELY SENSED IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pohl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The multitude of available operational remote sensing satellites led to the development of many image fusion techniques to provide high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution images. The comparison of different techniques is necessary to obtain an optimized image for the different applications of remote sensing. There are two approaches in assessing image quality: 1. Quantitatively by visual interpretation and 2. Quantitatively using image quality indices. However an objective comparison is difficult due to the fact that a visual assessment is always subject and a quantitative assessment is done by different criteria. Depending on the criteria and indices the result varies. Therefore it is necessary to standardize both processes (qualitative and quantitative assessment in order to allow an objective image fusion quality evaluation. Various studies have been conducted at the University of Osnabrueck (UOS to establish a standardized process to objectively compare fused image quality. First established image fusion quality assessment protocols, i.e. Quality with No Reference (QNR and Khan's protocol, were compared on varies fusion experiments. Second the process of visual quality assessment was structured and standardized with the aim to provide an evaluation protocol. This manuscript reports on the results of the comparison and provides recommendations for future research.

  18. Standardizing Quality Assessment of Fused Remotely Sensed Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C.; Moellmann, J.; Fries, K.

    2017-09-01

    The multitude of available operational remote sensing satellites led to the development of many image fusion techniques to provide high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution images. The comparison of different techniques is necessary to obtain an optimized image for the different applications of remote sensing. There are two approaches in assessing image quality: 1. Quantitatively by visual interpretation and 2. Quantitatively using image quality indices. However an objective comparison is difficult due to the fact that a visual assessment is always subject and a quantitative assessment is done by different criteria. Depending on the criteria and indices the result varies. Therefore it is necessary to standardize both processes (qualitative and quantitative assessment) in order to allow an objective image fusion quality evaluation. Various studies have been conducted at the University of Osnabrueck (UOS) to establish a standardized process to objectively compare fused image quality. First established image fusion quality assessment protocols, i.e. Quality with No Reference (QNR) and Khan's protocol, were compared on varies fusion experiments. Second the process of visual quality assessment was structured and standardized with the aim to provide an evaluation protocol. This manuscript reports on the results of the comparison and provides recommendations for future research.

  19. Stable aesthetic standards delusion: changing 'artistic quality' by elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hesslinger, Vera M

    2014-01-01

    The present study challenges the notion that judgments of artistic quality are based on stable aesthetic standards. We propose that such standards are a delusion and that judgments of artistic quality are the combined result of exposure, elaboration, and discourse. We ran two experiments using elaboration tasks based on the repeated evaluation technique in which different versions of the Mona Lisa had to be elaborated deeply. During the initial task either the version known from the Louvre or an alternative version owned by the Prado was elaborated; during the second task both versions were elaborated in a comparative fashion. After both tasks multiple blends of the two versions had to be evaluated concerning several aesthetic key variables. Judgments of artistic quality of the blends were significantly different depending on the initially elaborated version of the Mona Lisa, indicating experience-based aesthetic processing, which contradicts the notion of stable aesthetic standards.

  20. 77 FR 46298 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... of Science and Technology, Mail Code: 4305T, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania... limits. With this in mind, categories and entities that ultimately may be indirectly affected include... of the water and water quality criteria necessary to protect those uses. States must submit any new...

  1. Environmental quality assessment of Upper Birim River (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmah, M. H.; Hodgson, I. O. A.; Cobbina, S. J.; Ablordey, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The communities along the Upper Birim River use the water resource for domestic and agricultural purposes, and the environmental quality of the river was assessed to determine the level of pollution and associated health risk from consumption and direct contact with the water. The water quality was assessed by the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality parameters. In addition, the impacts of land use activities along the river were also evaluated. Water samples were collected from 6 locations from November 2010 to January 2011 (dry season), and March to May 2011 (wet season). While the mean values of the physico-chemical parameters were within the Ghana Standards Authority (GSA) safety limits for drinking water, the levels of Fe (33.56 ± 31.94 mg/L), As (0.052± 0.088 mg/L) and Mn (4.01± 4.42 mg/L) were higher than the recommended GSA limits. The faecal contaminations were high, as the mean total coliforms, mean faecal coliforms and the level of faecal streptococci were respectively 1925± 708 cfu/100 ml, 1073±900 cfu/100 mL and 16±9 cfu/100 ml. The water quality index (WQI) of 71.79 for the Birim River indicated that most uses of the water were protected, but a few might be threatened or impaired. Hazard quotients determined for Hg, As and Ag were less than 1 at all sampling stations, implying low health risk. Provision of adequate sanitary facilities, enforcement of environmental regulations and introduction of livelihood diversification programmes would safeguard the integrity of the River from adverse anthropogenic activities. (au)

  2. Automotive standard ISO/TS 16949 as a quality determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Rosak-Szyrocka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to present the standard ISO/TS 16949. In the modern world of competition, quality is one of the most important factors. Modern organizations should gamble on quality, regardless of the type of business, because it is the basic form of running a business effectively. It is not only a factor of market success, but also an indication of organizational culture.

  3. Quality assurance of environmental gamma radiation monitoring in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhec, M.; Zorko, B.; Mitic, D.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental gamma radiation monitoring established in Slovenia consists of a network of multifunctional gamma monitors (MFMs) based on pairs of Geiger-Mueller counters and a network of measuring sites with high-sensitive thermoluminescence dosemeters. The measuring points are evenly spread across Slovenia, located at the meteorological stations and more densely on additional locations around the Krsko NPP. The MFM network has a 2-fold function with one sensor used for the purpose of early warning system in near surroundings of the NPP and the other, more sensitive, for natural radiation monitoring. The paper summarises activities to establish quality assurance of the environmental gamma radiation measurements in Slovenia, with a critical view of the results in comparison with the international standards and recommendations. While the results of linearity and energy dependence tests were satisfying, on-field intercomparison showed that the inherent signal of one of the monitors (MFM) has to be taken into account in the range of environmental background radiation. (authors)

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental quality. 960.5-2-5 Section 960.5-2-5 Energy... REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-5 Environmental... repository siting, construction, operation, closure, and decommissioning, and projected environmental impacts...

  5. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY INTURKEY: ARE THEY OPPOSITE CONCEPTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yasemin Bozdağlıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in global environmental issues whose importance hasbeen steadily increasing and the demand for environmental quality and theirmutual relation with economic growthare closely related. Economic growth,while increasing the level ofnational income over time, brings with it concernsabout environmental quality.The purpose of this study is to examine therelationship between Turkey's economicgrowth (Gross Domestic Income-GDPand environmental quality. In this study,the Environmental Kuznet Hypothesis,which assumes a correlation between various indicators of environmentaldegradation and per capita income in examining the relationship, will be used.The Granger Causality Test and Cointegration Test methods will be used indetermining the relationship between thecourse of environmental degradation inthe first phase of economic growth and thedegree of environmental effect in theperiod between 1960 and 2011 (with annual data in Turkey.

  6. Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beijing has been publishing daily reports on its air quality since 2000, and while the air pollution index (API shows that the air quality has improved greatly since 2000, this is not the perception of Beijing’s residents. The new national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS-2012, which includes the monitoring of PM2.5, has posed stricter standards for evaluating air quality. With the new national standard, the air quality in Beijing is calculated using both NAAQS-2012 and the previous standard. The annual attainment rate has dropped from 75.5% to 50.7%. The spatial analysis of air quality shows that only a background station could attain the national standard, while urban and suburban stations exceed the national standard. Among the six pollutants included in the NAAQS-2012, PM2.5 is the major contributor to the air quality index (AQI comparing with the five other pollutants. The results indicate that under previous NAAQS without PM2.5 monitoring, the air quality has improved greatly in the past decade.  By considering PM2.5, the air quality attainment has dropped greatly. Furthermore, a great effort is needed for local government to bring down the PM2.5 concentration.

  7. 78 FR 58500 - Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications Proposed Rule; Public Meeting and Public Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... the proposed rule ``Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications,'' which was published... the federal water quality standards (WQS) regulation at 40 CFR Part 131 which helps implement the..., the proposed rule will lead to improved water quality standard development, implementation and...

  8. Institutionalizing environmental protection through self-regulation: the case of environmental standards adoption in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bileisis, Mantas; Misiune, Ieva

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of human activity in the environment have a global dimension, but there are no effective global governance instruments to enforce environmental standards. At the same time, many national governments lack incentives to pursue strict environmental policies. In this context, self-regulation is seen as an alternative venue to address environmental challenges. This work aims to identify factors that influence companies to engage in environmental self-regulation? For this aim in March 2015 a survey of 482 companies was conducted. The target group were companies operating in Lithuania that hold ISO14001 certificates - one of the most prolific instruments for self-regulation. The questionnaire was designed to test assumptions developed in new institutionalist literature which claim that common practices can emerge through isomorphism.- The results showed that the main motive for environmental self-regulation is the desire to improve company image, rather than protecting the environment per se. Another important finding was that the main source of pressure to adopt self-regulation was based less on the perceived demands but the customers. Rather the driver for the adoption was a feeling of a need no to fall behind industry leaders. Thus, normative isomorphism is the main mechanism through which environmental self-regulation proliferates. We claim for a rapid proliferation of environmental self-regulation perceived industry leaders need to be identified and they need to be persuaded that environmental standards are key for the development of the industry. However, this also raises questions of sustainability. Few industries have long standing leaders, and through successful investment and technological development new actors can arise and this may risk stalling or even reversing self-regulation.

  9. Bread-Making Quality of Standard Winter Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ćurić, Duška; Novotni, Dubravka; Bauman, Ingrid; Krička, Tajana; Jukić, Željko; Voća, Neven; Kiš, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define an impact of the cultivar, year and cultivation area of the standard Croatian winter wheat on the bread-making quality. The bread-making quality of cultivars ‘Divana’, ‘Žitarka’ and ‘Sana’ from the crop years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006, and from Zagreb and Osijek location was analyzed. Wheat from the cultivar tests cultivated under the same agro technological conditions was used for this testing. The tested winter wheat bread-making quality primari...

  10. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  11. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  12. Requirements for a quality measurement instrument for semantic standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Krukkert, D.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg van, J. van

    2010-01-01

    This study describes requirements for an instrument to measure the quality of semantic standards. A situational requirements engineering method was used, resulting in a goal-tree in which requirements are structured. This structure shows requirements related to the input of the instrument; stating

  13. Russian Higher Education and European Standards of Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motova, Galina; Pykko, Ritta

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the relevance and implementation of European approaches to quality assurance in the context of the Russian educational system. It covers the issues of transformation of the higher education system during the post-Soviet period, specific features of the state accreditation system, the impact of the European Standards and…

  14. ISO 9000 and quality standards improvement in the maintenance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated ISO 9000 as a tool for improving quality standards in ... The study used cross-sectional descriptive research design, using quantitative research ... enhance business performance and competiveness of manufacturing firms. ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  15. Standardized measurement of quality of life after incisional hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K; Henriksen, Nadia A; Harling, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    repair. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze existing standardized methods to measure quality of life after incisional hernia repair. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed and Embase search was carried out together with a cross-reference search of eligible papers, giving a total of 26 included studies...

  16. A Study on the Environmental Standard of Sediment on the Bottom of the Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Sediment on the bottom of the water has been considered one of the water pollutants in the environmental management of Korea so treated as a management on pollutants, as you can see the examples in the dragging operation in the polluted sea area. To healthily maintain and conserve the water ecosystem including bottom living things in the water, sediment on the bottom of the water should be recognized as the independent medium, which should maintain the certain quality like the water, the atmosphere, and soil, rather than the source of water pollution. Such recognition means that the management of sediment on the bottom of the water should change the fragmentary goal, centered the post management focusing on the water management, to the ecosystematic goal including the bottom living things. In a point of the view, this study has a great significance to suggest not only the final goal for the management of sediment on the bottom of the water but also the necessity of developing the environmental standard of the sediment on the bottom of the water, which is a standard of the management or judgment in the actual managing the sediment on the bottom of the water - an estimation on the pollution of sediment, a removal of the polluted sediment, a purification of sediment, and an abandonment of the dragged sediment -, and the development measures. Considering the situation that even the basic scheme related to the management of sediment is not prepared in the Government level, the concept of the environmental standard of sediment, the foreign example of the environmental standard of sediment, the current state of the domestic sediment pollution, and the development scheme of the environmental standard in this study must be the important foundation to establish the management system of sediment in the Government level. 121 refs., 10 figs., 45 tabs.

  17. Quality assurance applied to an environmental surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.; Eldridge, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of a quality assurance program applied to environmental surveillance activities is presented. This includes the philosophy and concepts of quality assurance, along with a detailed assessment of the sources of uncertainty in a monitoring program. The role management must play for a successful program is also discussed, and the quality assurance program implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented

  18. Standard Practice for Quality Management Systems for Nondestructive Testing Agencies

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers general requirements for the establishment and maintenance of a quality management system for agencies engaged in nondestructive testing (NDT). 1.2 This practice utilizes criteria contained in Practice E 543. 1.3 This practice utilizes criteria contained in American National Standard ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001–2000, Quality management systems—Requirements. 1.4 This practice recognizes the importance of establishing minimum safety criteria. 1.5 The use of SI or inch-pound units, or combinations thereof, will be the responsibility of the technical committee whose standards are referred to in this standard. 1.6 This practice does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this practice to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  19. 40 CFR 131.20 - State review and revision of water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Procedures for Review and Revision of Water Quality Standards § 131.20 State review and revision of water quality standards. (a) State review. The State shall... reviewing applicable water quality standards and, as appropriate, modifying and adopting standards. Any...

  20. Willingness to pay for environmental quality: evidence from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polinard, J L; Wrinkle, R D

    1980-01-01

    The environmental movement evidenced a period of extremely rapid growth during the 1960's and early 1970's. Some recent studies have indicated a decline in general public concern with environmental problems. In this paper we attempt to provide some new evidence which might be of assistance in ascertaining the relative status of concern for the economy, concern for the environment, and willingness to pay for environmental quality. The study focuses upon a major city in a large energy producing state with a large ethnic (Mexican-American) minority. Our data indicate that concern for the environment is not a highly salient issue for our respondents. Economic concerns far outweigh environmental issues. Additionally, willingness to pay for environmental quality is not a unidimensional trait. Perception of who is responsible for pollution rather than perception of a deteriorating environment is a significant indicator of willingness to pay for environmental quality.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the data handling procedures for the reported data). 2.3Comparisons with the Primary and Secondary... Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY...

  2. Cardiovascular hospitalizations and associations with environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease has been identified as a condition that may be associated with environmental factors. Air pollution in particular has been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, which can increase the likelihood of cardiovascular eve...

  3. Who benefits from environmental policy? An environmental justice analysis of air quality change in Britain, 2001-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon; Norman, Paul; Mullin, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Air quality in Great Britain has improved in recent years, but not enough to prevent the European Commission (EC) taking legal action for non-compliance with limit values. Air quality is a national public health concern, with disease burden associated with current air quality estimated at 29 000 premature deaths per year due to fine particulates, with a further burden due to NO2. National small-area analyses showed that in 2001 poor air quality was much more prevalent in socio-economically deprived areas. We extend this social distribution of air quality analysis to consider how the distribution changed over the following decade (2001-2011), a period when significant efforts to meet EC air quality directive limits have been made, and air quality has improved. We find air quality improvement is greatest in the least deprived areas, whilst the most deprived areas bear a disproportionate and rising share of declining air quality including non-compliance with air quality standards. We discuss the implications for health inequalities, progress towards environmental justice, and compatibility of social justice and environmental sustainability objectives.

  4. Environmental Sustainability and Quality Education: Perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of risk and vulnerability where a range of economic, cultural, social and ... community's failure to envision and implement interventions towards quality ... development to quality of formal education in the school community and to ... insights, re-orienting education towards sustainable development involves significant efforts to.

  5. Environmental restoration remedial action quality assurance requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental Restoration Remedial Action Quality Assurance Requirements Document (DOE/RL 90-28) defines the quality assurance program requirements for the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. This paper describes the objectives outlined in DOE/RL 90-28. The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action Program implements significant commitments made by the US Department of Energy in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency

  6. Maintenance of Water Quality Standards in Kenya for 21. Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndege, M.M

    2001-01-01

    Water is life and therefore quality water is a pre-requisite for healthy life. There is therefore need for enhancing collective responsibility like legal framework and institutional reforms that will facilitate the maintenance of water supply. This can be achieved if the body dealing with environment is expanded to cover emerging issues of environmental concern and spell out the citizens' rights for clean environment

  7. Environmental radiation control and quality management system in design and operation of sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    New environmental regulations and radiation safety standards are being implemented almost daily to ensure radiation safety, in particular for practices causing exposures to undue radiation doses. A particular emphasis of real challenge for organizations and users of radiation sources has to be for proper radiological safety assessment and is becoming cost effectively to be prepared for auditing. Special concern for the environment is of global . nature, and hence environmental auditing has been and will continue to be an essential practice for improving the environment and for meeting the relevant regulations and standards. In general, most facilities that deal with radioactive sources undertake strict safety measures in terms of personnel radiation protection, handling procedures and security. Hence, those measures should comply with the requirements of the environmental protection standards. Accordingly, a successful quality management system must balance realities of organization and personnel in achieving quality objectives. Organizational principles are found in the technical aspects of' quality management, such as, charting, requirements, measurements, procedures, ... , etc. Human principles are found in the communication side of quality management (e.g. meetings, ,decision making, ,teams, ... , etc). The quality management must understand and balance skills needed to blend them together. Large gamma irradiators present a high potential radiation hazard to the surrounding environment, since the amount of radioactivity is of the order of (P Bq) and a very high dose rates are produced during irradiation. Application of environmental radiation control deemed by regulatory authority and a proper quality management system by the utility would serve public health and safety

  8. BRC/IoP standard importance in packaging quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kawecka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BRC/IoP (British Retail Consortium / Institute of Packaging is the only industry standard dedicated entrepreneurs operating in the packaging industry, primarily intended for contact with food. The requirements of the BRC / IoP guarantee the safety of packaging and fulfillment of all legal and hygienic requirements. The article presents the main features of the standard, the basic requirements contained in the document and the results of research on the implementation of quality management systems, including standard BRC / IoP and the actions that are required checklists. It is noticeable that there is little interest in certification BRC / IoP, due to low awareness of the standard, despite the fulfillment of some of the basic requirements of the surveyed companies.

  9. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16)

  10. Ambient assisted living healthcare frameworks, platforms, standards, and quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Mukhtiar; Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Pedersen, Christian Fischer; Beevi, Femina Hassan Aysha; Hansen, Finn Overgaard

    2014-03-04

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is an emerging multi-disciplinary field aiming at exploiting information and communication technologies in personal healthcare and telehealth systems for countering the effects of growing elderly population. AAL systems are developed for personalized, adaptive, and anticipatory requirements, necessitating high quality-of-service to achieve interoperability, usability, security, and accuracy. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the AAL field with a focus on healthcare frameworks, platforms, standards, and quality attributes. To achieve this, we conducted a literature survey of state-of-the-art AAL frameworks, systems and platforms to identify the essential aspects of AAL systems and investigate the critical issues from the design, technology, quality-of-service, and user experience perspectives. In addition, we conducted an email-based survey for collecting usage data and current status of contemporary AAL systems. We found that most AAL systems are confined to a limited set of features ignoring many of the essential AAL system aspects. Standards and technologies are used in a limited and isolated manner, while quality attributes are often addressed insufficiently. In conclusion, we found that more inter-organizational collaboration, user-centered studies, increased standardization efforts, and a focus on open systems is needed to achieve more interoperable and synergetic AAL solutions.

  11. Ambient Assisted Living Healthcare Frameworks, Platforms, Standards, and Quality Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtiar Memon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Assisted Living (AAL is an emerging multi-disciplinary field aiming at exploiting information and communication technologies in personal healthcare and telehealth systems for countering the effects of growing elderly population. AAL systems are developed for personalized, adaptive, and anticipatory requirements, necessitating high quality-of-service to achieve interoperability, usability, security, and accuracy. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the AAL field with a focus on healthcare frameworks, platforms, standards, and quality attributes. To achieve this, we conducted a literature survey of state-of-the-art AAL frameworks, systems and platforms to identify the essential aspects of AAL systems and investigate the critical issues from the design, technology, quality-of-service, and user experience perspectives. In addition, we conducted an email-based survey for collecting usage data and current status of contemporary AAL systems. We found that most AAL systems are confined to a limited set of features ignoring many of the essential AAL system aspects. Standards and technologies are used in a limited and isolated manner, while quality attributes are often addressed insufficiently. In conclusion, we found that more inter-organizational collaboration, user-centered studies, increased standardization efforts, and a focus on open systems is needed to achieve more interoperable and synergetic AAL solutions.

  12. Quality assurance for health and environmental chemistry: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, M.A.; Gladney, E.S.; Moss, W.D.; Phillips, M.B.; O'Malley, B.T.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the continuing quality assurance efforts of the Health and Environmental Chemistry Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The philosophy, methodology, and computing resources used by the quality assurance program to encompass the diversity of analytical chemistry practiced in the group are described. Included in the report are all quality assurance reference materials used, along with their certified or consensus concentrations, and all analytical chemistry quality assurance measurements made by HSE-9 during 1986. 27 refs., 3 figs

  13. Environmental quality evaluation for towns in Bogota; An approach to the construction of indexes of environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Luis; Bermudez, Tatiana

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual and methodological estimate for the construction of a synthetic indicator that allows one to come a step closer to the diagnosis of the environmental conditions of the nineteen administrative units of Bogota known as localidades. Here the contained information is synthesized in eight simple selected indicators, the index is constructed by applying analysis of principal components, of which the alignment of the localidades is derived in accordance with the value that it takes in the environmental quality index. Once the method of calculation is applied, the results indicate that the conditions of environmental quality if Bogota are not homogeneous, clearly existing environmental differences between localidades in the north and south. Also prioritization and analysis index of environmental qualities per localidades introduced, of which the principal determinants of the index of each localidad are introduced, thus providing the decision makers with important input, in order to define the base line as a stating point of the urban environmental management

  14. On criteria for examining analysis quality with standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huating

    1997-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages and applicability of some criteria for examining analysis quality with standard reference material are discussed. The combination of the uncertainties of the instrument examined and the reference material should be determined on the basis of specific situations. Without the data of the instrument's uncertainty, it would be applicable to substitute the standard deviation multiplied by certain times for the uncertainty. The result of the examining should not result in more error reported in routine measurements than it really is. Over strict examining should also be avoided

  15. Quality control and quality standards for the production of bone allografts in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shiquan; Li Youchen

    1999-01-01

    There is a rapid progress of tissue banking especially Bone Banking in China, In order to strengthen the control on medical devices, Ministry of Public Health (MPH) issued the 'Regulation on Supervision of Critical Medical Devices, MPH Decree No. 54' in 1997. The SPTB was requested to submit new application for the approval of production and providing of tissue allografts. The needed documents are clinical reports, package insert, quality standards of product, Quality System Regulation (QSR) and audit report. Quality System Regulation document adopted the GMP standard for medical devices of FDA, US (21 CFR 620-1997). SPTB will amend the existed Quality Manual to suit the requirement of QSR. Referring to the AATB Standards, SPTB established 'Technical Standards' for Tissue Banking and was approved by the local government, which will be the supplement of the submitted QSR document. Considering the need of market control, MPH requested to submit a 'Quality Standard of Product' and the method of inspection. SPTB has completed such standards for final inspection of bone products, which includes the test for residual water, microbiology, bone species, colour and structure. In addition, the Tissue Bank has completed standards for in process inspection, which includes residual blood, radiation sterilization, initial bioburden, package leakage and biomechanics. In-process inspection is important for the control of non-conforming final products to assure the safety and efficacy of bone grafts. Methods of in process inspection and final inspection are described and discussed in this paper

  16. UK key performance indicators and quality assurance standards for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Colin J; Thomas Gibson, Siwan; Rutter, Matt D; Baragwanath, Phil; Pullan, Rupert; Feeney, Mark; Haslam, Neil

    2016-12-01

    Colonoscopy should be delivered by endoscopists performing high quality procedures. The British Society of Gastroenterology, the UK Joint Advisory Group on GI Endoscopy, and the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland have developed quality assurance measures and key performance indicators for the delivery of colonoscopy within the UK. This document sets minimal standards for delivery of procedures along with aspirational targets that all endoscopists should aim for. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. [Study on quality standards of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbing; Hu, Changjiang; Long, Lanyan; Huang, Qinwan; Xie, Xiuqiong

    2010-12-01

    To establish the quality criteria for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia. Decoction pieces of salt Alpinia were measured with moisture, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils according to the procedures recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010. The content of Nootkatone was determined by HPLC, and NaCl, by chloridion electrode method. We obtained results of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils of 10 batches of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia moisture; Meanwhile we set the HPLC and chloridion electrode method. This research established a fine quality standard for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia.

  18. The Quality Control of Reference Standards in Metrology Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.; Ciraj Bjelac, O.; Kovacevic, M.; Vukcevic, M.

    2008-01-01

    This works presents the quality control tests applied to two types of ionization chambers with suitable electrometers. Measuring assemblies were tested in order to assess their performance and adequacy for use as reference standards in ionising radiation metrology laboratory for calibrations in the field of radiotherapy and radiation protection. Two types of ionizing chambers (Farmer type, 0.6 cm 3 and spherical ionizing chamber, 1 l) with suitable electrometers were tested. Following test were performed: repeatability, long term stability, polarity and leakage current measurement. All tested measuring assemblies demonstrated proper performance, correctness and high reliance of measurements, since all implemented quality control test results were within acceptable limits. (author)

  19. Effect-based trigger values for in vitro and in vivo bioassays performed on surface water extracts supporting the environmental quality standards (EQS) of the European Water Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, Beate I.; Aїt-Aїssa, Selim; Behnisch, Peter A.; Brack, Werner; Brion, François; Brouwer, Abraham; Buchinger, Sebastian; Crawford, Sarah E.; Du Pasquier, David; Hamers, Timo; Hettwer, Karina; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Kienle, Cornelia; Tindall, Andrew J.; Tuerk, Jochen; van der Oost, Ron; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Neale, Peta A.

    Effect-based methods including cell-based bioassays, reporter gene assays and whole-organism assays have been applied for decades in water quality monitoring and testing of enriched solid-phase extracts. There is no common EU-wide agreement on what level of bioassay response in water extracts is

  20. Constructing Assessment Model of Primary and Secondary Educational Quality with Talent Quality as the Core Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Benyou

    2014-01-01

    Quality is the core of education and it is important to standardization construction of primary and secondary education in urban (U) and rural (R) areas. The ultimate goal of the integration of urban and rural education is to pursuit quality urban and rural education. Based on analysing the related policy basis and the existing assessment models…

  1. Economic development and Environmental quality: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to analyze evidence of an environmental Kuznets curve for water pollution in the developing and developed countries. The study was conducted based on a panel data set of 54 countries – that were categorized into six groups of “developed countries”, “developing countries”, “developed ...

  2. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  3. Quality Assessment on Environmental Conservation Interventions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 President's Office, Public Service Management, Utumishi House, 8, Kivukoni ... that is based on complex cultural and environmental factors and their ... country where critical ecosystem services for human well-being are stressed, signaling the ... Changes that .... This has implications for the peasants using this land for.

  4. Translations on Environmental Quality No. 151

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-21

    Resort Area Threatened by Increased Pollution (LA VANGUARDIA , 11 Sep 77) 40 WEST GERMANY Cost of Environmental Protection to Industry Discussed...THREATENED BY INCREASED POLLUTION Barcelona LA VANGUARDIA in Spanish 11 Sep ?? p 23 [.Text] Summer, as irregular as it was unsociable during times when

  5. Safety implications of standardized continuous quality improvement programs in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Ho, Certina; Mackinnon, Neil J; Mahaffey, Thomas; Taylor, Jeffrey M

    2013-06-01

    Standardized continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs combine Web-based technologies and standardized improvement processes, tools, and expectations to enable quality-related events (QREs) occurring in individual pharmacies to be shared with pharmacies in other jurisdictions. Because standardized CQI programs are still new to community pharmacy, little is known about how they impact medication safety. This research identifies key aspects of medication safety that change as a result of implementing a standardized CQI program. Fifty-three community pharmacies in Nova Scotia, Canada, adopted the SafetyNET-Rx standardized CQI program in April 2010. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Canada's Medication Safety Self-Assessment (MSSA) survey was administered to these pharmacies before and 1 year into their use of the SafetyNET-Rx program. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to explore where changes in patient safety occurred as a result of SafetyNETRx use. Significant improvements occurred with quality processes and risk management, staff competence, and education, and communication of drug orders and other information. Patient education, environmental factors, and the use of devices did not show statistically significant changes. As CQI programs are designed to share learning from QREs, it is reassuring to see that the largest improvements are related to quality processes, risk management, staff competence, and education.

