WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental policy electronic

  1. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  2. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  3. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  4. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  5. Environmental policy performance revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    . On the basis of the typology, a hypothesis on their ability to expand green markets is generated and tested in a comparative analysis of the performance of organic food policies in Denmark, Sweden, the UK and the US, focusing on their impact on organic consumption. Our analysis demonstrates that cross......Studies of environmental policy performance tend to concentrate on the impact of particular policy institutions or of single policy instruments. However, environmental policies most often consist of a package of policy instruments. Further, these studies pay no or very little attention to policy...... instruments directed at the demand side of the market. Therefore this article develops a policy typology for government intervention aimed at creating green markets. The typology distinguishes between four types of policy based on the balance between the supply-side and demand-side policy instruments...

  6. Electronic Signature Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishes the United States Environmental Protection Agency's approach to adopting electronic signature technology and best practices to ensure electronic signatures applied to official Agency documents are legally valid and enforceable

  7. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  8. Modeling environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; McDonald, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The eight book chapters demonstrate the link between the physical models of the environment and the policy analysis in support of policy making. Each chapter addresses an environmental policy issue using a quantitative modeling approach. The volume addresses three general areas of environmental policy - non-point source pollution in the agricultural sector, pollution generated in the extractive industries, and transboundary pollutants from burning fossil fuels. The book concludes by discussing the modeling efforts and the use of mathematical models in general. Chapters are entitled: modeling environmental policy: an introduction; modeling nonpoint source pollution in an integrated system (agri-ecological); modeling environmental and trade policy linkages: the case of EU and US agriculture; modeling ecosystem constraints in the Clean Water Act: a case study in Clearwater National Forest (subject to discharge from metal mining waste); costs and benefits of coke oven emission controls; modeling equilibria and risk under global environmental constraints (discussing energy and environmental interrelations); relative contribution of the enhanced greenhouse effect on the coastal changes in Louisiana; and the use of mathematical models in policy evaluations: comments. The paper on coke area emission controls has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM

  9. Environmental ethics and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehn, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    In a difficult economic situation where the problems of many companies to adapt to changed economic conditions threaten to supersede ecological interests the Council of Experts appointed by the Federal Environment Minister submitted its 1994 environmental expertise. This scientific political counseling document would deserve little attention if it was limited to the appeal of considering pollution control as an integrated part of all political activities or if it only contained a catalog of measures for the ecological repair of technico-industrial faults and failures. The structural change of economy and the necessity of ecological modernization, however, are taken into account by representing an ecological-economic model which contributes to a long-term conceptional orientation of environmental policy and which is elaborate enough to be suited for the development of solutions to concrete problems. The main points of the expertise are discussed. (orig./UA) [de

  10. Environmental policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Environmental Policy Analysis Program was established to improve the formation of energy development and environmental policies with due mutual regard for national environmental and energy development needs. As a separate office under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, the program is implemented by the Director and by Offices of Environmental Policy Analysis in the eight DOE multiprogram laboratories. The program provides the Assistant Secretary with information on alternatives for decision making and early warning of environmental problems and considerations that may affect energy policy decisions. The program is intended to be a continuing activity, with its scope determined progressively as issues are defined. During FY-1977 the program focused on information compilation on levels of Pu and other transuranic elements in soils that would render the area unsafe for unlimited use; the impact of water pollution control laws on energy technologies; an analysis of the comparative health risks associated with various energy technologies; and the cost and related impacts on the nuclear industry arising from changes in radiation standards during the past 15 years

  11. Environmental education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between...

  12. Equity Impacts of Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio M. Bento

    2013-01-01

    This article surveys recent literature on the equity impacts of environmental policy. We focus on studies that look at the distribution of costs and benefits of alternative environmental policies. We also examine potentially important trade-offs between efficiency and equity that arise in the context of environmental policy, as well as transition effects. In many of the applications surveyed here, environmental policies can be regressive. Strategies are discussed to reduce this regressivity t...

  13. Endogenous growth and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  14. Hydro-Quebec's environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Hydro-Quebec established a new environmental policy on August 1, 1996. A summary of the policy was presented. According to this policy statement the utility undertakes to recognize the environmental implications of its activities and assumes responsibilities for these implications by integrating them into its corporate decision-making processes. The following general principles and means of implementation have been highlighted: (1) sustainable development, (2) strict, responsible environmental management, (3) environmental research, (4) enhancement of activities and facilities, (5) information, consultation and dialogue, and (6) environmental responsibility of Hydro-Quebec personnel, subsidiaries and business partners

  15. Multinationals and international environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.

    2009-01-01

    Multinationals with relatively poor environmental policy establish themselves in countries with weak environmental regulation. These activities are not undertaken in the poorest or most corrupt countries though. The question arises if multinationals with relatively developed environmental behavior settle less or more often in countries with environmental legislation. [mk] [nl

  16. Major Environmental Policy in 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Jin [Ministry Of Environment, Kwachon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    As a new millennium has started, there are active movements developing a basic paradigm of vision and policy over a nation-wide to prepare changes actively. For the environmental sector, it is possible to live in a pleasant environment if everyone prepare and work together like dealing with Y2K problem. With a goal of being an environmentally advanced country in the early new millennium, it is planned to improve a basic life environment such as water and air and to promote an advanced environmental management policy for showing results of its reform in 2000. Therefore, it examines environmental management circumstances and a direction of environmental policy first and it discusses more about major environmental policy related to petroleum industry. 7 tabs.

  17. Emerging environmental technologies and environmental technology policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Leon Edward

    This dissertation explores the role and design of environmental technology policy when environmental innovation is embodied in emerging environmental technologies such as photovoltaic cells or fuel cells. The dissertation consists of three individual studies, all of which use a simplified, general model industry between an emerging environmental technology and an entrenched, more-polluting technology. It clarifies the situations in which environmental technology policy can achieve high welfare and those in which it cannot; and it separates the possible situations an emerging environmental technology might face into four scenarios, each with its own technology policy recommendations. The second study attempts to clarify which of two factors is having a larger limiting effect on private investment in photovoltaics: the failure to internalize the environmental costs of fossil fuel electricity generation or a broad set of innovation market failures that apply to innovation irrespective of environmental concerns. The study indicates that innovation market failures are probably having a significantly larger impact than incomplete internalization. The third study explores the effectiveness of adoption subsidies at encouraging private-sector innovation. The conclusion is that adoption subsidies probably have only a limited effect on long-term, private-sector research. Two important general conclusions of the dissertation are (1) that optimal technology policy should begin with technology-push measures and end with demand-pull measures; and (2) that the technological response to internalization instruments, such as emissions taxes, may be highly nonlinear.

  18. Environmental policy (Republic of Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    With a defined set of policy goals, policy makers face an important decision on how and at what cost to the economy environmental compliance can be achieved. The costs of environmental compliance for Macedonia are still to be determined. However, environmental cost estimates, even those done with the highest degree of precision will not provide the actual burden that the society will face. The level of actual costs and their distribution in the economy will depend on the type of instruments that will be used by policy makers. In general, there are two policy options to be considered, namely command and control which relies on administrative instruments and market based which uses economic instrument. The command and control based environmental policy requires that ambient standards, emission standards and new source performance standards are in place, together with a permitting system and compliance monitoring to ensure enforcement. A market based environmental policy aims at achieving higher levels of environmental quality by correcting the imperfections of the market. This is done by what is called internalizing negative environmental externalities. In simple words, polluters are forced to pay a pollution charge or a tax and include the costs of pollution in the costs of production and finally in the prices of goods. (author)

  19. Environmental and sustainability education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The volume draws on a wide range of policy studies and syntheses to provide readers with insights into the international genealogy and priorities of ESE policy. Editors and contributors call for renewed attention to the possibilities for future directions in light of previously published work and......, ideological orthodoxy and critique, curriculum making and educational theory, globalisation and neoliberalism, climate change and environmental worldviews, and much more....... and innovations in scholarship. They also offer critical commentary on the evolution of research trends, approaches and findings. Including a wide range of examples of ESE policy and policy research, the book draws on studies of educational initiatives and legislation, policy making processes and rhetoric...

  20. Future directions for environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Riordan, T

    1984-01-01

    Environmentalism is an elusive concept with many meanings. Its changing character is examined together with an analysis of how it is likely to influence public policy across a broad front. The paper also reviews the major environmental issues which QECD countries are likely to face nationally, regionally and globally over the next twenty years and discusses the type of politics that may emerge within the new environmentalism. The overriding global issue will be the tragic interconnection between poverty and environmental damage in the underdeveloped countries. In the developed but de-industrialising economies of the 'north' greatest attention will be placed on devising means for creating jobs and providing satisfying occupations for people forced out of a job or never in employment. Environmental rehabilitation can create jobs, but it will involve the denial of resources otherwise available to create jobs elsewhere. It will therefore be necessary to consider the 'next job effectiveness' of environmental policies. Another policy area that requires new thinking is the management of environmental hazards, notably how to dispose of toxic wastes in a manner acceptable to a majority of people. Finally serious efforts will have to be made, not only to infuse environmental principles within all policy arenas, but also to ensure that departmental responsibilities and budgets are properly linked. The principle that those who exploit environmental resources should subsidise those who use environmental resources frugally and benignly by means of transfer taxes and payments should also become established. (orig.).

  1. Life cycle thinking and assessment tools on environmentally-benign electronics: Convergent optimization of materials use, end-of-life strategy and environmental policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying

    The purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative environmental performance assessment tools and the theory of multi-objective optimization within the boundary of electronic product systems to support the selection among design alternatives in terms of environmental impact, technical criteria, and economic feasibility. To meet with the requirements that result from emerging environmental legislation targeting electronics products, the research addresses an important analytical methodological approach to facilitate environmentally conscious design and end-of-life management with a life cycle viewpoint. A synthesis of diverse assessment tools is applied on a set of case studies: lead-free solder materials selection, cellular phone design, and desktop display technology assessment. In the first part of this work, an in-depth industrial survey of the status and concerns of the U.S. electronics industry on the elimination of lead (Pb) in solders is described. The results show that the trade-offs among environmental consequences, technology challenges, business risks, legislative compliance and stakeholders' preferences must be explicitly, simultaneously, and systematically addressed in the decision-making process used to guide multi-faceted planning of environmental solutions. In the second part of this work, the convergent optimization of the technical cycle, economic cycle and environmental cycle is addressed in a coherent and systematic way using the application of environmentally conscious design of cellular phones. The technical understanding of product structure, components analysis, and materials flow facilitates the development of "Design for Disassembly" guidelines. A bottom-up disassembly analysis on a "bill of materials" based structure at a micro-operational level is utilized to select optimal end-of-life strategies on the basis of economic feasibility. A macro-operational level life cycle model is used to investigate the environmental consequences

  2. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  3. Institutionalizing environmental valuation into policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phelps, Jacob; Dermawan, Ahmad; Garmendia, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    Monetary valuation of the environment is increasingly embedded in policy. Despite broad claims that valuation is policy-relevant, there is widespread frustration that it has not widely improved environmental outcomes, that it obscures many other types of values, and presents unintended consequences.

  4. Environmental protection and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrlaender, H.

    1993-01-01

    The area 'Environmental protection and competition policy' follows the introductory guideline by Sir Leon Brittan, vice-president of the EC-Commission: 'We must seek the most market driven, dynamic approach to solutions, such that competition and technological advance bring the maximum economic and environmental benefits'. From this concrete measures are derived. (HSCH) [de

  5. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  6. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuexian; Zheng, Haidong

    2017-12-13

    Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents' behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader) facing emission-dependent demand, and the environmental regulator (Stackelberg follower). The firm decides on the green technology level in the first stage of the game based on its understanding of the regulator's profits function, especially an environmental concern that is introduced as an exogenous variable. In the current research, we show that high levels of the regulator's environmental concerns do not necessarily lead to the choice of green technology by the firm, and green investment level depends on the combined effects of the market and operational factors for a given level of the regulator's environmental concerns. The result also shows that increasing environmental awareness amongst the consumers is an effective way to drive the firm's green investment.

  7. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexian Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents’ behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader facing emission-dependent demand, and the environmental regulator (Stackelberg follower. The firm decides on the green technology level in the first stage of the game based on its understanding of the regulator’s profits function, especially an environmental concern that is introduced as an exogenous variable. In the current research, we show that high levels of the regulator’s environmental concerns do not necessarily lead to the choice of green technology by the firm, and green investment level depends on the combined effects of the market and operational factors for a given level of the regulator’s environmental concerns. The result also shows that increasing environmental awareness amongst the consumers is an effective way to drive the firm’s green investment.

  8. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  9. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  10. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  11. Environmental Policy and Technological Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, Adam B.; Newell, Richard G.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between technological change and environmental policy has received increasing attention from scholars and policy makers alike over the past ten years. This is partly because the environmental impacts of social activity are significantly affected by technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions themselves create new constraints and incentives that affect the process of technological developments. Our central purpose in this article is to provide environmental economists with a useful guide to research on technological change and the analytical tools that can be used to explore further the interaction between technology and the environment. In Part 1 of the article, we provide an overview of analytical frameworks for investigating the economics of technological change, highlighting key issues for the researcher. In Part 2, we turn our attention to theoretical analysis of the effects of environmental policy on technological change, and in Part 3, we focus on issues related to the empirical analysis of technology innovation and diffusion. Finally, we conclude in Part 4 with some additional suggestions for research

  12. Interactions management in environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Franco Garcia, Maria Maria; Micallef, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to address regulator-management interactions in environmental policy with reference to direct regulations, social regulations and market-based regulation. Design/methodology/approach: Revision of literature to identify the European Union regulations for companies producing

  13. Environmental science-policy interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

    + (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks) process and the phenomenon of deforestation in Zambia as research examples. The research was carried out from mid 2008 and to mid 2013 and applies a mixed methods research design. Fieldwork was carried out...... to science? This PhD thesis contributes to answering this questions; however it does this by questioning the conceptions of science that contribute to political decision-making and by exploring the relationship between scientific knowledge, other types of knowledge and policy. This PhD study employs the REDD...... in future REDD+ design and implementation. To curtail potential negative consequences of the identified mode of science-policy interaction in Zambia, the study concludes by making a number of proposals. The proposals are generic in nature and may be found relevant in environmental policy processes outside...

  14. Environmental policies in competitive electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langestraat, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we model and analyze several environmental policies in an existing mathematical representation of a perfectly competitive electricity market. We contribute to the literature by theoretically and numerically establishing a number of effects of environmental policies on investment

  15. 24 CFR 50.3 - Environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental policy. 50.3 Section... Development PROTECTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY General: Federal Laws and Authorities § 50.3 Environmental policy. (a) It is the policy of the Department to reject proposals which have significant adverse...

  16. Environmental Education Policy Development in Zimbabwe: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National environmental education policy is essential for guiding and coordinating environmental education activities within a country. The Zimbabwean Environmental Education Policy development process took place between 2000 and 2001.This paper looks at stages in the policy development process, the factors that ...

  17. Environmental pollution and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    There is a growing recognition in Malaysia of the interrelationship between population growth, population policies, development policies, and environmental pollution. In Malaysia, with a current population of 13,250,000 and an annual growth rate of 2.4%, economic development is leading to large scale deforestation which in turn is altering climatic conditions, reducing water supplies, and increasing erosion. According to estimates 750,000 acres of jungle were cleared in the last 10 years. Industrial wastes and domestic sewage discharged into rivers and lakes is endangering marine life and padilands. This is a serious problem, since 70% of the Malaysian population derives the bulk of their protein intake from marine life. Noise and carbon monoxide pollution in urban areas is increasing due to the 15% annual increase in the number of vehicles in the country. These dangers need to be taken into account as continuing efforts are made to increase industrialization in order to provide jobs for the 350,000 unemployed and underemployed youth in the country. Fortunately, government officials in Malaysia are giving consideration to energy, water and oil conservation in formulating development plans and are becoming increasingly aware that population growth and population policies have a direct impact on development planning and environmental pollution.

  18. Rationality, institutions and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.

  19. Environmental policy in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Pamela M.; Barnes, Ian G.

    2000-09-01

    The development of environmental policy, including the policy making process, is analysed from an historical perspective. The authors then examine implementation and enforcement and present a critical appraisal of the impact of environment policy throughout Europe. Key issues discussed include: trade and the environment, environmental protection and the maintenance of industrial competitiveness, agriculture and the environment, energy and environmental policy, transport and the environment, tourism and the environment. (Author)

  20. Environmental macroeconomics : Environmental policy, business cycles, and directed technical change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Heutel, Garth

    Environmental economics has traditionally fallen in the domain of microeconomics, but approaches from macroeconomics have recently been applied to studying environmental policy. We focus on two macroeconomic tools and their application to environmental economics. First, real-business-cycle models

  1. Voluntary agreements in environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-01-01

    A typically voluntary agreement is signed between the authorities and an industrial sector in order to reduce the emission of environmentally harmful substances. There are many different types of agreements. Voluntary agreements are not strictly voluntary, since in the background there is often some kind of ''threat'' about taxation or fees if the industry is unwilling to cooperate. This type of agreements has become popular in many OECD countries during the last decades. In Norway there are only a few agreements of this type. Experience with the use of voluntary agreements as well as research show that they are less cost-effective than market-based instruments such as taxes and quota systems. If there are great restrictions on the use of taxes and quota systems because of information- or measurement problems, or because these instruments are not politically acceptable, then voluntary agreements may be an interesting alternative. Thus, voluntary agreements are best used as a supplement to other instruments in some niche areas of the environmental policy. In some cases, voluntary agreements may be used between two countries or at a regional level, for example within the EU

  2. Simulating Policy Processes through Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the use of electronic mail for teaching and learning about social welfare policy processes and compares electronic mail as a simulation medium to more structured computer applications. (Author)

  3. Environmental law, policy, and economics: reclaiming the environmental agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldart, Charles C; Ashford, Nicholas Askounes

    2008-01-01

    ... of Information Regarding Chemical Risks 771 11 Enforcement: Encouraging Compliance with Environmental Statutes 807 12 Alternative Forms of Government Intervention to Promote Pollution Reduction 879 13 Polici...

  4. Sectoral Costs of Environmental Policy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercaemst, P.; Vanassche, S.; Campling, P.; Vranken, L.; Agnolucci, P.; Salmons, R.; Shaw, B.; Jantzen, J.; Van der Woerd, H.; Gruenig, M.; Best, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has launched a study on the 'Sectoral costs of environmental policy'. The overall aim of the study is to obtain a clearer picture of the impact of environmental policy in some of the industrial sectors most affected by environmental policy, taking into account the differences between sectors and Member States. Previous studies mainly focussed on the individual impact of one Directive, but in this study we will assess the cumulative costs attributable to the environmental policy in its entirety and attempt to identify synergies between individual policies. The project has the following main objectives: paint a clearer picture of the environmental costs for the selected industries; indicate the differences in costs between individual companies; indicate the differences in costs between Member States; demonstrate the drivers for environmental expenditures of the companies and differences between sectors and Member States; describe different types of environmental regulation (policy instruments) and their impact on environmental expenditures; evaluate the environmental performance of the industries and differences between companies/Member States; collect evidence for the impacts of environmental regulation (and associated costs) on the competitiveness of companies; and carry out an international comparison. The sectors selected are:oil supply chain; electricity production; steel industry; and textile and leather industry

  5. Electron accelerators for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to provide information suitable for electron accelerators implementation in facilities applying radiation technology for environmental protection. It should be noticed that radiation processing has been successfully used in the fields of crosslinking polymer curing and medical products sterilization for more than 40 years. Practical application of radiation technology today extends on SO 2 and NO x removal from the flue gas (one of major power intensive radiation processing), destruction and removal of organic chemicals from water, decreasing bacteria content in the irradiated sludge and waste water. On the other hand the increased awareness of environmental pollution hazards and more stringent waste regulations in many countries may open stronger support for environmentally oriented technologies. This publication provides an evaluation of electron accelerators capabilities in respect of environmental applications where technological and economical criteria are now well defined. In order to determine the potential of electron accelerators, the literature data were examined as well visits and meetings with various accelerator manufacturers were performed by the author. Experience of the author in accelerator facilities construction and exploitation including those which were used for environmental protection are significant part of this publication. The principle of accelerator action was described in Chapter 1. Early development, accelerator classification and fields of accelerators application were included to this chapter as well. Details of accelerator construction was described in Chapter 2 to illustrate physical capability of accelerators to perform the function of ionizing radiation source. Electron beam extraction devices, under beam equipment, electron beam parameters and measuring methods were characterized in this chapter as well. Present studies of accelerator technology was described in Chapter 3, where

  6. Emission taxes versus other environmental policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, Michael

    1997-06-01

    In most countries, various forms of quotas and direct regulation play a more important role in environmental policy than environmental taxes. This report discusses four arguments often given against emission taxes. Three of the arguments, which are related to information asymmetries and non-convexities, are valid arguments in the sense that they point at complications which make the use of environmental taxes less straightforward than what elementary textbooks would suggest. The fourth argument is related to the employment effects of different types of environmental policies in economies with unemployment. This is perhaps the argument most often used by politicians against environmental taxes. The analysis did not justify this type of argument. On the contrary: In the model used, employment is higher with environmental taxes than with non revenue-raising environmental policies. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  7. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    actors involved. The seven case-study chapters, written from a variety of perspectives, focus on such topics as the impact of formal and informal institutional factors on policy innovation, the potential influence of new members on EU environmental policy-making, the role of cross-national networks...... and alliances, the shifting balance between leader and laggard members, and the ongoing problem integrating the environment into other policy fields. The book also draws on theoretical approaches ranging from institutional to policy network analyses and examines such pertinent contemporary issues as packaging......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...

  8. From Practice to Policy in Environmental Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practical skills that are needed to solve them. While infusion was the main focus of the country's environmental ... innovative work in the field of environmental education, thus recognising that additional thinking and experimentation are necessary to future policy formulation.The Uttarakhand. Environmental Education Centre ...

  9. Strategic Delegation of Environmental Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelfsema, H. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Vredenburg 138, 3511 BG Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-04-15

    A common claim is that nations should cooperate in environmental policy making. However, there is little empirical support that noncooperative decision making results in too low environmental standards and taxes. We develop a theoretical model and show that if the median voter cares sufficiently for the environment, she has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares more for the environment than she does herself. By doing so, she mitigates the 'race to the bottom' in environmental taxes. In contrast, if environmental policies are determined cooperatively with other countries, the median voter has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares less for the environment than she does herself, so as to free ride on international environmental agreements.

  10. Environmental testing techniques for electronics and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Testing Techniques for Electronics and Materials reviews environmental testing techniques for evaluating the performance of electronic equipment, components, and materials. Environmental test planning, test methods, and instrumentation are described, along with the general environmental conditions under which equipment must operate. This book is comprised of 15 chapters and begins by explaining why environmental testing is necessary and describing the environment in which electronics must operate. The next chapter considers how an environmental test plan is designed; the methods

  11. The politics of federal environmental education policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Richard Craig

    Both environmental governance1 and education governance 2 occupy contested territory in contemporary US political discourse. Environmental education (EE) policy has emerged at this intersection and taken on aspects of both controversies. Central to debates surrounding environmental education are still unresolved issues concerning the role of the federal government in education, the role of education in citizen-making, and the role of the public in environmental governance. As a case study of the politics of environmental education policy, I explore these issues as they relate to the National Environmental Education Act of 1990,3 attempts at its reauthorization, its continued appropriations, and its current state of policy stasis. The political controversy over the federal role in environmental education is an appropriate case study of environmental education politics insofar as it reflects the different positions held by actor groups with regard to the definition, efficacy, and legitimacy of environmental education. At the core of these debates, as we will see, is a definitional crisis---that is, there is no common understanding across the relevant actor groups as to what environmental education is, or should be. I suggest here that this definitional issue can be best understood as having technical, ideological, and structural components4---all of which are mutually reinforcing and thus perpetuate the stasis in federal environmental education policy. 1I rely on Durant, Fiorino and O'leary's definition of environmental governance in Environmental Governance Reconsidered ; "In the term environmental governance, we refer to the increasingly collaborative nature of [environmental and natural resource] policy formulation and implementation. In this vein, a wide array of third parties (for example, actors in the profit sector, the nonprofit sector, and civic society), in addition to government agencies, comprise non hierarchical networks of actors wielding a variety of

  12. European environmental policy: The pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    environmental politics at the European Union level. Following Robert Putnam's theory, environmental policymaking in the EU is viewed as a reciprocal two-level game in which activities, actors and politics in domestic and EU arenas affect each other. Governments at times need to build domestic political support...

  13. Environmental Policy Integration: Towards an Analytical Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafferty, W.M.; Hovden, Eivind

    2003-01-01

    Environmental policy integration (EPI) is a key defining feature of sustainable development. Despite the fact that EPI has been the subject of much debate both in academic and policy-making circles, conceptual issues relating to EPI have received relatively little treatment. The conceptual work that

  14. Nuclear power and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershing, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power, which presently accounts for approximately 20% of global electricity generation is still beset with environmental problems. Such problems are found throughout the fuel cycle - from mining and milling to processing, to plant operation and finally to waste disposal. While projected radioactive releases for normal operation is extremely low, much of the environmental risk comes from the potential for accidents. A list of the most significant nuclear accidents that occurred between 1966 and 1999 is given. On the other hand nuclear power offers great environmental benefits particularly when compared to other energy sources: all along the fuel cycle comparatively very few wastes are produced. In a world becoming more and more aware of environmental problems, it seems that there is no definitive conclusion about nuclear energy. (A.C.)

  15. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...] Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic... draft Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs policy and a draft Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation policy. DATES: Comments must be received by June 10, 2010...

  16. Anthropology and environmental policy: What counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; William H. Durham

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we call for enhanced quantitative and environmental analysis in the work of environmental anthropologists who wish to influence policy. Using a database of 77 leading monographs published between 1967 and 2006, 147 articles by the same authors, and a separate sample of 137 articles from the journal Human Organization, we document a...

  17. Towards new roads in environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    From this report it appears that the environmental policy in the Netherlands is not sufficient to deal with the environmental problems that will occur in the (near) future. In a separate report six cases are presented and discussed which illustrate the results of this report [nl

  18. New directions in Mexican environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Stephen P.; Sanchez, Roberto A.

    1992-07-01

    Since taking office 1 December 1988, Mexico's incumbent president, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, has introduced important innovations in environmental policy that distinguish his administration from those of his predecessors. Greater administrative continuity, improved regulatory capacity achieved through statutory change, focused priorities centering on pollution abatement in Mexico City, and an aggressive search for external financing for pollution control are hallmarks of Salinas' approach. The success of these environmental reforms depends heavily on economic recovery, however, and environmental policy still suffers from underfunding, bureaucratic fragmentation, and heavy reliance on voluntarist enforcement mechanisms. Recently, U.S. congressional debate on a proposed free trade agreement with Mexico has been a factor in spurring the Salinas government to take new antipollution and conservation measures. Mexico's growing environmental movement is also an important force behind the government's new responsiveness in environmental matters. The Salinas administration recognizes the issue's political salience and has sought to defuse environmental criticism using a large arsenal of resources at its disposal. Salinas' environmental policy strategy may thus be characterized as both proactive and reactive in nature. While the reforms are evidence that Mexico is beginning to take environmental matters more seriously, economic recovery and sustained environmental activism remain vital to further progress.

  19. Coordination of environmental policy for transboundary environmental problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to reach a Pareto optimal outcome with transboundary environmental problems, there must be some kind of international agreement. One possibility would be an international agreement focusing directly on emissions in each country. Given such an agreement, an important issue is whether one should supplement the agreement with some kind of policy coordination, or if the choice of environmental policies should be left for each country to decide for itself. The present paper shows that under ``ideal`` conditions, policies need not be coordinated across countries. Such ideal conditions include, among other things, that all markets, including the labour market, are competitive. However, if one has imperfect competition in goods markets, or unemployment, it may be desirable to let an international environmental agreement not only specify emission levels, but also the policy mix between emission taxes and direct regulation. 16 refs.

  20. Environmental management: The bank's policy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In order to play a leadership role in the environmental recovery of central and eastern Europe, the Bank will pursue the following policy priorities: assistance to the countries of operations in environmental policy formulation, including the development of effective legal and regulatory instruments, the adoption of appropriate emissions and effluents standards and the creation of the institutional and human resources capacity to monitor and enforce them; promoting the use of a variety of economic instruments to address the underlying cause of environmental degradation and the adoption of market-based techniques in environmental management programmes; encouraging the development of an environmental goods and services industry in the countries of operations, of commercially viable investments in environmental technologies and pollution prevention and control, and by funding environmental infrastructure projects; initiation of, or support for, special studies and programmes to address regional and national environmental problems and to promote environmental education within the population and institutions of the countries of operations; adoption of adequate environmental assessment, management planning, audit and monitoring procedures throughout its activities; and promoting the adoption and implementation of procedures for provision of information to, and consultation with, all levels of government and the general public - especially potentially affected parties - concerning environmental matters

  1. Radiation indicator options for environmental policy

    CERN Document Server

    Pruppers, M J M

    2002-01-01

    It has proven impossible to create an indicator capable of showing the state of the art in a single figure so as to determine the progress made in the 'radiation component' of environmental policy from the trends indicated. This is the conclusion following an investigation requested by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the framework of the environmental theme 'dispersion of radioactive substances and ionising radiation' to develop a radiation indicator comparable to the indicators for proprietary substances and pesticides. The most important reasons for failing to develop this indicator lie in the absence of both suitable policy targets and data for the calculations necessary for the indicator. Substituting policy targets with reference emissions, reference concentrations and reference doses would make it possible to define indicators for radiation protection. Here, environmental pressure indicators are proposed for nuclear installations and the process industry. The environment...

  2. Policy and Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In the environmental remediation of a given site, concerned and interested parties have diverse and often conflicting interests with regard to remediation goals, the time frames involved, reuse of the site, the efforts necessary and cost allocation. An environmental remediation policy is essential for establishing the core values on which remediation is to be based. It incorporates a set of principles to ensure the safe and efficient management of remediation situations. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. An environmental remediation strategy sets out the means for satisfying the principles and requirements of the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant remediation implementer or by the government in the case of legacy sites. Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategies. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of remediation situations, countries are advised to formulate an appropriate policy and strategies. Situations involving remediation include remediation of legacy sites (sites where past activities were not stringently regulated or adequately supervised), remediation after emergencies (nuclear and radiological) and remediation after planned ongoing operation and decommissioning. The environmental policy involves the principles of justification, optimization of protection, protection of future generations and the environment, efficiency in the use of resources, and transparent interaction with stakeholders. A typical policy will also take into account the national legal framework and institutional structure and applicable international conventions while providing for the allocation of responsibilities and resources, in addition to safety and security objectives and public information and participation in the decision making process. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set

  3. Goals and Principles of Environmental Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at how contemporary environmental (including climate) policy problems are phrased in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. The latter three concepts have served as foci of theoretical discussions among economists who analyse these issues and identify criteria that determine relevant regulations and programmes adopted by governments. The paper starts with a discussion of Pigouvian taxation as model instrument used in order to solve policy problems. It analyses to what extent and under what circumstances alternative instruments - such as marketable pollution permits - can achieve environmental and climate goals while serving other purposes too. Coase theorem is used as a reference for discussing what government interventions are indeed indispensable to achieve both explicit and tacit policy goals. Popular principles and practically applied 'rules of thumb' - such as the Polluter Pays Principle - are then reviewed. The next part is devoted to examining market structures as they influence environmental outcomes of economic activities. This is followed by a discussion of Environmental Tax Reforms which seems to inspire much of the economic thinking about contemporary policies. An outlook for the 21st century concludes the paper.

  4. Environmental policy - a diaspora for market economists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, A.

    1987-03-01

    The environmental policy of the Federal Republic of Germany still leaves more than enough room for the implementation of marketing elements. With the help of evaluation processes borrowed from the market mechanism all those in search of appropriate environmental policies are able to better analyse the very priorities they have made their aim. Democratic decision making should make it a point to see to the integration of information gained on the preferences of the citizen. Market-analogous evaluation processes currently seem about to be given a better chance. The vehicles of environmental policy are obviously suffering even more from a suppressed demand for market impulses. In the Federal Republic of Germany environmental vehicles generally tend to be lead and determined by regulations. For the benefit of economy and the environment data and certificates (or compensatory regulations) could be combined much more than before with the traditional regulation-oriented policy. For the time being chances seem to be poor for completions to come in from the market. The revised Clean Air Technical Guide (TA Luft) has wasted a promising chance. (orig./HSCH).

  5. Essays in environmental policy and household economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motavasseli, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues regarding the consequences of environmental policy and its optimal level, as well as household's decisions on energy consumption and labor supply. In chapter two, a theoretical analysis investigates whether fossil fuel taxation or a consumption cap is

  6. Environmental policies in an international mixed duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets. We suppose that the firm in the home country is a welfare-maximizing public firm, while the firm in the foreign country is its own profit-maximizing private firm. We find that the environmental tax can be a strategic instrument for the home government to distribute production from the foreign private firm to the home public firm. An additional effect of the home environmental tax is the reduction of the foreign private firm's output for local consumption, thereby expanding the foreign market for the home public firm.