  6. Near-facility environmental monitoring quality assurance project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the preoperational and near facility environmental monitoring performed by Waste Management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations and supersedes WHC-EP-0538-2. This plan applies to all sampling and monitoring activities performed by waste management Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations in implementing facility environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

  7. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  8. Respect of standard air quality in major italian towns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, F.

    1995-01-01

    In 1983 air quality standards, related to SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, airborne particulate, lead, O 3 were introduced in italian legislation. Now, SO 2 and lead concentrations are rapidly decreasing everywhere thanks to drastic reductions of sulphur and lead in fuels. The situation is still critic in many urban areas as far as NO 2 and CO are concerned. The increasing number of automobiles circulating in italian urban areas (+43% from 1980 to 1988) is probably reducing the positive effects expected from more efficient and less polluting engines. Electric public transport, aiming at low interference with private traffic, and a different urban organization, aiming at reducing compulsory mobility, could be the proper choices to offer italians both higher standards of urban life and air quality

  9. Determination of water environment standards based on water quality criteria in China: Limitations and feasibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tieyu; Zhou, Yunqiao; Bi, Cencen; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Giesy, John P

    2017-07-01

    There is a need to formulate water environment standards (WESs) from the current water quality criteria (WQC) in China. To this end, we briefly summarize typical mechanisms applied in several countries with longer histories of developing WESs, and three limitations to formulating WESs in China were identified. After analyzing the feasibility factors including economic development, scientific support capability and environmental policies, we realized that China is still not ready for a complete change from its current nation-wide unified WES system to a local-standard-based system. Thus, we proposed a framework for transformation from WQC to WESs in China. The framework consists of three parts, including responsibilities, processes and policies. The responsibilities include research authorization, development of guidelines, and collection of information, at both national and local levels; the processes include four steps and an impact factor system to establish water quality standards; and the policies include seven specific proposals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Modelling consumers' preferences for Novel Protein Foods and environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a theoretical Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model that explicitly includes the environmental input in production functions and the consumers' preferences for environmental quality in utility functions. We empirically apply the model to provide some insights into the effects of the

  11. Study on Quality Standard of Processed Curcuma Longa Radix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To control the quality of Curcuma Longa Radix by establishing quality standards, this paper increased the contents of extract and volatile oil determination. Meanwhile, the curcumin was selected as the internal marker, and the relative correlation factors (RCFs of demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The contents of multicomponents were calculated based on their RCFs. The rationality and feasibility of the methods were evaluated by comparison of the quantitative results between external standard method (ESM and quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single-marker (QAMS. Ethanol extracts ranged from 9.749 to 15.644% and the mean value was 13.473%. The volatile oil ranged from 0.45 to 0.90 mL/100 g and the mean value was 0.66 mL/100 g. This method was accurate and feasible and could provide a reference for further comprehensive and effective control of the quality standard of Curcuma Longa Radix and its processed products.

  12. Quality standards in 480 pancreatic resections: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Herrera-Cabezón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic resection is a standard procedure for the treatment of periampullary tumors. Morbidity and mortality are high, and quality standards are scarce in our setting. International classifications of complications (Clavien-Dindo and those specific for pancreatectomies (ISGPS allow adequate case comparisons. The goals of our work are to describe the morbidity and mortality of 480 pancreatectomies using the international classifications ISGPS and Clavien-Dindo to help establish a quality standard in our setting and to compare the results of CPD with reconstruction by pancreaticogastrostomy (1,55 versus 177 pancreaticojejunostomy. We report 480 resections including 337 duodenopancreatectomies, 116 distal pancreatectomies, 11 total pancreatectomies, 10 central pancreatectomies, and 6 enucleations. Results for duodenopancreatectomy include: 62 % morbidity (Clavien ≥ III 25.9 %, 12.3 % reinterventions, and 3.3 % overall mortality. For reconstruction by pancreaticojejunostomy: 71.2 % morbidity (Clavien ≥ III 34.4 %, 17.5 % reinterventions, and 3.3 % mortality. For reconstruction by pancreaticogastrostomy: 51 % morbidity (Clavien ≥ III 15.4%, 6.4 % reinterventions, and 3.2 % mortality. Differences are significant except for mortality. We conclude that our series meets quality criteria as compared to other groups. Reconstruction with pancreaticogastrostomy significantly reduces complication number and severity, as well as pancreatic fistula and reintervention rates.

  13. Study on Quality Standard of Processed Curcuma Longa Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongfeng; Quan, Liang; Zhou, Haiting; Cao, Dong; Li, Wenbing; Yang, Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    To control the quality of Curcuma Longa Radix by establishing quality standards, this paper increased the contents of extract and volatile oil determination. Meanwhile, the curcumin was selected as the internal marker, and the relative correlation factors (RCFs) of demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of multicomponents were calculated based on their RCFs. The rationality and feasibility of the methods were evaluated by comparison of the quantitative results between external standard method (ESM) and quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single-marker (QAMS). Ethanol extracts ranged from 9.749 to 15.644% and the mean value was 13.473%. The volatile oil ranged from 0.45 to 0.90 mL/100 g and the mean value was 0.66 mL/100 g. This method was accurate and feasible and could provide a reference for further comprehensive and effective control of the quality standard of Curcuma Longa Radix and its processed products. PMID:29375640

  14. 40 CFR 131.21 - EPA review and approval of water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Procedures for Review and Revision of Water Quality Standards § 131.21 EPA review and approval of water quality standards. (a) After the State submits its... analysis. (b) The Regional Administrator's approval or disapproval of a State water quality standard shall...

  15. Methods and quality assurance in environmental medicine. Formation of a RKI-Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eis, D.

    2000-01-01

    An almost bewildering number of widely differing methods and techniques, often not validated, are being applied often inappropriately in the field of environmental medicine to answer questions regarding exposure assessment, diagnosis, treatment, counselling and prevention. Therefore, quality control within the field of environmental medicine is quite problematic. A primary goal of the newly formed RKI-Commission 'Methods and Quality Assurance in Environmental Medicine' is to form a panel of experts in the field, who evaluate the situation and generate consensus documents containing respective recommendations. By this the commission will contribute to standardization and agreement on appropriate methods, procedures and their correct application in the practice of environmental medicine. Hopefully it will also achieve a stronger, more consistent use of evidence-based-medicine and improve the quality of the structure, processes and results of research and practice in this field. The committee will initially deal with the issue of clinical environmental medicine, because here the largest problems in quality assurance are seen. In this context the commission will look at the problem areas of environmental-medical outpatient units and environmental clinics. The work of the commission will be supported by the newly formed Documentation and Evaluation Center for Methods in Environmental Medicine (Zentrale Erfassungs- und Bewertungsstelle fuer umweltmedizinische Methoden, ZEBUM) at the Robert Koch Institute. (orig.) [de

  16. Standardization of Image Quality Analysis – ISO 19264

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüller, Dietmar; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2016-01-01

    There are a variety of image quality analysis tools available for the archiving world, which are based on different test charts and analysis algorithms. ISO has formed a working group in 2012 to harmonize these approaches and create a standard way of analyzing the image quality for archiving...... systems. This has resulted in three documents that have been or are going to be published soon. ISO 19262 defines the terms used in the area of image capture to unify the language. ISO 19263 describes the workflow issues and provides detailed information on how the measurements are done. Last...... but not least ISO 19264 describes the measurements in detail and provides aims and tolerance levels for the different aspects. This paper will present the new ISO 19264 technical specification to analyze image quality based on a single capture of a multi-pattern test chart, and discuss the reasoning behind its...

  17. Translations on Environmental Quality, No. 152

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-01

    information was released during a press conference called by Manuel Diaz Dorado, under-secretary for Environmental Planning , Luis Urbano Juagueri, technical...seriousness of this threat, as well as what is being done and what plans have been made to eliminate the hazard. It is not superfluous to reiterate...the floating solids in the harbor; the use of a floating in- cinerator to collect and burn the garbage from ships anchored in the port; the planning

  18. Urbanization and Environmental Quality in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Effiong, Ekpeno

    2016-01-01

    Africa’s rapid urbanization pose challenges for her sustainable development. This paper investigates the environmental impact of urbanization for 49 African countries from 1990 to 2010. Using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) framework, a recently developed semi-parametric panel fixed-effects regression technique, and two atmospheric air pollutants, namely carbon dioxide (CO2) and ambient particulate matter PM10 emissions, the evidenc...

  19. Quality and effectiveness of strategic environmental assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the SEA also achieved significant successes in terms of 'indirect outputs', such as a more holistic approach to water management, facilitated more effective public participation and contributed to broader strategic planning in the department. The paper concludes by making recommendations to improve the quality ...

  20. The Measurement of Quality of Semantic Standards : the Application of a Quality Model on the SETU standard for eGovernment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin; van Bekkum, Michael; Oude Luttighuis, Paul; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2011-01-01

    eGovernment interoperability should be dealt with using high-quality standards. A quality model for standards is presented based on knowledge from the software engineering domain. In the tradition of action research the model is used on the SETU standard, a standard that is mandatory in the public

  1. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan (ESRP) (NUREG-1300) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform environmental reviews of environmental reports prepared by applicants in support of license applications to construct and operate new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The individual ESRPs that constitute this document identify the information considered necessary to conduct the review, the purpose and scope of the review, the analysis procedure and evaluation, the formal input to the environmental statement, and the references considered appropriate for each review. The ESRP is intended to ensure quality and uniformity of approach in individual reviews as well as compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. In addition, the ESRP will make information about the environmental component of the licensing process more readily available and thereby will serve to improve the understanding of this process among the public, States and regional compacts, and the regulated community

  2. Environmental quality in the Dutch province North-Holland 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, S.

    2002-08-01

    An overview is given of the environmental quality in the Dutch province Noord-Holland in the year 2002. Special attention is paid to safety, energy, agriculture and the airport Schiphol. The report is available in electronic form in parts, discussing Social developments, the quality of Air, Soil, and Water, Public Health, Nature, Safety, Energy, Agriculture, and Schiphol (airport) [nl

  3. Ontario. Advisory Committee on Environmental Standards: Annual report 1990-92. ACES report No. 92-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    First annual report of the advisory committee, established in May 1990 to advise on standards for environmental contaminants. This report describes the mandate, responsibilities, and organizational structure of ACES and the activities of the full committee and the subcommittees on public consultation and zero discharge. Descriptions of the processes involved for the development of water quality guidelines for benzene, NDMA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, provincial water quality guidelines, water quality guidelines for chlorinated ethanes and ethylenes, the substance list for bans and phase-outs, and sediment and lakefill quality guidelines are also included.

  4. Atmospheric deposition and environmental quality in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosello, R.

    1993-01-01

    For Italy's Po River hydrological basin, artificial reservoirs have a great importance; water reserve is about 1600 million cubic meters for the hydroelectric reservoirs and about 76 million cubic meters for irrigation. Relevant to studies on water quality and acidification in the Po River Basin, this paper reviews some aspects of research on atmospheric deposition, i.e., geographical variability, long term trends, and effects on surface waters

  5. Indoor environmental quality and building energy efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Reenen, T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available :  Air movement  Air quality Thermal Comfort A comprehensive international body of work has been developed over the past 100 years to obtain a measure of understanding of the seemingly elusive parameters that determine thermal comfort. A list... are:  Air temperature  Radiant temperature1  Humidity  Air movement  Metabolic rate  Clothing levels/insulation Uniformity of sensation can also play a role in perceived levels of comfort (CIBSE 2006). This refers to instances where...

  6. Financial development and environmental quality: The way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Ahmad, Nawaz; Alam, Shaista

    2016-01-01

    The present paper re-examines the asymmetric impact of financial development on environmental quality in Pakistan for the period 1985Q1 to 2014Q4. A comprehensive index of financial development is generated using Bank- and Stock market-based financial development indicators. The results show that inefficient use of energy adversely affects the environmental quality. This suggests adoption of energy efficient technology at both production and consumption levels. These technologies would be helpful to improve environmental quality, enhance the productivity in long-run and save energy. Bank-based financial development also impedes the environment. The government should encourage lenders to ease the funding for energy sector and allocate financial resources for environment friendly businesses rather than wasting them in consumer financing. - Highlights: • A positive shock in economic growth leads carbon emissions. • Energy consumption and financial development add in environmental degradation. • Financial resources should be allocated to environment friendly ventures.

  7. Environmental quality and role of market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Author identifies this decade's two most pressing global problems: the structural transition of Eastern Bloc economies and the contemporaneous safeguarding of the earth's environment. The difficulties in resolving these problems are compounded by a weak global economic picture showing widespread recession accompanied by high unemployment. The Eastern Bloc can benefit greatly by watching how the West does in resolving its pollution abatement problems; but the West must come up with better targeted environmental policies backed by pollution control technologies which are compatible with national economic goals

  8. Implementation of ISO 9000 Quality Standard into Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Sotošek

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition in the field of adult education in Slovenia has become very tough  in the second half of the 1990s. Therefore, educational institutions are forced to use every advantage over the competitors in the educational market. One of them is the quality system in educational process. Such competitive position setting strategic development objectives is also the strategy of UPI - Ljudska univerza Žalec. Through development objectives, relationships with our partners and customers, as well as on the basis of analysis of the position and connections of Slovenia within the European Union and its involvement in international projects we estimated that we should set up a quality system in our institution involving managerial, organisational and professional function. It is important that the system should be comparable and verifiable according to the European standards. We have chosen the Quality System according to ISO 9000 quality standards as the most suitable model. It offers an institutional framework as well as a good basis for an internal and external verification of the efficiency of the system in real life. It also enables corrections to deviations. However, it lacks a stronger stress on internal self-control and self-evaluation, which is emphasised in the model of quality assurance in education developed by a group of experts to order of Ministry of Education and Sport. Both model s can be combined and are mutually compatible. I am convinced of the great importance of self-evaluation in education. Yet, without an appropriate institutional framework and basic external verification the self-evaluation remains on the interna! and subjective level of judgement within an individual educational institution.

  9. The evaluation of the environmental quality in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surd Vasile

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the environmental quality concerns the analysis of the physical, chemical, biological and statistical features that allow the scientists to classify a territory in a certain category or hierarchic scale. In the model used in this study, the environmental quality was assessed at the administrative unit level (county, as a result of the interaction of different components. Fifty indicators were selected and included into 6 major groups based on several factors (natural hazards, air quality, biodiversity, water quality, human health, soil quality, economic activities that increase the communities' susceptibility to different negative aspects concerning the environment. Each indicator was classified on a scale from 1 to 5 (1-very good…5-very weak. The sum of the indicators was reclassified according to the same model, until the total environmental quality was finally determined. The analysis of the environmental quality on a departmental level provides the opportunity to identify the regions that need to be allotted financial resources in order to diminish the negative impact of the disturbing (anthropic and natural factors. At the same time, by focusing the research on the most vulnerable counties, a more detailed analysis has revealed the most vulnerable administrative units (towns and communes.

  10. Open Economy, Institutional Quality, and Environmental Performance: A Macroeconomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaryllis Mavragani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the subject of how economic development affects the quality of the natural environment has gained great momentum, this paper focuses on examining the extent to which the openness of a market economy and the quality of the institution affect environmental performance. The majority of the current studies focus on the Environmental Kuznets Curve and the level of economic growth. This paper addresses this question by relating environmental (“Environmental Performance Index” to macroeconomic (Gross Domestic Product per capita, “Open Markets Index” and governance indicators (“Worldwide Governance Indicators”. The sample consists of 75 countries, including all G20 and EU members, comprising “more than 90% of global trade and investment”. Findings show that the Environmental Performance Index is positively correlated to each of the (institutional indicators, so as to confirm that the selected indices are consistent with previous studies, suggesting that environmental performance increases in line with economic development and that good governance increases a country’s levels of environmental protection. By applying factor analysis, an empirical model of the Environmental Performance Index is estimated, suggesting that there is a significant positive correlation between a country’s economic growth, the openness of an economy, high levels of effective governance, and its environmental performance.

  11. Environmental data quality problems: ''Technical'' vs. ''legal'' defensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luker, R.S.; Brooks, M.C.; Stagg, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Two significant aspects of environmental data quality are currently being emphasized throughout the industry as critical precursors to environmental decision making: technical integrity and legal defensibility. Because audit findings and consequent perceptions by a client often pose more questions than answers--especially with respect to the ''systemic'' nature and significance of problems based on nonstatistical, ad hoc sampling of large programs--quality assurance in environmental restoration must do more than implement traditional administrative controls. A major problem persists in achieving a consensus opinion between quality assurance and technical staff on the significance of various data problems. This case study compares and contrasts ''technical integrity'' and ''legal defensibility'', and provides performance measures developed to optimize both components in a large, complex DOE environmental restoration program. Performance measures of both administrative and technical processes are being used to ensure that conclusions drawn concerning ''systematic'' problems are not premature, and are founded on thorough, representative aspects of the program. Improved methods to reach consensus opinions on environmental decision-making are imperative and environmental data quality, the cornerstone on which the decisions are built, must be not only scientifically solid, but perceived as solid, if stakeholders are to be satisfied

  12. Environmental Restoration Remedial Action quality assurance requirements document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document defines the quality assurance requirements for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program at the Hanford Site. The Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program implements significant commitments made by the US Department of Energy in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency. This document combines quality assurance requirements from various source documents into one set of requirements for use by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and other Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program participants. This document will serve as the basis for developing Quality Assurance Program Plans and implementing procedures by the participants. The requirements of this document will be applied to activities affecting quality, using a graded approach based on the importance of the item, service, or activity to the program objectives. The Quality Assurance Program that will be established using this document as the basis, together with other program and technical documents, form an integrated management control system for conducting the Environmental Restoration Remedial Action program activities in a manner that provides safety and protects the environment and public health

  13. Setting ambient air quality standards for particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, Roger O.

    2002-01-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM), unspecified as to chemical composition, is of concern because of its health effects. Air quality standards for PM have been established in many countries. The earliest standards were based on threshold models and use of a margin of safety. Initially, standards were based on the mass of total suspended material. In the 1980s a shift to a size-specific standard, PM 10 , began. PM 10 is the fraction of PM captured with 50% efficiency at 10 μm and greater efficiency at smaller sizes. In the late 1990s, standards were proposed for PM 2.5 , which is captured with 50% efficiency at 2.5 μm. The standards for PM are based almost exclusively on human epidemiological data, with laboratory animal and in vitro data used in a supporting role. During the 1990s, new statistical tools began to be used and demonstrated an association between increased PM and an increase in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. The analyses are complicated by the effects of other pollutants such as ozone. Effects have been observed down to 10-20 μg of PM 10 per cubic meter, levels equal to or below background in many parts of the world. In many studies there has been no evidence of a threshold. In the absence of a threshold, a critical issue becomes how to determine how low is low enough? This paper reviews the current literature on PM health effects and suggests research avenues that may yield data which, combined with public policy considerations, may be able to address the issue of 'how low is low enough?'

  14. Labor Standards and Quality of Employment in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Bensusán

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of national and international labor standards and refers to the need to curb the deterioration of employment quality and to promote decent work in the context of strong competitive pressures, network companies and productive chains spread throughout the world, from a Latin American perspective. It reviews the number of ratifications of fundamental international agreements' and the problems involved in their implementation; the relation between these shortcomings and the quality of jobs, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different alternatives aimed at halting job deterioration. It concludes by pointing out the importance of national legislation and public tools aimed at improved enforcement, in the absence of global and international coercive mechanisms.

  15. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine−1. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI (−0.32, −0.02. Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03, percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23, as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  16. Synthetic salt cake standards for analytical laboratory quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, A.E.; Miller, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    The validation of analytical results in the characterization of Hanford Nuclear Defense Waste requires the preparation of synthetic waste for standard reference materials. Two independent synthetic salt cake standards have been prepared to monitor laboratory quality control for the chemical characterization of high-level salt cake and sludge waste in support of Rockwell Hanford Operations' High-Level Waste Management Program. Each synthetic salt cake standard contains 15 characterized chemical species and was subjected to an extensive verification/characterization program in two phases. Phase I consisted of an initial verification of each analyte in salt cake form in order to determine the current analytical capability for chemical analysis. Phase II consisted of a final characterization of those chemical species in solution form where conflicting verification data were observed. The 95 percent confidence interval on the mean for the following analytes within each standard is provided: sodium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, hydroxide, chromate, chloride, fluoride, aluminum, plutonium-239/240, strontium-90, cesium-137, and water

  17. Coordinating standards and applications for optical water quality sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, B.; Pellerin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Joint USGS-CUAHSI Workshop: In Situ Optical Water Quality Sensor Networks; Shepherdstown, West Virginia, 8-10 June 2011; Advanced in situ optical water quality sensors and new techniques for data analysis hold enormous promise for advancing scientific understanding of aquatic systems through measurements of important biogeochemical parameters at the time scales over which they vary. High-frequency and real-time water quality data also provide the opportunity for early warning of water quality deterioration, trend detection, and science-based decision support. However, developing networks of optical sensors in freshwater systems that report reliable and comparable data across and between sites remains a challenge to the research and monitoring community. To address this, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI), convened a 3-day workshop to explore ways to coordinate development of standards and applications for optical sensors, as well as handling, storage, and analysis of the continuous data they produce.

  18. Environmental quality as a public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bio-accumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in wildlife and humans. Mercury is a potent neurotoxin which may also harm the brain, kidneys and lungs. The unborn child and young infants are at special risk of brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps make them large contributors to the overall mercury emission into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, 4 out of 5 hospitals asked have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury containing products and 62% require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospital purchases. Only 12% distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parent. Ninety two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented those policies. Forty two percent were not aware if they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49% still purchase mercury thermometers, 44% purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64% still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  19. Measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental matrix standard reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, H.; Schantz, M.; Wise, S. (National Institute of Standards and Technology)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of emerging contaminants of concern as many studies have now demonstrated that these compounds are bioaccumulative, persistent and increasing in concentration in the environment. PBDEs are being detected in almost every environmental sample examined, and they have even been measured in samples collected in the Arctic, further demonstrating their persistence and potential for long range transport. More and more studies are continuing to examine the fate and transport of these flame retardant compounds in environmental samples and as such, reference materials are needed to provide quality control on these measurements. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) supports a national Standard Reference Material (SRM) program for measurement of organic contaminants such as PCBs, PAHs and chlorinated pesticides in environmental matrices. This current study was undertaken to provide reference measurements for PBDEs in selected SRMs that are currently used by various laboratories throughout the United States. These SRMs include matrices such as marine mammal blubber, lake trout tissue, mussel tissue, sediment, house dust and human serum. We report here reference values for 22 PBDE congeners that have been quantified in these seven types of SRMs.

  20. A new approach to standardize multicenter studies: mobile lab technology for the German Environmental Specimen Bank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Lermen

    Full Text Available Technical progress has simplified tasks in lab diagnosis and improved quality of test results. Errors occurring during the pre-analytical phase have more negative impact on the quality of test results than errors encountered during the total analytical process. Different infrastructures of sampling sites can highly influence the quality of samples and therewith of analytical results. Annually the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB collects, characterizes, and stores blood, plasma, and urine samples of 120-150 volunteers each on four different sampling sites in Germany. Overarching goal is to investigate the exposure to environmental pollutants of non-occupational exposed young adults combining human biomonitoring with questionnaire data. We investigated the requirements of the study and the possibility to realize a highly standardized sampling procedure on a mobile platform in order to increase the required quality of the pre-analytical phase. The results lead to the development of a mobile epidemiologic laboratory (epiLab in the project "Labor der Zukunft" (future's lab technology. This laboratory includes a 14.7 m(2 reception area to record medical history and exposure-relevant behavior, a 21.1 m(2 examination room to record dental fillings and for blood withdrawal, a 15.5 m(2 biological safety level 2 laboratory to process and analyze samples on site including a 2.8 m(2 personnel lock and a 3.6 m2 cryofacility to immediately freeze samples. Frozen samples can be transferred to their final destination within the vehicle without breaking the cold chain. To our knowledge, we herewith describe for the first time the implementation of a biological safety laboratory (BSL 2 lab and an epidemiologic unit on a single mobile platform. Since 2013 we have been collecting up to 15.000 individual human samples annually under highly standardized conditions using the mobile laboratory. Characterized and free of alterations they are kept ready for

  1. A new approach to standardize multicenter studies: mobile lab technology for the German Environmental Specimen Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lermen, Dominik; Schmitt, Daniel; Bartel-Steinbach, Martina; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; von Briesen, Hagen; Zimmermann, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Technical progress has simplified tasks in lab diagnosis and improved quality of test results. Errors occurring during the pre-analytical phase have more negative impact on the quality of test results than errors encountered during the total analytical process. Different infrastructures of sampling sites can highly influence the quality of samples and therewith of analytical results. Annually the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) collects, characterizes, and stores blood, plasma, and urine samples of 120-150 volunteers each on four different sampling sites in Germany. Overarching goal is to investigate the exposure to environmental pollutants of non-occupational exposed young adults combining human biomonitoring with questionnaire data. We investigated the requirements of the study and the possibility to realize a highly standardized sampling procedure on a mobile platform in order to increase the required quality of the pre-analytical phase. The results lead to the development of a mobile epidemiologic laboratory (epiLab) in the project "Labor der Zukunft" (future's lab technology). This laboratory includes a 14.7 m(2) reception area to record medical history and exposure-relevant behavior, a 21.1 m(2) examination room to record dental fillings and for blood withdrawal, a 15.5 m(2) biological safety level 2 laboratory to process and analyze samples on site including a 2.8 m(2) personnel lock and a 3.6 m2 cryofacility to immediately freeze samples. Frozen samples can be transferred to their final destination within the vehicle without breaking the cold chain. To our knowledge, we herewith describe for the first time the implementation of a biological safety laboratory (BSL) 2 lab and an epidemiologic unit on a single mobile platform. Since 2013 we have been collecting up to 15.000 individual human samples annually under highly standardized conditions using the mobile laboratory. Characterized and free of alterations they are kept ready for retrospective

  2. Monitoring And Modeling Environmental Water Quality To Support Environmental Water Purchase Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, S. E.; Elmore, L.; Mouzon, N. R.; Wood, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 million cubic meters (20,000 acre feet) of water has been purchased from willing agricultural sellers for environmental flows in Nevada's Walker River to improve riverine habitat and connectivity with downstream Walker Lake. Reduced instream flows limit native fish populations, like Lahontan cutthroat trout, through warm daily stream temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Environmental water purchases maintain instream flows, although effects on water quality are more varied. We use multi-year water quality monitoring and physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality modeling to estimate streamflow, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations with alternative environmental water purchases. We simulate water temperature and dissolved oxygen changes from increased streamflow to prioritize the time periods and locations that environmental water purchases most enhance trout habitat as a function of water quality. Monitoring results indicate stream temperature and dissolved oxygen limitations generally exist in the 115 kilometers upstream of Walker Lake (about 37% of the study area) from approximately May through September, and this reach acts as a water quality barrier for fish passage. Model results indicate that low streamflows generally coincide with critically warm stream temperatures, water quality refugia exist on a tributary of the Walker River, and environmental water purchases may improve stream temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions for some reaches and seasons, especially in dry years and prolonged droughts. This research supports environmental water purchase decision-making and allows water purchase decisions to be prioritized with other river restoration alternatives.

  3. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  4. Energy and indoor environmental quality in relocatable classrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, Michael; Hodgson, Alfred; Shendell, Derek; Dibartolomeo, Dennis; Hochi, Toshifumi; Kumar, Satish; Lee, Seung-Min; Liff, Shawna; Rainer, Leo; Schmidt, Richard; Sullivan, Douglas; Diamond, Richard; Fisk, William

    2002-01-01

    Relocatable classrooms (RCs) are commonly utilized by school districts with changing demographics and enrollment sizes. Four energy-efficient RCs were designed and constructed for this study to demonstrate technologies that simultaneously attempt to improve energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Two were installed at each of two school districts, and energy use and IEQ parameters were monitored during occupancy. Two (one per school) were finished with materials selected for reduced emissions of toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each RC had two HVAC systems, alternated weekly, consisting of a standard heat-pump system and an indirect-direct evaporative cooling (IDEC) system with gas-fired hydronic heating. The hypothesized advantages of the IDEC include continuous outside air ventilation at(ge)7.5 L s(sup -1) per person,(approx)70% less cooling energy and efficient particle filtration. Measurements include: carbon dioxide, particles, VOCs, temperature, humidity, thermal comfort, noise, meteorology, and energy use. Preliminary IEQ monitoring results are reported

  5. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  6. Quality assurance for health and environmental chemistry: 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, M.A.; Gladney, E.S.; Koski, N.L.; Jones, E.A.; Phillips, M.B.; O'Malley, B.T.

    1990-12-01

    This report documents the continuing quality assurance efforts of the Health and Environmental Chemistry Group (HSE-9) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The philosophy, methodology, computing resources, and laboratory information management system used by the quality assurance program to encompass the diversity of analytical chemistry practiced in the group are described. Included in the report are all quality assurance reference materials used, along with their certified or consensus concentrations, and all analytical chemistry quality assurance measurements made by HSE-9 during 1989. 38 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  7. 40 CFR 131.22 - EPA promulgation of water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA promulgation of water quality... PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Procedures for Review and Revision of Water Quality Standards § 131.22 EPA promulgation of water quality standards. (a) If the State does not adopt the changes specified by the Regional...

  8. Evaluation of water quality parameters and associated environmental impact at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.L.; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plants use a large quantity of water for the purpose of cooling the turbine condenser. The heated effluents are discharged to aquatic environment by means of once through cooling wherever large water bodies like seacoast or fresh water reservoir are available. The quality of water bodies are important for the growth and biodiversity of aquatic organisms. Several environmental factors like Temperature pH, Dissolved Oxygen have a bearing on the life cycle of aquatic organisms. The paper describes the evaluation of water quality parameters at the two typical sites one on the sea coast (Tarapur) and other at inland site Kaiga and discusses the environmental impact due to discharge to aquatic environment. It is found that the environmental impacts due to both heated effluents and radioactivity are insignificant. The water quality parameters are found to be well within the prescribed standards. (author)

  9. Bioproducts and environmental quality: Biofuels, greenhouse gases, and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaolin

    Promoting bio-based products is one oft-proposed solution to reduce GHG emissions because the feedstocks capture carbon, offsetting at least partially the carbon discharges resulting from use of the products. However, several life cycle analyses point out that while biofuels may emit less life cycle net carbon emissions than fossil fuels, they may exacerbate other parts of biogeochemical cycles, notably nutrient loads in the aquatic environment. In three essays, this dissertation explores the tradeoff between GHG emissions and nitrogen leaching associated with biofuel production using general equilibrium models. The first essay develops a theoretical general equilibrium model to calculate the second-best GHG tax with the existence of a nitrogen leaching distortion. The results indicate that the second-best GHG tax could be higher or lower than the first-best tax rates depending largely on the elasticity of substitution between fossil fuel and biofuel. The second and third essays employ computable general equilibrium models to further explore the tradeoff between GHG emissions and nitrogen leaching. The computable general equilibrium models also incorporate multiple biofuel pathways, i.e., biofuels made from different feedstocks using different processes, to identify the cost-effective combinations of biofuel pathways under different policies, and the corresponding economic and environmental impacts.

  10. Quality Management Systems And Impact From Standardization In Albanian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Zoga Gjika

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of competition in the local and regional markets is forcing companies to provide high quality products and services as well as to continuously improve their activities. The quality management systems and standard implementation in Albanian companies are the at the focus of this paper with the intention to evidence the actual situation and the results achieved from the certification process. The implementation of ISO standard requirements together with the assessment of the benefits deriving from it is a relatively new experience for Albanian companies and slightly developed in our economic literature. Consequently this work follows a combined approach of reviewing the relevant rich literature of the last decades with the empirical survey of some Albanian companies that have chosen ISO certification as an instrument to gain competitive advantage in the market. The analysis of factors that drive companies towards such time consuming costly and managerially- wise committed process is one of main study objectives. It is followed by the assessment of benefits deriving from this process for companies in quantitative and qualitative terms. Comparing the expected advantages from the certification with those actually obtained might assist companies themselves to improve their processes. From the other side this comparison serves as a basis for suggestions and recommendations to other companies that intend to make good use of advantages the ISO certification.

  11. Software support for environmental measurement in quality at educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pauliková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysed theme of this article is based on the training of environmental measurements for workplaces. This is very important for sustainable quality in technical educational institutions. Applied kinds of software, which are taught at technical educational institutions, have to offer the professional and methodical knowledge concerning conditions of working ambient for students of selected technical specialisations. This skill is performed in such a way that the graduates, after entering the practical professional life, will be able to participate in solutions for actual problems that are related to environmental protection by means of software support. Nowadays, during the training processit is also obligatory to introduce technical science. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned facts it is possible to say that information technology support for environmental study subjects is a relevant aspect, which should be integrated into the university educational process. There is an effective progress that further highlights the focus on the quality of university education not only for environmental engineers. Actual trends require an increasing number of software/hardware educated engineers who can participate in qualitative university preparation, i.e.IT environmentalists. The Department of Environmental Engineering at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, TechnicalUniversity in Košice, Slovakia is an institution specified and intended for quality objectivisation. This institution introduced into the study programmes (“Environmental Management” and “Technology of Environmental Protection” study subjects with the software support, which are oriented towards outdoor and indoor ambient and in this way the Department of Process and Environmental Engineering is integrated effectively and intensively into the area of measurement training with regard to the requirement of quality educational processes.

  12. On development of system for environmental monitoring of atmospheric air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. В. Волкодаева

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests the directions for development of the system of environmental monitoring of atmospheric air quality in the Russian Federation, namely: an increase in the number of stationary control posts for atmospheric pollution in each specific city; expansion of the list of cities where constant measurements of pollutant concentrations are conducted; expansion of the list of controlled impurities through the introduction of automated air quality monitoring systems, the development of computational methods for monitoring air quality, including not only information on pollution levels in terms of compliance with hygienic standards, but also assessment of pollution levels from the perspective of environmental risk to the health of the population. There is a great sensitivity of plants to the low quality of atmospheric air in comparison with the sensitivity of animals and humans. The air quality standards for vegetation are given. It is proposed to evaluate the quality of atmospheric air not only from the point of view of the impact on human health, but taking into account the impact on vegetation, to include in the program route observations carried out by mobile atmospheric air monitoring laboratories, territories with public green areas, which will increase the information content of atmospheric air monitoring and the state of green spaces. In connection with the increasing noise level in large cities and the lack of a permanent noise monitoring system, it is proposed to equip existing and new monitoring stations with noise level meters to provide reliable information for the development of relevant environmental measures.

  13. Optimal growth when environmental quality is a research asset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Ricci, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We advance an original assumption whereby a good state of the environment positively affects labor productivity in R&D such that deteriorating environmental quality negatively impacts R&D. We study the implications of this assumption for the optimal solution in an R&D-based model of growth, where......, we find that it is optimal to re-allocate employment to R&D in line with productivity changes. If environmental quality recovers only partially from pollution, R&D effort optimally begins above its long-run level, then progressively declines to a minimum and eventually increases to its steady...

  14. Applying policy and health effects of air pollution in South Korea: focus on ambient air quality standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jongsik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives South Korea’s air quality standards are insufficient in terms of establishing a procedure for their management. The current system lacks a proper decision-making process and prior evidence is not considered. The purpose of this study is to propose a measure for establishing atmospheric environmental standards in South Korea that will take into consideration the health of its residents. Methods In this paper, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the US was examined in order to suggest ways, which consider health effects, to establish air quality standards in South Korea. Up-to-date research on the health effects of air pollution was then reviewed, and tools were proposed to utilize the key results. This was done in an effort to ensure the reliability of the standards with regard to public health. Results This study showed that scientific research on the health effects of air pollution and the methodology used in the research have contributed significantly to establishing air quality standards. However, as the standards are legally binding, the procedure should take into account the effects on other sectors. Realistically speaking, it is impossible to establish standards that protect an entire population from air pollution. Instead, it is necessary to find a balance between what should be done and what can be done. Conclusions Therefore, establishing air quality standards should be done as part of an evidence-based policy that identifies the health effects of air pollution and takes into consideration political, economic, and social contexts. PMID:25300297

  15. ISO 14000 - the International Environmental Management Standard: Potential impacts on environmental management and auditing in the electric power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntlett, S.B.; Pierce, J.L.; Pierce, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of environmental management, the concept of voluntary environmental compliance auditing is not in itself a new development. Environmentally conscious firms have for more than a decade, undertaken voluntary audits to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental regulations and to help identify and correct unregulated or poorly regulated environmental hazard. The firms undertaking the audits were motivated by a desire to mitigate legal and financial risks and/or the desire to be a highly responsible member of the corporate community. Much of the early attention to environmental auditing was in the chemical process industries. Today, there are four current trends affecting environmental auditing: (1) the practice is becoming widespread in all industry groups in both large and small firms; (2) environmental management and audit methodolgies and approaches are being codified in the form of written national and International standards; (3) environmental management programs and in-house audits are increasingly being certified by independent auditors (who are not associated with regulatory agencies); and (4) the certifications are being viewed as marketing and public relations tools. The adoption of ISO 14000 is destined to become the most significant development in international environmental management and auditing. International standards for the development of Environmental Management Systems and the execution of environmental audits do not currently exist. Individual countries, such as England and France, have national standards. One multi-national standard currently exists--the European Economic Community's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The United States does not have a national environmental management and auditing standard

  16. Quality control and standardization of forearm X-ray osteodensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, M.

    2000-01-01

    Quality control (QC) has an essential practical bearing on the proper function of the equipment used for bone density measurement. Special attention is likewise focused on the issue of standardization of the results afforded by different osteodensitometry instruments. It is the purpose of the study to assay QC of a single-energy x-ray forearm osteodensitometry unit DTX-100 covering a 3 year period, and compare the data on bone mineral density (BMD) produced by three different devices. Long-term BMD reproducibility in vitro, expressed as coefficient of variation, amounts to 0.55 per cent. Except for a two week period, no deviation from the normal function of the instrument is documented. Failing to comply with the manufacturer's instructions may discredit QC efficacy. On comparative assessment of the results produced by different osteodensitometers, differences in vivo may reach up to 1.2 standard deviation. Definite regions of special interest, feasible for comparison, are recommended. In conclusion special emphasis is laid on the necessity of performing through QC, measurement results standardization and accreditation of a reference osteodensitometry center

  17. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section 50.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL...

  18. Environmental Quality Standards Research on Wastewaters of Army Ammunition Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    shown in figures II-A-3, II-A-4, and I1-A-5. The retention times of the majur GC peaks (>1% of total peak area) are listed in tables 11-8 and 11-9. TLC...22134 Attn: NBC Division 1 Fort Benning, GA 31905 108 DISTRIBUTION LIST 5 (Contd) Names Copier Names Copies DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADDITIONAL

  19. Environmental standard review plans for the environmental review of construction permit applications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Information is presented concerning environmental descriptions; plant description; environmental impacts of construction; environmental impacts of station operation; environmental measurements and monitoring programs; environmental impacts of postulated accidents involving radioactive materials; the need for the plant; alternatives to the project; and evaluation of the proposed action

  20. Liquid microjet - a new tool for environmental water quality monitoring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, W.; Buntine, M.

    2001-01-01

    Our ability to provide real-time, cost-effective and efficient technologies for water quality monitoring remains a critical global environmental research issue. Each year, ground and surface waterways around the world, the global marine environment and the especially-fragile interzonal estuarine ecosystems are being placed under severe stress due to ever-increasing levels of pollutants entering the earth's aquasphere. An almost revolutionary breakthrough in water quality monitoring would be achieved with the development of a real-time, broad-spectrum chemical analysis technology. In this article, a real-time mass spectrometric based water quality monitoring centre around in vacuo liquid microjet injection methodologies is presented

  1. Environmental and public health implications of wastewater quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reuse of treated effluent (for agriculture and as supplement for drinking water needs) is currently receiving attention as a reliable water source. This paper is aimed at reviewing the environmental and health impacts of untreated or inadequately treated wastewater effluents. The quality of wastewater effluents is ...

  2. 17th Environmental Quality Index: Troubling Times with Toxics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents a subjective analysis of the status of United States' natural resources, reviewing 1985's key environmental events, problems, and successes. Reports current conditions and/or dilemmas concerning wildlife, air, water, energy, forests, and soils. Provides both a public rating of the quality of life and a priority ranking of environmental…

  3. Exploring the role of Environmental Quality and time Perspective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental quality as well as time perspective on academic performance within ... cognitive factors such as concentration, perception, memory and reason (Louw, Van Ede & ... (Reader's Digest, 1987) or the social or psychological conditions (Evans, .... The person who sees the consequences of his/her actions as being.

  4. Heuristic Model Of The Composite Quality Index Of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, A. N.; Knyaginin, A. A.; Bondarenko, D. V.; Shepet, I. P.; Korolkova, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to present the heuristic model of the composite environmental quality index based on the integrated application of the elements of utility theory, multidimensional scaling, expert evaluation and decision-making. The composite index is synthesized in linear-quadratic form, it provides higher adequacy of the results of the assessment preferences of experts and decision-makers.

  5. MICROBIAL BIOFILMS AS INTEGRATIVE SENSORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Richard A., Michael A. Lewis, Andreas Nocker and Joe E. Lepo. In press. Microbial Biofilms as Integrative Sensors of Environmental Quality. In: Estuarine Indicators Workshop Proceedings. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 34 p. (ERL,GB 1198). Microbial biofilms are comple...

  6. Effect of Environmental Quality on Property Rental Values in Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of environmental quality on rental values of residential accommodation at the peripheral neighbourhoods of Minna, Nigeria. Cluster sampling method was employed in the selection of sampled areas and, six neighbourhoods were randomly selected. Sample size of 600 was drawn out of the ...

  7. U.S. EPA Environmental Quality Index - Air Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an invited presentation by Region 5, Air Office, who asked me to provide an overview of the Air Domain and health results associated with the Air Domain of the Environmental Quality Index. Region 5 is hosting an Air Toxics meeting for its member states (Ohio, Michigan, I...

  8. Limitations of ambient air quality standards in evaluating indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the kinds of data used for the derivation of ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) for carbon monoxide and ozone shows that these values are based on the toxicology of the materials and thus are suitable for evaluating potential health effects of indoor environments, especially on the very young, the aged, and the infirm. A similar analysis shows that the AAQSs for suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are strictly empirical and that they should not be used for any but their first, intended purpose. The AAQSs for non-methane hydrocarbons are based on photochemical smog production, not injury of any kind, and have no utility for indoor environment evaluation

  9. Quality data validation: Comprehensive approach to environmental data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejka, L.A. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental data validation consists of an assessment of three major areas: analytical method validation; field procedures and documentation review; evaluation of the level of achievement of data quality objectives based in part on PARCC parameters analysis and expected applications of data. A program utilizing matrix association of required levels of validation effort and analytical levels versus applications of this environmental data was developed in conjunction with DOE-ID guidance documents to implement actions under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order in effect at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This was an effort to bring consistent quality to the INEL-wide Environmental Restoration Program and database in an efficient and cost-effective manner. This program, documenting all phases of the review process, is described here

  10. Biological monitoring and selected trends in environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suffern, J.S.; West, D.C.; Kemp, H.T.; Burgess, R.L.

    1976-10-01

    Under a contract with the President's Council on Environmental Quality, the National Inventory of Selected Biological Monitoring Programs at ORNL was used to identify documented environmental trends. Fish population trends were described for the Great Lakes and the Colorado River system. Trends in amphibian populations in the northeast were examined and correlated with acid precipitation. Increases in breeding success among large birds of prey were correlated with reductions in ambient levels of DDT and its residues. Geographic variation in PCB contamination was examined along with differences between aquatic and terrestrial contamination levels. Changes in air quality were documented, and their effects on plant viability were outlined. Trends in the biological effects of environmental deposition of lead were documented. Long-term changes in forest structure in the southeast were presented, and a general reduction in wildlife habitat, associated with land use practices, was documented for several areas in the US

  11. 36 CFR 223.218 - Consistency with plans, environmental standards, and other management requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., environmental standards, and other management requirements. 223.218 Section 223.218 Parks, Forests, and Public... Special Forest Products § 223.218 Consistency with plans, environmental standards, and other management... with applicable land management plans. Each contract, permit, or other authorizing instrument shall...

  12. Modelling transport of waste material leachate in soils in support of environmental standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren JCH; Aalbers TG; de Wilde PGM

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands a process of defining environmental standards is going on. These standards serve to protect the environment at the one hand, and to stimulate the reuse of rest-materials, e.g. ash from blast-furnaces, as building materials at the other hand. In order to come to an environmental

  13. Improving water quality in China: Environmental investment pays dividends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Ma, Jianrong; Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Shi, Kun; Brookes, Justin D; Spencer, Robert G M; Zhu, Guangwei; Gao, Guang

    2017-07-01

    This study highlights how Chinese economic development detrimentally impacted water quality in recent decades and how this has been improved by enormous investment in environmental remediation funded by the Chinese government. To our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the variability of surface water quality in inland waters in China, the affecting drivers behind the changes, and how the government-financed conservation actions have impacted water quality. Water quality was found to be poorest in the North and the Northeast China Plain where there is greater coverage of developed land (cities + cropland), a higher gross domestic product (GDP), and higher population density. There are significant positive relationships between the concentration of the annual mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the percentage of developed land use (cities + cropland), GDP, and population density in the individual watersheds (p investments in environmental restoration and reforestation, the water quality of Chinese inland waters has improved markedly, which is particularly evident from the significant and exponentially decreasing GDP-normalized COD and ammonium (NH 4 + -N) concentrations. It is evident that the increasing GDP in China over the past decade did not occur at the continued expense of its inland water ecosystems. This offers hope for the future, also for other industrializing countries, that with appropriate environmental investments a high GDP can be reached and maintained, while simultaneously preserving inland aquatic ecosystems, particularly through management of sewage discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensory Quality of Standard and Light Mayonnaise during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Karas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ingredients on the quality and stability of two kinds of mayonnaise after it has been stored in a refrigerator (t = 5–8 °C and at room temperature (t = 20–25 °C were examined in this research. Fresh mayonnaise samples were examined by sensory analysis (analytical descriptive test and physico-chemical analyses (pH, acid and peroxide values first after being stored for one month and then after two months. The effects of individual factors were examined and the results were statistically valued. The results show that fresh standard mayonnaise containing 75 % of oil as opposed to low-fat mayonnaise (light mayonnaise containing 49 % of oil gained higher grades for most sensory attributes. Storage temperature, storage time and type of mayonnaise influence significantly (P≤0.001 the stability, homogeneity, mouth feeling, acid odour and flavour, rancidity, pH, acid and peroxide values. At any point of storage and under both temperature regimes, the samples of light mayonnaise had lower pH value and higher acid value in comparison with standard mayonnaise. Regardless of storage conditions irrespective of the recipe for their preparation, pH value was declining, whereas acid and peroxide values increased in all types of mayonnaise. Some meaningful statistically significant correlations (r > 0.70 exist between sensory and physico-chemical parametres of mayonnaise.

  15. CPD Aligned to Competency Standards to Support Quality Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Nash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As medication experts, pharmacists are key members of the patient’s healthcare team. Pharmacists must maintain their competence to practice to remain responsive to the increasingly complex healthcare sector. This paper seeks to determine how competence training for pharmacists may enhance quality in their professional development. Results of two separately administered surveys (2012 and 2013 were compared to examine the reported continued professional development (CPD practices of Australian pharmacists. Examination of results from both studies enabled a focus on how the competency standards inform CPD practice.In the survey administered in 2012, 91% (n = 253/278 pharmacists reported that they knew their current registration requirements. However, in the survey administered in 2013, only 43% (n = 46/107 reported utilization of the National Competency Standards Framework for Pharmacists in Australia (NCS to self-asses their practice as part of their annual re-registration requirements. Fewer, 23% (n = 25/107, used the NCS to plan their CPD. This may be symptomatic of poor familiarity with the NCS, uncertainty around undertaking self-directed learning as part of a structured learning plan and/or misunderstandings around what CPD should include. This is supported by thematic analysis of pharmacists’ social media comments. Initial and ongoing competence training to support meaningful CPD requires urgent attention in Australia. The competence (knowledge, skills and attributes required to engage in meaningful CPD practice should be introduced and developed prior to entry into practice; other countries may find they are in a similar position.

  16. Evaluation of Ecological Environmental Quality in a Coal Mining Area by Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Yan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the effective method of the comprehensive evaluation of ecological environmental quality in a coal mining area. Firstly, we analyzed the ecological environmental effect of the coal mining area according to Pigovian Tax theory and, according to the results of the analysis and the demand for the selection of evaluation indices by the comprehensive evaluation, built the corresponding comprehensive evaluation index system. We then used the correlation function method to determine the relative weights of each index. We determined the basic standards of a comprehensive evaluation of ecological environmental quality in a coal mining area according to the actual situation of ecological environmental quality assessments in coal mining areas in our country and the relevant provisions of the government. On this basis, we built the two-level extension comprehensive evaluation model for the evaluation of ecological environmental quality in mining areas. Finally, we chose a certain coal mining area of Yanzhou Coal Mining Company Limited as the specific case. We used the relevant statistic data, technical and economic indices and the extension evaluation model to do the applied research of the comprehensive evaluation and tested the effectiveness of the comprehensive evaluation model.

  17. A reference standard-based quality assurance program for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Patrick T; Johnson, C Daniel; Miranda, Rafael; Patel, Maitray D; Phillips, Carrie J

    2010-01-01

    The authors have developed a comprehensive radiology quality assurance (QA) program that evaluates radiology interpretations and procedures by comparing them with reference standards. Performance metrics are calculated and then compared with benchmarks or goals on the basis of published multicenter data and meta-analyses. Additional workload for physicians is kept to a minimum by having trained allied health staff members perform the comparisons of radiology reports with the reference standards. The performance metrics tracked by the QA program include the accuracy of CT colonography for detecting polyps, the false-negative rate for mammographic detection of breast cancer, the accuracy of CT angiography detection of coronary artery stenosis, the accuracy of meniscal tear detection on MRI, the accuracy of carotid artery stenosis detection on MR angiography, the accuracy of parathyroid adenoma detection by parathyroid scintigraphy, the success rate for obtaining cortical tissue on ultrasound-guided core biopsies of pelvic renal transplants, and the technical success rate for peripheral arterial angioplasty procedures. In contrast with peer-review programs, this reference standard-based QA program minimizes the possibilities of reviewer bias and erroneous second reviewer interpretations. The more objective assessment of performance afforded by the QA program will provide data that can easily be used for education and management conferences, research projects, and multicenter evaluations. Additionally, such performance data could be used by radiology departments to demonstrate their value over nonradiology competitors to referring clinicians, hospitals, patients, and third-party payers. Copyright 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods.

  19. [Study on seed quality test and quality standard of Lonicera macranthoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Jin; Li, Long-Yun; Cui, Guang-Lin; She, Yue-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Referring to the rules for agricultural seed testing (GB/T 3543-1995) issued by China, the test of sampling, purity, thousand seed weight, moisture, viability, relative conductivity and germination rate had been studied for seed quality test methods of Lonicera macranthoides. The seed quality from 38 different collection areas was measured to establish quality classification standard by K-means clustering. The results showed that at least 7.5 g seeds should be sampled, and passed 20-mesh sieve for purity analysis.The 500-seed method used to measure thousand seed weight. The moisture was determined by crushed seeds dried in high temperature (130±2) ℃ for 3 h.The viability determined by 25 ℃ 0.1% TTC stained 5h in dark. 1.0 g seeds soaked in 50 ml ultra pure water in 25 ℃ for 12 hours to determine the relative conductivity. The seed by 4 ℃stratification for 80 days were cultured on paper at 15 ℃. Quality of the seeds from different areas was divided into three grades. The primary seed quality classification standard was established.The I grade and II grade were recommend use in production. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. 78 FR 37325 - License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard Review Plans for Environmental... for Nuclear Power Plants, Supplement 1: Operating License Renewal'' (ESRP). The ESRP serves as a guide... published a final rule, ``Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating...

  1. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  2. Urban-rural status affects associations between domains of environmental quality and adverse birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by environmental domain and urbanicity. To account for multiple ambient environmental conditions, we constructed an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for health research. We used U.S. county level data rep...

  3. Status of existing federal environmental risk-based standards applicable to Department of Energy operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyard, G.R.; Jonas, R.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1991-01-01

    When conducting its environmental restoration, waste management, and decontamination and decommissioning activities, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must comply with a myriad of regulatory procedures and environmental standards. An assessment of the status of existing federal standards that may be applied to chemical and radioactive substances on DOE sites found substantial gaps and inconsistencies among the existing standards, and technical issues associated with the application of those standards. Of 271 chemical and radioactive substances found to be important across environmental media at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge Sites, 96 (35%) are unregulated by federal regulations and are not covered by DOE guidelines, 48 (18%) are covered by single federal standards or DOE guidelines, and 127 (47%) are covered by multiple regulations or DOE guidelines. Inconsistencies and technical issues among standards include the promulgation of different standards under different regulations for a given substance in an environmental medium, the application of standards for purposes other than originally intended, and the inability to meet standards because of technical limitations. Given the lack of a complete, consistent set of standards or generic procedures for determining applicable standards, and given the existence of inconsistencies and technical issues among the existing set of standards, DOE may be faced with lengthy negotiations of standards on a case-by-case basis. Such negotiations could result in inconsistent cleanup levels, high costs, potential delays, and missed regulatory milestones

  4. 24 CFR 573.8 - Environmental procedures and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Historic Preservation Officer) or any other source qualified to provide reliable information on the... data needed to make a determination of compliance. For successful Borrowers, the costs for preparing the environmental data are eligible as project costs. (1) If HUD determines that one or more of the...