  7. Macro-environmental policy: Principles and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The central theme of this book is how macro-environmental policy can be developed, which does not prescribe or suggest specific technologies and products bu realizes the environmental quality desired by changing the general context. The publication is composed of four main parts. The framework for analysis and the normative principles for policy design and evaluation, the first two parts, form the analytic core. The framework for analysis gives a classification of instruments in terms of permutations of a limited number of defining elements. The normative principles guide choices in instrument design and, as the flexible response strategy, guide their application in specific policies. Detailing two main new instruments (the standard method for life cycle analysis and the substance deposit, and applying the instrument strategy as developed to the cases make up the next two parts

  8. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.

    1995-01-01

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a 'sustainable city'; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined 'recipe' is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs

  9. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Economics Dept.; Nijkamp, P. [Dept. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a `sustainable city`; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined `recipe` is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs.

  10. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental externalities and renewables: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    New York state electric utilities are required to incorporate the consideration of environmental externality costs in their bidding programs for new capacity. A natural extension of this policy would be to consider environmental externality costs in the state's implementation of federal regulations under the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). A more direct but more politically difficult approach would be the use of environmental taxes. These two approaches are discussed for more fully incorporating environmental externalities in New York's energy planning process. Under PURPA, utilities have a general obligation to purchase energy from interconnected qualifying facilities on the basis of long-run avoided cost (LRAC) estimates. The New York State Public Service Commission is currently updating the LRAC estimates, which do not account for the costs of complying with the 1990 amendments of the Clean Air Act (CAA) or for environmental externality costs associated with underlying generation sources. Environmental externality LRACs are estimated based on SO 2 , NO x , and CO 2 emissions; estimates of CAA compliance are relatively small in comparison. The use of taxes to reduce emissions by making pollution more expensive than abatement is analyzed, with reference to both general revenue and trust fund types of tax mechanisms. The ways the two mechanisms affect development of wind power resources is illustrated to provide further insight into the correct application of environmental externalities in energy planning. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Agro-environmental policies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohberg, K.; Weingarten

    1997-01-01

    Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

  13. Coordination of innovation, energy and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, Tilmann; Triebswetter, Ursula; Wackerbauer, Johann

    2013-01-01

    The present study is dedicated to an investigation of the interplay of innovation, energy and environmental policy and the policy instruments used in each of these fields. A substantial amount of coordination is required in order to bring about the envisaged transformation of Germany's energy supply system and the political goals associated with this, especially given the altered political environment and framework conditions. Failure to act on this need could lead to political goals being missed or frustrated, unnecessary costs or other undesirable side-effects such as unfavourable distribution effects. [de

  14. MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on variety of impacts that tourism poses over national economies, each country is interested in supporting its development. Moreover, everyone urges measures for increasing the number of tourists who are eager in meeting their travel and tourism preferences. Since the motive for tourism flows lies in natural or cultural background, it is necessary to find solutions for enhancing such basis. This paper supports the fact that tourism development may not be addressed if environment is neglected. For that purpose, the research is focused on environmental policy as a precondition for preserving safe and sound grounds for tourism development. In this respect, the case of Macedonia is investigated with its corpus of environmental laws being in a state of approximation with the ‘horizontal’ legislation of the European Union. So, the contribution of this paper lies in the fact that provides overview and facts at glance not only on the environmental protection legislation in Macedonia, but on the constitutional regulation as well. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis for obtaining national environmental legislation fully in line with already established international standards. Hence, one may argue that environmental policy provides basis and legal opportunities for strengthening tourism development.

  15. Monetary Policy Implications of Electronic Money

    OpenAIRE

    Berentsen, Aleksander

    1997-01-01

    The term digital money refers to various proposed electronic payment mechanisms designed for use by consumers to make retail payments. Digital money products have the potential to replace central bank currency, thereby affecting the money supply. This paper studies the effect of replacing central bank currency on the narrowly defined stock of money under various assumptions regarding regulatory policies and monetary operations of central banks and the reaction of the banking system.

  16. Environmental Policy in a Green Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga-Gonzalez, J. Luis; Padron-Fumero, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of some frequently-used environmental policies in a duopolistic market where purchasers are willing to pay more for less polluting goods. When consumers differ in their environmental awareness, a cleaner and a dirtier variant coexist in equilibrium. The higher the average willingness-to-pay for the good, the lower are variants' unit emissions but the higher are industrial aggregate effluents. A maximum unit emission standard reduces unit emissions of both variants, but boosts firms' sales and consequently increases industrial aggregate emissions. As a result, social welfare may be reduced. We also explore the effects of technological subsidies and product charges, including differentiation of charges

  17. Environmental policy implementation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamman, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines why national and international policies intended to protect limited natural resources in developing countries are not effectively implemented. It employs a comparative-policy implementation in three developing countries, Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts, and three foreign assistance agencies, the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The decision-making process within the countries and donor agencies is closed, preventing key stakeholders from participating. In two instances, the mutually reinforcing behavior of top officials in the countries and the donor agencies led to decisions that prevented natural resources from being protected. In all three cases, strategies to implement environmental policies failed to account for four major elements: national politics, behavior in the donor agency, the culture of decision making, and economic necessity. The existing-decision making process in both developing countries and donor agencies is dysfunctional

  18. 41 CFR 101-25.111 - Environmental impact policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental impact...-General Policies § 101-25.111 Environmental impact policy. (a) From time to time, Congress enacts... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321). The objective of such legislation is, among other things, the...

  19. Implications of Electronic Commerce for Fiscal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsbee, Austan

    In this chapter, I will consider both sides of the relationship between electronic commerce and fiscal policy. For the impact of electronic commerce on fiscal policy, I will pay particular attention to the potential sales-tax revenue losses. The data suggest that the potential losses are actually modest over the next several years. I will also consider the reverse relationship - how fiscal policy affects Internet commerce. Here the evidence suggests that taxes have a sizable effect. I point out, though, that this only supports special treatment if there is some positive externality. Without one, the tax system will lead to excessive online buying to avoid taxes. I will then deal the neglected issue of taxes and Internet access, which can create large deadweight costs both because demand may be price-sensitive and because taxes can slow the spread of new technologies. Finally, I offer some discussion of the international context of taxes and the Internet and the international temptations to raise rates on E-commerce.

  20. Essays on Environmental Policy in Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Judson Paul

    Producing and consuming energy involves costly environmental externalities, which are addressed through a wide range of public policy interventions. This dissertation examines three economic questions that are important to environmental regulation in energy. The first chapter measures the effect of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. The second chapter measures additionality in an appliance replacement rebate program. Finally, the third chapter focuses on the environmental impacts of subsidizing electricity production from forest-derived biomass fuels. The first chapter measures the incentive effect of limited liability. When liability is limited by bankruptcy, theory says that firms will take excessive environmental and public health risks. In the long run, this "judgment-proof problem'' may increase the share of small producers, even when there are economies of scale. I use quasi-experimental variation in liability exposure to measure the effects of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. Using firm-level data on the universe of Texas oil and gas producers, I examine the introduction of an insurance mandate that reduced firms' ability to avoid liability through bankruptcy. The policy was introduced via a quasi-randomized rollout, which allows me to cleanly identify its effects on industry structure. The insurance requirement pushed about 6% of producers out of the market immediately. The exiting firms were primarily small and were more likely to have poor environmental records. Among firms that remained in business, the bond requirement reduced oil production among the smallest 80% of firms by about 4% on average, which is consistent with increased internalization of environmental costs. Production by the largest 20% of firms, which account for the majority of total production, was unaffected. Finally, environmental outcomes, including those

  1. Towards a systematic framework for the analysis of environmental policy Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens; Driessen, Peter; Uittenbroek, Caroline

    Environmental policy integration (EPI) refers to the incorporation of environmental concerns in non-environmental policy sectors. EPI aims to avoid conflicts between environmental and other policy objectives and to enhance environmental policy by directly targeting the driving forces of

  2. Environmental Economics And Policy: Course Evaluation Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to outline the educational aspects of environmental economics referring to an example of a course taught at The University of Economics, Prague. A quantitative survey among students was conducted to describe their perceptions of the environmental topics and the diverse components of the course. This learners’ perspective is compared with students’ examination results and their level of activity in seminars. One of the main questions asked in this text is: do students interested in economic policy and regional economics consider the environmental orientation of the course important? And if yes what aspects of the course do they value, what benefits do they get from the course, what are their learning strategies and what role does this play with regards to students’ concern for environmental issues? Probably the most important finding of the research is the students’ advocacy of environmental economics as a beneficial part of curriculum both by those clustered as ‘environmentalists’ and ‘non-environmentalists’ (or even ‘anti-environmentalists’. Students appreciate having a chance to participate actively in the course. A well balanced proportion of lectures and seminars with enough space for deep discussion seem to be crucial for retaining students’ interest. The data doesn’t equip us with sufficient information to construct regression models with reasonable predictive power concerning exam results. A challenge for further research is to work with a better informed analysis of students’ learning strategies.

  3. Free emission quotas in the environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestad, Ottar

    2001-01-01

    The granting of free emission quotas to selected companies or sectors is currently hotly debated in the climate policy. This article deals with whether such quotas can be used and, if so, how they should be used in order to achieve a more cost-effective environmental policy. It asks on what basis it may be appropriate to grant free emission quotas and discusses what criteria should be used, and if there are better alternatives. It is concluded that free emission quotas are a cost-effective instrument to avoid firm closures and reductions for sufficiently purposeful criteria. Quotas are at best only second best in reducing emigration of firms or production to other countries. However, since more efficient means may be difficult to implement, free emission quotas may be useful in these cases as well

  4. Environmental Pricing: Studies in Policy Choices and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas of current practice that must be addressed. Empirical studies of policy strategies are discussed to illustrate the extent to which current climate change policy is integrated against the proposed successful policy combinations that are presented in this insightful book. Environmental pricing......Environmental taxes can be efficient tools for successful environmental policy. Their use, however, has been limited in many countries. This thoughtful book explores the scope of environmental pricing and examines a variety of national experiences in environmental policy integration, to identify...

  5. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  6. Efficient Environmental Policy with Imperfect Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, A. [Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Bergen (Norway)

    2002-09-01

    Discussions of efficient environmental policy tend to recommend taxes rather than quotas on grounds of efficiency; a uniform tax will equalize marginal abatement cost between polluters. When polluters' actions are imperfectly observable, the distinction between taxes and quotas becomes less clear. Taxes may be evaded by underreporting of emissions, while quota violations will not always be discovered. This paper explores the conditions under which the efficiency properties of taxes continue to hold even when evasion is possible, and the extent to which the fine for quota violations plays the same role as a tax on emissions with similar efficiency properties.

  7. Including environmental concerns in energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, Michel

    2014-05-01

    In this article, the author comments the different impacts on the environment and risks related to energy, provided that all energies have an impact on the environment (renewable energies are generally cleaner than fossil energies) and these impacts can be on human health, ecosystems, buildings, crops, landscapes, and climate change. He comments the efforts made in the search for a higher energetic efficiency, and proposes an overview of the various available tools implemented by environmental policies in the energy sector: regulatory instruments, economic instruments, negotiated agreements, and informational instruments. He comments the implementation of an energetic taxing aimed at developing a greater respect of the environment

  8. Environmental Education Policy Processes in the Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation of environmental education policy. Further questions .... for Environmental Management (in Ketlhoilwe, 2003) calls for an informed and environmentally ..... As priority issues such as HIV/AIDS, poverty, water resources and solid.

  9. Environmental Policy in a Green Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga-Gonzalez, J. Luis [Erasmus University and Tinbergen Institute, Burg. Oudlaan 50, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Padron-Fumero, N. [Dept. de Economia de las Instituciones y Estadistica, Universidad de La Laguna, Facultad de CC.EE, Campus de Guajara, 38071 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    This paper studies the impact of some frequently-used environmental policies in a duopolistic market where purchasers are willing to pay more for less polluting goods. When consumers differ in their environmental awareness, a cleaner and a dirtier variant coexist in equilibrium. The higher the average willingness-to-pay for the good, the lower are variants' unit emissions but the higher are industrial aggregate effluents. A maximum unit emission standard reduces unit emissions of both variants, but boosts firms' sales and consequently increases industrial aggregate emissions. As a result, social welfare may be reduced. We also explore the effects of technological subsidies and product charges, including differentiation of charges.

  10. Evaluating environmental policy instruments mixes; a methodology illustrated by noise policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Miriam; Driessen, Peter P J; Runhaar, Hens A C

    2014-01-01

    Environmental policy is characterised by complexity, in causes and effects, resulting in various combinations of policy instruments. However, evaluating these policy instrument mixes and assessing their effectiveness is difficult because of a lack of methodological approaches. This paper therefore

  11. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F

    2003-08-15

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  12. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F.

    2003-08-01

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  13. Areva - Environmental Policy 2014-2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Areva supplies advanced technology solutions for power generation with less carbon. Its expertise and unwavering insistence on safety, security, transparency and ethics are setting the standard, and its responsible development is anchored in a process of continuous improvement. Ranked first in the global nuclear power industry, Areva's unique integrated offering to utilities covers every stage of the fuel cycle, nuclear reactor design and construction, and operating services. The group is also expanding in renewable energies - wind, bio-energy, solar, energy storage - to become a European leader in this sector. With these two major offers, Areva's 46,000 employees are helping to supply ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. The 6 commitments of Areva's environmental policy are: 1. Maintain and develop a shared culture for the prevention of environmental risks; 2. Improve the design of our installations taking into account their entire life cycle; 3. Strengthen the prevention and control of accidental technological risks; 4. Prevent risks linked to ageing of installations and accidental spillage; 5. Strengthen the prevention and control of chronic health risks; 6. Manage the environmental footprint of our activities to prevent damages to biodiversity. A graphics summarises Areva's 2016 environmental footprint objectives

  14. How do environmental policies fit within larger strategic planning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores how environmental policies fit within larger strategic processes relevant to sport management and development. It identifies key policy areas such as environmental impact assessment, sustainable land use planning, environmental protection and visitor impact management. Good practice and guidelines which will enable sport managers to integrate their work with these environmental policies are explored. Detailed guidance on design and longer term management and maintenance ...

  15. Green electronics manufacturing creating environmental sensible products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, John X

    2012-01-01

    Going ""green"" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product's environmental impacts during its whole life cycle. The author discusses how to integrate the st

  16. Policy processes and decision making of environmental policy in Great Britain and France. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Research of central aspects of British environmental policy. This report concentrates on the role of the constitutional system of environmental policy, on the evaluation of a growing of 'Green Policy' in Great Britain, on the central problems of environmental policy and finally on the role of international environmental policy for Great Britain and Great Britain's role in international environmental activities. Beyond that this report contains a presentation of the state of the British environment (Pollution: Air, Water, Waste, Soil; Radioactivity and Noise). (orig.) With 205 refs., 18 tabs., 14 figs [de

  17. Potential effects of accumulating environmental policies on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentsen, P.B.M.; Tiessink, M.

    2003-01-01

    Consequences for farm management, environment, and economics of environmental policies for Dutch dairy farms were examined through modeling with two policies applied successively to typical dairy farms. Both policies aim to decrease nutrient losses in the soil. The first policy, the Mineral

  18. Mining environmental policy: comparing Indonesia and the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Hamilton [University of Southern Maine in Portland, MA (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Illustrated by a detailed comparative examination of mining regulations and environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the USA (the second largest producer of coal in the world) and Indonesia (the eighth largest and most rapidly growing), this book argues that the degree of policy integration often determines the success or failure in controlling environmental effects of mining operations. Comparison of surface mining regulation in the two countries provides some stark contrasts, some surprising results concerning the diffusion of policy innovations from one country to another, and instances of both policy success and failure. The book provides significant new insights into international relations and comparative environmental policy, particularly as they affect rainforests and biodiversity. It also suggests that if mining environmental policy were to be effectively implemented, the environmental degradation caused need not be permanent. Contents: Introduction: mining environmental policy implementation in two countries; Mining regulatory policy in Indonesia; Mining regulatory policy in the United States; Environmental assessment policy in two countries; Lost profits, royalties, and environmental quality; Developing mining environmental policy in Indonesia; Improving Indonesian regulatory program; Development of institutional capacity; Motivations for assistance; Conclusions.

  19. Policy in Conflict: The Struggle Between Environmental Policy and Homeland Security Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    environmental and energy 34 policy (Murkowski, 2010). However, a good set of literature on the broader, macro level question central to this investigation...terms of increasing efficiency of the automotive fleet (demand side), certain environmental policies have the unintended consequence of restricting the...Middle East  Broader aspects of the struggle between environmental policy and energy policy  A broad analysis of ways to diminish animus toward the

  20. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  1. An electricity and environmental policy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes work being done to simulate the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Title IV, Acidic Deposition Control, which introduced tradable, bankable SO 2 emission allowances. The Title IV simulations are compared with three other scenarios on a regional basis in order to calculate the following: the absolute cost savings of the tradable/ bankable approach, the relative cost savings of the tradable/ bankable approach derived from a baseline of no controls, the environmental improvement, measured in terms of SO 2 emission reduction, that will be achieved under Title IV compared with a more rigid command-and-control regulation with the same cost. Hence, the simulations illustrate the basic point that more efficient market-based regulation can either reduce costs or can provide enhanced environmental quality, or both. It is important for policy formation to get a handle on relative magnitudes. The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) 1990 Assessment suggested a 25% cost saving from tradable emission allowances relative to command-and-control. Both the relative savings potential and the absolute savings potential matter because a small relative savings in a large regulatory program may still be worth pursuing. Regional cost reductions and environmental improvements are of particular interest. However, this study goes further to characterize likely SO 2 emission trading patterns within and among utility operating systems. The study also characterizes the coal market and the induced sulfur premiums over time and the market price path for SO 2 emission allowances. It is shown that the sulfur premium is equivalent to the SO 2 allowance price. This paper focuses on the methodology and on the new electric utility planning and compliance model which was designed for the study

  2. Uncertainty, learning and international environmental policy coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulph, A.; Maddison, D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we construct a simple model of global warming which captures a number of key features of the global warming problem: (1) environmental damages are related to the stock of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere; (2) the global commons nature of the problem means that these are strategic interactions between the emissions policies of the governments of individual nation states; (3) there is uncertainty about the extent of the future damages that will be incurred by each country from any given level of concentration of greenhouse gases but there is the possibility that at a future date better information about the true extent of environmental damages may become available; an important aspect of the problem is the extent to which damages in different countries may be correlated. In the first part of the paper we consider a simple model with two symmetric countries and show that the value of perfect information is an increasing function of the correlation between damages in the two countries in both the cooperative and non-cooperative equilibria. However, while the value of perfect information is always non-negative in the cooperative equilibrium, in the non- cooperative equilibrium there is a critical value of the correlation coefficient below which the value of perfect information will be negative. In the second part of the paper we construct an empirical model of global warming distinguishing between OECD and non-OECD countries and show that in the non-cooperative equilibrium the value of perfect information for OECD countries is negative when the correlation coefficient between environmental damages for OECD and non-OECD countries is negative. The implications of these results for international agreements are discussed. 3 tabs., 26 refs

  3. Environmental policy and environment-saving technologies. Economic aspects of policy making under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossokina, I.

    2003-07-01

    It is generally known that natural environment is profoundly influenced by technological change. The direction and the size of this influence are, however, surrounded by uncertainties, which substantially complicate environmental policy making. This dissertation uses game-theoretical models to study policy making under uncertainty about (a) the costs of technological advances in pollution control, (b) the preferences of the policy maker and the voters, and (c) the consequences of policy measures. From a positive point of view the analysis provides explanations for environmental policies in modern democracies. From a normative point of view it gives a number of recommendations to improve environmental policies.

  4. Valuing the benefits of environmental policy: the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howarth A; Pearce DW; Ozdemiroglu E; Seccombe-Hett T; Wieringa K; Streefkerk CM; Hollander AEM de; EFTEC; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This study seeks to set priorities for environmental policy in the Netherlands. We focused on seven environmental issues including: climate change, acidification, low level ozone, particulate matter, noise, eutrophication and land contamination. These issues are prioritised using three different

  5. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, A. [Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Faculty of Economics, Ryukoku University, Otsu (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership.

  6. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership

  7. Uncertainty-accounting environmental policy and management of water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresel, Christian; Destouni, Georgia

    2007-05-15

    Environmental policies for water quality and ecosystem management do not commonly require explicit stochastic accounts of uncertainty and risk associated with the quantification and prediction of waterborne pollutant loads and abatement effects. In this study, we formulate and investigate a possible environmental policy that does require an explicit stochastic uncertainty account. We compare both the environmental and economic resource allocation performance of such an uncertainty-accounting environmental policy with that of deterministic, risk-prone and risk-averse environmental policies under a range of different hypothetical, yet still possible, scenarios. The comparison indicates that a stochastic uncertainty-accounting policy may perform better than deterministic policies over a range of different scenarios. Even in the absence of reliable site-specific data, reported literature values appear to be useful for such a stochastic account of uncertainty.

  8. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary

  9. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  10. Exploring the environmental transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob B.; Cavalca, Filippo; Damsgaard, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    of the opportunities that the environmental TEM (ETEM) offers when combined with other in situ techniques will be explored, directly in the microscope, by combining electron-based and photon-based techniques and phenomena. In addition, application of adjacent setups using sophisticated transfer methods...

  11. Environmental effects of alternative energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinghorst, D.

    1975-06-01

    The exponential increase of the energy consumption has reduced the possibility to pollute air and land so much that the detrimental external effects of economic activities must be regarded in energy modelling. That means to analyse the interdependent connections between the economic system and the environment and to picture the structure of the real system on a mathematical model. To do this, System Dynamics models were developed. Beside the relevant technical variables also sociological variables such as 'public pressure' or 'lobby pressure' were regarded. So it was possible to break open the 'ceteris paribus' assumption of the constant sociological and political influences. The environmental effect of various policies to meet the energy demand were critically examined in simulation runs. It was demonstrated that the pollution of the atmosphere will decrease in the beginning of the 80ies. This is based on the implementation of a new energy technology with a lower pollution and, on the other side, on the increasing amount of pollution control. (orig.) [de

  12. Strategic environmental assessment for policies: an instrument for good governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    World Bank; Ahmed, Kulsum; Sánchez Triana, Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    ... , The Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment “This book suggests how an institutional lens can be applied systematically to improve public policy design and implementation and sectoral governance both from supply and demand perspectives. Environmental and natural resources policies are the focus of the book, but the lessons are much broader and shou...

  13. Environmental considerations in Vietnam's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy conservation is at the centre of an environmental debate in Vietnam, whose rapidly growing economy in recent years has resulted in rising energy consumption and environmental degradation. This article reviewed the actual state of Vietnam's energy system, with consideration of the country's energy policies and their impact on the environment. Vietnam's energy resources consist of a vast network of rivers that hold potential for hydroelectric power; reserves that are proven to have oil, natural gas and coal; and, other renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. The energy sector plays a major role in the economic and social aspects of the country. Since its economic reform, coal and crude oil exports have brought in foreign money to the national revenue. Vietnam exploits four commercial types of energy, namely coal, oil, natural gas and hydroelectricity. These traditional energy sources play a major role in providing energy for the rural and mountainous regions in the country. The increase in energy demand in Vietnam is currently greater than that of its gross national product. The energy intensity in Vietnam is 1.5 times greater than that of Thailand, and twice the average world consumption. Energy demands are increasing at a regular rate due to a low rate of energy efficiency and to growth in industrialization and modernization. In addition, the government provides subsidies to the already low price of energy. It was concluded that although Vietnam has a low rate of energy consumption compared to other regions of the world, there exists a serious imbalance between energy use and economic and social growth. This imbalance could have a negative impact on fossil resources and the environment, especially if the high demand for energy is maintained. Presently, all negative impacts on the environment are related to the energy sector. An environmental assessment and strategic proposals to manage this problem locally and globally, have constituted the

  14. China's Industrial Policy in Relation to Electronics Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxiu Zhao; Xiaoling Huang; Dongya Ye; Paul Gentle

    2007-01-01

    China has become the biggest exporter of electronic products in the world. Government policy intervention has contributed significantly to the rapid expansion of the electronics industry. The present paper examines the evolutionary development of industrial policies related to the electronics industry in China and the impacts of such policies on the shaping of the industry. In particular, the relationship between foreign funded enterprises and domestic firms are examined in detail. The future trend of the industry is also discussed in the paper, and the policy focus of the Chinese Government is predicted.

  15. BNFL and environmental care. An introduction to our policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) acknowledge a duty of care for the environment and aims to reduce the effects of its activities on the environment to as low as reasonably practicable. Its environmental policy statement is presented and its approach, investment policies and activities to implement this policy are outlined. The activities include energy efficiency, recycling, surveillance and research, conservation and open information. (UK).

  16. Modeling the impacts of environmental policies on agricultural imports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, B.A.; Scatasta, S.

    2005-01-01

    For current policy debates in agricultural and food industries, policy analysts need to evaluate the impacts of how proposed changes in domestic environmental regulations may alter agricultural trade in the future. Given the industry-specific nature of many policies issues, analysts need sector and

  17. 78 FR 74129 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... for Environmental Policy and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT members represent academia...

  18. 75 FR 25240 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology... for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT is a committee of...

  19. Environmental ethics and environmental policy; Umweltethik und Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, H J

    1994-12-09

    In a difficult economic situation where the problems of many companies to adapt to changed economic conditions threaten to supersede ecological interests the Council of Experts appointed by the Federal Environment Minister submitted its 1994 environmental expertise. This scientific political counseling document would deserve little attention if it was limited to the appeal of considering pollution control as an integrated part of all political activities or if it only contained a catalog of measures for the ecological repair of technico-industrial faults and failures. The structural change of economy and the necessity of ecological modernization, however, are taken into account by representing an ecological-economic model which contributes to a long-term conceptional orientation of environmental policy and which is elaborate enough to be suited for the development of solutions to concrete problems. The main points of the expertise are discussed. (orig./UA) [Deutsch] In einer oekonomisch schwierigen Situation, in der die Anpassungsprobleme vieler Unternehmen an eine veraenderte Wirtschaftslage oekologische Belange zu verdraengen drohen, hat der vom Bundesminister fuer Umwelt bestellte Rat von Sachverstaendigen 1994 sein Umweltgutachten vorgelegt. Dieses Dokument wissenschaftlicher Politikberatung wuerde wenig Aufmerksamkeit verdienen, erschoepfte es sich in dem Appell, Umweltschutz als integrierten Bestandteil aller politischen Aktivitaeten zu betrachten, oder wuerde es nur einen Katalog von Einzelmassnahmen zur oekologischen Reparatur technisch-industrieller Schadensfaelle enthalten. Was das Gutachten interessant macht, ist die Tatsache, dass es angesichts des Strukturwandels der Wirtschaft und angesichts der Notwendigkeit einer oekologischen Modernisierung der Gesellschaft ein oekologisch-oekonomisches Leitbild vorstellt, das sowohl konzeptionell die Umweltpolitik langfristig orientieren kann als auch bereits soweit ausgearbeitet ist, dass es fuer die Bewaeltigung

  20. Implications of the Netherlands' environmental policy for offshore mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, K.; Krijt, K.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental policy in the Netherlands, as outlined in the National Environmental Policy Plan, aims for a sustainable development. In principle a two track approach is adhered to: source oriented as well as effects oriented. Effects oriented policy includes the setting of environmental quality objectives and is used to establish the final goals for the source-oriented measures. The policy aims at integrated life-cycle management; in the final target situation all waste is used again as raw material and remaining emissions to the environment should comply with the environmental objectives. In this paper the implications of this policy for the offshore mining industry are elaborated, both for drilling operations and for the production of oil, gas and condensate. The results of the recently concluded Environmental Impact Assessment for the offshore mining industry as a whole are also elaborated

  1. Systematic environmental monitoring model for decision in Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Cunha Cardoso Filho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Addresses the existing interdisciplinary between Information Science and public policies, and proposes to environmental monitoring tool as a relevant tool for improving the process of evaluating the effectiveness of these social policies and social programs, there included the legislative branch, through the collection, processing and provision of information allowing to identify the environmental changes and propose, consistently, the improvement of public policies that meet the demands of citizens.

  2. The function of remote sensing in support of environmental policy

    OpenAIRE

    de Leeuw, Jan; Georgiadou, P.Y.; Georgiadou, Yola; Kerle, Norman; de Gier, Alfred; Inoue, Yoshio; Ferwerda, Jelle; Smies, Maarten; Narantuya, Davaa

    2010-01-01

    Limited awareness of environmental remote sensing’s potential ability to support environmental policy development constrains the technology’s utilization. This paper reviews the potential of earth observation from the perspective of environmental policy. A literature review of “remote sensing and policy” revealed that while the number of publications in this field increased almost twice as rapidly as that of remote sensing literature as a whole (15.3 versus 8.8% yr−1), there is apparently lit...

  3. Socio-environmental policy of Brazilian electric sector. Effects of environmental legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, A.C.; Menezes, C.F.S.

    1993-01-01

    The great socio-environmental policies of Brazilian electric sector are presented, including the aspects of environmental legislation that affects the electric sector and the difficulties faced in order to adapting to this situation. The main problems that the electric sector has found to establishing its socio-environmental policies are also described. (C.M.)

  4. Environment 1994: Policy for sustainable, environmentally compatible development. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Economic, social and ecological development are inseparably interlaced. This is the essential message of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development 1992 in Rio. Linking of economic, social and ecological aspects is also the main approach of German environmental policy. Environmentally compatible recycling, comprehensive product liability, and just attribution of environmental consumption costs are major targets of this national strategy for the promotion of sustainable development. High standards and strict limiting values form the foundation of effective environmental protection. The further integration of environmental protection in all areas of activity and policy fields will be a central concern especially in the 90s. (orig./TF) [de

  5. Electron Beam Technology for Environmental Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Han, Bumsoo

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, there are over 1700 electron beam (EB) units in commercial use, providing an estimated added value to numerous products, amounting to 100 billion USD or more. High-current electron accelerators are used in diverse industries to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials and to reduce undesirable contaminants such as pathogens, toxic byproducts, or emissions. Over the past few decades, EB technologies have been developed aimed at ensuring the safety of gaseous and liquid effluents discharged to the environment. It has been demonstrated that EB technologies for flue gas treatment (SO x and NO x removal), wastewater purification, and sludge hygienization can be effectively deployed to mitigate environmental degradation. Recently, extensive work has been carried out on the use of EB for environmental remediation, which also includes the removal of emerging contaminants such as VOCs, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and potential EDCs.

  6. Environmental advertisement: An alternative policy to control consumption pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Sartzetakis, Eftichios Sophocles; Xepapadeas, Anastasios P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the efficiency enhancing potential of supplementing existing policies of controlling consumption pollution with environmental advertisement. Our definition of environmental advertisement includes both information dissemination and persuasion. While incentive-based regulations that are based on coercion are effective immediately, environmental advertisement that is based on inducing voluntary action requires time. We formalise this argument by assuming that the shift of con...

  7. National Environmental Policy Act guidance: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, B.M.; Lockhart, V.A.T.; Sema, B.; Tuott, L.C.; Irving, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    The ''Model National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process'' includes: References to regulations, guidance documents, and plans; training programs; procedures; and computer databases. Legislative Acts and reference documents from Congress, US Department of Energy, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company provide the bases for conducting NEPA at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) NEPA / Permitting Department, the Contractor Environmental Organization (CEO) is responsible for developing and maintaining LITCO NEPA and permitting policies, guidance, and procedures. The CEO develops procedures to conduct environmental evaluations based on NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidance. This procedure includes preparation or support of environmental checklists, categorical exclusion determinations, environmental assessment determinations, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements. In addition, the CEO uses this information to train personnel conducting environmental evaluations at the INEL. Streamlining these procedures fosters efficient use of resources, quality documents, and better decisions on proposed actions

  8. Environmental Policy, Practice and Education in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mandate while it adheres to environmental concerns if production is carried out in a ... 2000 Environmental Audit and Assessment Regulations (SEA, 2002a), the 2000 Waste ..... Development of a nature reserve within the plantation.

  9. Essential psychology for environmental policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C.A.J.

    In this article major environmental problems and their different levels and global spheres of impact are surveyed. Environmental exploitation is discussed as an inherent characteristic of free market economies under limited cognitive-motivational inclinations of individual actors. A conceptual

  10. New prospects in EU environmental policies. The Integrated Product Policy (IPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnimeo, G.; Iraldo, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Product Policy - IPP - is becoming one of the top priorities for the European Commission within the framework of the product-oriented environmental policies. Rather than a new policy, this is an innovative approach aimed at co-originated existing and forthcoming environmental policies, in order to manage in an integrated way and minimise the impacts connected with the whole product life-cycle. The underlying life-cycle guideline requires the management of each phase by considering what happens in all the other phases. What clearly emerges from a research carried out by Iefe Bocconi is, on the one hand, the effectiveness of co-operation and networking between all the actors involved in the product environmental management within the different phases of its life cycle (policy makers, producers, retailers, consumers, NGOs, etc.) and, on the other, the opportunity of developing an integrated management of both environmental policy instruments and corporate management tools [it

  11. Environmental and conservation considerations for electron curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.; Fletcher, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the more important features of electron curing pertaining to environmental protection and conservation. The high electrical conversion efficiencies of these devices measured at output power levels to 200 kilowatts are reviewed with attention to energy transport to the product. The comparative energetics of free radical initiated addition chemistry with that of the more conventional condensation polymerized systems are presented. Some details of recent studies of the repulpability and de-inkability of electron cured products are presented with mill scale trials showing successful recycling with up to 75 % EB processed material in the waste. The ability of energetic electrons to effectively replace toxic chemicals such as H 2 O 2 and ethylene oxide in product sterilization will be presented with a discussion of the regulatory aspects of this process for medical device applications. (author)

  12. Essays on environmental policies, corruption, and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Soham

    This thesis consists of four essays. The first essay looks at pollution taxation under capital mobility, and analyzes the role of pre-commitment by countries to their pollution tax rate. A polluting firm sells its product in two countries, and can locate and produce in a single country or in both countries. Due to the discrete-choice nature of the firm's location problem, the countries' welfare functions are discontinuous in their pollution tax rate. We show that when the countries cannot pre-commit to their pollution tax, the firm can still engender tax competition between them by strategically locating in both the countries. Moreover, pre-commitment pollution taxation may not be welfare improving for the countries, although it always makes the firm better off. The second essay studies the effect of liberalization on corruption. Corruptible inspectors enforce an environmental regulation on firms, and are monitored by an honest regulator. Liberalization not only increases the variety of goods and the marginal utility of accepting a bribe, but also puts pressure on the regulator to curb corruption. The interaction of these two effects can cause corruption to initially increase with liberalization, and then decrease beyond a threshold. Moreover, equilibrium corruption is lower when the regulator is able to pre-commit to her monitoring frequency. The third essay analyzes optimal labeling (information revelation) procedures for hidden attributes of credence goods. Consumers are heterogeneous in their preference for the hidden attribute, and producers can either self-label their products, or have them certified by a third party. The government can impose self or third-party labeling requirements on either the "green" or the "brown" producers. When corrupt producers can affix spurious labels, the government needs to monitor them. A mandatory self-labeling policy is shown to generally dominate mandatory third-party labeling. The fourth essay develops formulas for

  13. Environmetal report 2016. Impulses for an integrative environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The ecological challenges in the EU and Germany are so large that they can no longer simply be addressed using the remedial and even the technically-oriented, preventive environmental protection measures of the past. In relation to climate protection and many other fields, impacts on natural ecosystems must be substantially reduced in order to ensure that key ecosystem services remain functional. Yet, environmental policies continue to encounter stiff opposition, which is targeted at supposedly unnecessary regulatory burdens and restrictions. Opponents of environmental protection claim that environmental policies jeopardize the competitiveness of the German industrial and agricultural sectors by imposing unduly high costs. Or they bring up social issues, such as the current housing crisis or energy poverty, as arguments against an effective environmental policy. Such arguments call for nuanced assessments - and in some cases should be clearly rejected. Defusing such conflicts calls for approaches that promote compromise and that appeal to the general public. In the Environmental Report 2016, the German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU) sets itself the task of addressing this challenge, by focusing on six key topics. What these topics all have in common is that they exhibit tensions between environmental and economic or social policy goals. The Environmental Report aims to stimulate ideas about environmental oriented reforms and approaches to managing these issues which cut across policy fields.

  14. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide, Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report contains a comprehensive National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide for the Sandia National Laboratories. It is based on the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations in 40 CFR Parts 1500 through 1508; the US Department of Energy (DOE) N-EPA implementing procedures in 10 CFR Part 102 1; DOE Order 5440.1E; the DOE ``Secretarial Policy Statement on the National Environmental Policy Act`` of June 1994- Sandia NEPA compliance procedures-, and other CEQ and DOE guidance. The Guide includes step-by-step procedures for preparation of Environmental Checklists/Action Descriptions Memoranda (ECL/ADMs), Environmental Assessments (EAs), and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). It also includes sections on ``Dealing With NEPA Documentation Problems`` and ``Special N-EPA Compliance Issues.``

  15. Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.

  16. Evolution and current thoughts about environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    In this work is presented an overview of trends and current thinking in environmental management, broadly defined, as a context for people consideration of the environmental and ethical aspects of the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. The author sets out a general framework of the principles and strategies which have been, and are being, used by OECD Member countries to manage environmental problems and risks. (O.L.)

  17. Ecological Footprint Policy? Land Use as an Environmental Indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Grazi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: This article argues that policies aimed at sustainability need to address the spatial dimensions of environmental problems and their solutions. In particular, spatial configurations of economic activities deserve attention, which means addressing land use, infrastructure, trade, and

  18. Behavioural economics, travel behaviour and environmental-transport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Sierra, M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Miralles, C.

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector creates much environmental pressure. Many current policies aimed at reducing this pressure are not fully effective because the behavioural aspects of travellers are insufficiently recognised. Insights from behavioural economics can contribute to a better understanding of travel

  19. Beyond Bush: Environmental politics and prospects for US climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    The United States was a pioneer in domestic environmental lawmaking, and it was a leader in international environmental cooperation in the final decades of the last century. During the current decade, however, it has moved away from cooperating with other states in finding new ways to protect the global environment. While its early efforts to address climate change were no worse, and often better than, other developed countries, it has fallen far behind as a number of European states and the European Union have started to implement robust policies to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. This chapter recounts this evolution in US policy from environmental leader to environmental laggard. It summarizes the US climate change-related policies and diplomacy, recounting significant events during the presidential administrations of George HW Bush, Bill Clinton and George W Bush. It then extends this summary of events to assess the prospects for US climate policy in the near future

  20. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in Burma's Democratic ... IDRC is providing funding to Simon Fraser University to support a network of ... The project will also encourage and assist in the creation of a business ...

  1. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Policy and Environmental Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on policy and environmental supports for physical activity, diet, and breastfeeding. This data is used for DNPAO's Data, Trends, and Maps...

  2. European Agri-Environmental Policy Facing the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    This paper: reviews the development to date of agri-environmental policy in Europe; provides a critical assessment of its achievements and shortcomings; explores its likely future trajectory in the context of continuing CAP reform; highlights potential conflicts that may result; and draws comparisons with policy approaches in Australia and the US. The paper argues that the first generation of agri-environmental measures, implemented by northern European states in the early 1980s, focused on p...

  3. Environmental Policy and Capital Movements: The Role of Government Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiliani, Laura; Renström, Thomas I

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between environmental protection and international capital movements, when tax policy is endogenous (through voting). A two-period general equilibrium model of a small open economy is specified to compare the effects of two different constitutions (commitment or no commitment in tax policy), as well as income inequality. Under the commitment regime, the equilibrium is characterised by a lower labour tax, higher environmental tax and less capital moving abr...

  4. Copyright Policy and Practice in Electronic Reserves among ARL Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David R.; Cross, William M.; Edwards, Phillip M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of 110 ARL institutions regarding their copyright policies for providing electronic reserves. It compiles descriptive statistics on library practice as well as coding responses to reveal trends and shared practices. Finally, it presents conclusions about policy making, decision making and risk aversion…

  5. ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The journal of environmental technology is devoted to the publication of papers which advance knowledge of practical and theoretical issues of the environmental technology. Selection of papers for publication is based on their relevance, clarity, topicality and individuality; the extent to which they advance ...

  6. Hydropedology as a powerful tool for environmental policy research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.

    2006-01-01

    Rather than produce clear-cut answers to well-defined problems, research on future environmental policy issues requires a different approach whereby researchers are partners in joint learning processes among stakeholders, policy makers, NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations) and industry. This

  7. Post-material values and environmental policy change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, N. (International Inst. for Environmental and Society, Berlin, Germany); Wandesforde-Smith, G.

    Environmental policy may be particularly suited as a vehicle to articulate post-material values in advanced industrial societies, and recognition of this is likely to prove enormously helpful in future comparative and cross-national research into the origins of environmentalism and the causes of environmental policy change. The paper notes the salient characteristics of post-materialism and the overlap of these with the leading indicators of environmentalism. Possible structural causes for this overlap are noted and opposed to the prevailing socialization explanation for the adoption of post-material and environmental values. To help understand the impact of environmentalism on policy, an idealized development of the movement is sketched. This leads to the description of a set of general factors likely to be related to the way environmentalism finds political expressions in various countries. In the final section, the focus is on what we might want to know about the policy process in order to be able to gauge environmentalist influence on policy outputs. 20 references.

  8. Global consequences of US environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedjo, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Attempts to quantify the financial and social benefits and costs, and their critiques, of habitat protection, have missed a major element: the global environmental consequences. In a global economy linked by international trade a significant reduction in timber harvests in on region will probably precipitate actions in other regions that may be detrimental to the global environment. These reactions would offset most or all of the alleged environmental benefits. The author uses the spotted owl controversy in the Pacific Northwest to illustrate his points. Global aspects of employment, marketing evaluations, fossil fuel implications are all discussed. The author feels that responses from environmentally responsible citizens would be influenced if it was more widely known that in a global system, domestic habitat protection and land-use decisions involved substantial environmental costs elsewhere

  9. The policy relevance of global environmental change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnal, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives

  10. Electronic U.S. Government Information: Policy Issues and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of U.S. federal information policy and its treatment of electronic information resources. Highlights include government publications; electronic government information; main providers of government information, including the Government Printing Office; the Freedom of Information Act; public access and use; information…

  11. Federal Government Electronic Bulletin Boards: An Assessment with Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes federal government electronic bulletin boards; assesses the types of information available to users, including costs and technological access issues; discusses federal information policy; and considers the role of federal bulletin boards in accessing and managing electronic government information. (Contains 29 references.)…

  12. The impact of the member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of the fourth enlargement (with Sweden, Austria and Finland) on the European Union's environmental policy. This is done by comparing the priorities and strategies of the newcomers with those of the former environmental pioneers (Germany, Netherlands and Denmark)....

  13. Globalisation and National Environmental Policy: Update and Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. Wijen (Frank); K. Zoeteman; J. Pieters (Jan); P. Seters (Paul)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSUMMARY After outlining recent developments and the scope, target audience, and structure of the book, we review the literature on globalisation and environmental policy, especially the impact of globalisation on the environment and changes in environmental governance in relation to

  14. EU environmental state aid policy: wide implications, narrow participation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline

    2008-11-15

    This article investigates the 2008 reform of the EU's environmental state aid guidelines, with an eye to determining the degree of external pressure and lobbyism towards environmental state aid policies. What is found is a strikingly low level of external pressure on the policy-field, not least on the part of the private sector. In fact, EU environmental state aid policy is largely the making of a few Commission officials, without much external 'interference'. The article discusses possible reasons for this, and asks whether state aid policy-making might be marked less by clear and established interests and utility maximising, and more by actors constrained by complexity and bounded rationality. (author). refs.,tab

  15. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scandrett, Eurig

    2007-01-01

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development

  16. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandrett, Eurig [Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development.

  17. The road to Environmental Policy Integration is paved with obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrhauge, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Transport is one of the most polluting sectors and needs to adopt environmental protection, yet the constant struggle between the environment and the economy is often won by economic priorities. This struggle makes environmental policy integration difficult, especially in the legislative process....... The article analyses the co-decision process which led to the adoption of the 2011 Eurovignette Directive, and examines how intra-organizational conflicts in the European Parliament and the Council shaped inter-organizational negotiations and thus the level of environmental policy integration in the adopted...

  18. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  19. Environmental policies in a differentiated oligopoly revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Kenji [School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin Univ., Uegahara 1-1-155, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 662-8501 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Constructing a model of polluting oligopoly with product differentiation, we consider how product differentiation, together with the presence and absence of free entry, affects optimal pollution tax/subsidy policies. The sign of the short- and long-run optimal pollution taxes are highly sensitive to the parameter measuring product differentiation as well as the presence of free entry. How they are affected by a change in product differentiation, which is not addressed in the existing literature, is also made clear. (author)

  20. How much do we value the environment? The acceptation of environmental policy and environmental measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, S.; Verhue, D.; Adriaansen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Several surveys were conducted to investigate the public opinion in the Netherlands on the environment. The subjects investigated were: climatic change, air pollution, biodiversity, noise and soil pollution, and nature in the Netherlands. Special attention was paid to the willingness of the Dutch to accept specific environmental measures and a marketing strategy for new environmental policy. The purpose of the surveys is to broaden the support of the Dutch people for the environmental policy [nl

  1. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Designing Research in Environmental Education Curriculum Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing dissatisfaction at many levels with existing environmental education curricula in southern Africa. The resulting change and innovation is opening up possibilities for innovative research into the construction, conceptualisation and implementation of the curriculum. However, researching the curriculum ...

  3. Financing environmental policy in East Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van der Weij, E.

    1998-01-01

    The transition in East Central Europe created a general optimism which was reflected in a belief that a solution to the environmental problems faced by these countries would be found. There were great expectations regarding the blessings of the market economy, which would diminish state-guided waste

  4. Optimal Environmental Policy Differentials under Emissions Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florax, R.J.G.M.; Mulatu, A.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Is there a case for preferential treatment of the exposed sector in an economy when compliance to an aggregate emissions constraint induced by an international environmental agreement is mandatory? This question is being debated in many countries in the context of the implementation of the Kyoto

  5. Environmental Education: From Policy to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Laura; Duque-Aristizabal, Ana M.; Rebolledo, Geisha

    2003-01-01

    Details a seminar held at King's College in London in March, 2001. Presents a reading and reflection upon two major aspects of the discussion, the meanings of environmental education and education for sustainable development in different cultures and contexts. (Contains 20 references.) (Author/NB)

  6. Which environmental problems get policy attention? Examining energy and agricultural sector policies in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Nilsson, Mans; Finnveden, Goeran

    2008-01-01

    Not all environmental problems get the same level of policy attention. An interesting question is thus why certain aspects receive attention and others do not. This paper studies the level of policy attention given to different environmental aspects in agriculture and energy policy in Sweden and explores empirically some factors that can explain the level of attention. The first step was to explore the link between environmental issue characteristics and the level of policy attention. The level of policy attention was measured through a content analysis of Swedish government bills. The results from the content analysis are clear and stable over the studied time period. In the agriculture sector biodiversity and toxicity are in focus whereas in the energy sector climate change and resources are given the attention. Besides these aspects, the attention is limited. These results were compared with the results from sector-wide environmental assessments of the same sectors. These assessments were based on hybrid input-output analysis and life cycle assessment methodologies. A main finding from the study is that issue importance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for policy attention. Other explanations are needed to understand which environmental issues get attention in sectoral policy. Our assessment showed that while the level of knowledge does not provide an explanation, the presence of strong and well-organised stakeholders within the sector, with an interest in having a certain issue on the agenda, might be decisive for issue attention. Path dependency and limited attention capacity are other important factors

  7. Environmental applications of electron-beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    The main directions of modern environmental applications of electron-beam technology are the following: 1) treatment of polluted natural and drinking water, municipal and industrial wastewater, other liquid wastes; 2) purification of gases; 3) treatment of sewage sludges; 4) treatment of solid wastes (medical wastes, contaminated soil and so on). In some cases, the results of respective researches and developments found a large-scale application. For example, recently several industrial plants for electron-beam purification of flue gases of thermal power plants from SO2 and NOx were created in China, Poland and Japan. In the report, a brief summary of the most important results obtained in the mentioned directions will be presented. A special attention will be paid to the data in the first direction. In particular, the recent results on radiation treatment of some liquid systems obtained in the laboratory under author's leadership will be considered. One of them is water polluted with petroleum products (motor oil, diesel fuel, residual fuel oil). The pollutants were present in water in dissolved form and as a separate phase. It was found that irradiation (dose 25-40 kGy) decomposes and removes the pollutants as a precipitate. The second system is natural oil gas consisting of gaseous and low-boiling hydrocarbons, water and so on. Laboratory- and pilot-scale (with electron accelerator of 0.7 MeV and 30 kW) studies have shown that electron-beam treatment (in a recycling regime with continuous sampling the liquid phase) of this gas leads to the formation of a mixture of liquid branched hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers and so on, i.e., there is a radiation-induced liquefaction of the natural oil gas. The mechanism of radiolytic conversions occurring in the mentioned systems will be discussed

  8. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...

  9. The environmental policy of the EC. An analysis exemplified by air pollution abatement policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspari, S.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early seventies the European Community has reacted to increasing ecological damage with complex and comprehensive common environmental policies. In this study, the author analyzes and evaluates the theoretical conception and the instrumental application of the EC Environmental Policy using four criteria: (1) Ecological effectiveness, (2) economic efficiency, (3) conformity with a market order - viewpoint of 'Ordnungspolitik', (4) 'sustainability'. The study shows that there is a large discrepancy between the demands and the reality of the EC Environmental Policy. In addition to grave ecological deficiencies it reveals an increse in rent-seeking activities and an interventionist trend which have resulted in the erosion of the competitive incentive system of the market order in the Community. In view of various deficits the author perceives a basic 'regulation paradox' and a 'policy failure'. Based on a diagnosis of the causes of these deficiencies, he outlines some proposals for a reform of the EC Environmental Policy, indicating that a central prerequisite for a more effective and efficient environmental protection is a reorientation in the system ('Ordnungspolitik') which determines the common Environmental Policy. In addition, he maintains that in view of the clear asymmetry in the representation of interests in favour of particularist interests it is necessary to strengthen public interest in order to enable a more effective protection of the options future generations will have regarding their lives and their behaviour. (orig.) [de

  10. The French electricity policy facing European integration and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begue, M.C.

    2004-02-01

    The french electricity policy is traditionally defined by public authorities. The preference for nuclear power implies great risk and severe damage to the environment. These features of french electricity policy are however questioned by the increasing influence of european law and the (relatively) recent recognition of the environmental issues of such policy. This thesis intends to study the consequences of two 'new' tendencies that seem to be inevitable in the field of electricity policy: the decreasing role of national public authorities and the diffusion of the concept of sustainable development. The theoretical model which underlies the organization of commercial exchanges is replacing the traditional intervention of the State. regarding of this basic good. The adoption of legal rules to organize the electricity market has involved the development of many economic instruments. Those instruments aim at modifying the electricity policy in accordance with the principle of integration of environmental dimension in sectoral policies. The main object of our work is to analyse the consequences of these changes in the concept of public utility as well as in the importance given to environmental protection in the new forms of electricity policies. (author)

  11. Evaluating efficacy of an environmental policy to prevent biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah A; Deneau, Matthew G; Jean, Laurent; Wiley, Chris J; Leung, Brian; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2011-04-01

    Enactment of any environmental policy should be followed by an evaluation of its efficacy to ensure optimal utilization of limited resources, yet measuring the success of these policies can be a challenging task owing to a dearth of data and confounding factors. We examine the efficacy of ballast water policies enacted to prevent biological invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We utilize four criteria to assess the efficacy of this environmental regulation: (1) Is the prescribed management action demonstrably effective? (2) Is the management action effective under operational conditions? (3) Can compliance be achieved on a broad scale? (4) Are desired changes observed in the environment? The four lines of evidence resulting from this analysis indicate that the Great Lakes ballast water management program provides robust, but not complete, protection against ship-mediated biological invasions. Our analysis also indicates that corresponding inspection and enforcement efforts should be undertaken to ensure that environmental policies translate into increased environmental protection. Similar programs could be implemented immediately around the world to protect the biodiversity of the many freshwater ecosystems which receive ballast water discharges by international vessels. This general framework can be extended to evaluate efficacy of other environmental policies.

  12. Towards a more efficient environmental policy. A socio-economic analysis of four persistent environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    For the benefit of the National Environmental Policy Plan that will be published in 2001, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis analysed four persistent environmental problems. These problems are the environmental effects of the manure surplus in the agricultural sector; the climate problem; the acidification by traffic and the air traffic noise around the airport Schiphol. This study not only looks ahead, but also looks back on 30 years of environmental policy. From a welfare economic perspective an analysis is made of the efficiency and effectiveness of that policy. Several questions are answered,e.g.: how could the manure problem of such a small sector as the livestock breeding persist for so many years?; how effective were the agreements with the industry and other sectors on energy efficiency improvement?; what made the acidification policy directed on traffic so successful?; why is the noise production of air traffic still a problem whereas the number of seriously bothered houses is decreased? The answers on these questions provide information which can be useful for the formulation of the future environmental policy. This information refers to the conditions for formulating adequate policy goals, the relation between those goals and policy instruments and the differences between direct versus indirect steering. This report also gives some points of interest for tackling complex international environmental problems. refs

  13. Environmental and social risks: defensive National Environmental Policy Act in the US Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Mortimer; Marc J. Stern; Robert W. Malmsheimer; Dale J. Blahna; Lee K. Cerveny; David N. Seesholtz

    2011-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and its accompanying regulations provide a spectrum of alternative analytical pathways for federal agencies proposing major actions that might significantly impact the human environment. Although guidance from the President's council on Environmental Quality suggests the decision to develop an environmental impact...

  14. Environmental federalism and US climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, L.M. [Bracewell and Patterson, LLP (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Environmental disputes involving states over the proper state and federal roles have grown in number and magnitude over the last several years, with many disputes engaging dozens of states. States with competing views are fully engaged in the ongoing debate over climate change, a textbook case for testing the contours of environmental federalism. The issue has all the necessary components: transboundary environmental impacts; competing state economic and environmental interests; state self-interest; disagreement on first principles including what is the proper role of the states; and a somewhat ill-defined federal role. With those qualities, one would expect the federal government to step in and regulate. Instead, the federal government has declined to regulate, inviting a national discourse on whether and how to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As of Spring 2004, twenty-eight states have launched or are planning initiatives, some of which will directly regulate sources of GHG emissions. As these programs take root, pressure will build for a greater federal role. This paper will advance the position that even with this building momentum, the federal government is not likely to emulate state programs that mandate CO{sub 2} emission reductions. In the face of high national cost, uncertain environmental benefits, and a history of federal non-regulatory action, federal regulation at this time appears to be a remote possibility. State efforts to address global climate change add value to the debate, but they do not create the cocoon of consensus the federal government seeks before launching mandatory programs of this magnitude. The more likely scenario is that the federal government will continue on its present course, funding research and development, investing in energy efficient technologies, and supporting voluntary measures. Under this scenario, states and the private sector would continue to function as the 'laboratories' to develop new ideas to

  15. Environmental federalism and US climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental disputes involving states over the proper state and federal roles have grown in number and magnitude over the last several years, with many disputes engaging dozens of states. States with competing views are fully engaged in the ongoing debate over climate change, a textbook case for testing the contours of environmental federalism. The issue has all the necessary components: transboundary environmental impacts; competing state economic and environmental interests; state self-interest; disagreement on first principles including what is the proper role of the states; and a somewhat ill-defined federal role. With those qualities, one would expect the federal government to step in and regulate. Instead, the federal government has declined to regulate, inviting a national discourse on whether and how to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As of Spring 2004, twenty-eight states have launched or are planning initiatives, some of which will directly regulate sources of GHG emissions. As these programs take root, pressure will build for a greater federal role. This paper will advance the position that even with this building momentum, the federal government is not likely to emulate state programs that mandate CO 2 emission reductions. In the face of high national cost, uncertain environmental benefits, and a history of federal non-regulatory action, federal regulation at this time appears to be a remote possibility. State efforts to address global climate change add value to the debate, but they do not create the cocoon of consensus the federal government seeks before launching mandatory programs of this magnitude. The more likely scenario is that the federal government will continue on its present course, funding research and development, investing in energy efficient technologies, and supporting voluntary measures. Under this scenario, states and the private sector would continue to function as the 'laboratories' to develop new ideas to improve energy

  16. A tax policy to liberate environmental engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Examples are provided of the great gulf between what the design professions are capable of doing and what they are actually doing. Principles of resolutionary design are applied to the problem. The result: changes in tax policy with substantial economic gain in the best interest of all the people. It is recommended that taxation of what one wants to conserve--energy resource use--be substituted over the long term for taxation of what one does not want to minimize--income. It is time for lenders, in the case of dwelling construction, to accept appraisals based on present worth, in turn based on competent life-cycle costing and certified by engineering economic analysis. It is time for the professional societies and the publicly regulated utilities to join forces with the lenders and the appraisers in a matter which is in the best interest of all the people

  17. The industrial policy experience of the electronics industry in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rasiah, Rajah

    2015-01-01

    Despite the use of industrial policies to stimulate economic growth by several successful developers, latecomers have faced mixed experiences. Hence, this paper analyses the industrial policy experience of the electronics industry in Malaysia. A blend of institutions have guided technological upgrading in the industry, especially in the state of Penang. Smooth co-ordination between the state government, multinational corporations, national firms, and the federal government helped stimulate te...

  18. Environmental policy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonis, U.E.

    1991-12-31

    After a short description of the basic aims of environmental policy the general development of environmental policy in the FRG is gone into. Here above all the sectors air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and waste materials are dealt with. Finally the most important elements of the decision-making processes are explained and a short history of environmental policy in the FRG is given. (UA). [Deutsch] Nach einer kurzen Erlaeuterung der Grundziele der Umweltpolitik wird in kurzer Form auf die allgemeine Entwicklung der Umweltpolitik in der BRD eingegangen. Dabei werden insbesondere die Bereiche Luftverschmutzung, Wasserverschmutzung, Laermbelaestigung und Abfallmaterialien behandelt. Abschliessend werden die wichtigsten Grundzuege des Entscheidungs-Findungs-Prozesses erlaeutert, und es wird die historische Entwicklung der Umweltpolitik in der BRD skizziert. (UA).

  19. Transboundary effects of environmental policy. Markets and emission leakages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Faehn, Taran [Research Department, Statistics Norway, Pb. 8131 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2006-10-15

    One of many explanations for Environmental Kuznets Curves for rich countries can be that dirty production is relocated to economies with laxer abatement regimes. If this is caused by national abatement policies, environmental stresses are transferred to other countries. Further, the economic costs of national abatement policies can be shared with foreigners to some extent, both through a lower demand for imports and losses of market shares for foreign competitors that produce cleaner products. We quantify effects internally and abroad of a growth-induced unilateral carbon tax policy in a rich open economy. We find that the environmental benefits fall, and the economic costs rise, when a global rather than a national perspective is employed. (author)

  20. Environmental Policy of Serbia and Challenges of Accession to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Nadić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the environmental policy of the Republic of Serbia within the context of accession conditions to the European Union. The main challenges of environmental integration of the environmental policies of Serbia are: economic challenges, the sustainable development challenge, administrative challenges, democratic deficiency challenges, and political challenges. These challenges, while flaws of the environmental policy in Serbia, are no different than the challenges faced by other Central Eastern European countries during the accession process. However, the influence of the global economic crisis, the constant political crisis and unclear definition of the political scene in Serbia, an incomplete vision of environmental education, as well as too much "green" marketing activities and a lack of true law implementation, are additional factors that make the process of environmental accession of Serbia to the EU even more difficult. Therefore, the harmonization of the Serbian environmental legal frame with the European one must be followed by the harmonization of actions of political institutions, social groups and individual citizens, and the overall democratization of society.

  1. Assessment of environmental impacts following alternative agricultural policy scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárlund, I; Lehtonen, H; Tattari, S

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Finnish agriculture is likely to undergo major changes in the near and intermediate future. The ifuture policy context can be examined at a general level by strategic scenario building. Computer-based modelling in combination with agricultural policy scenarios can in turn create a basis for the assessments of changes in environmental quality following possible changes in Finnish agriculture. The analysis of economic consequences is based on the DREMFIA model, which is applied to study effects of various agricultural policies on land use, animal production, and farmers' income. The model is suitable for an impact analysis covering an extended time span--here up to the year 2015. The changes in land use, obtained with the DREMFIA model assuming rational economic behaviour, form the basis when evaluating environmental impacts of different agricultural policies. The environmental impact assessment is performed using the field scale nutrient transport model ICECREAM. The modelled variables are nitrogen and phosphorus losses in surface runoff and percolation. In this paper the modelling strategy will be presented and highlighted using two case study catchments with varying environmental conditions and land use as an example. In addition, the paper identifies issues arising when connecting policy scenarios with impact modelling.

  2. When Environmental Policy is Superfluous: Growth and Polluting Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schou, Poul

    2002-01-01

    In a research-driven endogenous growth model, a non-renewable resource gives rise to pollution. Consumption may either grow or decline along the optimal balanced growth path, hut the (flow) pollution level necessarily diminishes continuously. Any positive balanced growth path is sustainable. Utility may improve, even though consumption declines. Although positive growth is optimal, the market economy may nevertheless result in permanently declining consumption possibilities. At the same time, a growth-enhancing government policy may improve long-run environmental conditions. The pollution externality does not distort the decisions of the market economy, so that a specific environmental policy is superfluous

  3. Are clean technology and environmental quality conflicting policy goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Brechet, Thierry; Meunier, Guy; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique UR 1303 Alimentation et Sciences Sociales

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of an environmental policy on the diffusion of a clean technology in an economy where firms compete on the output market. We show that the share of adopting firms is non-monotonic with the stringency of the environmental policy, and that the adoption of the clean technology may well increase the pollution level. We also compare the effects of an emission tax and tradable pollution permits on welfare, technology adoption, and pollution level. We show that, ...

  4. Are Clean Technology and Environmental Quality Conflicting Policy Goals?

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Brechet; Guy Meunier

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of an environmental policy on the diffusion of a clean technology in an economy where firms compete on the output market. We show that the share of adopting firms is non-monotonic with the stringency of the environmental policy, and that the adoption of the clean technology may well increase the pollution level. We also compare the effects of an emission tax and tradable pollution permits on welfare, technology adoption, and pollution level. We show that, ...

  5. The impact of new member states on EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1996-01-01

    The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992.......The fourth enlargement of the EU, with Sweden, Finland and Austria, which took effect on 1 January 1995, is by many expected to have a positive impact on the environmental policy dimension of the Union, which has been under strain since the Rio Summit in 1992....

  6. The Political Economy of Carbon Securities and Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polborn, Sarah

    The costs of the current suboptimal carbon abatement policy are likely in the range of 3 to 6 trillion 2005 US dollars. Using methods from the political economy of environmental policy, the paper develops a new carbon abatement policy instrument, carbon securities. A carbon security entitles its...... owner to a ?xed proportion of ex ante unknown total emissions. This creates an additional group of stakeholders on the side of the issue that has traditionally been underrepresented. The advantages over existing systems include an equilibrium carbon price closer to the social optimum, a more predictable...

  7. Environmental policy without costs? A review of the Porter hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy. e-mail: runar.brannlund@econ.umu.se

    2009-03-15

    This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature connected to the so called Porter Hypothesis. That is, to review the literature connected to the discussion about the relation between environmental policy and competitiveness. According to the conventional wisdom environmental policy, aiming for improving the environment through for example emission reductions, do imply costs since scarce resources must be diverted from somewhere else. However, this conventional wisdom has been challenged and questioned recently through what has been denoted the 'Porter hypothesis'. Those in the forefront of the Porter hypothesis challenge the conventional wisdom basically on the ground that resources are used inefficiently in the absence of the right kind of environmental regulations, and that the conventional neo-classical view is too static to take inefficiencies into account. The conclusions that can be made from this review is (1) that the theoretical literature can identify the circumstances and mechanisms that must exist for a Porter effect to occur, (2) that these circumstances are rather non-general, hence rejecting the Porter hypothesis in general, (3) that the empirical literature give no general support for the Porter hypothesis. Furthermore, a closer look at the 'Swedish case' reveals no support for the Porter hypothesis in spite of the fact that Swedish environmental policy the last 15-20 years seems to be in line the prerequisites stated by the Porter hypothesis concerning environmental policy

  8. Strategic environmental policy when the governments are threatened by relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaker, Mads

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the threat of relocation influences environmental policy. The stringency of environmental policy is determined in a game between two governments. There is one firm in each jurisdiction, and both firms threaten to relocate their production to the other jurisdiction. Because there is asymmetric information about the cost of relocation, the governments do not know the credibility of the threat. We compare the outcome of this game with the outcome of a game in which relocation is not possible. We find that the threat of relocation can increase both the level of environmental regulation and welfare. The profit tax level proves to be the most decisive for the result; that is, the higher the profit tax level, the lower the level of environmental regulation

  9. Environmental assessment: Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to fulfill its obligations pursuant to Sect. 102 of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (Public Law 91-190). The proposed federal action addressed in this document is DOE's funding of a Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Newport News, Virginia. DOE intends to contract with the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA) for operation of CEBAF, a continuous wave (CW) linear accelerator system (linac) capable of providing high-duty-factor beams throughout the energy range from 0.5 to 4.0 GeV. CEBAF will be the first of its kind worldwide and will offer a multi-GeV energy, high-intensity, high-duty-factor electron beam for use by the US nuclear physics community in research on the states of nuclear matter and the short-distance behavior of nuclei. The CEBAF project is largely in the conceptual design stage, with some components in the preliminary design stage. Construction is anticipated to begin in 1987 and be completed by 1992

  10. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwha Lee; Seongbong Lee

    1998-01-01

    "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The r...