  5. Fair Trade Flowers: Global Certification, Environmental Sustainability, and Labor Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the organization of the fair trade flower industry, integration of Ecuadorian enterprises into these networks, and power of certification to address key environmental and social concerns on participating estates. Pursuing a social regulatory approach, I locate fair trade within the field of new institutions that establish and…

  6. Environmental engineering education: examples of accreditation and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, E.; Catelani, M.; Manfrida, G.; Valdiserri, J.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental engineers respond to the challenges posed by a growing population, intensifying land-use pressures, natural resources exploitation as well as rapidly evolving technology. The environmental engineer must develop technically sound solutions within the framework of maintaining or improving environmental quality, complying with public policy, and optimizing the utilization of resources. The engineer provides system and component design, serves as a technical advisor in policy making and legal deliberations, develops management schemes for resources, and provides technical evaluations of systems. Through the current work of environmental engineers, individuals and businesses are able to understand how to coordinate society's interaction with the environment. There will always be a need for engineers who are able to integrate the latest technologies into systems to respond to the needs for food and energy while protecting natural resources. In general, the environment-related challenges and problems need to be faced at global level, leading to the globalization of the engineering profession which requires not only the capacity to communicate in a common technical language, but also the assurance of an adequate and common level of technical competences, knowledge and understanding. In this framework, the Europe-based EUR ACE (European Accreditation of Engineering Programmes) system, currently operated by ENAEE - European Network for Accreditation of Engineering Education can represent the proper framework and accreditation system in order to provide a set of measures to assess the quality of engineering degree programmes in Europe and abroad. The application of the accreditation model EUR-ACE, and of the National Italian Degree Courses Accreditation System, promoted by the Italian National Agency for the Evaluation of Universities and Research Institutes (ANVUR), to the Environmental Engineering Degree Courses at the University of Firenze is presented. In

  7. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  8. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  9. A Decade of Experience in Implementing Quality Management System at Radiochemistry and Environmental Laboratory (RAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar; Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Wo, Y.M.; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Nurrul Assyikeen Md Jaffary; Noor Fadzilah Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Quality management system has been introduced to a few laboratories in the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) for the purpose to enhance the delivery of quality services to customers. Radiochemistry and Environmental Laboratory (RAS) is a service center in Nuclear Malaysia has implemented a quality management system in procedures carried out and has obtained accreditation for MS ISO/ IEC 17025 since 8 December 2005. This paper is intended to share experiences RAS in implementing a quality management system in accordance with standard MS ISO/ IEC 17025 accreditation and managed to keep it to this day. In addition, the RAS achievements including issues and challenges in implementing the quality management system in the past 10 years will also be discussed. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Environmental Quality Productive Ecosystem Guayas (Ecuador).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Wilson; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Carrera, Gloria; Jordan, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2015-04-01

    Natural resources are deteriorating very rapidly in the Gulf of Guayaquil and the area of influence in the Guayas Basin due to human activity. Specific problems are generated by the mismanagement of the aquaculture industry affecting the traditional agricultural sectors: rice, banana, sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, and soya also studied, and by human and industrial settlements. The development of industrial activities such as aquaculture (shrimp building for shrimp farming in ponds) and agriculture, have increasingly contributed to the generation of waste, degrading and potentially toxic elements in high concentrations, which can have adverse effects on organisms in the ecosystems, in the health of the population and damage the ecological and environmental balance. The productive Guayas ecosystem, consists of three interrelated ecosystems, the Gulf of Guayaquil, the Guayas River estuary and the Guayas Basin buffer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of the productive Guayas ecosystem (Ecuador), through operational and specific objectives: 1) Draw up the transition coastal zone in the Gulf of Guayaquil, 2) Set temporal spatial variability of soil salinity in wetlands rice, Lower Guayas Basin, 3) evaluate the heavy metals in wetland rice in the Lower Basin of Guayas. The physical and chemical parameters of the soils have been studied. These are indicators of environmental quality. The multivariate statistical method showed the relations of similarities and dissimilarities between variables and parameter studies as stable. Moreover, the boundaries of coastal transition areas, temporal spatial variability of soil salinity and heavy metals in rice cultivation in the Lower Basin of Guayas were researched. The sequential studies included and discussed represent a broad framework of fundamental issues that has been valued as a basic component of the productive Guayas ecosystem. They are determinants of the environmental quality of the Guayas

  11. Quality of environmental impact statements in Portugal and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canelas, Leonel; Almansa, P.; Merchan, M.; Cifuentes, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    One of the key steps of the Environmental Impact Assessment Process, defined by Directive 337/85 'on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects' is the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of a Project. The quality of the EIS is of great importance to properly inform the public and the decision makers about the significant environmental effects of the project. Using the 'Guidance on EIA-EIS Review' 2001 report, produced with the support of the European Commission, this paper analyses the overall quality of 46 recently elaborated EIS from Portugal and Spain (1998-2003). It also analyses the quality of the various chapters of the EIS and the Non-Technical Summary. A comparison is made between the quality of the EIS from Portugal and from Spain. The results for Portugal are also compared with those of other European countries (Ireland and United Kingdom) in similar periods. Finally it presents overall conclusions and suggestions for improvement

  12. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has initiated the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) in an effort to manage, control and remediate existing hazardous, toxic and radioactive wastes generated at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). This ERP Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) is responsive to the PORTS ESH Division QAPP and the ES Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) QAPP. This QAPP establishes the policies, requirements and responsibilities by which an appropriate level of QA shall be implemented within the PORTS-ERP. All PORTS-ERP activities shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of this document and/or of a project level document which is derivative of this document

  13. Reflections on the State of Research: Indoor Environmental Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel; Corsi, Richard

    2011-01-01

    that with parallel research and writing efforts culminating with internal review and revision cycles. In this paper, we present our choices for the most important research findings on indoor environmental quality from the past three decades followed by a discussion of the most important research questions in our......More than 30 years after the First International Indoor Climate Symposium, ten researchers from the USA, Slovakia, Sweden, and Denmark gathered to review the current status of indoor environmental research. We initiated our review with discussions during the 1-day meeting and followed...

  14. Environmental monitoring standardization of effluent from nuclear fuel cycle facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Mili

    1993-01-01

    China has established some environmental monitoring standards of effluent from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Up to date 33 standards have been issued; 10 to be issued; 11 in drafting. These standards cover sampling, gross activities measurement, analytical methods and management rules and so on. They involve with almost all nuclear fuel cycle facilities and have formed a complete standards system. By the end of the century, we attempt to draft a series of analytical and determination standards in various environmental various medium, they include 36 radionuclides from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (3 tabs.)

  15. Acidic precipitation: considerations for an air-quality standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Hendrey, G.R.; Stensland, G.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Francis, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Acidic precipitation, wet or frozen deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greatern than 2.5 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ is a significant air pollution problem in the United States. The chief anions accounting for the hydrogen ions in rainfall are nitrate and sulfate. Agricultural systems are more likely to derive net nutritional benefits from increasing inputs of acidic rain than are forest systems when soils alone are considered. Agricultural soils may benefit because of the high N and S requirements of agricultural plants. Detrimental effects to forest soils may result if atmospheric H/sup +/ inputs significantly add to or exceed H/sup +/ production by soils. Acidification of fresh waters of southern Scandinavia, southwestern Scotland, southeastern Canada, and northeastern United States is caused by acid deposition. Areas of these regions in which this acidification occurs have in common, highly acidic precipitation with volume weighted mean annual H/sup +/ concentrations of 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ or higher and slow weathering granitic or precambrian bedrock with thin soils deficient in minerals which would provide buffer capacity. Biological effects of acidification of fresh waters are detectable below pH 6.0. As lake and stream pH levels decrease below pH. 6.0, many species of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates are progressively eliminated. Generally, fisheries are impacted below pH 5.0 and are completely destroyed below pH 4.8. There are few studies that document effects of acidic precipitation on terrestrial vegetation to establish an air quality standard. It must be demonstrated that current levels of precipitation acidity alone significantly injure terrestrial vegetation. In terms of documented damanges, current research indicates that establishing a standard for precipitation for the volume weighted annual H/sup +/ concentration at 25 ..mu..eq l/sup -1/ may protect the most sensitive areas from permanent lake acidification.

  16. ABACC laboratories quality assurance through Secondary Standards Exchange Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidicini, Olga Mafra; Thompson, Jay; Soriano, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In September 1999, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), with assistance from the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) of the U.S. Department of Energy, started a new cooperative activity with, among other objectives, the production and characterization of a traceable uranium secondary standard and the performance of the Third Round Robin for ABACC's laboratory network. Brazil and Argentina have fabricated UO 2 pellets for use as a secondary standard. Samples from the two batches were sent to NBL for the determination of the reference values for both uranium concentration (%U) and isotopic composition for each batch. ABACC and NBL then organized the Third ABACC Round Robin for Brazilian and Argentine laboratories that are part of the ABACC network. The laboratories comprising the network can be used to analyze real samples collected during the ABACC inspections. The Brazilian and Argentine pellets were distributed to all the laboratories together with the protocol to be followed for the uranium concentration analysis, the forms for reporting the measurement results, and natural UO 2 pellets (CETAMA OU1) to be used as reference material. For the laboratories with capability of measuring isotopics, NBL reference material CRM 125-A was provided. Several laboratories from each country provided results. As soon as the measurement results were sent to the organizers, they were statistically evaluated by NBL. During a meeting held at ABACC headquarters with the participation of NBL representatives, the ABACC technical support officer, and representatives of all the participant laboratories, the results were discussed and compared with the reference values. All the laboratories had the occasion, in an open discussion, to explain and show the difficulties and problems they faced during the exercise. ABACC had the opportunity not only to judge the quality of the measurements these laboratories performed, but also to determine

  17. Quality-control activities of the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Jaquish, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to quality control (QC) has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program. The framework of quality control for the surveillance program has been documented in a QC implementation guide wherein QC requirements are specified and specific responsibilities and authorities are described. Subjects in the guide include the collection, analysis, and reporting of samples as well as equipment calibration and maintenance, training, audits, and record keeping. A QC file and library have been established to store pertinent documentation, records, and references for ready access

  18. Impact of standards and certification on environmental impairment liability insurance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulledge, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental impairment liability (EIL) insurance is available for petroleum storage tank and other environmental exposures. Recent standards and performance criteria for leak detection for underground storage tanks (USTs) and other technical standards for USTs have been both a benefit and an interference to risk-based underwriting of storage tank EIL insurance programs. Insurance underwriters and state financial responsibility program administrators are confronted with confusing information to manage these environmental risks. Standards and certification are also key issues for site assessment programs. Recent activities from ASTM and the Institute for Environmental Auditing (IEA) have addressed the need to increase the professional stature of site assessments and environmental management. Reaction and acceptance of these efforts by the users have been mixed. Ultimately, these efforts will greatly impact insurance coverage for environmental risks

  19. 40 CFR 1515.2 - What is the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from that Act, the Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4371-4374... existing and proposed facilities, programs, policies, and activities affecting environmental quality; (3... Quality (CEQ)? 1515.2 Section 1515.2 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY FREEDOM OF...

  20. Health care in small prisons: incorporating high-quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Casillas, Alejandra; Mary, Gérard; Secretan, Anne-Dominique; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In the past, health management in Geneva's six post-trial prisons had been variable and inconsistent. In 2008, the unit of penitentiary medicine of the Geneva University Hospitals was mandated to re-organize and provide health care at all six prison facilities. The specific aim of this paper is to outline the example as a practical solution to some of the common challenges in unifying the structure and process of health services across multiple small facilities, while meeting European prison health and local quality standards. Geneva's post-trial prisons are small and close to one another in geographical proximity - ideal conditions for the construction of a health mobile team (HMT). This multidisciplinary mobile team operated like a community ambulatory care model; it was progressively launched in all prison facilities in Geneva. The authors incorporated an implementation strategy where health providers partnered with prison and community stakeholders in the health delivery model's development and adaption process. The model's strategic initiatives are described along the following areas, in light of other international prison health activity and prior care models: access to a health care professional, equivalence of care, patient consent, confidentiality, humanitarian interventions, and professional competence and independence. From the perspective of the HMT members, the authors provide the "lessons learned" through this experience, especially to providers who are working on prison health services reform and coordination improvement. The paper particularly stresses the importance of partnering with community health stakeholders and prison staff, a key component to the approach.

  1. EPA STANDARDS NETWORK FACT SHEET: ISO 14000: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This flyer provides an overview of the ISO 14000 series of International standards, supplying a brief history, structure of the Technical Committee (TC) 207, structure of the U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to ISO TC-207, status of the Standards development as of June 1997, w...

  2. Nuclear power project construction quality acceptance standards Implementation and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Shifu

    2013-01-01

    Project quality construction acceptance is an important element of nuclear power project quality management. Based on characteristics of NPP construction and refer to national construction quality acceptance code and industry regulation, this paper introduces and discusses NPP construction quality acceptance regulation improvement and implementation under current situation. (authors)

  3. Quality management in environmental programs: Los Alamos National Laboratory's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassen, L.; Day, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Since its inception in 1943, Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) primary mission has been nuclear weapons research and development, which involved the use of hazardous and radioactive materials, some of which were disposed of onsite. LANL has established an extensive Environmental Restoration Project (Project) to investigate and remediate those hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites. This paper describes LANL's identification and resolution of critical issues associated with the integration and management of quality in the Project

  4. Planning for quality stewardship: The sitewide environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy is responsible for managing many large tracts of Federal land throughout this country. These sites host the nation's nuclear weapons complex, national laboratories, environmental restoration facilities, and serve other uses. The Department faces unique problems in administering this land. Many have multiple activities taking place at the same time; for example, a site may simultaneously be used for energy research, technology development, waste disposal and wildlife habitat. The sites often use radioactive and other hazardous materials and many are contaminated as a result of past management practices. In 1992 the Department institutes a policy, as stated in its National Environmental Policy Act regulations [10 CFR 1021], to prepare sitewide environmental impact statements for its large, multipurpose sites. For the first time, through the sitewide environmental impact statement process, the Department has an effective tool to plan for quality stewardship of the lands and resources entrusted to its care. The sitewide environmental impact statement is a specialized type of programmatic environmental impact statement which allows the Department to look at the geographically connected actions taking place at a given site. The sitewide statement allows a comprehensive look at the operational baseline for the entire site to determine the total cumulative impact of ongoing operations at the site. The Department can identify areas where a change in management practices would mitigate undesirable impacts; areas not at issue could continue under existing practices. As a result, an environmentally-sound operating envelope can be established. This, in turn, can serve in the future as a threshold to decide if new proposals would result in significant impacts to the site as a whole, to simplify future National Environmental Policy Act reviews

  5. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.; Kim, T.J.; Reynolds, S.

    1991-08-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act

  6. The demand for environmental quality and the environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Neha; Plassmann, Florenz

    2004-01-01

    Household demand for better environmental quality is the key factor in the long-term global applicability of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. We argue that, for given consumer preferences, the threshold income level at which the EKC turns downwards or the equilibrium income elasticity changes sign from positive to negative depends on the ability to spatially separate production and consumption. We test our hypothesis by estimating the equilibrium income elasticities of five pollutants, using 1990 data for the United States. We find that the change in sign occurs at lower income levels for pollutants for which spatial separation is relatively easy as compared to pollutants for which spatial separation is difficult. Our results suggest that even high-income households in the United States have not yet reached the income level at which their demand for better environmental quality is high enough to cause the income-pollution relationship to turn downwards for all the pollutants that we analyzed

  7. The demand for environmental quality and the environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Neha [Department of Economics and Environmental Studies Program, Binghamton, University (LT 1004), P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000 (United States); Plassmann, Florenz [Department of Economics, Binghamton University (LT 904), P.O. Box 6000, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000 (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Household demand for better environmental quality is the key factor in the long-term global applicability of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. We argue that, for given consumer preferences, the threshold income level at which the EKC turns downwards or the equilibrium income elasticity changes sign from positive to negative depends on the ability to spatially separate production and consumption. We test our hypothesis by estimating the equilibrium income elasticities of five pollutants, using 1990 data for the United States. We find that the change in sign occurs at lower income levels for pollutants for which spatial separation is relatively easy as compared to pollutants for which spatial separation is difficult. Our results suggest that even high-income households in the United States have not yet reached the income level at which their demand for better environmental quality is high enough to cause the income-pollution relationship to turn downwards for all the pollutants that we analyzed.

  8. Quality education enhancement by means of university environmental edification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Čekanová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The submitted work partly describes the historical and actual trends of the introduction of targeted environmental edification at universities based on the framework of Slovakian sustainable development as well as its enhancement of quality educational processes. There has been a need to accentuate environmental consciousness and to bring closer a current state in an incorporating of more environmental and quality aspects for the education process at technical universities. The article emphasizes continuous development of observed problems and introduces the possible future visions from the point of reorganization and tending of study fields. This reorganization requires very a sensitive approach because duplications or triplicities can frequently occur in the environmental education of individual subjects. For this reason students’ interest and ability to learn better can gradually decrease and consequently, results can become worse. Upon graduation, students may not be as well prepared to face the strong competition of the labour market in the Slovak Republic as well as in European Union countries.

  9. Green Roofs: Standardization and Quality Control of Processes in Green Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems of standardization and quality control of processes in the construction, improvement of integrated safety of buildings and the implementation of innovative green building technologies, the use of national standards as well as international rating systems for green buildings evaluation. This is one of the priority directions in development of the modern construction. The aim of this study is the analysis of the green roof systems and international standards, which were carried out in the green building industry. The authors have studied traditional and innovative solutions of rational using natural resources and energy, the green roof system with integration of supported solar and wind energy collecting and converting devices and of irrigation system. Some studies provide evidence for the benefits of the modular green roof system in urban green space with microclimate differences. This article presents a new research which advances our knowledge of the economic and environmental services provided by the green roof system. Research reported here also considers the analysis of the Russian and international legislation of the quality control of processes in green construction.

  10. Enforcing environmental standards: Economic mechanisms as viable means?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfrum, R.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1996-01-01

    The papers presented at the symposium organised by the Heidelberg Max-Planck-Institute for international law touch upon two major aspects of developments in international law, relating to international environmental law for protection of the global atmosphere and environment, and to international and national means of enforcing existing laws. The situation is shown against the background of conflicts of interests arising from the different perspectives and objectives involved, i.e. those of protection of the environment or economic development. The 21 contributions, all in English, present an outline picture of developments and activities as well as legal regimes and instruments and address details of agreements and their implementation and enforcement. Individual subject analyses of 17 papers are available in the database. (CB)

  11. British Thoracic Society Quality Standards for acute non-invasive ventilation in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael; Allen, Martin; Bentley, Andrew; Bourke, Stephen C; Creagh-Brown, Ben; D’Oliveiro, Rachel; Glossop, Alastair; Gray, Alasdair; Jacobs, Phillip; Mahadeva, Ravi; Moses, Rachael; Setchfield, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the quality standards document is to provide healthcare professionals, commissioners, service providers and patients with a guide to standards of care that should be met for the provision of acute non-invasive ventilation in adults together with measurable markers of good practice. Methods Development of British Thoracic Society (BTS) Quality Standards follows the BTS process of quality standard production based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence process manual for the development of quality standards. Results 6 quality statements have been developed, each describing a standard of care for the provision of acute non-invasive ventilation in the UK, together with measurable markers of good practice. Conclusion BTS Quality Standards for acute non-invasive ventilation in adults form a key part of the range of supporting materials that the Society produces to assist in the dissemination and implementation of guideline’s recommendations. PMID:29636979

  12. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  13. Relationship between food waste, diet quality, and environmental sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Meredith T.; Neher, Deborah A.; Roy, Eric D.; Tichenor, Nicole E.; Jahns, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Improving diet quality while simultaneously reducing environmental impact is a critical focus globally. Metrics linking diet quality and sustainability have typically focused on a limited suite of indicators, and have not included food waste. To address this important research gap, we examine the relationship between food waste, diet quality, nutrient waste, and multiple measures of sustainability: use of cropland, irrigation water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Data on food intake, food waste, and application rates of agricultural amendments were collected from diverse US government sources. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2015. A biophysical simulation model was used to estimate the amount of cropland associated with wasted food. This analysis finds that US consumers wasted 422g of food per person daily, with 30 million acres of cropland used to produce this food every year. This accounts for 30% of daily calories available for consumption, one-quarter of daily food (by weight) available for consumption, and 7% of annual cropland acreage. Higher quality diets were associated with greater amounts of food waste and greater amounts of wasted irrigation water and pesticides, but less cropland waste. This is largely due to fruits and vegetables, which are health-promoting and require small amounts of cropland, but require substantial amounts of agricultural inputs. These results suggest that simultaneous efforts to improve diet quality and reduce food waste are necessary. Increasing consumers’ knowledge about how to prepare and store fruits and vegetables will be one of the practical solutions to reducing food waste. PMID:29668732

  14. National BTS bronchiectasis audit 2012: is the quality standard being adhered to in adult secondary care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Adam T; Routh, Chris; Welham, Sally

    2014-03-01

    A significant step towards improving care of patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis was the creation of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) national guidelines and the quality standard. A BTS bronchiectasis audit was conducted between 1 October and 30 November 2012, in adult patients with bronchiectasis attending secondary care, against the BTS quality standard. Ninety-eight institutions took part, submitting a total of 3147 patient records. The audit highlighted the variable adoption of the quality standard. It will allow the host institutions to benchmark against UK figures and drive quality improvement programmes to promote the quality standard and improve patient care.

  15. Status of existing federal environmental risk-based standards applicable to Department of Energy operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyard, G.R.

    1991-09-01

    When conducting its environmental restoration, waste management, and decontamination and decommissioning activities, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must comply with a myriad of regulatory procedures and environmental standards. This paper assesses the status of existing federal risk-based standards that may be applied to chemical and radioactive substances on DOE sites. Gaps and inconsistencies among the existing standards and the technical issues associated with the application of those standards are identified. Finally, the implications of the gaps, inconsistencies, and technical issues on DOE operations are discussed, and approaches to resolving the gaps, inconsistencies, and technical issues are identified. 6 refs

  16. [Study on seed quality test and quality standard of Pesudostellaria heterophylla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cheng-Hong; Zhou, Tao; Jiang, Wei-Ke; Chen, Min; Xiong, Hou-Xi; Liao, Ming-Wu

    2014-08-01

    Referring to the rules for agricultural seed testing (GB /T 3543-1995) issued by China, the test of sampling, seed purity, weight per 1 000 seeds, seed moisture, seed viability and germination rate had been studied for screening seed quality test methods of Pesudostellaria heterophylla. The seed quality from different collection areas was measured. The results showed that at least 6.5 g seeds should be sampled and passed through 10-mesh sieve for purity analysis. The weight of 1 000 seeds was determined by using the 500-seed method. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The seed moisture was determined under the higher temperature (130 ± 2) degrees C for 5 hours. The seeds were dipped into 0.2% TTC sustaining 1 hour at 40 degrees C, then the viability could be determined. The break dormancy seeds were cultured on sand at 10 degrees C. K cluster analysis was applied for the data analysis, the seed quality from different collection areas grading of P. Heterophylla was described as three grades. The seed quality of each grade should reach following requirements: for first grade seeds, germination rate ≥ 86%, 1 000-grain weight ≥ 2.59 g, purity ≥ 87%, moisture ≤ 13.1%; for second grade seeds, germination rate ≥ 70%, 1 000-grain weight ≥ 2.40 g, purity ≥ 77%, moisture ≤ 14.3%; for third grade seeds, germination rate ≥ 41%, 1 000-grain weight ≥ 2.29 g, purity ≥ 76%, moisture ≤ 15.8%. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. heterophylla had been initially established, as well as the primary P. heterophylla seed quality classification standard.

  17. A Risk and Standards Based Approach to Quality Assurance in Australia's Diverse Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency's (TEQSA's) role is to assure that quality standards are being met by all registered higher education providers. This paper explains how TEQSA's risk-based approach to assuring higher education standards is applied in broad terms to a diverse sector. This explanation is…

  18. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of new water quality... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and (2...

  19. The negotiation of quality standards: A social interactionists approach to fruit and vegetable distribution in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arce, A.M.G.; Viteri, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses food quality standards. It suggests that writing on standards creates a flat view of the subject, failing to grasp the richness of the multiple self-organizing practices that shape quality within functioning markets. The article documents the social dimension of quality and

  20. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary for... officials that it meets implicit standards of safety and quality adopted by the industry or as later...

  1. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  2. Remedial action standards for inactive uranium processing sites (40 cfr 192). Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency is proposing standards for disposing of uranium mill tailings from inactive processing sites and for cleaning up contaminated open land and buildings. These standards were developed pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-604). This Act requires EPA to promulgate standards to protect the environment and public health and safety from radioactive and nonradioactive hazards posed by uranium mill tailings at designated inactive processing sites. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement examines health, technical, cost, and other factors relevant to determining standards. The proposed standards for disposal of the tailings piles cover radon emissions from the tailings to the air, protection of surface and ground water from radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and the length of time the disposal system should provide a reasonable expectation of meeting these standards. The proposed cleanup standards limit indoor radon decay product concentrations and gamma radiation levels and the residual radium concentration of contaminated land after cleanup

  3. Social responsibility standards and global environmental accountability : a developing country perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Murthy, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that accountability, responsibility and governance go hand in hand. Evolving standards is a part of governance. Unless such a global perspective is adopted “Social Responsibility and the implications for Developing Countries”, which is the theme for this workshop, cannot be unraveled. The purpose of this paper is to highlight how Social Responsibility Standards and their relation to environmental sustainability cannot be addressed without relating it to Global Environmental ...

  4. An environmental scan of quality indicators in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiani, Sabira; Rigal, Romain; Stelfox, Henry T; Muscedere, John; Martin, Claudio M; Dodek, Peter; Lamontagne, François; Fowler, Robert; Gheshmy, Afshan; Cook, Deborah J; Forster, Alan J; Hébert, Paul C

    2017-06-21

    We performed a directed environmental scan to identify and categorize quality indicators unique to critical care that are reported by key stakeholder organizations. We convened a panel of experts ( n = 9) to identify key organizations that are focused on quality improvement or critical care, and reviewed their online publications and website content for quality indicators. We identified quality indicators specific to the care of critically ill adult patients and then categorized them according to the Donabedian and the Institute of Medicine frameworks. We also noted the organizations' rationale for selecting these indicators and their reported evidence base. From 28 targeted organizations, we identified 222 quality indicators, 127 of which were unique. Of the 127 indicators, 63 (32.5%) were safety indicators and 61 (31.4%) were effectiveness indicators. The rationale for selecting quality indicators was supported by consensus for 58 (26.1%) of the 222 indicators and by published research evidence for 45 (20.3%); for 119 indicators (53.6%), the rationale was not reported or the reader was referred to other organizations' reports. Of the 127 unique quality indicators, 27 (21.2%) were accompanied by a formal grading of evidence, whereas for 52 (40.9%), no reference to evidence was provided. There are many quality indicators related to critical care that are available in the public domain. However, owing to a paucity of rationale for selection, supporting evidence and results of implementation, it is not clear which indicators should be adopted for use. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  5. Energy, Externalities and Environmental Quality: Will Development Cure the Ills It Creates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G. [Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Environmental quality in the context of economic development was discussed. Factors that influence environmental quality were emphasized. Main empirical studies performed in this area, including studies that have produced the inverted U-shaped environmental ``Kuznet Curve``were reviewed. The `Kuznet curve` represents the hypothesized relationship between inequality of income distribution and economic development. This author attempted to incorporate environmental quality into this relationship, and to look for the policy implications of these estimates. Determinants of environmental quality such as the supply of environmental quality, waste receptors and energy resources, the demand for environmental quality, environmental quality outcomes, environmental and quality/development models were discussed, and an attempt was made to answer the question of whether or not these Kuznet curves really imply that development will automatically cure environmental ills. One of the main conclusions was that as income rises, the demand for environmental quality rises proportionately faster, while the supply of environmentally destructive activities decreases. Other conclusions called for the improvement of the data base on environmental quality, especially by developing countries. There was also a call for more studies to be done to understand the factors that affect environmental quality and policy in different developmental situations.

  6. Energy, Externalities and Environmental Quality: Will Development Cure the Ills It Creates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, P.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental quality in the context of economic development was discussed. Factors that influence environmental quality were emphasized. Main empirical studies performed in this area, including studies that have produced the inverted U-shaped environmental ''Kuznet Curve''were reviewed. The 'Kuznet curve' represents the hypothesized relationship between inequality of income distribution and economic development. This author attempted to incorporate environmental quality into this relationship, and to look for the policy implications of these estimates. Determinants of environmental quality such as the supply of environmental quality, waste receptors and energy resources, the demand for environmental quality, environmental quality outcomes, environmental and quality/development models were discussed, and an attempt was made to answer the question of whether or not these Kuznet curves really imply that development will automatically cure environmental ills. One of the main conclusions was that as income rises, the demand for environmental quality rises proportionately faster, while the supply of environmentally destructive activities decreases. Other conclusions called for the improvement of the data base on environmental quality, especially by developing countries. There was also a call for more studies to be done to understand the factors that affect environmental quality and policy in different developmental situations

  7. Environmental flows and water quality objectives for the River Murray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gippel, C; Jacobs, T; McLeod, T

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, there intense consideration of managing flows in the River Murray to provide environmental benefits. In 1990 the Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council adopted a water quality policy: To maintain and, where necessary, improve existing water quality in the rivers of the Murray-Darling Basin for all beneficial uses - agricultural, environmental, urban, industrial and recreational, and in 1994 a flow policy: To maintain and where necessary improve existing flow regimes in the waterways of the Murray-Darling Basin to protect and enhance the riverine environment. The Audit of Water Use followed in 1995, culminating in the decision of the Ministerial Council to implement an interim cap on new diversions for consumptive use (the "Cap") in a bid to halt declining river health. In March 1999 the Environmental Flows and Water Quality Objectives for the River Murray Project (the Project) was set up, primarily to establish be developed that aims to achieve a sustainable river environment and water quality, in accordance with community needs, and including an adaptive approach to management and operation of the River. It will lead to objectives for water quality and environmental flows that are feasible, appropriate, have the support of the scientific, management and stakeholder communities, and carry acceptable levels of risk. This paper describes four key aspects of the process being undertaken to determine the objectives, and design the flow options that will meet those objectives: establishment of an appropriate technical, advisory and administrative framework; establishing clear evidence for regulation impacts; undergoing assessment of environmental flow needs; and filling knowledge gaps. A review of the impacts of flow regulation on the health of the River Murray revealed evidence for decline, but the case for flow regulation as the main cause is circumstantial or uncertain. This is to be expected, because the decline of the River Murray results

  8. Environmental quality indexing of large industrial development alternatives using AHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solnes, Julius

    2003-01-01

    Two industrial development alternatives have been proposed for the East Coast of Iceland in order to strengthen its socio-economic basis. The favoured option is to build a large aluminium smelter, which requires massive hydropower development in the nearby highlands. Another viable option is the construction of a 6-million-ton oil refinery, following the planned exploitation of the Timan Pechora oil reserves in the Russian Arctic. A third 'fictitious' alternative could be general development of existing regional industry and new knowledge-based industries, development of ecotourism, establishment of national parks, accompanied by infrastructure improvement (roads, tunnels, communications, schools, etc.). The three alternatives will have different environmental consequences. The controversial hydropower plant for the smelter requires a large water reservoir as well as considerable land disturbance in this unique mountain territory, considered to be the largest uninhabited wilderness in Western Europe. The aluminium smelter and the oil refinery will give rise to substantial increase of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the country (about 20%). Then there is potential environmental risk associated with the refinery regarding oil spills at sea, which could have disastrous impact on the fisheries industry. However, the oil refinery does not require any hydropower development, which is a positive factor. Finally, the third alternative could be defined as a ''green'' solution whereby the detrimental environmental consequences of the two industrial solutions are mostly avoided. In order to compare the three alternatives in an orderly manner, the analytic hierarchy process methodology of Saaty was applied to calculate the environmental quality index of each alternative, which is defined as a weighted sum of selected environmental and socio-economic factors. These factors are evaluated on a comparison basis, applying the AHP methodology, and the weights in the quality

  9. The combination of environmental quality with increasingly rural residence and associations with adverse birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental quality differs across levels of urbanicity, and both urban and rural residence having been previously associated with better health. To explore these relationships, we constructed an environmental quality index (EQI) with data representing five domains (air, water,...

  10. Do landfills affect the environmental quality of nearby streams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Schlemmer Brasil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When inappropriately disposed, solid waste may contaminate the soil, water and air, leading to severe negative impacts on biodiversity. The Brazilian National Policy for Solid Waste (PNRS requires municipalities to ensure the environmental quality of landfills. Accordingly, our objective was to evaluate the community of aquatic insects in a stream with stretches downstream and upstream of a sanitary landfill. Our hypothesis was that there will be no differences in insect community between the stretches (downstream and upstream on the basis of the premise that landfills abiding by the PNRS do not cause environmental damage to nearby areas. There was no change in any aspect of the composition of the macroinvertebrate community as a result of the landfill. The only changes observed in the macroinvertebrate communities occurred between the dry and rainy seasons, which were related to the seasonality and consequent changes in the environmental conditions of the water over the year. Our study, although limited, showed primary and pioneering evidence that the PNRS can contribute positively to the conservation of the biotic quality of aquatic environments, further reinforcing the need for immediate implementation of the PNRS throughout the country.

  11. 77 FR 49057 - Categorical Exclusion From Further Environmental Review for Standard Terminal Arrival Route...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Environmental Review for Standard Terminal Arrival Route Procedures for Ronald Reagan Washington National... Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA). As required by the National Environmental Policy Act, an...), TRUPS1 (RNAV), and NUMMY. Location: Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA). This project...

  12. Environmental risk assessment of water quality in harbor areas: a new methodology applied to European ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Aina G; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José A

    2015-05-15

    This work presents a standard and unified procedure for assessment of environmental risks at the contaminant source level in port aquatic systems. Using this method, port managers and local authorities will be able to hierarchically classify environmental hazards and proceed with the most suitable management actions. This procedure combines rigorously selected parameters and indicators to estimate the environmental risk of each contaminant source based on its probability, consequences and vulnerability. The spatio-temporal variability of multiple stressors (agents) and receptors (endpoints) is taken into account to provide accurate estimations for application of precisely defined measures. The developed methodology is tested on a wide range of different scenarios via application in six European ports. The validation process confirms its usefulness, versatility and adaptability as a management tool for port water quality in Europe and worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retrospective and Prospective Evaluations of Environmental Quality under Urban Renewal as Determinants of Residents' Subjective Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Leung, Kwan-kwok

    2008-01-01

    Claims about the impacts of environmental quality associated with urban renewal on the resident's subjective quality of life are more speculative than empirically grounded. To clarify the impacts of environmental quality under urban renewal, this study surveyed 876 residents living in housing surrounding seven urban renewal sites in Hong Kong. It…

  14. Interdisciplinary Project-Based Learning through an Environmental Water Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhl, Lorie; Yearsley, Kaye; Silva, Andrew J.

    1997-12-01

    An interdisciplinary environmental water quality study was designed and conducted to enhance training and employability of chemical and environmental technician students in associate degree programs. Four project objectives were identified as a means to enhance the educational experience and employability of our students: provide experience on analytical instrumentation for organic compounds (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, GC/MS), require interdisciplinary group interactions and problem solving, provide experience with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures, and require cooperation with state agencies/private organizations. Students worked in groups that included representatives from both programs to develop project objectives and a Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) following EPA standards. Input from personnel at Idaho's Department of Environmental Quality and Bureau of Laboratories and from volunteers in an environmental "watch dog" organization called the Henry's Fork Foundation aided students in the development and implementation of their SAP. Subsequently, groups sampled sections of the Henry's Fork River and analyzed for organic, inorganic, and fecal contaminants. Analysis included EPA method 525.2 for pesticides using GC/MS. Data from all river segments was shared and each group submitted a final report analyzing results. Surveys completed by students and instructors indicate that the project is a successful teaching method allowing introduction of new skills as well as review of important technical and employability skills.

  15. Quality and environmental aspects in relation to the application of pulverized fuel ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.W. van den

    1991-01-01

    In the Netherlands pulverised coal from different parts of the world is used in 5 coalfired power stations which each have 1 to 3 boilers, which in turn are equipped with various types of burners. This causes a large variation in the composition of the pulverized fuel ash (PFA). The PFA is marketed in several areas, each of which has its own specific quality requirements. These requirements are partially dictated in standard specifications. In order to obtain insight into the quality of the PFA, samples are taken and analysed daily. Rules for certification, concerning the quality and the quality control of PFA for use in concrete in The Netherlands have been agreed upon. The environmental aspects in relation to the application of PFA concern the working conditions and health aspects during processing and the environmental impact when PFA is used as a building material. The Dutch legislation concerning the environmental consequences of the application of PFA and other secondary materials is currently under review. 3 tabs

  16. Development of healthy eating and physical activity quality standards for out-of-school time programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecha, Jean L; Hall, Georgia; Gannett, Ellen; Roth, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    Out-of-school time (OST) programs serve over 8 million children per year and have ample opportunity to promote health through menu and physical activity choices. Until recently, however, the field has lacked a comprehensive set of operationalizable standards for healthy eating and physical activity. The National AfterSchool Association adopted voluntary healthy eating and physical activity quality standards (HEPAQS) in April, 2011. We describe the development of HEPAQS. This work reflects a social ecological model for changing children's eating and activity behaviors through program-level interventions. The standards were developed using a national, mixed-methods needs assessment, review of existing standards and expert recommendations, and a participatory process of discussion, review, and consensus engaging 19 influential service and policy organizations and agencies in the Healthy Out-of-School Time (HOST) coalition, which we convened in 2009. The HOST coalition approved a final version of the HEPAQS in January, 2011. The 11 standards address content, curriculum selection, staff training, program support, and environmental support for healthy eating and physical activity. In April, 2011, the HEPAQS were adopted by the National AfterSchool Association, and have subsequently been widely disseminated. Extensive adoption and implementation efforts are underway. The availability of a comprehensive set of standards for healthy eating and physical activity in OST provides practical information to help community-based youth-serving organizations participate in obesity and chronic disease prevention. A working awareness of their content will be useful to scientists undertaking health promotion studies in the out-of-school time setting.

  17. Auctioning wind power sites when environmental quality matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaccia, Gervasio; Doni, Nicola; Fontini, Fulvio

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we propose an index that allows a public authority to order different projects for the construction of onshore wind energy plants and that explicitly takes into account their environmental quality. Wind farm projects are defined as vectors of four attributes: the technical properties of each project, its social impact, its environmental impact, and the share of earnings that proponents offer to the collectivity in compensation for the negative externalities of the wind plant. We define an absolute index that allows the ordering of different proposals and evaluation of the acceptability of each project, providing the monetary value of each point and inducing a truthful revelation of firms' private information. Moreover, we calibrate the index on the basis of data referring to wind plants in Southern Italy and derive the corresponding iso-scoring curves. (author)

  18. 36 CFR 1237.18 - What are the environmental standards for audiovisual records storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for audiovisual records storage? 1237.18 Section 1237.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.18 What are the environmental standards for audiovisual records storage? (a...

  19. Environmental qualities and patient wellbeing in hospital settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine

    2013-01-01

    undertaken by Architecture and Design and the Danish Building Research Institute (Aalborg University) set out in 2008 to review research on the impact of the environmental qualities of health-care facilities on patients and staff. The objective of the review team was to develop a tool that would allow......Within the last decades the impacts of the physical environments of hospitals on healing and health-care outcomes have been subject to ample research. The amount of documentation linking the design of physical environments to patient and staff outcomes is increasing. A Danish research project...

  20. IMPACTS OF SAFETY and QUALITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION AT HANFORD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the integration of safety methodology, quality tools, leadership, and teamwork at Hanford and their significant positive impact on safe performance of work. Control charts, Pareto Charts, Dr. W. Edward Deming's Red Bead Experiment, and Dr. Deming's System of Profound Knowledge have been the principal tools and theory of an integrated management system. Coupled with involved leadership and teamwork they have led to significant improvements in worker safety and protection, and environmental restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  1. Why and how to implement an environmental management system based on ISO 14001 standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, Veronica; Glodeanu, Florin; Rotaru, Ion

    1999-01-01

    The Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection, the national environmental authority, licenses both subsidiaries of our company, Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and Pitesti Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant. As these nuclear facilities are designed, built and operated at the level of the international standards, the licensing process did not involve any difficulties related to the environmental impact, from technical point of view. Concerning future environmental licences including here those for other future nuclear facilities as Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility and Unit 2, some changes should be expected for the licensing process. First of all the environmental impact assessment of any other new nuclear facility will have to consider the Unit 1 environmental impact assessment as point of start. One of the most important aspects should be how to demonstrate the conformance with environmental objectives or targets. (authors)

  2. Financial incentive for the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    With the MEP subsidy regulation 'Environmental quality of electricity production' The Dutch minister of Economic Affairs focussed mainly on reaching the policy objective of the EU according to which 9% of all electricity used in the Netherlands should be generated with sustainable sources. According to the opinion of the Dutch Court of Audits not enough attention has been paid to the coherence of the MEP regulation with other policy objectives in the area of sustainability, such as air quality and CO2 reduction. The same goes for the effectiveness and the financial management of the MEP regulation. Moreover, the study, which was carried out by request of the Dutch Lower House, demonstrates that it is still uncertain if the policy objective for 2010 will be reached. The report consists of two parts: part 1: Conclusions, recommendations and administrative reactions, and Part 2: Answering Lower House questions.(mk) [nl

  3. Quality assurance standards of nuclear equipment and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savanger, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyses the quality assurance system; it briefly defines the meaning of this concept and assesses the status of quality assurance in France. The author also reviews the problems and difficulties encountered in the setting up of this system. (NEA) [fr

  4. Standards for measurements and testing of wind turbine power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G; Klosse, R; Santjer, F [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N; Davy, W [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M; Morfiadakis, E [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The present paper describes the work done in power quality sub-task of the project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments` funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality sub-task has been to make analyses and new recommendation(s) for the standardisation of measurement and verification of wind turbine power quality. The work has been organised in three major activities. The first activity has been to propose measurement procedures and to verify existing and new measurement procedures. This activity has also involved a comparison of the measurements and data processing of the participating partners. The second activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with constant rotor speed. The third activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with variable rotor speed. (au)

  5. Indoor environmental quality in Hellenic hospital operating rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dascalaki, Elena G.; Gaglia, Athina G.; Balaras, Constantinos A. [Group Energy Conservation, Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou, GR 152 36 P. Penteli (Greece); Lagoudi, Argyro [Terra Nova Ltd., Environmental Engineering Consultancy, Athens, Kaisareias 39, GR 115 27 Athens (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in hospital operating rooms (ORs) constitutes a major challenge for the proper design and operation of an energy efficient hospital. A subjective assessment of the indoor environment along with a short monitoring campaign was performed during the audits of 18 ORs at nine major Hellenic hospitals. A total of 557 medical personnel participated in an occupational survey, providing data for a subjective assessment of IEQ in the audited ORs. The OR personnel reported work related health symptoms and an assessment of indoor conditions (thermal, visual and acoustical comfort, and air quality). Overall, personnel reported an average of 2.24 work-related symptoms each, and 67.2% of respondents reported at least one. Women suffer more health symptoms than men. Special dispositions, such as smoking and allergies, increase the number of reported symptoms for male and female personnel. Personnel that perceive satisfactory indoor comfort conditions (temperature, humidity, ventilation, light, and noise) average 1.18 symptoms per person, while for satisfactory indoor air quality the average complaints are 0.99. The perception of satisfactory IEQ (satisfactory comfort conditions and air quality) reduces the average number of health complaints to 0.64 symptoms per person and improves working conditions, even in a demanding OR environment. (author)

  6. The use of air quality index (AQI) in environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta Santos, Osvaldo; Wallo Vazquez, Antonio; Collazo Aranda, Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    The air quality index (AQI) is considered a global air quality index in a particular moment or day and in a specific monitoring station. The AQI is to be interpreted as a guiding air quality index for the general public. Specialists should take into account other factors when studying the pollution levels. The behaviour of air pollution is studied by using the AQI in two monitoring points in Regla, where the main pollutants are measured: SO 2 , NO 2 and total suspended particulates. It was founded that particulates and NO 2 are the pollutants that contribute most to the air quality deterioration, which occurs with greater frequency-days in the categories Poor and Bad, and show an increase in the categories Terrible and Critical. The necessary recommendations for the reduction of air pollution are given. The use of this AQI for assessing air pollution in settlements is recommended as a good tool for environmental information and management. A visual scale is proposed to improve and facilitate the public's understanding

  7. Indoor environmental quality differences between office types in LEED-certified buildings in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young S. [School of Planning, Design, and Construction, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Guerin, Denise A. [College of Design, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN 55108 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The study compared IAQ, thermal quality, and lighting quality between 5 different office types in LEED-certified buildings in relation to employees' environmental satisfaction and their job performance. This was to provide workplaces where workers in each specific office environment could be provided with appropriate office settings regarding these IEQ criteria when organizations comply with LEED standards. The five types of office included private enclosed, private shared, open-plan with high cubicle over 5', open-plan with low cubicle lower than 5', and open-plan with no partitions (bullpen) offices. The study found IAQ enhanced workers' job performance in enclosed private offices more than both high cubicles and low cubicles. All four office types had higher satisfaction with the amount of light and visual comfort of light as well as more enhancement with job performance due to lighting quality than high cubicles. There was no difference in thermal quality between the five office types. IAQ and lighting quality were not different between enclosed private, enclosed shared, and bullpen office types, either. The study findings suggest a careful workplace design considering the height of partitions in LEED-certified buildings to improve employee's environmental satisfaction and job performance. (author)

  8. [Application of traditional Chinese medicine reference standards in quality control of Chinese herbal pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.

  9. Proceedings of the international symposium on radioactive waste disposal: Health and environmental criteria and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultcrantz, K.

    1999-04-01

    The co-organisers of the International Symposium on Health and Environmental Criteria and Standards for Radioactive Waste Disposal are pleased to present these proceedings. This Symposium succeeded in bringing together a wide range of participants and perspectives in order to address in a common forum the technical and non-technical issues related to long-term storage of radioactive waste. The papers presented herein reflect both the diversity of the participants and the complexity of the issues addressed. The sessions, panels, and papers developed for the symposium focused on some of the daunting challenges posed by long-term isolation and storage of high level radioactive waste. Panel sessions addressed the basic principles of criteria and standards, the context of the risks involved, and an overview of relevant philosophical, social, and ethical issues. Paper sessions considered national laws, policies and experiences; criteria formulation; environmental protection; compliance; human intrusion; and fundamental philosophical, social, and ethical issues. The presentations stimulated lively discussion and debate, and the contributors received valuable feedback. The interplay between technical and social aspects reflected in some papers and in the discussion highlights the changing role of the public in radioactive waste issues. The average citizen has become more aware of and more involved in radioactive waste matters in recent years. Solutions that were previously analysed through a technological lens are now being viewed in a much broader perspective that better addresses the concerns of local communities as well as national and international interests. Public involvement must begin earlier, last longer, and improve in quality so as to create an ongoing dialogue and debate rather than cycles of dictates and discord. The symposium has offered suggestions as to how government, industry, and the public can foster a broader dialogue on the formulation and

  10. Environmental impact of the Midia Port - Black Sea (Romania, on the coastal sediment quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catianis Irina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of potential pollution sources, mainly from the upstream anthropogenic sources and port-related activities. The in-vestigated area covered a wide range of anthropogenic im-pacts (e.g., industrial wastes, storm water runoff, acciden-tal oil spills, intentional discharges and shipping activities. The quality of water and Sediments was assessed us-ing Standard methods, as physical-chemical parameters, chemistry and biology (microbiology, ecotoxicology aim-ing to figure the level of pollution and the effect of port-related activities. Seawater quality results agreed generally with environmental Standards. Though, in some samples the concentrations of sulphates (mg/1 and heavy metals (μg/1, as B, As and Se exceeded the recommended lim-its, without posing a serious environmental concern. Most of the surface sediment samples contain critical levels of hydrocarbons (C>12, (mg/kg, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ng/g and polychlorobiphenyls (ng/g. For some heavy metals (mg/kg, exchangeable concentrations were found to be very close or above the regulations. The signifi-cance of this study is incontestable taking into account the lack of previous relevant historical data of this area. In this sense, it was possible to indicate, in general, good environmental conditions, despite the industrial and concentrated local port-related activities in the investigated area.

  11. Environmental factors contributed to circannual rhythm of semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huan; Feng, Lei; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether human semen parameters present circannual rhythm or not, and whether environmental factors exert on semen quality. This retrospective study used data of patients mainly from Reproductive Medicine Center and Urology and Andrology Clinic of a general hospital in China. Sperm concentration and motility were measured by computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored based on the strict criteria (WHO, 2010). The Kruskal-Wallis rank test was used to investigate the relationship between semen parameters and season/month. Partial correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationship between semen parameters and environmental factors. In this study, we found that sperm concentration and total amount per ejaculate were significantly lower in summer and higher in winter. But, sperm progressive motility and motility were significantly higher in spring and summer (from March to June), lower in autumn and winter (September and October). Unexpectedly, normal sperm morphology and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) positive rate didn't vary along with season or month. Furthermore, temperature was negatively related to sperm concentration and total amount per ejaculate. Precipitation was positively associated with progressive motility and normal sperm morphology, but negatively related to sperm head defect percentage. The length of sunlight was positively related to progressive motility. The Air Quality Index (AQI) was positively associated with semen volume and sperm total amount per ejaculate. These suggest seasonal and monthly variation underlying some semen parameters.

  12. Accounting quality and the adoption of IASB standards: portuguese evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Ana Isabel; Curto, José Dias

    2008-01-01

    Through rule 1606/2002 by the European Commission, Portuguese listed firms were required to adopt IASB standards in the preparation and presentation of consolidated accounts for the periods beginning on or after 2005. IASB standards are developed in environments where accounting practices are especially directed at the private sector, reporting rules are largely unaffected by taxation requirements and capital is traditionally raised in public markets. However, in Portugal, financial reporting...

  13. A study of the influence of regional environmental expenditure on air quality in China: the effectiveness of environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingyun; Wu, Meng; Wang, Deqing; Zhong, Zhangqi

    2018-03-01

    Based on the panel data model, data on environmental expenditures, the air quality index, economic aggregates, industrial structures, etc., of seven seriously polluted cities in China, from the period 2007-2015, were collected, and this paper estimates the general relationship between environmental expenditures and the air quality index. Besides, the impact of the fuel tax policy on air quality as well as on the relationship between environmental expenditure and the air quality index is tested using the method of regression discontinuity. We find that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between environmental expenditure and air quality index as well as a 0.0507% positive effect of the former on the latter. Second, for Beijing, Taiyuan, Chongqing, and Lanzhou, a 1% increase in environmental expenditure leads to 0.0773, 0.0125, 0.0965, and 0.0912% decreases in the air quality index, respectively; however, for Shijiazhuang, Ji'nan, and Urumqi, effect of environmental expenditure on air quality is insignificant. Third, both economic growth and optimization of the industrial structure can lead to an improvement of air quality. Fourth, since the implementation of the fuel tax policy in 2009, the air quality of the sample cities has improved, and the pulling effect of environmental expenditure on the air quality index has decreased from 0.0507 to 0.0048%. Our findings cannot only clarify the effect of environmental expenditures on air quality but can also objectively judge the effectiveness of environmental policies of China to a certain extent. It may benefit Chinese government to effectively govern air pollution with fiscal tools in conjunction with economic and environmental characteristics.

  14. Model for the Assessment of Seawater Environmental Quality Based on Multiobjective Variable Fuzzy Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Ke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of marine economy industry, the activities for exploring and exploiting the marine resources are increasing, and there are more and more marine construction projects, which contribute to the growing trend of eutrophication and frequent occurrence of red tide. Thus, seawater quality has become the topic which the people generally cared about. The seawater quality evaluation could be considered as an analysis process which combined the evaluation indexes with certainty and evaluation factors with uncertainty and its changes. This paper built a model for the assessment of seawater environmental quality based on the multiobjective variable fuzzy set theory (VFEM. The Qingdao marine dumping site in China is taken as an evaluation example. Through the quantitative research of water-quality data from 2004 to 2008, the model is more reliable than other traditional methods, in which uncertainty and ambiguity of the seawater quality evaluation are considered, and trade the stable results as the final results of seawater quality evaluation, which effectively solved the impact of the fuzzy boundary of evaluation standard and monitoring error, is more suitable for evaluation of a multi-index, multilevel, and nonlinear marine environment system and has been proved to be an effective tool for seawater quality evaluation.

  15. [Implementation of the technical requirements of the UNE-EN-ISO 15189 quality standard in a mycobacterial laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Ocete Mochón, M Dolores; Lahiguera, M José; Bresó, M Carmen; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2013-02-01

    The UNE-EN-ISO 15189:2007 standard defines the requirements for quality and competence that must be met by medical laboratories. These laboratories should use this international standard to develop their own quality management systems and to evaluate their own competencies; in turn, this standard will be used by accreditation bodies to confirm or recognize the laboratories' competence. In clinical microbiology laboratories, application of the standard implies the implementation of the technical and specific management requirements that must be met to achieve optimal quality when carrying out microbiological tests. In Spain, accreditation is granted by the Spanish Accreditation Body (Entidad Nacional de Acreditación). This review aims to discuss the practical application of the standard's technical requirements in mycobacterial laboratory. Firstly, we define the scope of accreditation. Secondly, we specify how the items of the standard on personnel management, control of equipment, environmental facilities, method validation, internal controls and customer satisfaction surveys were developed and implemented in our laboratory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigations on international standardization of environmental management systems. 3; Kankyo kanri system no kokusai hyojunka ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Japan as an ISO member country identifies the state of discussions in the environmental management standard deliberation committee at ISO. Investigations were performed on international standardization of environmental management systems for the purpose of participating and cooperating in preparing and establishing international standards related to environmental management, and playing part in working, solving and improving environmental problems. Under the circumstances that environmental problems are drawing worldwide interest, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has been carrying out since 1993 deliberations on environmental management standards to institutionalize environmental management rules to check effects of business activities on the environment. The International Organization for Standardization/Environmental Management Technical Committee (ISO/TC207) was installed, at which series number of 1400 order was allotted for environmental management related standards, and major standards have come to a final stage of standard formulation at the TC207 Oslo conference in June 1995. In Japan, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry has established an environmental management standard deliberation committee composed of people of experience or academic standing to advance discussions on how the environmental management should be in business entities through deliberations on ISO standards.

  17. Association of adherence to epilepsy quality standards with seizure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Lidia M V R; Mendez, Diego Yacaman; Jesus, Jonathan De; Andrade, Rogger A; Weissman, Joel S; Vickrey, Barbara G; Hoch, Daniel B

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the relationship between adherence to epilepsy quality measures (EQM) and seizure control over 2-3 years in a retrospective cohort study. 6150 patients were identified at two large academic medical centers with a primary or secondary diagnosis of epilepsy, were 18-85 years old and seen in outpatient general neurology or epilepsy units between June 2011 and May 2014. Patients were included if: their initial visit was between June 2011 and June 2012, treatment was with ≥1 anti-seizure drug, there was ≥1 visit per year during the timeframe, and seizure frequency was documented at initial and final visits, yielding 162 patients/1055 visits from which socio-demographic, clinical and care quality data were abstracted. Quality care was assessed as (1) percent adherence to up to 8 eligible EQM, and (2) defect-free care (DFC: adherence to all eligible EQM). Seizure control (SC) was defined as ≥50% reduction in average seizures/month between initial and final visits. Chi-square and t-test compared care quality with seizure control. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationships between SC, quality of care and subspecialist involvement. Care quality, reflected by documentation of seizure frequency, addressing therapeutic interventions, and referral to a comprehensive epilepsy center, all exceeded 80% adherence. Care quality as reflected by documentation of seizure type, etiology or syndrome; assessment of side effects, counseling about epilepsy safety and women's issues, and screening for psychiatric disorders ranged from 40 to 57%. Mean EQM adherence across all applicable measures was associated with greater seizure control (p=0.0098). DFC was low (=8%) and did not covary with seizure control (p=0.55). The SC and non-SC groups only differed on epilepsy etiology (p=0.04). Exploratory analysis showed that mean quality scores are associated with seizure control (OR=4.9 [1.3-18.5], p=0.017) while controlling for the effect of subspecialty involvement

  18. 42 CFR 440.260 - Methods and standards to assure quality of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods and standards to assure quality of services. 440.260 Section 440.260 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... and Limits Applicable to All Services § 440.260 Methods and standards to assure quality of services...

  19. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ...] Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2... ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate--Small... an allowable level for di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). This final rule is effective April 16, 2012...

  20. 25 CFR 273.38 - Equal quality and standard of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equal quality and standard of education. 273.38 Section... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.38 Equal quality and standard of education. Contracts with State education agencies or school districts...

  1. 26 CFR 1.23-4 - Performance and quality standards. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Performance and quality standards. [Reserved] 1.23-4 Section 1.23-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Changes in Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-4 Performance and quality standards. [Reserved...

  2. County‐level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cancer risk is affected by a combination of behavioral, genetic, and environmental factors. Individual environmental exposures have been associated with cancer development; however, a variety of environmental exposures may occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quali...

  3. The economic valuation of environmental quality: A methodological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Yucsheng.

    1991-01-01

    Conducted in the context of sportfishing, this study uses Michigan data to estimate fishing demand and resulting consumer surplus accruing from environmental-policy implementation. For the modeling of fish-species and site decisions, a nested multinomial logit model is employed. On a pre-determined choice occasion during which a trip of a specific duration will be taken, an angler is assumed first to make a fish-species decision, then choose a site. The seasonal-participation decision is modeled by a competing-risks stochastic renewal process, incorporating time-varying parameters to account for changes in site quality through time. Since the number of trips would most likely change after a potential site-quality improvement, the proposed seasonal compensating variation (CV) calculation takes into account (1) the CV associated with the trips that would have been taken before the quality improvement, and (2) the CV associated with the new trips. The approach proposed in this study is applied to two real world policy scenarios: The termination of the Ludington Pumped Storage plant operation, and the removal of PCB contamination in the Kalamazoo River. The compensating variation is derived for both applications

  4. Environmental politics in the 1990s: The tension between liberalism and environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two structural tensions between liberalism and environmental quality. First, liberalism's emphasis on individual self-interest creates a problematic concept of communal good. Society, as manifest in liberal contract theory, exists not to find some higher good, but to protect individual rights. Individual and corporate property rights have consistently overshadowed community claims on resource management. Second, capitalism has been characterized by a constant drive for expansion in search of increased productivity and profit. The impact of that expansionary ethic has been overuse of limited resources and the poisoning of the physical environment. This study combines normative theory with case studies of the substantive policy areas of air, water, and waste. Environmental policy's analyzed with attention to the parameters of American political culture and the inherent limitations the language of liberalism places on policy choices. The literature on symbolic policy is then applied exploring the role of symbolic politics in easing the tension between liberalism and environmental quality. Ultimately, substantive policy areas are explored in a effort to explain the evolution of specific policies

  5. Standard guide for making quality nondestructive assay measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide is a compendium of Quality Measurement Practices for performing measurements of radioactive material using nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments. The primary purpose of the guide is to assist users in arriving at quality NDA results, that is, results that satisfy the end user’s needs. This is accomplished by providing an acceptable and uniform basis for the collection, analysis, comparison, and application of data. The recommendations are not compulsory or prerequisites to achieving quality NDA measurements, but are considered contributory in most areas. 1.2 This guide applies to the use of NDA instrumentation for the measurement of nuclear materials by the observation of spontaneous or stimulated nuclear radiations, including photons, neutrons, or the flow of heat. Recommended calibration, operating, and assurance methods represent guiding principles based on current NDA technology. The diversity of industry-wide nuclear materials measurement applications and instrumentation precludes disc...