  11. Better spent. Towards an 'Evidence-based' environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the 'Groene Rekenkamer' (Green Audit Office) is to examine and review the scientific value of white papers, bills and other proposals on different environmental subjects. Also attention will be paid to the suitability, effectiveness and efficiency of laws and regulations with respect to public health and environmental targets and to analyze and clarify possible risks of the implementation of policy (cost benefit analysis) [nl

  12. Implementing the Provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This handbook provides guidance and assistance to NASA officials in carrying out their responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act and the applicable NASA procedures (14 CFR 1216.3, Attachment A to NMI 8800.7). The handbook, as was contemplated by the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, stresses the need for environmental analysis from the time of early planning through environmental assessment and environmental impact statement preparation to implementation of the subject action, and provides for necessary follow up. It stresses the need for NASA officials to draw upon all the appropriate disciplines from the natural and social sciences plus the environmental design arts in planning and decision making on actions which may have an impact on the human environment. The handbook is applicable to NASA Headquarters and field installations.

  13. 76 FR 1431 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  14. 75 FR 52941 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  15. 76 FR 24481 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  16. 76 FR 68183 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management issues. NACEPT...

  17. 75 FR 38810 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  18. 76 FR 37112 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  19. Environmental policy and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weenink, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Emissions, resulting from human activity, are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. This is causing an additional average warming of the Earth's surface. This article presents an overview of recent developments in the international discussion on climate change, taking into account the work of other organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The long term and global character of the climate change problem requires an international long term strategy based on internationally agreed principles such as sustainable development and the precautionary principle. Research is needed to further develop risk assessment and environmental quality standards, from which emission targets can be derived. As a first step, governments of many industrialized countries have already set provisional national CO 2 emission targets, aimed at stabilization at present levels by the year 2000 and in some cases, reductions thereafter. Under the auspices of United Nations, negotiations have begun on an international framework climate convention and associated agreements, on, for example, greenhouse gas emissions, forestry and funding mechanisms. Obligations imposed on individual nations may be expected to reflect their responsibility for greenhouse warming; this paper presents some views on the equity of burden sharing. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Environmental aspects of the energy policy in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, W.

    1982-01-01

    This study pursues two aims: description and analysis of the environmental policy of the GDR, its ideologic foundations and economic constraints, its legal and administrative measures for the safeguarding of environmental protection, but also of the reasons for neglecting this task. Framework conditions are outlined and used in or for analysing the environmental problems caused mainly by the GDR's environmental policy, and the approaches and efforts made to find solutions. Both parts are based on statements and comments of politicians and theoreticians, on the actual policy of the GDR and on descriptions of the situation and contributions of scientists and technicians. The discussion of nuclear energy, risk evaluation and acceptance of this kind of energy supply in the GDR are a further major feature of the book. Analysis showed that environmental protection is viewed merely as a marginal problem by political and economical forces of the GDR, even though environmental protection is considered an important task on a global level and the GDR-leadership verbally agrees with this view. Discrepancies between verbal acknowledgement and striving for solution becomes outstandingly clear in this analysis. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Public Access to Government Electronic Information. Policy Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This policy framework provides guidelines for federal agencies on public access to government electronic information. Highlights include reasons for disseminating information; defining user groups; which technology to use; pricing flexibility; security and privacy issues; and the private sector and state and local government roles. (LRW)

  2. The Treaty of Lisbon and European Environmental Law and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, H.H.B.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution analyses the effects of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon for European environmental law and policy. The central conclusion is that, apart from the new numbering and some new names for procedures and institutions, this does not entail any major changes. The new Energy

  3. Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2003-01-01

    Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. Public ecology is an approach to environmental inquiry and decision making that does not expect scientific knowledge to be perfect or complete. Rather, public ecology requires that science be produced in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of knowledge that will...

  4. 77 FR 43137 - Aviation Environmental and Energy Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ..., energy security and economic stability for aviation. The aviation industry has made a commitment to... developing aviation in a manner that enhances and promotes the Nation's economic, environmental, and social... effectiveness of various policies, including economic incentives to limit and reduce CO 2 emissions. The U.S. is...

  5. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of Pretoria, endeavors to increase capacity for research and policy analysis in environmental and resource economics in Africa through a program of research grants and related support services, including short courses, workshops and supervision of research projects. The first phase was supported under project 104296.

  6. Direct payments as an instrument of the environmental policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sadłowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the area of human activity that is accompanied by the formation of positive and negative external environmental effects. In order to motivate farmers to conduct production activities in a way that reduces the negative impact of these activities on the environment, the so-called principle of cross compliance has been incorporated into the direct support system. This study characterises the area payments as an instrument of the environmental policy and is a review of the European Commission’s different proposals for the reform of direct payments through the prism of environmental functions of this instrument.

  7. THE ROMANIAN ASPECT OF THE E.U. GOVERNANCE CASE STUDIES: EDUCATUION POLICY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-ANDREEA ION

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper belongs to the domestic studies which try to connect the Romanian research to the current debates within the EU studies. The authors' aim is to analyze the aspects and the implications of the EU governance at the Member States' domestic policies level, as most of these policies are currently facing the challenges brought by the Europeanization process. Therefore, the theoretical framework selected is the theory of governance, focusing on the explanatory and analytical opportunities of two components – multi-level governance and governance networks; in this way, it is underlined the separation from the classic model of relation between the (multiplied levels of political authority (supranational, national, subnational and the exponential increase in the number and types of actors participating at the decisional process and implementation of European public policy. Within the selected case studies (environmental policy and education policy, the authors advance a research structure with the aims (a to identify the relevant actors involved in the policy-making process of these policies, at all stages of its cycle; (b to offer an explanation of the types of interactions between these actors, and (c to identify the influence these interactions exert on the communitarization pronounced tendency of some EU policy sectors. The analysis is performed in terms of the Treaty of Lisbon (the selected policies being part of distinct categories of the Union competences and it is oriented towards the national level of the making process of these policies.

  8. Brazilian Biodiesel Policy: Social and environmental considerations of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Catherine Aliana Gucciardi; Vianna, Joao Nildo de Souza

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze the Brazilian Biodiesel Policy (PNPB) and to identify the social and environmental aspects of sustainability that are present or absent within it. Biofuels, namely alcohol and biodiesel, have been increasing in popularity on a global scale due to their potential as alternative and renewable energy sources. Brazil, a vast country blessed with abundant natural resources and agricultural land, has emerged as a global leader in the production of biofuels. This article includes a brief analysis of the concept of sustainable development, which served as a basis to evaluate the Policy documents. Although PNPB's implementation, which began in 2004, is still within its initial stage, it was possible to identify and elaborate on the environmental and social aspects of the Policy, namely: the social inclusion of family farmers; regional development; food security; influencing the carbon and energy balance of biodiesel; promoting sustainable agricultural practices and a diversity of feedstock. (author)

  9. Environmental policy on radwaste management and disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yamin

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the environmental policy on radwaste management and disposal. In order to prevent different kinds of radwaste from polluting environment, ensure public health, and simultaneously promote the development of nuclear energy and nuclear technology, a set of environmental policies on radwaste management and disposal has been established. The major policy are as follows: (1) Solidifying the temporarily-stored radioactive liquid waste as early as possible. (2) Limiting the temporarily-stored time for intermediate-and low-level solidified radwaste, and solid radwaste. (3) Constructing regional disposal repository for Low and Intermediate level radwaste (L/ILW) (4) The radwaste and spent radiation sources arising from nuclear technology application shall be sent to the provincial waste repositories that are named City Radwaste Repository. (5) The radwaste coming from the development and application of inter-grown radioactive mineral resources should be stored in the dams which have to be provided

  10. Agri‐environmental Policies to Meet Consumer Preferences in Japan: An Economic‐Biophysical Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Uetake

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting environmentally friendly farming products is crucial to meeting consumer demand. Although governments implement policy measures to improve the environmental performance of the agriculture sector, theirimpacts are difficult to assess. This study analyses the performance of agri‐environmental policies in Japan, by using the OECD’s policy impact model and reference level framework. In particular, it identifies the environmental impacts of three simulated agri‐environmental policies based on farms’ characteristics. The results suggest that a policy mix of regulation and an incentive payment would reduce environmental impacts, suggesting that targeted approaches could improve the cost‐effectiveness of agri‐environmental policies.

  11. Environmental policies and prospects for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Following the economic events of 1974-1975 and the subsequent economic stagnation, economic growth has come into focus again. The discussions have raised the question of reconciliation between economic-growth objectives and other social, industrial and environmental aims. While the need for the continuation and even strengthening of environmental measures has been clearly recognized measures have been taken in some OECD (Organization Economic Cooperation and Development) countries to ensure that the implementation of environmental policies is adjusted to harmonized more closely, than in the past, with economic policy objectives. In other cases environmental goals proposed for the early 1980s are now being re-examined in the light of the changed economic climate. In view of these changing circumstances this article examines if and to what extent economic and environmental goals conflict during the period up to 1985. Various scenarios are offered to attempt to clarify the issues and provide a baseline against which the need for more stringent controls can be evaluated. Some of the wideranging environmental impacts and effects discussed are: agriculture expansion, transport increases (principally automotive), urban decline in older industrial regions and urban growth in attractive areas, energy pollution (in production, transport and consumption), and environmental consequences of tourism.

  12. Trade Liberalization and Optimal Environmental Policies in Vertical Related Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Shu Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a symmetric two-country model with vertically related markets. In the downstream market, there is one firm in each country selling a homogeneous good, whose production generates pollution, to its home and the foreign markets a la Brander (1981. In the intermediate good market, there is also one upstream firm in each country, supplying the intermediate good only to its own country’s downstream market. The upstream firms can choose either price or quantity to maximize their profits. With this setting, the paper examines the optimal environmental policy and how it is affected by the tariff on the final good. It is found that, under free trade, the optimal final-good output with imperfect intermediate-good market will have the same output level as that with perfect intermediate-good market after imposing the optimal emission tax. The optimal environmental tax is smaller and the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the market structure in the intermediate good market is imperfect than perfect competition. On the other hand, the optimal environmental tax is necessarily higher if the upstream firm chooses price than quantity. Moreover, the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the upstream firms choose quantity than price to maximize their profits.

  13. Optimal environmental policy and the dynamic property in LDCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yabuta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has provided a model framework of foreign assistance policy in the context of dynamic optimal control and investigated the environmental policies in LDCs that received some financial support from abroad. The model framework features a specific behavior of the social planner who determines the level of voluntary expenditure for preservation of natural environment. Because more financial needs for natural environmental protection means less allowance of growth-oriented investment, the social planner confronts a trade-off problem between economic growth and environmental preservation. To tackle with this clearly, we have built a dynamic model with two control variables: per-capita consumption and voluntary expenditure for natural environment.

  14. Alteration of course in Danish energy- and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trong, Maj Dang

    2002-01-01

    A new Danish government has announced great changes in Denmark's energy- and environmental policy. Norwegian hydro power may play a role in the government's consideration of a more efficient energy- and environmental policy. In principle, energy is to be produced where it is cheapest and least harmful to the environment. Green fees will be reorganized and billions will be saved by abolishing the subsidies to wind generators. The goal is to make wind energy self-supported by 2003. Plans for three new windmill parks in Danish waters have been abandoned. However, the environmental ministers of the countries around the North Sea agreed to speed up the development of ''green'' energy, not the least windmill parks at sea. The objective is that these oceanic windmill parks will contribute to reduced emission of carbon dioxide

  15. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully

  16. Voluntary agreement for the new energy and environmental policies goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesaro, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the field of public policies innovative instruments based on market mechanisms and voluntary action by economical subjects meet a growing favour. This emerges also from the proceedings of the recent National Conference on Energy and the Environment, held in Rome in November 1998. From a planning policy, directly implemented by public bodies and often characterised by a strong rigidity, we are now passing to a new policy style, based on main trends and principles and implemented, at least in a priority way, through a mechanism of pacts and agreements among a variety of actors. This article, starting from an introduction on the nature and the functioning limits of voluntary agreements and, on these bases, presents some hypothesis on the ways and the necessary conditions to develop a concrete system of voluntary agreements in the country, in order to reach the new energy and environmental policies goals [it

  17. Policy trends of strategic environmental assessment in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, Dennis; Agamuthu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SEA policy trends in Asia indicate a proliferation of SEA legislation. • Primary SEA problem is its limited integration in strategic decision making. • Notable SEA progress is the emerging awareness on the need for SEA. • Main SEA prospects is in international regional cooperation on SEA. • SEA paradigm shift requires linkages of structural and non-structural policy instruments. - Abstract: This paper provides an overview on the policy trends of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in Asia. SEA is promoted as a system of incorporating environmental considerations into policies, plans and programmes (PPP). SEA has evolved from an alternative of environmental impact assessments (EIA) to a potential environmental policy integration (EPI) tool in national policy planning. Nevertheless, SEA trends in Asia require a re-examination on its role and effectiveness to avoid SEA implementation in Asia mimicking SEA developments in Europe without customizing its application to local conditions in Asia. Policy trends of SEA in Asia indicate that it is currently an important environmental policy consideration for countries in the region with the formulation of SEA legislations in Hong Kong, China, South Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam and Indonesia. Nevertheless, SEA implementation also has been impeded by challenges in realizing practical SEA public participation especially in countries with traditionally high cultural power distance dynamics such as China, Indonesia and Vietnam. Meanwhile, countries such as Japan and Pakistan have voluntarily implemented SEA elements such as public participation without legislative provisions while countries such as Thailand, Philippines, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are resisting the adoption of SEA. The primary problem of SEA implementation in Asia has been its limited integration in strategic decision making due to the highly political nature of policy planning framed within the cultural context of Asian countries. Notable

  18. Development of environmental guidelines for electronic appliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a general method for the development of environmental guidelines for complex products. The method is based on the life cycle concept. The application of life cycle assessment methods reveals the peak environmental impacts, and their source resulting in environmental guidelines...

  19. Institutional issues of environmental policy; Institutionelle Probleme der Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Institutions and institutional theory are important topics in contemporary economic theory. However, their application to issues of environmental economics still is in its infancy. The book summarizes the state of the art in research on institutional aspects of environmental economics, as seen from the angle of the economic and social sciences, and outlines a variety of perceivable approaches oriented towards integrating the institutional aspects in environmental economic theory. This process eventually leading to broader consideration of implementation problems, enforcement and organisational aspects, legal aspects or market factors and functions influencing environmental policy, theory and practice of environmental policy are expected to draw near to each other and thus create the long-hoped-for chance to commence a true interdisciplinary dialogue about the entire spectrum of environmental issues. (orig.) [Deutsch] Institutionen und Institutionentheorie nehmen in der aktuellen oekonomischen Diskussion einen breiten Raum ein. Ihre Einbeziehung auch in der umweltoekonomischen Diskussion steht freilich erst noch in den Anfaengen. Der Band beleuchtet aus wirtschafts- und sozialwissenschaftlicher Sicht den gegenwaertigen Forschungsstand und vermittelt einen Ueberblick ueber unterschiedliche Ansaetze einer fuer institutionelle Probleme offenen Umweltoekonomik. Die Beruecksichtigung von Implementationsproblemen, die Einbeziehung von Vollzugs- und Organisationsfragen, von Rechtsproblemen sowie der konkreten Funktionsbedingungen von Maerkten im Umweltschutz tragen nicht nur dazu bei, dass sich die Theorie und Praxis der Umweltpolitik deutlich naeherruecken, sie bieten auch die lange vermisste Chance eines echten interdisziplinaeren Dialogs ueber Umweltprobleme. (orig.)

  20. Gadgets and Gigawatts - Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-13

    By 2010 there will be over 3.5 billion mobile phones subscribers, 2 billion TVs in use around the world and 1 billion personal computers. Electronic devices are a growing part of our lives and many of us can count between 20 and 30 separate items in our homes, from major items like televisions to a host of small gadgets. The communication and entertainment benefits these bring are not only going to people in wealthier nations - in Africa, for example, one in nine people now has a mobile phone. But as these electronic devices gain popularity, they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption. How 'smart' is this equipment from an energy efficiency perspective and should we be concerned about how much energy these gadgets use? What is the potential for energy savings? This new book, Gadgets and Gigawatts: Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics, includes a global assessment of the changing pattern in residential electricity consumption over the past decade and an in-depth analysis of the role played by electronic equipment. It reviews the influence that government policies have had on creating markets for more energy efficient appliances and identifies new opportunities for creating smarter, more energy efficient homes. This book is essential reading for policy makers and others interested in improving the energy efficiency of our homes.

  1. Environmental policy in (former) centrally planned economics. A Polish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.; Sleszynski, J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to identify the general causes of poor environmental performance of the European non-market economies and to discuss ways of its improvement. Poland's experiences are emphasized although most conclusions apply to any centrally planned economy. Former centrally planned economies constitute extremely non-homogeneous group and include Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Eastern part of Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Soviet Union. Moreover, the description 'former' in many cases appears still a wishful thinking only of the authors. The authors argue that the failure can not be explained in terms of system inefficiency exclusively. In addition to resource administrative allocation effect environmental abuse here has its policy roots as well. Despite their clear ineffectiveness the environmental policy favored emission charges rather than alternative non-financial instruments. There is an obvious tendency to adhere to this approach especially now and to wait until it allegedly produces right results in the new market context. The authors point out that administrative solutions in environmental policy are widely used by the OECD governments and that there is a every reason to use them in the reformed economies of Eastern Europe. This does not exclude an application of taxes or effluent charges. Moreover, this does not preclude developing transferable permits and permit markets wherever appropriate. (au) (14 refs.)

  2. Tradeable emission permits in Dutch environmental policy. A utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurman, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the lack of experience with permits in the Netherlands, and in view of the similarities between various other tradeable permit systems, the functioning of Dutch systems of tradeable fish, milk and manure quotas is discussed. Evaluation of these systems is based on criteria of effectiveness, target-group efficiency and government efficiency. These systems of tradeable permits appear to constitute a successful addition to the Dutch policy of direct regulation. Considering this, and the favorable American experience with the Emissions Trading Program, tradeable emission permits deserve a chance to be implemented in Dutch environmental policy. The question remains, however, whether the Dutch government is ready for such a step. 28 refs

  3. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusko Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims – subjects – objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  4. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims - subjects - objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  5. Environmental Health: Advancing Emancipatory Policies for the Common Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine-Maher, Sarah K; Butterfield, Patricia G; Laustsen, Gary

    Human health is substantially impacted by the state of the environment, and environmental degradation has a disproportionate impact on persons with less immediate access to financial and social power. This article calls for upstream nursing action to address the natural environment in order to turn about health injustices and improve health for all. Such action would move nursing towards a greater actualization of the nursing environmental domain. The health impacts of climate change, air and water quality, and toxic chemical exposure are substantiated and specific policy leadership recommendations are proposed. Recommended actions include work to build environmental health literacy and empowerment, advocacy for regulatory protection and enforcement, and environmental engagement within health care systems.

  6. Determinants of Renewable Energy Innovation: Environmental Policies vs. Market Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nesta, Lionel; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    This paper carries out a comprehensive analysis of renewable energy innovations considering four mechanisms suggested by innovation models: 1. policy-inducement; 2. market structure; 3. demand and social cohesion- mainly proxied by income inequality; 4. characteristics of country knowledge base. For OECD countries and years 1970-2005, we build a unique dataset containing time-varying information on quality-adjusted patent production in renewable energy, the latter being a function of environmental policies, green R and D, entry barriers, knowledge stock, knowledge diversity and income inequality. We develop count data models using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to account for endogeneity of policy support. Our synthetic policy index positively affects innovations especially in countries with deregulated energy markets and low entry barriers. The effect of entry barriers and inequality is negative and of similar magnitude as that of policy. Product market liberalization positively affects green patent generation, especially so when ambitious policies are adopted, when the initial level of public R and D expenditures and when the initial share of distributed energy generation is high. Our results are robust to alternative specifications, to the inclusion of technology-specific effects and to the use of quality-adjusted patents as dependent variables. In the latter case, the estimated effect of lowering entry barriers and of knowledge diversity almost double on citation count relatively to patent count. (authors)

  7. Quality in environmental science for policy: assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxim, L.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete

  8. Unconventional politics of unconventional gas: Environmental reframing and policy change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Andrew Robert

    The present Rocky Mountain West natural gas boom, enabled by historic pro-resource-development political, institutional, economic, and cultural structures, is a politically contested battle over values. Volatile political action, unconventional coalitions, and unconventional politics engulf this unconventional gas boom -- especially at the state level. In this comparative case study of natural gas policy in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, I measure and compare these values, expressed as frames, through textual analysis of interest group public documents and state legislative bills and statutes from 1999-2008. By developing a new measure of state legislative framing, I test the relationship between interest group and institutional framing and also provide a viable measure of policy change useful to Narrative Policy Analysis theory. Results show that competing interest group and state legislative framing efforts are dynamic, measurably different, and periodically correlative. Competing interest groups rarely engage each other, except as the conflict matures when status-quo-supporters break their silence and engage the challengers' frames that have gained legislative traction. Environmental and land-use counter-framing ensues, but status-quo-supporters remain vigilant in their economic framing. Economic frames retain their institutional privilege within Wyoming and New Mexico, but natural gas policy undergoes a complete environmental reframe in the Colorado state legislature. Although the historically dominant economy frame based on "Old West" values remains largely intact, the respective state legislatures partially reframe policy (within 4 years) using environment, alternative land-uses, and democracy frames based on "New West" and long-extant but previously marginalized status-quo-challenger definitions. This reframing is not a strictly partisan issue, but rather it is influenced by political context, policy diffusion, and long-term interest group advocacy and

  9. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  11. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  13. The political economy of trade liberalization and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, P.G.

    1999-01-01

    A pressure group model where environmental and industry lobby groups offer political support in return for favorable pollution tax policies is used to explain and predict the equilibrium pollution tax in sectors protected by tariffs. The political economy effects of trade liberalization are investigated. The pollution tax is shown to decrease if the lobbying effort by the environmental lobby decreases more rapidly than by the industry lobby Ceteris paribus. The level of political conflict falls with trade liberalization. Pollution may increase because of a reduction of the pollution tax, and tax revenues may fall simultaneously as pollution increases

  14. The Generational Divide in Support for Environmental Policies. European Evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersch, J.; Viscusi, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines age variations in support for environmental protection policies that affect climate change using a sample of over 14,000 respondents to a 1999 Eurobarometer survey. There is a steady decline with age in whether respondents are willing to incur higher gasoline prices to protect the environment. This relationship remains after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. There are age-related differences in information about environmental risks, information sources about the environment, perceived health risks from climate change, and degree of worry about climate change. However, taking these factors into account does not eliminate the age variation in willingness to pay more for gasoline to protect the environment

  15. Environmental policy and technological development in the Dutch economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.; Van Groenendaal, W.; Hofkes, M.; Kemp, R.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is given of recent insights into technological development and the environment. In particular, attention is paid to the question whether it is possible or not to combine continuous economic development with a release of the environmental burden. In several chapters the authors provide insight and discuss theories with regard to innovation and adoption of new technologies, the concept of transition management and the importance of uncertainty with respect to the decision to invest in environment-friendly techniques or not. Also, much attention is paid to characteristics of the Dutch economy and their consequences for technology and environmental policy and related interactions [nl

  16. The Generational Divide in Support for Environmental Policies. European Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersch, J. [Adjunct Professor of Law, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Viscusi, W.K. [Cogan Professor of Law and Economics, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This article examines age variations in support for environmental protection policies that affect climate change using a sample of over 14,000 respondents to a 1999 Eurobarometer survey. There is a steady decline with age in whether respondents are willing to incur higher gasoline prices to protect the environment. This relationship remains after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. There are age-related differences in information about environmental risks, information sources about the environment, perceived health risks from climate change, and degree of worry about climate change. However, taking these factors into account does not eliminate the age variation in willingness to pay more for gasoline to protect the environment.

  17. Brazil: improved environmental policy in spite of the financial crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasa, Sjur; Naess, Lars Otto

    2002-01-01

    Globalization is often thought of as being associated with increasing environmental problems. In particular this is true in connection with dramatic financial crises. Experience from the financial crisis in Brazil in 1998 to 1999, however, shows a more varied picture in which parts of the environmental policy were indeed improved. The article also discusses how representative the example of Brazil might be for generalization and points out that the reaction of Brazil on the financial crisis was mitigated by that country being a strong democracy with robust institutions

  18. Social Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zeeuw, A.; In t Veld, R.; Van Soest, D.; Meuleman, L.; Hoogewoning, P.

    2008-01-01

    Review of the theoretical literature and the current debate on the valuation of environmental goods and services, on the discounting of future benefits and costs, and on how social cost benefit analysis (SCBAs) can be integrated in the policy and decision making process. It is concluded that SCBA can be a good decision support method in environmental policy-making if it is transparent and if all impacts are taken into account. Furthermore, the SCBA process should be participative, and politicians must be prepared to take responsibility for the assumptions behind the SCBA, including the assumptions on valuation and on the discount rate. Such a political role makes each SCBA a unique product of a politically responsible actor, and makes it possible for other stakeholders to have calculated an alternative SCBA based on their own assumptions. This Background Study also contains the proceedings of the international SCBA conference organised by RMNO on 16-17 January 2008

  19. Integrated assessment and environmental policy making. In pursuit of usefulness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parson, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Current integrated assessment projects primarily seek end to end integration through formal models at a national to global scale, and show three significant representational weaknesses: determinants of decadal-scale emissions trends; valuing impacts and adaptive response; and the formation and effects of policies. Meeting the needs of policy audiences may require other forms of integration; may require integration by formal modeling or by other means; and may require representing decisions of other actors through political and negotiating processes. While rational global environmental policy making requires integrated assessment, current practice admits no single vision of how to do it, so understanding will be best advanced by a diverse collection of projects pursuing distinct methods and approaches. Further practice may yield some consensus on best practice, possibly including generic assessment skills generalizable across issues. (Author)

  20. Environmental risks and future generations: Criteria for public policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines alternative normative approaches to the policy challenges posed by long-term environmental problems such as toxic and radioactive waste disposal, stratospheric ozone depletion, and climate change. The paper argues that cost-benefit analysis is limited in its ability to handle the issues of intergenerational equity and uncertainty that are intrinsic to such problems. Also considered is the precautionary principle, which holds that policies should seek to reduce threats to the welfare of future generations if the costs of doing so would not significantly reduce the subjective well-being of existing persons. Although the precautionary principle depends on an explicit value judgement, it yields a policy criterion that is operationally decisive under a wide array of circumstances.

  1. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  2. An evaluation of the effectiveness of environmental policy in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Yacoub Shamaileh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of the environmental policy in Jordan. The article reviews laws, measures, instruments and the implementation process and evaluates their effectiveness in banning, removing and/or reducing negative externalities in Jordan. Data was collected by administration of questionnaires distributed to all key enforcement officials working in the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, and Health. Additional sources were laws, regulations, official documents and reports issued by the government, international organizations, NGOs and media. The study shows that Jordan’s environmental policy relies solely on the command and control approach to mitigate negative externalities, while completely overlooking price-based and rights -based instruments. Such instruments are widely and increasingly employed in developed countries and have proved their efficiency and effectiveness in protecting the environment. The results of the study reveal that command and control measures are insufficient to achieve effective environmental policy and consequently are incapable of internalizing negative externalities in Jordan. The results may motivate government regulators to endorse price-based and rights-based measures, in addition to command and control measures.

  3. Why Europe has become environmentally cleaner: Decomposing the roles of fiscal, trade and environmental policies

    OpenAIRE

    López, Ramón; Palacios, Amparo

    2011-01-01

    This paper systematically examines the role of fiscal policy, trade and energy taxes on environmental quality in Europe using disaggregated data for 12 European countries over the 1995-2008 period. It uses a methodology that obtains estimates mostly free of time-varying omitted variable biases. Controlling for the scale effect, our estimations show that fiscal policies and energy taxes are effective in reducing the concentration of certain pollutants through different mechanisms. We also find...

  4. 75 FR 29533 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice....2, the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a necessary...

  5. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the...

  6. The National Environmental Policy Act and DOE's programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisenbaker, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 requires that all agencies of the federal government prepare a detailed statement on any action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Such a statement must include the environmental impact of the proposed action, any adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided should the proposed action be implemented, and alternatives to the proposed action. In requiring environmental statements, NEPA encourages viewing related actions collectively and looking at cumulative impacts. A programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) is a broad environmental analysis of a program or policy prepared when actions are connected and may have cumulative environmental impacts. The PEIS benefits include providing input into an agency's planning and decision making, assessing potential environmental consequences of a wide range of alternatives before options have been foreclosed, and allowing consideration of systemwide impacts of various alternatives early in the decision-making process. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will prepare its PEIS on Environmental Restoration and Waste Management program. The PEIS will consider programmatic issues and integrated approaches to the program; address national, program-wide alternatives rather than site-specific actions; and provide for subsequent NEPA documents of narrower scope to be prepared to address site-specific or project-specific actions

  7. The market and environmental effects of alternative biofuel policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dusan

    This dissertation analyzes market and environmental effects of alternative U.S. and Brazilian biofuel policies. Although we focus on corn- and sugarcane-ethanol, the advanced analytical framework can easily be extended to other biofuels and biofuel feedstocks, such as biodiesel and soybean. The dissertation consists of three chapters. The first chapter develops an analytical framework to assess the market effects of a set of biofuel policies (including subsidies to feedstocks). U.S. corn-ethanol policies are used as an example to study the effects of biofuel policies on corn prices. We determine the 'no policy' ethanol price, analyze the implications for the 'no policy' corn price and resulting 'water' in the ethanol price premium due to the policy, and generalize the surprising interaction effects between mandates and tax credits to include ethanol and corn production subsidies. The effect of an ethanol price premium depends on the value of the ethanol co-product, the value of production subsidies, and how the world ethanol price is determined. U.S. corn-ethanol policies are shown to be a major reason for recent rises in corn prices. The ethanol policy-induced increase in corn prices is estimated to be 33 -- 46.5 percent in the period 2008 -- 2011. The second chapter seeks to answer the question of what caused the significant increase in ethanol, sugar, and sugarcane prices in Brazil in the period 2010/11 to 2011/12. We develop a general economic model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique in that each policy, in this setting, theoretically has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. Our empirical analysis shows that there are two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry but do otherwise in reality: a low gasoline tax and a high anhydrous tax exemption result in lower ethanol

  8. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6

  9. Strategies of Environmental Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for achieving environmental policy reinforce the principle of subsidiary ( delegation ofresponsibilities of Member States, while European Union outlines only the general objectives to be taken intoaccount and try replacing the traditional vertical approach, command and control type, by promoting analternative model for achieving the EU average. One can say that these strategies are a kind of “aids”, whichcomplement standard tools and acting as incentives for the adoption of measures for environmental protectionthat emphasizes the trend towards an approach based on the principle of volunteering. In the early '70s, wasrecognized the need and legitimacy of a common environment. In time, will develop a progressiveenvironmental Community law, which includes over 200 directives and regulations. They concern mainlywater protection, air quality, protection of flora and fauna, noise, waste disposal. Environmental legislationhas a particular characteristic; it takes into account economic aspects.

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  11. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided

  14. Environmental Policy of Mangroves Management in Rembang Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roziqin, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Mangrove area is an area overgrown mangrove in a natural or artificial, to maintain the environmental sustainability of coastal areas. In addition to maintaining the ecosystem of biodiversity, the mangrove area also has a role to social-economic, and socio-cultural. Rembang regency is one of the districts on the north coast of Java which has a large mangrove area. However, due to the high economic activity in the region of Rembang Regency, the mangrove area becomes less and damaged. This research to describe how environmental policy to manage mangrove area in Rembang regency with qualitative descriptive approach. The result is the role of government and society gradually able to restore mangrove ecosystem. Moreover the district government through Environmental Agency has made a masterplan for the development of mangrove ecotourism in Pasarbanggi Village. The existence of sustainable mangrove conservation has a positive impact on the environment and society.

  15. Environmental policy is a joint task of all European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pag-Kuhn, S.; Schmuck, O.

    1987-01-01

    The volume presents material illustrating European environmental policy and the situation in the various countries, and is intended among others for use as a teaching aid at school or in adult courses. A documentation of newspaper articles and other material is the center piece of the volume, arranged by environmental problems and cases, covering also basic text parts from the fields of law and politics. The six main subjects dealt with include: Pollution of the Rhine river, the Sandoz accident; - Nuclear power, Chernobyl and Cattenom; - Forest decline, acid rain and motor vehicle off-gas; - Toxic waste, Seveso and no end to be seen; - Agriculture and ecology; - Environmental impact statement, an EC Directive. The documentation has been selected so as to reflect a broad spectrum of political opinions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwha Lee

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The reason why questions related to Electronic Commerce are in the back of the spotlight is that US and major countries in EU lead the international research to maximize their own benefits. These researches are related to rectify legal system framework for protecting development of Electronic Commerce and to work out international standards. Also, enlarging Electronic Commerce on online resources is also regarded as the core issue by OECD, APEC and other international organization and it is inevitable to have multilateral negotiation regarding this issue. Based on the opinion above mentioned, we collect all the problems brought by Electronic Commerce Activeness in each area in this paper and try to find out corresponding solutions to face these problems.