  6. An analysis of combined standard uncertainty for radiochemical measurements of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, A.

    1996-01-01

    It is anticipated that future data acquisitions intended for use in radiological risk assessments will require the incorporation of uncertainty analysis. Often, only one aliquot of the sample is taken and a single determination is made. Under these circumstances, the total uncertainty is calculated using the open-quotes propagation of errorsclose quotes approach. However, there is no agreement in the radioanalytical community as to the exact equations to use. The Quality Assurance/Metrology Division of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory has developed a systematic process to compute uncertainties in constituent components of the analytical procedure, as well as the combined standard uncertainty (CSU). The equations for computation are presented here, with examples of their use. They have also been incorporated into a code for use in the spreadsheet application, QuattroPro trademark. Using the spreadsheet with appropriate inputs permits an analysis of the variations in the CSU as a function of several different variables. The relative importance of the open-quotes counting uncertaintyclose quotes can also be ascertained

  7. DOE standard: Filter test facility quality program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    This standard was developed primarily for application in US Department of Energy programs. It contains specific direction for HEPA filter testing performed at a DOE-accepted HEPA Filter Test Facility (FTF). Beneficial comments (recommendations, additions, deletions) and any pertinent data that may improve this document should be sent to the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31), US Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585, by letter or by using the self-addressed Document Improvement Proposal form (DOE F 1300.3) appearing at the end of this document

  8. [Discussion on research thinking of traditional Chinese medicine standardization system based on whole process quality control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ling; Sun, Yu; Pei, Wen-Xuan; Dai, Jun-Dong; Wang, Zi-Yu; Pan, Meng; Chen, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Yun

    2017-12-01

    The concept of "Quality by design" indicates that good design for the whole life cycle of pharmaceutical production enables the drug to meet the expected quality requirements. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) industry, the TCM standardization system was put forward in this paper from the national strategic level, under the guidance by the idea of quality control in international manufacturing industry and with considerations of TCM industry's own characteristics and development status. The connotation of this strategy was to establish five interrelated systems: multi-indicators system based on tri-indicators system, quality standard and specification system of TCM herbal materials and decoction pieces, quality traceability system, data monitoring system based on whole-process quality control, and whole-process quality management system of TCM, and achieve the whole process systematic and scientific study in TCM industry through "top-level design-implement in steps-system integration" workflow. This article analyzed the correlation between the quality standards of all links, established standard operating procedures of each link and whole process, and constructed a high standard overall quality management system for TCM industry chains, in order to provide a demonstration for the establishment of TCM whole-process quality control system and provide systematic reference and basis for standardization strategy in TCM industry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. An IEC standard on quality assurance for diagnostic X-ray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.A. den

    1985-01-01

    A presentation is given of some characteristics of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This is followed by a short discussion of general aspects of quality assurance in the diagnostic department. From this discussion it becomes apparent to which aspects of quality assurance IEC can contribute. Within that framework a working group of Sub-Committee 62 is at present active in developing a standard on quality assurance for diagnostic X-ray systems. The standard will contain a set of constancy tests that is claimed to allow a balanced quality assurance programme. The democratic procedure of IEC should guarantee that the proposed standard gains wide acceptance. (author)

  10. Design and quality control of an environmental data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FANJIRINDRATOVO, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present work is focused on the design of a microcontroller based measurement system and the control quality to validate it. So, a mobile instrument called DALENPA was designed to measure and log the following data: atmospheric pressure, ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, air dose rate, geographical coordinates by an embedded GPS receiver. The instrument is autonomous in energy by solar panel and can be connected to a PC directly or by modem. After, the quality control is based on the calibartion in a secondary laboratory. The target is to get its calibration curve and the estimation of global uncertainties. This estimation wants to include all sources of uncertainty belonging to the instrument and the secondary laboratory, and follows the method estabilished by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The calibration curve is fitted by the least squares method with uncertainties in the two variables. We got an efficient instrument with uncertainties under the limits estabilished by the regulating standards [fr

  11. Top IS research on Quality of Transaction Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin Johan Albert; Jakobs, Kai; Berends, Wouter; Oude Luttighuis, Paul; Oude luttighuis, P.H.W.M.; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains the results of a systematic literature review executed to determine the coverage of transaction standards in top information systems (IS) and management journals. Specifically, it aims to identify a research gap with respect to this topic. The top 25 journals are thoroughly

  12. 24 CFR 982.614 - Group home: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Sanitary facilities in the group home must be readily accessible to and usable by residents, including... adequate facilities and services for the sanitary disposal of food waste and refuse, including facilities... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Group home: Housing quality...

  13. 24 CFR 982.401 - Housing quality standards (HQS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Elevators must be working and safe. (h) Interior air quality—(1) Performance requirement. The dwelling unit... environment; (E) Illumination and electricity; (F) Structure and materials; (G) Interior air quality; (H... dwelling unit. (e) Thermal environment—(1) Performance requirement. The dwelling unit must have and be...

  14. Quality Assurance Plans under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Assurance Plan or (QAP) is a voluntary program where independent third-parties may audit and verify that RINs have been properly generated and are valid for compliance purposes. RINs verified under a QAP may be purchased by regulated parties.

  15. Managing the Quality of Environmental Data in EPA Region 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Pacific Southwest, Region 9's Quality Assurance (QA) section's primary mission is to effectively oversee and carry out the Quality System and Quality Management Plan, and project-level quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities.

  16. Measuring the Software Product Quality during the Software Development Life-Cycle: An ISO Standards Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rafa E. Al-Qutaish

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published a set of international standards related to the software engineering, such as ISO 12207 and ISO 9126. However, there is a set of cross-references between the two standards. Approach: The ISO 9126 on software product quality and ISO 12207 on software life cycle processes had been analyzed to invistigate the relationships between them and to make a mapping from the ISO 9126 quality characteristics to the ISO 1...

  17. Environmental quality of transitional waters: the lagoon of Venice case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, C; Gottardo, S; Critto, A; Chiarato, S; Marcomini, A

    2011-01-01

    The health status of European aquatic environments, including transitional waters such as coastal lagoons, is regulated by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires the classification of the water bodies' environmental quality and the achievement of a good ecological status by 2015. In the Venice lagoon, a transitional water body located in the northeastern part of Italy, the achievement of a good ecological status is hampered by several anthropogenic and natural pressures, such as sediment and water chemical contamination, and sediment erosion. In order to evaluate the lagoon's environmental quality according to the WFD (i.e. 5 quality classes, from High to Bad), an integrated Weight-of-Evidence methodology was developed and applied to classify the quality of the lagoon water bodies, integrating biological, physico-chemical, chemical, ecotoxicological, and hydromorphological data (i.e. Lines of Evidence, LOE). The quality assessment was carried out in two lagoon habitat typologies (previously defined on the basis of morphological, sediment, and hydrodynamic characteristics) which were selected taking into account the ecological gradient from sea to land, and the differences in anthropogenic pressure and contamination levels. The LOE classification was carried out by using indicators scored by comparing site specific conditions to reference conditions measured in lagoon reference sites, or provided by local, national or European regulations (e.g. Environmental Quality Standards, EQS, for chemicals). Finally, the overall quality status for each water body was calculated by a probabilistic approach, i.e. by reporting the final result as the frequency distribution of quality classes. The developed procedure was applied by using data and information concerning selected LOE and collected from monitoring programs and research studies carried out in the last 15 years in the lagoon of Venice. A set of sampling stations characterized by spatially and temporally

  18. Search for adequate quality standards for neutron radiography of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Unlike in other fields of industrial radiography, where standard methods and procedures are used to control the quality of the radiographic image, no such standard exists for neutron radiography of nuclear fuel. To fill that gap it was felt that standardization work ought to be started in that field, too. Accordingly in 1979 an Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group was constituted, which initiated standardization work in the field of neutron radiography of nuclear fuel. Finding adequate standards for image quality of neutron radiographs and checking the accuracy of dimension measurements from them were given first priority. (Auth.)

  19. Lean environmental management integration system for sustainability of ISO 14001:2004 standard implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Puvanasvaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present a model for integrating Lean Principles with ISO 14001 Environmental Management System.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve the objective of the study, the methodology used in this study is based on preliminary literature review of ISO 14001 standards and Lean Principles as well as certain case reports from various proponents and authors of ISO 14001 and Lean as noted in various articles and journals and some books.Findings and Originality/value: The findings of this study are a new model called Lean Environmental Management Integration System (LEMIS has been developed and leads to the creation of these measurement standards for evaluating the organization, making its environmental efforts more realistic, focused and attainable.Research limitations/implications: Future research should be conducted case studies in this direction are required to be conducted for examining the feasibility of amalgamation and implementing ISO 14001:2004 standards with the philosophy of Lean Principles to enable the achievement of world class standards.Practical implications: This model helps to eliminate any wasteful processes in the organization’s implementation of the ISO 14001 standard thus leading to higher environmental performance.  Integrating the standard with Lean principles through LEMIS model helps to specify these performance measures making the standard achieve sustainability and continual improvement.Originality/value: This study presents a unique approach of integrating the two main models, namely Lean Principles and ISO 14001 Environmental Management System, as a single framework benefiting contemporary organizations.

  20. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  1. Standard protocol for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Verma, P.C.; Rao, D.D.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for evaluation of environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The studies on transfer factors are being carried out at various NPP sites under DAE-BRNS projects for evaluation of site specific transfer factors for radionuclides released from power plants. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  2. Standard protocol for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegde, A G; Verma, P C; Rajan, M P [Health Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2009-02-15

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities. Such surveillances have been proposed to be carried out by university professionals under DAE-BRNS projects. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  3. Standard protocol for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Verma, P.C.; Rajan, M.P.

    2009-02-01

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities. Such surveillances have been proposed to be carried out by university professionals under DAE-BRNS projects. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  4. 75 FR 61413 - Notice of Availability of Biotechnology Quality Management System Audit Standard and Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ...] Notice of Availability of Biotechnology Quality Management System Audit Standard and Evaluation of... the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has developed an audit standard for its biotechnology compliance assistance program. The audit standard, which was made available in draft form for...

  5. Review and comparison of quality standards, guidelines and regulations for laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd A.M. Datema

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The variety and number of laboratory quality standards, guidelines and regulations (hereafter: quality documents makes it difficult to choose the most suitable one for establishing and maintaining a laboratory quality management system. Objectives: There is a need to compare the characteristics, suitability and applicability of quality documents in view of the increasing efforts to introduce quality management in laboratories, especially in clinical diagnostic laboratories in low income and middle income countries. This may provide valuable insights for policy makers developing national laboratory policies, and for laboratory managers and quality officers in choosing the most appropriate quality document for upgrading their laboratories. Method: We reviewed the history of quality document development and then selected a subset based on their current use. We analysed these documents following a framework for comparison of quality documents that was adapted from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guideline GP26 Quality management system model for clinical laboratory services. Results: Differences were identified between national and international, and non-clinical and clinical quality documents. The most salient findings were the absence of provisions on occurrence management and customer service in almost all non-clinical quality documents, a low number of safety requirements aimed at protecting laboratory personnel in international quality documents and no requirements regarding ethical behaviour in almost all quality documents. Conclusion: Each laboratory needs to investigate whether national regulatory standards are present. These are preferred as they most closely suit the needs of laboratories in the country. A laboratory should always use both a standard and a guideline: a standard sums up the requirements to a quality management system, a guideline describes how quality management can be integrated in the laboratory

  6. Quality assurance aspects of the environmental code NECTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, H.F.; Nair, S.; Mascall, R.A.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the quality assurance (QA) procedures which have been adopted in respect of the Environment code NECTAR (Nuclear Environmental Consequences, Transport of Activity and Risks). These procedures involve the verification, validation and evaluation of the individual NECTAR modules, namely RICE, SIRKIT, ATMOS, POPDOS and FOODWEB. The verification and validation of each module are considered in turn, while the final part of the report provides an overall evaluation of the code. The QA procedures are designed to provide reassurance that the NECTAR code is free from systematic errors and will perform calculations within the range of uncertainty and limitations claimed in its documentation. Following consideration of a draft version of this report by the Off-site Dose Methodology Working Group, the ATMOS, POPDOS and FOODWEB modules of NECTAR have been endorsed for use by the Board in reactor design and safety studies. (author)

  7. Environmental Quality Information Analysis Center multi-year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, R.G.; Das, S.; Walsh, T.E.

    1992-09-01

    An information analysis center (IAC) is a federal resource that provides technical information for a specific technology field. An IAC links an expert technical staff with an experienced information specialist group, supported by in-house or external data bases to provide technical information and maintain a corporate knowledge in a technical area. An IAC promotes the rapid transfer of technology among its users and provides assistance in adopting new technology and predicting and assessing emerging technology. This document outlines the concept, requirements, and proposed development of an Environmental Quality IAC (EQIAC). An EQIAC network is composed of several nodes, each of which has specific technology capabilities. This document outlines strategic and operational objectives for the phased development of one such node of an EQIAC network

  8. Implementation and translation: from European standards and guidelines for quality assurance to education quality work in higher education institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.; Kohoutek, Jan; Eggins, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG for short) have been part of the regulative infrastructure of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) since 2005 (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, 2009).

  9. RDA: a content standard to ensure the quality of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bianchini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RDA Resource Description and Access are guidelines for description and access to resources designed for digital environment and released, in its first version, in 2010. RDA is based on FRBR and its derived models, that focus on users’ needs and on resources of any kind of content, medium and carrier.  The paper discusses relevance of main features of RDA for the future role of libraries in the context of semantic web and metadata creation and exchange. The paper aims to highlight many consequences deriving from RDA being a content standard, and in particular the change from record management to data management, differences among the two functions realized by RDA (to identify and to relate entities and functions realized by other standard such as MARC21 (to archive data and ISB (to visualize data and show how, as all these functions are necessary for the catalog, RDA needs to be integrated by other rules and standard and that these tools allow the fulfilment of the variation principle defined by S.R. Ranganathan.

  10. ADOPTION OF ISO 9001 QUALITY MANAGEMENT STANDARD IN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlantz Allur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the dissemination of ISO 9001, the main global management standards, within Africa. The work refers to the diffusion of ISO 9001 standard in terms of its certification intensity. In this article, the dissemination of ISO 9001 in Africa has been analyzed. The findings reveal that the diffusion of the standard in this continent is not very relevant, what might be seen as an indicator of the process of Africa's trade marginalization in the age of globalization. The general certification intensity of the continet is of 0.18; in other words, the proportion of the contribution of Africa to the global GDP of the world is more than five times superior to the proportion of ISO 9001 certificates located in Africa. By means of the logistic model the dissemination of ISO 9001 is forecasted, and it has been observed that the diffusion of ISO 9001 in Africa is in an 85% of its saturation point. Taking into account this model, it's expected that the dissemination of ISO 9001 will be growing until 2020.

  11. Quality assurance programme for environmental radioactivity measurements at the Hong Kong observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Mok, H.Y.

    1999-01-01

    The Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) runs an Environmental Radiation Monitoring Programme (ERMP) to monitor the environmental radiation levels in Hong Kong. In the ERMP, about 400 environmental samples are delivered to the HKO Radiation Laboratory each year for alpha, beta and gamma measurements. The quality of the radiation measurements is assured through an internal quality assurance programme and inter-laboratory comparison exercises

  12. Harmonization of IEEE323 and IEC60780 standards For Environmental Qualificaiton of Electric Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seog

    2009-01-01

    IEEE323 standard has been widely used for the qualification of electric equipment in Asian pacific area while IEC6070 has been mostly used in European area. Since each plant use different standard for environmental qualification, manufacturer has to perform the qualification test twice in accordance with each standard. Problem also can be happened in the plant site when they are going to purchase equipment qualified by different qualification standard which are not used in his plant. The need of harmonization of each standard has been raised several years and it is known that some studies are in progress by IEEE committee. KEPRI has a plan of comparing EQ relative standards of IEEE, IEC and RCC in 2009. In this paper, brief comparing result between IEEE323 and IEC60780 and the proper harmonization method is introduced

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of quality standards in small-sized public hospitals, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Khamis Alomari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess current situations in small size hospitals regarding knowledge of staff, their attitude and practice of quality standards, in order to set a plan to improve the current situations and overcome barriers of quality practice. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research was conducted by a validated self-administered questionnaire using systematic random technique. Results: The study included about 37.7% Physicians followed by 28.3% nurses, and 18.8% administrators. Median percentage of participants′ knowledge and attitude scores regarding healthcare quality was 48% and 80% respectively. Meanwhile, the median percentage of participants′ perception toward hospital support and implementation of healthcare quality was 54% and 50% respectively. The main barriers for quality standards implementation and practicing were; staff resistance (84.8% followed by deficient knowledge (81.1%. Knowledge showed significant positive correlation with hospital application of quality standards (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The researcher concluded that improvement of knowledge and attitude toward implementation of quality standards as well as leadership commitment to quality and change management were a critical element for organisational shifting transformation to implementing quality of care. Focusing on small hospital and providing more support with all resources for implementation of quality standards through proper education and training for all staff categories are highly recommended.

  14. Assessing regional environmental quality by integrated use of remote sensing, GIS, and spatial multi-criteria evaluation for prioritization of environmental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Rejaur; Shi, Z H; Chongfa, Cai

    2014-11-01

    This study was an attempt to analyse the regional environmental quality with the application of remote sensing, geographical information system, and spatial multiple criteria decision analysis and, to project a quantitative method applicable to identify the status of the regional environment of the study area. Using spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) approach with expert knowledge in this study, an integrated regional environmental quality index (REQI) was computed and classified into five levels of regional environment quality viz. worse, poor, moderate, good, and very good. During the process, a set of spatial criteria were selected (here, 15 criterions) together with the degree of importance of criteria in sustainability of the regional environment. Integrated remote sensing and GIS technique and models were applied to generate the necessary factors (criterions) maps for the SMCE approach. The ranking, along with expected value method, was used to standardize the factors and on the other hand, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was applied for calculating factor weights. The entire process was executed in the integrated land and water information system (ILWIS) software tool that supports SMCE. The analysis showed that the overall regional environmental quality of the area was at moderate level and was partly determined by elevation. Areas under worse and poor quality of environment indicated that the regional environmental status showed decline in these parts of the county. The study also revealed that the human activities, vegetation condition, soil erosion, topography, climate, and soil conditions have serious influence on the regional environment condition of the area. Considering the regional characteristics of environmental quality, priority, and practical needs for environmental restoration, the study area was further regionalized into four priority areas which may serve as base areas of decision making for the recovery, rebuilding, and

  15. Analytical quality control in environmental analysis - Recent results and future trends of the IAEA's analytical quality control programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschny, O; Heinonen, J

    1973-12-01

    The significance of analytical results depends critically on the degree of their reliability, an assessment of this reliability is indispensable if the results are to have any meaning at all. Environmental radionuclide analysis is a relatively new analytical field in which new methods are continuously being developed and into which many new laboratories have entered during the last ten to fifteen years. The scarcity of routine methods and the lack of experience of the new laboratories have made the need for the assessment of the reliability of results particularly urgent in this field. The IAEA, since 1962, has provided assistance to its member states by making available to their laboratories analytical quality control services in the form of standard samples, reference materials and the organization of analytical intercomparisons. The scope of this programme has increased over the years and now includes, in addition to environmental radionuclides, non-radioactive environmental contaminants which may be analysed by nuclear methods, materials for forensic neutron activation analysis, bioassay materials and nuclear fuel. The results obtained in recent intercomparisons demonstrate the continued need for these services. (author)

  16. The new Basic Safety Standards Directive and its implications for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Augustin; Necheva, Christina; Tanner, Vesa; Turai, István

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the environment is enshrined in Chapter 3 of the Euratom Treaty, in particular its Articles 35 and 36. These requirements in primary law have had an important impact on the importance of monitoring in Europe but have not been worked out in much detail in secondary legislation. The consolidation and revision of the Basic Safety Standards Directive was an opportunity for doing so. The requirements in Directive 96/29/Euratom had remained rather general. Now, more specific text is introduced on the establishment of discharge authorisations for radioactive effluents, and on monitoring these discharges. Requirements on estimation of public exposures and on environmental monitoring programmes have largely been copied from the old basic safety standards (BSS), however. The main novelty of the new BSS is the introduction of exposure situations, as defined by the ICRP in Publication 103 (2007). Environmental monitoring as part of the management of an emergency exposure situation is now addressed more clearly. As for existing exposure situations, indoor exposure to radon requires extensive surveys of indoor air or soil concentrations, and precise requirements are made on the management of residues from industries processing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) as well as on the monitoring of building materials. Although the BSS do not address specific monitoring issues, studies have been undertaken on effluents from hospitals and on long-term management of uranium mining areas. The proposal for the new Basic Safety Standards Directive is examined in the light of experience of the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant disabled by the terrible tsunami on 11 March 2011. The arrangements for information exchange in a normal situation and in an emergency exposure situation need to be looked at from this perspective as well as from the perspective of smaller incidents such as the release of 131 I in Hungary in autumn

  17. Air quality indicators from the Environmental Performance Index: potential use and limitations in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Garland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In responding to deteriorating air quality, many countries, including South Africa, have implemented national programmes that aim to manage and regulate ambient air quality, and the emissions of air pollutants. One aspect within these management strategies is effective communication to stakeholders, including the general public, with regard to the state and trend of ambient air quality in South Africa. Currently, information on ambient air quality is communicated through ambient mass concentration values, as well as number of exceedances of South African National Ambient Standards. However, these do not directly communicate the potential impact on human health and the ecosystem. To this end, the use of air quality indicators is seen as a potential way to achieve communication to stakeholders in a simplified, yet scientifically defensible manner. Air quality indicators and their source data from the Environmental Performance Index (EPI were interrogated to understand their potential use in South Africa. An assessment of four air quality indicators, together with their source data, showed improvements in air quality over the time period studied, though the input data do have uncertainties. The source data for the PM indicators, which came from a global dataset, underestimated the annual PM2.5 concentrations in the Highveld Priority Area and Vaal Triangle Airshed Priority Area over the time period studied (2009-2014 by ~3.7 times. This highlights a key limitation of national-scale indicators and input data, that while the data used by the EPI are a well-thought out estimate of a country’s air quality profile, they remain a generalised estimate. The assumptions and uncertainty inherent in such an ambitious global-wide attempt make the estimates inaccurate for countries without proper emissions tracking and accounting and few monitoring stations, such as South Africa. Thus, the inputs and resultant indicators should be used with caution until such

  18. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building-wide level. An occupant-centric medical evaluation should guide environmental investigations, especially when screening results of building

  19. The quality of Portuguese Environmental Impact Studies: The case of small hydropower projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, Paulo; Maia, Rodrigo; Monterroso, Ana

    2007-01-01

    In most Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) systems environmental authorities can stop an EIA process by refusing the respective EIA Report, on the grounds of technical or methodological insufficiencies identified in the review procedure. However, often times, it cannot be taken for granted that, once an EIA Report is formally accepted, as part of an EIA process, its quality standard is, consistently, of a satisfactory level. This paper summarises the results of a one-year research project aimed at assessing the quality of EIA studies carried out for small hydropower plants in Portugal. An extensive survey was carried out to analyse all EIA Reports that were the basis of successful EIA processes involving this kind of small scale projects, under the old and the new national EIA legislation, that is, over the last two decades. Often times unnoticeable to the general public and the media, located in isolated areas upstream secondary rivers, these projects are likely to generate some significant environmental impacts, in particular on the aesthetics value and character of local landscapes and on pristine ecological habitats. And yet, they are usually regarded as environmental friendly projects designed to produce emission free energy. The design of the evaluation criteria benefited from the literature review on similar research projects carried out in other EU countries. The evaluation exercise revealed a number of technical and methodological weaknesses in a significant percentage of cases. A set of simple and clear cut recommendations is proposed twofold: to improve the current standard of EIA practice and to strengthen the role of the so called EIA Commissions, at the crucial review stage of the EIA process

  20. THE ROLE OF CITIES IN PROTECTING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Krstinic Nizic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to being characterised by the rapid population growth, the cities have long represented the centres of knowledge and the sources of growth and innovation, with unique cultural and architectural features, offering exceptional capacity for economic development. The cities are linked to the perception of urban lifestyle and are conventional areas of economic activity and trade. The modern cities’ structures are affected by technical, technological and industrial changes, the improvements in the fields of service and transport, as well as the strong progress in the fields of all forms of communication. Parallel to this, more and more of the population is concentrated in the suburbs, forming concentrations of poverty, work zones or elite residential areas. Furthermore, the cities are increasingly faced with a variety of demographic problems, social inequality, social exclusion of certain population groups, the lack of adequate housing, and particularly the problems associated with the environment, i.e. the main goal of this paper. Each community needs to ensure the basic requirements such as peace, education, safe housing, stability of the ecosystem and social justice. In other words, since health is an important factor determining the quality of life, various economic, political, cultural, and social factors affect its actualisation both positively and negatively. Therefore, the basic aim of this paper is demonstrating that cities can resist pollution and improve environmental quality, and thus, using economic instruments, improve the health of their citizens.

  1. Quality control methodology and implementation of X-radiation standards beams, mammography level, following the standard IEC 61267

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Eduardo de Lima

    2010-01-01

    In this work it was developed and applied a quality control program of the X radiation system (160 kV, constant potential, target of tungsten) of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN(LCI) in the energy range relative to mammography beams (from 25 kV to 35 kV). The X radiation standards beams, level mammography, using molybdenum and aluminum as additional filtration, were established after the application of this quality control program following national and international recommendations. The reference ionization chamber has traceability to PTB and was regularly submitted to quality control tests for evaluation and analysis of its performance. The radiation qualities emerging from the X-radiation assembly (RQR-M), based on a phantom made up of an aluminum added filter (RQA-M), narrow beam condition (RQN-M) and broad beam condition (RQB-M), following the recommendations of the international standard IEC 61267 (2005) and the IAEA code of practice, TRS 457 (2007) were established. For the implantation of RQN-M and RQB-M radiation qualities, two mammography phantoms were developed. The half-value layers found are those presented by the German primary laboratory PTB, and varied from 0.35 to 1.21 mm Al. The air kerma rates were obtained for all the 15 implanted qualities. (author)

  2. Environmental Quality Management in the United States in the 1980s and Beyond: An Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Blair T.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an overview of: (1) the institutional context of the environmental pollution sector of environmental quality management (EQM); accomplishments and problems in some representative subsectors (including water quality, soil erosion, air quality, and hazardous wastes); and (3) future prospects. Also considers role of government and…

  3. A comparative analysis of quality management standards for contract research organisations in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; McAdam, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the main quality standards in the highly regulated pharmaceutical industry with specific focus on Good Clinical Practice (GCP), the standard for designing, conducting, recording and reporting clinical trials involving human participants. Comparison is made to ISO quality standards, which can be applied to all industries and types of organisation. The study is then narrowed to that of contract research organisations (CROs) involved in the conduct of clinical trials. The paper concludes that the ISO 9000 series of quality standards can act as a company-wide framework for quality management within such organisations by helping to direct quality efforts on a long-term basis without any loss of compliance. This study is valuable because comparative analysis in this domain is uncommon.

  4. Progress in France of the standardization of multi-level quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debout, E.