  17. Choosing Environmental Policy Instruments in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan Bell, R.

    2003-01-01

    In their enthusiasm for efficiency over other values, the advocates for market-based instruments for environmental control have reversed the order in which environmental solutions are found. They have written their prescriptions without first doing a physical examination of the patient; in other words, they have first recommended environmental instruments and secondarily tried to bend institutions to support the already identified cure. The engine for environmental regulation consists of the institutions available country by country to carry out environmental policy. Institutional inadequacies such as low functioning legal systems, historical experience (or inexperience) with markets, distorting and often institutionalised corruption, and public acceptance certainly can be fixed. But changing these fundamentals can be a long and arduous process. Those who advise governments to adopt reforms for which the institutional basis does not yet exist put the cart before the horse, a costly mistake that directs weak countries in the direction of solutions they have little hope of implementing. Instead, the donors and advisors should be seeking alternative approaches, for example to encourage incremental improvements and pragmatic goals, by considering a transitional or tiered approach that will take into account existing capabilities and institutions, at the same time acknowledging that a long learning curve lies ahead with inevitably uneven implementation and slippage from time to time. Another approach would be to find examples of small, albeit imperfect, efforts that seem to be working and building on them. The long-term goal should be efficient solutions, but only the most developed countries should be encouraged to attempt difficult environmental policy instruments like taxation and emissions trading schemes

  18. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The analysis of the environmental impacts for storage of domestic fuel shows that the impacts for the full range of alternatives considered are relatively small compared with available resources or background exposure of the population from natural radiation sources. The differences in impacts of storage of domestic fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel stored in Independent Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities, the storage time, and, to a lesser degree, the differences in spent fuel transportation. The differences between comparable alternatives of implementing the policy or not implementing the policy are small. The difference in impacts of storage of foreign fuel are attributed to the amount of fuel received under the policy and to the disposition mode analyzed. The impact of storage of foreign fuel (a small fraction of the amount of domestic fuel considered) is also small. As a result of the small differences in environmental impacts of all cases considered for foreign fuel, environmental impacts probably will not strongly influence the selection of the case that best meets US nonproliferation goals. Proliferation benefits of the various cases analyzed vary significantly. The structure and level of fee charged for storage of spent fuel will affect the degree of participation in the spent fuel storage program by utilities. However, the range of participation is within the range of alternatives analyzed in the draft EISs on storage of US and foreign fuels, for which the environmental effects were found to be relatively small. The fee computed on the basis of full recovery of government costs should not significantly affect the cost of generating nuclear power

  19. Environmental policy challenge crime in Republic Serbia and its impact on environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Vojislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental law and ecological security representing nearly two related fields that have a scientific discipline in our legal security framework introduced in the first decade of this century. Despite this fact, the legal norms that regulate the protection and safety of the environment have been studied in the framework of other disciplines, and their etymology suggests that environmental regulations have existed in the ninth century, first as a prohibitive provision 'is prohibited'. It is known that environmental law to a certain extent based on criminal law norms and the norms of a protective object with the environment - Ekos. The fact of regulation of a large number of offenses in this field indicates the significance of the criminal policy which is in the field of environmental law and environmental security provides criminal protection. In this paper, in addition to general introductory remarks on environmental law, environmental safety and environmental tort, consider the area of combating environmental crime, the share of primary and secondary subjects of criminal procedural and international cooperation, particularly in combating transnational environmental crime. In the end, considering the environmental impact of crime on ecological security, clarifying the possible forms of threats and extent of the reaction.

  20. EPR policies for electronics in developing Asia: an adapted phase-in approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenji, Lewis; Hotta, Yasuhiko; Bengtsson, Magnus; Hayashi, Shiko

    2011-09-01

    The amount of e-waste is growing rapidly in developing countries, and the health and environmental problems resulting from poor management of this waste have become a concern for policy makers. In response to these challenges, a number of Asian developing countries have been inspired by policy developments in OECD countries, and have drafted legislations based on the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR). However, the experiences from developed countries show that a successful implementation of EPR policies requires adequate institutions and sufficient administrative capacity. Even advanced countries are thus facing difficulties. This paper concludes from existing literature and from the authors' own observations that there seems to be a mismatch between the typical policy responses to e-waste problems in developing Asia and the capacity for successful implementation of such policies. It also notes that the e-waste situation in developing Asian countries is further complicated by a number of additional factors, such as difficulties in identifying producers, import of used electronic products and e-waste (sometimes illegal), and the existence of a strong informal waste sector. Given these challenges, the authors conclude that comprehensive EPR policy schemes of the kind that have been implemented in some advanced countries are not likely to be effective. The paper therefore proposes an alternative phase-in approach whereby developing Asian countries are able to move gradually towards EPR systems. It argues that this approach would be more feasible, and discusses what could be the key building blocks of each implementation stage.

  1. Environmental Change and Human Mobility: Trends, Law and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F. Martin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the protection of persons displaced by natural disasters and the impacts of climate change will require sustained attention. This article identifies practical solutions, many of which are currently under consideration by governments and international organizations, to improve the lives of millions of people affected by environmental crises. It begins with a brief overview of why people move, the nature of those movements, and the relationship between human mobility and adaptation to environmental change by highlighting three types of mobility – migration, displacement and planned relocation. Next, the international and regional level will be discussed, with particular focus on legislative and policy frameworks for addressing human mobility in the context of environmental change. The article identifies gaps in existing frameworks as well as recent efforts to address them, particularly through mini-multilateral initiatives aimed at identifying principles and practices that should guide governmental action. The article concludes that efforts to improve responses require a better evidence base than currently exists on issues such as the environmental determinants of migration, displacement and planned relocation; the multi-faceted ways in which environmental factors relate to the many other causes of population movements in the cases of human mobility; and the impact of such movements on the well-being of migrants, communities of origin, and communities of destination.

  2. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  3. Incorporating evolutionary principles into environmental management and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankau, Richard; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Harris, David J.

    2011-01-01

    As policymakers and managers work to mitigate the effects of rapid anthropogenic environmental changes, they need to consider organisms’ responses. In light of recent evidence that evolution can be quite rapid, this now includes evolutionary responses. Evolutionary principles have a long history...... in conservation biology, and the necessary next step for the field is to consider ways in which conservation policy makers and managers can proactively manipulate evolutionary processes to achieve their goals. In this review, we aim to illustrate the potential conservation benefits of an increased understanding...... of evolutionary history and prescriptive manipulation of three basic evolutionary factors: selection, variation, and gene flow. For each, we review and propose ways that policy makers and managers can use evolutionary thinking to preserve threatened species, combat pest species, or reduce undesirable evolutionary...

  4. The Titan Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Jinschek, Jörg R.

    2009-01-01

    University of Denmark (DTU) provides a unique combination of techniques for studying materials of interest to the catalytic as well as the electronics and other communities [5]. DTU’s ETEM is based on the FEI Titan platform providing ultrahigh microscope stability pushing the imaging resolution into the sub...

  5. Policy instruments for energy conservation and environmental policy in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovenberg, A.L. [Tinbergen Inst., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1992-03-01

    In this paper it is assumed that the policy objective is not so much to economize on energy as to reduce pollution. In particular, to curb the emissions of carbon dioxide. A number of environmental policy instruments pertaining to fossil fuels are analyzed, mainly in the context of the Dutch economy: regulation, subsidies, voluntary agreements with industry, and taxation. At the moment, most industrial countries, including the Netherlands, rely almost entirely on the first three instruments. More recently, however, there has been a growing interest in environmental taxation. The theory that taxation is always and everywhere the best instrument assumes, however, perfect markets and a closed economy. Most economies, including the Dutch one, are riddled with market imperfections. Hence, policy makers confront a second best case. This implies that in selecting policy instruments, they have to resort to a more pragmatic `case-by-case` approach. A diversified diet is advocated. Taxation is part of that diet. Section 2 explores a number of important advantages of the tax instrument. Section 3 discusses a number of problems if a small open economy like the Netherlands would unilaterally adopt such a tax, especially if that tax would include energy-intensive firms that are subject to international competition. In this connection, some alternative policy instruments are analyzed in Section 4. Section 5 proceeds by investigating the case of international coordination and explores the conditions under which coordinated taxes could be successful. Section 6 analyzes policies targeted at households and at firms that are not subject to international competition. 13 refs.

  6. 76 FR 73632 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for Nominations to the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental... appointment to the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). Vacancies are...

  7. 78 FR 47316 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations to the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). Vacancies are anticipated to be filled by February, 2014. Sources...

  8. Establishing Green Roof Infrastructure Through Environmental Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  9. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  10. Study of Hydrated Lime in Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tihlaříková, Eva; Neděla, Vilém; Rovnaníková, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, S2 (2013), s. 1644-1645 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1410; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Hydrated Lime * Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.757, year: 2013

  11. Risk analysis and priority setting for environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    There is a growing realization that the demand for funding to correct our nation's environmental problems will soon outstrip available resources. In the hazardous waste area alone, the estimated cost of remediating Superfund sites ranges from $32 billion to $80 billion. Numerous other areas of competing for these same financial resources. These include ozone depletion, global warming, the protection of endangered species and wetlands, toxic air pollution, carcinogenic pesticides, and urban smog. In response to this imbalance in the supply and demand for national funds, several political constituencies are calling for the use of risk assessment as a tool in the prioritization of research and budget needs. Comparative risk analysis offers a logical framework in which to organize information about complex environmental problems. Risk analysis allows policy analysts to make resource allocation decisions on the basis of scientific judgement rather than political expediency

  12. Environmental education policy in Colombia, 2002-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ezequiel Badillo Mendoza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It presents the historical processes that influenced the Environmental Education Policy in Colombia between 2002- 2010, taking as axes the transformation processes of the Ministry of the Environment and the so-called Education Revolution. The research is qualitative, with a historical hermeneutic and the technique used is the documentary research. As a result, it was identified a historical context characterized by economic vision, a warlike position at the expense of social needs and a modification of structural issues at the political system in Colombia. It is concluded that these processes have affected the evolution delay and since the nineteen seventies and especially from the Constitution of 1991, settled in the various attempts to solve environmental problems.

  13. Environmental policy and programs of Petroleos de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Few issues are of more concern to the oil industry than protecting the environment. Industrial wastes disposal, urban air pollution by vehicle emissions, large oil spills, acid rain, and more recently, the fear of a possible increase of the greenhouse effect, are all examples linked to oil and other fossil fuel consumption, that have contributed to a ''greening'' of public opinion. As a response, new and tighter environmental regulations are being enacted worldwide inducing a reshape of oil business strategies and operations. This paper summarizes the environmental policy and the more significant activities conducted at the Venezuelan National oil company, PDVSA, to comply with such regulations. Pollution prevention and control measures, oil spills and hazardous substances release contingency plans, manufacture of cleaner products, and other activities implemented to protect natural resources are described

  14. Measurements of environmental policy for air pollution abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.

    1993-01-01

    The first part of the study goes into the determination of efficient strategies for the reduction of air pollutants. The developed method is not only derived theoretically but is tested with the concrete example of emissions sources of a German state. The second part goes into the question what the government can do in order to attain that air pollution abatement measures recognized as being efficient will be put into practice. As market economy mechanisms have advantages over central state planning in the allocation of economic resources the question arises if not also for environmental protection market economy tools may contribute to an improvement of the efficiency of air pollution abatement. Therefore the suitability of different tools of environmental policy for the realization of efficient air pollution abatement is investigated and evaluated. This is again not done abstractly but with existing emission sources. (orig./HSCH). 32 figs., 12 tabs [de

  15. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  16. Progress of electron processing system useful for environmental preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Yasuhisa

    1998-01-01

    Electron Processing has been used in the field of industrial application, mainly to process plastics or polymers, which is represented by the cross-linking of Polyethylene to improve heat resistance. On the other hand, there has been many research studies to use Electron Beam for an environmental preservation. Typical examples are Sterilization of Food, Flue Gas Treatment, Sterilization of Waste Water Sludge, Purification of Water, Removal of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC), etc. These research works have been done in the USA, Germany, Austria, Japan, etc. They reported some of the features of electron beam method. In addition, there is an unique report that the combination of Ozone and Electron Beam provides a better efficiency of the purification of the water. Recently, they have started the investigation for the practical use of Electron Beam in the environmental application. Flue gas treatment is a remarkable example of the investigation. They built the demonstration plant last year and they started the operation last fall. Presently, the system is in a demonstrative operation. This paper will report an outline of the R and D works of environmental applications of Electron Beam and also will introduce the latest technologies of Electron Processing Systems which will be available for the environmental preservation. (author)

  17. Electron beam irradiation technology for environmental conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Arai, Hidehiko; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews research and development of application of electron beam (EB) irradiation technology for treatment of flue gas and waste water, and for disinfection of sewage sludge. Feasibility studies on EB purification of flue gases have been performed with pilot-scale experiments in Japan, the USA and Germany, and is being carried out in Poland for flue gases from iron-sintering furnaces or coal burning boilers. Based on results obtained by experiments using simulated flue gas, pilot scale test for treatment of flue gas of low-sulfur containing coal combustion has recently started in Japan. Organic pollutants in waste water and ground water have been found to be decomposed by EB irradiation. Synergetic effect of EB irradiation and ozone addition was found to improve the decomposition efficiency. Electron beam irradiation technology for disinfection of water effluent from water treatment plants was found to avoid formation of chlorinated organic compounds which are formed in using chlorine. Efficient process for composting of sewage sludge disinfected by EB irradiation has been developed by small scale and pilot scale experiments. In the new process, disinfection by EB irradiation and composing can be done separately and optimum temperature for composting can be, therefore, selected to minimize period of composting. (author)

  18. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  19. Environmental policy. 2000 environmental expert opinion of the Council of Experimental Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The reorientation of energy policy is a key issue. The Council of Environmental Experts considers the further use of atomic energy to be irresponsible and recommends a new orientation. Recommendations are made on ecology-centered taxation. Critical comments are made in the context of conservation of nature, where many species of plants and animals still continue to be endangered. The conservation programme of the Federal government, which also comprises a system of large, interconnected biotopes on 10% of Germany's total surface, is approved, and the potential contribution of sustainable agricultural and forestry policy is discussed in a separate chapter. Further subjects discussed are recycling and waste management, protection of water and soil, air pollution abatement, health protection and genetic engineering. The environmental aspects of Eastern European states becoming EC members are gone into in particular. The network of Europen Environmental Councils, for which the German Council of Environmental Experts currently acts as a coordinator, makes intensive efforts to improve environmental counselling in these states [de

  20. Transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with scintillation gaseous detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilatos, Gerasimos; Kollia, Mary; Dracopoulos, Vassileios

    2015-01-01

    A transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with use of a scintillation gaseous detection device has been implemented. This corresponds to a transmission scanning electron microscope but with addition of a gaseous environment acting both as environmental and detection medium. A commercial type of low vacuum machine has been employed together with appropriate modifications to the detection configuration. This involves controlled screening of various emitted signals in conjunction with a scintillation gaseous detection device already provided with the machine for regular surface imaging. Dark field and bright field imaging has been obtained along with other detection conditions. With a progressive series of modifications and tests, the theory and practice of a novel type of microscopy is briefly shown now ushering further significant improvements and developments in electron microscopy as a whole. - Highlights: • Novel scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) called TESEM. • Use of the gaseous detection device (GDD) in scintillation mode that allows high resolution bright and dark field imaging in the TESEM. • Novel approach towards a unification of both vacuum and environmental conditions in both bulk/surface and transmission mode of electron microscopy

  1. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  2. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts

  3. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts

  4. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  5. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  6. National Environmental Policy Act source guide for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    This Source Guide will assist those working with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 to become more familiar with the environmental assessments (EA) and environmental impact statements (EIS) that apply to specific activities and facilities on the Hanford Site. This document should help answer questions concerning NEPA coverage, history, processes, and the status of many of the buildings and units on and related to the Hanford Site. This document summarizes relevant EAs and EISs by briefly outlining the proposed action of each document and the decision made by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessor agencies, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The summary includes the proposed action alternatives and current status of the proposed action. If a decision officially was stated by the DOE, as in a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) or a record of decision (ROD), and the decision was located, a summary is provided. Not all federal decisions, such as FONSIs and RODS, can be found in the Federal Register (FR). For example, although significant large-action FONSIs can be found in the FR, some low-interest FONSIs might have been published elsewhere (i.e., local newspapers)

  7. Electron transparent graphene windows for environmental scanning electron microscopy in liquids and dense gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Joshua D; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2012-12-21

    Due to its ultrahigh electron transmissivity in a wide electron energy range, molecular impermeability, high electrical conductivity and excellent mechanical stiffness, suspended graphene membranes appear to be a nearly ideal window material for in situ (in vivo) environmental electron microscopy of nano- and mesoscopic objects (including bio-medical samples) immersed in liquids and/or in dense gaseous media. In this paper, taking advantage of a small modification of the graphene transfer protocol onto metallic and SiN supporting orifices, reusable environmental cells with exchangeable graphene windows have been designed. Using colloidal gold nanoparticles (50 nm) dispersed in water as model objects for scanning electron microscopy in liquids as proof of concept, different conditions for imaging through the graphene membrane were tested. Limiting factors for electron microscopy in liquids, such as electron beam induced water radiolysis and damage of the graphene membrane at high electron doses, are discussed.

  8. 42 CFR 137.287 - What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Process § 137.287 What is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)? The NEPA is a procedural law that... and documenting the environmental impact of their actions. NEPA establishes a comprehensive policy for... procedures of the Act. CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1500-1508) establish three levels of environmental review...

  9. 77 FR 8859 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Cancellation and Rescheduling of National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: EPA... Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) Meeting to be held at the EPA Potomac Yard Conference Center, One...

  10. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Advisory Committee... meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  11. 77 FR 1931 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Advisory Committee... meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  12. 77 FR 2719 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... and Technology; Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Advisory... a public meeting of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology...

  13. 77 FR 39705 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... and Technology; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. Notice... Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a necessary committee which is in the... environmental policy, technology and management issues. Inquiries may be directed to Mark Joyce, U.S. EPA, (Mail...

  14. 77 FR 3475 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... and Technology AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of advisory committee... teleconference of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). NACEPT provides advice to the EPA Administrator on a broad range of environmental policy, technology, and management...

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CSR POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Mihai Ioan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSR policy of companies occupy a privileged environment through coaching programs to other interests such as employees, suppliers, customers, authorities and various NGOs. This is why we wanted to see what the environment is important for managers on companies in Romania, the company's CSR policy. In the literature the definition of social responsibility and ways to implement this in practice are often encountered. Some authors claim that societal marketing concept has not found its way into the language of business. From here, there were other terms that had a greater impact on the business environment such as social responsibility. Increasing the company's impact on the environment, the pressure exerted by stakeholders, and identifying positive elements of socially responsible approach have been the main stimulus for development of social responsibility. From that a lot of studies on academic and commercial problem. And the present study fit the same line we conducted a research on 50 companies,it was an exploratory research. As respondents were chosen only marketing managers or general managers or even owners compnaie depending, in other words I tried to go directly to company decision makers in developing and building its image. While this one sample is statistically representative of the point of view we have covered with him in all areas of business activities and of all sizes can say that the results provide a clear enough picture of managersmentality in companies in Romania on business activities with the problem of intereactiunii environment Managers of companies in Romania recognize the environmental problems and say they are implicating in various actions to protect the environment. On the declarative level social environment is one of the most important areas being the most nominated as one of the top three areas of social nature that would involve having the greatest opportunity for development in coming years, over 60% of

  16. Development of the Atomic-Resolution Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gai, Pratibha L.; Boyes, Edward D.; Yoshida, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    The development of the novel atomic-resolution environmental transmission electron microscope (atomic-resolution ETEM) for directly probing dynamic gas–solid reactions in situ at the atomic level under controlled reaction conditions consisting of gas environment and elevated temperatures is descr......The development of the novel atomic-resolution environmental transmission electron microscope (atomic-resolution ETEM) for directly probing dynamic gas–solid reactions in situ at the atomic level under controlled reaction conditions consisting of gas environment and elevated temperatures...... is used to study steels, graphene, nanowires, etc. In this chapter, the experimental setup of the microscope column and its peripherals are described....

  17. Scientific knowledge and environmental policy. Why science needs values. Environmental essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolan, M.S. [Department of Sociology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins (United States)

    2006-12-15

    While the term 'science' is evoked with immense frequency in the political arena, it continues to be misunderstood. Perhaps the most repeated example of this - particularly when dealing with environmental policy and regulatory issues - is when science is called upon to provide the unattainable: namely, proof. What is scientific knowledge and, more importantly, what is it capable of providing us? These questions must be answered - by policymakers, politicians, the public, and scientists themselves - if we hope to ever resolve today's environmental controversies in a just and equitable way. This paper begins by critically examining the concepts of uncertainty and proof as they apply to science. Discussion then turns to the issue of values in science. This is to speak of the normative decisions that are made routinely in the environmental sciences (but often without them being recognized as such). To conclude, insights are gleaned from the preceding sections to help us understand how science should be utilized and conducted, particularly as it applies to environmental policy.

  18. Cuba: mitigation policies and the Environmental Kuznets curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusimit Betancourt-Alayón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine whether there is for Cuba a growing non-monotonic relationship, known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, between emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2 in relation to income levels as a measure of the degree of development a basic model from 1970 to 2010. In addition to exploring an extended model involving product structure and trade on emissions. These gases by the importance of the intensification of global warming and therefore in strengthening the climate change are studied. A positive relationship of emissions of the three gases with GDP, although with evidence of an emerging virtuous development path of emissions is obtained, in any case it is possible without a comprehensive development policy which is prioritized design mitigation options.

  19. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Boyd D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schafer, Annette L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  20. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2013-11-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  1. Environmental policy of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malunat, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The history of the policy for environmental protection in Germany is characterized by a particularly fast rate of evolution over the roughly 25 years of its existence to a state of maturity for which all other fundamental political goals and principles of our society - such as democracy, supremacy of law, social welfare - have taken much more time to develop. Compared to this rapid development in theory, the situation of the environment has changed but little, and considering our current knowledge, revealing the interdependency of global ecological processes, there is danger of development to the worse. The United Nations have been signalising the beginning of a new approach towards the environment based on the principle of global responsibility. But the narrow lane of ''sustainable development'' will lead to success only if the great majority of people are prepared to take on personal responsibility. (orig.) [de

  2. Environmental Protection for Sale : Strategic Green Industrial Policy and Climate Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Industrial policy has long been criticized as subject to protectionist interests; accordingly, subsidies to domestic producers face disciplines under World Trade Organization agreements, without exceptions for environmental purposes. Now green industrial policy is gaining popularity as governments

  3. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  4. MUNICIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: A PROPOSAL OF INSTRUMENTS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF PUBLIC ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF SALVADOR (MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Azevedo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this paper is to propose a model for mapping strategies of municipal environmental management for local environmental public policies. To do so, the study adopted a theoretical approach. More specifically, there is discussion on the concepts of public policies and the scenario of the Brazilian municipal environmental management, a brief history of the aspects that involve current national environmental policies. Methodologically, a bibliographical study was carried out through a literature review, which enabled the proposal of instruments for mapping actions and strategies of environmental management in the municipalities of the Metropolitan Area of Salvador (MAS. This theoretical study resulted in the creation of a model form that will be used by empirical researches for mapping the environmental public policies in the MAS City Halls.

  5. Updating energy security and environmental policy: Energy security theories revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakova, L

    2018-06-18

    The energy security theories are based on the premises of sufficient and reliable supply of fossil fuels at affordable prices in centralized supply systems. Policy-makers and company chief executives develop energy security strategies based on the energy security theories and definitions that dominate in the research and policy discourse. It is therefore of utmost importance that scientists revisit these theories in line with the latest changes in the energy industry: the rapid advancement of renewables and smart grid, decentralization of energy systems, new environmental and climate challenges. The study examines the classic energy security concepts (neorealism, neoliberalism, constructivism and international political economy) and assesses if energy technology changes are taken into consideration. This is done through integrative literature review, comparative analysis, identification of 'international relations' and 'energy' research discourse with the use of big data, and case studies of Germany, China, and Russia. The paper offers suggestions for revision of energy security concepts through integration of future technology considerations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental impact analysis: the first five years of the National Environmental Policy Act in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorold, O

    1975-11-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 was the first comprehensive law to subject decisions to an assessment of total environmental consequence and instill environmental attitudes throughout government. All agencies must submit impact projections of proposed as well as alternative actions. Twenty-one states have passed similar legislation. A review of the Act's provisions for oversight, court action, timing, content, and commenting procedures is followed by a five-year evaluation. Because NEPA is generally felt to be a realistic approach to decision making and not a substitute for other kinds of environmental control, Mr. Thorold feels the American experience has been positive and is worth modifying for other countries. The Act lacked a ''grandfather clause,'' which caused a difficult transition period while agencies coped with both new and existing projects and developed standards for identifying and reviewing impacts. As agencies recognized that delays from lawsuits often resulted from inadequate impact statements, the quality improved to meet the strict guidelines of the Council on Environmental Quality. Joint efforts of agencies, universities, consulting firms, and private groups have cooperated to improve environmental forecasting and promote full communication. The costs of preparing statements and those of abandoned projects are felt to be conservative when compared to the costs of pursuing inappropriate projects. (21 references) (DCK)

  7. Policy proceses, principles and decision making of the environmental policy in Great Britain and France. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Research of central aspects of French environmental policy. This report concentrates on the role of the constitutional system and the influence of ecological topics on the politics of the central level. The implementation of central environmental topics of lower levels - regional departmental and communal level. Presentation of the state of the French environment (Pollution: Air, Water, Waste, Soil, Radiactivity and Noise). Beyond that this report evaluates French positions and activities of environmental policy on EEC-level and worldwide. Finally the bilateral cooperation on the field of environmental protection between France and the Federal Republic of Germany is analyzed. (orig.) With 31 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs [de

  8. The EU environmental policy context for monitoring for and with raptors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Guy

    2008-09-01

    This paper outlines the importance of the policy context for monitoring with and for raptors, and, conversely, of the importance of such monitoring for policy. It then outlines two key areas of European Union (EU) environmental policy most relevant to monitoring for and with raptors, namely biodiversity policy and pollution policy. For each of the policy areas, the pertinent objectives and actions of the current EU policy are identified, and their relevance for raptor monitoring is discussed. The potential contribution of raptor monitoring to the further development of these policy areas is also addressed.

  9. Evaluating environmental policy integration and policy coherence across service sectors: The case of South Africa’s inland water biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available the inclusion of the systematic conservation of inland water ecosystems in the strategic planning processes of several sectors impacting on South Africa’s inland water biodiversity. The authors use environmental policy integration (EPI) research approach...

  10. Towards policy relevant environmental modeling: contextual validity and pragmatic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott B.

    2000-01-01

    "What makes for a good model?" In various forms, this question is a question that, undoubtedly, many people, businesses, and institutions ponder with regards to their particular domain of modeling. One particular domain that is wrestling with this question is the multidisciplinary field of environmental modeling. Examples of environmental models range from models of contaminated ground water flow to the economic impact of natural disasters, such as earthquakes. One of the distinguishing claims of the field is the relevancy of environmental modeling to policy and environment-related decision-making in general. A pervasive view by both scientists and decision-makers is that a "good" model is one that is an accurate predictor. Thus, determining whether a model is "accurate" or "correct" is done by comparing model output to empirical observations. The expected outcome of this process, usually referred to as "validation" or "ground truthing," is a stamp on the model in question of "valid" or "not valid" that serves to indicate whether or not the model will be reliable before it is put into service in a decision-making context. In this paper, I begin by elaborating on the prevailing view of model validation and why this view must change. Drawing from concepts coming out of the studies of science and technology, I go on to propose a contextual view of validity that can overcome the problems associated with "ground truthing" models as an indicator of model goodness. The problem of how we talk about and determine model validity has much to do about how we perceive the utility of environmental models. In the remainder of the paper, I argue that we should adopt ideas of pragmatism in judging what makes for a good model and, in turn, developing good models. From such a perspective of model goodness, good environmental models should facilitate communication, convey—not bury or "eliminate"—uncertainties, and, thus, afford the active building of consensus decisions, instead

  11. Application of electron beams to environmental conservation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is a review of current status of the application of electron beams to environmental conservation technology. Different aspects of radiation treatment of natural and polluted drinking water, radiation purification of industrial and municipal wastes, radiation treatment of sewage sludge and radiation purification of exhaust gases are considered. The special attention is paid to the respective pilot and industrial facilities. (author) 70 refs

  12. Coherence in product-oriented policies and environmental management systems in the car industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    more traditional process-oriented policies and are a challenge for companies. The article presents some of the authors  investigations on how the car industry has dealt with both process-oriented and product-oriented policies. [1] EPR refers to extending producer responsibility for products beyond......Over the last decade, product-oriented policies as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are more and more recognised as a target for both corporate environmental strategy and government environmental policy. These product-oriented policies are distinct from...

  13. Global environmental ratings as an instrument of environmental policies: what factors determine the rank of Russia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Nina; Arshinova, Marina; Milanova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Systems of global environmental rankings have emerged as a result of the escalating need for revealing the trends of ecological development for the world and for certain countries and regions. Both the environmental indicators and indexes and the ratings made on their basis are important for the assessment and forecast of the ecological situation in order to tackle the global and regional problems of sustainable development and help to translate the research findings into policy developments. Data sources for the global environmental ratings are most often the statistical information accumulated in databases of the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, FAO, WHO, etc.) These data are highly reliable and well-comparable that makes the ratings very objective. There are also good examples of using data of sociological polls, information from social networks, etc. The global environmental ratings are produced by the international organizations (World Bank, World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Program), non-governmental associations (WWF, Climate Action Network Europe (CAN-E), Germanwatch Nord-Süd-Initiative, Friends of the Earth, World Development Movement), research structures (scientific centers of the Yale and Colombian universities, the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory, the New Economic Foundation), and also individual experts, news agencies, etc. Thematic (sectoral) ratings cover various spheres from availability of resources and anthropogenic impact on environment components to nature protection policies and perception of environmental problems. The environmental indicators cover all parameters important for understanding the current ecological situation and the trajectories of its development (the DPSIR model, i.e. drivers, pressures, state, impact and response). Complex (integral) ratings are based on environmental indexes which are combined measurement tools using a complex of aggregated indicators based on a wide range of

  14. Stimulating environmental management capability deployment: towards a differentiated environmental policy. The case of the Dutch food and drink industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, D.J.; Bremmers, H.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the institutional and network context on the adoption of environmental management capabilities. The aim is to gain insight into the managerial drivers for environmental pro-activeness and learn lessons for environmental policy renewal. A longitudinal

  15. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in

  16. Analyzing the Environmental Impacts of Laptop Enclosures Using Screening-Level Life Cycle Assessment to Support Sustainable Consumer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing amount of consumer electronics in service, it is essential industries and policy-makers work together to develop ways to manufacture more environmentally sustainable IT products which meet the needs of society. The objective of this study was to better un...

  17. Transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with scintillation gaseous detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilatos, Gerasimos; Kollia, Mary; Dracopoulos, Vassileios

    2015-03-01

    A transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with use of a scintillation gaseous detection device has been implemented. This corresponds to a transmission scanning electron microscope but with addition of a gaseous environment acting both as environmental and detection medium. A commercial type of low vacuum machine has been employed together with appropriate modifications to the detection configuration. This involves controlled screening of various emitted signals in conjunction with a scintillation gaseous detection device already provided with the machine for regular surface imaging. Dark field and bright field imaging has been obtained along with other detection conditions. With a progressive series of modifications and tests, the theory and practice of a novel type of microscopy is briefly shown now ushering further significant improvements and developments in electron microscopy as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The orientation, principles, priorities and aims of the state environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This chapter contains: (A) The orientation and priorities of state environmental policy of the government of the Slovak Republic which were approved 18 November 1993 by the resolution No 339. On the basis of the Strategy, principles and priorities of state environmental policy 70 short-terminable aims up to 1996, next 59 middle-terminable of aims up to years 2000 - 2010 and 33 general and partial long-terminable aims up to 2030 and longer were formulated. The Strategy is determined by next 5 branches oriented priorities: (1) air protection before pollutants and the global environmental safety; (2) organization of sufficiency of drinking water and decreasing of pollution of other waters under permissible limits; (3) soil protection before degeneration and organization of non-defected food-stuffs and other wares; (4) minimization of formation, use and good waste liquidate; (5) preservation of bio-diversity, preservation and rational use of natural reserves and optimization of place structure and use of the country. (B) The principles and priorities of state environmental policy determinate implementation and observance of then principles of the state environmental policy. (C) Total 162 aims of the Strategy of the state environmental policy and next followed programs, projects and measures of the environmental policy of the Slovak Republic can be grouped into 4 blocks: (1) the environmental policy in the protection of air, water and before of risk factors, in the nuclear safety and waste economy (environmental safety; (2) the environmental policy in protection of the nature and the country, protection and use of mineral surroundings, soils and forest;; (3) the environmental policy in the economy; (4) the environmental policy in the guidance, education, public information, organization, control and coordination of the ministration on the environment. These aims are grouped into 10 sectors. (D) The government of the Slovak republic has first National environmental

  19. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  20. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-05-01

    To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are 'eco-friendly' or 'green', despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern.

  1. Toward Environmentally Robust Organic Electronics: Approaches and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kwang; Lee, Moo Yeol; Park, Cheol Hee; Lee, Hae Rang; Oh, Joon Hak

    2017-11-01

    Recent interest in flexible electronics has led to a paradigm shift in consumer electronics, and the emergent development of stretchable and wearable electronics is opening a new spectrum of ubiquitous applications for electronics. Organic electronic materials, such as π-conjugated small molecules and polymers, are highly suitable for use in low-cost wearable electronic devices, and their charge-carrier mobilities have now exceeded that of amorphous silicon. However, their commercialization is minimal, mainly because of weaknesses in terms of operational stability, long-term stability under ambient conditions, and chemical stability related to fabrication processes. Recently, however, many attempts have been made to overcome such instabilities of organic electronic materials. Here, an overview is provided of the strategies developed for environmentally robust organic electronics to overcome the detrimental effects of various critical factors such as oxygen, water, chemicals, heat, and light. Additionally, molecular design approaches to π-conjugated small molecules and polymers that are highly stable under ambient and harsh conditions are explored; such materials will circumvent the need for encapsulation and provide a greater degree of freedom using simple solution-based device-fabrication techniques. Applications that are made possible through these strategies are highlighted. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Use of electronic bulletin boards for environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Rao, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of changes to existing environmental protection legislation, and the numerous changes to existing regulations that continually take place, environmental managers need updated information on federal mandated programs and regulation, approved and other mathematical models, control technologies, acceptable measurement techniques and continuing education courses. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is providing help to state and local air pollution control agencies, the regulated community, consultants and the general public through electronic bulletin boards. Each bulletin board (BB) uses data base management system and communication technology to provide access to information on several specific topics of interest to the environmental manager. This review discusses nine bulletin board systems available to the public from the EPA. Several alternative bulletin board systems are also available and will be discussed in future columns

  3. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. Development and application of dynamic hybrid multi-region inventory analysis for macro-level environmental policy analysis: a case study on climate policy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-Wei; Heijungs, Reinout; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2013-03-19

    We develop a novel inventory method called Dynamic Hybrid Multi-Region Inventory analysis (DHMRI), which integrates the EEMRIOA and Integrated Hybrid LCA and applies time-dependent environmental intervention information for inventory analysis. Consequently, DHMRI is able to quantify the change in the environmental footprint caused by a specific policy while taking structural changes and technological dynamics into consideration. DHMRI is applied to assess the change in the total CO2 emissions associated with the total final demand caused by the climate policy in Taiwan to demonstrate the practicality of this novel method. The evaluation reveals that the implementation of mitigation measures included in the existing climate policy, such as an enhancement in energy efficiency, promotion of renewable energy, and limitation of the growth of energy-intensive industries, will lead to a 28% increase in the total CO2 emissions and that the main driver is the export-oriented electronics industry. Moreover, a major increase in the total emissions is predicted to occur in Southeast Asia and China. The observations from the case study reveal that DHMRI is capable of overcoming the limitations of existing assessment tools at macro-level evaluation of environmental policies.

  5. [Policy analysis: study of public policy of environmental health in a metropolis of northeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Tereza Maciel; Araújo Júnior, José Luiz do Amaral Correa de

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of health policies has improved in Brazil despite a plethora of different methodological approaches. Based on the model developed by Walt and Gilson in 1994, the Environmental Health Program (EHP) of Recife as a policy based on the Health Promotion principles of the Unified Health System (SUS) and Agenda 21 was analyzed. An attempt was made to understand the context during the development and implementation of the EHP, the drafting process and which actors influenced the EHP agenda content and proposal. A qualitative case study was conducted, with semi-structured interviews with key actors. In terms of context, the findings include the influence of the municipal election, the socio-sanitary characteristics of Recife, the choice of the Secretary of Health and the management teams, acceptance by the technicians and the funding increase. In terms of the process, the acceptance of the managers must be stressed. Regarding the actors, the managers, sector technicians, non-sectorial actors with viability studies stood out. The content of the EHP coincided with the SUS and Health Promotion principles. Implementation was influenced by the dengue fever epidemic (2002), and cultural institutional factors that put pressure on the order of implementation of the planned actions.

  6. Quality in environmental science for policy: Assessing uncertainty as a component of policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxim, Laura; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der

    2011-01-01

    The sheer number of attempts to define and classify uncertainty reveals an awareness of its importance in environmental science for policy, though the nature of uncertainty is often misunderstood. The interdisciplinary field of uncertainty analysis is unstable; there are currently several incomplete notions of uncertainty leading to different and incompatible uncertainty classifications. One of the most salient shortcomings of present-day practice is that most of these classifications focus on quantifying uncertainty while ignoring the qualitative aspects that tend to be decisive in the interface between science and policy. Consequently, the current practices of uncertainty analysis contribute to increasing the perceived precision of scientific knowledge, but do not adequately address its lack of socio-political relevance. The 'positivistic' uncertainty analysis models (like those that dominate the fields of climate change modelling and nuclear or chemical risk assessment) have little social relevance, as they do not influence negotiations between stakeholders. From the perspective of the science-policy interface, the current practices of uncertainty analysis are incomplete and incorrectly focused. We argue that although scientific knowledge produced and used in a context of political decision-making embodies traditional scientific characteristics, it also holds additional properties linked to its influence on social, political, and economic relations. Therefore, the significance of uncertainty cannot be assessed based on quality criteria that refer to the scientific content only; uncertainty must also include quality criteria specific to the properties and roles of this scientific knowledge within political, social, and economic contexts and processes. We propose a conceptual framework designed to account for such substantive, contextual, and procedural criteria of knowledge quality. At the same time, the proposed framework includes and synthesizes the various

  7. The use of fiscal instruments in European environmental policy: review essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deketelaere, K. [University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium). Inst. for Environmental and Energy Law

    1999-08-01

    Once a government has defined its environmental goals, it can execute them by means of different policy instruments. The following environmental policy instruments can be distinguished: (1) instruments of social regulation, such as transfer of information (environmental education, environmental labels, environmental impact reports, etc.), self-regulation (environmental policy agreements, self-control), and environmental care systems; (2) instruments of financial aid, such as subsidies, soft loans, and fiscal incentives (investment deduction, tax reduction and tax exemption); (3) instruments of planning such as macro-planning and micro-planning, binding planning and non-binding planning, sectoral planning and non-sectoral planning; (4) instruments of direct regulation, such as permits, prohibitions and restrictions, and different sorts of requirements (quality-demands, product-demands, emission-demands, design demands, construction demands and production demands); (5) instruments of market regulation, such as liability rules, marketable emission rights, deposit and refund system, enforcement incentives and environmental levies. In this contribution, each of these environmental policy instruments is analyzed in general. After that, the instruments which have already been used in European environmental policy are examined. Finally, attention paid to the use of fiscal instruments in European environmental policy. 80 refs.

  8. Economic instruments for environmental policy making in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barg, S.; Duraiappah, A.; Van Exan, S.

    2000-01-01

    The conditions and approaches required for a successful implementation of economic instruments in Ontario are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of economic instruments are discussed, as are some design issues. Some best practices and practical experiences from Canada, the United States, and Europe are examined through the use of nine specific case studies. Each one highlights a different environmental challenge, such as energy efficiency, air pollution, water pollution, waste management along with the solutions that were implemented. The situations described were not all successful, but there is much to be learned from unsuccessful episodes. Lessons learned from the review of the case studies were presented. The points to ponder when using economic instruments in Ontario were highlighted. The command and control policy instrument must be kept in context when considering economic instruments. The reasons that underline the preference of the economic theory for economic instruments are discussed. The different types of economic instruments are described, and the considerations related to the design and comparison of economic instruments is briefly discussed. The authors concluded with several points to ponder: there are a number of options available, details must not be neglected, consultation with the interested parties is important, there is a need for frequent reassessment, and using a number of instruments is helpful. 55 refs., tabs., figs

  9. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  10. Sustainability or profitability? How communicated motives for environmental policy affect public perceptions of corporate greenwashing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de vries, G; Terwel, B; Ellemers, Naomi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086631276; Daamen, D.

    Companies in the energy sector face a dilemma regarding how to communicate their environmental policies to the public. Communicating that environmental policies and activities are motivated by concern for the environment could elicit positive reactions, but may also lead to accusations of corporate

  11. A paler shade of green : Environmental policy under induced technical change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Maria, C.; Smulders, Sjak

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wisdom argues that environmental policy is less costly if it induces the development of cleaner technologies. In contrast to this argument, we show that once the second-best nature of actual economies is taken into account, the cost of environmental policy may well be larger with

  12. Grasping the Nettle: The Evolution of Australian Archives Electronic Records Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Examines issues in electronic records management from an archival perspective and illustrates points by referring to policy development at the Australian Archives. Describes the Australian Archives; outlines its strategy for managing electronic records; discusses policy response; preservation of format versus virtual records; and records creation,…

  13. Secondary electron interactions in materials with environmental and radiological interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Blanco, F.; Pablos, J.L. de; Perez, J.M.; Williart, A.

    2003-01-01

    Important environmental and radiological applications require energy deposition models including the interactions between secondary electrons and the atoms or molecules of the medium. In this work we propose a method to obtain reliable cross-section data to be used in these models by combining total and ionization cross-section measurements with simple calculations of the differential and integral elastic cross-sections. The energy loss spectra obtained in this experiment have been also used to drive stopping power of the considered materials for electrons. Some examples of results for atomic (Xe) and molecular (CF 4 ) targets are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skarda, Vlad

    2017-01-01

    EuCARD-2 Workshop, 8-9 December 2016, Warsaw, Poland. Organizers: Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK CERN - The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Poland, Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, Germany, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. An article presents short information about EuCARD-2 Workshop “Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications”, which was held in December 2016 in Warsaw. Objectives, main topics and expected output of meeting are described. List of organizers is included.

  15. The Political Ecology of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy across Global-National Divides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahelin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of global and national (Brazilian) Environmental and Sustainability Education (ESE) policies in historical perspectives. My overall objectives are two-fold: First, to understand how global ESE policy frameworks have evolved ideologically over time--a concept I refer to as ESE policy trajectories; and…

  16. Strategies for achieving environmental policy integration at the landscape level. A framework illustrated with an analysis of landscape governance in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, van Cora; Uzamukunda, Assumpta; Runhaar, Hens

    2018-01-01

    Environmental Policy Integration (EPI) refers to the incorporation of environmental concerns into sectoral policies in order to reduce policy incoherence and achieve synergies to more effectively address environmental problems such as environmental degradation. Landscape governance can be considered

  17. Competition policies and environmental quality: Empirical analysis of the electricity sector in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asane-Otoo, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, electricity markets across OECD countries have been subjected to profound structural changes with far-reaching implications on the economy and the environment. This paper investigates the effect of restructuring – changes in entry regulations, the degree of vertical integration and ownership structure – on GHG emissions. The findings show that competition policies – particularly reducing the degree of vertical integration and increasing privatization – correlate negatively with emission intensity. However, the environmental effect of reducing market entry barriers is generally insignificant. Integration of competition and stringent environmental policies are required to reduce GHG emissions and improve environmental quality. - Highlights: •Empirical study on competition policies and GHG emissions from the electricity sector. •Product market regulation scores for OECD countries are used to measure the extent of competition. •Evidence of a positive relationship between competition policies and environmental quality. •Integration of competition and stringent environmental policies is recommended.

  18. Curricular Critique of an Environmental Education Policy Framework: Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas D. Karrow

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper is a curricular critique of an environmental education policy framework called Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow (2009. It is founded upon: (a an examination of the conventional argument for integrated curriculum models and its relevance to K-12 environmental education; and (b utilization of a typology of integrated curriculum models to analyze an environmental education policy framework within the jurisdiction of Ontario, Canada. In conclusion, Ontario’s environmental education policy framework tends toward an integrated curriculum model referred to as ‘selective infusion.’  The implications for integrated curricular practice are identified, with recommendations for improving the policy framework from an integrated curricular perspective.     Key Words: environmental education, integrated curriculum, curriculum critique, education policy.

  19. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  20. Human ecology. Foundations of preventive environmental policy. Humanoekologie. Grundlagen praeventiver Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, B [ed.

    1989-01-01

    Can human ecology contribute towards originating a preventive environmental policy. Following a discussion of the demands of preventive environmental policy between theory and practice, the book presents the scientific approach 'human ecology' from a social-scientific angle. Then the question of the foundation in environmentally-related ethics is dealt with. The application and realizability of human-ecological considerations are tested with reference to different sectors of politics, and positive and negative indications of the chances of realization of a preventive environmental policy are discussed. (orig.).

  1. U. S. environmental policy - trends and options. Die USA-Umweltpolitik: Trends und Optionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenthaler, K C [Akron Univ., OH (United States) Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    1991-01-01

    U.S. environmental policy has a turbulent history. Although Americans strongly express themselves in favor of the preservation of the environment, elections do not always reflect this attitude. Thus, the policy of the seventies, which was based on strict environmental regulation, was followed by deregulation under Reagan. Environmental responsibility was shifted from the federal to the governmental level where economic interests tend to dominate and where financial means for the environment are insufficient. The environmental policy which has come on stronger in recent years is mainly based on market-oriented methods. Academic discussion about the preservation and improvement of the environment goes on and continues to bring forth different proposals. (orig.).

  2. General theory for environmental effects on (vertical) electronic excitation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Tobias

    2016-10-21

    Almost 70 years ago, the first theoretical model for environmental effects on electronic excitation energies has been derived. Since then, several different interpretations and refined models have been proposed for the perichromic shift of a chromophore due to its surrounding medium. Some of these models are contradictory. Here, the contributing terms are derived within the framework of long-range perturbation theory with the least approximations so far. The derivation is based on a state-specific interpretation of the interaction energies and all terms can be identified with individual properties of either the chromophore or the surroundings, respectively. Further, the much debated contribution due to transition moments coupled to the environment can be verified in the form of a non-resonant excitonic coupling to the dynamic polarizabilities in the environment. These general insights should clarify discussions and interpretations of environmental effects on electronic excitations and should foster the development of new models for the computation of these effects.

  3. Social Environmental Correlates of Health Behaviors in a Faith-Based Policy and Environmental Change Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermstad, April; Honeycutt, Sally; Flemming, Shauna StClair; Carvalho, Michelle L; Hodge, Tarccara; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle C; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2018-03-01

    Diet and physical activity are behavioral risk factors for many chronic diseases, which are among the most common health conditions in the United States. Yet most Americans fall short of meeting established dietary and physical activity guidelines. Faith-based organizations as settings for health promotion interventions can affect members at multiple levels of the social ecological model. The present study investigated whether change in the church social environment was associated with healthier behavior at church and in general at 1-year follow-up. Six churches received mini-grants and technical assistance for 1 year to support policy and environmental changes for healthy eating (HE) and physical activity (PA). Socioenvironmental (social support and social norms) and behavioral (HE and PA at church and in general) outcomes were derived from baseline and 1-year follow-up church member surveys ( n = 258). Three of six churches demonstrated significant improvements in all three socioenvironmental aspects of HE. Two of five churches exhibited significant socioenvironmental improvements for PA at follow-up. Church social environmental changes were related to health behaviors at church and in general ( p Change in social support for HE, social support for PA, and social norms for PA were each associated with three church-based and general behavioral outcomes. Social norms for healthy eating were related to two general behavior outcomes and social norms for unhealthy eating to one general behavioral outcome. Study findings demonstrate that socioenvironmental characteristics are essential to multilevel interventions and merit consideration in designing policy and environmental change interventions.

  4. Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, Edward; Gai, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    An environmental cell high resolution electron microscope (EHREM) has been developed for in situ studies of dynamic chemical reactions on the atomic scale. It allows access to metastable intermediate phases of catalysts and to sequences of reversible microstructural and chemical development associated with the activation, deactivation and poisoning of a catalyst. Materials transported through air can be restored or recreated and samples damaged, e.g. by dehydration, by the usual vacuum enviro...

  5. Creative Uses of Custom Electronics for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to build custom electronic devices specifically suited to a unique task has gotten easier and cheaper, thanks to the recent popularity of open source electronics platforms like Arduino. Using Arduino-based processor boards, we have been creating a variety of helpful devices to perform functions that would have been too expensive to implement with standard methods and commercial hardware. The Christina River Basin CZO is currently operating dozens of homemade dataloggers that are connected to different types of environmental sensors. Most of these Arduino loggers have been deployed for over a year, so our experiences with them and their sensors have taught us a lot about the reliability and accuracy of both the loggers and the sensors. Some loggers also have the capability for wireless radio or ethernet data transmission for reporting live data to web sites for instant graphing or archiving. Other Arduino devices have the ability to be controlled remotely through web sites or telephones, making it easy to remotely trigger sample pumps or valves. The open-source nature of Arduino means collaboration is easy because the circuit schematics and source code for programming the boards can be shared between users. And because Arduino devices are easy to use and program, we developed an interface board that allows educators to easily connect a variety of inexpensive environmental sensors to an Arduino board. Then the students can write and upload simple programs to interact with the sensors, making it a very effective tool for teaching electronics and environmental science at the same time. The flexibility and capability of electronics prototyping platforms like Arduino mean these simple boards can cheaply and effectively perform a countless number of tasks for projects in environmental science and education.

  6. Making offshore industries greener: negotiating environmental policy in the Dutch oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinssen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the negotiations between the Dutch Government and the oil and gas sector regarding environmental measures for the offshore industry are analysed. Dutch environmental policy is presently being developed via 'Target Group Management'. The instrument used in this approach is policy negotiations, resulting in covenants. By signing a covenant, both government and industry take responsibility for the development and implementation of a realistic environmental policy. Negotiating environmental policies, however, can be problematic. This relates to the delay in obtaining an integrated approach to environmental problems. It is not unlikely that, in the four years required for the negotiation process, a legally binding environmental law might also have been developed. It is concluded that the value of the covenant mainly depends on the goodwill of the parties involved. (Author)

  7. Environmental policy, fuel prices and the switching to natural gas in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coria, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    In this study I analyzed the role of environmental policies and energy cost savings on the pattern of switching to natural gas by stationary sources in Chile. According to the data most of the switching was induced by the lower cost of natural gas, although environmental policies played a small role and showed that sources were more sensitive to the cost of energy than to the environmental regulation. (author)

  8. Strategic environmental assessment policy integration model for solid waste management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, Dennis; Agamuthu, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We identified policy drivers of SEA in solid waste policy planning. • The SEA primary policy drivers are benefits, barriers and enablers need. • The SEA sub-drivers are environmental attitude and environmental awareness. • Optimal SEA policy integration requires public participation and capacity building. • SEA integration should be a long-term sustainable policy strategy for SWM. -- Abstract: This paper examines the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) systemic policy drivers for solid waste management (SWM) policies, plans and programmes (PPP) in Malaysia. Solid waste generation in Malaysia has been increasing drastically from 9.0 million tonnes in 2000 to an expected 15.6 million tonnes in 2020. This projected rate of solid waste generation is expected to burden the country's environmental and water quality resources. The key problem the study frames is the lack of environmental integration in the SWM process which is only conducted during the environmental impact assessments (EIA) stage of SWM facilities. The purpose of this study is to expand the SEA subject knowledge by validating a behaviour based theoretical framework and identifying key policy drivers that influence the integration of SEA in SWM policy planning. The study methodology utilized a confirmatory covariance based structural equation modelling approach to validate the proposed theoretical model based on the policy makers/implementers interview questionnaire data collection. The study findings indicate five latent SEA policy drivers which were named policy knowledge, environmental attitude, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and perceived enablers. The study has conceptualized and tested a SEA policy model which indicates that SEA integration behaviour is influenced directly by three main drivers (perception of benefits, perception of barriers and perception of enablers) and influenced indirectly by two sub-drivers environmental attitude and environmental knowledge

  9. Environmental policy-making networks and the future of the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Roberts, J. Timmons

    2008-01-01

    This article examines four periods of environmental policy-making in the Amazonian region of Brazil. It specifically analyses the role of pro-environment and pro-development policy networks in affecting policy design and implementation. It argues that the efforts of environmentalist networks trying to advocate or block relative developmentalist policies in the Amazon depend on three critical factors - whether they are able to attract the support of elites (or at least block their developmenta...

  10. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: Socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmental policy and claimed to serve sustainability goals. They are considered to serve (proclaimed) public interests, while the adverse impact or risk that mainly concerns environmental values as well is concentrated at a smaller scale, for example in local communities. The social acceptance of environmental policy infrastructure is institutionally determined. The institutional capacity for learning in infrastructure decision-making processes in the following three domains is compared: 1.The implementation of wind power as a renewable energy innovation; 2.The policy on space-water adaptation, with its claim to implement a new style of management replacing the current practice of focusing on control and 'hard' infrastructure; 3.Waste policy with a focus on sound waste management and disposal, claiming a preference for waste minimization (the 'waste management hierarchy'). All three cases show a large variety of social acceptance issues, where the appraisal of the impact of siting the facilities is confronted with the desirability of the policies. In dealing with environmental conflict, the environmental capacity of the Netherlands appears to be low. The policies are frequently hotly contested within the process of infrastructure decision-making. Decision-making on infrastructure is often framed as if consensus about the objectives of environmental policies exists. These claims are not justified, and therefore stimulating the emergence of environmental conflicts that discourage social acceptance of the policies. Authorities are frequently involved in planning infrastructure that conflicts with their officially proclaimed policy objectives. In these circumstances, they are

  11. Energy price, Environmental policy, and technological bias of photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambouli, A. Boudghene; Larbi, N.; Traversa, E.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is the most important resource for the development of a country and the utilisation of energy per capita is increasing tremendously. In fact energy security, economic growth and environmental protection (the three E's) are the national energy policy drivers of any country of the world. Utilisation on conventional energy will course environment pollution such as major environmental accidents, water pollution, maritime pollution, land use and sitting impact, radiation and radioactivity, solid waste disposal, hazardous air pollutions, ambient air quality (CO, CO2, SOx, NOx effluent gas emissions), acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. The world's energy consumption today is estimated to 40 billion kWh per year, about 10 billion metric tons carbon equivalent of greenhouse gas emission are released in the atmosphere to meet this energy demand. Approximately 80% is due to carbon emissions from the combustion of energy fuels. In fact 14 billion tons of greenhouse gas, that contributes to global warming entered the atmosphere in 2003. World Energy Council (WEC) study found that without any change in our current practice, the world energy demand expectation in 2020 would be 53 billion kWh or 50 to 80% higher than 1990 levels. Such ever-increasing demand could place significant strain on the current energy infrastructure and potentially damage the world environment and people's health with over 700.000 deaths resulting each year, according to the World Bank. World emissions of carbon are expected to increase by 54% above 1990 levels by 2020 making the earth likely a warm 1.7-4.9 degree centigrade over the period 1990-2100. During the past century, global surface temperatures have increased at a rate near 0.6 degree centigrade/century. This trend has dramatically increased during the past 25 years and the average temperature of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans has risen by 0.06 degree centigrade since 1995. Global temperatures in 2001were

  12. THE JEOPARDIZED SITUATION OF ELECTRONIC WASTE IN BANGLADESH: CAN CUSTOMIZED POLICY APPROACH SOLVE THE CHALLENGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Md. Bahauddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amountonly 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills,  rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  13. Analyzing the environmental impacts of laptop enclosures using screening-level life cycle assessment to support sustainable consumer electronics (j/a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The market growth of consumer electronics makes it essential for industries and policy-makers to work together to develop sustainable products. The objective of this study is to better understand how to promote environmentally sustainable consumer electronics by examining the use...

  14. After the Conference of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. The principles of the state environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The realization of the Slovak Strategy, principles and priorities of state environmental policy determinate implementation and observance of then principles of the state environmental policy. These principles are reviewed

  15. Miniaturized Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope for In Situ Planetary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Abbott, Terry; Medley, Stephanie; Gregory, Don; Thaisen, Kevin; Taylor , Lawrence; Ramsey, Brian; Jerman, Gregory; Sampson, Allen; Harvey, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of remote planetary surfaces calls for the advancement of low power, highly-miniaturized instrumentation. Instruments of this nature that are capable of multiple types of analyses will prove to be particularly useful as we prepare for human return to the moon, and as we continue to explore increasingly remote locations in our Solar System. To this end, our group has been developing a miniaturized Environmental-Scanning Electron Microscope (mESEM) capable of remote investigations of mineralogical samples through in-situ topographical and chemical analysis on a fine scale. The functioning of an SEM is well known: an electron beam is focused to nanometer-scale onto a given sample where resulting emissions such as backscattered and secondary electrons, X-rays, and visible light are registered. Raster scanning the primary electron beam across the sample then gives a fine-scale image of the surface topography (texture), crystalline structure and orientation, with accompanying elemental composition. The flexibility in the types of measurements the mESEM is capable of, makes it ideally suited for a variety of applications. The mESEM is appropriate for use on multiple planetary surfaces, and for a variety of mission goals (from science to non-destructive analysis to ISRU). We will identify potential applications and range of potential uses related to planetary exploration. Over the past few of years we have initiated fabrication and testing of a proof-of-concept assembly, consisting of a cold-field-emission electron gun and custom high-voltage power supply, electrostatic electron-beam focusing column, and scanning-imaging electronics plus backscatter detector. Current project status will be discussed. This effort is funded through the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences - Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program.

  16. Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Babu, Balakrishnan; Parande, Anand Kuber; Ahmed Basha, Chiya

    2007-08-01

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste recycling, including a description of how it is generated and classified, strategies and technologies for recovering materials, and new scientific developments related to these activities. Finally, the e-waste recycling industry in India is also discussed.

  17. Environmental control policy change in the EU between ideas and reality; Umweltpolitischer Steuerungswechsel in der EU zwischen Ideen und Realitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heumader, Katja

    2014-07-01

    The study on the environmental policy change in the EU covers the following issues: theoretical frame work: the scientific policy debate on political control and governance; boom of ideas: development in the discussion on European environmental policy; discrepancies: the change of political control between intention and realization; case studies: EU policy concerning the enhancement of energy efficiency, the groundwater guideline, waste policy and waste stream priorities, the European emission trading system, access to jurisdiction for environmental issues, the soil protection guideline.

  18. Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S. [Agricultural Economics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Rodriguez, A.G. [University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs.

  19. Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S.; Rodriguez, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs

  20. Pollution control through innovation and technological development. Environmental policy concepts of the BDI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, E

    1987-02-01

    Increasing acceptance of pollution control tasks call for enhanced innovative power both of industry and politics. One pre-requisite of boosting innovation is an environmental policy concept fit into the framework of the economic policy: A clear environmental strategy stating priorities and foreseeable, fixed data for the required adjustment of industry, selection of pollution control measures by means of verifiable cost-benefit analyses in cooperation with industry, embedding environmental policy in the context of the free market system and harmonization of means and methods on an international level. (orig./HSCH).

  1. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  2. Evaluation and development of a policy for waste generation control - electric and electronic waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Although a policy to reduce waste amount and promote recycling for large electric appliances was introduced, it is still in the initial stage operated in a form of recommendation and the general management system of electric and electronic waste has not established yet. In this study, the generation and disposal of electric and electronic waste were examined and the effectiveness of present policy was evaluated. Based on the analysis, a policy for the more appropriate electric and electronic waste management was presented. 34 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  3. Environmetal report 2016. Impulses for an integrative environmental policy; Umweltgutachten 2016. Impulse fuer eine integrative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-08-01

    The ecological challenges in the EU and Germany are so large that they can no longer simply be addressed using the remedial and even the technically-oriented, preventive environmental protection measures of the past. In relation to climate protection and many other fields, impacts on natural ecosystems must be substantially reduced in order to ensure that key ecosystem services remain functional. Yet, environmental policies continue to encounter stiff opposition, which is targeted at supposedly unnecessary regulatory burdens and restrictions. Opponents of environmental protection claim that environmental policies jeopardize the competitiveness of the German industrial and agricultural sectors by imposing unduly high costs. Or they bring up social issues, such as the current housing crisis or energy poverty, as arguments against an effective environmental policy. Such arguments call for nuanced assessments - and in some cases should be clearly rejected. Defusing such conflicts calls for approaches that promote compromise and that appeal to the general public. In the Environmental Report 2016, the German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU) sets itself the task of addressing this challenge, by focusing on six key topics. What these topics all have in common is that they exhibit tensions between environmental and economic or social policy goals. The Environmental Report aims to stimulate ideas about environmental oriented reforms and approaches to managing these issues which cut across policy fields.

  4. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, R. César; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environmental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government. - Highlights: ► Bioeconomic optimization model predicts how biomass production affects environment. ► Rising biomass production could impair climate and water quality. ► Environmental protection policies compared as biomass supply grows. ► Carbon price protects the environment cost-effectively as biomass supply expands

  6. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO 2 . • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  7. Three essays in transportation energy and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiamiri, Sara

    Concerns about climate change, dependence on oil, and unstable gasoline prices have led to significant efforts by policymakers to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and oil consumption. The transportation sector is one of the principle emitters of CO2 in the US. It accounts for two-thirds of total U.S. oil consumption and is almost entirely dependent on oil. Within the transportation sector, the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet is the main culprit. It is responsible for more than 65 percent of the oil used and for more than 60 percent of total GHG emissions. If a significant fraction of the LDV fleet is gradually replaced by more fuel-efficient technologies, meaningful reductions in GHG emissions and oil consumption will be achieved. This dissertation investigates the potential benefits and impacts of deploying more fuel-efficient vehicles in the LDV fleet. Findings can inform decisions surrounding the development and deployment of the next generation of LDVs. The first essay uses data on 2003 and 2006 model gasoline-powered passenger cars, light trucks and sport utility vehicles to investigate the implicit private cost of improving vehicle fuel efficiencies through reducing other desired attributes such as weight (that is valued for its perceived effect on personal safety) and horsepower. Breakeven gasoline prices that would justify the estimated implicit costs were also calculated. It is found that to justify higher fuel efficiency standards from a consumer perspective, either the external benefits need to be very large or technological advances will need to greatly reduce fuel efficiency costs. The second essay estimates the private benefits and societal impacts of electric vehicles. The findings from the analysis contribute to policy deliberations on how to incentivize the purchase and production of these vehicles. A spreadsheet model was developed to estimate the private benefits and societal impacts of purchasing and utilizing three electric vehicle

  8. Development of an electronic nose for environmental odour monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Del Rosso, Renato; Zanetti, Sonia; Della Torre, Matteo

    2012-10-25

    Exhaustive odour impact assessment should involve the evaluation of the impact of odours directly on citizens. For this purpose it might be useful to have an instrument capable of continuously monitoring ambient air quality, detecting the presence of odours and also recognizing their provenance. This paper discusses the laboratory and field tests conducted in order to evaluate the performance of a new electronic nose, specifically developed for monitoring environmental odours. The laboratory tests proved the instrument was able to discriminate between the different pure substances being tested, and to estimate the odour concentrations giving correlation indexes (R2) of 0.99 and errors below 15%. Finally, the experimental monitoring tests conducted in the field, allowed us to verify the effectiveness of this electronic nose for the continuous detection of odours in ambient air, proving its stability to variable atmospheric conditions and its capability to detect odour peaks.