    1982-01-01

    Quality assurance has evolved in a steady but somewhat haphazard manner in various industries, each of which has drawn up its own standards. Examples of this are the armaments industry under the auspices of NATO, nuclear energy (IAEA guides), the French aerospace industries and the Industrial Monitoring Service for Armaments in France. For the sake of both the supplier companies and the customers, these differing and sometimes incompatible requirements should be brought into line. At the instigation of the French Association for Industrial Quality Control (AFCIQ), the French Association for Standardization (AFNOR) is therefore in the process of publishing a series of documents on quality management and assurance. For its part, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set up a committee (TC 176) to standardize quality assurance. The different documents provide for various levels of quality assurance, the compatibility of which will have to be closely monitored. (author)

  5. British Thoracic Society quality standards for the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David; Callister, Matthew; Akram, Ahsan; Cane, Paul; Draffan, Jeanette; Franks, Kevin; Gleeson, Fergus; Graham, Richard; Malhotra, Puneet; Pearson, Philip; Subesinghe, Manil; Waller, David; Woolhouse, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the quality standards document is to provide healthcare professionals, commissioners, service providers and patients with a guide to standards of care that should be met for the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules in the UK, together with measurable markers of good practice. Methods Development of British Thoracic Society (BTS) Quality Standards follows the BTS process of quality standard production based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence process manual for the development of quality standards. Results 7 quality statements have been developed, each describing a key marker of high-quality, cost-effective care for the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules, and each statement is supported by quality measures that aim to improve the structure, process and outcomes of healthcare. Discussion BTS Quality Standards for the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules form a key part of the range of supporting materials that the Society produces to assist in the dissemination and implementation of guideline recommendations. PMID:29682290

  6. Standards of care and quality indicators for multidisciplinary care models for psoriatic arthritis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratacós, Jordi; Luelmo, Jesús; Rodríguez, Jesús; Notario, Jaume; Marco, Teresa Navío; de la Cueva, Pablo; Busquets, Manel Pujol; Font, Mercè García; Joven, Beatriz; Rivera, Raquel; Vega, Jose Luis Alvarez; Álvarez, Antonio Javier Chaves; Parera, Ricardo Sánchez; Carrascosa, Jose Carlos Ruiz; Martínez, Fernando José Rodríguez; Sánchez, José Pardo; Olmos, Carlos Feced; Pujol, Conrad; Galindez, Eva; Barrio, Silvia Pérez; Arana, Ana Urruticoechea; Hergueta, Mercedes; Coto, Pablo; Queiro, Rubén

    2018-06-01

    To define and give priority to standards of care and quality indicators of multidisciplinary care for patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A systematic literature review on PsA standards of care and quality indicators was performed. An expert panel of rheumatologists and dermatologists who provide multidisciplinary care was established. In a consensus meeting group, the experts discussed and developed the standards of care and quality indicators and graded their priority, agreement and also the feasibility (only for quality indicators) following qualitative methodology and a Delphi process. Afterwards, these results were discussed with 2 focus groups, 1 with patients, another with health managers. A descriptive analysis is presented. We obtained 25 standards of care (9 of structure, 9 of process, 7 of results) and 24 quality indicators (2 of structure, 5 of process, 17 of results). Standards of care include relevant aspects in the multidisciplinary care of PsA patients like an appropriate physical infrastructure and technical equipment, the access to nursing care, labs and imaging techniques, other health professionals and treatments, or the development of care plans. Regarding quality indicators, the definition of multidisciplinary care model objectives and referral criteria, the establishment of responsibilities and coordination among professionals and the active evaluation of patients and data collection were given a high priority. Patients considered all of them as important. This set of standards of care and quality indicators for the multidisciplinary care of patients with PsA should help improve quality of care in these patients.

  7. Amelioration of alkali soil using flue gas desulfurization byproducts: productivity and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.J.; Chen, C.H.; Xu, X.C.; Li, Y.J. [Tsing Hua University, Beijing (China). Ministry of Education

    2008-01-15

    In this study, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts are used to ameliorate alkali soil. The average application rates for soils with low exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), mid ESP, and high ESP are 20.9, 30.6, and 59.3 Mg ha{sup -1} respectively. The experimental results obtained for 3 consecutive years reveal that the emergence ratios and yields of the crops were 1.1-7.6 times and 1.1-13.9 times those of the untreated control, respectively. The concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cd, As, and Hg in the treated soils are far below the background values stipulated by the Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB 15618-1995). Their concentrations in the seeds of corn and alfalfa grown in the treated soils are far below the tolerance limits regulated by National Food Standards of China. The results of this research demonstrate that the amelioration of alkali soils using FGD byproducts is promising.

  8. Standardizing the care of detox patients to achieve quality outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kathy; Semrow, Sue

    2006-03-01

    Providing appropriate treatment for detoxification patients is both challenging and difficult because alcohol abuse and dependence are largely underestimated in the acute hospital setting. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is treated not only by addictionologists on chemical dependency units, but also by primary care physicians in acute inpatient settings. The need for consistent inpatient treatment through the use of identified protocols can help provide safe and effective care. The need for consistent, inpatient medical-surgical detoxification treatment in our organization became apparent with the staff's identification of patient care concerns. Using an organizational approach, a multidisciplinary team was created to standardize the care of detoxification patients, beginning with patient admission and ending with discharge and referral for outpatient management. Standardization would ensure consistent assessment and intervention, and improve communication among the clinical team members. A protocol was developed for both the emergency department and the inpatient units. The goals of the team were to decrease the adverse events related to detoxification, such as seizures and aggression, and provide a consistent method of treatment for staff to follow.

  9. International Financial Reporting Standards Convergence and Quality of Accounting Information: Evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Yusrina, Hasyyati; Mukhtaruddin, Mukhtaruddin; Fuadah, Luk Luk; Sulong, Zunaidah

    2017-01-01

    The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) initiated by International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) are principle-based standard that require extensive disclosure of financial statements and accounting information as compared to prior standard that is the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to better reflect the overall quality of company’s performance. Therefore, the IFRS convergence is expected to improve the reliability of financial reporting by limiting opportun...

  10. Quality assurance program for determining the radioactivity in environmental samples at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gone, J.K.; Wang, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest in determining radioactivity in environmental samples has increased considerably in recent years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Environmental monitoring programs have been set up in different countries to measure the trace amount of radionuclides in the environment, and quality of the analytical results on these samples is important because the regulation and safety concerns. A good quality assurance program is essential to provide accurate information for the regulatory body and environmentalists to set proper reactions to protect the environment, and a good analytical result is also important for scientists to determine the transfer of radionuclides between environmental matrices. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (lNER) in Taiwan has been working on radionuclide analysis in environmental samples for years, and it's environmental media radioanalytical laboratory (EMRAL) has recently upgraded its quality assurance program for the international standard ISO/lEC guide 25 requirements. The general requirements of lSO/lEC guide 25 has been adapted by the Chinese National Laboratory Accreditation (CNLA) of Taiwan, and CNLA is also a member of International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) and Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC). This paper summarizes the quality assurance program of lNER's EMRAL. It covers both management and technical sections. These sections have ensured the quality of INER's EMRAL, and they can be applied to different laboratories in the future. (author)

  11. Quality assurance program for determining the radioactivity in environmental samples at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gone, J.K. [TRR-II Project Team, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, T.W. [Division of Health Physics, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2000-05-01

    Interest in determining radioactivity in environmental samples has increased considerably in recent years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Environmental monitoring programs have been set up in different countries to measure the trace amount of radionuclides in the environment, and quality of the analytical results on these samples is important because the regulation and safety concerns. A good quality assurance program is essential to provide accurate information for the regulatory body and environmentalists to set proper reactions to protect the environment, and a good analytical result is also important for scientists to determine the transfer of radionuclides between environmental matrices. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (lNER) in Taiwan has been working on radionuclide analysis in environmental samples for years, and it's environmental media radioanalytical laboratory (EMRAL) has recently upgraded its quality assurance program for the international standard ISO/lEC guide 25 requirements. The general requirements of lSO/lEC guide 25 has been adapted by the Chinese National Laboratory Accreditation (CNLA) of Taiwan, and CNLA is also a member of International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) and Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (APLAC). This paper summarizes the quality assurance program of lNER's EMRAL. It covers both management and technical sections. These sections have ensured the quality of INER's EMRAL, and they can be applied to different laboratories in the future. (author)

  12. Environmental protection standards - from the point of view of systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K

    1978-11-01

    A project of the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg castle near Vienna is reviewed where standards for environmental protection are interpreted from the point of view of systems analysis. Some examples are given to show how results are influenced not only by technical and economic factors but also by psychological and political factors.

  13. Performance assessment of select covers and disposal cell compliance with EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] groundwater standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This document describes the technical approach to the assessment of the performance of a full component topslope cover, three sideslope covers, and hence the way in which a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards. 4 refs

  14. Environmental protection standards - from the point of view of systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1978-01-01

    A project of the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg castle near Vienna is reviewed where standards for environmental protection are interpreted from the point of view of systems analysis. Some examples are given to show how results are influenced not only by technical and economic factors but also by psychological and political factors. (orig.) [de

  15. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lucas; Bernauer, Thomas; Kalbhenn, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the most important international environmental monitoring networks in Europe, the one for water quality, in the time period 1965-2004. We develop a geographic information system that contains information on the location of several thousand active monitoring stations in Europe. Using multivariate statistics, we then examine whether and to what extent the spatial and temporal clustering of monitoring intensity is driven by environmental, political, and economic factors. The results show that monitoring intensity is higher in river basins exposed to greater environmental pressure. However, political and economic factors also play a strong role in monitoring decisions: democracy, income, and peer pressure are conducive to monitoring intensity, and monitoring intensity generally increases over time. Moreover, even though monitoring is more intense in international upstream-downstream settings, we observe only a weak bias toward more monitoring downstream of international borders. In contrast, negative effects of European Union (EU) membership and runup to the EU's Water Framework Directive are potential reasons for concern. Our results strongly suggest that international coordination and standardization of water quality monitoring should be intensified. It will be interesting to apply our analytical approach also to other national and international monitoring networks, for instance, the U.S. National Water-Quality Assessment Program or the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program for air pollution.

  17. Environmental (in)equity in the Netherlands. A case study on the distribution of environmental quality in the Rijnmond region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruize, H.; Bouwman, A.A.

    2004-07-01

    As a part of a broader investigation on environmental inequity in the Netherlands, an exploratory case study on the socio-economic distribution on (perceived) environmental quality was carried out in the Rijnmond (industrial and urbanised) region in the western part of the Netherlands. Disparities in local environmental quality with respect to noise, air pollution, availability of public green areas, safety risks, and presence of waste disposal sites, were analysed separately and accumulatively across income levels making use of postal codes. Inhabitants' perception of environmental quality with respect to spatial and income differences was also ascertained and analysed. Recent, available national and regional databases and literature were used for the analyses. Disparities in local environmental quality were found to be linked to income level, especially for air pollution and the availability of public green areas. In addition, accumulation of environmental 'goods' (high-quality environmental conditions) were found more often in high-income than in low-income areas. Inhabitants of Rotterdam also mentioned littering and dog mess to be the greatest environmental problem. All income categories experienced annoyance, but from different, often area-specific sources. Considering these results, policy-makers are advised to take the effects of their policy on different income categories into account.

  18. Standards for securing adequate indoor air quality across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, P.; de Oliveira Fernandes, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inadequate IAQ causes a loss of 2 million healthy life years annually in the EU. Europeans spend typically over 85–90% of their time indoors and the main factors that affect negatively the characteristics of the air they breathe are outdoor air used to ventilate indoor spaces and indoor...... effects of IAQ into different components: exposures to indoor and outdoor air pollutants, association with different morbidities and the way ventilation based approaches could minimise their impact. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs), a common metric to allow comparability of impacts on various types...... and is determined mainly considering the metabolic CO2 production. It is only applicable if all other pollutants meet WHO guidelines for ambient and indoor air quality. If they do not meet these guidelines after applying source control and when air used for ventilation is clean health-based ventilation rate should...

  19. Notions of quality and standards for qualitative research reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Alan; Jordan, Zoe; Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Ed

    2015-10-01

    The utility of qualitative research findings in the health sciences has been the subject of considerable debate, particularly with the advent of qualitative systematic reviews in recent years. There has been a significant investment in the production of guidance to improve the reporting of quantitative research; however, comparatively little time has been spent on developing the same for qualitative research reporting. This paper sets out to examine the possibility of developing a framework for refereed journals to utilize when guiding authors on how to report the results of qualitative studies in the hope that this will improve the quality of reports and subsequently their inclusion in qualitative syntheses and guidelines to inform practice at the point of care. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. [Measurement of CO diffusion capacity (II): Standardization and quality criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo Posadas, A; Villa Asensi, J R; de Mir Messa, I; Sardón Prado, O; Larramona, H

    2015-08-01

    The diffusion capacity is the technique that measures the ability of the respiratory system for gas exchange, thus allowing a diagnosis of the malfunction of the alveolar-capillary unit. The most important parameter to assess is the CO diffusion capacity (DLCO). New methods are currently being used to measure the diffusion using nitric oxide (NO). There are other methods for measuring diffusion, although in this article the single breath technique is mainly referred to, as it is the most widely used and best standardized. Its complexity, its reference equations, differences in equipment, inter-patient variability and conditions in which the DLCO is performed, lead to a wide inter-laboratory variability, although its standardization makes this a more reliable and reproductive method. The practical aspects of the technique are analyzed, by specifying the recommendations to carry out a suitable procedure, the calibration routine, calculations and adjustments. Clinical applications are also discussed. An increase in the transfer of CO occurs in diseases in which there is an increased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries, such as in the polycythemia and pulmonary hemorrhage. There is a decrease in DLCO in patients with alveolar volume reduction or diffusion defects, either by altered alveolar-capillary membrane (interstitial diseases) or decreased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries (pulmonary embolism or primary pulmonary hypertension). Other causes of decreased or increased DLCO are also highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality standards for sample collection in coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-09-01

    Preanalytical activities, especially those directly connected with blood sample collection and handling, are the most vulnerable steps throughout the testing process. The receipt of unsuitable samples is commonplace in laboratory practice and represents a serious problem, given the reliability of test results can be adversely compromised following analysis of these specimens. The basic criteria for an appropriate and safe venipuncture are nearly identical to those used for collecting blood for clinical chemistry and immunochemistry testing, and entail proper patient identification, use of the correct technique, as well as appropriate devices and needles. There are, however, some peculiar aspects, which are deemed to be particularly critical when collecting quality specimens for clot-based tests, and these require clearer recognition. These include prevention of prolonged venous stasis, collection of nonhemolyzed specimens, order of draw, and appropriate filling and mixing of the primary collection tubes. All of these important preanalytical issues are discussed in this article, and evidence-based suggestions as well as recommendations on how to obtain a high-quality sample for coagulation testing are also illustrated. We have also performed an investigation aimed to identify variation of test results due to underfilling of primary blood tubes, and have identified a clinically significant bias in test results when tubes are drawn at less than 89% of total fill for activated partial thromboplastin time, less than 78% for fibrinogen, and less than 67% for coagulation factor VIII, whereas prothrombin time and activated protein C resistance remain relatively reliable even in tubes drawn at 67% of the nominal volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Mortality from respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associations with environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory infections (RI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been identified by the World Health Organization as conditions which may be strongly influenced by environmental factors. We examined the associations between environmental quality and U.S. county m...

  3. Lower Colorado River GRP Dams and Water Retention Structures, Arizona, 2012, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Location of dams and water retention structures as compiled from multiple sources by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ). The data are "sensitive"...

  4. Sampling quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This document introduces quality assurance guidance pertaining to the design and implementation of sampling procedures and processes for collecting environmental data for DOE's Office of EM (Environmental Restoration and Waste Management)

  5. Quality assurance task force, an interagency cooperative approach to assess quality of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, L.M.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.; Conklin, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    In 1985, the Washington State Legislature charged the Department of Social and Health Services' Office of Radiation Protection with reviewing, evaluating and improving environmental monitoring programs within the state. Special emphasis was placed on the Hanford Site in Richland. Government and private organizations involved in monitoring radiation effects on the environment were asked to advise and support the State of Washington. Together, these organizations formed the Environmental Radiation Quality Assurance Task Force for the Pacific Northwest. Data on radiation levels are collected by the various organizations and compared. If findings are not consistent, the Task Force investigates and makes recommendations for long-term solutions. Thus, a system of checks and balances is created, enhancing the credibility of the various monitoring programs. Efficiency in use of resources is increased because overlap and duplication by different monitoring agencies are minimized

  6. Pilot test of ANSI draft standard N13.29 environmental dosimetry -- Performance criteria for testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemic, G.; Shebell, P.; Monetti, M.; Raccah, F.; Sengupta, S.

    1998-09-01

    American National Standards Institute Draft N13.29 describes performance tests for environmental radiation dosimetry providers. If approved it would be the first step toward applying the types of performance testing now required in personnel dosimetry to environmental radiation monitoring. The objective of this study was to pilot test the draft standard, before it undergoes final balloting, on a small group of dosimetry providers that were selected to provide a mix of facility types, thermoluminescent dosimeter designs and monitoring program applications. The first phase of the pilot test involved exposing dosimeters to laboratory photon, beta, and x-ray sources at routine and accident dose levels. In the second phase, dosimeters were subjected to ninety days of simulated environmental conditions in an environmental chamber that cycled through extremes of temperature and humidity. Two out of seven participants passed all categories of the laboratory testing phase, and all seven passed the environmental test phase. While some relatively minor deficiencies were uncovered in the course of the pilot test, the results show that draft N13.29 describes useful tests that could be appropriate for environmental dosimetry providers. An appendix to this report contains recommendations that should be addressed by the N13.29 working group before draft N13.29 is submitted for balloting

  7. Overview of EPA's environmental standards for the land disposal of LLW and NARM waste - 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L.; Holcomb, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency program to develop proposed generally applicable environmental standards for land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and certain naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive wastes has been completed. The elements of the proposed standards include the following: (a) exposure limits for predisposal management and storage operations, (b) criteria for other regulatory agencies to follow in specifying wastes that are below regulatory concern; (c) postdisposal exposure limits, (d) groundwater protection requirements, and (e) qualitative implementation requirements. In addition to covering those radioactive wastes subject to the Atomic Energy Act, the Agency also intends to propose a standard to require the disposal of high concentration, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials wastes exceeding 2 nCi/g, excluding a few consumer items, in regulated LLW disposal facilities

  8. Re-Establishment of Standard Radiation Qualities for Calibration of Dosemeter in Diagnostic Radiology - RQR Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Norhayati Abdullah; Mohd Firdaus Abd Rahman

    2016-01-01

    After repairing the high voltage (HV) generator for Philips MG165 X-Ray Machine, the reestablishment of the standard radiation qualities has been done at Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory to meet the IEC and IAEA standard. Standard radiation qualities are the important criteria for calibration of dosemeter in diagnostic radiology. Standard radiation qualities are defined as the added filtration needed to produce and the half value layer (HVL) of the beam for specifies x-ray tube kilo voltage (kV). For calibration of dosemeter in diagnostic radiology, standard radiation qualities RQR represent the beam incident on the patient in general radiography, fluoroscopy and dental application. The HVL were measured using PTW ion chamber of volume 1 cm"3 with PTW electrometer and aluminium filter with 99.9 % purity was used as additional filter for RQR and filter for HVL. The first establishment of standard radiation qualities was made in 2009 for the radiation qualities of RQR. The results of additional filter and 1st HVL from 2009 to 2016 will be discussed further in paper. The ratios of the measured HVL to the standard IEC HVL value for the RQR series also described in this paper. The details of the measurement and the results are described in this paper. (author)

  9. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  10. Impact of model uncertainty on soil quality standards for cadmium in rice paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemkens, P.F.A.M., E-mail: paul.romkens@wur.nl [Soil Science Center, Alterra, WageningenUR. P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Brus, D.J. [Soil Science Center, Alterra, WageningenUR. P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Guo, H.Y.; Chu, C.L.; Chiang, C.M. [Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), Wufong, Taiwan (China); Koopmans, G.F. [Soil Science Center, Alterra, WageningenUR. P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, WageningenUR. P.O. Box 47, 6700AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-08-01

    At present, soil quality standards used for agriculture do not consider the influence of pH and CEC on the uptake of pollutants by crops. A database with 750 selected paired samples of cadmium (Cd) in soil and paddy rice was used to calibrate soil to plant transfer models using the soil metal content, pH, and CEC or soil Cd and Zn extracted by 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} as explanatory variables. The models were validated against a set of 2300 data points not used in the calibration. These models were then used inversely to derive soil quality standards for Japonica and Indica rice cultivars based on the food quality standards for rice. To account for model uncertainty, strict soil quality standards were derived considering a maximum probability that rice exceeds the food quality standard equal to 10 or 5%. Model derived soil standards based on Aqua Regia ranged from less than 0.3 mg kg{sup -1} for Indica at pH 4.5 to more than 6 mg kg{sup -1} for Japonica-type cultivars in clay soils at pH 7. Based on the CaCl{sub 2} extract, standards ranged from 0.03 mg kg{sup -1} Cd for Indica cultivars to 0.1 mg kg{sup -1} Cd for Japonica cultivars. For both Japonica and Indica-type cultivars, the soil quality standards must be reduced by a factor of 2 to 3 to obtain the strict standards. The strong impact of pH and CEC on soil quality standards implies that it is essential to correct for soil type when deriving national or local standards. Validation on the remaining 2300 samples indicated that both types of models were able to accurately predict (> 92%) whether rice grown on a specific soil will meet the food quality standard used in Taiwan. - Research highlights: {yields} Cadmium uptake by Japonica and Indica rice varieties depends on soil pH and CEC. {yields} Food safety based soil standards range from 0.3 (Indica) to 6 mg kg{sup -1} (Japonica). {yields} Model uncertainty leads to strict soil standards of less than 0.1 mg kg{sup -1} for Indica. {yields} Soil pH and CEC should be

  11. Impact of model uncertainty on soil quality standards for cadmium in rice paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; Brus, D.J.; Guo, H.Y.; Chu, C.L.; Chiang, C.M.; Koopmans, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    At present, soil quality standards used for agriculture do not consider the influence of pH and CEC on the uptake of pollutants by crops. A database with 750 selected paired samples of cadmium (Cd) in soil and paddy rice was used to calibrate soil to plant transfer models using the soil metal content, pH, and CEC or soil Cd and Zn extracted by 0.01 M CaCl 2 as explanatory variables. The models were validated against a set of 2300 data points not used in the calibration. These models were then used inversely to derive soil quality standards for Japonica and Indica rice cultivars based on the food quality standards for rice. To account for model uncertainty, strict soil quality standards were derived considering a maximum probability that rice exceeds the food quality standard equal to 10 or 5%. Model derived soil standards based on Aqua Regia ranged from less than 0.3 mg kg -1 for Indica at pH 4.5 to more than 6 mg kg -1 for Japonica-type cultivars in clay soils at pH 7. Based on the CaCl 2 extract, standards ranged from 0.03 mg kg -1 Cd for Indica cultivars to 0.1 mg kg -1 Cd for Japonica cultivars. For both Japonica and Indica-type cultivars, the soil quality standards must be reduced by a factor of 2 to 3 to obtain the strict standards. The strong impact of pH and CEC on soil quality standards implies that it is essential to correct for soil type when deriving national or local standards. Validation on the remaining 2300 samples indicated that both types of models were able to accurately predict (> 92%) whether rice grown on a specific soil will meet the food quality standard used in Taiwan. - Research highlights: → Cadmium uptake by Japonica and Indica rice varieties depends on soil pH and CEC. → Food safety based soil standards range from 0.3 (Indica) to 6 mg kg -1 (Japonica). → Model uncertainty leads to strict soil standards of less than 0.1 mg kg -1 for Indica. → Soil pH and CEC should be considered to obtain meaningful standards for agriculture.

  12. [Quality assurance and certification of a hemodialysis unit according to the ISO-9001-2000 standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, M D; Gil, M T; Egea, J J; Sirvent, A E; Giménez, A

    2003-01-01

    We report the experience of three hemodialysis centers registered with the ISO 9001-2000 standard, regarding the development of a quality measure system and providing an analysis of this system and its advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Accounting for both local aquatic community composition and bioavailability in setting site-specific quality standards for zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Simpson, Peter; Moccia, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable improvement in water quality standards (QS) for metals by taking account of the effect of local water chemistry conditions on their bioavailability. We describe preliminary efforts to further refine water quality standards, by taking account of the composition of the local ecological community (the ultimate protection objective) in addition to bioavailability. Relevance of QS to the local ecological community is critical as it is important to minimise instances where quality classification using QS does not reconcile with a quality classification based on an assessment of the composition of the local ecology (e.g. using benthic macroinvertebrate quality assessment metrics such as River InVertebrate Prediction and Classification System (RIVPACS)), particularly where ecology is assessed to be at good or better status, whilst chemical quality is determined to be failing relevant standards. The alternative approach outlined here describes a method to derive a site-specific species sensitivity distribution (SSD) based on the ecological community which is expected to be present at the site in the absence of anthropogenic pressures (reference conditions). The method combines a conventional laboratory ecotoxicity dataset normalised for bioavailability with field measurements of the response of benthic macroinvertebrate abundance to chemical exposure. Site-specific QSref are then derived from the 5%ile of this SSD. Using this method, site QSref have been derived for zinc in an area impacted by historic mining activities. Application of QSref can result in greater agreement between chemical and ecological metrics of environmental quality compared with the use of either conventional (QScon) or bioavailability-based QS (QSbio). In addition to zinc, the approach is likely to be applicable to other metals and possibly other types of chemical stressors (e.g. pesticides). However, the methodology for deriving site-specific targets requires

  14. Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health : benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, K.

    2005-07-01

    This report presented soil quality guidelines for benzene to protect humans and ecological receptors in 4 types of land uses: agricultural; residential and parklands; commercial and industrial. The chemical and physical properties of benzene were reviewed, as well as the sources and emissions of benzene in Canada. The distribution and behaviour of benzene in the environment was examined, and the toxicological effects of benzene on microbial processes, plants, animals and humans were reviewed. It was noted that the background information and rationale for the derivation of Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines for this substance were originally published in 1999 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) in Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. These guidelines have since been revised to reflect new data and lessons learned during the development of the Canada-wide Standard for Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil (CCME 2000). Modifications in this report included the derivation of guidelines for different soil textures and depths. Behaviour and effects in biota were reviewed, including soil microbial processes; terrestrial plants; terrestrial invertebrates; livestock and wildlife; and bioaccumulation. Behaviour and effects in humans and mammalian species were examined. The derivation of environmental soil quality guidelines was outlined. Recommendations for Canadian soil quality guidelines were presented. It was concluded that there is a lack of studies on the toxic effects of benzene on livestock, mammalian wildlife and birds and that studies on the metabolism of benzene in mammals and birds as well as invertebrates are needed. In addition, research is needed on the effects of benzene on nitrogen fixation, nitrification, nitrogen mineralization, decomposition and respiration. 118 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. A Microfluidic Immunostaining System Enables Quality Assured and Standardized Immunohistochemical Biomarker Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seyong; Cho, Chang Hyun; Kwon, Youngmee; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, Je-Kyun

    2017-04-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) plays an important role in biomarker-driven cancer therapy. Although there has been a high demand for standardized and quality assured IHC, it has rarely been achieved due to the complexity of IHC testing and the subjective validation-based process flow of IHC quality control. We present here a microfluidic immunostaining system for the standardization of IHC by creating a microfluidic linearly graded antibody (Ab)-staining device and a reference cell microarray. Unlike conventional efforts, our system deals primarily with the screening of biomarker staining conditions for quantitative quality assurance testing in IHC. We characterized the microfluidic matching of Ab staining intensity using three HER2 Abs produced by different manufacturers. The quality of HER2 Ab was also validated using tissues of breast cancer patients, demonstrating that our system is an efficient and powerful tool for the standardization and quality assurance of IHC.

  16. INCITS W1.1 development update: appearance-based image quality standards for printers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeise, Eric K.; Rasmussen, D. René; Ng, Yee S.; Dalal, Edul; McCarthy, Ann; Williams, Don

    2008-01-01

    In September 2000, INCITS W1 (the U.S. representative of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC28, the standardization committee for office equipment) was chartered to develop an appearance-based image quality standard. (1),(2) The resulting W1.1 project is based on a proposal (3) that perceived image quality can be described by a small set of broad-based attributes. There are currently six ad hoc teams, each working towards the development of standards for evaluation of perceptual image quality of color printers for one or more of these image quality attributes. This paper summarizes the work in progress of the teams addressing the attributes of Macro-Uniformity, Colour Rendition, Gloss & Gloss Uniformity, Text & Line Quality and Effective Resolution.

  17. Defining new standards on citizen participation in the Chilean environmental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Moraga Sariego

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Law 19,300 on the General Bases of the Environment (1994 provided the first legal framework for environmental protection in the country, in the context of the Rio Summit held two years earlier. Following the recommendations of OECD to strengthen environmental institutions (2005, the legislator passed Law No. 20,417 introducing environmental reform (2010 and Law No. 20,600 creating the Environmental Tribunals (2012. The first one extends the scope of citizen participation in the environmental impact assessment system, however, it is the jurisprudential work of the Second Environmental Court that will make it possible to understand the real scope of the legislative amendment. This specialized judiciary develops new standards of citizen participation in the framework of the project of the State Railway Company. This is a broad interpretation of the principle with a view to a real and not only formal application of it, which contributes to the strengthening of this institution in relation to the principle of access to information and justice in environmental matters.

  18. Revision of the ASME nuclear quality assurance standard and its historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    ASME NQA-1-2008 'Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications' will be endorsed by US NRC by the end of 2009. This standard will apply to design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants newly erected in USA. It is important to Japanese vendors developing nuclear business in USA. Historical background, significance of revision and main revised points of the ASME nuclear quality assurance standard are described in the present paper. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Comparison of the guidance documents in support of EU risk assessments with those for the derivation of EU water quality standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos JH; Janssen MPM; SEC

    2005-01-01

    Risks of both new and existing substances and of biocides in Europe are being evaluated using the Technical Guidance Document (TGD). The European Water Framework Directive refers to this document for establishing Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) for water. Another guidance document for the

  20. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston MA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hotchi, Toshifumi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vermeer, Kimberly [Urban Habitate Initiatives Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  1. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  2. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo

    2006-06-01

    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou.

  3. US EPA's experiences implementing environmental safety standards at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - 16103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peake, R. Thomas; Byrum, Charles; Feltcorn, Ed; Lee, Raymond; Joglekar, Rajani; Ghose, Shankar; Eagle, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) developed environmental standards for the disposal of defense-related transuranic wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE or the Department) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). EPA implements these standards for WIPP, which has been in operation for over ten years. The general environmental standards are set forth in the Agency's 40 CFR Part 191 Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes [1]. These standards are implemented by site-specific compliance criteria [2]. The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act requires DOE to submit a re-certification application every five years after the initial receipt of waste. DOE submitted the latest WIPP re-certification application in March 2009. For re-certification, DOE must identify changes that have occurred over the previous five years and analyze their impact on the potential long-term performance of the repository. Once EPA determines that the re-certification application is complete, the Agency has six months to review the application and make a final decision. During this review, EPA solicits and incorporates public comment where appropriate. During the first re-certification in 2004, several stakeholder groups brought up issues (e.g., karst) that were addressed in the original certification. EPA has received comments again raising some of these same issues for the 2009 re-certification. In addition, DOE must submit proposed changes to the WIPP repository to EPA for review and approval. This paper describes selected issues of concern to WIPP and highlights interactions between EPA as the regulatory authority and DOE as the implementing organization. In general EPA's experience points out the importance of communication, documentation and the regulator's responsibility in determining 'how much is enough'. (authors)

  4. Assessment of eco-environmental quality of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Shi, Longyu

    2016-05-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the key and foundation to the sustainable socio-economic development of a region. Eco-environmental quality assessment can reveal the capacity of sustainable socio-economic development in a region and the degree of coordination between social production and the living environment. As part of a new development strategy for Fujian Province, the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone) provides an important guarantee for the development of China's southeastern coastal area. Based on ecological and remote sensing data on the Economic Zone obtained in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this study investigated county-level administrative regions with a comprehensive index of eco-environmental indicators. An objective weighting method was used to determine the importance of each indicator. This led to the development of an indicator system to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone. ArcGIS software was used to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone based on each indicator. The eco-environmental quality index (EQI) of the county-level administrative regions was calculated. The overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone during the period studied is described and analyzed. The results show that the overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone is satisfactory, but significant intraregional differences still exist. The key to improving the overall eco-environmental quality of this area is to restore vegetation and preserve biodiversity.

  5. Environmental impact of leachate characteristics on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumar, Sampath Kumar Mandyam; Nagaraja, Balasubramanya

    2011-07-01

    Improper urbanization and industrialization are causing a critical stress on groundwater quality in urban areas of the developing countries. The present study under investigation describes the pollution caused by leachate from a waste management site in southwestern Bangalore city causing pollution of the surface water and groundwater reserves. The characterization of 20 groundwater samples and Haralukunte lake sample indicated high pollution of these water reserves by leachate entry into the groundwater and surface water sources. The study area focuses around the solid waste management site, carrying out bio-composting and vermi-composting of municipal solid waste. Further investigations on the severe health problems faced by the public in the study area has revealed a clear pointer towards the usage of polluted water for rearing live-stock, farming, and domestic activities. The characterization of the leachate with high values of BOD at 1,450 mg/l, TDS at 17,200 mg/l, nitrates at 240 mg/l, and MPN at 545/100 ml indicates a clear nuisance potential, which has been substantiated by the characterization of lake water sample with chlorides at 3,400 mg/l, TDS at 8,020 mg/l, and lead and cadmium at 0.18 and 0.08 mg/l, respectively. Analysis of groundwater samples shows alarming physicochemical values closer to the waste disposal site and relatively reduced values away from the source of the waste management site. Bureau of Indian Standards have been adapted as the benchmark for the analysis and validation of observed water quality criteria.

  6. Quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the quality assurance and quality control practices of Hanford Site environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. Samples are analyzed according to documented standard analytical procedures. This section discusses specific measures taken to ensure quality in project management, sample collection, and analytical results.

  7. Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, B.M.; Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the quality assurance and quality control practices of Hanford Site environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. Samples are analyzed according to documented standard analytical procedures. This section discusses specific measures taken to ensure quality in project management, sample collection, and analytical results

  8. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) fallout in environmentally controlled areas used for the assembly, testing, and processing of spacecraft. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which is deposited on sampling plate surfaces at room temperature: it is left to the user to infer the relationship between the NVR found on the sampling plate surface and that found on any other surfaces. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  9. Performance study of the primary standard ionization chamber for deployment of the diagnostic radiology qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Ricardo de Souza; Bossio, Francisco; Quaresma, Daniel da Silva; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Activities radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and radiation protection, require knowledge of physical and dosimetric parameters, to be applied safely. Aiming to meet demand in Brazil, the National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionising Radiation - LNMRI - is deploying the primary standard for the calibration of secondary standard chambers, used in quality control in hospitals, clinics and industries. (author)

  10. OZONE AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARD HAS BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON PONDEROSA PINE IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambient air quality standards and control strategies are implemented to protect humans and vegetation from adverse effects. However, to date there has not been a simple and objective method to determine if the standards and resultant control strategies have reduced O3 impacts on ...

  11. Perceptions About The ISO 9000 Quality System Standard Revision And Its Value: The Dutch Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Wiele (Ton); J.D. van Iwaarden (Jos); A.R.T. Williams (Roger); B.G. Dale (Barry)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the research reported in this paper is to assess the relative value of the 2000 version of the ISO 9000 series of quality management system standards in comparison to the 1994 version. 773 organisations in the Netherlands which have all been certified to the ISO 9000 standard

  12. Managing Air Quality - Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  13. Effects of environmental and water quality parameters on the functioning of copepod assemblages in tropical estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Adriana V.; Dias, Cristina O.; Bonecker, Sérgio L. C.

    2017-07-01

    We examined changes in the functioning of copepod assemblages with increasing pollution in estuaries, using sampling standardization of the salinity range to enable comparisons. Copepod assemblages were analyzed in four southeast Brazilian estuaries with different water quality levels and hydrodynamic characteristics over two years. We obtained mesozooplankton samples together with environmental and water quality parameters in the estuaries, every two months under predetermined salinities ranging from 15 to 25. The values of parameters, except species size, associated with the functioning of the copepod assemblages (biomass, productivity, and turnover rate) did not differ among estuaries. However, in the more polluted estuaries, the biomass and productivity of copepod assemblages of mesozooplankton were negatively correlated with concentration of pollution indicator parameters. Conversely, in the less polluted estuaries some degree of enrichment still seems to increase the system biomass and productivity, as these parameters were inversely related to indicators of improved water quality. The pollution level of estuaries distorted the relationship between temperature and the efficiency of converting energy to organic matter. In the less polluted estuaries, the relationship between turnover rate and temperature was over 70%, while in the most polluted estuaries, this relationship was only approximately 50%. Our results demonstrated that the functioning of assemblages in the estuaries was affected differently by increasing pollution depending on the water quality level of the system. Thus, investigating the functioning of assemblages can be a useful tool for the analysis of estuarine conditions.

  14. Quality Service Standard of Food and Beverage Service Staff in Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Thanasit Suksutdhi

    2014-01-01

    This survey research aims to study the standard of service quality of food and beverage service staffs in hotel business by studying the service standard of three sample hotels, Siam Kempinski Hotel Bangkok, Four Seasons Resort Chiang Mai, and Banyan Tree Phuket. In order to find the international service standard of food and beverage service, triangular research, i.e. quantitative, qualitative, and survey were employed. In this research, questionnaires and in-depth interview were used for ge...

  15. A case study: forming an effective quality management system according to ISO 9000 standards

    OpenAIRE

    Zağyapan, Orhan

    1995-01-01

    Ankara : The Faculty of Management and the Graduate School of Business Administration of Bilkent Univ., 1995. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1995. Includes bibliographical references leaves 87-88 In today's world, companies which adopt themselves to certain internationally recognized standards are one step ahead of their competitors. ISO 9000 Quality System Standards captured the most attention among all. The aim of the standard is to provide an international bench...

  16. Quality assurance program for environmental assessment of Savannah River Plant waste sites: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; King, C.M.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    Forty-eight locations were identified that received a variety of radioactive and nonradioactive constituents during the past 35 years including surface impoundments and shallow land burial facilities. Detailed environmental assessments of existing waste disposal areas, as well as new waste disposal techniques and disposition of tritiated water, were completed to air in an evaluation of the low level, mixed and hazardous waste management activities. These assessments result in estimation of risk, or residual risk, posed by each disposal area to various receptors as a function of waste management alternative. For example, at existing waste sites, the closure actions evaluated were waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action; several pathways/receptors were considered, including groundwater to river, groundwater to well, atmospheric transport, occupational exposure, direct exposure, and contamination followed by ingestion of crops and meat. Modeling of chemical transport in a variety of media was an integral part of the assessment process. The quality of the models used and the application of these models were assured by an explicit quality assurance program

  17. Improving the safety and quality of nursing care through standardized operating procedures in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Rakic, Severin; Novo, Ahmed; Dropic, Emira; Fisekovic, Eldin; Sredic, Ana; Van Malderen, Greet

    2016-06-01

    We explored how selected 'positive deviant' healthcare facilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina approach the continuous development, adaptation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of nursing-related standard operating procedures. Standardized nursing care is internationally recognized as a critical element of safe, high-quality health care; yet very little research has examined one of its key instruments: nursing-related standard operating procedures. Despite variability in Bosnia and Herzegovina's healthcare and nursing care quality, we assumed that some healthcare facilities would have developed effective strategies to elevate nursing quality and safety through the use of standard operating procedures. Guided by the 'positive deviance' approach, we used a multiple-case study design to examine a criterion sample of four facilities (two primary healthcare centres and two hospitals), collecting data via focus groups and individual interviews. In each studied facility, certification/accreditation processes were crucial to the initiation of continuous development, adaptation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of nursing-related SOPs. In one hospital and one primary healthcare centre, nurses working in advanced roles (i.e. quality coordinators) were responsible for developing and implementing nursing-related standard operating procedures. Across the four studied institutions, we identified a consistent approach to standard operating procedures-related processes. The certification/accreditation process is enabling necessary changes in institutions' organizational cultures, empowering nurses to take on advanced roles in improving the safety and quality of nursing care. Standardizing nursing procedures is key to improve the safety and quality of nursing care. Nursing and Health Policy are needed in Bosnia and Herzegovina to establish a functioning institutional framework, including regulatory bodies, educational systems for developing nurses' capacities or the

  18. Analytical studies on the quality and environmental impact of commercial motor gasoline available in multan region of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, G.; Ansari, T.M.; Naqvi, S.M.S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Physico-chemical characteristics such as specific gravity, reid vapour pressure, copper corrosion, distillation (I.B.P., F.B.P., Total recovery and residue) and hydrocarbon contents (saturates, aromatics and polars) of gasoline of different oil marketing companies collected from retail outlets in district Multan have been analysed using standard ASTM procedures. Results have been compared with the Pakistani, Indian and European specifications to assess the quality of Pakistani gasoline (petrol). The environmental impact of gasoline has also been assessed. (author)

  19. Quality standards: Comparison between IAEA 50-C/SG-Q and ISO 9001:2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory mandate to seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. As part of the activities to achieve its objectives, the IAEA is authorized to establish standards of safety for the protection of health and the minimization of danger to life and property. The standards of safety developed by the IAEA are recommendations for use by its Member States in the framework of national regulations for the safe utilization of nuclear energy. Such standards should be considered as nuclear safety regulatory documents. The standards developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) are complementary technical documents emphasizing industrial application and contractual aspects. Regarding the quality assurance topic, the IAEA developed the publication Safety Series No. 50-C/SG-Q, Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and other Nuclear Installations, which is mostly used directly or indirectly to establish the nuclear safety requirements at the nuclear utility-regulator interface. The ISO 9001:2000 standard, Quality Management Systems Requirements, is often used to define the quality management system requirements at the utility-supplier interface. The relationship between the IAEA and ISO quality standards is growing in significance owing to their increasing impact upon utilities (owners/operators of nuclear facilities) and their contractors/suppliers. The relationship between the IAEA and ISO standards is considered critical in particular with respect to contractors/suppliers with a small range of nuclear supplies. These contractors-suppliers are not always willing to prepare special quality assurance programmes based on nuclear safety standards. On the other hand, these contractors/suppliers may be qualified on the basis of the ISO quality standard. In any case, for delivering nuclear items and services the

  20. A benefit-cost methodology for developing environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiter, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for using benefit-cost analysis in developing generally applicable environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal. Several disposal alternatives were selected which consist of different combinations of control measures. The resulting cost and benefit estimations allow the calculation of the incremental cost of obtaining incremental benefits of radiation protection. The overall benefit of a disposal alternative is expressed in terms of an index which is based on weighting factors assigned to individual benefits. The results show that some disposal alternatives have higher costs while providing no additional benefit than other alternatives. These alternatives should be eliminated from consideration in developing standards

  1. Evaluation of the causal framework used for setting national ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Sax, Sonja N; Bailey, Lisa A; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2013-11-01

    Abstract A scientifically sound assessment of the potential hazards associated with a substance requires a systematic, objective and transparent evaluation of the weight of evidence (WoE) for causality of health effects. We critically evaluated the current WoE framework for causal determination used in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of the scientific data on air pollutants for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) review process, including its methods for literature searches; study selection, evaluation and integration; and causal judgments. The causal framework used in recent NAAQS evaluations has many valuable features, but it could be more explicit in some cases, and some features are missing that should be included in every WoE evaluation. Because of this, it has not always been applied consistently in evaluations of causality, leading to conclusions that are not always supported by the overall WoE, as we demonstrate using EPA's ozone Integrated Science Assessment as a case study. We propose additions to the NAAQS causal framework based on best practices gleaned from a previously conducted survey of available WoE frameworks. A revision of the NAAQS causal framework so that it more closely aligns with these best practices and the full and consistent application of the framework will improve future assessments of the potential health effects of criteria air pollutants by making the assessments more thorough, transparent, and scientifically sound.

  2. Long-Term Time Series of Remote Sensing Observations for Development of Regulatory Water Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Spiering, Bruce A.; Holekamp, Kara L.

    2010-01-01

    Water quality standards in the U.S. consist of: designated uses (the services that a water body provides; e.g., drinking water, aquatic life, harvestable species, recreation) . criteria that define the environmental conditions that must be maintained to support the uses For estuaries and coastal waters in the Gulf of Mexico, there are no numeric (quantitative) criteria to protect designated uses from effects of nutrients. This is largely due to the absence of adequate data that would quantitatively link biological conditions to nutrient concentrations. The Gulf of Mexico Alliance, an organization fostering collaboration between the Gulf States and U.S. Federal agencies, has identified the development of the numeric nutrient criteria as a major step leading to reduction in MODIS Products Figure 6. Map of the Mobile Bay with a yellow patch indicating the Bon Secour Bay area selected in this study for averaging water clarity parameters retrieved from MODIS datasets. nutrient inputs to coastal ecosystems. Nutrient enrichment in estuaries and coastal waters can be quantified based on response variables that measure phytoplankton biomass and water clarity. Long-term, spatially and temporally resolved measurements of chlorophyll a concentration, total concentration of suspended solids, and water clarity are needed to establish reference conditions and to quantify stressor-response relationships.

  3. Harmonization of monographic standards is needed to ensure the quality of Chinese medicinal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Sandy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview on the regulations of Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs in various countries and regions. Harmonization of CMM monographs would provide standards for the quality control of CMM products and play an important role in the modernization and globalization of Chinese medicine. A harmonized regulatory system would improve the quality of CMMs thereby ensuring the safety of the products and assisting Chinese medicine practitioners in their practice. The fast growing demand worldwide for traditional medicines calls for harmonized monographic standards to safeguard the safety and quality of CMM products.

  4. Critical comments on the US Environmental Protection Agency Standards 40 CFR 191

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pflum, C.G.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Krishna, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is about the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ''Environmental Standards for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Wastes,'' 40 CFR 191. These standards regulate the disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. Currently, two repository sites are under investigation: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, may become the repository for defense-generated transuranic waste (TRU); and the Yucca Mountain site, located near Las Vegas, Nevada, may become the repository for spent reactor fuel and a small amount of reprocessing waste (hereinafter called high-level radioactive waste or HLW). The paper was written for readers who have an interest in 40 CFR 191 but do not have the time or inclination to ponder the technical details

  5. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Sebastien [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  6. Assessing Quality of Data Standards: Framework and Illustration Using XBRL GAAP Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Harris

    The primary purpose of data standards or metadata schemas is to improve the interoperability of data created by multiple standard users. Given the high cost of developing data standards, it is desirable to assess the quality of data standards. We develop a set of metrics and a framework for assessing data standard quality. The metrics include completeness and relevancy. Standard quality can also be indirectly measured by assessing interoperability of data instances. We evaluate the framework using data from the financial sector: the XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) taxonomy and US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings produced using the taxonomy by approximately 500 companies. The results show that the framework is useful and effective. Our analysis also reveals quality issues of the GAAP taxonomy and provides useful feedback to taxonomy users. The SEC has mandated that all publicly listed companies must submit their filings using XBRL. Our findings are timely and have practical implications that will ultimately help improve the quality of financial data.

  7. The improvement of environmental performances by applying ISO 14001 standard: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Snežana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the advantages of applying ISO 14001 system in an environmental protection management system. The environmental protection management system which is not licensed, i.e., compatible with the principles and standard pre-conditions considerably increases the plausibility for ecological risk. There are some issues that remain to be solved in the areas which are not expressed by financial values only but also have a non-financial character with the aim of expanding markets, company image improvement and improvement of the environmental performance indicators. By improving a company’s environmental management system efficiency we expect to achieve the minimization and elimination of damaging influences on the environment which are the consequence of company’s activities. A case study in the Oil Refinery Belgrade (RNB analyses the implementation of the standard ISO 14001:2004 into its environment protection management system, particularly emphasizing the company’s own way of evaluating the environment aspects with the aim of establishing results of ecological performances indicators improvement. The average values of the first ecological indicator of the plant, the total amount of the waste waters in m3 per a ton of product, clearly show the downturn trend, which is confirmed by the proportional reduction of the second ecological plant indicator, that is by the flocculants consumption (Al2(SO43, Na2CO3 in kg per m3 of the waste water of the Oil Refinery of Belgrade for the given period 2008-2010. Case study RNB confirms the improvement of environmental performances using the ISO 14001 standard.

  8. A basic study for development of environmental standard review plan of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Cho, Jae Seon; You, Young Woo [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-12-15

    In this study is performed a basic study to be ready for the development and detail analysis of NUREG-1555 ESRP. As a fundamental research for literature survey and development of draft review plan, review and translation of NUREG-1555 published by NRC, and which is applied to licensing procedure of Nuclear Power Plants are included. These provided the basic information for the developments of the environmental standard review plan.

  9. Round table discussion: Quality control and standardization of nuclear medicine software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    In summary the round table came to the following important conclusions: Nuclear medicine software systems need better documentation, especially regarding details of algorithms and limitations, and user friendliness could be considerably improved. Quality control of software is an integral part of quality assurance in nuclear medicine and should be performed at all levels of the software. Quality control of applications software should preferably be performed with assistance of generally accepted software phantoms. A basic form of standardization was welcomed and partly regarded as essential by all participants. Some areas such as patient study files could be standardized in the near future, whereas other areas such as the standardization of clinical applications programs or acquisition protocols still present major difficulties. An international cooperation in the field of standardization of software and other topics has already been started on the European level and should be continued and supported. (orig.)

  10. Towards sustainability in cold chains: Development of a quality, energy and environmental assessment tool (QEEAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwanpua, S.G.; Verboven, P.; Brown, T.; Leducq, D.; Verlinden, B.E.; Evans, J.; Van Der Sluis, S.; Wissink, E.B.; Taoukis, P.; Gogou, E.; Stahl, V.; El Jabri, M.; Thuault, D.; Claussen, I.; Indergård, E.; M. Nicolai, B.; Alvarez, G.; Geeraerd, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of the impact of refrigeration technologies in terms of the quality of refrigerated food, energy usage, and environmental impact is essential to assess cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present a software tool QEEAT (Quality, Energy and Environmental Assessment Tool) for

  11. The health benefits of attaining and strengthening air quality standards in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Keen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between pollution and poor health and mortality has been established globally. Developing countries carry most of the burden of ill health from air pollution, and urban centres like the City of Cape Town even more so. Effective air quality management to protect human health relies on the attainment of air quality standards. This study uses the Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP along with a locally derived exposure-response function and air quality monitor data to investigate whether the consistent attainment of current or more stringent air quality standards would avoid loss of life. The results show that attaining the PM10 24-hour mean South Africa National Standard limit and the PM10 and SO2 24-hour mean World Health Organisation guidelines in Cape Town reduces levels of pollutants and does reduce excess risk of mortality in Cape Town.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2 NAAQS...

  13. Compliance determination procedures for environmental radiation protection standards for uranium recovery facilities 40 CFR part 190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Uranium Milling operations are licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by some States in agreement with the Commission. The radiation dose to any individual from the operation of facilities within the uranium fuel cycle is limited to levels set by the Environmental Protection Agency. These levels are contained in the EPA Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Nuclear Power Operations, in Part 190 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 190). This report describes the procedures used within NRC's Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch for evaluating compliance with these regulations for uranium milling operations. The report contains descriptions of these procedures, dose factors for evaluating environmental measurement data, and guidance to the NRC staff reviewer

  14. Quality control in the application of flow cytometric assays of genetic damage due to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreedy, C.D.; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Wentworth, R.W.; Dallas, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical technologies, such as flow cytometry, are increasingly adopted by environmental toxicologists to identify resource damage associated with exposure to xenobiotics. One application of flow cytometry allows the rapid determination of the DNA content of large numbers of individual cells, and can be used to detect aneuploidy or other genetic abnormalities. The laboratory has used this methodology in studies of genetic toxicology of fish, birds, arid mammals exposed to organic pollutants, metals and radionuclides, However, without appropriate quality controls, false positive results and other artifacts can arise from sample handling and preparations, inter and intra-individual variations, instrument noise and other sources. The authors describe the routine measures this laboratory employs to maintain quality control of genomic DNA analysis, including the control of staining conditions, machine standardization, pulse-width doublet discrimination, and, in particular, the use of internal controls and the use of time as a cytometric parameter. Neglect of these controls can produce erroneous results, leading to conclusions of genetic abnormalities when none are present. Conversely, attention to these controls, routinely used in clinical settings, facilitates the interpretation of flow cytometric data and allows the application of this sensitive indicator of genotoxic effects to a variety of environmental problems

  15. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semler, M.O.; Sensintaffar, E.L. [National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber`s continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis.

  16. Survey the environmental effects of the household batteries on decreasing of compost quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davari, A.; Sharifan, Hamid Reza

    2008-01-01

    The household batteries consisted the heavy metals are one of the important pollutant for Environment. whereas Iran has no environmental policy for them and without environmental planning they input to urban waste solid so this study has surveyed effect of the household batteries in urban waste solid to decreasing of compost quality that produced in Karaj composting. For this research has sampled of compost production then analyzed for assess the heavy metal. In the laboratory the samples were grind then hair sieve to convert them to similar pieces. For the measuring metal concentration first they should be extract and finally measure by adsorption atomic spectroscope. The result show high concentration of heavy metal such as Ni, Cd, Zn, Hg, etc. that there were in produced compost. So major cause of law quality of this compost refer to concentration of heavy metals. Findings were in contrary to standard concentration for agriculture soil. It's obvious the heavy metals concentration depend to quantity of consumption the kinds of batteries

  17. Quality assurance and reference material requirements and considerations for environmental sample analysis in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindle, D.W. Jr.; Perrin, R.E.; Goldberg, S.A.; Cappis, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High-sensitivity nuclear environmental sampling and analysis techniques have been proven in their ability to verify declared nuclear activities, as well as to assist in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and facilities. Following the Gulf War, the capability and revealing power of environmental sampling and analysis techniques to support international safeguards was demonstrated and subsequently adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as routine safeguards measures in safeguards inspections and verifications. In addition to having been proved useful in international safeguards, environmental sampling and analysis techniques have demonstrated their utility in identifying the origins of 'orphaned' nuclear material, as well as the origin of intercepted smuggled nuclear material. Today, environmental sampling and analysis techniques are now being applied in six broad areas to support nonproliferation, disarmament treaty verification, national and international nuclear security, and environmental stewardship of weapons production activities. Consequently, more and more laboratories around the world are establishing capabilities or expanding capabilities to meet these growing applications, and as such requirements for quality assurance and control are increasing. The six areas are: 1) Nuclear safeguards; 2) Nuclear forensics/illicit trafficking; 3) Ongoing monitoring and verification (OMV); 4) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); 5) Weapons dismantlement/materials disposition; and 6) Research and development (R and D)/environmental stewardship/safety. Application of environmental sampling and analysis techniques and resources to illicit nuclear material trafficking, while embodying the same basic techniques and resources, does have unique requirements for sample management, handling, protocols, chain of custody, archiving, and data interpretation. These requirements are derived from needs of how data from nuclear forensics

  18. Quality management manual. National EU air quality reference laboratory of the Federal Environmental Agency; Qualitaetsmanagementhandbuch. Nationales EU-Luftqualitaets-Referenzlabor im Umweltbundesamt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    The 'Air' Department of the Federal Environmental Agency initiated a quality management system according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 in order to carry out its tasks as a EU reference laboratory for air pollution monitoring. Harmonisation of measurements is attempted not only in the Federal Republic of Germany but world-wide. This is to be achieved by standardising the activities of reference laboratories on the basis of the DIN EN standards. The quality management system comprises complex organisational, technical and staff-oriented measures to ensure quality-relevant procedures and to control the interdependences between the individual processes. The specifications contained in this report are to ensure that quality requirements are met, and that the QM system will be updated continuously in order to ensure constant improvement.

  19. Does Deregulation of Quality Standards in Telecomunications Improve Social Welfare? A Methodological Note Does Deregulation of Quality Standards in Telecomunications Improve Social Welfare? A Methodological Note

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Morandé

    1990-01-01

    Does Deregulation of Quality Standards in Telecomunications Improve Social Welfare? A Methodological Note One of the main reasons behind the bit difference observed in the per capita number of telephones between develope and developing countries is the high capital cost -a scarce resource in LDC's- of expanding telecommunications infrastructure. A reasonable question to raise in this context is the extent to which that high capital cost of investment could be diminished if international quali...

  20. IEEE [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers] standards and nuclear software quality engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughtrey, T.

    1988-01-01

    Significant new nuclear-specific software standards have recently been adopted under the sponsorship of the American Nuclear Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The interest of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has also been expressed through their issuance of NUREG/CR-4640. These efforts all indicate a growing awareness of the need for thorough, referenceable expressions of the way to build in and evaluate quality in nuclear software. A broader professional perspective can be seen in the growing number of software engineering standards sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Computer Society. This family of standards represents a systematic effort to capture professional consensus on quality practices throughout the software development life cycle. The only omission-the implementation phase-is treated by accepted American National Standards Institute or de facto standards for programming languages