  9. Essays on environmental policy analysis: Computable general equilibrium approaches applied to Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays within the field of applied environmental economics, with the common basic aim of analyzing effects of Swedish environmental policy. Starting out from Swedish environmental goals, the thesis assesses a range of policy-related questions. The objective is to quantify policy outcomes by constructing and applying numerical models especially designed for environmental policy analysis. Static and dynamic multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium models are developed in order to analyze the following issues. The costs and benefits of a domestic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) tax reform. Special attention is given to how these costs and benefits depend on the structure of the tax system and, furthermore, how they depend on policy-induced changes in 'secondary' pollutants. The effects of allowing for emission permit trading through time when the domestic long-term domestic environmental goal is specified in CO 2 stock terms. The effects on long-term projected economic growth and welfare that are due to damages from emission flow and accumulation of 'local' pollutants (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), as well as the outcome of environmental policy when costs and benefits are considered in an integrated environmental-economic framework

  10. PROFILE: Environmental Impact Assessment Under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger; McCold; Webb

    1999-07-01

    / Antarctica has been set aside by the international community for protection as a natural reserve and a place for scientific research. Through the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, the signing nations agreed to cooperate in protecting the antarctic environment, in conducting scientific studies, and in abstaining from the exercise of territorial claims. The 1991 signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (Protocol) by representatives of the 26 nations comprising the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (Parties) significantly strengthened environmental protection measures for the continent. The Protocol required ratification by each of the governments individually prior to official implementation. The US government ratified the Protocol by passage of the Antarctic Science, Tourism, and Conservation Act of 1997. Japan completed the process by ratifying the Protocol on December 15, 1997. US government actions undertaken in Antarctica are subject to the requirements of both the Protocol and the US National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). There are differences in the scope and intent of the Protocol and NEPA; however, both require environmental impact assessment (EIA) as part of the planning process for proposed actions that have the potential for environmental impacts. In this paper we describe the two instruments and highlight key similarities and differences with particular attention to EIA. Through this comparison of the EIA requirements of NEPA and the Protocol, we show how the requirements of each can be used in concert to provide enhanced environmental protection for the antarctic environment. NEPA applies only to actions of the US government; therefore, because NEPA includes certain desirable attributes that have been refined and clarified through numerous court cases, and because the Protocol is just entering implementation internationally, some recommendations are made for strengthening the procedural requirements of the Protocol

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in China: policies and recommendations for sound management of plastics from electronic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kun; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Shi, Yajuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xu, Li; Li, Qiushuang; Liu, Shijie

    2013-01-30

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), used as flame retardants (BFRs), are incorporated in plastics of most electronic equipment. Among BFR mixtures, deca-BDE is the most widely used commercial additive in the polymer industry and the use of deca-BDE is currently not subject to any restrictions in China. However, debate over environmental and health risks associated with deca-BDE still remains. Regulatory agencies in developed countries have adopted and/or established environmentally sound strategies for the management of potential threat posed by PBDEs to the environment and human health. No regulations or management policies for PBDEs currently exist in China at either central or provincial government levels. Large amounts of plastics containing PBDEs are still in use and must be disposed of after their lifetimes, creating outdoor reservoirs for the future dispersal of PBDEs into the environment. Concerted action is needed not only to regulate the production and use of PBDEs but also to find ways to effectively manage waste electrical and electronic products that contain PBDEs. This article is the first to investigate the policy issues and current problems related to the use of PBDEs in China. In addition, we estimate the mass flows of PBDEs contained in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in China. We suggest alternatives to PBDEs and sound management of plastics used in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) that contain PBDEs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  13. Environmental Equity and the Role of Public Policy: Experiences in the Rijnmond Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruize, Hanneke; Driessen, Peter P. J.; Glasbergen, Pieter; van Egmond, Klaas (N. D.)

    2007-10-01

    This Φ Ψ study of environmental equity uses secondary quantitative data to analyze socioeconomic disparities in environmental conditions in the Rijnmond region of the Netherlands. The disparities of selected environmental indicators—exposure to traffic noise (road, rail, and air), NO2, external safety risks, and the availability of public green space—are analyzed both separately and in combination. Not only exposures to environmental burdens (“bads”) were investigated, but also access to environmental benefits (“goods”). Additionally, we held interviews and reviewed documents to grasp the mechanisms underlying the environmental equity situation, with an emphasis on the role of public policy. Environmental equity is not a priority in public policy for the greater Rotterdam region known as the Rijnmond region, yet environmental standards have been established to provide a minimum environmental quality to all local residents. In general, environmental quality has improved in this region, and the accumulation of negative environmental outcomes (“bads”) has been limited. However, environmental standards for road traffic noise and NO2 are being exceeded, probably because of the pressure on space and the traffic intensity. We found an association of environmental “bads” with income for rail traffic noise and availability of public green space. In the absence of regulation, positive environmental outcomes (“goods”) are mainly left up to market forces. Consequently, higher-income groups generally have more access to environmental “goods” than lower-income groups.

  14. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, T.A.

    1998-08-01

    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors

  15. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Community Involvement and Issues Management Dept.; Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors.

  16. Privatizing policy: Market solutions to energy and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroup, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses how and why privatization can improve policy, not only in terms of managing production, but also in terms of regulation. Three major aspects of privatization are discussed. The importance for the environment of economic efficiency and prosperity is examined. The role of private law and a rights-based policy for controlling pollution is considered. Finally the claim that privatization would replace farsighted government decisions with shortsighted decisions by owners is examined. 83 refs., 2 figs

  17. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to

  18. Global warming and options for China: energy and environmental policy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Gan.

    1990-09-01

    This report attempts to give a comprehensive review of current perspectives on energy/environmental problems and policies in China during the last ten years. The second chapter serves as a starting point by giving a general background of the characteristics of economic development and major policy changes in China during the last ten years (1979-89). The third chapter analyzes the characteristics and problems of energy demand and supply in China by breaking down different economic sectors (industry, agriculture, transportation and residential/commercial sectors). The fourth chapter focuses on the problems of CO 2 emissions by giving a historical review of CO 2 emissions by linking up the impact of economic policies and political development in the country during 1950-89. The fifth chapter is mostly devoted to describing policy performance within government environmental policy-making and implementation in the last ten years. Finally, the report concludes by giving several policy recommendations. (Quittner)

  19. Economic and environmental performance of alternative policy measures to reduce nutrient surpluses in Finnish agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. LEHTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an economic sector level analysis of the effectiveness of different policy measures in decreasing nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P surpluses from agriculture in order to reduce nutrient runoff from agricultural fields to watercourses and to improve water quality of surface waters. Assuming no changes in the EU level policies after CAP reform 2003 we focus on national level policy measures such as full or partial de-coupling of national support from production, payments for reduced nutrient surpluses of N and P, and N fertiliser tax. None of the analysed policy measures is superior one with respect to environmental performance, since full decoupling of national support would be the most effective in reducing P surpluses while payment for reduced nutrient surplus performed best with respect to N surpluses. Economic performance (farmers’ compliance cost per %-reduction of N or P surplus of full and partial de-coupling of national support is clearly better than that of specialised agri-environmental policy instruments, because both decoupling scenarios result in the increase of farmers’ income in comparison to base scenario, and thus compliance costs are in fact negative in these two cases. Our analysis confirms the fact that the overall policy package matters a lot for the effectiveness of agrienvironmental policy measures. Environmental performance of agri-environmental policy measures may be significantly reduced, if they are implemented jointly with production coupled income support policies. Thus, in order to increase the effectiveness of agri-environmental policy measures agricultural income support policies should be decoupled from production and this alone would bring substantial reduction in nutrient surpluses.;

  20. A Security plan for LMOs - concentrated on environmental policy of Biosafety Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Biotechnology industry in Korea is raised by the national support. Also, Korea imports 70% of entire agricultural products. Considering the present situation in Korea, signing a Biosafety Protocol is necessary to prevent harm by LMOs and to protect associated biotechnological industry. Therefore, the problems on signing Biosafety Protocol were analyzed and the environmental policy to be pursued was proposed. This study result will be a cornerstone to prepare a definite environmental policy by government. 54 refs., 7 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. The role of government commitment for environmental policy and capital movements.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiliani, L.; Renström, T. I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between environmental protection and international capital movements, when tax policy is endogenous (through voting). A two-period general equilibrium model of a small open economy is specified to compare the effects of two different constitutions (commitment or no commitment in tax policy), as well as income inequality. Under the commitment regime, the equilibrium is characterised by a lower labour tax, higher environmental tax and less cap...

  2. Integrating rather than juxtaposing environmental policy and the internal market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Koutrakos, Panos; Snell, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to the research handbook on the internal market describes and analyses the case law on environmental measures that impact the internal market and notably the free movement of goods. It argues that an integration may be better for both environmental protection and market

  3. 77 FR 35471 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... determined do not individually or cumulatively have significant effects on the human or natural environment and thus, do not require the preparation of an environmental assessment (EA) or environmental impact... have significant impacts on the human or natural environment. The Substantiation Document is available...

  4. Environmental Policy Tools: A User’s Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Vitenza ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF Senior Analyst Intern Kathleen Bell Office Administrator Jan Linsenmeyer Research Analyst Nellie Hammond Administrative...Environmental Law Re- ment 35(1), 1993. view 4(86):100-103, 1980. 92. Knox, R.J., "Environmental Equity," Jour- 102. Leyden , P., "RECLAIM: Los Angeles

  5. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements § 91... that any state, local, or tribal environmental impact review requirements similar to the Federal NEPA...

  6. The evolution of the ecological policy and the environmental law of the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietinger, A.

    1998-08-01

    This thesis is structured chronologically starting with the origins of a European environment policy. These origins can be found in the foundation treaty of the European Community but are not explicitly codified. The thesis shows that the emphasis on economics in the European Community turned from acceptance of an environment policy as a marginal phenomenon to valuation of environmental policies as a principle of its own. The focus is on the contents of the EC Trial. The normative structure on which the environmental policy is built on aims of making clear that not only political declarations without any codification are made, but that the environment is a field of community activity to be taken seriously. Special attention is given the aim of economic growth and its incompatibles environmental policies. Convergence can only be reached if EC Member States use their potential of cooperation and are ready to make their contribution. A special chapter deals with the competence of member states concerning environmental policies. As contracting partners to GATT, member states of the European Union represent a very large portion of world trade, we have to make sure environmental policy is given the right place it deserves in free world trade. A summary and final reflections are included in the last part of the thesis. (author)

  7. Expert views on scientific policy advice on complex environmental health issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, P.

    2016-01-01

    Fact-based policies grounded in solid uncontested scientific evidence: this may sound as the ideal relation between science and policy. However, this ideal rarely holds for complex environmental health risks. When scientific knowledge is contested or incomplete, scientists can take different roles

  8. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.; Liu, Y.; Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to

  9. Environmental Policy Convergence in Europe : the impact of international institutions and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzinger, K.; Knill, C.; Arts, B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Has globalisation led to a convergence in policy-making across nations and, if so, what are the causal mechanisms? This book analyses the extent to which the environmental policies of nation states have converged over the last thirty years and whether this convergence led to a strengthening

  10. The impact of foresight on environmental science and technology policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Barend

    1999-01-01

    Globalisation, high tech development and environmental issues have made policy makers aware again of the possibilities of future studies for policy making. However, the lack of systematic knowledge about their impact is a major obstruction to a proper use of future studies. Especially since future

  11. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  12. The process of developing policy based on global environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief presentation is given on developing policy based on a global environmental risk assessment. The author looks at the global warming issue as if it were a formal problem in risk assessment. He uses that framework to make one or two suggestions as to how the interaction of policy and research might evolve as the climate convention progresses

  13. Asian energy and environmental policy: Promoting growth while preserving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongxiang

    2008-01-01

    Asia has experienced spectacular economic growth over the past two decades. However, this economic progress has come at a high cost. It has led to unprecedented environmental consequences. So this region needs to shift the conventional pattern of 'develop first and then treat the pollution' to a trajectory of sustainable development. To that end, this paper examines a variety of policy responses, at national, regional and international levels, to deal with growing concerns about the environmental challenges in Asia. In the context of national responses, special attention is paid to the following issues: coordination between the central and local governments, market-based environmental instruments and industrial policies, tougher emissions standards for mobile and stationary sources and fuel quality, policies to promote energy efficiency and the use of clean energy and biofuels, the integration of environmental policies with economic and sectoral policies, and engagement of the private sector through e.g., ecolabelling, green government procurement, corporate ratings and disclosure programs, and drawing the support of financial institutions to promote improved corporate environmental performance. The paper concludes that having the right policy mix, coupled with strengthened cooperation at national, local and regional levels, will ensure continuing economic growth in the region without compromising its limited ecological-carrying capacity and environmental quality

  14. The Policy Use of Environmental Indicators - Learning from Evaluation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    indicators and monitoring systems are increasingly used, but what does the use of indicators mean for policymaking? The article exploits indicator theory and the evaluation research literature to develop an analytical framework so as to study the policy uses of indicators. The paper then provides...... system and partly to the lack of accountability mechanisms. The article concludes that the analytical framework and the concepts derived from evaluation research are useful starting points, but that further research should extend the analysis to other policy contexts (national or local) and broaden...

  15. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaronen, Roope O

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition 'to the brain,' focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude-action, value-action or knowledge-action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio-ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio-ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio-ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit between local

  16. Connecting reason to power : Assessments, learning, and environmental policy integration in Swedish energy policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to understanding what makes a policymaking system better at integrating sustainability concerns into its processes. Three questions are in focus. First, how can policy integration be understood analytically and what is its actual status in sector policy?

  17. A study of the influence of regional environmental expenditure on air quality in China: the effectiveness of environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingyun; Wu, Meng; Wang, Deqing; Zhong, Zhangqi

    2018-03-01

    Based on the panel data model, data on environmental expenditures, the air quality index, economic aggregates, industrial structures, etc., of seven seriously polluted cities in China, from the period 2007-2015, were collected, and this paper estimates the general relationship between environmental expenditures and the air quality index. Besides, the impact of the fuel tax policy on air quality as well as on the relationship between environmental expenditure and the air quality index is tested using the method of regression discontinuity. We find that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between environmental expenditure and air quality index as well as a 0.0507% positive effect of the former on the latter. Second, for Beijing, Taiyuan, Chongqing, and Lanzhou, a 1% increase in environmental expenditure leads to 0.0773, 0.0125, 0.0965, and 0.0912% decreases in the air quality index, respectively; however, for Shijiazhuang, Ji'nan, and Urumqi, effect of environmental expenditure on air quality is insignificant. Third, both economic growth and optimization of the industrial structure can lead to an improvement of air quality. Fourth, since the implementation of the fuel tax policy in 2009, the air quality of the sample cities has improved, and the pulling effect of environmental expenditure on the air quality index has decreased from 0.0507 to 0.0048%. Our findings cannot only clarify the effect of environmental expenditures on air quality but can also objectively judge the effectiveness of environmental policies of China to a certain extent. It may benefit Chinese government to effectively govern air pollution with fiscal tools in conjunction with economic and environmental characteristics.

  18. effect of land policy on compensation for environmental damage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-21

    Feb 21, 2013 ... The paper argues that compensation for compulsory acquisition as ... industry activities on environmental assets in the .... the oil companies operating in the Niger Delta ... Air Quality, Precipitation and Corrosion Studies of.

  19. 76 FR 213 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... due to, for example, a threatened violation of applicable environmental, safety, and health... legally enforceable rights, benefits, or responsibilities, substantive or procedural, not otherwise... failed in indoor tests. Whether the explosives or propellants were tested indoors or outdoors, the...

  20. EPA Insight Policy Paper: Executive Order #12898 on Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    A memorandum from President Clinton to the heads of all agencies on 'Executive Order on Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, a related statement from EPA Administrator Carol Browner

  1. Towards a green economy in Europe. EU environmental policy targets and objectives 2010-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The 'green economy' has emerged as a priority in policy debate in recent years. But what does the concept mean in practice and how can decision-makers measure progress towards this strategic goal? This report provides some answers, presenting a detailed overview of the key objectives and targets in EU environmental policy and legislation for the period 2010-2050. It focuses on selected environmental and resource policy areas, specifically: energy; greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ozone-depleting substances; air quality and air pollution; transport sector emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants; waste; water; sustainable consumption and production (SCP); chemicals; biodiversity and land use. (Author)

  2. Input-output theory and institutional aspects of environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    National accounting over the years has developed in close interaction with input–output analysis. However, present developments involving core and satellite accounts seem to suggest that this relation will become less close, with possible negative consequences for analysis and policy. In this paper

  3. European Communities environmental and fiscal policies: Effects on Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinelli, R.; Mantovani, D.

    1992-01-01

    The macro-economic effects of the introduction in Italy of a new tax on energy uses are: higher price inflation, lower income growth and higher Government revenue. The same effects are expected for a VAT harmonization. In order to curb these negative effects, this paper proposes the introduction of an alternative policy mix

  4. Environmental policy: Meeting the challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotzaman, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian government's overall approach to resolving the environmental problems due to global warming is discussed, with reference to how this approach is related to actions taken by other countries. Canada's environmental strategy is based the need to correct the failure to take into account the environmental consequences of daily actions. One element seen necessary for such correction, better environmental decisionmaking, is underlain by such key factors as the need to provide a strong scientific base on which to make decisions, resolving uncertainties regarding the greenhouse effect, and an environmentally educated population. Direct governmental measures can be taken to factor environmental considerations into decisions, such as regulatory instruments regarding the environment and economic incentives to encourage taking the environment into account. With respect to global warming, Canada has signed the Hague Declaration on international cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. About half the annual world emissions of greenhouse gases come from fossil fuel combustion. Canada is the fourth largest producer per capita of the single most important greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. The transport and industrial sectors each account for ca 25% of Canada's CO 2 emissions, and energy conservation is seen as a first step in reducing these emissions. The greatest scope for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector appears to lie in the development of convenient and economic alternate fuels

  5. The pT-value as environmental policy indicator for the exposure to toxic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; de Zwart D

    1991-01-01

    This report contains a proposal for an indicator to measure the effectivity of the environmental policy with regard to the theme "Verspreiding" of the Directorate-General for Environmental Protection. It is recommended to use a method which indicates the toxicity of organic pollutants as

  6. The Roots and Routes of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Lysgaard, Jonas A.

    2016-01-01

    "Environmental Education Research" has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from the past two decades, for three reasons.…

  7. 75 FR 12496 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ...; DOC National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Questionnaire and Checklist AGENCY: Office of the...., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for... Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). SUPPLEMENTARY...

  8. Environmental Policy, the Porter Hypothesis and the Composition of Capital : Effects of Learning and Technological Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feichtinger, G.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.; Veliov, V.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the e.ect of environmental policy on the composition of capital is investigated.By allowing for non-linearities it generalizes Xepapadeas and De Zeeuw (Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 1999) and determines scenarios in which their results do not carry over.In

  9. 77 FR 3935 - National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for Proposed Tower Registrations; Effects of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    .... 08-61; WT Docket No. 03-187; FCC 11-181] National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for Proposed... Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC or... interim measure pending completion of a programmatic environmental analysis and subsequent rulemaking...

  10. 76 FR 19309 - Solicitation of Letters of Interest To Participate in National Environmental Policy Act Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... evaluation process and is one of the strategies identified in USDA's High Priority Performance Goal for... make its own evaluation of the environmental issues and the adequacy of the analyses of those issues to...] Solicitation of Letters of Interest To Participate in National Environmental Policy Act Pilot Project AGENCY...

  11. How Does Environmental Regulation Affect Industrial Transformation? A Study Based on the Methodology of Policy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference of factor input structure determines different response to environmental regulation. This paper constructs a theoretical model including environmental regulation, factor input structure, and industrial transformation and conducts a policy simulation based on the difference of influencing mechanism of environmental regulation considering industrial heterogeneity. The findings show that the impact of environmental regulation on industrial transformation presents comparison of distortion effect of resource allocation and technology effect. Environmental regulation will promote industrial transformation when technology effect of environmental regulation is stronger than distortion effect of resource allocation. Particularly, command-control environmental regulation has a significant incentive effect and spillover effect of technological innovation on cleaning industries, but these effects do not exist in pollution-intensive industries. Command-control environmental regulation promotes industrial transformation. The result of simulation showed that environmental regulation of market incentives is similar to that of command-control.

  12. Environmental policy in the 9th German Bundestag and the Bundesrat (1980-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This presentation of environmental policy constitutes the continuation of copies No. 49 and No. 72 of the 'Materialien' [Materials] (Environmental policy in the 7th German Bundestag or environmental policy in the 8. German Bundestag and in the Bundesrat, resp. - 1976 to 1980). References to factual terms espec. indications of speech references, apply to the register annexed to 'Verhandlungen des Deutschen Bundestages und des Bundesrates' (Deliberations of the German Bundestag and the Bundesrat) for the 9th period of office on which the 'Materialie' is based. Among other things, the 'Materialie' comprises: General fundamentals and primaples, aspects of structural policy, scientific and technical/technological fundamentals, organizational fundamentals, international and intergovernmental co-operation, air-borne emission abatement, waste management, chemical substances released to environment, nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  13. A flexible environmental reuse/recycle policy based on economic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, C A

    2007-01-01

    Environmental policies based on fixed recycling rates may lead to increased environmental impacts (e.g., landfilled wastes) during economic expansion. A rate policy is proposed, which is adjusted according to the overall strength or weakness of the economy, as reflected by overall packaging demand and consumption, production and imports-exports. During economic expansion featuring rising consumption, production or exports, the proposed flexible policy suggests a higher reuse/recycle rate. During economic slowdown a lower rate results in lower impacts. The flexible target rates are determined in terms of annual data, including consumption, imports-exports and production. Higher environmental gains can be achieved at lower cost if the flexible policy is applied to widely consumed packaging products and materials associated with low rates, or if cleaner recycling technology is adopted.

  14. A predictive analysis of CO2 emissions, environmental policy stringency, and economic growth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ahmed, Sidrah

    2018-03-28

    This study takes environmental policy stringency and economic activity as the controlling variables and forecasts the CO 2 emissions in China up to 2022. In doing so, an application of corrected grey model with convolution is used over the annual time series data between 1990 and 2012. The simulation results show that (1) between 2012 and 2022, CO 2 emissions in China is expected to increase at an average rate of 17.46% annually, raising the emissions intensity from 7.04 in 2012 to 25.461 metric tons per capita by 2022; (2) stringent environmental policies reduce CO 2 emissions-whereas, GDP tends to increase the emissions intensity in China; (3) stringent environmental policies are found to have a negative impact on GDP in China. Based on the empirical findings, the study also provides some policy suggestions to reduce emissions intensity in China.

  15. Understanding the Success of an Environmental Policy: The case of the 1989-1999 Integrated Pest Management Program in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P Resosudarmo

    2010-01-01

    The fact that most environmental degradation occurs in developing countries shows that they face difficulties in implementing environmental policies. It is hence extremely valuable to take lessons from any instances of the successful implementation of an environmental policy in a developing country. This paper aims to show, from a political economy perspective, why the 1989–1999 Integrated Pest Management program, is an environmentally-friendly policy, worked in Indonesia. It concludes that t...

  16. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents

  17. Electricity sector restructuring in India: an environmentally beneficial policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Richard

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that reforms to the electricity sector in developing countries encouraging the entry of independent power producers (IPPs) are likely to result in environmental improvements similar to those recently made in a number of developed economies. The present paper evaluates this claim by examining the experience of the Indian power sector. It finds that recent investments by IPPs have reduced the pollution-intensity of electricity generation in the country. Yet they have not brought the significant gains seen in countries such as the UK, nor are they likely to in the foreseeable future. This is largely a product of the nature and context of electricity sector reform in India which is less favourable to environmentally beneficial outcomes. Accordingly, the paper concludes by suggesting that the environmental benefits of restructuring are not automatic, but depend on the existence of an enabling structural, institutional and regulatory framework

  18. Sustainable energy, environmental and agricultural policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly and heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions have grown along with its energy-consumption. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources.

  19. Cogema and the environment. Environmental policy. The Cogema group in the environment service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document presents the organization of the environmental policy at Cogema facilities. The first part presents the environmental policy of the group: integration of environment management at all levels, reduction of effluents and control of their environmental impact, integrating environment protection at the design stage of facilities, quality and improvement policy, expenses devoted to environment protection (investments, R and D, funds), public information. The second part concerns the transfer of Cogema's know-how in environmental engineering towards other industrial sectors: radioactivity measurements, mine and quarry sites rehabilitation, industrial wastes and effluents processing, decontamination and rehabilitation of ancient polluted industrial sites, foreign activities (rehabilitation of US-DOE military sites, aid to Eastern countries. (J.S.)

  20. Focal points of environmental policy at the beginning of the Eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This speech was held by the Federal Home Secretary Baum in front of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Umweltfragen (AGU) on 3rd February 1981. He said that environmental policy must be determined even more by the principle of providence in this decade; the main issue is the orientation towards the future in German economic, social, and welfare policy. Vehicles and environment, vehicle noise, advantageous conditions in competition for environmentally-minded and energy conserving vehicles, nuclear energy etc., and international pollution protection are considered focal points of future environmental policy. According to his opinion, the consumption situation and compatibility tests as to environmental conditions are necessary. Increasing pollution protection ought to be promoted by special financing programmes and model projects of the Federal Government. (HSCH) [de

  1. Economic, welfare and environmental impact of feed-in tariff policy: A case study in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaei, Sharareh Majdzadeh; Hadian, Ebrahim; Marzban, Hossein; Zibaei, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Following a particular attention given to environmental issues over the last few decades, establishing proper developmental policies to increase electricity production from renewable energy (RE) has not only been an important issue but also a challenge for many countries. Feed-in Tariff (FIT) Policy is one of the tools that is being used to facilitate the development of RE. This research evaluated the economic, welfare and environmental impact of this policy on Iran's economy. Therefore, after developing an Economic-Energy-Environmental (E3) type of Hybrid General Equilibrium model, the effect of FIT policy was examined under different scenarios in order to find an optimal condition in which 10% of electrical energy could be produced from renewable resources. The comparison between the results showed that the application of subsidies to RE and the way the government finances these subsidies can affect the results of FIT policy. Meanwhile, regardless of the role considered for the impact of environmental factors, our policies under the scenario of technology neutral is the most efficient, as it has less impact on the decline of GDP of different sectors and also has less financial cost for government. - Highlights: • E3 type of Hybrid CGE model is used under two different financing policies. • Technology neutral and technology specific scenarios are applied to these policies. • Results show the effect of our policies and scenarios on the efficiency of FIT policy. • This efficiency comes from the impact on GDP balance and government's financial cost. • The results show that, the scenario of technology neutral is the most efficient.

  2. EUROPEAN POLICY CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR - WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA BRASOVEANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available European Union environmental policy, as was established in the EC Treaty aims at ensuring environmental sustainability activities through its inclusion in EU sectoral policies, by developing measures to prevent by following the basic principles of sustainable development and by taking joint responsibilities. Environmental legislation is one of those tools that combine management of natural resources with the prevention and control of the pollution. These laws attempt to prevent, or at least limit the effects of environmental degradation caused by the phenomenon of pollution. Environmental legislation should primarily be flexible in the sense to allow the fulfillment of current and the future goals in order to stimulate sustainable development concept and to base on general criteria for the purposes of allowing the extension to complex environmental problems. The environmental legislation is due to focus on integrating the source - effect policy, that is to focus on regulations for issuing permits for pollution, but also the responsibility of companies and citizens.Despite the significant improvements that have occurred especially in reducing air and water pollution, European legislation should be developed further. It is true that there are still many points that require completion and perfection, but the path followed is the best. In the European Union the process of implementation and adoption of new regulations on environmental protection (regulations, directives, decisions,recommendations to combat the causes of degradation of environmental quality and life quality time with them continues.

  3. Environmental Governance Challenges in Kiribati : An Agenda for Legal and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejo Olowu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the global notion of environmental governance is principally about how to achieve the goals of environmental conservation and sustainable development, analysing approaches to environmental governance invariably requires critical study of the policies and structures in place that determine how power is exercised and how environmental decisions are made not only in the abstract context of internationalism but with particular regard to national situations. This essay examines the legal and policy frameworks regulating environmental protection and the conservation of biodiversity within the broader goal of effective environmental governance in Kiribati . Acknowledging that Kiribati encounters formidable challenges in institutional, normative and policy terms, this essay particularly deals with the issue of pollution and its long- and short-term implications for this nation of many atolls. While highlighting the existence of significant treaties, municipal laws and diverse policy mechanisms, this essay identifies gaps and weaknesses, making suggestions for their reform and enhancement. Recognising that the path to the future lies in the synergy of initiatives and inputs from the government, the people and all other stakeholders in the environmental well-being of Kiribati, this essay proffers some viable trajectories for strategic responses.

  4. Frames of Reference: A Metaphor for Analyzing and Interpreting Attitudes of Environmental Policy Makers and Policy Influencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield

    1998-07-01

    / The concept of frame of reference offers a potentially useful analytical metaphor in environmental management. This is illustrated by a case study in which attitudes of individuals involved in the management of trees in the New Zealand high country are classified into seven distinctive frames of reference. Some practical and theoretical implications of the use of the frame metaphor are explored, including its potential contribution to the emerg- ing field of communicative planning. KEY WORDS: Frames of reference; Environmental policy analysis; Metaphor; New Zealand high country

  5. When global environmentalism meets local livelihoods: policy and management lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; Max J. Pfeffer

    2009-01-01

    Creation of national parks often imposes immediate livelihood costs on local people, and tensions between park managers and local people are common. Park managers have tried different approaches to managing relationships with local people, but nearly all include efforts to promote environmental values and behaviors. These efforts have had uneven results, and there is a...

  6. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some are as immediate and visible as backyard livestock waste. Others, like ... Household environmental conditions and disease prevalence in Uganda : the impact of access to safe water and improved sanitation on diarrhea ... Determinants of non-compliance with light attraction regulation among inshore fishers in Ghana.

  7. Bridging gaps : governing conflicts between transport and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Tim; Zuidema, Christian; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Developing new road infrastructure can be problematic in the face of environmental quality ambitions. These conflicts can even undermine the development of such new infrastructure, as occurred for example in the Netherlands in the mid-2000s as a result of European Union air quality standards. To

  8. Optimal environmental policy differentials in open economies under emissions constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Mulatu, A.

    2007-01-01

    Is there a case for preferential treatment of the exposed sector in an economy when compliance to an aggregate emissions constraint induced by an international environmental agreement is mandatory? This question is being debated in many countries in the context of the implementation of the Kyoto

  9. Integrative Models in Environmental Planning and Policy Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyler, David Clinton

    1984-01-01

    Discusses conceptual models of thought that have recently emerged to confront the conventional approaches to analysis and solution to complex environmental problems. In addition to a critical attack on the tradition of specialization and reductionism, several models are summarized that originated from ecology, cybernetics, and system theory. (BC)

  10. 76 FR 63763 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... sensitive resources; or involving genetically engineered organisms, unless the proposed activity would be... category, and three environmental impact statement categories. Other changes modify and clarify DOE's... document, ``existing rule'' refers to DOE's current NEPA implementing regulations (as last modified in 2003...

  11. Environmental policy and industrialization: The politics of regulation in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepcion, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of economic development on environmental regulation in Puerto Rico are examined. In particular, the research analyzes how the Puerto Rican industrialization process has affected implementation of the environmental-review process. Puerto Rico exemplifies an acute conflict between an industrialization process based on capital-intensive, highly polluting industries, and a regulatory framework of insular and US environmental laws and regulations. While industrialization has not solved unemployment problems on the island, environmental and health hazards have increased significantly, despite environmental regulations. The study focuses on a change in the environmental review process in response to economic development concerns. In particular, it examines the growth and extensive use of a new environmental review document, the Environmental Assessment. This study explains this policy shift and, more fundamentally, analyzes how and under what circumstances this change came about

  12. Environmental policy instruments and technological change in the energy sector: findings from comparative empirical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjaerseth, J.B.; Christiansen, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which and in what ways environmental policy instruments may affect patterns of environmental friendly technological change in the energy sector. Our argument is based on the assumption, however, that technological change is also affected by the political context in which the instruments are applied and by the nature of the problem itself. Comparative empirical research involving different European countries, sectors and policy fields were examined, including climate change, air pollution and wind power. The relationship between environmental policy instruments and technological change is extremely complex, not least due to the impact of other factors that may be more decisive than environmental ones. Against this backdrop, it was concluded that: 1) a portfolio of policy instruments works to the extent that different types of policy instruments affect the different drivers and stages behind technological change needed to solve specific problems. The need for a portfolio of policy instruments depends on the technological challenge being faced; 2) voluntary approaches facilitated constructive corporate strategies, but mandatory approaches tended to be more effective in stimulating short term major technological change; 3) voluntary approaches work well in the short term when the problem to be solved is characterized by lack of information and coordination. (author)

  13. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Villarroya

    Full Text Available Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1 ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2 identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3 determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4 ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.

  14. Policy development for environmental licensing and biodiversity offsets in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, Ana; Barros, Ana Cristina; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to meet biodiversity goals through application of the mitigation hierarchy have gained wide traction globally with increased development of public policy, lending standards, and corporate practices. With interest in biodiversity offsets increasing in Latin America, we seek to strengthen the basis for policy development through a review of major environmental licensing policy frameworks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Here we focused our review on an examination of national level policies to evaluate to which degree current provisions promote positive environmental outcomes. All the surveyed countries have national-level Environmental Impact Assessment laws or regulations that cover the habitats present in their territories. Although most countries enable the use of offsets only Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru explicitly require their implementation. Our review has shown that while advancing quite detailed offset policies, most countries do not seem to have strong requirements regarding impact avoidance. Despite this deficiency most countries have a strong foundation from which to develop policy for biodiversity offsets, but several issues require further guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios; and (4) ensure appropriate time and effort is given to monitor offset performance.

  15. Finding electronic information for health policy advocacy: a guide to improving search results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsan, Tobie H; Bianchi, Carolanne; White, Pamela; Glessner, Theresa; Mapstone, Pamela L

    2011-12-01

    The success of advanced practice registered nurses' (APRNs') health policy advocacy depends on staying well informed about key issues. Searching for high-quality health policy information, however, can be frustrating and time consuming. Busy clinicians need strategies and tips to reduce information overload and to access synthesized research for evidence-based health policy. This article therefore offers APRNs practical guidelines and resources for searching electronic health policy information. Scholarly databases and Internet sites. Electronic health policy information is generated by a wide variety of public and private organizations and disseminated in hundreds of journals and Web pages. Specialty search tools are needed to retrieve the unindexed gray literature, which includes government documents, agency reports, fact sheets, standards, and statistics not produced by commercial publishers. Further, Internet users need to examine search results with a critical eye for information quality. Expertise in searching electronic health policy information is a prerequisite for developing APRNs' leadership in political arenas to influence health policy and the delivery of healthcare services. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. The System Dynamics Model in Electronic Products Closed-Loop Supply Chain Distribution Network with Three-Way Recovery and the Old-for-New Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the technological developments and rapid changes in demand pattern, diverse varieties of electronic products are entering into the market with reduced lifecycle which leads to the environmental problems. The awareness of electronic products take-back and recovery has been increasing in electronic products supply chains. In this paper, we build a system dynamics model for electronic products closed-loop supply chain distribution network with the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways, namely, electronic products remanufacturing, electronic component reuse and remanufacturing, and electronic raw material recovery. In the simulation study, we investigate the significance of various factors including the old-for-new policy, collection and remanufacturing, their interactions and the type of their impact on bullwhip, and profitability through sensitivity analysis. Our results instruct that the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways can reduce the bullwhip effect in the retailers and the distributors and increases the profitability in the closed-loop supply chain distribution network.

  17. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmeier, K.

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  18. The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boezeman, Daan; Leroy, Pieter; Maas, Rob; Kruitwagen, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

  19. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site

  20. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  1. Integrated dynamic policy management methodology and system for strategic environmental assessment of golf course installation policy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) focuses primarily on assessing how policies, plans, and programs (PPPs) influence the sustainability of the involved regions. However, the processes of assessing policies and developing management strategies for pollution load and resource use are usually separate in the current SEA system. This study developed a policy management methodology to overcome the defects generated during the above processes. This work first devised a dynamic management framework using the methods of systems thinking, system dynamics, and Managing for Results (MFRs). Furthermore, a driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) indicator system was developed. The golf course installation policy was applied as a case study. Taiwan, counties of Taiwan, and the golf courses within those individual counties were identified as a system, subsystems, and objects, respectively. This study identified an object-linked double-layer framework with multi-stage-option to simultaneously to quantify golf courses in each subsystem and determine ratios of abatement and allocation for pollution load and resource use of each golf course. The DPSIR indicator values for each item of each golf course in each subsystem are calculated based on the options taken in the two decision layers. The summation of indicator values for all items of all golf courses in all subsystems according to various options is defined as the sustainability value of the policy. An optimization model and a system (IDPMS) were developed to obtain the greatest sustainability value of the policy, while golf course quantity, human activity intensity, total quantities of pollution load and resource use are simultaneously obtained. The solution method based on enumeration of multiple bounds for objectives and constraints (EMBOC) was developed for the problem with 1.95 x 10 128 combinations of possible options to solve the optimal solution in ten minutes using a personal computer with 3.0 GHz CPU

  2. Department of defense environmental cleanup cost allowability policy. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the allowability determination of defense contractor environmental remediation costs. The primary objective of this thesis was to determine what policies and contracting cost principles the Department of Defense (DOD) should develop to address environmental costs in a consistent manner, providing a `single face` to industry. A secondary objective was to develop an audit framework and questions to allow for consistent policy analysis and application to a contractor`s proposed environmental remediation costs based upon the materiality of the situation. Background material was presented to show the amount and complexity of environmental regulations, the effects of current judicial decisions and DOD`s efforts to develop a consistent policy. Research material was provided from Congress, the General Accounting Office, DOD, defense contractors, California, Washington, industry associations and environmental protection coalitions. The researcher`s analysis of the material produced an environmental cost principle. This cost principle was applied to a current environmental claim, producing an audit framework and tailored list of cost and/or pricing data analysis, questions. Both the cost principle and audit framework are recommended for incorporation into DOD`s final environmental cost allowability decision.

  3. Eco-efficiency for sustainability : IKEA's environmental policy in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Sklyarova, Mariya; Kobets, Tetiana

    2011-01-01

    In the modern world businesses are seen more often not only as carriers of technological development, innovations, capital investments and profit makers. The present-day situation with growing ecological problems has put a high demand on organizational environmental responsibility of small, medium, large and transnational enterprises all over the world. IKEA is a well known furniture and textile retailer operating worldwide. The company has received a great amount of publicity concerning its ...

  4. Positron--electron storage ring project: Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, California. Final environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    A final environmental statement is given which was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act to support the Energy Research and Development Administration project to design and construct the positron-electron colliding beam storage ring (PEP) facilities at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The PEP storage ring will be constructed underground adjacent to the existing two-mile long SLAC particle accelerator to utilize its beam. The ring will be about 700 meters in diameter, buried at depths of 20 to 100 feet, and located at the eastern extremity of the SLAC site. Positron and electron beams will collide in the storage ring to provide higher energies and hence higher particle velocities than have been heretofore achieved. Some of the energy from the collisions is transformed back into matter and produces a variety of particles of immense interest to physicists. The environmental impacts during the estimated two and one-half years construction period will consist of movement of an estimated 320,000 cubic yards of earth and the creation of some rubble, refuse, and dust and noise which will be kept to a practical minimum through planned construction procedures. The terrain will be restored to very nearly its original conditions. Normal operation of the storage ring facility will not produce significant adverse environmental effects different from operation of the existing facilities and the addition of one water cooling tower. No overall increase in SLAC staff is anticipated for operation of the facility. Alternatives to the proposed project that were considered include: termination, postponement, other locations and construction of a conventional high energy accelerator

  5. Trialling an electronic decision aid for policy developers to support ageing well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Elizabeth; Ellis, Leonie; Tin, Eh Eh; Boyer, Kim; Orpin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex process of developing policies and planning services requires the compilation and collation of evidence from multiple sources. With the increasing numbers of people living longer there will be a high demand for a wide range of aged care services to support people in ageing well. The premise of ageing well is based on providing an ageing population with quality care and resources that support their ongoing needs. These include affordable healthcare, end of life care improvement, mental health services improvement, care and support improvement for people with dementia, and support for healthy ageing. The National Health and Medical Research Council funded a research project to develop a policy tool to provide a framework to assist policy makers and service planners in the area of ageing well in rural and regional Australia. It was identified that development of an electronic version of the policy tool could be useful resulting in a small pilot development being undertaken and tested with policy makers and service planners. This paper describes the development and trialling of a tablet based application used to assess the acceptability of computerised forms for participants actively involved in policy development. It reports on the policy developer's experience of the electronic tool to support ageing well policy making based on evidence.

  6. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact

  7. Sustainable transition of electronic products through waste policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    regimes are described and analyzed together with the underlying regulatory principle of extended producer responsibility, which has guided the design of the directive. Conflicting interpretations of sustainability, in combination with a simplistic understanding and agency introduced from the top-down, has...... eliminated waste minimization as the main outcome of the directive. The concluding discussions raise the issues of the role of sustainable niche initiatives in electronics compared to multi-regime interaction. Guiding visions may need to be supplemented with other alignment devices in order to support co...

  8. 24 CFR 1003.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 1003.205 Section 1003.205... planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a... plans, general environmental studies, and strategies and action programs to implement plans, including...

  9. 41 CFR 102-80.10 - What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and environmental management policies for real property? 102-80.10 Section 102-80.10 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT General Provisions § 102-80.10 What are the basic safety and environmental management policies for real property? The basic safety and...

  10. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 570.205 Section 570.205..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a) Planning... known or suspected environmental contamination. (5) [Reserved] (6) Policy—planning—management—capacity...

  11. Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery systems into tobacco worksite policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsel, Laurie P; Benowitz, Neal; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bullen, Chris; Goldstein, Fred; Matthias-Gray, Lena; Grossmeier, Jessica; Harris, John; Isaac, Fikry; Loeppke, Ron; Manley, Marc; Moseley, Karen; Niemiec, Ted; OʼBrien, Vince; Palma-Davis, LaVaughn; Pronk, Nico; Pshock, Jim; Stave, Gregg M; Terry, Paul

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, new products have entered the marketplace that complicate decisions about tobacco control policies and prevention in the workplace. These products, called electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic nicotine delivery systems, most often deliver nicotine as an aerosol for inhalation, without combustion of tobacco. This new mode of nicotine delivery raises several questions about the safety of the product for the user, the effects of secondhand exposure, how the public use of these products should be handled within tobacco-free and smoke-free air policies, and how their use affects tobacco cessation programs, wellness incentives, and other initiatives to prevent and control tobacco use. In this article, we provide a background on e-cigarettes and then outline key policy recommendations for employers on how the use of these new devices should be managed within worksite tobacco prevention programs and control policies.

  12. Environmental management policy analysis using complex system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Roberts, D.; Oakes, R.; Shieh, A.; Hardie, W.; Pope, P.

    1999-01-01

    The two primary modules of Envirosim (the model of Los Alamos TA-55 and the WIPP transport/storage model) have been combined into one application, with the simulated waste generated by TA-55 operations being fed to storage, packaging, and transport simulation entities. Three simulation scenarios were executed which demonstrate the usefulness of Envirosim as a policy analysis tool for use in planning shipments to WIPP. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been implemented using IDL (Interactive Data Language) which allows the analyst to easily view simulation results. While IDL is not necessarily the graphics interface that would be selected for a production version of Envirosim, it does provide some powerful data manipulation capabilities, and it runs on a variety of platforms

  13. Three Essays on Energy Efficiency and Environmental Policies in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamtessa, Samuel

    2011-09-01

    This thesis is organized into five Chapters. In Chapter 1, we provide an introduction. In Chapter 2, we present a study on residential energy-efficiency retrofits in Canada. We describe the EnerGuide for Houses data and model household decisions to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits. Our results show that government financial incentives have important positive effects. The decision to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits is positively related to potential energy cost savings and negatively related to the costs of the retrofits. We find that household characteristics such as the age composition of household members are important factors. All else remaining constant, low income households are more likely to undertake energy-efficiency retrofits. In the third Chapter, we present our study on price-induced energy efficiency improvements in Canadian manufacturing. Our study employs a new approach to the estimation of price-induced energy efficiency improvements and the results have important empirical and policy implications. In the fourth chapter, we present our study on the implications of the "shale gas revolution" on Alberta greenhouse gas emission abatement strategy. Given that the strategy is centered on deployment of CCS technologies, we analyze the effects of the declines in natural gas price on CCS deployment in the electricity sector. We use the CIMS simulation model to simulate various policy scenarios under high and low natural gas price assumptions. Comparison of the results shows that CCS market penetration in the electricity sector is very minimal in the low natural gas price scenario even when a 50% cost subsidy is applied. Accordingly, there is little gain from subsidizing CCS given the "shale gas revolution." We provide a few concluding remarks in Chapter 5.

  14. Ethical Risks of Environmental Policies: The Case of Ethanol in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Jordaan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy to address the environmental impacts of transportation fuel derived from conventional oil is frequently focused on the promotion of alternatives such as biofuels. While there are some biofuels that can be developed with relatively few impacts, others can result in broader, complex social concerns that should be included in the policy debate. These concerns include impacts arising from the conversion of natural landscapes and changes in food supply. To help inform policy development, this paper raises a series of questions to encourage a fuller debate and proposes a methodology to capture ethical risks related to the energy and environmental choices. This methodology should be applied to policies that encourage a transition to fuel alternatives for transportation – whether unconventional fossil fuels or corn ethanol.

  15. Economic and Environmental Effects of Public Transport Subsidy Policies: a Spatial CGE Model of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport plays an important role in the environment. This study established a Spatial Computable General Equilibrium (SCGE model to examine the economic and environmental effects of public transport subsidy policies. The model includes firms, consumers, and traffic modules in one framework. Statistical data from Beijing were used in calibration to obtain benchmark equilibrium. Based on the equilibrium, simulations compared citywide social welfare, jobs-housing spatial population distribution, and environmental outputs under four subsidy policies: fare subsidy, cash grants, road expansion, and public transport speedup. Based on the results regarding the effects of public transport policies, conclusions can be drawn about which policies will have greater overall social influence and should therefore be used.

  16. Timing and Commitment of Environmental Policy, Adoption of New Technology, and Repercussions on R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requate, T.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between environmental policy, incentives to adopt new technology, and repercussions on R and D. We study a model where a monopolistic upstream firm engages in R and D and sells advanced abatement technology to polluting downstream firms. We consider four different timing and commitment regimes of environmental tax and permit policies: ex post taxation (or issuing permits), interim commitment to a tax rate (a quota of permits) after observing R and D success but before adoption, and finally two types of ex antecommitment before R and D activity, one with a unique tax rate (quota of permits), the other one with a menu of tax rates (permit quotas). We study the second best tax and permit policies and rank these with respect to welfare. In particular, we find that commitment to a menu of tax rate dominates all other policy regimes

  17. Outline of the Future Agenda for Environmental Policy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of the targets for the environmental policy in the Netherlands, focusing on the strict decoupling of economic development and changes in the environmental impacts. Also, the Dutch government aims at decreasing the environmental effects of the past in order to minimize the consequences for public health and the environment. Finally, transferring environmental problems to other parts of the world of future generations must be prevented as much as possible. Targets concern Economy and innovation; Public health and safety; Energy and climate; and Nature and biodiversity [nl

  18. Alternative policy study. Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios. GEO 2000 alternative policy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Bakkes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associated with nuclear power generation. The analysis includes the effects on biodiversity and population health. It considers the question of what can be achieved by moderate measures, and whether this will be enough. Similar Geo-2000 region-specific studies on alternative policies have been compiled other world regions. This report outliners the general methodology for these reports

  19. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  20. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described

  1. Borrowing green. Economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We analyze the effect on tax income, economic growth, employment, as well as on the emission of a number of gases and on solid waste production. We find that the economic effects in general are positive. This policy instrument increases growth, employment, and net tax income. However, the environmental effects are quite mixed. This especially results from the fact that a lot of projects would have been undertaken anyhow. Furthermore, we find that this green fiscal policy instrument is skewed towards energy and building. It appears to neglect environmental problems with consumer households, industry, and transport. 8 refs

  2. Bridging Water Resources Policy and Environmental Engineering in the Classroom at Cornell University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. T.; Shaw, S. B.; Seifert, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current university undergraduate students in environmental sciences and engineering are the next generation of environmental protection practitioners. Recognizing this, Cornell's Biological and Environmental Engineering department has developed a popular class, Watershed Engineering (BEE 473), specifically designed to bridge the too-common gap between water resources policy and state-of-art science and technology. Weekly homework assignments are to design real-life solutions to actual water resources problems, often with the objective of applying storm water policies to local situations. Where appropriate, usually in conjunction with recent amendments to the Federal Clean Water Act, this course introduces water resource protection tools and concepts developed in the Cornell Soil and Water Lab. Here we present several examples of how we build bridges between university classrooms and the complex world of water resources policy.

  3. Is Europe to turn ecological? Driving factors and impediments to a European environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenbrand, O.

    1994-01-01

    What are the strong and week points of community environmental policy? Does the European Union command suitable tools for meeting the environment-political challenges of this decade? Will Europeans succeed in phasing in an ecologically oriented industrial society? ''Is Europe to turn ecological?'' puts the European environmental policy on the test stand. It explains under what political, economic, and institutional conditions the Union's environmental policy was built from the Single European Act to the completion of the internal market, what basic tasks it faces and what political resources are at the disposal of the European Union since the Maastricht Treaty came into force. The book addresses readers who want to close knowledge gaps and have their say in the debate on the ecological reconstruction of Europe. It was sponsored by the Federal German Environment Foundation. (orig.) [de

  4. Environmental impacts assessment: Instruments for environmental policy making and resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavelli, C.M.; Sartori, S.

    1993-06-01

    This review of evaluation criteria for environmental impacts assessments in Italy covers the following aspects: the efficacy of current Italian normatives governing assessment methods, the current approach of regional public administrations, the necessity for the creation of a national regulating board, environmental impacts assessment for complex environmental systems, the application of impacts assessment recommendations to resource development modelling in the planning of integrated environmental-economic systems, the involvement of the general public in decision making, techniques to determine the monetary worth of environmental resources, the use of multi-criteria analysis techniques

  5. Environmental policies and risk finance in the green sector: Cross-country evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criscuolo, Chiara; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of venture capital investment in the green sector across 29 countries over the period 2005–2010, and identifies the role that policies might play in explaining observed cross-country differences. The analysis is based on a deal-level database of businesses seeking financing, combined with indicators of renewable policies and government R&D expenditures. The econometric analysis relates the number of deals and their volumes in a country to deployment and supply policies using count data and limited dependent variable (Tobit) models. The results suggest that both supply side policies and environmental deployment policies, designed with a long-term perspective of creating a market for environmental technologies, are associated with higher levels of venture capital relative to more short-term fiscal policies. When focusing on policies related to renewable energy generation, the results confirm the positive association of generous feed-in tariffs (FITs) with venture capital investment. However, in the solar sector excessively generous FITs tend to discourage investment, perhaps reflecting a lack of credibility over the longer term. Thus, both sets of results point to long-term policy stability, sustainability and credibility as important policy features to ensure Venture capital backing of innovative and risky ventures in a country's green sector. -- Highlights: •Risk-finance in the green sector is likely to face more challenges than in other hi-tech sectors. •Supply and deployment policies are associated with more investments relative to fiscal policies. •FITs have a positive effect, but in the solar sector very generous FITs discourage investments

  6. Environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing of eco-technology under foreign penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Leul; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing strategy of clean eco-technology by an innovator having foreign ownership. We show that near-zero emission taxes accompanied by non-exclusive licensing regulation can improve social welfare when the cost gap is small or foreign penetration is high. However, when foreign ownership is not high, exclusive licensing regulations with an appropriate emission tax policy may improve social welfare.

  7. A comparative analysis of the effects of economic policy instruments in promoting environmentally sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Ramjerdi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    ; (3) Toll schemes; (4) Reward systems giving incentives to reduce driving or change driver behaviour. The effects of these policy instruments are stated in terms of elasticities. All four economic policy instruments have negative elasticities, which means that they do promote environmentally...... sustainable transport. Long-term elasticities tend to be larger than short term elasticities. The long-term elasticities of reward systems are unknown. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Environmental policy assessment and the usefulness of meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, K. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom); Nijkamp, P. [Dept. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Incorporating environmental considerations fully into decision-making is a complex process. To develop improved assessment techniques and procedures it is important to understand these complexities. This paper sets out to explore the underlying nature of the issues involved and to develop a systematic schema which makes transparent the types of consideration which need to be incorporated in the assessment process and the forms of tradeoffs which are inevitable. It then proceeds to the more practical issue of looking at where better use could be made of the information that we already have. Environmental assessment is not new and a body of information and experience already exists. An important question is whether we are using the body of knowledge fully. The paper explores the areas in which meta-analysis could provide new insights in the assessment process by extracting more information from previous work but, in doing this, it also highlights areas where further primary research would yield the greatest return. 4 figs., 21 refs.

  9. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  10. ANSTO's radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  11. A goal programming model for environmental policy analysis: Application to Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Cristóbal, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development has become an important part of international and national approaches to integrate economic, environmental, social and ethical considerations so that a good quality of life can be enjoyed by current and future generations for as long as possible. However, nowadays sustainable development is threatened by industrial pollution emissions which cause serious environmental problems. Due to a lack of adequate quantitative models for environmental policy analysis, there is a strong need for analytical models in order to know the effects of environmental policies. In the present paper, a goal programming model, based on an environmental/input–output linear programming model, is developed and applied to the Spanish economy. The model combines relations between economic, energy, social and environmental effects, providing valuable information for policy-makers in order to define and examine the different goals that must be implemented to reach sustainability. - Highlights: ► In this paper a goal programming model is developed. ► The model considers environmental, energy, social and economic goals. ► The model shows the effects of a reduction in greenhouse gasses emission and energy requirements. ► The model is applied to the Spanish economy.

  12. The European Environmental Policy with Respect to Stationary Sources. Harmonisation versus Differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Laan, R.

    2002-01-01

    Glancing at the actual development of environmental policy in the European Community over the past three decades, one sees a picture that seems to be very much in contradiction with the advise of neo-classical economics. With the support of the Council, the European Commission has been developing a Community environmental policy from 1972 on. Principal instruments of this Community environmental policy have been directives that require harmonisation of environmental standards for similar industries in the various Member States. In its most strict sense of full harmonisation, this policy would imply uniform environmental standards. Industry would then use the environment with the same intensity independent of where producers are situated in the European Community. The consequence of a harmonised approach would be that in countries where environmental quality is scarce, pollution per unit of output would be as high or low as it is in countries where environmental quality is relatively abundant. This dissertation has been inspired by this apparent discrepancy between the advice from economic theory and the practice of the Community environmental policy. A first question, which is the main issue of this book, is whether the observation of a discrepancy is correct or perhaps a faulty perception. A next question is whether an explanation can be given for the discrepancy in so far as it turns out to exist. These questions are analysed on the bases of a selection of directives aimed at or having a strong impact on polluting emissions by stationary point sources. The first issue addressed is to determine what economic theory says exactly about the international harmonisation of environmental standards. A second question concerns the legal base for the environmental secondary legislation that was chosen by the European Institutions. A third question concerns the reasons for harmonisation of environmental standards that are used. A fourth question concerns the actual level of

  13. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions

  14. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  15. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  16. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental Public Policies: Legalization and Judicial Activism for Sustainable De-velopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, we intend to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development.

  18. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Education Research has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from...... the past two decades, for three reasons. First, to provide readers with a series of snapshots into the genealogy of ESE policy research in this field. Second, to encourage renewed attention to previously published work. And third, to offer commentary on the evolution of research trends, approaches...

  19. Pricing Policy in the Presence of Pro-environmental Consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens

    2010-02-01

    In response to the climate change issue, many electric utilities introduce price schemes for inducing their customers to reduce electricity consumption. When a significant fraction of consumers find costly to save electricity, one would expect utilities to 'pay' them to use less electricity. This paper suggests a model that helps to understand why a typical electric utility may rather prefer to price discriminate against its pro-environmental customers, by increasing the price of electricity for these latter. This result holds even when the utility is charged for its greenhouse gas emissions. But in this case the price increase is sufficiently small so as to induce energy saving also from customers who have a positive cost of doing so. (author)

  20. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  1. Environmental policies and regulations on the electricity market in EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of natural resources like ground and water, the emissions of noxious gases and particles, the thermal rejections, the production of waste and the noise are the main environmental impacts associated with the production of electricity. Emission regulations and standards have been selected so far by the European Community (EC) and the different Member States to deal with the abatement problem. They simply consist in defining some ceilings or regulations for the different types of noxious gases and particles which are emitted by power plants and forcing the power generation companies to comply with these norms within some pre-determined time period. They can also take the form of a general constraint on the sulfur content of the fuel, for example. Tables of emission limits for various gases from existing and new plants are presented. 3 figs., 8 tabs

  2. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  3. Pollution Emissions, Environmental Policy, and Marginal Abatement Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Ou, Jia-Jia

    2017-12-05

    Pollution emissions impose serious social negative externalities, especially in terms of public health. To reduce pollution emissions cost-effectively, the marginal abatement costs (MACs) of pollution emissions must be determined. Since the industrial sectors are the essential pillars of China's economic growth, as well as leading energy consumers and sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emitters, estimating MACs of SO₂ emissions at the industrial level can provide valuable information for all abatement efforts. This paper tries to address the critical and essential issue in pollution abatement: How do we determine the MACs of pollution emissions in China? This paper first quantifies the SO₂ emission contribution of different industrial sectors in the Chinese economy by an Input-Output method and then estimates MACs of SO₂ for industrial sectors at the national level, provincial level, and sectoral level by the shadow price theory. Our results show that six sectors (e.g., the Mining and Washing of Coal sector) should be covered in the Chinese pollution emission trading system. We have also found that the lowest SO₂ shadow price is 2000 Yuan/ton at the national level, and that shadow prices should be set differently at the provincial level. Our empirical study has several important policy implications, e.g., the estimated MACs may be used as a pricing benchmark through emission allowance allocation. In this paper, the MACs of industrial sectors are calculated from the national, provincial and sectoral levels; therefore, we provide an efficient framework to track the complex relationship between sectors and provinces.

  4. Environmental policy considerations and renewable energy in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, M.A.R.; Obaidullah, M.

    2000-01-01

    Energy is a critical commodity. It functions as a factor of production, as a process feedstock and as a consumer goods. It determines the shape of the life of individuals and that of the total economy. The evidence all over the world has shown a positive association between per capita income and per capita consumption. In fact over the world has consumption is now regarded as one of the important indices of economic development. Economic development is seen to have been accompanied by substitution of one form of energy by another As an economy develops, its demand for energy tends to increase and its consumption pattern in terms of energy forms and energy sources tends changes. But the stock of known viable sources of energy particularly commercial fuels are exploitation of energy sources involves a large investment and long gestation period. These and other related considerations emphases the need for taking a long-run view on demand and supply aspects of energy with particular focus on renewable energy. This further requires necessary policy considerations, which should be favorable for long term and sustained development of renewable energy. (Author)

  5. A policy model to initiate environmental negotiations: Three hydropower workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.; Burkardt, Nina; Ponds, Phadrea D.

    1998-01-01

    How do I get started in natural resource negotiations? Natural resource managers often face difficult negotiations when they implement laws and policies regulating such resources as water, wildlife, wetlands, endangered species, and recreation. As a result of these negotiations, managers must establish rules, grant permits, or create management plans. The Legal‐Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) was designed to assist managers in systematically analyzing the parties in natural resource negotiations and using that analysis to prepare for bargaining. The LIAM relies on the theory that organizations consistently employ behavioral roles. The model uses those roles to predict likely negotiation behavior. One practical use of the LIAM is when all parties to a negotiation conduct a workshop as a way to open the bargaining on a note of trust and mutual understanding. The process and results of three LIAM workshops designed to guide hydroelectric power licensing negotiations are presented. Our experience with these workshops led us to conclude that the LIAM can be an effective tool to begin a negotiation and that trust built through the workshops can help create a successful result.

  6. Ecoregions and ecodistricts: Ecological regionalizations for the Netherlands' environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klijn, Frans; de Waal, Rein W.; Oude Voshaar, Jan H.

    1995-11-01

    For communicating data on the state of the environment to policy makers, various integrative frameworks are used, including regional integration. For this kind of integration we have developed two related ecological regionalizations, ecoregions and ecodistricts, which are two levels in a series of classifications for hierarchically nested ecosystems at different spatial scale levels. We explain the compilation of the maps from existing geographical data, demonstrating the relatively holistic, a priori integrated approach. The resulting maps are submitted to discriminant analysis to test the consistancy of the use of mapping characteristics, using data on individual abiotic ecosystem components from a national database on a 1-km2 grid. This reveals that the spatial patterns of soil, groundwater, and geomorphology correspond with the ecoregion and ecodistrict maps. Differences between the original maps and maps formed by automatically reclassifying 1-km2 cells with these discriminant components are found to be few. These differences are discussed against the background of the principal dilemma between deductive, a priori integrated, and inductive, a posteriori, classification.

  7. Environmental research organizations and climate change policy analytical capacity : an assessment of the Canadian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, M.; Oliphant, S.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a topic of increasing interest to contemporary decision makers. In order for governments to make informed decisions in climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts, environmental policy makers require strong research and analytical capabilities to design and implement effective policies to deal with wide-ranging and complex policy issues. This articles presented a 7-criteria model of policy analytical capacity (PAC) and applied it to 3 prominent Canadian environmental policy research organizations. The 2 governmental organizations examined in this study were Environment Canada and the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, while the non-government organization was the David Suzuki Foundation. Following the 7 principles that determine the PAC of an organization, each case study examined the education/training of the organization's employees; the types and mix of policy analysis techniques used by the organization; the culture and structure of decision making in the organization; the nature and source of demand for the organization's research; and the organization's access to necessary data and information to conduct work at a high level of competence. Interview data provided information on the status of each organizations' current research capacity and the effect this has on overall government policy-making capability in the face of climate change challenges. 75 refs.

  8. An Affinity-to-Commons Model of Public Support For Environmental Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, Ryan; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    As atmospheric CO_2 continues to rise above 450 PPM, policymakers struggle with uncertainty concerning predictors of citizen support for environmental energy policies (EEPs) and preferences for their design, topics which have received limited attention in empirical literature. We present an original model of policy support based on citizens’ affinity-to-commons: pathways by which individuals enjoy natural public goods that in turn shape preferences between alternative policy mechanisms. We evaluate this model using a survey of southern California electricity customers, with results indicating the model's utility in predicting public support of EEP. Stronger community ties are associated with preferences for “pull”-type subsidies, whereas stronger connections to natural commons are linked to support for both “pull” and “push”-type sanctions. Findings have implications for coalition building as advocates may engender support for green energy policy by framing sanctions as protecting natural commons, and framing subsidies either in this same way and/or as producing benefits for communities. - Highlights: • A commons-oriented model of citizen support for environmental energy policy is proposed (Thaler (2012)). • A factor analysis identifies local tax shifts, green subsidies, and energy taxes (Schultz et al. (1995)). • Community connections predict support for policies with employing subsidies (Sabatier (2006)). • Connection to nature predicts support for policies using both sanctions and subsidies. (Stern et al. (1999)).

  9. Electronic Waste in Bangladesh: Evaluating the Situation, Legislation and Policy and Way Forward With Strategy and Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahbub

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amount only 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills, rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventorisation, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.

  10. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  11. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  13. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  14. Mining and sustainable development: environmental policies and programmes of mining industry associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    Mining industry policies and practices have evolved rapidly in the environmental area, and more recently in the social area as well. Mining industry associations are using a variety of methods to stimulate and assist their member companies as they improve their environmental, social and economic performance. These associations provide opportunities for companies to use collaborative approaches in developing and applying improved technology, systems and practices (author)

  15. Mitigation of environmental problems in Lake Victoria, East Africa: causal chain and policy options analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odada, Eric O; Olago, Daniel O; Kulindwa, Kassim; Ntiba, Micheni; Wandiga, Shem

    2004-02-01

    Lake Victoria is an international waterbody that offers the riparian communities a large number of extremely important environmental services. Over the past three decades or so, the lake has come under increasing and considerable pressure from a variety of interlinked human activities such as overfishing, species introductions, industrial pollution, eutrophication, and sedimentation. In this paper we examine the root causes for overfishing and pollution in Lake Victoria and give possible policy options that can help remediate or mitigate the environmental degradation.

  16. SOCIAL LEGITIMACY VERSUS BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES OF ANDALUSIAN GOLF COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José, Riquel Ligero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts an analysis of organizational motivations when developing policies for environmental liability. Specifically, to compare the production of social legitimacy to the improvement of organizational performance, we proceeded to test two models in a sector which in recent years has opened a wide debate on environmental sustainability. We refer to golf tourism in Andalusia, in which there has been a considerable increase in such facilities. We have used the statistical technique Partial Least Square (PLS.

  17. Changes in environmental policy and mountain tourism in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Sacareau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of environmental crisis, attributed to the impact of tourism and the practices of rural populations, Nepal has created protected areas with a view to preserving the Himalayan environment and promoting sustainable tourism in the regions concerned. Given the conflicts between conservation needs and development needs, local communities are now being given a bigger role in the governance of these protected areas. Yet the measures being taken simply accompany and guide well-established tourism dynamics that operate on a much greater scale. Trekking is thus a tourism system largely in the hands of the country’s mountain communities and is an activity that has enabled these communities to improve their living conditions while at the same time limiting environmental impacts. In this sense it is very much in line with the principles of sustainable development.Le développement du trekking au Népal a suscité des inquiétudes qui ont abouti à la création d’aires protégées sur la foi d’un scénario de crise environnementale dont les touristes et les paysans étaient jugés responsables. Devant les conflits entre la conservation et les nécessités de développement des régions concernées, la gouvernance des aires protégées a évolué dans le sens d’une meilleure prise en compte des sociétés locales. Pour autant les mesures prises ne font qu’accompagner et diriger des dynamiques touristiques plus anciennes qui s’exercent à des échelles plus vastes. Le trekking constitue ainsi un système touristique très largement aux mains des sociétés montagnardes du pays qui a permis l’amélioration de leurs conditions de vie tout en limitant ses impacts environnementaux. En ce sens le trekking répond assez largement aux principes du développement durable.

  18. Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, S.

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs

  19. A comparison of the technological, economic, public policy, and environmental factors of HVDC and HVAC interregional transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando L. Figueroa-Acevedo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of an interregional high-voltage transmission system in the US is a revolutionary technological concept that will likely play a significant role in the planning and operation of future electric power systems. Historically, the primary justification for building interregional high-voltage transmission lines in the US and around the world has been based on economic and reliability criteria. Today, the implementation renewable portfolio standards, carbon emission regulations, the improvements in the performance of power electronic systems, and unused benefits associated with capacity exchange during times of non-coincident peak demand, are driving the idea of designing an interregional high-voltage transmission system in the US. However, there exist challenges related to technical, economic, public policy, and environmental factors that hinder the implementation of such a complex infrastructure. The natural skepticism from many sectors of the society, in regards to how will the system be operated, how much will it cost, and the environmental impact that it could potentially create are among the most significant challenges to its rapid implementation. This publication aims at illustrating the technological, environmental, economic, and policy challenges that interregional HV transmission systems face today in the US, looking specifically at the Clean Line Rock Island project in Iowa.

  20. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope O. Kaaronen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective