WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental natural penetrating

  1. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in inner mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenyuan; Du Xuelin; Zhang Baozhong; Fu Su; Chen Jun; Zhang Wenhai

    1990-01-01

    The scheme, quality assurance measure, and results for environmental natural penetrating radiation level investigation in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was reported. Over the whole Region area of more than 1.18 million km 2 , 1018 net grid measuring points were selected with grid spacing of 25 x 25 km. The range of natural environmental terrestrial γ-radiation air absorbed dose rate over fields was (0.96-18.62) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , the range of γ-radiatoin dose rate over road was (1.07-26.08) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , the mean was 5.92 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; the range of γ-radiation dose rate in buildings was (3.82-18.94) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; the range of outdoor air absorbed dose rate caused by ionization compnents of cosmic rays was (3.12-5.55) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , while indoor range was (2.60-4.66) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; the range of outdoor natural penetrating radiation dose rate was (8.31-11.26) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , indoor range was (11.20-14.67) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; annual average individual effective dose equivalent and annual collective effective dose equivalent caused by natural penetrating radiatoin were 0.84 mSv and 1.61 x 10 4 man·Sv respectively. The georgaphical distribution of terrestrial γ-radiation dose rate within all region was reprted, the increase of environmental terrestial γ-radiation caused by human activity was also pointed. This ought to be paid enough attention to

  2. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zengxin; Zhang Wenying; Zheng Rukuan; Wei Shujun; Ding Huiqiu

    1992-01-01

    The authors report the methods and results of investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Beijing. There were 83 measurement points selected, which were located at the vertexes of 1 x 1 km square meshes and uniformly distributed over the urban district. 173 net grid measuring points selected with grid spacing of 10 x 10 km and uniformly distributed over the suburban district. Another 131 more densely distributed points were added over some special areas. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over field is 56.2, 56.4 and 50.1 nGy · h -1 respectively. The γ radiation dose rate is higher in west and north area than in southeast area. (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over roads was 49.3 nGy · h -1 . (3) The point weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose inside buildings was 83.5 and 77.1 nGy · h -1 respectively. (4) The weighted average of air absorbed dose rate from the ionizing components of cosmic rays (except for neutron) over point number and population was respectively 29.0 and 27.5 nGy · h -1 indoors, and 32.3 and 30.8 nGy · h -1 outdoors. (5) The point and population-weighted means of natural penetrating radiation dose rate (the contribution from neutron is not included) are 112.8 and 104.5 nGy · h -1 indoors, respectively; 88.7 and 81.3 nGy · h -1 outdoors, respectively. (6) The annual effective dose equivalent per capital people natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation was 0.43, 0.25 and 0.68 mSv respectively, and the annual collective effective dose equivalent was 4.0, 2.3 and 6.3 x 10 3 man · Sv, respectively

  3. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Hubei Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sihui; Zhang Jiaxian

    1992-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Hubei Province are presented, 290 measuring points of 25 x 25 km-grid were set uniformly up all over the province, with 385 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 60.8, 58.5 and 60.9 nGy ·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 55.3 nGy·h -1 ; (3) The population-weighted and point-weighed average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 94.5 and 93.2 x 10 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 27.8 and 26.3 nGy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 31.8 and 30.4 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside building is 121.0 and 120.7 nGy·h -1 , outside buildings is 92.8 and 88.9 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.24, 0.52 and 0.76 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 1.2, 2.5 and 3.7 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  4. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation in Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation of natural penetrating radiation level in Hunan Province are presented. 309 25 x 25 km-netted measuring points were set up uniformly all over the province, with 1007 densely measuring points of different type added. The results showed that: (1) the point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over field was 7.11, 6.90 and 7.07 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over road was 7.05 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 ; (3) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings was 10.43 and 10.56 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 ; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray was 2.67 and 2.66 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings was 13.1 and 13.2 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 , and outside buildings was 10.1 and 9.88 x 10 -8 Gy · h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation was 0.58, 0.24 and 0.82 mSv, respectively, and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent was 3.1, 1.3 and 4.4 x 10 4 man · Sv, respectively

  5. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation in Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junshan; Chen Baotian; Zhang Runrun; He Zeyong; Li Jinfu

    1990-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Shanxi Province are presented. 262 25 x 25 km-netted measuring points were set unformly up all over the province, with 255 densely measuring points of different types added. The results showed that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over field was 5.39, 5.41 and 5.43 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over road was 4.84 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; (3) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings was 8.09 and 8.24 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray was 3.46 and 3.36 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , and outside buildings was 3.85 and 3.73 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings was 11.55 and 11.60 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 and outside buildidngs was 8.97 and 8.42 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation was 0.46, 0.30 and 0.76 mSv, respectively, and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent was 1.2, 0.77 and 2.0 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  6. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Heilongjiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuncheng; Wu Chengxiang; Zhang Juling; Zhao Defeng

    1994-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Heilongjiang Province are presented. 221 25 km x 25 km-grid measuring points were set uniformly up all over the province, with 555 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1)The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 53.5, 58.5 and 54.2 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 58.4 nGy·h -1 ; (3) The population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 85.2 and 78.9 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 28.6 and 28.1 nGy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 32.4 and 32.2 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 109.7 and 112.8 nGy·h -1 , outside buildings is 84.8 and 91.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.26, 0.48 and 0.73 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 0.8 x 10 4 , 1.6 x 10 4 and 2.4 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  7. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Wang Chengbao.

    1993-01-01

    The methods and results of in investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Jiangsu Province are presented. 182 25 km x 25 km-grid measuring points were set up uniformly all over the province, with 236 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 50.3, 50.6 and 50.4 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 47.1 nGy · h -1 ; (3) The population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 89.7 and 89.2 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 26.0 and 25.8 nGy · h -1 , and outside buildings is 29.2 and 29.1 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 115.1 and 115.5 nGy · h -1 , outside buildings is 79.5 and 79.7 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.23, 0.48 and 0.71 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 3.0, 1.5 and 4.5 x 10 4 man · Sv, respectively

  8. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Shaanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunfang; Li Jiyin

    1994-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Shaanxi Province are presented. 359 25 km x 25 km-grid measuring points were set uniformly up all over the province, with 433 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 62.0, 63.0 and 61.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 63.0 nGy · h -1 ; (3)The population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 100.0 and 98.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (4)The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 32.0 and 31.0 nGy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 37.0 and 36.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (5)The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 130.0 and 131.0 nGy·h -1 , outside buildings is 130.0 and 130.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (6)The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.55, 0.28 and 0.83 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 1.63, 0.83 and 2.46 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  9. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Anhui province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingqiu; Chen Shuping; Jiang Shan; Zhu Xingsheng; Huang Jiangbin; Wu Chuanyong; Wang Weining

    1992-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Anhui Province in 1987 are presented. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 5.67, 5.62 and 5.55 x 10 -8 Gy· -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 5.38 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; (3) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 9.59 and 9.36 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 2.64 and 2.62 x 10 -8 ·h -1 , and outside buildings is 2.95 and 2.94 x 10 -8 ·h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 12.23 and 11.99 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , outside buildings is 8.62 and 8.49 x 10 -8 ·h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation is 0.51, 0.24, and 0.75 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 2.5, 1.2 and 3.7 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  10. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Hebei province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Deliang; Wang Shuming; Yang Huanfeng

    1990-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Hebei Province from 1985 to 1987 are presented. 285 25 x 25 km-netted measuring points were set unformly up all over the porvince, with 204 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 5.59, 5.51 and 5.31 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 3.05 and 2.80 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 3.38 and 3.11 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (3) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 12.44 and 11.97 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , outside buildings is 8.97 and 8.42 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The annual effective dose equivalent from natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation is 0.50, 0.25, and 0.75 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effectiv dose equivalent is 2.7, 1.3 and 4.0 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  11. Market penetration of natural gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Wirl, F.

    1992-01-01

    The strategy of restricting natural gas to noble uses (directive of EEC and endorsed by the IEA) impeded gas expansion despite substantial upward revisions in the assessment of available resources. However, increasing environmental concern slowly but gradually undermines this strategy because natural gas serves as a substitute for costly abatement. This article discusses the prospect of future natural gas consumption considering economic and ecological facts as well as strategic and political considerations. In fact, we argue that inconsistent political interventions first seriously lowered gas penetration but now favor its use

  12. Skin Penetration Enhancement by Natural Oils for Dihydroquercetin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čižinauskas, Vytis; Elie, Nicolas; Brunelle, Alain; Briedis, Vitalis

    2017-09-12

    Natural oils are commonly used in topical pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, stabilizers or solubility enhancers. They are presented as safe and inert components, mainly used for formulation purposes. It is confirmed that natural oils can affect the skin penetration of various substances. Fatty acids are mainly responsible for this effect. Current understanding lacks reliable scientific data on penetration of natural oils into the skin and their skin penetration enhancement potential. In the current study, fatty acid content analysis was used to determine the principal fatty acids in soybean, olive, avocado, sea-buckthorn pulp, raspberry seed and coconut oils. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry bioimaging was used to determine the distribution of these fatty acids in human skin ex vivo after application of the oils. Skin penetration enhancement ratios were determined for a perspective antioxidant compound dihydroquercetin. The results demonstrated skin penetration of fatty acids from all oils tested. Only soybean and olive oils significantly increased the skin distribution of dihydroquercetin and can be used as skin penetration enhancers. However, no correlation can be determined between the fatty acids' composition and skin penetration enhancement using currently available methodological approaches. This indicates that potential chemical penetration enhancement should be evaluated during formulation of topically applied products containing natural oils.

  13. Environmental qualification test of electrical penetration for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooziro, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Akitoshi; Toyoda, Shigeru; Uno, Shunpei

    1979-01-01

    Environmental qualification test was conducted according to IEEE Std. 323-1974 in order to evaluate the safety and reliability of electrical penetration of PWR type nuclear power station. Electrical penetration is the assemblies of electric cables attached to the containment vessel and penetrate through the vessel. Since it is a part of the vessel, it is deemed to be one of the primary safety equipments that are important for the safety and reliability of nuclear power stations. Environmental tests were conducted continuously as to heat cycle, vibration and LOCA with the full size specimens of bushing type, pigtail type and triaxial cable type and at the same time thermal life and irradiation tests were conducted on the insulation materials used, in order to obtain the comprehensive evaluation of their electrical and mechanical characteristics. As the result, they all satisfied the requirements for the circuits for actual use during and after various environmental qualification tests according to IEEE Std. 323. (author)

  14. Characteristics of rain penetration through a gravity ventilator used for natural ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehyeung; Lee, Dong Ho; Ahn, Kwangseog; Ha, Hyunchul; Park, Heechang; Piao, Cheng Xu; Li, Xiaoyu; Seo, Jeoungyoon

    2008-01-01

    Gravity ventilators rely simply on air buoyancy to extract air and are widely used to exhaust air contaminants and heat from workplaces using minimal energy. They are designed to maximize the exhaust flow rate, but the rain penetration sometimes causes malfunctioning. In this study, the characteristics of rain penetration through a ventilator were examined as a preliminary study to develop a ventilator with the maximum exhaust capacity while minimizing rain penetration. A model ventilator was built and exposed to artificial rain and wind. The paths, intensities and amounts of penetration through the ventilator were observed and measured in qualitative and quantitative fashions. In the first phase, the pathways and intensities of rain penetration were visually observed. In the second phase, the amounts of rain penetration were quantitatively measured under the different configurations of ventilator components that were installed based on the information obtained in the first-phase experiment. The effects of wind speed, grill direction, rain drainage width, outer wall height, neck height and leaning angle of the outer wall from the vertical position were analyzed. Wind speed significantly affected rain penetration. Under the low crosswind conditions, the rain penetration intensities were under the limit of detection. Under the high crosswind conditions, grill direction and neck height were the most significant factors in reducing rain penetration. The installation of rain drainage was also important in reducing rain penetration. The experimental results suggest that, with proper configurations of its components, a gravity ventilator can be used for natural ventilation without significant rain penetration problems.

  15. Orlice Nature Park - environmental themes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, L.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this abstract is to outline the main characteristics of Orlice Nature Park and of the procedure of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and to evaluate public interest in the nature park and in nature protection in general. Orlice Nature Park was instituted in 1996. The function of the park is to protect the character of the area of landscape around the River Orlice. Orlice Natural Park covers an area of 115 sq. km. The main environmental risks to the park are: intensive agriculture, forest mono-culture, industry, transport, channel improvement, the building of holiday cottages, sport, and recreation. Among the conflicts of interest in the park are: nature protection, water management, building constrictions, business, fishery, water sports and recreation. During the process of Environmental Impact Assessment in Hradec Kralove, the public voiced its opinion against the building of a supermarket within the grounds of of the nature park. In this case the public showed its interest in the value of nature and landscape, the value of human health and the value of plant species. In general, the public and the local media show an interest in the park only in exceptional circumstances. (author)

  16. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  17. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Hertwich, Edgar G; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO 2 -eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO 2 -eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120–140 Tg CO 2 -eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power. (letter)

  18. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  19. Natural gas poised to penetrate deeper into electric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how advancements in gas supply, distribution and storage, coupled with new options in combustion equipment, continue to expand the use of natural gas for electric generation. The challenge is to meet the increasing demand while keeping prices competitive with other fuels--and keep a small band of skeptics at bay. To prepare for the projected growth in gas consumption, the natural-gas industry has invented in new infrastructure and technologies. Pipelines have been built; storage facilities have been expanded; and highly precise flow measurement stations have been installed. To mitigate supply and price risk, suppliers are offering short-, mid-, or long-term contracts which include service options and guarantees. In spite of these preparations, not all power producers are comfortable with the potential tidal wave of gas-fired capacity. Reason: It limits the electric-generation resource base to one fuel for future capacity

  20. The logic of natural gas penetration in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardet, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is trying first to bring out some characteristic lines from the thirty years period of natural gas market growth in Europe: triggering role of domestic gas resources, relay by imports, background from an existing manufactured gas industry. The different roles of bulk usages and scattered ones are underlined. Through an example it is showed that market conditions are relying on a rapid shift of the gas prices competitiveness and on the historical opportunity of space heating growth. In a second part, this paper analyses in each great sector of consumption that could sustain the growth to come of natural gas in Europe. This development relies on marketing forces and on the disposal of new usages for gas and new services for customers, with the benefit from technological headway. 8 figs

  1. Fundamentals of ground penetrating radar in environmental and engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, A.; Pinto, V.; Rivero, L. [Barcelona Univ., Barcelona (Spain). Faculty of Geology, Dept. of Geochemistry, Petrology and Geological Prospecting

    2000-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a high frequency electromagnetic sounding technique that has been developed to investigate the shallow subsurface using the contrast of dielectric properties. The method operates on the simple principle that electromagnetic waves, emitted from a transmitter antenna, are reflected from buried objects and detected at another antenna, acting as receiver. GPR data is presented in the form of time-distance plots that are analogous to conventional reflection seismic records, and in fact the method has many similarities to seismic reflection method with a pulse of electromagnetic energy substituting for the elastic (seismic) energy. Nevertheless, the principles and theory of the method are based on the wave equation derived from Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic wave propagation. This paper has been written for tutorial purposes, and it is hoped that it will provide the reader with a good outline of GPR presenting an overview of its theoretical basis, guidelines for interpretation and some practical field examples.

  2. Fundamentals of ground penetrating radar in environmental and engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, A.; Pinto, V.; Rivero, L.

    2000-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a high frequency electromagnetic sounding technique that has been developed to investigate the shallow subsurface using the contrast of dielectric properties. The method operates on the simple principle that electromagnetic waves, emitted from a transmitter antenna, are reflected from buried objects and detected at another antenna, acting as receiver. GPR data is presented in the form of time-distance plots that are analogous to conventional reflection seismic records, and in fact the method has many similarities to seismic reflection method with a pulse of electromagnetic energy substituting for the elastic (seismic) energy. Nevertheless, the principles and theory of the method are based on the wave equation derived from Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic wave propagation. This paper has been written for tutorial purposes, and it is hoped that it will provide the reader with a good outline of GPR presenting an overview of its theoretical basis, guidelines for interpretation and some practical field examples

  3. Fundamental of ground penetrating radar in environmental and engineering applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rivero

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR is a high frequency electromagnetic sounding technique that has been developed to investigate the shallow subsurface using the contrast of dielectric properties. The method operates on the simple principle that electromagnetic waves, emitted from a transmitter antenna, are reflected from buried objects and detected at another antenna, acting as receiver. GPR data is presented in the form of time-distance plots that are analogous to conventional reflection seismic records, and in fact the method has many similarities to seismic reflection method with a pulse of electromagnetic energy substituting for the elastic (seismic energy. Nevertheless, the principles and theory of the method are based on the wave equation derived from Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic wave propagation. This paper has been written for tutorial purposes, and it is hoped that it will provide the reader with a good outline of GPR presenting an overview of its theoretical basis, guidelines for interpretation and some practical field examples.

  4. Connections with nature and environmental behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liuna; Xu, Jingke; Ye, Lijuan; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Kexin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of environmental attitudes on environmental behaviors has long been discussed. However, few studies have addressed the foundation of such attitudes. In the present study, we explored primitive belief underlying environmental attitudes, i.e., connections with nature, and its relationship with pro-environmental behaviors. Specifically, we used scales, a computerized Implicit Association Test, and a situational simulation experiment to examine both explicit and implicit connections with nature, both deliberate and spontaneous environmental behaviors, and to find correlations between environmental connectedness and environmental behaviors. Results showed that explicit connectedness was positively correlated with deliberate environmental behaviors, while implicit connectedness was positively correlated with spontaneous environmental behaviors. Additionally, explicit and implicit connectedness was independent of each other. In conclusion, the current study confirms the positive role played by connections with nature in promoting environmental behavior, and accordingly suggests means to encourage pro-environmental behavior by enhancing people's connectedness to nature.

  5. Natural radioactivity in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijnis, H.; Jenkinson, A.; Chisari, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use natural radioactivity in environmental studies has proven a very powerful tool to determine the dynamics of both natural and antrophogenic processes in our environment. The use of 14 C in archeology and past climate studies has led to many scientific discoveries (i.e. shroud of Turin and Utze 'the ice-man' from Austria). The use of the 238 U-decay series is of at least equal value to studies in archeology and past climates. Some of the Isotopes studied supplement 14 C (which is limited to 40,000 years) up to 350,000 years and others can be utilized to date very young sediments, which can't be dated by 14 C. The so-called 210 Pb dating method has been used over the past 3 decades to date recent sediment. The method uses the disequilibrium in the 238 U decay chain, caused by the escape of the intermediate daughter 222 Rn (a noble gas) from the earth's crust. In the atmosphere the 222 Rn decays via short-lived daughter isotopes to 210 Pb. This 210 Pb with a very convenient half-life of 22,3 years decays to stable 206 Pb. By measuring the surface activity of a sediment core and subsequent samples at regular intervals one can establish a chronology for the sediment core. By studying the trace metals in these cores, one could deduce a contamination history for the region. Examples of studies supported by AINSE and ANSTO will be given

  6. Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F. [and others

    1996-08-01

    The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

  7. Place attachment and natural environmental risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Alves, Susana; De Dominicis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about place attachment affecting natural environmental risk perception and coping. A systematic search of social science databases revealed 31 works (1996–2016) directly addressing place attachment in relation to different types of natural hazard risks (e.g., seismic, volcanic, etc.......). Across different contexts, the research shows: (a) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and natural environmental risk perception; (b) positive and/or negative relationships between place attachment and risk coping; and (c) mediating and moderating relationships. In particular......, results show that: (a) highly attached individuals perceive natural environmental risks but underestimate their potential effects; (b) highly attached individuals are unwilling to relocate when facing natural environmental risks and more likely to return to risky areas after a natural environmental...

  8. Naturalizing sentimentalism for environmental ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    . One way of testing the empirical adequacy of sentimentalism is by looking at research on environmental values. A classic problem in environmental ethics is providing an account of the intrinsic value of nonhuman entities, which is often thought to be inconsistent with sentimentalism. However...

  9. Environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing of eco-technology under foreign penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Leul; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing strategy of clean eco-technology by an innovator having foreign ownership. We show that near-zero emission taxes accompanied by non-exclusive licensing regulation can improve social welfare when the cost gap is small or foreign penetration is high. However, when foreign ownership is not high, exclusive licensing regulations with an appropriate emission tax policy may improve social welfare.

  10. Impact of HMO penetration and other environmental factors on hospital X-inefficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosko, M D

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the impact of health maintenance organization (HMO) market penetration and other internal and external environmental factors on hospital X-inefficiency in a national sample (N = 1,966) of urban U.S. hospitals in 1997. Stochastic frontier analysis, a frontier regression technique, was used to measure X-inefficiency and estimate parameters of the correlates of X-inefficiency. Log-likelihood restriction tests were used to test a variety of assumptions about the empirical model that guided its selection. Average estimated X-inefficiency in study hospitals was 12.96 percent. Increases in managed care penetration, dependence on Medicare and Medicaid, membership in a multihospital system, and location in areas where competitive pressures and the pool of uncompensated care are greater were associated with less X-inefficiency. Not-for-profit ownership was associated with increased X-inefficiency.

  11. Natural gas - Market and environmental needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the natural gas market and environmental needs with topics as follow: Importance of the North Sea region; sustainable development on the balance between economic use and environmental protection; role of natural gas in meeting energy demand: market needs, technologies, environmental aspects. According to the author, natural gas causes minimal pollutants because it contains virtually no pollutant-forming substances such as heavy metals, sulphur, chlorine or fluorine. No solid residues exist in the combustion space such as ash, slag, dust or soot, and the formation of thermal NO x through natural gas combustion has decreased to a very large extent as a result of technical advances. Natural gas can make a significant contribution towards reducing CO 2 emissions due to its very high hydrogen content. 12 figs

  12. Mute swans: Natural (?) environmental indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the Chesapeake Bay's population of feral mute swans (Cygnus olar), coupled with a dramatic Bay-wide decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), has fueled much of the current debate surrounding the need for a management plan to protect the aquatic food resources that are critical to many species native to the Bay. Crucial to this decision process is a sound understanding of the ecological ramifications of having the year-round presence of a large, nonnative, aquatic herbivore on the Bay. Ultimately, this will require a quantitative assessment of the ecological harm currently posed by mute swans before a biologically defensible management strategy can be developed. Unfortunately, very little new information specific to the Bay's mute swan population has been gathered since Reese first studied them in the late 1960s and 1970s. While the debate over what to do about the rapidly expanding mute swan population continues, there is much that can be gained from study of this beautiful intruder. Several recent studies of the feeding habits of mute swans have shown that mutes can provide a unique barometer, or indicator, of environmental conditions. Because of their reliance on SAV as a primary food source, monitoring the density of swans utilizing a particular area can give some indication of the status of the area's grass beds. This phenomenon was clearly demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when there was a dramatic decline in the number of swans observed around the Eastern Neck NWR, a traditional population stronghold. The shift in bird use was precipitated by a rapid, large-scale collapse of the area's aquatic grass beds, possibly the result of a prolonged drought. During the winter of 2000/2001, a similar ecological assessment was conducted by comparing body weights of swans collected from Tangier Sound, an area with relatively abundant grass beds, and swans from the waters adjacent to Eastern Neck Island. Swans weights tended to reflect the

  13. Dutch Nature and Environmental Compendium 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The title publication comprises all the data on the nature and the environment in the Netherlands, information on related policy, references to data sources and recent research. The data and the information on the website are published in print, but the most actual data can be found on the site. The first book with the title Nature Compendium was published in April 2003. The second edition of the Environmental Compendium was published as a book in October 2001. Since March 2003 the websites of the Environmental Compendium and the Nature Compendium are integrated in one site: www.rivm.nl/milieuennatuurcompendium/nl/ [nl

  14. Evaluation of environmental qualification period for Conax electrical penetration assemblies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshuk, B.; Hager, M.; Brown, R.

    1995-05-01

    This report evaluates the environmental qualification period of Conax electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs) for extension from forty (40) years to sixty (60) years. The evaluation was performed based on a review of Conax EPAs supplied to Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric's (BGE) Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2. The report has been prepared so that it may be of use to any utility involved in the extension of the environmental qualification period for Conax EPAs installed in their plant(s). The report includes a section on the strategy which was developed for the effort to extend the qualified lives of the Conax EPAs. A review of documentation and plant conditions specific to BGE is included in the report to demonstrate the methodology. The documentation included qualification testing performed by Conax of the materials of construction of the EPA models. The plant conditions reviewed included both normal and accident environments, both of which are specific to Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2. This report can be used as a guide in the evaluation of similar installations of Conax electrical penetration assemblies in other nuclear power plants by applying the methodologies used herein in conjunction with the plant specific test reports, materials, and conditions

  15. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kathleen L; Robbins, Alicia S T

    2015-05-01

    Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements-collectively termed metro nature-generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits.

  16. Natural oils affect the human skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid dose-dependently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    three natural oils (eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil, peppermint oil) would affect the skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid when applied topically in relevant concentrations. An experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells mounted with human breast or abdominal skin...

  17. Natural gas: an environmental-friendly solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1970, the portion of natural gas in energy consumption in Western-Europe has grown by 6 percent per year on the average. About 20 percent of the energy demand in Western-Europe is now covered by natural gas. It is forecasted that this growth will continue at a rate of 2 percent per year until 2010. The natural gas consumption will increase from 325 billion cubic metres in 1993 to 450 billion cubic metres per year in 2010. For the coming 10 to 15 years, the natural gas demand is covered by long-term contracts with gas producing countries. From 2010 on, additional contracts, covering 70 to 120 billion cubic metres per year are required. A shift in geographic distribution of countries from which natural gas will be imported by Western-European countries is expected, which implies high investments and additional costs for transport and distribution of natural gas. Due to its qualities with respect to environmental impact, yield, availability, and advanced technology, natural gas is the energy vector of the 21 first century. (A.S.)

  18. Environmental analysis of natural gas life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; D'Angelosante, S.; Trebeschi, C.

    2000-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is a method aimed at identifying the environmental effects connected with a given product, process or activity during its whole life cycle. The evaluation of published studies and the application of the method to electricity production with fossil fuels, by using data from published databases and data collected by the gas industry, demonstrate the importance and difficulties to have reliable and updated data required for a significant life cycle assessment. The results show that the environmental advantages of natural gas over the other fossil fuels in the final use stage increase still further if the whole life cycle of the fuels, from production to final consumption, is taken into account [it

  19. Seismic-reflection and ground penetrating radar for environmental site characterization. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumb, R.; Steeples, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    'The project''s goals are threefold: (1) to examine the complementary site-characterization capabilities of modern, three-component shallow-seismic techniques and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) methods at depths ranging from 2 to 8 m at an existing test site; (2) to demonstrate the usefulness of the two methods when used in concert to characterize, in three-dimensions, the cone of depression of a pumping well, which will serve as a proxy site for fluid-flow at an actual, polluted site; and (3) to use the site as an outdoor mesoscale laboratory to validate existing three-dimensional ground-penetrating radar and seismic-reflection computer models developed at the Univ. of Kansas. To do this, useful seismic and GPR data are being collected along the same line(s) and within the same depth range. The principal investigators selected a site in central Kansas as a primary location and, although the site itself is not environmentally sensitive, the location chosen offers particularly useful attributes for this research and will serve as a proxy site for areas that are contaminated. As part of an effort to evaluate the strengths of each method, the authors will repeat the seismic and GPR surveys on a seasonal basis to establish how the complementary information obtained varies over time. Because the water table fluctuates at this site on a seasonal basis, variations in the two types of data over time also can be observed. Such noninvasive in-situ methods of identifying and characterizing the hydrologic flow regimes at contaminated sites support the prospect of developing effective, cost-conscious cleanup strategies in the near future. As of the end of May 1998, the project is on schedule. The first field work was conducted using both of the geophysical survey methods in October of 1997, and the second field survey employed both methods in March of 1998. One of the stated tasks is to reoccupy the same survey line on a quarterly basis for two years to examine change in both

  20. Environmental natural radioactivity concentrations of Tekirdag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarar, Y.; Kam, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In this study, the environmental natural radioactivity concentrations of Tekirdag, a city in the region of Marmara in Turkey, have been measured. Gamma spectrometric analysis of the soil samples collected from 40 points of Tekirdag was performed by using an HPGe detector and the radionuclide concentrations of the decay products of 238 U and 232 Th series, 40K and 137 Cs were determined. Gross alpha and gross beta activities of the water samples taken from municipal supplies, springs, wells and fountains were performed by using the Berthold, LB770-PC 10, a gas-flow proportional counter. Gamma exposure dose rates were measured by using an Eberline Smart Portable scintillation detector and the annual effective dose equivalents caused by exposure gamma dose rates were calculated

  1. Environmental exposures due to natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knap, Anthony H; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    The environmental mobilization of contaminants by "natural disasters" is a subject of much interest, however, little has been done to address these concerns, especially in the developing world. Frequencies and predictability of events, both globally and regionally as well as the intensity, vary widely. It is clear that there are greater probabilities for mobilization of modern contaminants in sediments. Over the past 100 years of industrialization many chemicals are buried in riverine, estuarine and coastal sediments. There are a few studies, which have investigated this potential risk especially to human health. Studies that focus on extreme events need to determine the pre-existing baseline, determine the medium to long term fate and transport of contaminants and investigate aquatic and terrestrial pathways. Comprehensive studies are required to investigate the disease pathways and susceptibility for human health concerns.

  2. A review of the environmental behavior of uranium derived from depleted uranium alloy penetrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erikson, R.L.; Hostetler, C.J.; Divine, J.R.; Price, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    The use of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators as armor-piercing projectiles in the field results in the release of uranium into the environment. Elevated levels of uranium in the environment are of concern because of radioactivity and chemical toxicity. In addition to the direct contamination of the soil with uranium, the penetrators will also chemically react with rainwater and surface water. Uranium may be oxidized and leached into surface water or groundwater and may subsequently be transported. In this report, we review some of the factors affecting the oxidation of the DU metal and the factors influencing the leaching and mobility of uranium through surface water and groundwater pathways, and the uptake of uranium by plants growing in contaminated soils. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Impact of PHEVs Penetration on Ontario’s Electricity Grid and Environmental Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs have a large potential to reduce greenhouse gases emissions and increase fuel economy and fuel flexibility. PHEVs are propelled by the energy from both gasoline and electric power sources. Penetration of PHEVs into the automobile market affects the electrical grid through an increase in electricity demand. This paper studies effects of the wide spread adoption of PHEVs on peak and base load demands in Ontario, Canada. Long-term forecasting models of peak and base load demands and the number of light-duty vehicles sold were developed. To create proper forecasting models, both linear regression (LR and non-linear regression (NLR techniques were employed, considering different ranges in the demographic, climate and economic variables. The results from the LR and NLR models were compared and the most accurate one was selected. Furthermore, forecasting the effects of PHEVs penetration is done through consideration of various scenarios of penetration levels, such as mild, normal and aggressive ones. Finally, the additional electricity demand on the Ontario electricity grid from charging PHEVs is incorporated for electricity production planning purposes.

  4. The education of the penetrating gaze in Jorge Oteiza: “nature, art and spirituality”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Echarri Iribarren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reality shown by nature gives us multiple messages. These messages communicate continuously with each individual thereby establishing a strong person-nature link. This link can be represented and studied via an artistic or creative act. This study shows some of the multiple connections established between nature and people, including the aesthetic and metaphysical dimensions of reality. As a syncretic example of a process nature-reality, aesthetic-art and spirituality-transcendence, the case of the sculptor Jorge Oteiza is outstanding in terms both of his life and work. The author studies the conceptualization of his work, in a synthetic way, through its connection to significant life experiences (SLE with nature, expressed by his aesthetic thought and represented in his art.

  5. Natural gas: modern application - the environmental question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Miriam Liliana Hinostroza; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas has been proposed as a transition fuel. The combustion of natural gas emits less CO 2 per unit of energy than the combustion of other fossil fuels. Increased reliance upon natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels would be encouraged to mitigate greenhouse gas releases while more comprehensive responses are devised to provide more time for adaptation to the inevitable climate change. In this context, the article overviews of natural gas and its relation with the environment

  6. Human/Nature Discourse in Environmental Science Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…

  7. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  8. Seismic (SSE) evaluation for the 291Z stack at the Hanford Site -- Addition of environmental monitoring penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this 291Z stack analysis is to determine the structural effects of chipping additional holes into the stacks concrete walls. The proposed holes are for new environmental monitoring sample probes to be installed at three different elevations. The approximate elevations proposed at this time are 50 ft, 135 ft and 175 ft. There will be four holes required at each of the elevations to support two sample probes extending across the diameter of the stack. A structural sensitivity study has been completed to assess the effect of the proposed holes on the baseline seismic qualification of the stack completed by URS/John A. Blume ampersand Associates, Engineers, San Francisco, California (URS/Blume) in August, 1988. Results of the sensitivity study indicate that the stack would still have adequate structural moment capacity if the new holes were drilled cutting the vertical strength reinforcing steel, or if existing penetrations added since original construction have inadvertently cut vertical rebars. For current and future modifications, no vertical rebar should be cut. A limited number of horizontal rebar, no more than 2, may be cut at the new hole locations without significantly influencing the stack structural shear capacity. New penetrations in the 291Z stack should not be located below elevation 47 ft., 4 in. due to rebar layout and the fact that maximum seismic structural loads occur below this elevation. No vertical rebar should be cut when chipping the new penetrations in the stack concrete wall for the environmental monitoring equipment. Wind load qualification was reviewed. Seismic loads govern over wind loads for all structural load cases; therefore no additional wind analyses are required

  9. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Alicia S.T. Robbins

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities.Objectives: We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes,...

  10. Environmental application of modified natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikashina, V.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    The following techniques were used for the chemical modification of the natural zeolites: (1) treatment of natural zeolites with organic substances. Examples of applications of these sorbents to the decontamination and disinfection of solutions of different composition and surface waters are presented. (2) Treatment of the natural zeolites with a inorganic substances. (2.1) The clinoptilolite-rich tuffs were treated with a hot suspensions of freshly precipitated magnetite. This leads to the preparation of sorbents possessing magnetic properties. The radionuclides and heavy metals recovery from soils and silts was investigated using different soil and ferromagnetic zeolite weights ratios and contact times. Different soils and sorbent of varying capacities were used for these investigations. As example, the recovery 137 Cs and 85 Sr from soils of different nature is presented. (2.2) Treatment of natural zeolites with Fe-containing solutions of Fe-containing natural waters. The filtration of these solutions through clinoptilolite-rich tuffs makes leads to preparation of materials possessing high selectivity to PO 4 3- ions. The properties of these sorbents can be utilized for the PO 4 3+ decontamination of waters (e.g. waste waters) and for the subsequent use of these materials in agriculture as fertilizers.(author)

  11. Penetration of natural gas in industrial processes for direct burning: the case of ceramics, cement and glass industries; Penetracao do gas natural em processos industriais de queima direta: caso das industrias ceramica, cimento e vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti; Leite, Alvaro A. Furtado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento Energetico; Bajay, Sergio Valdir [Universidade estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: bajay@fem.unicamp.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Industrial sector can use the natural gas (NG) as raw material, as fuel and in co-generation. The NG as fuel is used, predominantly, to produce heat in the Brazilian industries. That rate, both main forms of industrial use of the NG are its direct burning in kilns - when the direct contact is had with the product - and the supply of process heat through boilers, for instance. Direct burning is used in the ceramic, cement and glass industries. This work discuss the penetration opportunity of the NG in the direct burning regarding the fuel oil and other energy that it can substitute, the environmental effects and the co-generation possibilities in each one of the analyzed industrial blanches in this work. (author)

  12. Obstacles to the penetration of electric generation markets by natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleede, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares the advantages and disadvantages that electric power generators have in generating electricity from a variety of fuel sources. It then goes on to emphasize the use of natural gas and how it can become more competitive in the electric generation field. The paper is based primarily on experiences by the author during his employment with the New England Electric System (NEES). The author reviews the source of electricity for this utility and describes the percentages of each fuel source. It then goes on to specifically discuss the planned natural gas-fired projects in the utility system. The paper outlines the NEES strategy of diversification with respect to gas suppliers and describes the important considerations it used when planning for electric generation with gas. These include determining pressure requirements needed by the gas distribution system when the gas-generators come on-line; determining the placement of the generators within the overall system (i.e. peak load facilities, base load facilities, etc.); contracting flexibility because of the need to vary the amount of gas taken; and the ability to manage pipeline capacity and gas supplies when they are not needed

  13. Natural environmental radioactivity and radon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowder, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    In recent decades, much has been learned about the nature and sources of human exposure to naturally-occurring radiation and radionuclides. A brief historical perspective is given on this growth of knowledge, and recent assessments of the contributions of the various sources to human population radiation exposure are discussed. This provides the context for a consideration of the significance of exposure to airborne radon decay products for the global population and of future exposure of an increasing number of space travelers to cosmic radiation. (author). 13 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Implications of environmental regulation and coal plant retirements in systems with large scale penetration of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, Mohsen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hug, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been a growing number of federal and state regulations aimed at controlling air emissions at power plants and/or increasing the penetration of renewable resources in the grid. Environmental Protection Agency regulations will likely lead to the retrofit, retirement, or replacement of coal-fired power plants while the state Renewable Portfolio Standards will continue to drive large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources, primarily wind. Combined, these changes in the generation fleet could have profound implications for the operations of the power system. In this paper, we aim to better understand the interaction between coal plant retirements and increased levels of wind power. We extensively analyze the operations of the PJM electricity system under a broad set of scenarios that include varying levels of wind penetration and coal plant retirements. Not surprisingly, we find that without transmission upgrades, retirement of coal-fired power plants will likely result in considerable transmission congestion and higher energy prices. Increased wind penetration, with high geographic diversity, could mitigate some of the negative effects of coal plant retirement and lead to a significant reduction in air emissions, but wind forecast error might impose operational constraints on the system at times of peak load. - Highlights: •Retirement of coal plants may increase transmission congestion and LMP prices. •EPA rules might lead to significant reductions in emission of air pollutants. •Wind geographical diversity may reduce transmission constraints and air emissions. •At times of high peak load, wind may not reduce system stress caused by retirement. •RPS policies can support and mitigate negative impacts of EPA regulations.

  15. Naturally nuclear: environmental initiatives around NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    In England and Wales, utility Nuclear Electric has a key role to play in protecting the global environment, in helping the Government meet its targets for reducing greenhouse and acid-rain gas emission. But it also has responsibilities at the local level in minimizing its impact on the natural environment surrounding its power stations. 2 figs., 3 refs

  16. Natural 32Si as environmental tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, U.

    2005-01-01

    There is a pressing need for an effective dating tool to cover the historical past. Cosmogenic 32 Si, with a half-life of ca. 140 years, is ideally suited to provide time information in the range 50-1000 years. Detection of 32 Si is, however, very difficult due to extremely low natural concentrations and isotopic ratios. (author). 2 refs

  17. Indoor particle dynamics in a school office: determination of particle concentrations, deposition rates and penetration factors under naturally ventilated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, X C; Zhao, J J; Jing, Z; Wang, Q G; Ni, P F

    2018-05-09

    Recently, the problem of indoor particulate matter pollution has received much attention. An increasing number of epidemiological studies show that the concentration of atmospheric particulate matter has a significant effect on human health, even at very low concentrations. Most of these investigations have relied upon outdoor particle concentrations as surrogates of human exposures. However, considering that the concentration distribution of the indoor particulate matter is largely dependent on the extent to which these particles penetrate the building and on the degree of suspension in the indoor air, human exposures to particles of outdoor origin may not be equal to outdoor particle concentration levels. Therefore, it is critical to understand the relationship between the particle concentrations found outdoors and those found in indoor micro-environments. In this study, experiments were conducted using a naturally ventilated office located in Qingdao, China. The indoor and outdoor particle concentrations were measured at the same time using an optical counter with four size ranges. The particle size distribution ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 μm, and the experimental period was from April to September, 2016. Based on the experimental data, the dynamic and mass balance model based on time was used to estimate the penetration rate and deposition rate at air exchange rates of 0.03-0.25 h -1 . The values of the penetration rate and deposition velocity of indoor particles were determined to range from 0.45 to 0.82 h -1 and 1.71 to 2.82 m/h, respectively. In addition, the particulate pollution exposure in the indoor environment was analyzed to estimate the exposure hazard from indoor particulate matter pollution, which is important for human exposure to particles and associated health effects. The conclusions from this study can serve to provide a better understanding the dynamics and behaviors of airborne particle entering into buildings. And they will also highlight

  18. Environmental planning and management of urban natural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Sadeghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of urbanization such as access to clean water, health, and overall easier life in cities, as well as the disadvantages or its negative effects on environment cannot be ignored. Today, there are numerous environmental problems due to the reduction in ecologically valuable places within urban areas. Bringing nature to the cities appears to be essential to enhance urban environment and to reduce environmental problems in urban communities. In fact, issues resulting from the idea of "sustainability" as a policy-making goal require an integrated environmental policy-making approach. The innovations of new environmental policy-making require policy-making mechanisms that can deal with interdependent characteristics of environmental problems. To this end, new structures have emerged known as Environmental Planning and Management and Strategic Environmental planning and management. This analytical – descriptive article aims to re-examine the origins and concepts related to environmental planning using a field and desk study. With the introduction of urban natural landscape, Environmental planning considers such spaces within the city. In this regard, Khoshk River, Shiraz, Iran, as an urban natural landscape, was analyzed. Environmental planning-based polices were proposed to improve quality of the place under discussion.

  19. Environmental Management: the Ideology of Natural Resource Rational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, V. M.; Gogolin, V. A.; Yazevich, M. Yu; Baumgarten, M. I.; Dyagileva, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the ontological and methodological principles of environmental management. These principles form the united ideology of natural resource rational use as the environment preservation basis. Consideration of environmental issues from the environmental management point of view is stipulated by the concern of the scientific community about the existence of mankind and the sphere of its inhabiting. The need to overcome the stereotypes existing in mass consciousness about safe and environmentally friendly consumption is stressed. The process of forming environmental management policy should contribute to the stabilization (balancing) of the consumers’ expectations and collective decision-making based on a public ecological consensus.

  20. Environmental benefits of natural gas for buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a life cycle assessment comparing diesel buses with buses fueled by natural gas. The data for the emission of pollutants are based on the MEET Project of the European Commission (EC), supplemented by data measured for diesel and gas buses in Paris. The benefits of the gas fueled bus are then quantified using the damage cost estimates of the ExternE Project of the EC. A diesel bus with emissions equal to Standard EURO2 of the EC is compared with the same bus equipped with a natural gas engine, for use in Paris and in Toulouse. The damage cost of a diesel bus is significant, in the range of 0.4-1.3 euro/km. Natural gas allows an appreciable reduction of the emissions, lowering the damage cost by a factor of about 2.5 (Toulouse) to 5.5 (Paris). An approximate rule is provided for transferring the results to other cities. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of the evolution of the emissions standard towards EURO3, 4 and 5, as well as the effect of uncertainties. Finally a comparison is presented between a EURO2 diesel bus with particle filter, and a gas fueled bus with the MPI engine of IVECO, a more advanced and cleaner technology. With this engine the damage costs of the gas fueled bus are about 3-5 times lower than those of the diesel with particle filter, even though the latter has already very low emissions.(author)

  1. Natural resources and environmentally sound sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastizzi-Ferencic, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities of the United Nations Department of Technical Co-operation for Development (UNDTCD), which has been active for over 40 years in assisting developing countries to make the fullest possible use of their natural resources. Energy, water and mineral resources must be developed, and the impacts of the development on the environment must be mitigated. The importance of protecting supplies of fresh water, the central part occupied by the mining industry in developing countries, and the proper role of energy sources for sustainable development are all discussed

  2. Critical Thinking for Natural Resource, Agricultural, and Environmental Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Courtney; Burbach, Mark E.; Matkin, Gina S.; Flores, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Future decision makers in natural resource fields will be required to make judgments on issues that lack clear solutions and with information complicated by ethical challenges. Therefore, natural resource, environmental, and agricultural professionals must possess the ability to think critically about the consequences of policy, economic systems,…

  3. Report of a seminar on natural environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This document reports the presentations given at a seminar on Natural Environmental Change: Processes Affecting the Deep Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Britain and the ensuing discussion. Following introductory summaries of the Department of the Environment research programme into radioactive waste management and Nirex-funded research into long-term environmental change, four topical presentations were given, namely, ''Climatic Change'', ''Surface Processes'', and ''Stress and Seismicity''. These presentations and the consequent discussion have served to clarify many key aspects of long-term environmental change and have provided direction to the ongoing studies of the effects of environmental change on the performance of deep radioactive waste disposal facilities. (author)

  4. Students Environmental Awareness of Ar Ridho Nature School Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihatiningsih, Agustina

    2018-02-01

    In order to meet the goal of environmental education, creating generation who are environmentally concerned and responsible, Ar Ridho Nature School Semarang (SAA), put the message of such education on their gardening subject. The subject has designed for grade 1 to 6 as the school commitment to build a civilization who are able to live in harmony with nature. The purpose of gardening is not only giving students environmental knowledge but also building environmental awareness and skill to preserve nature. Thus, this study aims at presenting environmental awareness among students of SAA and finding out whether there is a relationship between environmental knowledge and environmental awareness. The third grade of students were selected as participants since they were in the middle level of elementary education which has not applied 2013 Curricula (K13). A questionnaire survey was applied to 62 students face to face with considering the level of students for understanding the given questions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Pearson coefficient of correlation are the techniques used to analyze the data.

  5. Students Environmental Awareness of Ar Ridho Nature School Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihatiningsih Agustina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the goal of environmental education, creating generation who are environmentally concerned and responsible, Ar Ridho Nature School Semarang (SAA, put the message of such education on their gardening subject. The subject has designed for grade 1 to 6 as the school commitment to build a civilization who are able to live in harmony with nature. The purpose of gardening is not only giving students environmental knowledge but also building environmental awareness and skill to preserve nature. Thus, this study aims at presenting environmental awareness among students of SAA and finding out whether there is a relationship between environmental knowledge and environmental awareness. The third grade of students were selected as participants since they were in the middle level of elementary education which has not applied 2013 Curricula (K13. A questionnaire survey was applied to 62 students face to face with considering the level of students for understanding the given questions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Pearson coefficient of correlation are the techniques used to analyze the data.

  6. One for all? : connectedness to nature, inclusion of nature, environmental identity, and implicit association with nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brügger, A; Kaiser, F.G.; Roczen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Pleasurable experiences in nature are suspected to promote a personal connection with nature, and subsequently, nature conservation in individuals. Using an Internet-based survey employing a convenience sample of the general population (N = 1,309), we developed a connection-with-nature instrument

  7. The nature table as a means of promoting environmental awareness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature table as a means of promoting environmental awareness. Anne Curror. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  8. Do natural science experiments influence public attitudes towards environmental problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Hunziker, M.; Kienast, F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the significance of risk assessment studies in the public discussion on CO 2 emissions. Politicians and representatives from the public were interviewed by using the social-science technique of qualitative in-depth interviews. Three different types of attitudes towards natural science were found among politicians. Depending on which attitude a politician holds, risk assessment studies can have an impact on his/her readiness to support environmental policy measures. Regarding lay people, key factors affecting the acceptance of environmental policy measures are knowledge of environmental problems, their impacts on ecosystems or human health as well as direct personal perception of those impacts. Since direct perception is not always possible in everyday life, natural science experiments might be a means for successfully mediating this lacking perception. (author)

  9. Natural Resource Extraction, Armed Violence, and Environmental Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Bonds, Eric; Clark, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this article is to demonstrate that environmental sociologists cannot fully explain the relationship between humans and the natural world without theorizing a link between natural resource extraction, armed violence, and environmental degradation. The authors begin by arguing that armed violence is one of several overlapping mechanisms that provide powerful actors with the means to (a) prevail over others in conflicts over natural resources and (b) ensure that natural resources critical to industrial production and state power continue to be extracted and sold in sufficient quantities to promote capital accumulation, state power, and ecological unequal exchange. The authors then identify 10 minerals that are critical to the functioning of the U.S. economy and/or military and demonstrate that the extraction of these minerals often involves the use of armed violence. They further demonstrate that armed violence is associated with the activities of the world's three largest mining companies, with African mines that receive World Bank funding, and with petroleum and rainforest timber extraction. The authors conclude that the natural resource base on which industrial societies stand is constructed in large part through the use and threatened use of armed violence. As a result, armed violence plays a critical role in fostering environmental degradation and ecological unequal exchange.

  10. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%-116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization of

  11. Comparative environmental assessment of natural and recycled aggregate concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, S; Radonjanin, V; Malešev, M; Ignjatović, I

    2010-11-01

    Constant and rapid increase in construction and demolition (C&D) waste generation and consumption of natural aggregate for concrete production became one of the biggest environmental problems in the construction industry. Recycling of C&D waste represents one way to convert a waste product into a resource but the environment benefits through energy consumption, emissions and fallouts reductions are not certain. The main purpose of this study is to determine the potentials of recycled aggregate concrete (concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate) for structural applications and to compare the environmental impact of the production of two types of ready-mixed concrete: natural aggregate concrete (NAC) made entirely with river aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) made with natural fine and recycled coarse aggregate. Based on the analysis of up-to-date experimental evidence, including own tests results, it is concluded that utilization of RAC for low-to-middle strength structural concrete and non-aggressive exposure conditions is technically feasible. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed for raw material extraction and material production part of the concrete life cycle including transport. Assessment is based on local LCI data and on typical conditions in Serbia. Results of this specific case study show that impacts of aggregate and cement production phases are slightly larger for RAC than for NAC but the total environmental impacts depend on the natural and recycled aggregates transport distances and on transport types. Limit natural aggregate transport distances above which the environmental impacts of RAC can be equal or even lower than the impacts of NAC are calculated for the specific case study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The critical natural capital, environmental politics' s instrument for the natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera C, Sergio Hernando

    2003-01-01

    This work presents the concept of The Critical Natural Capital (CNC), this concept is based on the criterion of strong sustainability and is a fundamental instrument for the design of protection environmental political. In order to advance in the comprehension of this concept we use the capital concept to define the natural capital and then to specify when this can be considered critic. We show some methodologies proposed in the literature for the implementation of a politic of environmental protection based in the CNC; Finally, we thing that this concept is very usefulness for the redesign of the Environment policy in Colombia

  13. Ranking agricultural, environmental and natural resource economics journals: A note

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2012-01-01

    This paper by applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) ranks for the first time Economics journals in the field of Agricultural, Environmental and Natural Resource. Specifically, by using one composite input and one composite output the paper ranks 32 journals. In addition for the first time three different quality ranking reports have been incorporated to the DEA modelling problem in order to classify the journals into four categories (‘A’ to ‘D’). The results reveal that the journals with t...

  14. Nature exposure sufficiency and insufficiency: The benefits of environmental preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, John R; Durante, Salvatore B

    2018-01-01

    Increasing industrialization, urbanization, and a failure of many world leaders to appreciate the consequences of climate change are deleteriously impacting quality of life as well as diminishing the prospects for long term survival. Economic competitiveness and corporate profitability often pre-empt environmental concerns. The calving of an iceberg in Antarctica and the hurricane activity in the Caribbean during 2017 are unfortunate illustrations of the continuing escalation of environmental issues. We provide historical and current evidence for the importance of Nature Exposure (NE) and introduce the continuum Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) and Insufficiency (NEI). Insufficiency includes impoverished environments (e.g., slums and prisons) where nature exposure is very limited. Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) is an optimal amount of exposure to nature where many benefits such as reinvigoration can be obtained by everyone. NES also has several benefits for individuals with various health conditions such as arthritis, dementia, or depression. The benefits of NE are not just derivable from parks, forests, and other natural settings. Interiors of buildings and homes can be enhanced with plants and even pictures or objects from nature. Additionally, there is abundant evidence indicating that virtual and artificial environments depicting nature can provide substantial NE and therefore contribute to general wellbeing. Besides the difficulty in achieving cooperation amongst nations, corporations, and other collectives in developing and implementing long range plans to deal with climate change, there is also sometimes an aversion at the individual level whereby people are unwilling to experience nature due to insects and other discomforts. Such individuals are often averse to supplanting the comforts of home, even temporarily, with inadequate facilities that are seemingly less pleasant than their typical dwellings. We propose using the term Nature Exposure Aversion

  15. The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) field study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Hahn, Intaek; Fortune, Christopher R; Rodes, Charles E; Portzer, Jeffrey W; Lee, Sangdon; Wiener, Russell W; Smith, Luther A; Wheeler, Michael; Seagraves, Jeremy; Stein, Mark; Eisner, Alfred D; Brixey, Laurie A; Drake-Richman, Zora E; Brouwer, Lydia H; Ellenson, William D; Baldauf, Richard

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) field study examined indoor and outdoor exposure to traffic-generated air pollution by studying the individual processes of generation of traffic emissions, transport and dispersion of air contaminants along a roadway, and infiltration of the contaminants into a residence. Real-time instrumentation was used to obtain highly resolved time-series concentration profiles for a number of air pollutants. The B-TRAPPED field study was conducted in the residential Sunset Park neighborhood of Brooklyn, NY, USA, in May 2005. The neighborhood contained the Gowanus Expressway (Interstate 278), a major arterial road (4(th) Avenue), and residential side streets running perpendicular to the Gowanus Expressway and 4(th) Avenue. Synchronized measurements were obtained inside a test house, just outside the test house façade, and along the urban residential street canyon on which the house was located. A trailer containing Federal Reference Method (FRM) and real-time monitors was located next to the Gowanus Expressway to assess the source. Ultrafine particulate matter (PM), PM(2.5), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction were monitored. Different sampling schemes were devised to focus on dispersion along the street canyon or infiltration into the test house. Results were obtained for ultrafine PM, PM(2.5), criteria gases, and wind conditions from sampling schemes focused on street canyon dispersion and infiltration. For comparison, the ultrafine PM and PM(2.5) results were compared with an existing data set from the Los Angeles area, and the criteria gas data were compared with measurements from a Vancouver epidemiologic study. Measured ultrafine PM and PM(2.5) concentration levels along the residential urban street canyon and at the test house façade in Sunset Park

  16. Environmentalism(s and natural assets: challenges to extractivism in Argentina and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Wagner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles environmental conflicts generated for struggles for land and water, facing the advance of the extractive frontier -principally, monocultures and mega mining- from the action of social movements in Brazil and Argentina.Considering the currents of environmentalism which get into a dispute over the appropriation of natural commons, we will argue how social movements in Brazil and Argentina demonstrate the fallacy of the hegemonic capitalist discourse about the environmental crisis. Thus, we will consider emblematic movements in each country: the Movement of “Trabajadores Rurales Sin Tierra (MST” of Brazil and the movements that resist the large-scale mining -or mega-mining-in Argentina. The characterization of these movements is grounded in researches that included interviews and field work in these territories of resistance.We believe that these conflicts and their social actors bring to light the inequalities inherent to the distribution of environmental impacts, which the rhetoric of sustainable development attempts to hide with its socially inclusive and environmentally friendly conception.Environmental conflicts provide the possibility of quashing the hegemonic image of an environmental crisis common to all and simultaneously, installing the discussion about the legitimate need of the appropriation of natural commons.

  17. Natural Radioactivity Pattern of Surabaya Water Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosidi; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The gross β radioactivity and natural radionuclide of Surabaya environmental samples pattern have been evaluated. The environmental samples were chosen randomly at 12 locations. The environment samples were water (fresh, estuary and coastal), sediment, eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, Mangrove (Rhizophora stylosa), (Moolgarda delicatus) fish and (Johnius (Johnieops) borneensis) (Sharpnose hammer croaker) fish. The water sample was evaporated; the sediment sample was dried and ground; the biotic samples was burnt at the temperature 500 °C ; The gross β measurement using GM detector and the radionuclides has been identified by γ spectrometer. From the investigation results could be concluded that the natural radioactivity of environmental samples was very low. gross-β of water samples were lower than the threshold value of local government regulation of Surabaya no: 2 year 2004 (1 Bq/L). The distribution of gross-β activity of eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms was higher than the other biotic, water and sediment samples as well as the accumulation of radionuclides in the water organism was taken place. The result of identification using γ spectrometer has detected 7 of radionuclides, i.e 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 208 Tl, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, and 40 K in all sample. The distribution factor of sediment F D was less than bioaccumulation factor of biotic F B and it indicates that there the radionuclide accumulation migration follows the pattern of water - sediment - biotic sample. (author)

  18. Environmental Values (2-MEV and Appreciation of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz X. Bogner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When monitoring the long history of empirical instruments for environmental attitude measurement, the Two Major Environmental Value model (2-MEV with its two higher order factors: Preservation (PRE and Utilization (UTL has repeatedly and independently been confirmed. PRE assesses preferences towards conservation of nature and the environment, whilst UTL measures preferences towards utilization/exploitation of nature. The latter, however, does not yet include the positive aspects of benefitting from the (enjoyable use of nature. Consequently, besides the established 2-MEV-battery, additional items from an “Appreciation of Nature” (APR scale were applied to an Irish sample of 289 secondary school students (age: M = 14.3 years. Responses to the altogether 30-item battery were applied on an oblique rotation by using the Promax procedure: UTL and PRE appeared as orthogonally related factors, APR correlated to PRE with 0.283. Based on loading scores, the item number for each subscale was further reduced to make the analysis more manageable in educational outreach sites; on those sites, where completing questionnaires may well be quite unpopular, they are very much needed for planning and fine-tuning educational programs. Therefore, extending the 2-MEV scale with an added scale for Appreciation may help: (i to judge participants’ feedback for adjusting/balancing program contents better; and (ii to promote appreciation as a successful strategy for shifting individuals away from their individual exploitative preferences.

  19. Sustainable development and the nature of environmental legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Verschuuren

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, “things” lawyers call “principles” of environmental law will be discussed from a theoretical perspective. Three fundamental questions are answered: 1. Where does the high moral value that is usually attributed principles come from? 2. What is the exact difference between a principle and a legal rule, and between a principle and a policy? 3. What is the relationship between a principle and more concrete legal rules and policies? It is argued that principles of environmental law receive their high moral value from the ideal of sustainable development. An ideal is a value that is explicit, implicit or latent in the law, or the public and moral culture of a society or group that usually cannot be fully realised, and that partly transcends contingent, historical formulations, and implementations in terms of rules and principles. Principles form a necessary link between directly applicable and enforceable environmental legal rules and the underlying ideal. They are a necessary medium for ideals to find their way into concrete rules and can be used to bridge the gap between the morality of duty and the morality of aspiration. Because of their basis in (written or unwritten law and their possible direct and intense influence on legal rules concerning activities that may harm the environment, they must be placed within the morality of duty: a bridgehead within the morality of duty reaching out for the morality of aspiration. From the general function of principles of forming a beachhead in the morality of duty, nine more concrete functions can be derived. These functions principles, both of a substantive and of a procedural nature, have, make it possible to distinguish them from legal rules. It must be acknowledged, however, that there is no very strict separation between principles on one side and rules on the other: environmental norms can be placed on a sliding scale with rules on one side and principles on the other side

  20. Natural gas fuelled vehicles, energetic and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.

    1998-03-01

    The present report deals with the analysis and the presentation of the main problems concerning the introduction of the natural gas fuel for vehicles. The offer and demand side of the NGV market are analyzed, together with the presently available NG fuelled vehicles and the status of the technology for engines and on-board storage systems, with particular regard to the energetic and environmental performance of the system. Finally the NGV market development is presented, and the actors on the stage, showing the opportunities together with the possible obstacle to a wider diffusion of this technology [it

  1. Earth observation for regional scale environmental and natural resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Brookshire, D.; Faulkner, S.; Chivoiu, B.; Bridge, B.; Broadbent, C.

    2013-12-01

    Earth observations (EO) provide critical information to natural resource assessment. Three examples are presented: conserving potable groundwater in intense agricultural regions, maximizing ecosystem service benefits at regional scales from afforestation investment and management, and enabling integrated natural and behavioral sciences for resource management and policy analysis. In each of these cases EO of different resolutions are used in different ways to help in the classification, characterization, and availability of natural resources and ecosystem services. To inform decisions, each example includes a spatiotemporal economic model to optimize the net societal benefits of resource development and exploitation. 1) EO is used for monitoring land use in intensively cultivated agricultural regions. Archival imagery is coupled to a hydrogeological process model to evaluate the tradeoff between agrochemical use and retention of potable groundwater. EO is used to couple individual producers and regional resource managers using information from markets and natural systems to aid in the objective of maximizing agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality. The contribution of EO is input to a nitrate loading and transport model to estimate the cumulative impact on groundwater at specified distances from specific sites (wells) for 35 Iowa counties and two aquifers. 2) Land use/land cover (LULC) derived from EO is used to compare biological carbon sequestration alternatives and their provisioning of ecosystem services. EO is used to target land attributes that are more or less desirable for enhancing ecosystem services in two parishes in Louisiana. Ecological production functions are coupled with value data to maximize the expected return on investment in carbon sequestration and other ancillary ecosystem services while minimizing the risk. 3) Environmental and natural resources management decisions employ probabilistic estimates of yet-to-find or yet

  2. Environmental restoration by natural effects - Advantages and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    2002-01-01

    After a major contamination of a territory due to fallout from a reactor accident, a reprocessing plant accident or a weapon's detonation one of the important questions to be addressed is the time period required for the countermeasures to be applied. This is particularly important for countermeasures with high costs and consequences to the involved population such as relocation. Therefore, the time period required for a contamination with long-lived fission products to decrease below established intervention levels by natural processes of decay and removal from the soil layer relevant to the exposure is investigated. Natural processes which result in a decrease in activity concentrations in foodstuffs and external exposure, are the least detrimental to a territory as compared to other long-term countermeasures and therefore, the most favorable in that respect. The influence of the contribution of different foodstuffs on the time-span required until a resettlement of a dislocated population is feasible, is assessed and the advantages and limits of natural restoration effects on the required intervention periods are discussed. It is shown that natural restoration effects may contribute substantially to an environmentally safe and sustainable resettlement of an area substantially contaminated with fission products. (author)

  3. A clean environmental week: Let the nature breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2017-11-15

    High levels of CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere and toxic pollutants in air, water and food have serious repercussions on all life's systems, including living beings, environment and economy. Everyone on the Earth is concerned by pollution in some way or another, no matter where and how the pollution is produced as airborne and foodborne pollutants could circulate around the world in different ways, through for example climate components (wind, rain) and/or import and export of foodstuffs. Similarly to living beings that take advantage of day-night circadian rhythms to recover after diurnal hardships, the environment in its entirety could also be seen as a complex living system that needs regular breaks to assimilate or ingest toxic pollutants produced during intensive and continuous industrial processes. If greenhouses gas emissions and pollution rates continue to increase at the same rates as they are nowadays, uncontrollable climate effects might be inevitable and the air quality in some crowded cities in the world might be hardly respirable in the future. A global "Clean Environmental Week" is discussed as an attempt toward reducing air pollution and CO 2 emissions through the interruption or reduction of industrial polluting activities regularly, for a week or so per year, to let the nature 'breathe' and recover from environmentally challenging pollutions. A clean environmental period of 10 days per year could reduce CO 2 emissions by about one billion tons of CO 2 per annum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental review of natural gas production in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, K.

    2002-01-01

    The water of Lake Erie is used as a source of drinking water for Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan. An environmental review has been conducted to determine the impact of drilling operations on the overall ecology of the lake. Since 1913, 2000 natural gas wells have been drilled in Lake Erie, of which 550 currently produce gas and account for 75 per cent of Ontario's total gas production. 180 wells are shut-in or suspended and the remaining wells have been abandoned. The gas wells are connected to onshore production facilities by approximately 1,600 km of small diameter pipelines that lie buried near shore or on top of the lake bed. Nearly 90 per cent of the in-lake infrastructure is in water depths of more than 20 metres. Talisman Energy is actively involved with the Canadian Coast Guard, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Ministry of Natural Resources to ensure cooperation between regulators and off-shore personnel. The environmental assessment of natural gas production in Lake Erie included a review of regulatory and best management practices, a biophysical overview of the lake, and a review of drilling practices, well completions, handling of waste streams, materials management, operations inspections, wastewater discharge, air emissions, and oil spills. It was revealed that for most drilling programs, cuttings are washed and discharged to the Lake. Ongoing testing will determine the impact that this practice has on benthic populations. The drill muds used for drilling operations are water based, environmentally friendly, and re-used between well locations. For completion programs, all well activities are closed circuit operations. Wells are abandoned through plugging with cement, removing wellheads and casing below the lake bottom. There has been a reported volume of about 23,000 litres of spilled product from 1990 to 2001, of which 68 per cent has come from 3 industrial companies that operate near Lake Erie. The offshore gas

  5. Ecotourism, environmental preservation and conflicts over natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kent

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism has profound social impacts through the transformations it generates in the distribution of access to natural resources. At the heart of this transformation stands the paradox of ecotourism: it exploits natural environments while at the same time depending on their preservation. As a result, ecotourism has increasingly become articulated with environmental policies, in particular the creation of protected areas. Such policies have privileged those environments that are of interest to the ecotourism industry. They have also served to restrict competing forms of resource use. Local populations in particular have seen their access to natural resources diminished. This paper explores interest conflicts between local and external user groups in an ecotourism destination in Southern Bahia. Its focus is on strategies through which external groups related to ecotourism and environmental preservation have sought to appropriate control over natural resources.O ecoturismo tem implicações sociais de longo alcance devido às transformações que ele gera na distribuição do acesso a recursos naturais. O paradoxo do ecoturismo está no cerne dessas transformações: ao mesmo tempo em que o ecoturismo explora habitats naturais, ele depende da preservação destes. Conseqüentemente, cada vez mais o ecoturismo se associa a políticas ambientais, especialmente aquelas que dizem respeito à criação de reservas naturais. Tais políticas têm privilegiado os habitats que interessam à indústria de ecoturismo e têm restringido outras formas de se fazer uso daqueles recursos naturais. Quem tem cada vez menos acesso, em particular, a esses recursos são as populações nativas. O presente artigo examina os conflitos de interesse entre grupos locais e exteriores de usuários em uma região de ecoturismo no Sul da Bahia. O foco do artigo está nas estratégias relativas ao ecoturismo e à preservação ambiental, acionadas por não-nativos, para ganhar

  6. Responsibility to Nature? Hans Jonas and Environmental Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolsing

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the philosopher Hans Jonas’s idea of an environmental ethics. Through an outline of the development of man’s relation to nature from Greek antiquity to the present it is argued that science and technology in modernity favour a relation of exploitation which is partly the cause of fatal climate changes. Through Jonas’s philosophical notion of an ontology of man as an alternative to classical dualism and by means of a turn to an ontological interpretation of Kant’s categorical imperative, it is argued that mankind has a responsibility to both coming generations and to the biosphere as a whole. Not only does this ontological shift from philosophy of mind to an ontology of man transcend dualism in philosophy, it throws a new critical light on the technological development and suggests a new way of considering man’s place in the cosmos.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL NATURE OF PERSONAL HELPLESSNESS: RESULTS OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Aleksandrovna Tsiring

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the nature of personal helplessness. Defining personal helplessness from the position of subject-activity approach as the quality of the subject, which is the unity of certain personal characteristics, resulting from the interaction of internal to external conditions, determines the low level of subjectivity, the question of the environmental factors of its formation in adolescents.The purpose of research – to reveal features of family relationships and their contribution to the formation of personal helplessness in adolescents. From the perspective of systemic approach the authors argue that the communicative processes in the family helpless teen lots of different disorders than family relationships independent teenagers. The study has received the confirmation of the hypothesis that the violation of family relationships are the environmental factors of formation of personal helplessness. Named the major violations of interpersonal communication in the family, determining personal helplessness in adolescents: a dominant giperprotektsiya, increased moral responsibility, abuse, inconsistent parenting style.

  8. Mechanisms of children's exposure to nature: Predicting adulthood environmental citizenship and commitment to nature-based activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; David N. Bengston; Lynne M. Westphal; Catherine H. Gowan

    2017-01-01

    Childhood-nature experiences have lifelong effects on environmental citizenship and commitment to nature-based activities. But, it is unclear whether, and to what extent, the different mechanisms through which children and youth experience nature are associated with these outcomes. To test these associations, an online questionnaire assessing mechanisms of childhood...

  9. Are We Meeting the Goal of Responsible Environmental Behavior: An Examination of Nature and Environmental Education Center Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Deborah A.

    1991-01-01

    Through two surveys of nature and environmental centers throughout the United States, the author compares the centers' expressed goals with the goals of environmental education. These goals were determined by an accepted behavior model that is considered conducive to environmentally responsible behavior. (17 references) (MCO)

  10. Environmental effects of radionuclides--observations on natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, D; Toal, M E; Johnson, M S; Jackson, D; Jones, S R

    2000-03-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d(-1)) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1), 2.2 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1) and 1.0 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1) respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d(-1) level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed.

  11. Environmental effects of radionuclides - observations on natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.; Toal, M.E.; Johnson, M.S.; Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d -1 ) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0x10 -3 mGy d -1 , 2.2x10 -3 mGy d -1 and 1.0x10 -3 mGy d -1 respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d -1 level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed. (author)

  12. Environmental effects of radionuclides - observations on natural ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, D. [Industrial Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom). E-mail: copplest at liv.ac.uk; Toal, M.E.; Johnson, M.S. [Industrial Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting, Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d{sup -1}) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1}, 2.2x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1} and 1.0x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1} respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d{sup -1} level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed. (author)

  13. From nature-dominated to human-dominated environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerli, Bruno; Grosjean, Martin; Hofer, Thomas; Núñez, Lautaro; Pfister, Christian

    2000-01-01

    To what extent is it realistic and useful to view human history as a sequence of changes from highly vulnerable societies of hunters and gatherers through periods with less vulnerable, well buffered and highly productive agrarian-urban societies to a world with regions of extreme overpopulation and overuse of life support systems, so that vulnerability to climatic-environmental changes and extreme events is again increasing? This question cannot be fully answered in our present state of knowledge, but at least we can try to illustrate, with three case studies from different continents, time periods and ecosystems, some fundamental changes in the relationship between natural processes and human activities that occur, as we pass from a nature-dominated to a human dominated environment. 1. Early-mid Holocene: Nature dominated environment — human adaptation, mitigation, and migration. In the central Andes, the Holocene climate changed from humid (10,800-8000 BP) to extreme arid (8000-3600 BP) conditions. Over the same period, prehistoric hunting communities adopted a more sedentary pattern of resource use by settling close to the few perennial water bodies, where they began the process of domesticating camelids around 5000 BP and irrigation from about 3100 BP. 2. Historical period: An agrarian society in transition from an "enduring" to an innovative human response. Detailed documentary evidence from Western Europe may be used to reconstruct quite precisely the impacts of climatic variations on agrarian societies. The period considered spans a major transition from an apparently passive response to the vagaries of the environment during the 16th century to an active and innovative attitude from the onset of the agrarian revolution in the late 18th century through to the present day. The associated changes in technology and in agricultural practices helped to create a society better able to survive the impact of climatic extremes. 3. The present day: A human dominated

  14. [Professor WU Zhongchao's experience of penetration needling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yu

    2016-08-12

    Professor WU Zhongchao has unique application of penetration needling in clinical treatment. Professor WU applies penetration needling along meridians, and the methods of penetration needling include self-meridian penetration, exterior-interior meridian penetration, identical-name meridian penetration, different meridian penetration. The meridian differentiation is performed according to different TCM syndromes, locations and natures of diseases and acupoint nature, so as to make a comprehensive assessment. The qi movement during acupuncture is focused. In addition, attention is paid on anatomy and long-needle penetration; the sequence and direction of acupuncture is essential, and the reinforcing and reducing methods have great originality, presented with holding, waiting, pressing and vibrating. Based on classical acupoint, the acupoint of penetration needling is flexible, forming unique combination of acupoints.

  15. Environmental impact analysis of batik natural dyes using life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinawati, Dyah Ika; Sari, Diana Puspita; Purwanggono, Bambang; Hermawan, Andy Tri

    2017-11-01

    The use of natural dyes for batik dyeing is fewer than synthetic dyes because of its limitations in the application such complexity in manufacture and usage. For ease of use, natural dyes need to be processed into instant products. Extract of natural dyes are generally produced in liquid form that are less practical in long-term use. Dye powder obtained by drying the liquid extract using spray dryer. Production process of liquid natural dye is simpler and require less energy but need more energy for transporting. It is important to know which type of natural dyes should be produced based on their environmental impact. This research aim to compare environmental impact between liquid and powder natural dyes and also to find relative contribution of different stage in life cycle to total environmental impact. The appropriate method to analyze and compare the environmental impacts of powder and liquid natural dyes is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The "cradle to grave" approach used to assess environmental impact of powder and liquid natural dyes of Jalawe rind throughout production process of natural dyes, distribution and use of natural dyes for coloring batik. Results of this research show that powder natural dyes has lower environmental impacts than liquid natural dyes. It was found that distribution, mordanting and packaging of liquid dyes have big contribution to environmental impact.

  16. The Effects of Recreation Experience, Environmental Attitude, and Biospheric Value on the Environmentally Responsible Behavior of Nature-Based Tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  17. The effects of recreation experience, environmental attitude, and biospheric value on the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  18. Environmental Impact of the use of natural Resources (EIRES)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Tukker, Arnold; Weidema, Bo

    relationships between resource use and environmental impacts, and therefore of possibilities to give consolidated advice on priority needs in policy development. * Persisting weaknesses in environmental impact assessment models. Proposals to develop further the scientific input concerning the environmental......, Kerssemeeckers M, Blok K, Patel M, de Beer J (2002). Assessing the environmental potential of clean material technologies. Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre (DG JRC), European Commission. Report EUR 20515 EN. * Nemry F, Thollier K, Jansen B, Theunis J (2002). Identifying key...... Deliverable No. 9. Groningen: Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen. The objectives of the present study were to analyse and evaluate this existing body of research with a view to identifying those materials and resources whose use has the greatest environmental impacts...

  19. Environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, T.H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the conceptualization of environmentally responsible behavior and methods for measuring such behavior based on a review of previous studies. Four major scales for the extent to which an individual’s behavior is responsible behavior are discussed. Various theoretical backgrounds and cultures provide diverse conceptualizations of environmentally responsible behavior. Both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior has been identified in the past studies. This study also discusses the precedents of environmentally responsible behavior and with a general overview; it provides insight into improving future research on this subject.

  20. A study of the impact of environmental loads that penetrate a passive skylight roofing system in Malaysian buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam M. Al-Obaidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A passive skylight system is a significant building design element that provides an ideal condition for interior spaces. However, the use of this system is limited to specific climatic regions because of its considerable effect on the indoor environment. Malaysia is a tropical country that has favorable natural benefits, such as solar geometry and natural light, which can brighten building interiors throughout the year. However, harnessing this benefit affects spaces, especially those in single-story buildings, because of excessive natural loads. This study reviews a concept to understand the passive behavior of solar radiation in the form of light and heat that falls on, interacts with, and is emitted from a skylight system in a single-story building. The study method is theoretically based on descriptive analysis to assess design requirements. The review shows that designs grounded on the physical aspects of climate (influenced variables, materials (design variables, and human comfort (affected variables in one process (ESI can develop the architectural way of thinking rather than estimate the condition based on a limited perspective. This assumption indicates that the adoption of this concept in the preliminary design stage will enable designers to balance the building environment effectively.

  1. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark L.; Buza, Matthew; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J.

    2007-01-01

    ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS). The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains onboard satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE) that will culminate with limited prototype flights of the system in spring 2007. By leveraging current advances in micro and nanotechnology, the probe mass, size, cost, and complexity can be reduced substantially so that large numbers of probes could be deployed routinely to support ground, launch, and landing operations at KSC and other locations. A full-scale system will improve the data density for the local initialization of high-resolution numerical weather prediction systems by at least an order of magnitude and provide a significantly expanded in situ data base to evaluate launch commit criteria and flight rules. When applied to launch or landing sites, this capability will reduce both weather hazards and weather-related scrubs, thus enhancing both safety and cost-avoidance for vehicles processed by the Shuttle, Launch Services Program, and Constellation Directorates. The GEMSTONE project will conclude with a field experiment in which 10 to 15 probes are released over KSC in east central Florida. The probes will be neutrally buoyant at different altitudes from 500 to 3000 meters and will report their position, speed, heading, temperature, humidity, and

  2. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthichaimethee Pruethsan; Sawangdee Yothin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying cap...

  3. The environmental and public health benefits of achieving high penetrations of solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Millstein, Dev; Mai, Trieu; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the environmental and public health benefits that may be realized if solar energy cost reductions continue until solar power is competitive across the U.S. without subsidies. Specifically, we model, from 2015 to 2050, solar power–induced reductions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water usage. To find the incremental benefits of new solar deployment, we compare the difference between two scenarios, one where solar costs have fallen such that solar supplies 14% of the nation's electricity by 2030 and 27% by 2050, and a baseline scenario in which no solar is added after 2014. We monetize benefits, where credible methods exist to do so. We find that under these scenarios, solar power reduces GHG and air pollutants by ∼10%, from 2015 to 2050, providing a discounted present value of $56–$789 billion (central value of ∼$250 billion, equivalent to ∼2 ¢/kWh-solar) in climate benefits and $77–$298 billion (central value of $167 billion, or ∼1.4 ¢/kWh-solar) in air quality and public health benefits. The ranges reflect uncertainty within the literature about the marginal impact of emissions of GHG and air pollutants. Solar power is also found to reduce water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%, respectively, including in many drought-prone states. - Highlights: • With feasible cost reductions, solar power can provide major environmental benefits. • U.S. electric-sector modeling indicates climate benefits worth ∼2 ¢/kWh-solar. • Further modeling indicates air quality public health benefits worth 1.4 ¢/kWh-solar. • Solar could reduce power-sector water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%.

  4. Improving Wellbeing and Environmental Stewardship Through Volunteering in Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsher, Robyn; Townsend, Mardie

    2016-03-01

    Environmental volunteering (EV) can provide a unique way to optimise the wellbeing of participants while fostering environmental stewardship. However, the potential of EV to create human health benefits remains an under-researched area. This study provides evidence for improved wellbeing and mood state for 32 participants from diverse backgrounds undertaking EV activities. Most participants also reported improved environmental stewardship with a greatly improved understanding of the environment and the need to conserve it. Other benefits included: 31% of those seeking work obtained it; and 50% joined a volunteer group at program completion. EV provides a unique mechanism to enhance the wellbeing of the participants, while conserving the environment.

  5. The "Natural Start Alliance": Building Collective Impact for Early Childhood Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Christy

    2014-01-01

    Last year, the North American Association for Environmental Education launched the "Natural Start Alliance," a new initiative to advance environmental education for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Natural Start provides an opportunity for key players to convene, share ideas and resources, and move together toward shared goals. This…

  6. Forecasting energy consumption and energy related CO2 emissions in Greece. An evaluation of the consequences of the Community Support Framework II and natural gas penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, N.M.; Kalyvitis, S.C.; Lalas, D.P.; Pesmajoglou, S.

    2000-01-01

    This study seeks to assess the future demand for energy and the trajectory of CO2 emissions level in Greece, taking into account the impact of the Community Support Framework (CSF) II on the development process and the penetration of natural gas, which is one of the major CSF II interventions, in the energy system. Demand equations for each sector of economic activity (traded, non-traded, public and agricultural sector) and for each type of energy (oil, electricity and solid fuels) are derived. The energy system is integrated into a fully developed macroeconometric model, so that all interactions between energy, prices and production factors are properly taken into account. Energy CO2 forecasts are then derived based on alternative scenarios for the prospects of the Greek economy. According to the main findings of the paper the growth pattern of forecast total energy consumption closely follows that of forecast output showing no signs of decoupling. As regards CO2 emissions, they are expected to increase with an annual average rate, which is higher than world forecasts. 17 refs

  7. Natural radioactive environmental pollution and meteorological characteristics of Faisalabad environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.K.; Sharif, R.; Hussain, K.

    1999-01-01

    This study is about Faisalabad, the third largest and industrial city of Pakistan, where the maximum temperature in summer reaches up to 50 deg. C and in winter it may fall below the freezing point. In this study on attempt has been made to find co-relation between local weather conditions and natural radioactive concentrations. The natural radioactivity was found to have no co-relation with meteorological parameters. Thus the natural activity is independent of meteorological characteristics, which confirms the random nature of radioactivity. (author)

  8. Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar for locating buried petrified wood sites: a case study in the natural monument of the Petrified Forest of Evros, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargemezis, George; Diamanti, Nectaria; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Fikos, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    A geophysical survey was carried out in the Petrified Forest of Evros, the northernmost regional unit of Greece. This collection of petrified wood has an age of approximately 35 million years and it is the oldest in Greece (i.e., older than the well-known Petrified Forest of Lesvos island located in the North Aegean Sea and which is possibly the largest of the petrified forests worldwide). Protection, development and maintenance projects still need to be carried out at the area despite all fears regarding the forest's fate since many petrified logs remain exposed both in weather conditions - leading to erosion - and to the public. This survey was conducted as part of a more extensive framework regarding the development and protection of this natural monument. Geophysical surveying has been chosen as a non-destructive investigation method since the area of application is both a natural ecosystem and part of cultural heritage. Along with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have been carried out for investigating possible locations of buried fossilized tree trunks. The geoelectrical sections derived from ERT data in combination with the GPR profiles provided a broad view of the subsurface. Two and three dimensional subsurface geophysical images of the surveyed area have been constructed, pointing out probable locations of petrified logs. Regarding ERT, petrified trunks have been detected as high resistive bodies, while lower resistivity values were more related to the surrounding geological materials. GPR surveying has also indicated buried petrified log locations. As these two geophysical methods are affected in different ways by the subsurface conditions, the combined use of both techniques enhanced our ability to produce more reliable interpretations of the subsurface. After the completion of the geophysical investigations of this first stage, petrified trunks were revealed after a subsequent excavation at indicated

  9. Teachers' Perspectives on the Human-Nature Relationship: Implications for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Antonio; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2013-01-01

    This study based on a theoretical framework of three main environmental perspectives in the human-nature relationship (anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism), aimed to identify their incidence in teachers involved with environmental projects when confronted with diverse environmental issues. 60 teachers drawn from four school cycles in…

  10. 18 CFR 380.12 - Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effects of those hazards on the facility, and methods proposed to reduce the effects or risks. Resource... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental reports... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.12 Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications...

  11. On measuring the natural and environmental resource value and damages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seják, J.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 53-68 ISSN 1802-212X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : monetary valuations of nature * biotopes * natural resource injuries * quantifications Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://fzp.ujep.cz/Veda/Edice/StudiaOecologica/SO_2-2010_web.pdf

  12. Environmental policy, fuel prices and the switching to natural gas in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coria, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    In this study I analyzed the role of environmental policies and energy cost savings on the pattern of switching to natural gas by stationary sources in Chile. According to the data most of the switching was induced by the lower cost of natural gas, although environmental policies played a small role and showed that sources were more sensitive to the cost of energy than to the environmental regulation. (author)

  13. The role of transcendent nature and awe experiences on positive environmental engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Nora

    2016-01-01

    Despite a rich popular narrative that awe-inspiring nature experiences promote environmental behavior, empirical work on this subject is lacking. Recent research has determined that individuals often experience the emotion awe in nature, and that this emotion can lead to reliable shifts in cognition, interpersonal perception, and social behavior. In addition, although research has found that nature exposure can shift environmental behavior, the emotional pathways underlying this association, ...

  14. Deciding over nature: Corruption and environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Aled; Dupuy, Kendra

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are an important analytic tool for identifying and potentially mitigating project risks and negative environmental and societal impacts. Their usefulness, however, depends on how they are implemented and on whether findings are used in public decision-making. Given the notorious vulnerability of public-private interactions to corrupt practices, we examine potential and actual corruption risks across four stages of a generic EIA process. Combined with case analysis of the EIA process in Albania, a Southeastern European context experiencing serious governance challenges, we reflect on the vulnerabilities of EIAs to various forms of corruption from a principal-agent perspective. We concur with earlier research suggesting that the fundamentally rationalist approach behind EIAs do not necessarily match the empirical realities of public environmental decision-making, particularly in less mature EIA systems. We conclude with suggestions for framing a future research agenda in this area and touch on tentative policy remedies.

  15. The man-nature relationship and environmental ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdeau, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Our behaviour and policies with regard to nature and the environment should be guided by a code of ethics, which is to be derived from basic principles and from a pragmatic consideration of the issues at stake. The man-nature relationship has always been ambiguous, nature being seen as both a provider and an enemy. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, man is set apart from nature and called to dominate it, although this attitude has been revised to become one of stewardship. Oriental religions, on the other hand, have a more holistic view and consider humans as an integral part of nature. Modern philosophers have views ranging from anthropocentrism to biocentrism and egocentrism. It is suggested to take a pragmatic approach by which primary human needs are met first and foremost whereas the needs of other living organisms and ecosystems are allowed to prevail over secondary human needs. A plea is made to support the Earth Charter, which embodies in its principles and prescriptions a balanced respect for nature and future human generations

  16. The man-nature relationship and environmental ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, Ph

    2004-01-01

    Our behaviour and policies with regard to nature and the environment should be guided by a code of ethics, which is to be derived from basic principles and from a pragmatic consideration of the issues at stake. The man-nature relationship has always been ambiguous, nature being seen as both a provider and an enemy. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, man is set apart from nature and called to dominate it, although this attitude has been revised to become one of stewardship. Oriental religions, on the other hand, have a more holistic view and consider humans as an integral part of nature. Modern philosophers have views ranging from anthropocentrism to biocentrism and egocentrism. It is suggested to take a pragmatic approach by which primary human needs are met first and foremost whereas the needs of other living organisms and ecosystems are allowed to prevail over secondary human needs. A plea is made to support the Earth Charter, which embodies in its principles and prescriptions a balanced respect for nature and future human generations.

  17. Sustainable development and the nature of environmental legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. What is the exact difference between a principle and a legal rule, and between a principle and a policy? 3. What is the relationship between a principle and more concrete legal rules and policies? It is argued that principles of environmental law receive their high moral value from the ideal of sustainable development.

  18. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  19. Evergreen oak leaves as natural monitor in environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capannesi, G.; Rosada, A.; Caroli, S.

    1988-01-01

    Evergreen oak was chosen as a possible biological monitor of environmental pollution. It was shown that there was a direct relationship between the concentration of elements in leaves and the presence of pollution sources, i.e. the density of vehicular traffic. (author) 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Human History and Environmental Geology: A Match Made in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvans, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    I draw on my dual educational background in the geological sciences (PhD) and sociology (BA), with an emphasis on environmental justice, for the inspiration to approach issues in my geology courses that are directly connected to modern policy decisions with the goal of increasing students' self-awareness. I believe that giving students the opportunity for increased understanding of their own beliefs and values with respect to the environment will allow them to be more engaged in discussions and debates about environmental policies at the local, national, and global scales. I designed Environmental Geology of Prince William Forest Park (VA), a one-day Field Studies course offered through Northern Virginia Community College, to motivate students to articulate personal convictions about land use. To provide a social context for discussion of environmental issues, students first gave presentations on the demographics, economics, and methods of land use of the people that used the park over the last 400 years. At locations along Quantico Creek, students presented topics that covered geologic processes at work on the landscape, progressive farming methods promoted by some early Virginians, and agricultural methods to stabilize soil and its nutrients. Finally, at the Cabin Branch Pyrite Mine (active 1889-1920) we discussed laborer work conditions and the environmental impact of tailings, as well as the process and effects of remediation. Students tested pH levels in the creek upstream and downstream of the mine as one concrete way to personally observe the results of recent remediation (since 1994), with neutral pH in both locations indicating success. Students wrapped up the course with written reflections, from their own perspectives with respect to socially and environmentally responsible land use, on the geologic processes and human impacts that shaped the park. Social justice and environmental stewardship are two lenses that allow students to find personal meaning

  1. Development of natural matrix reference materials for monitoring environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.S.; Houlgate, P.R.; Pang, S.; Brookman, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of the Environment commissioned the Laboratory of the Government Chemist to carry out a contract on natural matrix reference materials. A survey of current availability of such materials in the western world, along with the UK's need, was conducted. Four suitable matrices were identified for production and validation. Due to a number of unforeseen problems with the collection, processing and validation of the materials, the production of the four identified reference materials was not completed in the allocated period of time. In the future production of natural matrix reference materials the time required, the cost and the problems encountered should not be underestimated. Certified natural matrix reference materials are a vital part of traceability in analytical science and without them there is no absolute method of checking the validity of measurement in the field of radiochemical analysis. (author)

  2. Environmental Factors and Natural Resource Stock: Atlantic Herring case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J.H. [Korea Maritime Institute, Seoul (Korea); John, M. Gate [University of Rhode Island, Kingston (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Atlantic herrings have held the important position as fish-baits in the marine ecosystem such as major baits in fishing lobsters. The Atlantic herring is sensitively influenced by the environmental factors of the marine ecosystem, such as the temperature of seawater, the amount of planktons, and the submarine deposit of the habitat. In the immature phase of herrings, especially, they are very sensitive of the low temperature of seawater. This study analyzes the correlation between two-year-old imported herring resources and the temperature of seawater, measured by a satellite. The area of measuring temperature is limited to the spawning ground of Atlantic herrings. As results of the analysis, the coefficient is 0.69, which means that the environmental factors should be very seriously considered in explaining the change of fishing resources. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Environmental performance of a naturally ventilated city centre library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausse, Birgit; Cook, Malcolm; Lomas, Kevin [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, Queens Building, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    To tackle climate change it is essential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. To this end, it is important to reduce the energy demands of non-domestic buildings. Naturally ventilated buildings can have low energy demands but the strategy is difficult to implement in deep plan, urban locations. The Frederick Lanchester Library at Coventry University, UK, incorporates natural ventilation, daylighting and passive cooling strategies. By using lightwells and perimeter stacks to supply and exhaust air, it can be ventilated by natural means despite its deep plan form and sealed facade. This paper describes the building and presents the energy consumption and the internal temperatures and CO{sub 2} levels recorded in 2004/2005. The building's performance is compared to the original design criteria and good practice guidelines. Recommendations for the design of such buildings are made and the likely performance in other UK cities is assessed. It is concluded that the building uses under half the energy of a standard air-conditioned building and yet, in summer, can keep the interior comfortable and up to 5 deg C below ambient. The design would perform equally well in the typical weather conditions experienced at 13 other UK cities, but not in London. It is concluded that deep-plan, naturally ventilated buildings with sealed facades, if well designed, could maintain thermal comfort in all but a very few UK locations, whilst consuming much less energy than even good practice standards. (Author)

  4. Natural and anthropogenic {sup 236}U in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, Peter [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: peter.steier@univie.ac.at; Bichler, Max [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, Technische Universitaet Wien, Stadionallee 2, Wien A-1020 (Austria); Keith Fifield, L. [Department of Nuclear Physics, RSPhysSE, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Golser, Robin; Kutschera, Walter; Priller, Alfred [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Quinto, Francesca [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Richter, Stephan [Euopean Commission, Directorate-General Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Srncik, Michaela [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Terrasi, Philippo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Universita di Napoli, via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); Wacker, Lukas [Institute for Particle Physics, HPK H25, Schafmattstrasse 20, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Wallner, Anton [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Wallner, Gabriele [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Wilcken, Klaus M. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 OQF (United Kingdom); Maria Wild, Eva [VERA Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2008-05-15

    The interaction of thermal neutrons with {sup 235}U results in fission with a probability of {approx}85% and in the formation of {sup 236}U (t{sub 1/2} = 2.3 x 10{sup 7} yr) with a probability of {approx}15%. While anthropogenic {sup 236}U is, therefore, present in spent nuclear fuel at levels of {sup 236}U/U up to 10{sup -2}, the expected natural ratios in the pre-anthropogenic environment range from 10{sup -14} to 10{sup -10}. At VERA, systematic investigations suggest a detection limit below {sup 236}U/U = 5 x 10{sup -12} for samples of 0.5 mg U, while chemistry blanks of {approx}2 x 10{sup 7} atoms {sup 236}U per sample limit the sensitivity for smaller samples. We have found natural isotopic ratios in uranium reagents separated before the onset of human nuclear activities, in uranium ores from various origins and in water from a subsurface well in Bad Gastein, Austria. Anthropogenic contamination was clearly visible in soil and rivulet samples from Salzburg, Austria, whereas river sediments from Garigliano river (Southern Italy) were close to the detection limit. Finally, our natural in-house standard Vienna-KkU was calibrated against a certified reference material (IRMM REIMEP-18 A)

  5. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthichaimethee Pruethsan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying capacity, higher environmental cost than standard, and contributes low real benefit. Electric Accumulator & Battery, Secondary Special Industrial Machinery, Motorcycle, Bicycle & Other Carriages, and Engines and Turbines need to be monitored closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than any other production sectors do, and they have high environmental cost. To decide a sustainable development strategy of the country, therefore, results of this research must be used to support decision-making.

  6. Model of Environmental Problems Priority Arising from the use of Environmental and Natural Resources in Machinery Sectors of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthichaimethee, Pruethsan; Sawangdee, Yothin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to evaluate environmental impacts from the Machinery sectors of Thailand, leading to more sustainable consumption and production in this sector of the economy. The factors used to calculate the Forward Linkage, Backward Linkage and Real Benefit were the Total Environmental Costs. The highest total environmental cost was Railway Equipment which needs to be resolved immediately because it uses natural resources more than its carrying capacity, higher environmental cost than standard, and contributes low real benefit. Electric Accumulator & Battery, Secondary Special Industrial Machinery, Motorcycle, Bicycle & Other Carriages, and Engines and Turbines need to be monitored closely because they are able to link to other production sectors more than any other production sectors do, and they have high environmental cost. To decide a sustainable development strategy of the country, therefore, results of this research must be used to support decision-making.

  7. Environmental Radioactivity from Natural, Industrial, and Military Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarouf, B. H.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the fourth edition of the original book which was written as a reference source for the scientist, engineer, or administrator with a professional interest in the subject, but it may also be a value to the reader who wishes to understand the technical facts behind the public debate. The subject of environmental radioactivity has aspects of vast dimensions. The text of the book concerns primarily with the behavior of radioactive substances when they enter the environment. The important and elaborate technology by which passage of radioactive materials to the environment may be prevented and the equally important field of health physics that is concerned with protecting the atomic energy worker were thus placed beyond the bounds of this work.

  8. Effects of a 1-Day Environmental Education Intervention on Environmental Attitudes and Connectedness with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Besides cognitive learning effects, short-term environmental education (EE) is often regarded as ineffective in intervening with participants' environmental attitudes and behaviour. However, in Germany, school classes often participate in such 1-day EE programmes because they better match the school curriculum in contrast to longer (residential)…

  9. Environmental competence : the interplay between connection with nature and environmental knowledge in promoting ecological behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roczen, N.

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate goal of environmental education is to advance people’s ecological performance, and not only to pass on knowledge. To be able to promote people's ecological behavior, the preceding abilities and dispositions have to be identified. In this dissertation, we conceptualize environmental

  10. The PSO support scheme for natural gas - subsidy to industry or environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Some aspects of the PSO scheme for natural gas are examined critically. Two central arguments used for justifying the PSO subsidy scheme of natural gas and its distribution are reviewed; these include the 'smallholder argument' and the 'environmental argument'. The 'smallholder argument' claims that since Norway has the natural gas resources, it should also make use of the natural gas in the country, and not simply send the raw material to other countries. The 'environmental argument' states that natural gas compared to other fossil fuels such as coal and fuel oil, is a far cleaner alternative, thus an environmental-friendly alternative entitled to financial support. The arguments are critically examined by the author (ml)

  11. [Discuss on effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shihuan; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    Nature of Chinese materia medica is the nucleus in the theory of Chinese material medica, according to the recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is the character of the drug related on curative effect. Nature and efficacy of a drug is through the medical material, then, physical environment, including the temperature, humidity, atmospheric water, wind, topography, soil, micro-organism, and so on, influence the growth and development of the medical meterial. In this paper, we researched the explanation on nature of Chinese materia medica in the medical books of past dynasties, combined with the modem research, analyzed the relationship between generative reception and physical environmental factors, and discussed the effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica. We indicated that the formation of Chinese materia medical nature is that the drug receptive the change of physical environmental factors, and resulted by the synthetic action of the factors, such as climate, soil, biology, topography, etc.

  12. Naturally green: Harnessing stone age psychological biases to foster environmental behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, M.; Griskevicius, V.; Schultz, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely agreed that humans must reduce their environmental impact. We propose that an improved understanding of our evolved human nature can help to improve programs and policies to address environmental problems. Combining evolutionary and social psychological approaches, we argue that

  13. Overview of the Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study: theoretical background and model for design of field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Intaek; Wiener, Russell W; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Brixey, Laurie A; Henkle, Stacy W

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study was a multidisciplinary field research project that investigated the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes of traffic emission particulate matter (PM) pollutants in a near-highway urban residential area. The urban PM transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes were described mathematically in a theoretical model that was constructed to develop the experimental objectives of the B-TRAPPED study. In the study, simultaneous and continuous time-series PM concentration and meteorological data collected at multiple outdoor and indoor monitoring locations were used to characterize both temporal and spatial patterns of the PM concentration movements within microscale distances (street canyon; (2) investigating the effects of urban structures such as a tall building or an intersection on the transport and dispersion of PM; (3) studying the influence of meteorological variables on the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes; (4) characterizing the relationships between the building parameters and the infiltration mechanisms; (5) establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between outdoor-released PM and indoor PM concentrations and identifying the dominant mechanisms involved in the infiltration process; (6) evaluating the effectiveness of a shelter-in-place area for protection against outdoor-released PM pollutants; and (7) understanding the predominant airflow and pollutant dispersion patterns within the neighborhood using wind tunnel and CFD simulations. The 10 papers in this first set of papers presenting the results from the B-TRAPPED study address these objectives. This paper describes the theoretical background and models representing the interrelated processes of transport, dispersion, and infiltration. The theoretical solution for the relationship between the time-dependent indoor PM concentration and the initial PM concentration

  14. Environmental fate of natural radioactive contaminants in fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalha, Marcia Salamoni; Genuchten, Martinus Theodorus van

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural soils often require the use of fertilizers and soil conditioners for optimal production. Phosphate fertilizers produced from igneous phosphate rock often contain small amounts of natural radionuclides (notably uranium and thorium), while the byproduct phosphogypsum (dihydrated calcium sulfate) is typically enriched in radium and lead. It is important to understand the long-term fate of these radionuclides when routinely applied via fertilizers ( 238 U and 234 U) and phosphogypsum as an amendment ( 226 Ra and 210 Pb) to agricultural lands. This study addresses the results of modeling their transport in a typical Cerrado soil profile. The HYDRUS-1D code was used to compare possible soil and groundwater pollution scenarios following the long term use of fertilizers and phosphogypsum in agricultural operations. Results using the equilibrium transport approach suggest that radionuclide concentrations originating from the use of phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum are relatively modest and will not pose a major risk to polluting underlying groundwater resources. (author)

  15. Environmental fate of natural radioactive contaminants in fertilizers and phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalha, Marcia Salamoni; Genuchten, Martinus Theodorus van, E-mail: msbatalha@oi.com.b, E-mail: rvangenuchten@yahoo.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (LTTC/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Lab. de Transmissao e Tecnologia do Calor; Bezerra, Camila Rosa, E-mail: camila.rosabz@gmail.co [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May, E-mail: bettymay@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural soils often require the use of fertilizers and soil conditioners for optimal production. Phosphate fertilizers produced from igneous phosphate rock often contain small amounts of natural radionuclides (notably uranium and thorium), while the byproduct phosphogypsum (dihydrated calcium sulfate) is typically enriched in radium and lead. It is important to understand the long-term fate of these radionuclides when routinely applied via fertilizers ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) and phosphogypsum as an amendment ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb) to agricultural lands. This study addresses the results of modeling their transport in a typical Cerrado soil profile. The HYDRUS-1D code was used to compare possible soil and groundwater pollution scenarios following the long term use of fertilizers and phosphogypsum in agricultural operations. Results using the equilibrium transport approach suggest that radionuclide concentrations originating from the use of phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum are relatively modest and will not pose a major risk to polluting underlying groundwater resources. (author)

  16. An (even) broader perspective: Combining environmental processes and natural hazards education in a MSc programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Trappe, Martin; Cyffka, Bernd; Becht, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards are processes occurring in the natural environment that negatively affect human society. In most instances, the definition of natural hazards implies sudden events as different as earthquakes, floods or landslides. In addition, there are other phenomena that occur more subtly or slowly, and nevertheless may have serious adverse effects on the human environment. Hence, a comprehensive study programme in natural hazards has to include not only the conspicuous causes and effects of natural catastrophes, but of environmental processes in general. Geography as a discipline is located at the interface of natural, social and economic sciences; the physical geography programme described here is designed to include the social and economic dimension as well as management issues. Modules strengthening the theoretical background of geomorphic, geological, hydrological and meteorological processes and hazards are complemented by practical work in the field and the laboratory, dealing with measuring and monitoring environmental processes. On this basis, modeling and managing skills are developed. Another thread in the transdisciplinary programme deals with sustainability and environmental policy issues, and environmental psychology (e.g. perception of and reaction to hazards). This will improve the communication and team working skills of students wherever they are part of an interdisciplinary working group. Through the involvement in research programmes, students are confronted ‘hands on' with the different aspects of environmental processes and their consequences; thus, they will be excellently but not exclusively qualified for positions in the ‘natural hazards' sector.

  17. Regional environmental documentation of natural radiation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.

    1982-01-01

    In 1979, when the problem of high radon daughter levels in Swedish houses became widely published, the need for information on variations in the natural radiation environment became very apparent. The radon problem was at first attributed to radon emanation from alum shale based aerated concrete, but it was soon obvious that ground with an abnormally high uranium content constitutes an even greater risk for high radon daughter levels in houses. The geological Survey of Sweden was commissioned to produce a documentation in map form for all areas and rock types with gamma ray levels exceeding 30 μR/h, with the intention of delimiting risk areas for high soil gas radon contents. The maps, known as GEO-radiation maps, are produced at scale of 1:50 000. They are based primarily upon radiometric surveys, ground measurements of gammaradiation and geological mapping. To date some 450 map sheets have been published covering approximately 55% of the country. The maps provide primary information to local planning, health and building authorities as to variations in the natural radiation environment. Within the so-called risk areas marked on the maps, local authorities are recommended to investigate the soil gas radon content prior to any new development. Geological environments known, in Sweden, to be associated with radon daughter problems in dwellings are alum shale, a Cambrian, uranium-rich black shale, uranium-rich granites and uranium-rich pegmatites. Both alum shale and uranium-rich granites constitute extensive areas of bedrock. More recently it has been established that high soil-gas radon concentrations are also associated with glacial eskers. (Author)

  18. Republic of Ecuador Country Environmental Analysis : Environmental Quality and Natural Resource Management for Sustained Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Ecuador is a country with exceptional natural resource and environmental advantages and challenges. It is strategically located and has considerable oil reserves in the interior and the coastal region. This document does not aim to describe the state of the environment in Ecuador. Rather, its main objective is to provide an analytical foundation to identify the country's institutional weak...

  19. Environmental impact of irrational and wasteful use of natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolba, M K

    1978-01-01

    The author defines irrational use of resources as actions that are not based on existing knowledge of resources and wasteful use as actions using more resources than necessary. The three basic environmental impacts of irrational and wasteful uses are encroachment, exhaustion, and distribution effects. Man's contamination of the planet, which increased with population growth and technological advances that enable him to divert resources, can be altered by improving information and setting better criteria for the use of resources. The demand for resources can be lowered if life styles, prices, and income distribution patterns are modified to make resources use less wasteful and living conditions more equitable. The author reviews the present means of managing resources through minimum safety and social standards and notes that this approach leads to ownership and control problems. He suggests that criteria should ensure that all costs and benefits of a project be considered and that the project should promise a net positive change for better resource use. Several questions are suggested for use in assessing the comprehensiveness and relevancy of criteria.

  20. The views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinwather, T.

    2000-03-01

    This study deals with the views and motives of environmental ethics in the articles of Austrian nature and environmental protection associations. There are different ways of arguing: In an anthropocentric point of view nature is seen as a resource for man; human life needs protection an cultivation of nature. The non-anthropocentric point of view is more popular. Nature is not only seen as a resource for human needs and interests. It follows its own aims and purposes, seems to be a valuable being and has to be protected for itself. The study presents the two parent organizations 'Umweltdachverband - OeGNU' and 'Oeko-Buero' and their 45 members. The associations mainly argue from an anthropocentric point of view for the protection of nature and environment. Their motives are the care for human health and quality of life, the ensuring of resources, the leisure-time in nature and patriotism. The anthropocentric arguments perfectly fit into the other articles of these organizations: many of them are dealing with economical, scientifical, recreational and pedagogical affairs. And often they represent interests of agriculture, forestry ore trade. Non-anthropocentric statements are of minor importance and seem to be a way to present the seriousness of their demand for protection of nature and environment. (author)

  1. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 380 - Minimum Filing Requirements for Environmental Reports Under the Natural Gas Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Requirements for Environmental Reports Under the Natural Gas Act A Appendix A to Part 380 Conservation of Power... Filing Requirements for Environmental Reports Under the Natural Gas Act Environmental Reports Under the Natural Gas Act. Resource Report 1—General Project Description 1. Provide a detailed description and...

  2. Environmental optimisation of natural gas fired engines. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T. et al.

    2010-10-15

    The overall aim of the project has been to assess to which extent it is possible to reduce the emissions by adjusting the different engines examined and to determine the cost of the damage caused by emissions from natural gas combustion. However, only health and climate effects are included. The emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and UHC as well as the composition of the hydrocarbon emissions were measured for four different stationary lean-burn natural-gas fired engines installed at different combined heat and power (CHP) units in Denmark. The units were chosen to be representative of the natural gas fired engine-based power production in Denmark. The measurements showed that NO{sub x} emissions were relatively more sensitive to engine setting than UHC, CO and formaldehyde emissions. By reducing the NO{sub x} emissions to 40 % of the initial value (from 500 to 200 mg/m3(n) at 5 % O{sub 2}) the UHC emission was increased by 10 % to 50 % of the initial value. The electrical efficiency was reduced by 0.5 to 1.0 percentage point. Externalities in relation to power production are defined as the costs, which are not directly included in the price of the produced power. Health effects related to air pollution from power plants fall under this definition and usually dominate the results on external costs. For determination of these effects the exposure of the population, the impact of the exposure and the societal costs accompanying the impacts have been evaluated. As expected, it was found that when the engines are adjusted in order to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, the emission of UHC increases and vice versa. It was found that at high NO{sub x} emission levels (500 mg/m3{sub n} at 5 % O{sub 2}) the external costs related to the NO{sub x} emissions are 15 to 25 times the costs related to UHC emissions. At low NO{sub x} emission levels (200 mg/m3{sub n} at 5 % O{sub 2}) the costs related to NO{sub x} are 5 to 8 times the costs related to UHC emissions. Apparently, the harmfulness

  3. Visitation to Natural Areas on Campus and Its Relation to Place Identity and Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Eva K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined college students' visits to natural areas on campus and how these visits relate to place identity and environmentally responsible behaviors. The majority (76.5%) of the 115 participants visited the natural areas, and 55.7% of these students visited for a course requirement. Students who lived on campus, were younger, and…

  4. Investing in citizen science can improve natural resource management and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia K.; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science has made substantive contributions to science for hundreds of years. More recently, it has contributed to many articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has influenced natural resource management and environmental protection decisions and policies across the nation. Over the last 10 years, citizen science—participation by the public in a scientific project—has seen explosive growth in the United States, particularly in ecology, the environmental sciences, and related fields of inquiry. In this report, we explore the current use of citizen science in natural resource and environmental science and decision making in the United States and describe the investments organizations might make to benefit from citizen science.

  5. Exploration of Barriers in Achieving Proactive Environmental Strategies in a Natural Rubber Industry : A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifa Arum Kusumastuti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the evolving of environmental issues over time, the development of environmental management approaches in industries began to shift to the prevention of pollution to reduce environmental impact. However, in practice, many obstacles encountered during the environmental management change to be more proactive. This study aims to explore the barriers of achieving the proactive environmental strategy in a rubber processing industry. Used a case study approach in a natural rubber processing factory, the data was collected through interviews with experts and sources as well as observation in the field. This study shows main barriers that faced by the company consist of financial issue, human resources, communities’ pressure, technological change and communication with environmental experts. The results of this study suggest conducting cooperation with research institutions or environmental experts especially for skills that cannot be controlled by the manager or employees in the company. 

  6. Geo-inspired model: Agents vectors naturals inspired by the environmental management (AVNG of water tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Eduardo Millán Rojas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Management to care for the environment and the Earth (geo can be source of inspiration for developing models that allow addressing complexity issues; the objective of this research was to develop an additional aspect of the inspired models. The geoinspired model has two features, the first covering aspects related to environmental management and the behavior of natural resources, and the second has a component of spatial location associated with existing objects on the Earth's surface. Method: The approach developed in the research is descriptive and its main objective is the representation or characterization of a case study within a particular context. Results: The result was the design of a model to emulate the natural behavior of the water tributaries of the Amazon foothills, in order to extend the application of the inspired models and allow the use of elements such as geo-referencing and environmental management. The proposed geoinspired model is called “natural vectors agents inspired in environmental management”. Conclusions: The agents vectors naturals inspired by the environmental are polyform elements that can assume the behavior of environmental entities, which makes it possible to achieve progress in other fields of environmental management (use of soil, climate, flora, fauna, and link environmental issues with the structure of the proposed model.

  7. Natural latex graft in lamellar and penetrating sclerectomies in rabbits Enxerto de látex natural na cicatrização de esclerectomias lamelar e penetrante em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivia Carmem Talieri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to investigate the effects of natural latex with 0.1% of polylysine on lamellar and penetrating scleroctomies in rabbits. Two groups of twelve rabbits each (lamellar GI and penetrating GII were studied. Scleral square incisions near the limbus were performed on the left eye of each animal. The latex biomembrane was fixed to the recipient sclera and it covered with a conjunctival flap. The clinical evaluations were followed for 60 days. Aplannation tonometry, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp biomicroscopy were performed during evaluation. Bright field microscopy and polarization microscopy were employed. Blepharospasm, graft infection, mucoid ocular discharge and chemosis were not observed in either treatment group. The conjunctival hyperemia varied from moderate to hardly noticeable. The postoperative IOP was not statiscally significant, comparing to the preoperative IOP, for GI and GII. The histopathology by polarization microscopy showed that the neoformed tissue was primarily dependent on adjacent vascularized tissues and was constituted by collagen type III. Both groups presented optimum graft adhesion to the receiving sclera. The natural latex biomembrane with 0.1% polylysine constitutes a new alternative for scleral reconstruction. Furthermore, this is a durable material, easy to obtain and manipulate.Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos do látex natural com polilisina a 0,1% na cicatrização de esclerectomias lamelar e penetrante em coelhos. Foram estudados dois grupos de 12 coelhos (GI - lamelar e GII - penetrante. As esclerectomias foram realizadas no olho esquerdo de cada animal. A biomembrana de látex foi fixada à esclera receptora e foi recoberta com conjuntiva bulbar. As avaliações clínicas foram realizadas durante 60 dias. Para tal, empregaram-se a tonometria de aplanação, a oftalmoscopia indireta binocular e a biomicroscopia em lâmpada de fenda. Realizou-se an

  8. Elements for a comprehensive assessment of natural resources: bridging environmental economics with ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Romero, Paulo Cesar; Cubillos Gonzalez, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The predominance of economic assessments regarding the value of natural resources has caused a sub-valuing of the real benefits which societies can obtain from nature. This is due to a lack of knowledge about the complexity of ecological functions, as well as a dismissal of the integrated relations of the sub-systems which make up the environment. It is therefore necessary to establish conceptual bridges between environmental sciences to fill in the gaps in economic valuation methods by recurring to diverse measuring scales, participation from the different actors involved, and a principle of precaution regarding the limits of nature. This paper explores the concepts of value and economic valuation methods from the perspectives of Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics. It then proposes an integration of valuing methodologies which take into account how complementary and complex natures value relations are. This proposal of valuing integrally ecosystem goods and services contributes to adjusting political decisions more accordingly to real environmental conditions.

  9. Making peace with nature. Practical natural philosophy for a better environmental policy. Wege zum Frieden mit der Natur. Praktische Naturphilosophie fuer die Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Abich, K M

    1986-01-01

    The publication abstracted points out a way of making peace with nature by reasonable policies. The discussion is based on the author's criticism of the anthropocentric conception of the world typical of the industrial society. He urges upon a correction of a conception making man the center of the world and leading to inadequate environmental policies. The still valid anthropocentric conception of the world should be replaced by a physiocentric view with the environment as an integral part of the world. The author juxtaposes philosophical analyses based on a practical natural philosophy and political concepts. He gives an outline of a policy which based on the present social, political and moral conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany concedes an autonomous status to nature and theenvironment. The conditions of peace developed imply the omnipresence of the changed view in all spheres of life, i.e. from fundamental research through environmental policy.

  10. More than a Museum: Natural History is Relevant in 21st Century Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Barrows, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    In the Anthropocene, the relevancy of natural history in environmental science is challenged and marginalized today more than ever. We tested the hypothesis that natural history is relevant to the fields of environmental science and ecology by assessing the values, needs, and decisions related to natural history of graduate students and environmental science professionals across 31 universities and various employers, respectively, in California. Graduate students surveyed (93.3%) agreed that natural history was relevant to science, approximately 70% believed it "essential" for conducting field-based research; however, 54.2% felt inadequately trained to teach a natural history course and would benefit from additional training in natural history (> 80%). Of the 185 professionals surveyed, all felt that natural history was relevant to science and "essential" or "desirable" in their vocation (93%). Our results indicate a disconnect between the value and relevancy of natural history in 21st century ecological science and opportunities for gaining those skills and knowledge through education and training.

  11. Natural penetrating radiation inside silicate dwellings in Chengdu and recommendation on permissible limits for radioactivity of building material made of silicate cinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangzao

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports the results of external exposure rate of penetrating radiation inside silicate dwellings in Chengdu. The average exposure rate was 24.3+-3.5 R/h. It was evidently higher than of red brick dwellings. The average effective equivalent of the population in silicate dwellings was 123.4+-10.4 mrem/y and the average additional dose was 29.5+-12.5 mrem/y. The permissible limits recommended for silicate building material would be 6 pCi/g, 7 pCi/g and 102 pCi/g for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The total activity must fulfill the formula of Csub(Ra)/6 + Csub(Th)/7 + Csub(k)/102 1. Under ordinary condition the exposure rate (10+background) R/h of penetrating radiation from the surface of dry building material might be taken as the permissible limit for dwellings and other public buildings

  12. Experiencing Nature through Immersive Virtual Environments: Environmental Perceptions, Physical Engagement, and Affective Responses during a Simulated Nature Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Calogiuri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining physical activity and exposure to nature, green exercise can provide additional health benefits compared to physical activity alone. Immersive Virtual Environments (IVE have emerged as a potentially valuable supplement to environmental and behavioral research, and might also provide new approaches to green exercise promotion. However, it is unknown to what extent green exercise in IVE can provide psychophysiological responses similar to those experienced in real natural environments. In this study, 26 healthy adults underwent three experimental conditions: nature walk, sitting-IVE, and treadmill-IVE. The nature walk took place on a paved trail along a large river. In the IVE conditions, the participants wore a head-mounted display with headphones reproducing a 360° video and audio of the nature walk, either sitting on a chair or walking on a manually driven treadmill. Measurements included environmental perceptions (presence and perceived environmental restorativeness – PER, physical engagement (walking speed, heart rate, and perceived exertion, and affective responses (enjoyment and affect. Additionally, qualitative information was collected through open-ended questions. The participants rated the IVEs with satisfactory levels of ‘being there’ and ‘sense of reality,’ but also reported discomforts such as ‘flatness,’ ‘movement lag’ and ‘cyber sickness.’ With equivalent heart rate and walking speed, participants reported higher perceived exertion in the IVEs than in the nature walk. The nature walk was associated with high enjoyment and enhanced affect. However, despite equivalent ratings of PER in the nature walk and in the IVEs, the latter were perceived as less enjoyable and gave rise to a poorer affect. Presence and PER did not differ between the two IVEs, although in the treadmill-IVE the negative affective responses had slightly smaller magnitude than in the sitting-IVE. In both the IVEs, the negative

  13. Children, teachers and nature: An analysis of an environmental education program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan

    Environmental education is an important tool for providing knowledge, supporting positive attitudes toward nature, and building skills to protect and improve the environment. Because of limited funding sources and increasing environmental challenges, it is important to provide effective environmental education programs. Program evaluation is one strategy to engage stakeholders and increase program effectiveness. An evaluation of a fourth grade environmental education program, Lagoon Quest developed by Brevard Zoo, provides an unique opportunity to answer several questions about implementing an effective environmental education program. The first question is about the effectiveness of Lagoon Quest. Evaluation data are reported in a case study that provides details about the development of the evaluation questions and evaluation instruments. The pre/posttest comparison suggests that participating in Lagoon Quest effectively increases students' knowledge of Indian River Lagoon (mean increase = 5.03, pteachers and parents indicate that the program positively influenced the students and are supportive of it. Lagoon Quest is now a required program in the fourth grade curriculum in Brevard County, which raises the second question: how do teachers react to a required fourth grade program? Teachers' prior experience in environmental education, science education, Lagoon Quest and their attitudes toward Lagoon Quest were examined. A teacher survey was conducted to explore teachers' attitudes, but the low response rate necessitated a process to explore non-respondents' attitudes. Follow-up focus groups at schools with few respondents suggest that teachers who had prior experience in teaching science were more likely to be highly supportive of Lagoon Quest and were more likely to use additional resources to support the program. Also, teachers' interest in Indian River Lagoon is positively associated with their attitude toward nature. The third question uses Lagoon Quest to

  14. Does environmental ethics found on natural law. Naturrechtliche Begruendung der Umweltethik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrgang, B.

    1991-08-09

    The author discusses various basic concepts of natural law; naturalistic and metaphysical fallacies, natural law and theory on human action developed by St. Thomas Aquinas. The author concludes by advocating an ethics for result assessment based on moral principles, and, in the case of environmental ethics in particular on justice (equal treatment, appropriateness, respect for those at a disadvantage and fairness between the gneerations). The same criterions should apply to matters concerning the ethics of energy generation, genetic engineering and economic and environmental ethics. (orig./HSCH).

  15. Natural resource management activities at the Savannah River Site. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) reviews the environmental consequences of ongoing natural resource management activities on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Appendix A contains the Natural Resources Management Plant (NRMP). While several SRS organizations have primary responsibilities for different elements of the plan, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) is responsible for most elements. Of the river scenarios defined in 1985, the High-Intensity Management alternative established the upper bound of environmental consequences; it represents a more intense level of resource management than that being performed under current resource management activities. This alternative established compliance mechanisms for several natural resource-related requirements and maximum practical timber harvesting. Similarly, the Low-Intensity Management alternative established the lower bound of environmental consequences and represents a less intense level of resource management than that being performed under current resource management activities. This alternative also established compliance mechanisms, but defined a passively managed natural area. The Proposed Action of this EA describes the current level of multiple-natural resource management. This EA reviews the proposed action, and the high and low intensity alternative scenarios.

  16. A review of penetration mechanisms and dynamic properties of tungsten and depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, S.P.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Eiselstein, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetic energy penetrators must posses the best possible combination of hardness, stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness characteristics to be effective against modern armor systems. Over the last decade, depleted uranium (DU) and tungsten alloys have been the materials of choice for kinetic energy penetrators. Du and tungsten perform abut the same against semi-infinite targets, and DU outperforms tungsten penetrators in oblique, spaced array targets, but because of environmental and subsequent cost concerns, effort has focused on improving the performance of tungsten penetrators over the last few years. However, despite recent improvements in material properties, the penetration performance of tungsten still lags behind that of DU. One possible reason is the difference in deformation mechanisms at the leading edge of the penetrator during the penetration process-DU alloys tend to shear band and sharpen as they penetrate the target material, whereas tungsten penetrators tend to mushroom and blunt. As a first step to determine whether shear banding is truly the reason for superior DU performance, a review of the fabrication, high strain-rate properties, and penetration phenomena of penetrators manufactured from both tungsten and DU alloys. Specifically, the effects of composition, processing, and heat treatment on material properties and penetration mechanisms of these alloys are discussed

  17. The Human - Nature Relationship i n t he Context o f Theo - Centric Environmental Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen YAYLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental problems are one of the issues that intensively occupy the agenda of humankind. This fact mainly derives from the ambiguity of the s pan and the content of the issue. The concept of environmental problems can not be confined to th e soil, air and water pollution for the reason that it covers a scope wider than a classical pollution issues. Initially the form of the relations hip between h uman and nature has been relying on the “consumption at the level of content” which stands for a level that is enough to sustain the living. The perception of the nature used to be described with the metaphor of mother while natural environment was defined as the “mother earth”. However subsequent to natural environment definition of the Cartesian philosophy with its approach to the human nature relationship, the core metaphor to describe the natural environment has changed from the metaphor of “mother” to the “slave” which should serve by any means. The human - nature relationship within the context of ethics, both the parties an d their respective statues bear an importance. In terms of ethics of human - nature relationship, it is possible to mention three main approaches. First one is the anthropo - centric approach. Within the scope of historical process, human - nature relationship is addressed according to anthropo - centric ethics comprehension so human has remained at the center of discussion. Following the change of the perception regarding the issue of environment, new approaches have emerged that give emphasis not only on human beings but also others; on li ving and non - living beings with in the eco - system. In principle, this represents a departure from an anthropo - centric ethics to a new ethic approach which fall s into two categories, bio centric and eco - centric. The theo - centric ethics should also be included to these ethics approaches that are shaped within the sphere of positive sciences. The Abrahamic

  18. Socio-economic importance of environmentally sustainable nature tourism in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.

    2005-01-01

    The research paper deals with the nature tourism which is defined as unremunerated visits by local and foreign mountaineers, trekkers and rock climbers to the mountainous areas in Gilgit, Skardu and Chitral. Pakistan is gifted with one of the richest and unique collection of high mountains with three spectacular mountain ranges of the world Karakoram, Hindukush and Himalayas located in the Northern Areas. These ranges have more than 700 peaks above 6000 meters, with as many as 160 peaks rising above 7000 meters. Five out of the total fourteen peaks rising above eight thousand meters, namely K-2, Nanga Parbat, the Hidden Peak Gasherbrum-I, the Broad peak and the Gasherbrum-ll, situated within 20 Kms radius around famous glacial junction-Concordia in Karakoram. Nature Tourism besides being of importance to Federal Government as a source of foreign exchange earnings through royalty and trekking fees, tt is of particular importance for the local economy in the Northern Areas where nature tourists generate considerable economic activities. The Research Paper intends to study and analyze prospects and scope of Nature Tourism in Pakistan with a view to highlight dangers of environmental degradation and suggest balanced set of measures for promoting nature tourism with minimal negative environmental impact. The Research study is primarily based on secondary data collected by Ministry of Tourism during debriefing of mountaineers and trekkers, supplemented with primary data collected through self completion questionnaire and structured interview of Adventure and participants of International Conference on sustainable Tourism -New Vision and the Moving Force for Poverty Alleviation, held in Lahore on April 12 -13, 2005 Tour Operators. The analysis shows that owing to relatively small size of nature tourism environmental condition in Pakistan is not as bad as it might be in other comparable countries. Nevertheless with the growing volume of nature tourism there is a need to

  19. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  20. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  1. Natural areas and urban populations: communication and environmental education challenges and actions in outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez

    2005-01-01

    Challenges, opportunities, and actions exist in areas where large urban populations interface with natural areas, such as outdoor recreation sites in southern California. Challenges in the interface include intense recreation use, public safety issues, and complex information strategies. Research results on communications and environmental education offer opportunities...

  2. Volunteer Guides in Nature Reserves: Exploring Environmental Educators' Perceptions of Teaching, Learning, Place and Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Emily; Ching, Cynthia Carter; Ballard, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    In the following case study, we examine the interplay between self-perception, environmental perception, and the interests and practice of volunteer trail guides who were recruited to provide educational services for visitors to a natural reserve in Northern California. Through semi-structured interviews with 15 guides and observations of training…

  3. Quality assurance of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the quality assurance work of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level. It mainly introduces instrumentation used in external exposure measurement and its properties, the measurement results of three times of national in-site intercomparison, and in-site sample check results of measurement results from 29 provinces, cities and autonomous regions and Wuhan, Baotou cities

  4. Incorporating nature in environmental sociology: a critique of Bhaskar and Latour, and a proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2017-01-01

    There is a vital, but complex and controversial debate in environmental sociology regarding how to bring nature into sociological investigation. This article discusses two influential strands in this debate: Bhaskar’s critical realism and its elaboration by Carolan, and the ‘politics of nature’

  5. In Accord with Nature: Helping Students Form an Environmental Ethic Using Outdoor Experience and Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Clifford E.

    This book demonstrates how educators and youth leaders can help middle-school and older students understand and define their relationship with nature and learn the importance of protecting the environment. Chapter 1 defines environmental ethics and discusses biocentric and anthropocentric ways of seeing the world. Chapter 2 examines how ecology,…

  6. A Service-Learning Project in Chemistry: Environmental Monitoring of a Nature Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammler, David C.; Truong, Triet M.; VanNess, Garrett; McGowin, Audrey E.

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative environmental service-learning project was implemented between upper-level undergraduate science majors and graduate chemistry students at a large state school and first-year students at a small private liberal arts college. Students analyzed the water quality in a nature preserve by determining the quantities of 12 trace metals,…

  7. Exploring the Relations between Childhood Experiences in Nature and Young Adults' Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a research study with young adults who explored the connections between their early childhood experiences in nature and their attitudes and actions towards the environment in adulthood. Drawing on E. Wilson's (1984) work, environmental or ecological consciousness is theorised to connect to ecological identity…

  8. A thermodynamic analysis of the environmental indicators of natural gas combustion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsukov, V. K.

    2010-07-01

    Environmental indicators of the natural gas combustion process are studied using the model of extreme intermediate states developed at the Melent’ev Institute of Power Engineering Systems. Technological factors responsible for generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrogen cyanide are revealed. Measures for reducing the amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxide, and other pollutants emitted from boilers are developed.

  9. Environmental Psychology” the mental benefits of physical activities in natural settings

    OpenAIRE

    De Dominicis, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Practicing sports and physical activities has a huge positive impact on physiological and psychological wellbeing of individuals. Drawing from Environmental and Positive psychology, the idea presented in this paper highlight the even stronger psychological benefits related to training, exercising and playing sports in natural environments. Specifically, given their intrinsic characteristics, such contexts are more prone then urban environments to foster positive emotions, controlled cognition...

  10. Evaluating the Role of Protected Natural Areas for Environmental Education in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Bonaiuto, Marino; Carrus, Giuseppe; Passafaro, Paola; Perucchini, Paola; Bonnes, Mirilia

    2017-01-01

    Two quasi-experimental field studies (N = 419; 248) tested the effects of an outdoor environmental education program based in local Protected Natural Areas (PNAs) on 3rd-to-6th-grade students' proenvironmental attitudes and behaviors. Results show the program increases children's place attachment, proenvironmental attitudes, ethics and…

  11. SOME ASPECTS OF FEATURES CONCEPT AND NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY LIFE URBAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirova M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proved the concept and nature of the environmental safety of life of the urban population. A structural levels in the list of objects to enter the security levels of urban or rural communities of local communities, which changes the nature of the institutional environment environmental security. In assessing the quality of life of urban society used many parameters of socio-economic and environmental. General rules on the prevention of environmental degradation and risks to human health set forth in the applicable law "On Environmental Protection", on the basis of which developed a number of legal documents. As for the capital of Ukraine - Kyiv, it is a great cultural, historical and commercial and industrial center. So we can safely say that Kyiv is characterized by all the environmental problems that are inherent in all large cities. This, above all, traffic pollution, changes in the air quality, noise pollution, emissions of chemicals into the atmosphere, pollution, toxic waste, the problem of waste. But a special place in this region occupies a radioactive problem due to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Also, nearby, in the Kyiv region Kiev reservoir are with not the best environmental conditions. The most important components of ecosystems: the air of the city, urban and suburban water sources, soil city. International experts conducted a study in 215 cities around the world. Kyiv international ranking is 29 in place pollution. Thus, the problem of environmental security for the population of the city. Kyiv, as many large cities in Ukraine is quite relevant. In this regard, the article studies that the environmental safety of life of the urban population in the context of national security - a state of effective security systems (environment interconnected structural levels of the individual, the local community, society, state and international (global community of aggregate factors that endanger or threaten the very existence of which

  12. From Environmental Connectedness to Sustainable Futures: Topophilia and Human Affiliation with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Beery

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human affiliation with nonhuman nature is an important dimension of environmental concern and support for pro-environmental attitudes. A significant theory of human connectedness with nature, the Biophilia Hypothesis, suggests that there exists a genetically based inclination for human affiliation with the biological world. Both support and challenge to the Biophilia Hypothesis are abundant in the literature of environmental psychology. One response that both challenges and builds upon the Biophilia Hypothesis is the Topophilia Hypothesis. The Topophilia Hypothesis has extended the ideas of biophilia to incorporate a broader conception of nonhuman nature and a co-evolutionary theory of genetic response and cultural learning. While the Topophilia Hypothesis is a new idea, it is built upon long-standing scholarship from humanistic geography and theories in human evolution. The Topophilia Hypothesis expands previous theory and provides a multidisciplinary consideration of how biological selection and cultural learning may have interacted during human evolution to promote adaptive mechanisms for human affiliation with nonhuman nature via specific place attachment. Support for this possible co-evolutionary foundation for place-based human affiliation with nonhuman nature is explored from multiple vantage points. We raise the question of whether this affiliation may have implications for multifunctional landscape management. Ultimately, we propose that nurturing potential topophilic tendencies may be a useful method to promote sustainable efforts at the local level with implications for the global.

  13. Exploring the development of fourth graders' environmental identity through participation in a semi-formal nature club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Ryan J.

    Nature deficit, where disconnections occur between children and nature have come to the forefront of environmental education in recent years. This study explored how fourth graders in an after-school Nature Club developed or strengthened their environmental identity, thus decreasing nature deficit. Through a program that utilized semi-formal instruction, both classroom learning and direct experiences with nature, took place over a nine week period of time. Six children were followed as qualitative data was collected and analyzed for themes that would reveal how adolescent children in the developmental stage of concrete operations developed environmental identity. The results indicate that all students strengthened their environmental identity when social aspects were embedded. Students who entered Nature Club with low environmental identity required more direct experiences with nature while those with higher environmental identity required a combination of reflective components along with nature experiences. Based upon this study, the nine-week program which combined formal and non-formal means of learning was able to strengthen environmental identity in each of the participants. A strong theme of social learning, not explicitly identified in the literature was found. Additionally, and most importantly, findings also indicate that educators, both formal and non-formal, who teach environmental education and seek to strengthen environmental identity for adolescents for early interventions need to understand the development of environmental identity in concrete operational learners at a theoretical level.

  14. Dialogues between social and natural sciences: contribution to the debate on socio-environmental conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanez, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I argue that attempting to solve real problems is a possible approach to bring social and natural sciences together, and suggest that - as Environmental Impact Assessment necessarily brings together social and environmental issues - this debate is a strong candidate for such a task. The argument is based on a general discussion about the possibilities and limitations of Environmental Impact Assessments, the social-environmental impacts of mining activities and three case studies. The analysis of the cases indicates possibilities and limitations of the dialogue between scientists from various areas - and of the collaboration with social movements and affected communities - in avoiding negative impacts of mining projects and, eventually, increasing their sustainability.

  15. Experiences on current national income measures with reference to environmental and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzese, R.; Gaudioso, D.

    1995-06-01

    The environment provides both a source of goods and services and a 'sink' for residues of the production and consumption processes. This is not reflected into conventional estimate of GDP (gross domestic product), the most commonly used measure of aggregate income. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether environmentally-adjusted national income measure can be derived. In the first part, the authors discuss both the shortcomings of the current national income measures, with reference to environmental and natural resources, and the debate on this issues; then they analyse the existing experiences to provide environmentally-adjusted indicators of national accounts. In the second part, the authors present an evaluation of the costs of environmental degradation in Italy in the period 1988-1990, based on the methodologies adopted in a pilot study carried out by UNSO (United Nations Statistical Office) and the World Bank for Mexico

  16. The role of natural gas in assessing environmental cost of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1999-01-01

    The actual price of a resource is the results of its internal and external costs. Internal costs means the price paid by the users in order to utilise the resource. On the other hand, externals costs, which are associated with the resource, are not paid directly by the users, but they shall be paid for by the society of the future generations. The article presents methodologies and issues relevant to energy policy decisions, when it comes to evaluating and using environmental external costs of fossil fuel life, with particular consideration to the end-use phase. The results of published studies on environmental costs of energy sources and an analysis applied to the Italia case show that natural gas as a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. The range of values depends upon the technologies considered and on the assumptions adopted when assessment environmental damages [it

  17. 40 CFR 1065.365 - Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fractions. 1065.365 Section 1065.365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Measurements § 1065.365 Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a FID... penetration fractions of methane, PFCH4, and ethane, PF C2H6. As detailed in this section, these penetration...

  18. Relationship between demographic and environmental factors and knowledge of secondary school students on natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of quantitative research is to examine the connection between demographic (gender, age and environmental factors (family, school and media and knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. Bearing in mind the orientation of the research design on determination of character and strength of relationships of demographic and environmental factors with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters, research has explicative goal. The authors use the method of interviewing high school students to identify demographic and environmental factors associated with the knowledge and perceptions of students about natural disasters. The study included 3,063 students of secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. Results suggest the existence of links between gender, success achieved in school and education of parents and the knowledge of students about natural disasters. The results also indicate that the education of students at school and within family does not affect the knowledge, but affects their perception on natural disasters. Bearing in mind the geographical space of Serbia, the study is based only on the Belgrade region, so the findings can be generalized only to the population of students in this area. Research findings indicate potential ways to influence students to raise level of knowledge about natural disasters to a higher level. Given the evident lack of education about natural disasters in Serbia, the study results can be used for policies of educational programs, which would contribute to improving the safety of youth culture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179045: Development of institutional capacities, standards and procedures for countering organized crime and terrorism in terms of international integration, br. 179034: From encouraging initiative, cooperation and creativity in education to new roles and identities in the society i br. 47008: Improving quality and

  19. Penetrating cardiothoracic war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedzinović, I; Rudez, I; Ugljen, R; Letica, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Karadza, J; Brida, V; Vladović-Relja, T; Jelić, I

    1997-03-01

    lung), suture + extraction of the foreign body in 4 patients, 2 of them with cardiopulmonary bypass. Complications were pericardial effusion in 6 patients, arrhythmia in 2 patients, myocardial infraction in 1 patient and migration of the foreign body in 1 patient. Patients, 7, died, five of the group with concomitant injuries, two of thoracic and one of cardiac injuries (5, 1.2 and 4.2%, respectively). Penetrating cardiothoracic wounds are among the most serious injuries in war, either in combat or among civilians. In spite of their nature, they can be treated successfully with relatively low mortality and morbidity.

  20. Substituting natural gas heating for electric heating: assessment of the energy and environmental effects in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.A.; Sy, E.; Gharghouri, P.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to find practical ways to reduce Ontario's energy consumption and environmental emissions. A major portion of the study focused on the advantages of cogeneration in certain regions and sectors of Ontario. Substituting direct fuel heating with natural gas for electric heating was the principal recommendation. Results of a technical analysis of the effects of substituting electric heating with natural gas heating were described. One of the benefits of this substitution would be reduced fuel energy requirements for direct heating, relative to the two-step process of electricity generation followed by electric heating. It was suggested that natural gas should still be used for electricity generation because natural gas has many advantages as an electricity supply option including reductions in coal and uranium use and related emissions. It was recommended that developers and designers of energy systems seriously consider this option. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Environmental Hermeneutics: Ethnic and Ecological Traditions in Aesthetic Dialogue with Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldonova Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents dialogic attitude towards nature and focuses on the aesthetic form of interaction with environment via folklore and imaginative writing. The article analyzes the development of scientific thought from human ecology to environmental hermeneutics. Hermeneutic methodology is used in the field of “aesthetics of nature”, therefore, the author applies hermeneutic categories such as tradition, historically effective consciousness, hermeneutic circle, application to cultural heritage of one of Siberia’s natives and proves the advantages, heuristic value of these categories in analyzing dialogue with nature. Aesthetic dialogue with nature is studied on the example of ethnic and ecological traditions of the Buryat nomads, who historically migrated across Central Asia, nowadays live around Lake Baikal. The author argues that revitalizing ethnic and ecological traditions in folklore and contemporary national literature presents a hermeneutic dialogue with nature and considers it a valuable resource for ethical assumptions and ecological education for sustainable development.

  2. Panel discussion: environmental concerns and natural gas exports, exploration and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipton, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental issues faced by power companies were reviewed from the perspective of a major power company that is very much involved in the competitive revolution now underway in the U.S. The battles fought by the U.S. Generating Company of Bethesda, Maryland with environmental groups in the creation of its Hermiston Generating Plant in Oregon were recounted as an example of the different perspectives and the resulting daily challenges facing utility companies in the United States, problems not unlike those faced by natural gas companies in Canada.The principal problems arose when U.S. Generating was trying to secure financing for the Hermiston plant while being challenged by environmentalists in obtaining National Energy Board (NEB) licence to import Canadian gas. It was recommended that to avoid these types of problems, environmental concerns should be addressed when wells are being constructed, not at later stages when power companies are trying to purchase the gas. Several measures taken by U.S. Generating in taking environmental responsibility were outlined, among them its stated objective to investigate environmental impacts of any project prior to beginning of the project. To further illustrate its seriousness about environmental issues the company's standard have been set much higher than the minimum standards required by government. For example, an environmental training program was implemented as well as a recycling program. Contractors employed by the company must have and have to support a positive environmental philosophy. It was concluded that power companies could be successful in business, provided that they used the proper strategies while taking environmental responsibility

  3. Lifetime experience with (classic) psychedelics predicts pro-environmental behavior through an increase in nature relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmann, Matthias; Sagioglou, Christina

    2017-08-01

    In a large-scale ( N = 1487) general population online study, we investigated the relationship between past experience with classic psychedelic substances (e.g. LSD, psilocybin, mescaline), nature relatedness, and ecological behavior (e.g. saving water, recycling). Using structural equation modeling we found that experience with classic psychedelics uniquely predicted self-reported engagement in pro-environmental behaviors, and that this relationship was statistically explained by people's degree of self-identification with nature. Our model controlled for experiences with other classes of psychoactive substances (cannabis, dissociatives, empathogens, popular legal drugs) as well as common personality traits that usually predict drug consumption and/or nature relatedness (openness to experience, conscientiousness, conservatism). Although correlational in nature, results suggest that lifetime experience with psychedelics in particular may indeed contribute to people's pro-environmental behavior by changing their self-construal in terms of an incorporation of the natural world, regardless of core personality traits or general propensity to consume mind-altering substances. Thereby, the present research adds to the contemporary literature on the beneficial effects of psychedelic substance use on mental wellbeing, hinting at a novel area for future research investigating their potentially positive effects on a societal level. Limitations of the present research and future directions are discussed.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Analyses of Environmental Affects on Zizania Palustris and Its Natural Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Douglas L.; Greensky, Wayne; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Estes, M. G.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, Sue M.

    2017-01-01

    As part of a joint education and research effort funded by NASA, research studies were initiated involving students associated with the Ojibwe and researchers at Marshall Space Flight Center. Topics were chosen that satisfied the nature of the work proposed and were tractable, given the student's constraints (abilities, interests, and time). One of the studies, which spanned two summers, examined some potential environmental effects on northern wild rice in northern Wisconsin. The rice of interest is naturally occurring ('wild' wild rice), as opposed to cultivated wild rice ('paddy' wild rice).

  5. Analysis on the applicability of environmental management tools for the management of natural wetlands within Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera A, Maria A; Sepulveda L, Monica V; Aguirre R, Nestor J

    2008-01-01

    As a result of an investigation of scientific and legislative information about environmental management of natural wetlands in Colombia, analyzes the applicability of the administration tools employed in the integrated management of these ecosystems. For this work, there were identified key categories and sub categories of analysis, based on a ranking of natural inland wetlands in the country and its current state, the review of existing environmental regulations, also discussed some wetland management plans and finally, the identification of the scientific groups in Colciencias conducting studies on this subject. The information will be systematized bases on these results, thereby generating an approximation to a proposal of analysis that will help to rulers and scientist to guide the future investigation and policy about the management of wetlands in the country.

  6. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF13-9-000] Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Magnolia Liquefied Natural Gas Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The staff of...

  7. Adventurous activities, embodiment and nature: spiritual, sensual and sustainable? Embodying environmental justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Humberstone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines research on adventurous physical activities in nature from the perspective of the sentient body. Drawing upon ethnographic and autoethnographic research, I examine what has been termed 'peak' happenings or 'flow' which many who practise adventurous activities claim to experience through their whole body when in the 'zone'. I consider the concept of 'edgework', voluntary risk-taking, and insightful mobile and social understanding of the relationships between body, emotions and the elements, where the adventurous activity is experienced and interpreted as oneness with nature or expressed as 'spiritual' not only in high but also low risk nature-based sport. I then consider if and in what ways these knowledges may bring about greater understanding and action in relation to social and environmental justice. I argue that adventurous activities/nature-based sport may provide processes and practices that are alternative or complementary to traditional sporting 'body techniques' or 'body pedagogics'. I suggest that modern embodied adventurous practices in nature challenge dominant narratives of body/mind separation and potentially provide a pedagogic process fostering kinetic empathy. Finally I draw attention to the paradox of (re-presenting sensorial experiences of sport in nature and ask for consideration on how we interconnect with the environment when we participate in adventureous nature-based sports.

  8. Cooperation in Global Environmental Governance for Building A Conflict Prevention Architecture in Natural Resources Torno

    OpenAIRE

    Padilha, Norma Sueli; Cardoso, Simone Alves

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and the importance of cooperation in global environmental governance arrangements to prevent conflicts and promote pea- cebuilding through analysis the partnership between the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN) around the natural resources and conflict prevention. The problem to be addressed and the challenge to overcome by the international community is the fra- gility of some countries in creating and maintaining institutions t...

  9. Determination of artificial and natural radionuclides and others trace elements in environmental samples form Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.; Godoy, J.M.; Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the radioactive elements concentrations, determined by gamma spectrometry and the others trace elements determined by neutron activation analysis of several environmental samples (soils, marine sediments, algae mosses and lichens) in Comandante Ferraz Antartica Station are presented. The high concentrations of Cs-137 were found in lichens and mosses samples and the soils and sediments showed concentrations of natural radionuclides. (C.G.C.). 8 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  10. Nature vs. Nurture: The Role of Environmental Resources in Evolutionary Deep Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Audrey G.; Fieguth, Paul; Wong, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary deep intelligence synthesizes highly efficient deep neural networks architectures over successive generations. Inspired by the nature versus nurture debate, we propose a study to examine the role of external factors on the network synthesis process by varying the availability of simulated environmental resources. Experimental results were obtained for networks synthesized via asexual evolutionary synthesis (1-parent) and sexual evolutionary synthesis (2-parent, 3-parent, and 5-pa...

  11. The Saskatchewan Environmental Assessment Act Guide to Proposal Development : oil and natural gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The manner in which requests for review of oil and natural gas projects are to be provided under the Environmental Assessment Act in Saskatchewan is described. The provisions of the Guide apply to all seismic projects on private or Crown lands, all drilling projects, flowline projects, access routes and production facilities on any land, except where the project is on cultivated land where it does not interfere with water bodies or endangered species. It also applies to any project that has the potential to meet the definition of 'development' under the Environmental Assessment Act. Basically, the following information is required for all proposals: (1) project description, (2) project evaluation, (3) description of proposed waste management practices, and (4) description of the proposed environmental monitoring. 4 refs

  12. Comparison of thermodynamic and environmental indexes of natural gas, syngas and hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargigli, Silvia; Raugei, Marco; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamic efficiency and the environmental sustainability of selected processes that deliver gaseous energy carriers (natural gas, syngas from coal gasification, and hydrogen from steam reforming of natural gas and alkaline electrolysis) is explored by means of a multi-criteria, multi-scale approach based on four methods: material flow accounting, energy analysis, exergy analysis, and energy synthesis. The average energy and exergy conversion efficiencies of syngas (76% and 75%, respectively) are found to be higher than those for hydrogen (64% and 55%). However, coal-to-syngas conversion generates a significant amount of solid waste, which should be dealt with carefully. In addition, the material intensity is much higher for syngas (e.g. abiotic MI=768 g/g) than for natural gas and hydrogen (21 and 39 g/g, respectively), indicating a higher load on the environment. On the other hand, the energy intensity (transformity) for syngas (5.25x10 4 seJ/J) is shown to be lower than for hydrogen (9.66x10 4 seJ/J), indicating a lower demand for global environmental support. Therefore, material intensities and transformities offer two complementary pieces of information: transformities account for the 'memory' of the environmental resources that were used up in the past for the production of the inputs, whereas MIs are strictly calculated within the time frame of the life cycle of the investigated process. The higher transformity values calculated for pure hydrogen suggest careful and appropriate use of such an energy vector

  13. Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abe J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Cook-Patton, Susan; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has advanced science for hundreds of years, contributed to many peer-reviewed articles, and informed land management decisions and policies across the United States. Over the last 10 years, citizen science has grown immensely in the United States and many other countries. Here, we show how citizen science is a powerful tool for tackling many of the challenges faced in the field of conservation biology. We describe the two interwoven paths by which citizen science can improve conservation efforts, natural resource management, and environmental protection. The first path includes building scientific knowledge, while the other path involves informing policy and encouraging public action. We explore how citizen science is currently used and describe the investments needed to create a citizen science program. We find that:Citizen science already contributes substantially to many domains of science, including conservation, natural resource, and environmental science. Citizen science informs natural resource management, environmental protection, and policymaking and fosters public input and engagement.Many types of projects can benefit from citizen science, but one must be careful to match the needs for science and public involvement with the right type of citizen science project and the right method of public participation.Citizen science is a rigorous process of scientific discovery, indistinguishable from conventional science apart from the participation of volunteers. When properly designed, carried out, and evaluated, citizen science can provide sound science, efficiently generate high-quality data, and help solve problems.

  14. 78 FR 5794 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF13-2-000] Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned West Leg 2014 Expansion Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Onsite Environmental Review The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  15. The Ignorant Environmental Education Teacher: Students Get Empowered and Teach Philosophy of Nature Inspired by Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevreni, Irida

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to apply Jacques Rancière's emancipatory pedagogy of "the ignorant schoolmaster" to environmental education, which emphasises environmental ethics. The paper tells the story of a philosophy of nature project in the framework of an environmental adult education course at a Second Chance School in Greece,…

  16. Interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors--a meta-analysis and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Kramarz, Paulina E; Loureiro, Susana; Scheil, Volker; Kudłek, Joanna; Holmstrup, Martin

    2010-08-15

    The paper addresses problems arising from effects of natural environmental factors on toxicity of pollutants to organisms. Most studies on interactions between toxicants and natural factors, including those completed in the EU project NoMiracle (Novel Methods for Integrated Risk Assessment of Cumulative Stressors in Europe) described herein, showed that effects of toxic chemicals on organisms can differ vastly depending purely on external conditions. We compiled data from 61 studies on effects of temperature, moisture and dissolved oxygen on toxicity of a range of chemicals representing pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plant protection products of bacterial origin and trace metals. In 62.3% cases significant interactions (pnatural factors and chemicals were found, reaching 100% for the effect of dissolved oxygen on toxicity of waterborne chemicals. The meta-analysis of the 61 studies showed that the null hypothesis assuming no interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors should be rejected at p=2.7 x 10(-82) (truncated product method probability). In a few cases of more complex experimental designs, also second-order interactions were found, indicating that natural factors can modify interactions among chemicals. Such data emphasize the necessity of including information on natural factors and their variation in time and across geographic regions in ecological risk assessment. This can be done only if appropriate ecotoxicological test designs are used, in which test organisms are exposed to toxicants at a range of environmental conditions. We advocate designing such tests for the second-tier ecological risk assessment procedures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental legislation as the legal framework for mitigating natural hazards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jesús; Arana, Estanislao; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Delgado, José

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, the socioeconomic losses due to natural hazards (floods, earthquakes or landslides) are considerable, and the indirect costs associated with them are rarely considered because they are very difficult to evaluate. The prevention of losses due to natural hazards is more economic and efficient through legislation and spatial planning rather than through structural measures, such as walls, anchorages or structural reinforcements. However, there isn't a Spanish natural hazards law and national and regional sector legislation make only sparse mention of them. After 1978, when the Spanish Constitution was enacted, the Autonomous Communities (Spanish regions) were able to legislate according to the different competences (urban planning, environment or civil protection), which were established in the Constitution. In the 1990's, the Civil Protection legislation (national law and regional civil protection tools) dealt specifically with natural hazards (floods, earthquakes and volcanoes), but this was before any soil, seismic or hydrological studies were recommended in the national sector legislation. On the other hand, some Autonomous Communities referred to natural hazards in the Environmental Impact Assessment legislation (EIA) and also in the spatial and urban planning legislation and tools. The National Land Act, enacted in 1998, established, for the first time, that those lands exposed to natural hazards should be classified as non-developable. The Spanish recast text of the Land Act, enacted by Royal Legislative Decree 2/2008, requires that a natural hazards map be included in the Environmental Sustainability Report (ESR), which is compulsory for all master plans, according to the provisions set out by Act 9/2006, known as Spanish Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Consequently, the environmental legislation, after the aforementioned transposition of the SEA European Directive 2001/42/EC, is the legal framework to prevent losses due to natural hazards

  18. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magued

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  19. Estimating Natural Environmental Characteristics of Subsidized Households: A Case Study of Austin, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the traditional public housing program, the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC program has been regarded as a better tool to ensure the quality of housing structure for subsidized households and the mixing of incomes in neighborhoods. Previous studies related to LIHTC developments have solely focused on the relationships between subsidized households and socioeconomic environments, such as income, race, poverty, etc. Beyond the socioeconomic environments where subsidized households are located, there is a limited understanding about whether subsidized households experience healthier natural environments in their neighborhoods. This study aims to investigate whether LIHTC-subsidized housing neighborhoods provide adequate natural environments to the subsidized households in Austin, Texas, compared to the public housing households. We employ comparison t-tests and binomial logistic regression models. The results show that LIHTC households are significantly exposed to unhealthy natural environmental settings such as a lack of green vegetation and steep slopes while no statistical evidence is reported for public housing neighborhoods. Findings from this study may help policymakers and planners improve their understanding of whether subsidized housing developments offer better natural environments for disadvantaged populations and help them develop effective environmental intervention strategies to improve the quality of life of subsidized households.

  20. Evaluation of detector responses to natural environmental and fall-out gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    1988-01-01

    Instrument responses to the thorium, uranium and potassium components of the natural environmental as well as the fall-out radiation field were evaluated. The responses to the 137 Cs fall-out radiation field differ by less than 6% from the response at 0.662 MeV, except for that of the NaI scintillator. Differences of more than 30% were found in the responses of two energy compensated instruments to normal natural background radiation and to radiation from fresh fall-out. The best estimate of the terrestrial component of the dose rate measured was obtained by carrying out the following corrections of the measured readings: cosmic ray contribution and internal background subtraction with response correction, including 137 Cs calibration correction. After the Chernobyl accident the dose rate levels due to 137 Cs and 134 Cs fall-out were comparable to the natural background gamma radiation. The responses calculated as well as the results from measurements of the low level environmental exposure levels caused by the Chernobyl fall-out, confirmed the need to take into account the instrument response to natural as well as fall-out radiation fields. (author)

  1. Natural Objects in Youssef Ziedan’s Azazeel: An Environmental Perspective”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M.S. Abu Baker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a new reading of Youssef Ziedan’s Azazeel by examining natural objects (trees, seas, rocks, predators, birds, and landscapes respectively and applying ecocriticism and Freudian as well as Jungian insights. The study of natural objects yields interesting results: For instance, in Azazeel, trees symbolize peace, security, natural home [oikos], surrogate good mother, and immortality. The sea, in contrast, pretends to be a good mother generating a sense of security and tranquility but is a terrible mother, deceptive, cunning, and fatal. The article explains the murders of Hypatia and Octavia, the actions of Cyril and his followers, Hypa’s reflections and actions from an environmental/ecocritical perspective. The final analysis reveals the way culture tries to separate the human from the non-human although they are supposed to be part of one harmonious ecological system and the need to stop seeing nature as dead/passive if we want to save planet earth from an environmental apocalyptic catastrophe.

  2. Environmental persistence of pesticides and their ecotoxicity: A review of natural degradation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Valderrama, Jhon Fredy; Palacio Baena, Jaime Alberto; Molina Perez, Francisco Jose

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are allochthonous pollutants discharged in natural environments. Once in the environment, natural factors such as biodegradation, photodegradation and chemical hydrolysis trigger partial or total pesticide transformation and reduce their environmental persistence. However, some degraded compounds have a greater ecotoxicological effect on the biota that the parent compounds and the change in the physicochemical properties increase the bioaccumulation, toxicity and transference processes. Therefore, knowledge about degradation processes in the environment is crucial in studies related to the dynamics and behavior of these substances in the environment and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This review aims to show the influence of natural degradation processes on the persistence of pesticides, their ecotoxicity and dynamics. Also discuss the application of the degradation processes in water treatment and pesticides removal. While biodegradation processes have been improved by using genetically engineered microorganisms, in the photodegradation has been applied advanced oxidation technologies (TAOS) in the treatment of water contaminated with pesticides.

  3. Natural cork agglomerate employed as an environmentally friendly solution for quiet sandwich composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargianis, James; Kim, Hyung-ick; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fiber-synthetic foam core sandwich composites are widely used for many structural applications due to their superior mechanical performance and low weight. Unfortunately these structures typically have very poor acoustic performance. There is increasingly growing demand in mitigating this noise issue in sandwich composite structures. This study shows that marrying carbon fiber composites with natural cork in a sandwich structure provides a synergistic effect yielding a noise-free sandwich composite structure without the sacrifice of mechanical performance or weight. Moreover the cork-core sandwich composites boast a 250% improvement in damping performance, providing increased durability and lifetime operation. Additionally as the world seeks environmentally friendly materials, the harvesting of cork is a natural, renewable process which reduces subsequent carbon footprints. Such a transition from synthetic foam cores to natural cork cores could provide unprecedented improvements in acoustic and vibrational performance in applications such as aircraft cabins or wind turbine blades.

  4. Natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface -- essential information for environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchid, M.; Grasty, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental impact study is basically a study of change. This change is compared to the preexisting conditions that are usually perceived to be the original one or the 'pristine' stage. Unfortunately reliable information on the 'so called' pristine stage is far from adequate. One of the essential parts of this information is a good knowledge of the earth's chemical make up, or its geochemistry. Presently available data on the geochemistry of the earth's surface, including those related to radioactive elements, are incomplete and inconsistent. The main reason why a number of regulations are judged to be too strict and disproportional to the risks that might be caused by some human activities, is the lack of reliable information on the natural global geochemical background on which environmental regulations should be based. The main objective of this paper is to present a view on the need for complete baseline information on the earth's surface environment and in particular its geochemical character. It is only through the availability of complete information, including reliable baseline information on the natural radioactivity, that an appropriate study on the potential effect of the various naturally occurring elements on human health be carried out. Presented here are a number of examples where the natural radioactivity of an entire country has been mapped, or is in progress. Also described are the ways these undertakings were accomplished. There is a general misconception that elevated radioactivity can be found only around uranium mines, nuclear power reactors and similar nuclear installations. As can be seen from some of these maps, the natural background radioactivity of the earth's surface closely reflects the underlying geological formations and their alteration products. In reality, properly regulated and managed facilities, the levels of radioactivity associated with many of these facilities are generally quite low relative to those associated with

  5. Effects of Vicarious Experiences of Nature, Environmental Attitudes, and Outdoor Recreation Benefits on Support for Increased Funding Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Namyun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vicarious experiences of nature, environmental attitudes, and recreation benefits sought by participants on their support for funding of natural resources and alternative energy options. Using a national scenic trail user survey, results demonstrated that vicarious experiences of nature influenced environmental…

  6. A literature review of connectedness to nature and its potential for environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, Brian; Conrad, Elisabeth

    2015-08-15

    Understanding how people's relationships with nature form, how they influence personal values and attitudes, and what behavioural implications they may have could provide more insight into how connectedness to nature (CNT) can effectively contribute to environmental management goals. This paper undertakes a review of literature published over the past decade (2002-2011) on SCOPUS; and describes the current state of knowledge regarding CNT, assesses any efforts towards the spatial mapping of CNT for environmental management, and identifies measures of CNT defined in the broader literature. This review suggests that there is quite some overlap in the literature on CNT concepts, and that more effort needs to be made towards multi-disciplinary research which explores how CNT can be useful to environmental planning and conservation research on the field. It also further corroborates the need and relevance of applying more social and affective strategies to promote conservation behaviour. The main progress in CNT theory seems to have been made in the development of measurement tools, and it is clear that there is a strong convergent validity amongst the different measures due to their similarity, and functional associations. Further efforts towards the exploration of multi-dimensional measures is recommended since they consistently stand out as showing better results. The geographic visualisation of CNT constructs is another area of research that deserves attention since it can provide a unique point of view towards guiding participatory protected area planning and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Natural resource risk and cost management in environmental restoration: Demonstration project at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascietto, J.J.; Sharples, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is both a trustee for the natural resources present on its properties and the lead response agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As such, DOE is addressing the destruction or loss of those resources caused by releases of hazardous substances from its facilities (DOE 1991) and collecting data to be used in determining the extent of contamination at its facilities, estimating risks to human health and the environment, and selecting appropriate remedial actions. The remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process is used to investigate sites and select remedial actions. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process may be used to determine whether natural resources have also been injured by the released hazardous substances and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In FY 1994, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was chosen to serve as a demonstration site for testing the integrated NRDA framework and demonstrating how NRDA concerns might be integrated into the environmental restoration activities of an actual site that is characteristically large and complex. The demonstration project (1) provided a means to illustrate the use of complex analyses using real information on the specific natural resources of the SRS; (2) served as a vehicle for reinforcing and expanding the SRS staff's understanding of the links between the NRDA and RI/FS processes; (3) provided a forum for the discussion of strategic issues with SRS personnel; and (4) allowed the refining and elaboration of DOE guidance by benchmarking the theoretical process using real information and issues

  8. Radiation education by means of the measurement of natural environmental radiation in Tono region, Gifu prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Haruo; Yoshida, Yasuo; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Obayashi, Haruo

    1999-01-01

    The Tono region is placed in the south-east of Gifu prefecture. In this region, there is a plan of construction of the Research and Education Park. As the center facility of the park, the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has started their research activities. The Plasma Research Committee of Toki-city has been organized by the board of education of Toki-city for about 20 years. The committee is mainly composed of science teachers of elementary school, junior high school and high school in the area. The committee has measured continuously the natural environmental background radiations in cooperation with NIFS. Its activities started before constructing the NIFS laboratory buildings. Now, the new measuring points in Tajimi-city and Mizunami-city are added to the points in Toki-city area, therefore, some teachers join as the new members of the committee. In this conference, we present. (1) Plasma Research Committee of Toki-city; its history, organization and activities. (2) Obtained data of the natural environmental radiation in Toki-city. (3) Example lecture taken in natural radiation, its results and the farther issues. (author)

  9. Early natural stimulation through environmental enrichment accelerates neuronal development in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus is the primary afferent into the hippocampal formation, with important functions in learning and memory. Granule cells, the principle neuronal type in the dentate gyrus, are mostly formed postnatally, in a process that continues into adulthood. External stimuli, including environmental enrichment, voluntary exercise and learning, have been shown to significantly accelerate the generation and maturation of dentate granule cells in adult rodents. Whether, and to what extent, such environmental stimuli regulate the development and maturation of dentate granule cells during early postnatal development is largely unknown. Furthermore, whether natural stimuli affect the synaptic properties of granule cells had been investigated neither in newborn neurons of the adult nor during early development. To examine the effect of natural sensory stimulation on the dentate gyrus, we reared newborn mice in an enriched environment (EE. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that dentate granule cells from EE-reared mice exhibited earlier morphological maturation, manifested as faster peaking of doublecortin expression and elevated expression of mature neuronal markers (including NeuN, calbindin and MAP2 at the end of the second postnatal week. Also at the end of the second postnatal week, we found increased density of dendritic spines across the entire dentate gyrus, together with elevated levels of postsynaptic scaffold (post-synaptic density 95 and receptor proteins (GluR2 and GABA(ARγ2 of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Furthermore, dentate granule cells of P14 EE-reared mice had lower input resistances and increased glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic inputs. Together, our results demonstrate that EE-rearing promotes morphological and electrophysiological maturation of dentate granule cells, underscoring the importance of natural environmental stimulation on development of the dentate gyrus.

  10. Metasploit penetration testing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a Cookbook style with recipes explaining the steps for penetration testing with WLAN, VOIP, and even cloud computing. There is plenty of code and commands used to make your learning curve easy and quick.This book targets both professional penetration testers as well as new users of Metasploit, who wish to gain expertise over the framework and learn an additional skill of penetration testing, not limited to a particular OS. The book requires basic knowledge of scanning, exploitation, and the Ruby language.

  11. Environmental control by means of studying the natural areas with nuclear physics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkina, A.P.; Glukhov, G.G.; Rezchikov, V.I.; Shelud'ko, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    Element composition of precipitation accumulated in natural areas (snow, peat) is investigated by neutron activation technique using nuclear reactor. Content of microelements (Fe, Co, Sc, Au, Hg, Sb, Br, Na) is determined in both maximal contamination industrial area and at a distance more, than 40 km from the area. Snow cover and peat occurrence are shown to be convenient substrates to investigate contamination of the industrial centre vicinities in space and time. Standard development of MPC (maximum permissible concentration) contents of industrial dust ingredients, especially toxic ones, in these substrates allows to solve quickly many problems raised by environmental monitoring. 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  12. Accumulation of uranium by filamentous green algae under natural environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleissa, K.A.; Shabana, El-Said K.; Al-Masoud, F.L.S.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity of algae to concentrate uranium under natural environmental conditions is measured by a-spectrometry. Spirogyra, a filamentous green fresh-water alga, has concentrated uranium from a surface concrete ponds with elevated uranium levels (140-1140 ppb). The concentration factors (CFs) ranged from 8.9-67 with an average value of 22. Cladophora spp, a filamentous green marine alga has concentrated uranium from the marine water with a concentration factor ranged from 220-280. The average concentration factor was 250. The factors affecting the sorption process are discussed in detail. (author)

  13. Radiochemical techniques for determining some naturally occurring radionuclides in marine environmental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C W [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Fisheries Lab.

    1984-06-15

    The determination of some of the naturally-occurring, alpha-emitting radionuclides in marine environmental materials, is of interest for several reasons. Radium and radon nuclides are potentially useful as oceanographic tracers. Lead and thorium nuclides may be used to study sedimentation rates, mixing processes and bioturbation in sediments. Radium and polonium nuclides are incorporated into food chains and the data may provide a perspective against which to assess the significance, for marine organisms, of exposure to radiation in a marine radioactive waste disposal situation. This paper discusses the manner in which samples are taken, and the radiochemical methods which have been employed to measure the nuclides, together with some data produced.

  14. Preliminary results of measurement of natural environmental radiation levels and doses to population in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiliang; He Miaoting; Shu Qi

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the preliminary results of measurement of natural environmental radiation levels in China with RSS-111 high pressure ionization chamber and estimated doses to population are reported. A total of 2,723 indoor locales throughout China were measured. The results showed that the average absorbed dose rates in air due to gamma radiation for indoors and outdoors were 11.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 and 7.4 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively, and those due to cosmic rays were 3.2 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 and 3.7 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively. The annual average effective dose equivalent to population was 919 μSv, including 630 μSv from natural gamma radiation and 289 μSv from cosmic rays

  15. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental and economic benefits of natural gas use for pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, P.R.; Berkau, E.E.; Schnelle, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the primary goals of this research effort was to document and compare the economic and environment benefits of using natural gas for pollution control in boilers, furnaces and internal combustion engines, with conventional control technologies. The study indicated that replacement of 15% of the coal used in coal-fired boilers employed in the generation of electric power in the US, with natural gas, would considerably reduce the emissions of acid rain precursors such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides, and do so in a cost-effect manner. The reductions achieved were also in concordance with the reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions mandated by the new Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990. The combustion of natural gas would also produce less carbon dioxide as compared to the combustion of coal with an equivalent amount of heat content. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, i.e., it is believed to play a major role in global warming. Natural gas technology therefore presents a cost-effective step in the eventual mitigation of two of the main environmental problems presently facing us, acid rain, and global warming

  17. Penetration testing with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Berdeaux, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    If you are an expert Perl programmer interested in penetration testing or information security, this guide is designed for you. However, it will also be helpful for you even if you have little or no Linux shell experience.

  18. penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISS), penetrating ... ileus, reduced pulmonary function and loss of muscle mass and function, all of .... pathophysiology and rehabilitation. ... quality of life after surgery for colorectal cancer.

  19. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  20. Photosynthetic performance of restored and natural mangroves under different environmental constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovai, André Scarlate; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pagliosa, Paulo Roberto; Scherner, Fernando; Torres, Moacir Aluísio; Horta, Paulo Antunes

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that the photosynthetic performance of mangrove stands restored by the single planting of mangroves species would be lowered due to residual stressors. The photosynthetic parameters of the vegetation of three planted mangrove stands, each with a different disturbance history, were compared to reference sites and correlated with edaphic environmental variables. A permutational analysis of variance showed significant interaction when the factors were compared, indicating that the photosynthetic parameters of the restoration areas differed from the reference sites. A univariate analysis of variance showed that all the photosynthetic parameters differed between sites and treatments, except for photosynthetic efficiency (α ETR ). The combination of environmental variables that best explained the variations observed in the photosynthetic performance indicators were Cu, Pb and elevation disruptions. Fluorescence techniques proved efficient in revealing important physiological differences, representing a powerful tool for rapid analysis of the effectiveness of initiatives aimed at restoring coastal environments. -- Highlights: •Photosynthetic efficiency of natural and restored mangroves are compared. •Natural stands present higher photosynthetic performance. •Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination. •Chlorophyll a fluorescence is a useful indicator to assess short-term restoration. -- Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination

  1. Photosynthetic performance of restored and natural mangroves under different environmental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovai, André Scarlate, E-mail: rovaias@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Barufi, José Bonomi, E-mail: jose.bonomi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Botânica, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Pagliosa, Paulo Roberto, E-mail: paulo.pagliosa@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Geociências, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Scherner, Fernando [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Laboratório de Ficologia, Campus Universitário, Dois Irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Torres, Moacir Aluísio, E-mail: moatorres@cav.udesc.br [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Engenharia Ambiental, Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Av Luiz de Camões 2090, Conta Dinheiro, 88520-000 Lages, SC (Brazil); Horta, Paulo Antunes, E-mail: pahorta@ccb.ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Botânica, Campus Universitário, Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); others, and

    2013-10-15

    We hypothesized that the photosynthetic performance of mangrove stands restored by the single planting of mangroves species would be lowered due to residual stressors. The photosynthetic parameters of the vegetation of three planted mangrove stands, each with a different disturbance history, were compared to reference sites and correlated with edaphic environmental variables. A permutational analysis of variance showed significant interaction when the factors were compared, indicating that the photosynthetic parameters of the restoration areas differed from the reference sites. A univariate analysis of variance showed that all the photosynthetic parameters differed between sites and treatments, except for photosynthetic efficiency (α{sub ETR}). The combination of environmental variables that best explained the variations observed in the photosynthetic performance indicators were Cu, Pb and elevation disruptions. Fluorescence techniques proved efficient in revealing important physiological differences, representing a powerful tool for rapid analysis of the effectiveness of initiatives aimed at restoring coastal environments. -- Highlights: •Photosynthetic efficiency of natural and restored mangroves are compared. •Natural stands present higher photosynthetic performance. •Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination. •Chlorophyll a fluorescence is a useful indicator to assess short-term restoration. -- Photosynthetic performance of mangroves is reduced due to Cu and Pb contamination.

  2. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  3. THE EXPERIENCE IN NATURAL-ECONOMIC ZONING OF THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RECREATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Vorobyova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studying and mapping of natural-economic zoning of the Republic of Buryatia for development of recreational environmental management. Regions with different structure of natural territorial complexes, which were modified to some extent by economic activity, were identified. Also were allocated 8 recreational areas, characterized by different set of recreational activities and different perspectives of development which should be considered as priority sites of environmental assessment and monitoring.

  4. CARRYING CAPACITY MODEL OF FOOD MANUFACTURING SECTORS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FROM USING ENVIRONMENTAL AND NATURAL RESOURCES OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to assess and rank environmental problems caused by production within the food manufacturing sector of Thailand. The factors used to calculate the real benefit included the costs of natural resources, energy and transportation, fertilizer and pesticides, and sanitary and similar service. The highest environmental cost in terms of both natural resources materials and energy and transportation was ice, while the highest environmental cost for fertilizer and pesticides was coconut and palm oil. Confectionery had the highest environmental cost for sanitary and similar services. Overall, real estate gained the highest real benefit, while repair not classified elsewhere had the lowest real benefit for the company. If Thailand uses an indicator of environmental harm, especially within the food manufacturing sector, it could help to formulate efficient policies and strategies for the country in three areas of development, which are social, economic, and environmental development.

  5. Potential environmental and regulatory implications of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The immense volume of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) wastes produced annually by extracting industries throughout the world deserves to come to the attention of international and national environmental protection agencies and regulatory bodies. Although a great deal of work has been done in the fields of radiation protection and remedial actions concerning uranium and other mines, the need to dispose of diffuse NORM wastes will have environmental and regulatory implications that thus far are not fully appreciated. NORM wastes constitute, by and large, unwanted byproducts of industrial activities as diverse as thorium and uranium milling, niobium, tin and gold mining extraction, water treatment, and the production of oil, gas, phosphate fertilizer, coal fire and aluminium. The volumes of NORM wastes produced annually could reach levels so high that the existing low level radioactive waste (LLRW) facilities would be readily occupied by NORM if controlled disposal procedures were not adopted. On the other hand, NORM cannot just be ignored as being below radiological concern (BRC) or lower than exempt concentration levels (ECLs), because sometimes NORM concentrations reach levels as high as 1 x 10 3 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, and not much less for 228 Ra. Unfortunately, thus far, there is not enough information available concerning NORM wastes in key industries, though the international scientific community has been concerned, for a long time now, with technologically enhanced natural radiation exposures (TENRE). This article is written with the intention of examining, to the extent possible, the potential environmental and regulatory implications of NORM wastes being produced in selected industries. (Author)

  6. Environmental and economic evaluation of natural capital appropriation through building construction: practical case study in the Italian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Galli, Alessandro; Pulselli, Riccardo Maria; Niccolucci, Valentina

    2007-11-01

    This paper focuses on appropriation of natural capital through construction of buildings. The ecological footprint and the Costanza natural capital concepts are applied. The environmental consequences of human settlement are currently of great concern, and a need is felt to reduce the impact of building on the environment. The embodied energy of building materials and the "land area" required to sustain their production are considered to evaluate the demand on nature of this activity. The ecological footprints of 2 typical Italian buildings are compared. The paper also focuses on how to reduce the natural capital appropriation of building construction by means of environmentally inexpensive materials, renewable energy resources, and optimization of the use of bioproductive land by construction of multistoried buildings. Finally, to allocate an environmental load of buildings, an economic evaluation of natural capital appropriation through building construction is proposed.

  7. Environmental diagnosis of the Monument Natural Pedra do Cachorro, Pernambuco, Brazil | Diagnóstico ambiental do Monumento Natural Pedra do Cachorro, Pernambuco , Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivide Benício Soares

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Unit Monument Natural Pedra do Cachorro, located in Pernambuco Agreste, helped to increase the representativeness of the Caatinga legally protected in the state of Pernambuco, reconcile the preservation of biological diversity and the use of natural resources with ecotourism and tourism adventure already developed in the region with great potential for expansion. This protected area was established by a state decree in 2014, but were not realized, until now, environmental diagnostics to characterize the natural environment of this area, nor was it prepared its management plan. The objective of this work is then present the main environmental characteristics of the Monument Natural Pedra do Cachorro, regarding the physical and biotic environment. It is expected also that this text will serve as a basis for further technical studies to be conducted in this Conservation Unit.

  8. Is Formal Environmental Education Friendly to Nature? Environmental Ethics in Science Textbooks for Primary School Pupils in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increased interest in ecology, global warming and numerous environmental problems, ecological issues are becoming extremely important in education. Many researchers and thinkers believe that solutions to environmental problems are affected by the environmental ethics adopted. This article identifies which of the three branches of…

  9. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64 %), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  10. Study on Penetration Characteristics of Tungsten Cylindrical Penetrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Hyun; Lee, Young Shin; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Woon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The design of missile require extremely small warheads that must be highly efficient and lethal. The penetration characteristics of each penetrator and the total number of penetrators on the warhead are obvious key factors that influence warhead lethality. The design of the penetrator shape and size are directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. The design of the penetrator L/D was directly related to the space and weight of the warhead. L and D are the length and the diameter of the projectile, respectively. The AUTODYN-3a code was used to study the effect of penetrator penetration. The objective of numerical analysis was to determine the penetration characteristics of penetrator produced by hypervelocity impacts under different initial conditions such as initial velocity, obliquity angle and L/D of penetrator. The residual velocity and residual mass were decreased with increasing initial impact velocity under L/D{<=}4.

  11. Towards Understanding and Managing Sustainable Complex, Dynamic Environmental/Economic/Social Systems - The Evolving Role of the Natural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically the natural sciences have played a major role in informing environmental management decisions. However, review of landmark cases like Love Canal, NY and Times Beach, MO have shown that the value of natural science information in decision making can be overwhelmed by ...

  12. Penetration portion shielding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Handa, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Jun; Tozuka, Fumio.

    1994-01-01

    Openings of a plurality of shieldings for penetration members are aligned to each other, and penetration members are inserted from the openings. Then, the openings of the plurality of shielding members are slightly displaced with each other to make the penetration portions into a helical configuration, so that leakage of radiation is reduced. Upon removal of the members, reverse operation is conducted. When a flowable shielding material is used, the penetration portions are constituted with two plates having previously formed openings and pipes for connecting the openings with each other and a vessel covering the entire of them. After passing the penetration members such as a cable, the relative position of the two plates is changed by twisting, to form a helical configuration which reduces radiation leakage. Since they are bent into the helical configuration, shielding performance is extremely improved compared with a case that radiation leakage is caused from an opening of a straight pipe. In addition, since they can be returned to straight pipes, attachment, detachment and maintenance can be conducted easily. (N.H.)

  13. On the concept and legal nature of sustainable development: Does 'environmental law' exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prica Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of sustainable development has developed within the triangular framework of economic, social and environmental policy. It has been the result of man's endeavor in the course of development of mankind to harmonize the relations between economy and ecology for the purpose of satisfying the present needs but without endangering the prospects of future generations to satisfy their own needs. The principle of sustainable development has been present in the international legislation for the past 40 years. The antagonism between economy and ecology has never ceased. Quite the reverse, at the beginning of the 21st century, mankind has encountered the dramatic effects of the rampant global politics and the unpromising prospects of man's subsistence and development. The reason is certainly to be found in the fact that the environment protection policy does not have an adequate legal framework, which is not a matter of legal technique but a matter of substance in global politics. Consequently, this discussion on the legal nature of sustainable development takes us from technique to substance. First, the author analyzes the international legislation and judicature on the issues of sustainable development; thereupon, the author concludes that the principle of sustainable development has not obtained the rank and the outreach of a legal principle (source of law in the international law, which ultimately makes the very existence of environmental law highly disputable. If sustainable development as a fundamental principle (supra-principle does not have the power of a binding principle, the existing international legal sources concerning certain aspects of the living environment are nothing but arable land covered by sand. Actually, the significant feature of the existing international sources on sustainable development is 'the legal ideology' which, being an instrument of environmental policy rather than an instrument of environmental law, actually

  14. The Effects of In-Nature and Virtual-Nature Field Trip Experiences On Proenvironmental Attitudes and Behaviors, And Environmental Knowledge Of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferderbar, Catherine A.

    To develop sustainable solutions to remediate the complex ecological problems of earth's soil, water, and air degradation requires the talents and skills of knowledgeable, motivated people (UNESCO, 1977; UNESCO, 2010). Researchers historically emphasized that time spent in outdoor, nature activities (Wells & Lekies, 2006), particularly with an adult mentor (Chawla & Cushing, 2007), promotes environmental knowledge and nature-relatedness, precursors to environmental literacy. Research has also demonstrated that technology is integral to the lives of youth, who spend 7:38 hours daily (Rideout, et al., 2010), engaged in electronics. Educators would benefit from knowing if in-nature and virtual-nature field trip experiences provide comparable levels of knowledge and connectedness, to nurture student proenvironmentalism. To investigate field trip phenomena, the researcher studied the impact of virtual-nature and in-nature experiences during which students analyzed water quality along Midwestern rivers. The quasi-experimental, mixed method convergent parallel design with a purposeful sample (n=131) of middle school students from two Midwestern K-8 schools, utilized scientist participant observer field records and narrative response, written assessment aligned to field trip content to evaluate knowledge acquisition. To gain insight into student environmental dispositions, participant observers recorded student comments and behaviors throughout field trips. A survey, administered Pre-Treatment, Post-Treatment 1 and Post-Treatment 2, focused on family water-related behaviors and student perceptions of the need for local government water protection. The findings demonstrated both field trips increased content knowledge significantly, with large effect size. Content knowledge gain from one experience transferred to and was augmented by the second experience. Skill gain (technical and observational) varied by type of field trip and did not transfer. Technical skill was often

  15. Environmental education as preparation people for life in conditions of global changes imbalanced Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Teacher Training Centre in Skierniewice is one of 49 public, accredited institutions in Poland. It is responsible for organizing of support of schools, institutions, networks of teachers and school managers for cooperation and self education, organizing and conducting forms of in-service training, giving methodological councils and disseminating examples of good practice. I present one example of how Environmental Education has been imparted to school students and their teachers through outdoor activities as part of the learning process. An Environmental Education Program, 'On Bolimov Nature Preserve Trails' has been organized regularly since 2001. The Bolimov Nature Preserve is a protected area in central Poland, situated between two agglomerations: capital city Warsaw to the East and industrial city Lodz to the West. It was established to protect an unique ecosystem on the Rawka River banks from human activity and harmful external factors. Pine tree forests, small streams, wetlands, glades are another elements of the park scenery. Walks on the park's trails are a great opportunity to see unique species of flora (more than 40 protected species and many endangered species on verge of extinction) and fauna. For teachers and students the Bolimov Nature Preserve offers educational lessons and events. The main activity is participation of students and teachers in group walk along trails of the park using various tools of orientation: maps, compasses and GPS. Along the paths they learn recognition of forms of terrain, identification of living species (using flora&fauna guides, magnifying glasses), measuring components of weather (using weather atlases, thermometers, anemometers) as well as preparation of soil profile. A survey is conducted after each such program. A statistical analysis of the survey data reveals that each year more and more students representing all levels of education from primary to upper secondary levels and their teachers are involved

  16. On the Path to SunShot - The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Monetizing the environmental health benefits of solar could add ~3.5¢/kWh to the value of solar energy (see Wiser et al. 2016). The monetary impacts due to environmental degradation and public health impacts seem far removed from the apparent “sticker price” of electricity. Yet quantifying these impacts is essential to understanding the true costs and benefits of solar and conventional generating technologies. Compared with fossil fuel generators, PV and CSP produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Achieving the SunShot-level solar deployment targets—14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050—could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238–$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0–2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (¢/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4¢/kWh-solar—while also preventing 25,000–59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, the estimated 3.5¢/kWh-solar in benefits due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional LCOE reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, water savings from achieving the SunShot goals, could result in the 2015–2050 cumulative savings of 4% of total power-sector withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector consumption—a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. Improving public health and the environment is but one aspect of solar’s many costs and benefits. Clearly, however

  17. Quantifying the health and environmental benefits of wind power to natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCubbin, Donald; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2013-01-01

    How tangible are the costs of natural gas compared to the benefits of one of the fastest growing sources of electricity – wind energy – in the United States? To answer this question, this article calculates the benefits of wind energy derived from two locations: the 580 MW wind farm at Altamont Pass, CA, and the 22 MW wind farm in Sawtooth, ID. Both wind farms have environmental and economic benefits that should be considered when evaluating the comparative costs of natural gas and wind energy. Though there are uncertainties within the data collected, for the period 2012–2031, the turbines at Altamont Pass will likely avoid anywhere from $560 million to $4.38 billion in human health and climate related externalities, and the turbines at Sawtooth will likely avoid $18 million to $104 million of human health and climate-related externalities. Translating these negative externalities into a cost per kWh of electricity, we estimate that Altamont will avoid costs of 1.8–11.8 cents/kWh and Sawtooth will avoid costs of 1.5–8.2 cents/kWh. - Highlights: ► This study compares the benefits of wind energy with natural gas. ► The Altamont Pass windfarm will avoid $560 million to $4.38 billion in externalities. ► The Sawtooth wind farm will produce about $18 million to $104 million in human health and climate benefits. ► Natural gas prices rise by 1.5–11.8 cents/kWh if they include the cost of such externalities.

  18. Tourists’ Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Response to Climate Change and Tourist Experiences in Nature-Based Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism destinations—locations in which economic viability and environmental responsibility are sought—are sensitive to climate change and its effects on important environmental components of the tourism areas. To meet the dual roles, it is important for destination marketers and resources managers to provide quality experiences for tourists and to induce tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior in such destinations. This study documents the importance of perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences in determining tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior while enjoying holidays at nature-based tourism destinations in Jeju Island, South Korea. Two hundred and eleven Korean and 204 Chinese tourists marked dominant tourist arrivals to the island, and responded to the survey questionnaire. Results showed that perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences affect Korean tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior intentions, whereas tourist experiences—not perceptions toward climate change—only significantly affect Chinese tourists’ behavior intention. In a nature-based tourism context under the pressure of climate change and adverse environmental effects as consequences of tourism activities, resources managers and destination marketers need to develop environmental campaigns or informative tourist programs to formulate environmentally responsible behavior as well as to increase tourist quality experiences among domestic and international tourists.

  19. The study of environmental carrying capacity for sustainable tourism in Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park, Dieng Plateu, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melat Aryasa, Alexander; Nur Bambang, Azis; Muhammad, Fuad

    2017-06-01

    The increasing in quantity of the tourists visiting Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park, Dieng Plateau, Central Java, can cause a potential threat toward the conservation sustainability of the tourist attraction and the surrounding area. The utilization of conservation area for tourist attraction has to be carried out based on the principal of Environmental Carrying Capacity so that it will not affect the ecosystem. This study aims to determine the value of Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park environmental carrying capacity as a conservation area used for tourism activities. The environmental carrying capacities calculated in this study were physical carrying capacity, real carrying capacity, and effective carrying capacity. Results of this research show that the physical carrying capacity of The Telaga Warna Telaga Pengilon Nature Park was 31,302 visitors, the real capacity was 869 visitors/day and the effective carrying capacity was 579 visitors/day. Thus, the sustainable tourism development strategy is needed to manage the everlasting natural resources.

  20. VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTAL PATHS AS A MEANS OF ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN NATURAL RESERVES OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Korbut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovate conception of virtual ecological paths as a foremost edition for ecotourism and attendance’s preparation in specially protected natural sites. It’s has a vital importance for remote and sensible ecosystems. The virtual ecological paths will be able to important stage of environmentalization of awareness on the base of modern technologies of elicitation, data processing and storage of information. The need to move Russia on the way of sustainable development, including in the tourism and recreation sector, has identified ecotourism as the most promising direction of tourism development. The problems of development ecotourism in Russia, the role of local and regional governments in the empowerment of ecotourism and its information support are considered.

  1. Policies of natural Resources Management and Environmental Economic Advantages - Attractions in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrim Selimaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem management is a recent alternative policy proposed by the Kosovo government to address a new generation of environmental issues. All Kosovo agency managements are currently exploring the concept of ecosystem management and their implications. Their activities are focused in the management of land and natural resources, by developing policy guidelines regarding the management of the ecosystem and the efforts undertaken that are only one layer of a larger phenomenon nationwide. Similar activities occur at the state and local levels, as well as within the NGO sector. In this sense, this paper addresses two questions: What is the policy of ecosystem management? Would Ecosystem management remain only a land management policy and resource?

  2. Environmental legislation as a tool for improvement on the natural gas market; Legislacao ambiental como ferramenta de implementacao do mercado do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterno, Nadia Taconelli [Iqara Energy Services Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Coordenacao de Meio Ambiente

    2004-07-01

    The main goal of this work is to present the terms of the environmental law that may positively purport the use of natural gas. The work contains a historical overview, followed by the current policy that will most likely guide the nowadays and future trends. Some legal provisions were included in the work for reference purposes only. (author)

  3. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    1999-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have various forms as the sources of terrestrial environmental γ radiation and of radon and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. We have selected Ikeda mineral spring district, Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tottori pref., Muro district, Hachibuse district, Nara pref. and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref. for HBRA, and Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref. as CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides. Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used with cellulose nitrate as solid state track detector. Rn-222 concentrations in air at Misasa spa ranged 2 - 150 Bq/m 3 outdoor and 8 - 194 Bq/m 3 indoor. Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa district, Asahi district and Takeda district geologically formed from granite strata are high, and those on Osika district and Mitoku district formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt) are low level. Rn-222 concentration variations in well water used as drinking water were 2 - 138 Bq/l (mean value 31 Bq/l) and those in ground waters varied from non detectable to 4620 Bq/l (mean 875 Bq/l) on sampling time and places. Mean Rn-222 concentration in the spring water at Arima spa area, Hyogo prefecture is 26 Bq/l at Tansan spring source and the other spring sources are comparatively low level. (J.P.N.)

  4. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  5. Skull penetrating wound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Orlandi, Yvei; Junco Martin, Reinel; Rojas Manresa, Jorge; Duboy Limonta, Victor; Matos Herrera, Omar; Saez Corvo, Yunet

    2011-01-01

    The cranioencephalic trauma is common in the emergence centers to care for patients with multiple traumata and it becames in a health problem in many countries. Skull penetrating trauma is located in a special place due to its low frequency. In present paper a case of male patient aged 52 severely skull-injured with penetrating wound caused by a cold steel that remained introduced into the left frontotemporal region. After an imaging study the emergence surgical treatment was applied and patient evolves adequately after 25 days of hospitalization. Nowadays, she is under rehabilitation treatment due to a residual right hemiparesis.(author)

  6. Environmental analysis of natural gas life cycle; Analisi ambientale del ciclo di vita del gas naturale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, A.; D' Angelosante, S.; Trebeschi, C. [Snam SpA, Rome (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is a method aimed at identifying the environmental effects connected with a given product, process or activity during its whole life cycle. The evaluation of published studies and the application of the method to electricity production with fossil fuels, by using data from published databases and data collected by the gas industry, demonstrate the importance and difficulties to have reliable and updated data required for a significant life cycle assessment. The results show that the environmental advantages of natural gas over the other fossil fuels in the final use stage increase still further if the whole life cycle of the fuels, from production to final consumption, is taken into account. [Italian] L'analisi del ciclo di vita e' una metodologia che consente di identificare gli effetti ambientali associati ad un prodotto, processo o attivita' lungo il loro ciclo di vita. La valutazione di studi pubblicati e l'applicazione della metodologia alla produzione di energia elettrica da combustibili fossili, utilizzando dati provenienti da banche dati di letteratura e raccolti dall'industria del gas, dimostrano l'importanza e la difficolta' di avere a disposizione dati affidabili ed aggiornati, necessari per un'analisi significativa del ciclo di vita. I risultati mostrano che i vantaggi ambientali del gas naturale rispetto agli altri combustibili fossili nella fase di utilizzo finale, aumentano ulteriormente se si considera l'intero ciclo di vita dei diversi combustibili, dalla produzione al consumo finale.

  7. NATO Advanced Research Workshop: Application of Natural Microporous Materials to the Environmental Technology. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this proceedings About 80 people from Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, U.K., Turkey, Ukraine, U.S.A. and Slovakia took part in the workshop. 56 reports had been presented. from which 19 reports deals with the scope of INIS. The purpose of the workshop was the critical assessment of the current developments in the field of utilization of natural microporous materials (zeolites, clays, oxides) for the solution of problems related to the toxic and nuclear waste management, the water pollution control and decontamination, the environmental catalysis associated to the atmospheric pollution, the creation of new materials for energy storage and agricultural management including the development of artificial soils for plant growth in the space. Of especial importance for this meeting was the exchange of information and know-how among specialists working in institutions of NATO and Cooperation Partner countries aiming in the development of common strategies for the solution of environmental problems and the promotion of the further scientific and technological collaboration. Nineteen papers deals with the using of microporous materials for separation of radionuclides

  8. Economic and Environmental Evaluation and Optimal Ratio of Natural and Recycled Aggregate Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Ghanbari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady increase in overexploitation of stone quarries, generation of construction and demolition waste, and costs of preparing extra landfill space have become environmental and waste management challenges in metropolises. In this paper, aggregate production is studied in two scenarios: scenario 1 representing the production of natural aggregates (NA and scenario 2 representing the production of recycled aggregates (RA. This study consists of two parts. In the first part, the objective is the environmental assessment (energy consumption and CO2 emission and economic (cost evaluation of these two scenarios, which is pursued by life-cycle assessment (LCA method. In the second part, the results of the first part are used to estimate the optimal combination of production of NA and RA and thereby find an optimal solution (scenario for a more eco-friendly aggregate production. The defined formulas and relationship are used to develop a model. The results of model validation show that the optimal ratio, in optimal scenario, is 50%. The results show that, compared to scenario 1, optimal scenario improves the energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and production cost by, respectively, 30%, 36%, and 31%, which demonstrate the effectiveness of this optimization.

  9. Natural resources - food nexus: food-related environmental footprints in the mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  10. Radiological safety and environmental implications in beach mineral industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, P.M.B.; Haridasan, P.P.; Maniyan, C.G.; Khan, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of monazite (primary ore of Thorium) along with ilmenite and other minerals in the beach sand deposits of coastal regions of South India has made some of these coastal areas prominent among Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) in the world. The beach mineral industries are situated in populated areas in these NHBRAs. The radiation background prevailing in these areas due to the presence of the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) Thorium with traces of Uranium and their decay products had been found to result in estimated percaput annual external exposures ranging from 3 to 25 mSv to the population at NHBRA depending on the monazite content of the soil in the area. The internal exposures estimated are of the order of 1 to 2 mSv per year. The mining of minerals and refilling of the mined out areas with mineral free sand and rehabilitation of the area is found to reduce the external radiation fields by a factor of 3. The notional environmental external radiation exposures to the population occupying this modified NHBRA also reduce correspondingly. (author)

  11. Environmental Radioactivity from Natural, Industrial and Military Sources. 4th Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Steve

    1998-09-01

    Merril Eisenbud's series of books on environmental radioactivity have long had a place on the bookshelves of those involved with the environmental aspects of radiation protection. They provide authoritative coverage of the subject including sources, transport mechanisms and effects. The first edition, published in 1963, was naturally mostly concerned with the effects of nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. The second edition, published in 1977, reflected the then expansive phase of nuclear power development worldwide and included an extensive treatment of the nuclear fuel cycle and its contributions to environmental radioactivity. In 1987 the third edition included coverage of the Three Mile Island accident and the Chernobyl accident against the background of cessation of new orders for nuclear plant in the United States. The fourth edition is a major revision with a lot of new material, and the welcome adoption of SI units throughout. The principal additions to the new edition are chapters on environmental surveillance, radiological assessment and dose reconstruction, and the remediation of contaminated sites; nothing has been lost from the extensive coverage of other topics in the third edition, whilst the text and bibliography have been revised and brought up to date. Earlier editions of the book have provided good summaries of accidents which have resulted in environmental contamination, and the updating here results in more extensive and up-to-date coverage of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents, including the more recent evidence of health effects from the latter, together with new sections on the Palomares nuclear weapons accident in Spain, the Mayak/Chelyabinsk complex in Russia, and the accidents involving lost gamma radiation sources in Juarez, Mexico and Goiania, Brazil. Both here and in the extensive coverage of contamination at the USDoE production sites the new edition reflects and benefits from the increased public availability

  12. Nature-Based Solutions in the EU: Innovating with nature to address social, economic and environmental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Nicolas; Fritz, Marco; Freitas, Tiago; de Boissezon, Birgit; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy. Nature-Based Solutions can be an opportunity for innovation, and are here promoted by both policymakers and practitioners as a cost-effective way of creating a greener, more sustainable, and more competitive economy. Since 2013, the European Commission has devoted particular attention to Nature-Based Solutions through consultations and dialogues that sought to make the concept of these solutions more concrete and to define the concept's place within the spectrum of ecosystem-based approaches. In 2014, the Commission launched an expert group, which conducted further analysis, and made recommendations to help increase the use of Nature-Based Solutions and bring nature back into cities. In 2015, a survey was conducted on citizens' views and perceptions of 'Nature in Cities' to provide further insight for future work. Based on these elements and on results from running EU projects, the Commission has developed an R&I agenda for Nature-Based Solutions and has published targeted calls for proposals for large-scale demonstration projects in this field in 2016 and 2017. Additional R&I actions at EU level that promote systemic Nature-Based Solutions and their benefits to cities and territories are planned with the aim to improve the implementation capacity and evidence base for deploying Nature-Based Solutions and developing corresponding future markets. They are also expected to foster an interdisciplinary R

  13. On the Path to SunShot. The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Solar Penetrations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Compared with fossil fuel generators, photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In this report, we monetize the emission reductions from achieving the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot deployment goals: 14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050. We estimate that achieving these goals could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238-$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0-2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (cents/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4 cents/kWh-solar--while also preventing 25,000-59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, this estimated combined benefit of 3.5 cents/kWh-solar due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional levelized cost of electricity reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, the analysis shows that achieving the SunShot goals could save 4% of total power-sector water withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector water consumption over the 2015-2050 period--a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. These results have potential implications for policy innovation and the economic competitiveness of solar and other generation technologies.

  14. Natural disaster-induced environmental migration from the Indian subcontinent resulting in malaria outbreak in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrouli, Maria; Mavroulis, Spyridon; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theofano; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hydrometeorological disasters such as floods and hurricanes can severely damage human life, natural and built environment and economic development. Consequently, they can result in environmental migration (EM). In case of infectious disease (ID) outbreaks during the post-disaster period and subsequent EM, environmental refugees from endemic regions serve as ID carriers to their new residence sites altering the spatial ID distribution and incidence. The continuous massive influx of environmental refugees from malaria endemic regions to non-endemic ones can build up a parasite reservoir among naive host populations. Initially, serum specimens were collected in 2012 from asymptomatic individuals, 298 Greeks and 721 immigrants residing in areas of documented local malaria transmission in Laconia (Southern Peloponnese) and in Eastern Attica, Greece. Sera were tested for antibodies against Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum using the Malaria-Ab ELISA (IBL International GMBH, Hamburg, Germany). Taking into account that Greece has been declared malaria free by the WHO since 1974, we conducted an extensive and systematic literature review related to natural disasters leading among others to increased malaria risk in Indian Subcontinent and respective forced EM in order to detect relative possible causes of reintroduction and localized outbreaks of malaria in Greece. Regarding the country of origin, information was available for 685 (95%) of the 721 immigrants. Of the 678 immigrants from Indian Subcontinent, 627 (92.5%) originated from Pakistan, 24 (3.53%) Afghanistan, 24 (3.53%) India and 3 (0.44%) Bangladesh. Of the 721 immigrants, 582 and 124 resided in Laconia and Eastern Attica respectively. Seventy-one immigrants residing in Laconia and 14 in Eastern Attica were positive for antimalarial antibodies, while none of the 298 Greeks residing in Laconia (N=248) and Attica (N=50) was found positive. Based on already published scientific data, Pakistan has been exposed

  15. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  16. a Study on the Introduction of Total Natural Resources Management System Using the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Lee, K.; Jang, R.; Jeon, S.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  17. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF TOTAL NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION VALUE ASSESSMENT MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hwang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  18. Exergic, economic and environmental impacts of natural gas and diesel in operation of combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi Khoshkar Vandani, Amin; Joda, Fatemeh; Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigating the effect of natural gas and diesel on the power plant performance. • Exergy, economic and environmental evaluation of a combined cycle power plant. • Using life cycle assessment (LCA) to perform the environmental evaluation. • Optimizing the power plant in terms of exergy and economic. • Better performance of natural gas with respect to diesel. - Abstract: Combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) play an important role in electricity production throughout the world. Their energy efficiency is relatively high and their production rates of greenhouse gases are considerably low. In a country like Iran with huge oil and gas resources, most CCPP’s use natural gas as primary fuel and diesel as secondary fuel. In this study, effect of using diesel instead of natural gas for a selected power plant will be investigated in terms of exergy, economic and environmental impacts. The environmental evaluation is performed using life cycle assessment (LCA). In the second step, the operation of the plant will be optimized using exergy and economic objective functions. The results show that the exergy efficiency of the plant with natural gas as fuel is equal to 43.11%, while this efficiency with diesel will be 42.03%. Furthermore, the annual cost of plant using diesel is twice as that of plant using natural gas. Finally, diesel utilization leads to more contaminants production. Thus, environmental effects of diesel are much higher than that of natural gas. The optimization results demonstrate that in case of natural gas, exergy efficiency and annual cost of the power plant improve 2.34% and 4.99%, respectively. While these improvements for diesel are 2.36% and 1.97%.

  19. Environmental ethics and evolution. Origins and limits of an ethical attitude towards nature. Umweltethik und Evolution. Herkunft und Grenzen moralischen Verhaltens gegenueber der Natur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strey, G [Goettingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Erziehungswissenschaften

    1989-01-01

    In the discussion about environmental problems, ethical aspects are gaining weight. The evolution of mankind has so far been playing a minor role in this respect. The discussions in the book focus on the fact that man in his racial history has developed certain behavioural dispositions, and on the origin of patterns to interpret life. Insight into the racial history embodied in man contributes to sober understanding of the way he deals with nature; at the same time, it opens up new questions and answers to environmental ethics. The theoretical discussion makes use of examples from every-day life. (orig./HSCH).

  20. Constructing, Consuming, and Complicating the Human-Nature Binary: Communication Practices in Forest Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This project combines interdisciplinary conversations within the field of communication to examine environmental meaning systems and communication practices in the context of forest environmental education. Due to concerns over children's environmental alienation, there has been a continued push toward place-based environmental education. One such…

  1. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Siren

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an ...

  2. Opportunities for high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.; Hansen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is today a mature technology, which at windy locations, is economically competitive to conventional power generation technologies. This and growing global environmental concerns have led governments to encourage and plan for wind energy development, a typical aim being 10% of electricity...... consumption. The successful operation of the three major power systems of Cape Verde, with a total wind energy penetration of about 15% since December 1994, demonstrates that power systems can be operated with high penetration of wind energy by adding simple control and monitoring systems only. Thorough...... analyses conclude that expanding to even above 15% wind energy penetration in the Cape Verde power systems is economical. Worldwide, numerous locations with favorable wind conditions and power systems similar to the Capeverdean provide good opportunities for installing wind farms and achieving high wind...

  3. Characteristics of lead(II) adsorption onto "Natural Red Earth" in simulated environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatantila, K.; Vithanage, M. S.; Seike, Y.; Okumura, M.

    2011-12-01

    Lead is considered as a non-biodegradable and potentially toxic heavy metal and it is found as a common environmental pollutant. Adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) onto natural iron and aluminum coated sand, which is called Natural Red Earth (NRE), have been studied to ascertain the effect of pH, ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature and time. Lead(II) adsorption achieved its maximum adsorption of nearly 100% at neutral to slightly acidic conditions. The optimum pH was nearly 5.5 and 6.5 for 2.41 and 24.1 μmol/L initial Pb(II) concentrations, respectively. Lead(II) adsorption was independent of 100 fold variation of ionic strength (0.001 - 0.1), indirectly evidencing dominance of an inner-sphere surface complexation mechanism for 10 fold variation of initial Pb(II) concentrations (2.41 and 24.1 μmol/L). Adsorption edges were quantified with a 2pK generalized diffuse double layer model considering two site types, >FeOH and >AlOH, for Pb(II) binding. The modeling results better fit with the mixture of monodentate and bidentated binding of Pb(II) onto >FeOH site and bidentate binding of Pb(II) onto >AlOH site. The intrinsic constants obtained were log KFeOPb=13.93, log K(FeO)2Pb=11.88 and log K(AlO)2Pb=13.21. Time required to reach the equilibrium was also increase from 15 min to 1hr with increasing Pb(II) concentrations from 2.41 to 24.1 μmol/L. Kinetic data fitted better to pseudo second order kinetic model. Lead(II) adsorption onto NRE was better explained by Two-site Langmuir isotherm with sorption maximum of 1.39x10-2 and 2.30x10-3 mol/kg for two sites with different affinities. Negative Gibbs free energy values indicated spontaneity of Pb(II) adsorption onto NRE, and entropy and enthalpy of adsorption were 124.04 J/K mol and 17.71 KJ/mol, respectively. These results suggested that the NRE could be effectively used as a low cost candidate for removal of Pb(II) from environmental water, since use of low cost materials to treat

  4. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  5. Python penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Python programmer or a security researcher who has basic knowledge of Python programming and want to learn about penetration testing with the help of Python, this book is ideal for you. Even if you are new to the field of ethical hacking, this book can help you find the vulnerabilities in your system so that you are ready to tackle any kind of attack or intrusion.

  6. Environmental costs associated to the electric generation: hydroelectric versus natural gas thermoelectric; Custos ambientais associados a geracao eletrica: hidreletricas versus termeletricas a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Marcelo de Miranda

    2001-01-15

    This works presents the methodologies for valuation of the environmental costs resulting from the main damages of the cycles of electric energy arrange through hydroelectric and natural gas thermoelectric. Initially theoretical concepts are established, embracing: the description of the valuation methodologies, the possible ways of damages internalization in the value of the products, the environmental impacts of hydroelectric and natural gas thermoelectric in these fuel cycles, and the methodologies that can be applied for value the main damages caused by the impacts. Then case studies are developed, with application of the methodologies in the hydroelectric plants of Simplicio and Serra da Mesa, and in the thermoelectric complex composed for RioGen and RioGen Merchant plants. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for a better future application in Brazil of the valuation methodologies are presented. (author)

  7. The differences in transformation mechanism in natural and anthropogenic PAH in environmental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navai, A.I.; Abasova, D.R.; Suleymanov, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : In present time, with the large reliability the established fact, that the majority of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons acting in an environment as from natural (fires, volcanic activity etc.) and from anthropogenesis (emissions of the industrial enterprises, the exhaust gases of automobiles etc.) sources, have carcinogenic activity. Toxicity and persistence of PAH and also their significant prevalence and their ability to be accumulated in an environment, cause necessity of the constant control most harmful polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a various wide spectrum of natural matrixes - air, water, ground adjournment, ground, vegetative and animal fabrics and secretion, products of a meal. From natural sources creating a background level by PAH, is possible to note their synthesis from some plants and microorganisms, wood fires, volcanic activity and meteoric dust and etc. Anthropogenesis PAH pollution an environmental, the problem carries global character. PAH are formed as collateral products at processes of high-temperature processing of organic raw material, mainly, on oil refining, by-product-coking industry, aluminium manufactures. One of the basic sources of pollution PAH of an environment is the vehicle exhaust gases of automobiles are revealed more than 150 PAH. A significant role in PAH formation play aircraft and navigation. It is impossible to exclude an opportunity of pollution of an environment by components PAH, around and along transport pipelines. The reason to this can be oils outflow during transportation or clearing of pipelines. In the publications there is information on presence PAH in Absheron oils. But this information is not sufficient for PAI components specification. We carried out polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons research's in oils structure of Absheron peninsula. At the first were investigated the average oils samples, which have taken from Surakhani oilfield. In Surakhani oils were found the following PAH components (in

  8. Assessment of environmental impact models in natural occurring radionuclides solid wastes disposal from the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May Braga Dulley

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of wastes with naturally occurring radionuclides as generated by the mineral industry and their final disposal in landfills. An integrated methodology is used to predict the performance of an industrial landfill for disposal of wastes containing NORM/TENORM, and to define acceptable amounts that can be disposed at the landfill using long-term environmental assessment. The governing equations for radionuclide transport are solved analytically using the generalized integral transform technique. Results obtained for each compartment of the biogeosphere are validated with experimental results or compared to other classes of solutions. An impact analysis is performed in order to define the potential consequences of a landfill to the environment, considering not only the engineering characteristics of the waste deposit but also the exposure pathways and plausible scenarios in which the contaminants could migrate and reach the environment and the human population. The present work permits the development of a safety approach that can be used to derive quantitative waste acceptance criteria for the disposal of NORM/TENORM waste in landfills. (author)

  9. Women are underrepresented on the editorial boards of journals in environmental biology and natural resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa H. Cho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite women earning similar numbers of graduate degrees as men in STEM disciplines, they are underrepresented in upper level positions in both academia and industry. Editorial board memberships are an important example of such positions; membership is both a professional honor in recognition of achievement and an opportunity for professional advancement. We surveyed 10 highly regarded journals in environmental biology, natural resource management, and plant sciences to quantify the number of women on their editorial boards and in positions of editorial leadership (i.e., Associate Editors and Editors-in-Chief from 1985 to 2013. We found that during this time period only 16% of subject editors were women, with more pronounced disparities in positions of editorial leadership. Although the trend was towards improvement over time, there was surprising variation between journals, including those with similar disciplinary foci. While demographic changes in academia may reduce these disparities over time, we argue journals should proactively strive for gender parity on their editorial boards. This will both increase the number of women afforded the opportunities and benefits that accompany board membership and increase the number of role models and potential mentors for early-career scientists and students.

  10. Acid drainage (AD) in nature and environmental impact of acid mine drainage (AMD) in Southern Tuscany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lella, Luigi Antonello; Protano, Giuseppe; Riccobono, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Acid drainage (AD) is a natural process occurring locally at the Earth's surface. It consists in a substantial increase of acidity of surface waters as a result of chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere (i.e. acid rain) or involving reactive phases (i.e. pyrite) present in the percolated medium. Acidic surface waters (usually pH < 4) can be produced by oxidation of sulphides (mainly pyrite and other iron sulphides) exposed to atmospheric oxygen, while human activities, such as mining, can greatly enhance this process. Acid drainage promoted by mining activities is called acid mine drainage (AMD) and is a primary source of environmental pollution and a world-wide problem in both active and abandoned mining areas. In fact, exposure of iron sulphides to oxidising conditions produces strongly acidic drainage waters rich in sulphate and a variety of heavy elements (i.e. As, Cd, Pb, Sb). Several occurrences of active acid mine drainage have been found in the Metalliferous Hills (southern Tuscany). The most important AMD phenomena were observed in the Fenice Capanne and Niccioleta mining areas

  11. Global Environmental Micro Sensors Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ADAMS

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available ENSCO, Inc. is developing an innovative atmospheric observing system known as Global Environmental Micro Sensors (GEMS. The GEMS concept features an integrated system of miniaturized in situ, airborne probes measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and vector wind velocity. In order for the probes to remain airborne for long periods of time, their design is based on a helium-filled super-pressure balloon. The GEMS probes are neutrally buoyant and carried passively by the wind at predetermined levels. Each probe contains on-board satellite communication, power generation, processing, and geolocation capabilities. ENSCO has partnered with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Kennedy Space Center (KSC Weather Office for a project called GEMS Test Operations in the Natural Environment (GEMSTONE. The goal of the GEMSTONE project was to build and field-test a small system of prototype probes in the Earth’s atmosphere. This paper summarizes the 9-month GEMSTONE project (Sep 2006 – May 2007 including probe and system engineering as well as experiment design and data analysis from laboratory and field tests. These tests revealed issues with reliability, sensor accuracy, electronics miniaturization, and sub-system optimization. Nevertheless, the success of the third and final free flight test provides a solid foundation to move forward in follow on projects addressing these issues as highlighted in the technology roadmap for future GEMS development.

  12. The myth of natural barriers. Is transgene introgression by genetically modified crops an environmental risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Vincenzo; Benessia, Alice; Camino, Elena; Barbiero, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops under open field conditions are a complex and controversial issue. Ecologists are discussing about the possibility that a transgene belonging to GM plants could spread to native populations through a process known as introgression the stable incorporation of a gene in the host genome able to generate a differentiated population. The ecological consequences of a transgene introgression in plants or bacteria are not yet well understood, but could be significant. In this critical review we consider vertical and horizontal introgression. We analyse the biochemical and genetic constraints, and environmental factors that limit the possibility of transgene spread; meanwhile we show cases in which the natural barriers are overcome. Then we discuss the overall management of GM crops, noting the shortcomings and approximations of risk assessment based on linear thinking typical of the biomolecular approach. Finally we suggest to explicitly weight facts together with values and we encourage the undertaking of an ecological perspective, encompassing the complexity of (non-linear) relations between organisms and the environment.

  13. Natural radionuclides in environmental media: a review of natural levels of radioactivity and background radiation levels and an assessment of factors affecting these levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature has been carried out to assemble the information available on the levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides in environmental media in the UK. Some data from other countries are included for comparison. The data are compiled on the basis of geographical origin into five main sectors: air; waters; vegetation; soils, rocks and sediments; and foodstuffs. A summary table is provided for each main section. (author)

  14. An Exemplary Environmental Education Progam in Poland - Walks on the Bolimov Nature Preserve Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Teacher Training Centre in Skierniewice is one of 49 public, accredited institutions in Poland carrying out it statutory goals at the regional level. It has been operating since 1989 and is responsible for organizing of support of schools, institutions, networks of teachers and school managers for cooperation and self-education, organizing and conducting various forms of in-service training, giving methodological councils and disseminating examples of good practice. I present one example of how Environmental Education has been imparted to school students and their teachers through outdoor activities as part of the learning process. An Environmental Education Program, 'On Bolimov Nature Preserve Trails' has been organized regularly since 2001. The Bolimov Nature Preserve is a protected area in central Poland, situated between two agglomerations: capital city Warsaw to the East and industrial city Lodz to the West, covering an area of 231,3 sq kilometers. It was established in 1986 to protect an unique ecosystem on the Rawka River banks from human activity and harmful external factors. Pine tree forests cover more than 60% of the landscape park. Small streams, sloughs, glades are another elements of the park scenery. Walks on the trails in this park are a great opportunity to see many unique species of flora (more than 40 protected species and many endangered species on verge of extinction) and fauna. For teachers and students the Bolimov Nature Preserve offers educational lessons and events in cooperation with other institutions e.g. Regional Teacher Training Centre in Skierniewice. The main activity of the walks is participation of students and teachers in group walk along trails of the park using various tools of orientation: maps, compasses and nowadays GPS. Along the paths they learn recognition of forms of terrain, identification of species of plants and animals (using flora & fauna guides and keys, magnifying glasses), measuring and identification

  15. Penetrating power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guilizzoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of revealing the presence and identifying the nature of conductive targets is of central interest in many fields, including security, medicine, industry, archaeology and geophysics. In many applications, these targets are shielded by external materials and thus cannot be directly accessed. Hence, interrogation techniques are required that allow penetration through the shielding materials, in order for the target to be identified. Electromagnetic interrogation techniques represent a powerful solution to this challenge, as they enable penetration through conductive shields. In this work, we demonstrate the power of resonant electromagnetic induction imaging to penetrate through metallic shields (1.5-mm-thick and image targets (having conductivities σ ranging from 0.54 to 59.77 MSm−1 concealed behind them.

  16. Finding common ground: environmental ethics, social justice, and a sustainable path for nature-based health promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Jessica Yun; Lincoln  Larson

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment’s capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the...

  17. Transforming participatory science into socioecological praxis: valuing marginalized environmental knowledges in the face of the neoliberalization of nature and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Burke; Nik Heynen

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science and sustainability science promise the more just and democratic production of environmental knowledge and politics. In this review, we evaluate these participatory traditions within the context of (a) our theorization of how the valuation and devaluation of nature, knowledge, and people help to produce socio-ecological hierarchies, the uneven...

  18. Importance of Environmental Education in Socio-Natural Risk Management in Five Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Melizza Ordóñez-Díaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering environmental education as a social tool allowing individuals to achieve a significant knowledge of the inhabited environment, to reduce the probability of occurrence of a disaster, and to respond to the presence of natural phenomena to which people are vulnerable, this article aims to generate a space for reflection on the importance of environmental education in the management of the social and natural risk in five countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. For this purpose, the paper presents a descriptive review of primary and secondary bibliographical sources referring to the performance of the management of social and natural risks related to environmental education in Colombia, Nicaragua, Mexico, Chile, and Jamaica between 1994 and 2015. In this period, a solid administrative and legislative organization of this management and environmental education is evident, but these two themes are clearly separated when implementing citizen projects: a situation that has generated shortcomings in the management of natural disasters, specifically under the principles of precaution and prevention. For this reason, this article offers a series of recommendations that include the dissemination of information, the creation of centers for the management of risk reduction, the strengthening of communication strategies, and the establishment of response plans and post-disaster recovery.

  19. The de-greening of the Netherlands. Results of 10 years of nature and environmental policy of the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Biggelaar, A.; Duyvendak, W.

    2001-09-01

    The results of an analysis and evaluation of 10 years of environmental policy in the Netherlands are presented. The evaluation includes the ecological quality of nature in the Netherlands, acidifying deposition, energy consumption in the Netherlands per sector, data on traffic and transport, land use by the agricultural sector and in general [nl

  20. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    2000-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have influences various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental γ radiation and of radon in to the human life environment and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. The environmental radiation is higher than that of the other on the west Japan where generally consist rich of granite strata. We deeply appreciate in regard to natural radiation and would carry the studies on the movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides on high background radiation area consisted rich granite strata. We have selected and observed on Ikeda mineral spring district Ota-shi Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tohaku-gun, Tottori pref. on Chugoku area, Muro district Uda-gun, Hachibuse district, Nafa-shi Nara pref., and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref., Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. on Kinki area and Masutomi spa, Koma-gun, Yamanashi pref., for HBRA, and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref., for CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides, and reported these results on following; (1) Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors which are easy handling in spite of need of long sampling period, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell with 300 ml volume by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used cellulose nitrate (LR-115 type II, Kodak Co.) as solid state track detector. Among these characteristics of radon monitors, though minimum detectable limit of cup method for 3 months sampling is higher than those by the other method, it is able to measure mean Rn-222 concentration for 3 months. Rn-222 concentration by pico-rad method is able to get briefly mean concentration for 24 hours, is small detector and many sample are

  1. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  2. Metabolic network modeling of microbial interactions in natural and engineered environmental systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio ePerez-Garcia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We review approaches to characterize metabolic interactions within microbial communities using Stoichiometric Metabolic Network (SMN models for applications in environmental and industrial biotechnology. SMN models are computational tools used to evaluate the metabolic engineering potential of various organisms. They have successfully been applied to design and optimize the microbial production of antibiotics, alcohols and amino acids by single strains. To date however, such models have been rarely applied to analyze and control the metabolism of more complex microbial communities. This is largely attributed to the diversity of microbial community functions, metabolisms and interactions. Here, we firstly review different types of microbial interaction and describe their relevance for natural and engineered environmental processes. Next, we provide a general description of the essential methods of the SMN modeling workflow including the steps of network reconstruction, simulation through Flux Balance Analysis (FBA, experimental data gathering, and model calibration. Then we broadly describe and compare four approaches to model microbial interactions using metabolic networks, i.e. i lumped networks, ii compartment per guild networks, iii bi-level optimization simulations and iv dynamic-SMN methods. These approaches can be used to integrate and analyze diverse microbial physiology, ecology and molecular community data. All of them (except the lumped approach are suitable for incorporating species abundance data but so far they have been used only to model simple communities of two to eight different species. Interactions based on substrate exchange and competition can be directly modeled using the above approaches. However, interactions based on metabolic feedbacks, such as product inhibition and synthropy require extensions to current models, incorporating gene regulation and compounding accumulation mechanisms. SMN models of microbial

  3. The effectiveness of a head-heart-hands model for natural and environmental science learning in urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J; Delacalle, Maia

    2018-02-01

    We describe an environmental and natural science program called Nurture thru Nature (NtN) that seeks to improve mathematics and science performance of students in disadvantaged communities, and to increase student interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) careers. The program draws conceptual guidance from the Head-Heart-Hands model that informs the current educational movement to foster environmental understanding and sustainability. Employing an experimental design and data from seven cohorts of students, we find some promising, albeit preliminary, indications that the program can increase students' science knowledge and grades in mathematics, science and language arts. We discuss the special adaptations that environmental and sustainability education programs need to incorporate if they are to be successful in today's resource depleted urban schools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.

    1993-04-01

    This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is a 30.1 year half-life man-made radionuclide produced in the past by atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Natural radioactivity was determined by measuring some radionuclides belonging to Th-232 and U-238 natural radioactive families, and of K-40 concentrations. Several types of soils from Southern Brazil; and soil samples, marine sediments, lichens, mosses and algae collected at King George and other nearby islands (South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica) were analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure radioactivity levels of the collected samples and its overall characteristics are analyzed in this work. (author)

  5. Should biodiversity and nature have to earn their keep? What it really means to bring environmental goods into the marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Donald S

    2018-05-01

    Pursuit of economic gain has sponsored much of our planet's despoliation. Yet conservation increasingly operates as an economic sector that markets biodiversity, ecosystems, and nature as natural capital, service provider, or option value. This essay first elucidates what basic moral theory says about the principle that the goodness of biodiversity and nature is largely economic. It explains why economic valuations may be morally unimportant, inapt for environmental goods, and subversive of more important ideals. It also shows why neither econometric notions of option value nor Daniel Faith's qualitative one credibly applies. The essay then turns to what an economic conception of goodness implies for conservation practice. It refers to two prominent conservation organizations, whose conservation principles match the market-based ones of the World Business Council on Sustainable Development's. The environmental record of the latter organization's practices according to these principles predicts what their adoption for conservation entails.

  6. Epiphytic lichen diversity in central European oak forests: Assessment of the effects of natural environmental factors and human influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, David; Peksa, Ondrej; Vesela, Jana

    2010-01-01

    We investigated lichen diversity in temperate oak forests using standardized protocols. Forty-eight sites were sampled in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The effects of natural environmental predictors and human influences on lichen diversity (lichen diversity value, species richness) were analysed by means of correlation tests. We found that lichen diversity responded differently to environmental predictors between two regions with different human impact. In the industrial region, air pollution was the strongest factor. In the agricultural to highly forested regions, lichen diversity was strongly influenced by forest age and forest fragmentation. We found that several natural factors can in some cases obscure the effect of human influences. Thus, factors of naturality gradient must be considered (both statistically and interpretively) when studying human impact on lichen diversity. - We detected the different responses of lichens to ecological predictors in polluted and unpolluted areas.

  7. Finding Common Ground: Environmental Ethics, Social Justice, and a Sustainable Path for Nature-Based Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Yun, Jessica; Larson, Lincoln

    2016-08-25

    Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment's capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the natural world. This discourse often centers on the complex interplay between the tangible and intangible benefits associated with nonhuman nature (e.g., green space), both of which are relevant to public health. When ecosystem degradation is coupled with socio-demographic transitions, additional concerns related to distributional equity and justice can arise. In this commentary, we explore how environmental ethics can inform the connection between the ecosystem services from green space and socially just strategies of health promotion.

  8. Penetrating ureteral trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo P. Fraga

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series is to report our experience in managing ureteral trauma, focusing on the importance of early diagnosis, correct treatment, and the impact of associated injuries on the management and morbid-mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1994 to December 2002, 1487 laparotomies for abdominal trauma were performed and 20 patients with ureteral lesions were identified, all of them secondary to penetrating injury. Medical charts were analyzed as well as information about trauma mechanisms, diagnostic routine, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: All patients were men. Mean age was 27 years. The mechanisms of injury were gunshot wounds in 18 cases (90% and stab wounds in two (10%. All penetrating abdominal injuries had primary indication of laparotomy, and neither excretory urography nor computed tomography were used in any case before surgery. The diagnosis of ureteric injury was made intra-operatively in 17 cases (85%. Two ureteral injuries (10% were initially missed. All patients had associated injuries. The treatment was dictated by the location, extension and time necessary to identify the injury. The overall incidence of complications was 55%. The presence of shock on admission, delayed diagnosis, Abdominal Trauma Index > 25, Injury Severity Score > 25 and colon injuries were associated to a high complication rate, however, there was no statistically significant difference. There were no mortalities in this group. CONCLUSIONS: A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of ureteral injuries. A thorough exploration of all retroperitoneal hematoma after penetrating trauma should be an accurate method of diagnosis; even though it failed in 10% of our cases.

  9. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  10. The nature of creativity: The roles of genetic factors, personality traits, cognitive abilities, and environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Angleitner, Alois; Spinath, Frank M; Borkenau, Peter; Penke, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This multitrait multimethod twin study examined the structure and sources of individual differences in creativity. According to different theoretical and metrological perspectives, as well as suggestions based on previous research, we expected 2 aspects of individual differences, which can be described as perceived creativity and creative test performance. We hypothesized that perceived creativity, reflecting typical creative thinking and behavior, should be linked to specific personality traits, whereas test creativity, reflecting maximum task-related creative performance, should show specific associations with cognitive abilities. Moreover, we tested whether genetic variance in intelligence and personality traits account for the genetic component of creativity. Multiple-rater and multimethod data (self- and peer reports, observer ratings, and test scores) from 2 German twin studies-the Bielefeld Longitudinal Study of Adult Twins and the German Observational Study of Adult Twins-were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded the expected 2 correlated aspects of creativity. Perceived creativity showed links to openness to experience and extraversion, whereas tested figural creativity was associated with intelligence and also with openness. Multivariate behavioral genetic analyses indicated that the heritability of tested figural creativity could be accounted for by the genetic component of intelligence and openness, whereas a substantial genetic component in perceived creativity could not be explained. A primary source of individual differences in creativity was due to environmental influences, even after controlling for random error and method variance. The findings are discussed in terms of the multifaceted nature and construct validity of creativity as an individual characteristic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Study of Penetration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    srecimens fabricated at the AFATL, AISI-01 oil quenched bar stock was used. Three of the projectiles used in the Eglin penetration experiments are shown...in the Mathema- tical Laboratory at Eglin AFB, is essencially a fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method for solving simultaneous differential...C9G. VEL. X-COMPo (M4/5): d!10. I oil 140. 107. 82. RmCC~kr’ED TIME OF MAXIftjM/MINIM94U COIL VOLTAGE tSI MAX 0040 A 55 *.03J04A 0 0 05ji6 .000634 MIN

  12. Deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Deutsch, O.L.; Booth, T.E.

    1980-04-01

    Several Monte Carlo techniques are compared in the transport of neutrons of different source energies through two different deep-penetration problems each with two parts. The first problem involves transmission through a 200-cm concrete slab. The second problem is a 90 0 bent pipe jacketed by concrete. In one case the pipe is void, and in the other it is filled with liquid sodium. Calculations are made with two different Los Alamos Monte Carlo codes: the continuous-energy code MCNP and the multigroup code MCMG

  13. A high-performance hydroxyl-functionalized polymer of intrinsic microporosity for an environmentally attractive membrane-based approach to decontamination of sour natural gas

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Shouliang; Ma, Xiaohua; Pinnau, Ingo; Koros, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Acid gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are important and highly undesirable contaminants in natural gas, and membrane-based removal of these contaminants is environmentally attractive. Although removal of CO2 from natural gas

  14. Development Of The Nuclear Optical Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.; Koike, K.; Imada, Y.

    1984-10-01

    We have developed the nuclear optical penetration to be incorporated in the wall penetration of the shell to introduce a data transmission system using optical fibers into a nuclear power plant with a pressurized water reactor. Radiation-induced coloration in optical glass seriously affects transmission characteristics of optical fibers, whereas it has been revealed that the pure-silica core optical fiber without any dopant in the core has wide applicability in radiation fields thanks to its very low radiation-induced attenuation. The wall penetration of the shell should have airtightness and resistivity to heat, vibration, and pressure, let alone radiation, excellent enough to be invariable in data transmission efficiency even when subjected to severe environmental tests. The sealing modules of this newly developed nuclear optical penetration are hermetically sealed. The gap between the optical fiber rod (100 pm in core diameter and 5 mm in rod diameter) and stainless steel tube is sealed with lamingted glass layer. As the result of He gas leakage test, high airtightness of less than 10 cc/sec was achieved. No thermal deformation of the core was caused by sealing with laminated glass layer, nor was observed transmission loss. Then the sealiing modules were subjected to the irradiation test using 60 Co gamma ray exposure of 2 x 10 rads. Though silica glass layer supporting the fiber rod and sealing glass portion turned blackish purple, transparency of the fiber was not affected. Only less than 0.5 dB of connecting loss was observed at the connecting point with the optical fiber cable. The sealing modules were also found to have resistivity to vibration and pressure as excellent as that of existing nuclear electric penetrations. We expect the nuclear optical fiber penetration will be much effective in improving reliability of data transmission systems using optical fibers in radiation fields.

  15. The concern for nature, a natural process for public policy? How to promote sustainable development in urban environmental agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Barrionuevo Mora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is a leader worldwide for its recognition of the Rights of Nature and the Rights of the City in its Constitution. In so far as Quito, its capital, has positioned itself among the first municipalities that have demonstrated their compliance with the international commitments on climate change, it is a relevant case study. From the experience of this city, we aim to identify the main factors that contribute to local government taking on a sustainability agenda. Although the national and international context influence on the positioning of such topics, such factors as leadership, the influence of international networks, the level of specialization of the bureaucratic apparatus and local regulations have permitted to include issues related to sustainable development in the public policy agenda and thus have given visibility to cities as relevant actors in the pursuit of sustainable development.

  16. The perception of naturalness correlates with low-level visual features of environmental scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G Berman

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that interacting with natural environments vs. more urban or built environments can have salubrious psychological effects, such as improvements in attention and memory. Even viewing pictures of nature vs. pictures of built environments can produce similar effects. A major question is: What is it about natural environments that produces these benefits? Problematically, there are many differing qualities between natural and urban environments, making it difficult to narrow down the dimensions of nature that may lead to these benefits. In this study, we set out to uncover visual features that related to individuals' perceptions of naturalness in images. We quantified naturalness in two ways: first, implicitly using a multidimensional scaling analysis and second, explicitly with direct naturalness ratings. Features that seemed most related to perceptions of naturalness were related to the density of contrast changes in the scene, the density of straight lines in the scene, the average color saturation in the scene and the average hue diversity in the scene. We then trained a machine-learning algorithm to predict whether a scene was perceived as being natural or not based on these low-level visual features and we could do so with 81% accuracy. As such we were able to reliably predict subjective perceptions of naturalness with objective low-level visual features. Our results can be used in future studies to determine if these features, which are related to naturalness, may also lead to the benefits attained from interacting with nature.

  17. Annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmantal sources. During 1977, the maximum neutron dose near the site boundary was 8.2 mrem. This represents about 8.2% of the annual dose from natural sources at this elevation, and 1.6% of the technical standard of 500 mrem per person annually

  18. Environmental hazards from natural hydrocarbons seepage: Integrated classification of risk from sediment chemistry, bioavailability and biomarkers responses in sentinel species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, Maura; Gorbi, Stefania; Fattorini, Daniele; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Piva, Francesco; Pacitti, Davide; Regoli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Potential effects of natural emissions of hydrocarbons in the marine environment have been poorly investigated. In this study, a multidisciplinary weight of evidence (WOE) study was carried out on a shallow seepage, integrating sediment chemistry with bioavailability and onset of subcellular responses (biomarkers) in caged eels and mussels. Results from different lines of evidence (LOEs) were elaborated within a quantitative WOE model which, based on logical flowcharts, provide synthetic indices of hazard for each LOE, before their integration in a quantitative risk assessment. Evaluations of different LOEs were not always in accordance and their overall elaboration summarized as Moderate the risk in the seepage area. This study provided first evidence of biological effects in organisms exposed to natural hydrocarbon emissions, confirming the limit of chemical characterization as stand-alone criteria for environmental quality assessment and the utility of multidisciplinary investigations to determine the good environmental status as required by Environmental Directives. -- Highlights: • Hazards from natural seepage were evaluated through a multidisciplinary WOE study. • Caged eels and mussels were chosen as bioindicator organisms. • Evaluations obtained from various LOEs were not always in accordance. • Biological effects of natural hydrocarbons release were demonstrated. • WOE approach could discriminate different levels of hazard in low impacted conditions. -- A multidisciplinary WOE study in a shallow coastal seepage summarized a Moderate level of risk based on integration of sediment chemistry with biological effects in caged organisms

  19. Natural variability of biochemical biomarkers in the macro-zoobenthos: Dependence on life stage and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduelli, Lucia; Giacchini, Roberto; Parenti, Paolo; Migliorati, Sonia; Di Brisco, Agnese Maria; Vighi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Biomarkers are widely used in ecotoxicology as indicators of exposure to toxicants. However, their ability to provide ecologically relevant information remains controversial. One of the major problems is understanding whether the measured responses are determined by stress factors or lie within the natural variability range. In a previous work, the natural variability of enzymatic levels in invertebrates sampled in pristine rivers was proven to be relevant across both space and time. In the present study, the experimental design was improved by considering different life stages of the selected taxa and by measuring more environmental parameters. The experimental design considered sampling sites in 2 different rivers, 8 sampling dates covering the whole seasonal cycle, 4 species from 3 different taxonomic groups (Plecoptera, Perla grandis; Ephemeroptera, Baetis alpinus and Epeorus alpicula; Tricoptera, Hydropsyche pellucidula), different life stages for each species, and 4 enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase). Biomarker levels were related to environmental (physicochemical) parameters to verify any kind of dependence. Data were statistically elaborated using hierarchical multilevel Bayesian models. Natural variability was found to be relevant across both space and time. The results of the present study proved that care should be paid when interpreting biomarker results. Further research is needed to better understand the dependence of the natural variability on environmental parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3158-3167. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. Interacting Environmental Stress Factors Affects Targeted Metabolomic Profiles in Stored Natural Wheat and That Inoculated with F. graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in environmental stress impact on secondary metabolite (SM production profiles. Few studies have examined targeted SM production patterns in relation to interacting environmental conditions in stored cereals. The objectives were to examine the effect of water activity (aw; 0.95–0.90 x temperature (10–25 °C on SM production on naturally contaminated stored wheat and that inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Samples were analysed using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS on (a total number of known SMs, (b their concentrations and (c changes under environmental stress. 24 Fusarium metabolites were quantified. Interestingly, statistical differences (ChisSq., p < 0.001 were observed in the number of SMs produced under different sets of interacting environmental conditions. The dominant metabolites in natural stored grain were deoxynivalenol (DON and nivalenol (NIV followed by a range of enniatins (A, A1, B, B1, apicidin and DON-3-glucoside at 10 °C. Increasing temperature promoted the biosynthesis of other SMs such as aurofusarin, moniliformin, zearalenone (ZEN and their derivatives. Natural wheat + F. graminearum inoculation resulted in a significant increase in the number of metabolites produced (ChisSq., p < 0.001. For ZEN and its derivatives, more was produced under cooler storage conditions. Fusarin C was enhanced in contrast to that for the enniatin group. The relative ratios of certain groups of targeted SM changed with environmental stress. Both temperature and aw affected the amounts of metabolites present, especially of DON and ZEN. This study suggests that the dominant SMs produced in stored temperate cereals are the mycotoxins for which legislation exists. However, there are changes in the ratios of key metabolites which could influence the relative contamination with individual compounds. Thus, in the future, under more extreme environmental stresses, different dominant SMs may be formed which could

  1. Messing with Mother Nature Can Be Hazardous to Your Health. Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Americans for Indian Opportunity, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    Environmental health impacts of development on Indian communities, and the roles of government agencies responsible for environmental protection and individual safety are being assessed by Americans for Indian Opportunity (AIO) during a two-year project. Although the more than 250 Indian tribes within the U.S. have federal guarantees for…

  2. Strategic environmental evaluation of natural gas - SEA/NG: a management tool for development of a environmental conservation policy; Avaliacao ambiental estrategica para o gas natural - AAE/GN: instrumento de gestao do desenvolvimento para uma politica de conservacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito; Turdera, Mirko Valenzuela; Silva, Paulo Souza; Benedetti Filho, Edemar; Santiago, Etenaldo Felipe; Costa, Fabio Edir dos Santos [Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Analise e Monitoramento Ambiental do Gas Natural (GASLAB); Moretti, Edvaldo; Oliveira, Jorge Eremites de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Freitas Filho, Jose Daniel de; Vieira, Maria Helena Pereira [Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Soares, Afranio Jose Soriano [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Henrique de; Comunello, Eder [EMBRAPA, Dourados, MS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Agropecuaria do Oeste (CPAO); Freire, Luiz G.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The methodology for a Strategic Environmental Evaluation of Natural Gas - SEA/NG incorporates within the analysis of the project the socio-cultural, economic, energetic and environmental implications of the transformations, due to the adoption of natural gas, in the area of influence of gas pipelines and gas-powered thermo-electric plants. It was based on the case study of a gas pipeline planned to reach the city of Dourados from Campo Grande, capital of the Brazilian State of Mato Grosso do Sul, which implied the construction of a thermoelectric plant in Dourados. The SEA/NG: 1. Defines the best alternative track for gas pipelines; 2. Proposes location alternatives for gas-powered thermo-electric plants; 3. Evaluates the cumulative and synergic effects of human activities in the socio-environmental aspects; 4. Studies the dynamics of regional development; 4. Supports urban planning decisions in cities housing gas-powered thermo-electric plants; 5. Proposes a System of Analysis and Environmental Monitoring for Natural Gas. Qualitative-quantitative matrixes were used to evaluate the cumulative and synergic effects of the adoption of natural gas within the regional energy matrix, determine the best alternative track for the gas pipeline proposed from Campo Grande to Dourados, and to identify the best location for a gas-powered thermo-electric plant. The matrixes integrated the areas of geology, hydrology, ecology and socio-economics issues both in the phases of construction and operation of the pipeline. Diagrams and interactive conceptual models were also used to synthesize the principal components involved in the choice of the best gas pipeline alternative track. This project received financial grants from PETROBRAS, MSGAS, TBG and FINEP. (author)

  3. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  4. Natural vs. Anthropogenic Contribution to Atmospheric Dust at Rural Site: Potential of Environmental Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, E.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.; Kotlik, B.; Zboril, R.; Korbelova, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic properties of environmental samples are very sensitive in detecting strongly magnetic compounds such as magnetite and maghemite and can help in assessing concentration and grain-size distribution of these minerals. This information can be helpful in estimating, e.g., the source of pollutants, monitoring pollution load, or investigating seasonal and climatic effects. We studied magnetic properties of particulate matter ( PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and TSP - total suspended particles), collected over 32-48 hours in a small settlement in south Bohemia during heating and non-heating season. The site is rather remote, with negligible traffic and industrial contributions to air pollution. Thus, the suggested seasonal effect should be dominantly due to local (domestic) heating, burning wood or coal. Our results show typical differences in PMx concentration, which is much higher in the winter (heating) sample, accompanied by SEM analyses and magnetic data oriented on concentration and grain-size distribution of magnetite/maghemite particles. While PM concentrations are significantly higher in winter, differeces between concentration of Fe-oxides in summer and winter are not that significant. In both summer and winter, more FeO was in coarser PM10 than in the finer fractions. This is in good agreement with SEM observations. Grain-size sensitive parameters are different for summer and winter PMx samples, suggesting different source of PMx. It seems that domestic heating does not produce significant amount of FeO oxides in this site, its contribution during heating season compensates for the decay from natural sources (and/or agriculture) during summer. Our results prove the high sensitivity of magnetic methods in terms of concentration of ferrimagnetic Fe-oxides. However, their potential to discriminate unambiguously their origin is still questioned. This study is supported by the Czech Science Foundation through grant #P210/10/0554.; Fig. 1. Relative enhancement (determined

  5. Method for purification of environmental objects, contaminated with radioactive substancesas a result of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, Kh.; Shiraliyeva, Kh.; Mirzayev, N.; Garibov, R.; Allahverdiyev, G.; Aliyeva, U.; Farajova, A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous sources of different radioactive substances, irradiating installations are used in many manufacturing, transportation, industrial, oil-producing, nuclear energy, sterilization and multi-purpose scientific research enterprises of Azerbaijan and the storage of radioactive waste and nuclear materials is built in the territory of special plant of the Ministry of Emergency Situations.Control of safety of operational procedures of the radioactive sources and samples of nuclear materials is carried out by the State Agency on Settlement of Nuclear and Radiological Activity at the Ministry of Emergency Situations. An increase in the concentration of inorganic and organic xenobiotics was observed in water samples taken from the transcontinental Araz River.The territory of Azerbaijan and Armenia is characterized by high seismic activity. Therefore, the occurrence of cases of anthropogenic catastrophe, the spread of radioactive substances, nuclear materials and waste on the territory of environmental objects, disturbance of tightness of installations on electricity generation from nuclear fuel in the Metsamor NPP, emission of radioactive fuel on the environment, pollution of grounds and water reservoirs by radioactive isotopes isn't excluded in case of natural disasters.Complex studies were conducted to determine the radioactive background, exposure dose rate, the radiation intensity of all types of radioactive radiation (α, β, γ, UV and X-rays) for purification of contaminated areas of the environment, soil, water reservoirs from radioisotopes. Complex organoleptic, radiochemical, analytical-chemical, physical-chemical and microbiological studies were carried out to study the chemical composition and degree of contamination of soil, water sources, vegetation by inorganic and organic xenobiotics and radioisotopes in all regions of the republic.Mineralization of water samples /evaporation/, soil /extraction with distilled water in a ratio of 1: 4, filtration

  6. Natural radioactivity in environmental samples from an island of volcanic origin (Milos, Aegean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florou, H.; Kritidis, P.

    1991-01-01

    Enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides occur in volcanic islands such as Milos in the Aegean Sea. The natural gamma radiation status of the entire environment in Milos were studied using gamma radiometry. Gamma spectrometry was used to analyse ore samples, sediments and marine biota. While non-living materials showed enhanced levels of natural radioactivity, most of the marine organisms examined did not seem to reflect this radiological status. (UK)

  7. Nature-based Tourism and the Valuation of its Environmental Resources: Economic and Other Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2004-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has grown in importance in recent decades, and strong links have been established between it and ecotourism. This reflects rising incomes, greater levels of educational attainment and changing values, especially in the Western world. Nature-based tourism is quite varied. Different types of such tourism are identified and their consequences for sustainability of their resource-base are briefly considered. The development and management of nature-based tourism involves many...

  8. Use of natural gas, methanol, and ethanol fuel emulsions as environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, V. A.; Lopatin, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    The need for using environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants (HPPs) is grounded. Ecologically friendly sources of energy, such as natural gas as well as renewable methyl and ethyl alcohols, are investigated. In order to develop, determine, and optimize the composition of environmentally friendly energy carriers for an HPP, the latter has been tested when working on diesel fuel (DF), compressed natural gas (CNG), and methanol and ethanol fuel emulsions (MFE, EFE). It has been experimentally established that, for the application of environmentally friendly energy carriers for a 4Ch 11.0/12.5 diesel engine of a mobile fuel and power plant, it is necessary to maintain the following ratio of components when working on CNG: 80% gas and 20% DF primer portion. When working on an alcohol mixture, emulsions of the following composition were used: 25% alcohol (methanol or ethanol), 0.5% detergent-dispersant additive succinimide C-5A, 7% water, and 67.5% DF. When this diesel passed from oil DF to environmentally friendly energy sources, it allowed for the reduction of the content of exhaust gases (EG) (1) when working on CNG with recirculation of exhaust gases (EGR) (recirculation was used to eliminate the increased amount of nitric oxides by using CNG): carbon black by 5.8 times, carbon dioxide by 45.9%, and carbon monoxide by 23.8%; (2) when working on MFE: carbon black by 6.4 times, nitrogen oxides by 29.6%, carbon dioxide by 10.1%, and carbon oxide by 47.6%; (3) when working on EFE: carbon black by 4.8 times; nitrogen oxides by 40.3%, carbon dioxide by 26.6%, and carbon monoxide by 28.6%. The prospects of use of environmentally friendly energy carriers in diesels of mobile HPPs, such as natural gas, ethanol, and methanol, has been determined.

  9. Environmental setting and natural factors and human influences affecting water quality in the White River Basin, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Baker, Nancy T.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Bayless, E. Randall; Jacques, David V.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1999-01-01

    The White River Basin drains 11,349 square miles of central and southern Indiana and is one of 59 Study Units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National WaterQuality Assessment Program. Defining the environmental setting of the basin and identifying the natural factors and human influences that affect water quality are important parts of the assessment.

  10. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Great commercial penetration testing tools can be very expensive and sometimes hard to use or of questionable accuracy. This book helps solve both of these problems. The open source, no-cost penetration testing tools presented do a great job and can be modified by the user for each situation. Many tools, even ones that cost thousands of dollars, do not come with any type of instruction on how and in which situations the penetration tester can best use them. Penetration Tester's Open Source Toolkit, Third Edition, expands upon existing instructions so that a professional can get the most accura

  11. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, March 1--June 1, 1976. [Fallout, natural radioactivity, and lead in environmental samples from USA, India, and Taiwan during 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    This report presents current data from the HASL environmental programs, the Air Monitoring Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Center in India, the Health Physics Section of the Institute of Nuclear Science in Taiwan and the Radiological and Environmental Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes on the history of long-range fallout, cesium-137 in Bombay milk, natural and fallout radioactivity in Indian diet, reporting results of radioactivity measurements at near zero levels of sample activity and background, plutonium in soil northeast of the Nevada Test Site, radon levels at the Lloyd, NY regional station, strontium-90 in New York and San Francisco diets through 1975, plutonium-239, 240 in 1974 diet, up-dating stratospheric radionuclide inventories to July 1975 and a revised table of radionuclides. Subsequent sections include tabulations of radionuclide levels in stratospheric air; lead and radionuclides in surface air; strontium-90 in deposition, milk, diet, tap water, and human bone; cesium-137 in Chicago foods in April 1976; and environmental radioactivity surveys for nuclear power plants in North Taiwan. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented.

  12. Determination of natural alpha-emitting isotopes of uranium and thorium in environmental and geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    It is described the complete radiochemical procedure used for the determination of uranium and thorium isotopes in environmental and geological samples by alpha spectrometry. Source preparation methods, alpha-counting and spectral analysis are also included

  13. Environmental Psychology” the mental benefits of physical activities in natural settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Practicing sports and physical activities has a huge positive impact on physiological and psychological wellbeing of individuals. Drawing from Environmental and Positive psychology, the idea presented in this paper highlight the even stronger psychological benefits related to training, exercising...

  14. Natural versus man-made forests as buffers against environmental deterioration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, E R.C.; Wood, P J

    1977-01-01

    Terms are defined, especially the degree of management of tropical moist forest (TMF) which is likely to produce significant environmental change. The changes in the environment reported in the literature due to transforming indigenous forest into man-made forest are described under separate heads: soil, water, water courses, climate, atmosphere, flora, fauna, amenity and recreation, and human societies. The economic consequences of conserving or protecting TMF are discussed. Phillips, Baurs, and Wadsworths classifications of TMF in terms of its potential to counter environmental deterioration are critically summarized and an approach to an improved method of assessment is suggested. This would be applied to environmental features in order of decreasing sensitivity to TMF conversion. Environmental subjects requiring further research are noted.

  15. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Zhou, X. D.; Yi, P.

    2014-01-01

    increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use...

  16. Physical Penetration Testing: A Whole New Story in Penetration Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Physical penetration testing plays an important role in assuring a company that the security policies are properly enforced and that the security awareness of the employees is on the appropriate level. In physical penetration tests the tester physically enters restricted locations and directly

  17. Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation: Mold-resistant Lonseal flooring--Lonseal, Inc., Lonwood Natural

    Science.gov (United States)

    The test program measured the mold resistance of Lonseal Lonwood Natural flooring. One additional ancillary test for emissions of VOCs and formaldehyde was performed. Lonwood Natural flooring is a sheet vinyl product with an embossed wood-grain texture. Constructed in multiple la...

  18. Natural Radioactivity Levels in Environmental Samples in North Western Desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Daly, A.; Hussein, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Soil and sediment samples were collected from North western desert of Egypt. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K. The hazard index due to these radionuclides has been calculated. The measurement results obtained from this study indicate that the region has background radioactivity levels within natural limits

  19. Improving air quality in large cities by substituting natural gas for coal in China: changing idea and incentive policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xianqiang; Guo Xiurui; Chang Yongguan; Peng Yingdeng

    2005-01-01

    Natural gas has long been used in China mainly as chemical raw material. With the increasing emphasis on urban air pollution prevention, the issue of natural gas substitution to coal has been raised in many large Chinese cities. This paper reviews the environmental-economic-technical rationality of dashing-for-gas in urban area, especially for civil use such as cooking and heating in China. Taking Beijing and Chongqing as study cases, a cost-benefit analysis of natural gas substitution is done and the ongoing economic and system barriers to natural gas penetration are analyzed. Indications of natural gas penetration incentive policy making are given finally

  20. Improving air quality in large cities by substituting natural gas for coal in China: changing idea and incentive policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xianqiang Mao; Yingdeng Peng

    2005-01-01

    Natural gas has long been used in China mainly as chemical raw material. With the increasing emphasis on urban air pollution prevention, the issue of natural gas substitution to coal has been raised in many large Chinese cities. This paper reviews the environmental - economic - technical rationality of dashing-for-gas in urban area, especially for civil use such as cooking and heating in China. Taking Beijing and Chongqing as study cases, a cost-benefit analysis of natural gas substitution is done and the ongoing economic and system barriers to natural gas penetration are analyzed. Indications of natural gas penetration incentive policy making are given finally. (author)

  1. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  2. Environmental benefits and economic rationale of expanding the Italian natural gas private car fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballardin, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    There are several concerns which bring to consider natural gas as a viable alternative to liquid fuels in transport. First, natural gas allows the curbing of global pollution in this steadily growing industry. Indeed, decoupling greenhouse gas emissions from transport growth has become a major issue in tackling climate change. Second, a more extensive use of natural gas would relieve city air quality, which is presently at levels harmful of human health. Nonetheless, this is just one side of the coin. The other side entails building a refuelling station network, and this carries financial requirements. The financing fraction holds a pivotal role in deciding whether natural gas for automotive purposes is an efficient solution. The final aim of this work is, therefore, to compare the natural gas advantages, stemming from avoided global and local emission, with the economic rationale of engaging in supplementary model network investments. A system dynamics model underlies this study's economic reasoning and is taken as reference for quantitative assertions. The model, named CH 4 CleanerAir, contains data referring to two scenarios: a Business As Usual Scenario and an Expansion Scenario. Simulation runs in Expansion Scenario serve to understand how gaseous pollution diminishes and network investments rise when the natural gas-fuelled fleet, as share of the total fleet, increases. Are new infrastructures needs compatible with existing refuelling facilities? What is the extent by which the natural gas-fuelled fleet can actually reduce global and local emission? The scenarios' gap analysis lead to the work's final considerations. The sounder reductions of gaseous pollutants in the last years of the considered time lag make the overall assessment lean towards a positive evaluation of natural gas employment in this industry. The beneficial effects of increasing the natural gas-fuel-led fleet take some time to unfold, but they eventually prevail. This study shows how natural

  3. Environmental water requirements of groundwater dependent ecosystems: conflict between nature and man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, S.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Wachniew, P.; Zurek, A.; Dulinski, M.

    2012-04-01

    The presented study was aimed at investigating possible interactions between the porous sandy aquifer intensively exploited for drinking water purposes and the groundwater dependent ecosystem (GDE) consisting of a valuable forest stand. The investigated aquifer (Bogucice Sands) and the associated GDE (Niepolomice Forest) are located in the south of Poland. The aquifer covers the area of ca. 200 km2 and belongs to the category of medium groundwater basins in Poland. The Niepolomice Forest is a lowland forest covering around 110 km2. This relic of once vast forests is protected as a Natura 2000 Special Protection Area "Puszcza Niepolomicka" (PLB120002) that supports bird populations of European importance. Additionally, a fen in the western part of the Niepolomice Forest comprises a separate Natura 2000 area "Torfowisko Wielkie Bloto" (PLH120080), a significant habitat of endangered butterfly species associated with wet meadows. The Niepolomice Forest contains also several nature reserves and the European bison breeding centre and has an important recreational value as the largest forest complex in the vicinity of Krakow. Due to spatially variable lithologies and groundwater levels, the Niepolomice Forest is a mosaic of various forest and non-forest habitats, including wetlands, marsh forests, humid forests and fresh forests. Dependence of the Niepolomice Forest stands on groundwater is enhanced by low available water capacity and low capillary rise of soils in the area. Groundwater conditions in the Niepolomice Forest, including Wielkie Bloto fen have been affected by meliorations carried out mostly in the period 1900-1930 and after the Second World War and by forest management. Due to artesian conditions in the area and relatively thin clay layer separating Tertiary aquifer layers from shallow Quaternary aquifer, the upward leaching of deeper groundwater may contribute in a significant way to the water balance of the investigated GDE. In September 2009 a cluster of

  4. Penetration tests to study the mechanical tribological properties of chisel type knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlăduţoiu, L.; Chişiu, G.; Andrei, T.; Predescu, A.; Muraru, C.; Vlăduţ, V.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the behaviour of chisel knife type penetration in a certain type of sand. A series of penetration tests were carried out with chisel knife type, the answer to penetration depending mainly on nature, shape, size of knife and operating parameters such as speed, depth and working conditions. Tests were conducted in work conditions with wet sand and dry sand and determined force of resistance to penetration of the chisel knife type to a certain depth.

  5. Predicting the market penetration of the next generation of coal-fired technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, M.K.; McCall, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses what role clean coal-fired technology will have in future generating capacity based on availability and prices of coal and natural gas, the nuclear option, environmental regulations, limitations of current air pollution control technologies, and economics. The topics of the paper include the need for new electric generating capacity, why coal must remain a source of energy for generating electricity, technology effectiveness and market penetration analysis methodologies, coal-fired technology economic and technical assumptions, cost estimates, and high and low growth scenarios

  6. Environmental hazard analysis - contamination of nutrients, mercury and cesium-137 in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanson, L.

    1990-01-01

    Results from some ongoing Swedish research projects on different types of contamination of limnic as well as marine areas are summarized. A brief theoretical outline on the central concepts of the 'meso-scale-type' of environmental hazard analysis, utilizing examples on eutrophication of coastal waters is given. The concepts are further substantiated in two subsequent parts dealing with radioactive cesium and mercury. The idea is to illustrate that the basic concepts for ('real' world/'meso scale') environmental hazard analysis can be used for different substances and different aquatic environments. It is important to give clear, quantifiable definitions of the effect, dose and environmental sensitivity parameters, which should be valid for a defined area and for a defined span of time. All other parameters should be compatible and have the same area and time resolution. (author)

  7. ASSESSING ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS IN NATURAL COMMUNITIES OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAS ALONG AN ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha diversity indices often fail to distinguish between natural populations that a more detailed investigation of the distribution of ramets among types would show are quite different. We studied the effectiveness of applying SHE analyses to morphotype classifications of ectom...

  8. Does natural gas make sense for freight? Environmental and resource implications of the "Pickens Plan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Pickens Plan is a highly promoted U.S. energy strategy, proposing to use natural gas as a transportation fuel to : displace imported oil and, simultaneously, to increase renewable contributions to national electricity production. While the ...

  9. Environmental aspects of natural resource intensive development: the case of agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Gert; Johnson, Bjørn Harold

    2018-01-01

    serious problems and for this reason we relate agriculture’s source and sink problems to the notion of planetary boundaries. It is also important to develop an environmental ethic that relates to the Anthropocene. In order to discuss policy options, we take departure in the so-called IPAT (Environmental...... Impact = Population × Affluence × Technology) equation and address the issues of population growth, increased material well-being and technological change. We conclude that it is not lack of information, goals or instruments that prevent effective policies to be implemented. The reasons are rather...

  10. Natural environmental radioactivity with particular regard to radon gas and cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowder, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    A paper given at the previous workshop described the growth of our knowledge of the nature and sources of human exposure to naturally-occurring radiation and radionuclides, and summarized assessments of the individual components of this exposure. Here, some recent developments relevant to the earlier conclusions are described, and a closer look is taken at the increasingly important human exposure contribution of cosmic radiation, especially at aircraft altitudes. (author). 21 refs, 1 tab

  11. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Giannini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach transformed photovoltaic technology from a prohibitively expensive to a competitive one. This work aims to summarize the relevant legislation and illustrate its effect on the resulting penetration. A sigmoid-shape penetration was observed which was explained by a pulse-type driving force. The return on investment indicator was proposed as an appropriate driving force, which incorporates feed-in-tariffs and turnkey-cost. Furthermore, the resulting surcharge on the electricity price due to photovoltaic penetration was also analyzed.

  12. 78 FR 40425 - Draft Environmental Assessment for the J. Phil Campbell, Senior, Natural Resource Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Environmental Sciences (CAES). This notice is announcing the opening of a 30-day public comment period. DATES... Proposed JPC-NRCC Land Transfer by any of the following methods: Email: [email protected] , Fax: 309... conduct a wide range of research, teaching, extension, and demonstration activities. Since August 2012 it...

  13. A Model Supported Interactive Virtual Environment for Natural Resource Sharing in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbalios, N.; Ioannidou, I.; Tzionas, P.; Paraskeuopoulos, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a realistic 3D model supported virtual environment for environmental education, that highlights the importance of water resource sharing by focusing on the tragedy of the commons dilemma. The proposed virtual environment entails simulations that are controlled by a multi-agent simulation model of a real ecosystem consisting…

  14. Genetic and Environmental Links between Natural Language Use and Cognitive Ability in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Caitlin F.; Edelson, Lisa R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    Although the phenotypic correlation between language and nonverbal cognitive ability is well-documented, studies examining the etiology of the covariance between these abilities are scant, particularly in very young children. The goal of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the genetic and environmental links between…

  15. Impact of anthropogenic and natural environmental changes on Echinococcus transmission in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Rong; Clements, Archie C A; Gray, Darren J; Atkinson, Jo-An M; Williams, Gail M; Barnes, Tamsin S; McManus, Donald P

    2012-07-24

    Echinococcus transmission is known to be affected by various environmental factors, which may be modified by human influence or natural events including global warming. Considerable population growth in the last fifty years in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), the People's Republic of China (PRC), has led to dramatic increases in deforestation and modified agricultural practices. In turn, this has resulted in many changes in the habitats for the definitive and intermediate hosts of both Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which have increased the risks for transmission of both parasites, affecting echinococcosis prevalence and human disease. Ecological environmental changes due to anthropogenic activities and natural events drive Echinococcus transmission and NHAR provides a notable example illustrating how human activity can impact on a parasitic infection of major public health significance. It is very important to continually monitor these environmental (including climatic) factors that drive the distribution of Echinococcus spp. and their impact on transmission to humans because such information is necessary to formulate reliable future public health policy for echinococcosis control programs and to prevent disease spread.

  16. Intake of natural radioactivity through dietary items: a prelude to preoperational environmental survey at Kudankulam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, K.G.; Kumar, M.; George, Thomas; Sunder Rajan, P.; Vijay Kumar, B.; Rajan, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    High background radiation are found in nature at some parts of Australia, Brazil, China, Iran, India etc. Kanyakumari district in the southern peninsular India is such a NHBRA (Natural high background radiation area) having monazite placers along the coast. Although general radiation levels in this area has been investigated by many researchers in the past, the impact of this high background radioactivity on the flora and fauna is scarce. In the present investigations radiation survey has been done at high background areas with special attention to vegetables and crops grown in this area. The studies are centered at the 2x1000 MWe, Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project site which is about 25 km from Kanyakumari. Samples of soil, sand, vegetations and other food items are collected from the 30 km radial zone of KKNPP site and analysed for naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K. The intake of natural radioactivity through food items produced in this area is found to be very small, and the internal dose to general population staying at this high natural background area is insignificant. (author)

  17. Natural and human-induced sinkholes in gypsum terrain and associated environmental problems in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Del Campo, P. Pérez; Gutiérrez-Elorza, M.; Sancho, C.

    1995-04-01

    The central Ebro Basin comprises thick evaporite materials whose high solubility produces typically karstic landforms. The sinkhole morphology developed in the overlying alluvium has been studied using gravimetry and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) on stream terraces, as well as analyzing the evolution of sinkhole morphologies observed in aerial photographs taken in 1928, 1957, and 1985. The sinkhole morphologies give some idea of possible subsurface processes as well as an indication of the final mechanisms involve in sinkhole development. On stream terraces and cover pediments the most commonly encountered dolines are bowl-shaped in their morphology with both diffuse and scarped edges. In contrast, dolines developed in the gypsiferous silt infilled valleys have a funnel and well-shaped morphology. The diffuse-edged bowl-shaped dolines are developed through the progressive subsidence of the alluvial cover, due to washing down of alluvial particles through small voids and cracks into deeper subsurface caves, resulting in a decrease alluvial density. Future compaction of the alluvial cover will produce surface subsidences. This type of dolines are associated with negative gravity anomalies. In contrast, the scarped-edge dolines are formed by the sudden collapse of a cavity roof. The cavities and cracks formed in the gypsum karst may migrate to the surface through the alluvial deposits by piping, and they may subsequently collapse. In this instance, the cavities can be detected by both gravity and GPR anomalies where the voids are not deeper than 4 5 m from the surface. These processes forming sinkholes can be enhanced by man-induced changes in the groundwater hydrologic regime by both inflows, due to irrigation, ditch losses, or pipe leakages, and by outflows from pumping activities.

  18. Proposal of an integrated methodology for environmental assessment of risks and impacts to be used in strategic environmental assessment studies for the oil and natural gas sector in offshore areas; Proposta de metodologia de avaliacao integrada de riscos e impactos ambientais para estudos de avaliacao ambiental estrategica do setor de petroleo e gas natural em areas offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Jacqueline Barboza

    2007-03-15

    This thesis aims to purpose an integrated methodology of environmental risk and impact assessment of the exploration and production oil and natural gas activities, to be used in strategic environmental assessment studies. It also analyzes the environmental issues associated with the upstream segment of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry after the market opening, occurred in 1997. In this context, and under the international experience of countries that also have an open market, the strategic environmental assessment demonstrates to be the more suitable tool of public environmental management to consider the environment already during the planning phase of the oil and natural gas sector. (author)

  19. Environmental contaminants in birds: phosphate-mine and natural wetlands. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, T.E.; Marion, W.R.; Roessler, C.E.; Roessler, G.S.; Van Rinsvelt, H.A.

    1986-11-01

    Large ponds used to settle the waste clays from Florida's phosphate surface-mining operations are attractive to waterfowl, and contain elevated levels of trace elements and radionuclides of the uranium-series naturally associated with phosphate ore. Four species of waterfowl were sampled to investigate accumulation of radionuclides and trace elements and to evaluate potential deleterious effects for the birds and humans consuming them. Greater radium-226 levels in the substrate of the settling ponds than in natural wetlands were reflected in elevated concentrations in bones for all four species. Diet/substrate ratios were less than 1 for all species in all areas. Bone/substrate ratios differed between settling areas and natural wetlands. Radium-226 levels in soft tissues were consistently less than those in bones, and did not appear to represent an increased threat to humans eating the tissue

  20. Analyses for some transuranic and natural radionuclides in the environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    There is considerable present and expected future interest in the contamination of the environment with transuranic elements, particularly plutonium and americium. In addition, the alpha-emitting natural radionuclides are the usual standard of comparison for such transuranic element contamination. The present paper reviews the quality of data available for evaluating the distribution of transuranic elements and some natural radioactive elements in the environment. The overall quality cannot be documented for most programs and the data that are available indicate that the quality is poor. The fact that a few programs maintain high quality analyses indicates that the cause is poor analytical work rather than poor methods of analysis. (author)

  1. Natural gas - an instrument for the improvement of energy and environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.; Gedrovics, M.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a comparison of the future member states to the EU-15 by their area, population, the GDP and the specific consumption of primary energy. The article carries out a comparison of natural gas, black oil and firewood in the emission aspect, showing that natural gas has certain advantages considering the amount and composition of flue gases. A characteristic of the Latvian government is given as to its revising the directives of the European Union and adopting local documents meeting the requirements of these directives. (authors)

  2. A carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for natural radioactivity mapping and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasty, R.L.; Cox, J.R. [Exploranium Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in the use of a carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for mapping both natural and man-made radiation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calibration of the system for converting the gamma-ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and the activity of {sup 137}Cs. During the Finnish Emergency Response Exercise (Resume95), the carborne system was shown to be effective in mapping both natural and man-made radiation from {sup 137}Cs fallout and in locating radioactive sources. The application of the carborne system for mineral exploration is also demonstrated. (au). 10 refs.

  3. A carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for natural radioactivity mapping and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, R.L.; Cox, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in the use of a carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for mapping both natural and man-made radiation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calibration of the system for converting the gamma-ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and the activity of 137 Cs. During the Finnish Emergency Response Exercise (Resume95), the carborne system was shown to be effective in mapping both natural and man-made radiation from 137 Cs fallout and in locating radioactive sources. The application of the carborne system for mineral exploration is also demonstrated. (au)

  4. A carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for natural radioactivity mapping and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasty, R L; Cox, J R [Exploranium Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in the use of a carborne gamma-ray spectrometer system for mapping both natural and man-made radiation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calibration of the system for converting the gamma-ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium and the activity of {sup 137}Cs. During the Finnish Emergency Response Exercise (Resume95), the carborne system was shown to be effective in mapping both natural and man-made radiation from {sup 137}Cs fallout and in locating radioactive sources. The application of the carborne system for mineral exploration is also demonstrated. (au). 10 refs.

  5. Photosynthetic performance of restored and natural mangroves under different environmental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, André Scarlate; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pagliosa, Paulo Roberto; Scherner, Fernando; Torres, Moacir Aluísio; Horta, Paulo Antunes; Simonassi, José Carlos; Quadros, Daiane Paula Cunha; Borges, Daniel Lázaro Gallindo; Soriano-Sierra, Eduardo Juan

    2013-10-01

    We hypothesized that the photosynthetic performance of mangrove stands restored by the single planting of mangroves species would be lowered due to residual stressors. The photosynthetic parameters of the vegetation of three planted mangrove stands, each with a different disturbance history, were compared to reference sites and correlated with edaphic environmental variables. A permutational analysis of variance showed significant interaction when the factors were compared, indicating that the photosynthetic parameters of the restoration areas differed from the reference sites. A univariate analysis of variance showed that all the photosynthetic parameters differed between sites and treatments, except for photosynthetic efficiency (αETR). The combination of environmental variables that best explained the variations observed in the photosynthetic performance indicators were Cu, Pb and elevation disruptions. Fluorescence techniques proved efficient in revealing important physiological differences, representing a powerful tool for rapid analysis of the effectiveness of initiatives aimed at restoring coastal environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plants and their microbial assistants: Nature's answer to Earth's environmental pollution problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of higher plants and their associated microorganisms to solve environmental pollution problems on Earth and in future space applications is briefly reviewed. If man is sealed inside closed facilities, he becomes a polluter of the environment. It is also common knowledge to most people that man cannot survive on Earth without green photosynthesizing plants and microorganisms. Therefore, it is vitally important to have a better understanding of the interactions of man with plants and microorganisms. Biosphere 2 and other related studies presently being conducted or planned, hopefully, will supply data that will help save planet Earth from impending environmental disaster. The development of means to utilize both air and water pollution as a nutrient source for growing green plants is examined.

  7. Energy and environmental studies associated to the emergency plan of natural gas thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Grynberg, Sueli E.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Branco, Otavio E.A.; Martinez, Carlos B.; Versiani, Bruno R.

    2002-01-01

    This work presents a first exertion to evaluate the environmental impacts due to the operation of planned gas power plants. This study was carried out with the model EcoSense, that is a computer program developed for the quantification of environmental impacts and their external costs resulting from the operation of thermal power plants or other industrial activities. EcoSense is still in development and the achieved results should still be considered with caution although it becomes clear the potentiality of the use of this tool in the support of the decision making process in energy planning. Based on the method of approach of the damage function established in the ExternE project this program provides models for an integrated evaluation of the impact rate from the air pollutants resulting from burning fossil fuel, which are transported by the air. (author)

  8. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  9. Environmental risk, resilience and migration: implications for natural resource management and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshingkar, Priya

    2012-01-01

    This letter probes the causal links between migration, remittances and resilience to environmental change. Three case studies have been chosen, Western Mexico, the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso and Eastern India, where satellite imagery shows recent regeneration of vegetative cover and where there is evidence of high rates of migration. The findings are analysed through a framework that draws on concepts of ecological anthropology, new economics of labour theories and livelihood analyses of migration drivers and impacts. (letter)

  10. Natural Stabilized Earth Panels versus Conventional Façade Systems. Economic and Environmental Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Galán-Marín

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available More effective construction technologies are needed nowadays in order to reduce construction energy consumption during the life-cycle of buildings. Besides which, it is necessary to consider the economic feasibility and associated costs within the framework of these alternative technologies so as to favouring their practical implementation in the construction sector. In this sense, this paper presents an economic and environmental comparison of a new non-bearing façade construction solution based on the extruded unfired stabilized clay panels as opposed to three traditional solutions with similar physical, thermal, and aesthetic characteristics in terms of the exterior cladding. The proposed panels are a sandwich type configuration with an intermediate insulating material and two exterior pieces manufactured by extrusion with raw earth stabilized with alginate and animal wool fibers. In this paper, details of the constructive technology of the system are provided. From the results obtained, it is possible to conclude that the solution is a valid alternative from the environmental point of view, considerably reducing the Global Warming Potential and the Cumulative Energy Demand. And although the environmental improvement of the system can be considered the primary objective of this investigation, on the other hand, once executed, it will also be a competitive constructive technology from the perspective of the system’s final costs.

  11. Nature and nurture: environmental influences on a genetic rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta-Raghavan, N S; Wert, S L; Morley, C; Graf, E N; Redei, E E

    2016-03-29

    In this study, we sought to learn whether adverse events such as chronic restraint stress (CRS), or 'nurture' in the form of environmental enrichment (EE), could modify depression-like behavior and blood biomarker transcript levels in a genetic rat model of depression. The Wistar Kyoto More Immobile (WMI) is a genetic model of depression that aided in the identification of blood transcriptomic markers, which successfully distinguished adolescent and adult subjects with major depressive disorders from their matched no-disorder controls. Here, we followed the effects of CRS and EE in adult male WMIs and their genetically similar control strain, the Wistar Kyoto Less Immobile (WLI), that does not show depression-like behavior, by measuring the levels of these transcripts in the blood and hippocampus. In WLIs, increased depression-like behavior and transcriptomic changes were present in response to CRS, but in WMIs no behavioral or additive transcriptomic changes occurred. Environmental enrichment decreased both the inherent depression-like behavior in the WMIs and the behavioral difference between WMIs and WLIs, but did not reverse basal transcript level differences between the strains. The inverse behavioral change induced by CRS and EE in the WLIs did not result in parallel inverse expression changes of the transcriptomic markers, suggesting that these behavioral responses to the environment work via separate molecular pathways. In contrast, 'trait' transcriptomic markers with expression differences inherent and unchanging between the strains regardless of the environment suggest that in our model, environmental and genetic etiologies of depression work through independent molecular mechanisms.

  12. Colony size-frequency distribution of pocilloporid juvenile corals along a natural environmental gradient in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lozano-Cortes, Diego

    2015-10-29

    Coral colony size-frequency distributions can be used to assess population responses to local environmental conditions and disturbances. In this study, we surveyed juvenile pocilloporids, herbivorous fish densities, and algal cover in the central and southern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We sampled nine reefs with different disturbance histories along a north–south natural gradient of physicochemical conditions (higher salinity and wider temperature fluctuations in the north, and higher turbidity and productivity in the south). Since coral populations with negatively skewed size-frequency distributions have been associated with unfavorable environmental conditions, we expected to find more negative distributions in the southern Red Sea, where corals are potentially experiencing suboptimal conditions. Although juvenile coral and parrotfish densities differed significantly between the two regions, mean colony size and size-frequency distributions did not. Results suggest that pocilloporid colony size-frequency distribution may not be an accurate indicator of differences in biological or oceanographic conditions in the Red Sea.

  13. Investigation of the environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in the processing of sulfide ores for gold using gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbadago, J K; Darko, E O [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, PO Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Faanhof, A [South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Schandorf, C, E-mail: jgbada@yahoo.com [School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana)

    2011-09-01

    The possible environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on workers and a critical community, as a result of milling and processing sulfide ores for gold by a mining company at Bogoso in the western region of Ghana, have been investigated using gamma spectroscopy. Indicative doses for the workers during sulfide ore processing were calculated from the activity concentrations measured at both physical and chemical processing stages. The dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and radioactivity level index for tailings, for the de-silted sediments of run-off from the vicinity of the tailings dam through the critical community, and for the soils of the critical community's basic schools were calculated and found to be lower than their respective permissible limits. The environmental impact of the radionuclides is therefore expected to be low in this mining environment.

  14. Investigation of the environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in the processing of sulfide ores for gold using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbadago, J K; Darko, E O; Faanhof, A; Schandorf, C

    2011-01-01

    The possible environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on workers and a critical community, as a result of milling and processing sulfide ores for gold by a mining company at Bogoso in the western region of Ghana, have been investigated using gamma spectroscopy. Indicative doses for the workers during sulfide ore processing were calculated from the activity concentrations measured at both physical and chemical processing stages. The dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and radioactivity level index for tailings, for the de-silted sediments of run-off from the vicinity of the tailings dam through the critical community, and for the soils of the critical community's basic schools were calculated and found to be lower than their respective permissible limits. The environmental impact of the radionuclides is therefore expected to be low in this mining environment.

  15. Assessing the effectiveness and environmental impacts of using natural flocculants to manage turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of using chitosan as a natural flocculant to control : turbidity during in-stream construction work. A series of field tests in Oak Creek, Corvallis, OR were conducted in : order to test...

  16. Environmental entitlements: Dynamics and institutions in community-based natural resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, M.; Mearns, R.; Scoones, I.

    1999-01-01

    Metadata only record While community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) now attracts widespread international attention, its practical implementation frequently falls short of expectations. This paper contributes to emerging critiques by focusing on the implications of intracommunity dynamics and ecological heterogeneity. It builds a conceptual framework highlighting the central role of institutions - regularized patterns of behavior between individuals and groups in society - in me...

  17. Cladophialophora abundans, a novel environmental species in the Chaetothyriales isolated from the natural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, P.Y.; de Hoog, G.S.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; Stielow, J.B.; Badali, H.; Boeger, W.A.; Vicente, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    A novel species of Cladophialophora is described from the natural environment of the mangrove land crab (Ucides cordatus) along the coast, and from plant sources in Brazil. It is morphologically very similar to Cladophialophora bantiana, though with moderately melanized conidia produced in strongly

  18. The environmental design of children- nature relations: some strands of applicative theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin C. Moore

    1977-01-01

    A brief framework for children-environment relations, focused on 8- to 12-year-olds and their natural environment, is based on the principles of maturation and Gestalt therapy. The concepts of "quality" and "place" are discussed. A comprehensive ecological framework is proposed, relating theory to the material resources used in place-making,...

  19. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Natural Gas Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage (NGCC-CCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CO2 intensity of electricity produced by state-of-the-art natural gas combined-cycle turbines (NGCC) isapproximately one-third that of the U.S. fleet of existing coal plants. Compared to new nuclear plants and coal plantswith integrated carbon capture, NGCC has a lower invest...

  20. Environmental education and technology: using a remotely operated vehicle to connect with nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Gleason; Laurie Harmon; Kwame Boakye-Agyei

    2007-01-01

    One hundred seven young people (12-14 years old) and 183 adults (25-86 years old) used an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to explore shipwrecks and marine habitats in the Great Lakes and various inland lakes during the summer of 2005. Content analysis of responses regarding the types of impact the ROV had on their perception and experience with the natural...

  1. Naturalness and beyond: Protected area stewardship in an era of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Laurie Yung; Erika S. Zavaleta; Gregory H. Aplet; F. Stuart III Chaplin; David M. Graber; Eric S. Higgs; Richard J. Hobbs; Peter B. Landres; Constance I. Millar; David J. Parsons; John M. Randall; Nathan L. Stephenson; Kathy A. Tonnessen; Peter S. White; Stephen Woodley

    2008-01-01

    FOR MOST LARGE U.S. PARKS AND WILDERNESS AREAS, enabling legislation and management policy call for preservation of these protected areas unimpaired in perpetuity. Central to the notions of protection, preservation, and unimpairment has been the concept of maintaining "naturalness," a condition imagined by many to persist over time in the absence of human...

  2. Environmental impact of natural radionuclides from the fossil fuel power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.

    1989-01-01

    A set of experimental data for selected coals in Yugoslavia is used for this study. The impact of natural radionuclides emitted from the coal fired power plants with these coals is analysed. Simple models are used to asses annual doses at the maximum concentration points. The calculated values are compared with the values from the literature for similar calculations (author)

  3. Popular epidemiology and "fracking": citizens' concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Martha; Saberi, Poune; Pepino, Richard; Strupp, Emily; Bugos, Eva; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2015-06-01

    Pennsylvania sits atop the Marcellus Shale, a reservoir of natural gas that was untapped until the 2004 introduction of unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) in the state. Colloquially known as fracking, UNGDO is a controversial process that employs large volumes of water to fracture the shale and capture gas; it has become a multi-billion dollar industry in Pennsylvania. We analyzed letters to the editor of the most widely circulated local newspaper in the most heavily drilled county in Pennsylvania (Bradford County) in order to characterize residents' concerns and their involvement in popular epidemiology--the process by which citizens investigate risks associated with a perceived environmental threat. We reviewed 215 letters to the editor that referenced natural gas operations and were published by The Daily Review between January 1, 2008 and June 8, 2013. We used NVivo 10 to code and analyze letters and identify major themes. Nvivo is qualitative data analysis software (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx) that allows researchers to code and analyze "unstructured" data, including text files of any type (e.g., interview transcripts, news articles, letters, archival materials) as well as photographs and videos. Nvivo can be used to classify, sort, query, comment on, and share data across a research group. Letters demonstrated citizen engagement in beginning and intermediate stages of lay epidemiology, as well as discord and stress regarding four main issues: socio-economic impacts, perceived threats to water, population growth and implications, and changes to the rural landscape. Residents called for stronger scientific evidence and a balance of economic development and health and environmental protections. Citizens' distress regarding UNGDO appeared to be exacerbated by a dearth of information to guide economic growth and health, environmental, and social concerns. This analysis proposes locally informed questions to guide future

  4. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  5. Naturally transgenic plants as a model for the study of delayed environmental risks of cultivation of GMOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat’yana Valer’yevna Matveeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of genetic engineering raises the question of biosafety of transgenic organisms. The greatest concerns about the negative effects of GMO cultivation are reduced to possible leakage of transgenes through cross-pollination of non-transgenic closely related forms by transgenic pollen. Naturally transgenic plants are species which have been subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and retained the T-DNA-like sequence in their genomes. These species can be considered as a model for the study of delayed environmental risks associated with leakage of transgenes. The review is devoted to this problem.

  6. Student desertion study of the program of Natural Sciences and Environmental Education in the period 2011–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Patricia Flórez Nisperuza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems facing the Colombian Higher Education System concerns high levels of dropout in the undergraduate program, the degree program in Natural Sciences and Environmental Education, Faculty of Education and Human Sciences of the University of Cordoba, Is foreign to this reality. In relation to this problem, the purpose of this research was to characterize and describe the factors that influence the dropout of the program in the period 2011 - 2015. The research was of mixed nature, interviews and surveys were applied to the sample. It is concluded that the factors that influence this phenomenon are the economic factor, lack of vocational guidance, lack of motivation, city change and paternity, to a lesser extent. Finally, this study ends with the proposal of strategies that help to mitigate the problem of desertion, based on the voices of teachers, students, managers and administrators of the program.

  7. Outlines of environmental Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzwedel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this omnibus, ten members of the working group for environmental law attempt to present the respective fields of environmental law in a consistent context, and to show the autonomy of each subject-matter as well as their interdependence and interrelationships. In the long run, the complexity of basic facts of natural science, technology and that of practical execution will require subject-specific penetration and application. Relationships between systems have to be realized to an increasing extent. Structures of law and administration have to be harmonized, and statements on the environmental impact of projects have to be made possible on the whole. Fundamental issues of environmental law are dealt with in the chapters entitled 'Concept and levels of applications of environmental law' and 'Environmental law in general'. The international, supranational and constitutional conditions given in advance of any environmental legislation increasingly gaining in importance are presented in the chapter on 'International environmental law', 'Basics of European Law' and on 'Constitutional Fundamentals'. The necessity of interdisciplinary cooperation becomes evident in those contributions concerning individual fields of environmental law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  9. Environmental applications of natural zeolitic materials based on their ion-exchange properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colella, C.

    1998-01-01

    Natural zeolites, such as clinoptilolite, chabazite, phillipsite and mordenite, exhibit good selectivities for some water pollutants, e.g., Cs + , NH 4 + and Pb 2+ . Zeolite-rich tuffs may be therefore utilized for removing the above and other cations from wastewaters before discharge. Continuous processes with fixed beds are usually employed for water purification, such as those in service in the U.S.A for ammonium removal from municipal sewage. Direct action of the ion exchanger is needed when the pollutant must be removed from soil and trapped in the zeolite framework. Discontinuous processes (addition of zeolite to the waste solution) are also possible, provided the polluted zeolitic sludge is stabilized-solidified in a cement matrix matrix before disposal. Removal of radionuclides from nuclear power plant waters with natural zeolites is discussed

  10. Use of natural gas for swimming facilities: Energy savings and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocca, B.

    1992-01-01

    In the last twenty years, natural gas consumption has greatly increased in the civil sector and this trend will be confirmed in the next decade which will have a considerable increase in the domestic Italian distribution and in national supply networks. Swimming centres, particularly those equipped with covered swimming-pools and therefore characterized by continuous operation during the year, have significant energy consumption, with the same volume, compared with other civil users. This is due not only to the particular operating characteristics of the swimming pool but, in most cases, to the little attention payed to running costs and thus to energy savings. Natural gas, as a versatile fuel of good quality, can offer a valid contribution to the limitation of the energy consumption of swimming centres, as well as, to the abatement of air pollution, in particular, if it is employed together with new technologies such as the cogeneration and gas fuelled heat pumps

  11. Mechanical, thermo dynamical and environmental comparison of engines using natural gas and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo S, John R; Bedoya C, Ivan D; Moreno S, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows experimental results of a Toyota Hilux 2400-swept volume, compression ratio 9:1 engine, operating with La Guajira natural gas and petrol. Also shows a thermodynamic study of those fuels in a normalized, variable compression ratio ASTM-CFR monocylinder engine. When using natural gas, Hilux engine increases its fuel consumption around 20% for the same power. Volumetric efficiency increases 10% and co emissions de- crease around 40%. When comparing thermodynamic parameters in CFR engine operating at a compression ratio of 9:1, it was found a 12,5% decrease in indicated power and 17% in maximum combustion pressure, which is proportional to temperature diminish of around 20%. Convective heat transfer coefficient decreases around 28% respect to petrol. First laminar combustion phase is duplicated when using the same spark advance as petrol; nevertheless this is maintained almost constant when spark is advancing 15 degrades over petrol spark advance

  12. Natural environmental radioactivity and the corresponding health risk in Johor Bahru District, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer Aziz Saleh; National Atomic Energy Commission; Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor; Ahmad Termizi Ramli; Yasser Alajerami; Mohammad Hasan Abu Mhareb; Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu; Noor Zati Hani Binti Abu Hanifah; Khaidzir bin Hamzah

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to obtain the baseline data on environmental terrestrial radiation and to assess the corresponding health risk in Johor Bahru District, Johor, Malaysia. The mean activity concentrations of 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K were 119 ± 6, 51 ± 4 and 158 ± 21 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Primordial radionuclide 232 Th is the main contributor to gamma dose rate and the mean found to be 135 nGy h -1 . Gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations in water were 0.012 ± 0.003 and 0.234 ± 0.018 Bq L -1 , respectively. (author)

  13. Selectivity of natural, synthetic and environmental estrogens for zebrafish estrogen receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Caroline [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5056 (United States); Grimaldi, Marina; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay [Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale U896, Institut Régional de Cancérologie de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 1, 34298 Montpellier (France); Pakdel, Farzad [Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, Environnement et Travail (IRSET), INSERM U1085, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Brion, François; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim [Unité Écotoxicologie In Vitro et In Vivo, INERIS, Parc ALATA, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Cavaillès, Vincent [Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, Institut National de la Santé de la Recherche Médicale U896, Institut Régional de Cancérologie de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 1, 34298 Montpellier (France); Bourguet, William [U1054, Centre de Biochimie Structurale, CNRS UMR5048, Université Montpellier 1 et 2, 34290 Montpellier (France); Gustafsson, Jan-Ake [Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5056 (United States); Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, 14183 Huddinge (Sweden); and others

    2014-10-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, is increasingly used as an animal model to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental estrogens. As most of these estrogens have only been tested on human estrogen receptors (ERs), it is necessary to measure their effects on zebrafish ERs. In humans there are two distinct nuclear ERs (hERα and hERβ), whereas the zebrafish genome encodes three ERs, zfERα and two zfERβs (zfERβ1 and zfERβ2). In this study, we established HeLa-based reporter cell lines stably expressing each of the three zfERs. We first reported that estrogens more efficiently activate the zfERs at 28 °C as compared to 37 °C, thus reflecting the physiological temperature of zebrafish in wildlife. We then showed significant differences in the ability of agonist and antagonist estrogens to modulate activation of the three zfER isotypes in comparison to hERs. Environmental compounds (bisphenol A, alkylphenols, mycoestrogens) which are hER panagonists and hERβ selective agonists displayed greater potency for zfERα as compared to zfERβs. Among hERα selective synthetic agonists, PPT did not activate zfERα while 16α-LE2 was the most zfERα selective compound. Altogether, these results confirm that all hER ligands control in a similar manner the transcriptional activity of zfERs although significant differences in selectivity were observed among subtypes. The zfER subtype selective ligands that we identified thus represent new valuable tools to dissect the physiological roles of the different zfERs. Finally, our work also points out that care has to be taken in transposing the results obtained using the zebrafish as a model for human physiopathology. - Highlights: • Zebrafish is increasingly used to study the effects of estrogens. • We assessed the activity of pharmaceutical and environmental estrogens on zfERs. • Environmental estrogens displayed greater potency for zfERα compared to zfERβs. • hERβ selective agonists displayed greater potency for zf

  14. Elemental concentration in fruits and leaves of chicku and mango under natural environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    A knowledge of the distribution patterns of stable elements in the environment is an essential pre-requisite for understanding the problems of radioactive pollution. In this paper the data obtained under natural conditions of the environment in the case of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese, strontium, lithium and uranium are presented. A method for elimination of the interference from phosphate in the estimation of calcium and strontium in plant materials is also described. (auth.)

  15. Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-13

    uses (e.g., sports arenas, golf courses, amusement parks, etc.) are generally considered compatible with yearly DNL ranges between 70 and 75 dB, if...natural resources and the environment. Global warming is projected to have detrimental effects on industries, including agriculture and tourism ...course, riding stables, Rod and Gun Program (CAR), Oasis Aquatic Center, Tickets and Tours, Family Camp, Sports and Fitness Center, Aerobics Center

  16. Cues and regulatory pathways involved in natural competence and transformation in pathogenic and environmental Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Patrick; Blokesch, Melanie

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial genomics is flourishing, as whole-genome sequencing has become affordable, readily available and rapid. As a result, it has become clear how frequently horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurs in bacteria. The potential implications are highly significant because HGT contributes to several processes, including the spread of antibiotic-resistance cassettes, the distribution of toxin-encoding phages and the transfer of pathogenicity islands. Three modes of HGT are recognized in bacteria: conjugation, transduction and natural transformation. In contrast to the first two mechanisms, natural competence for transformation does not rely on mobile genetic elements but is driven solely by a developmental programme in the acceptor bacterium. Once the bacterium becomes competent, it is able to take up DNA from the environment and to incorporate the newly acquired DNA into its own chromosome. The initiation and duration of competence differ significantly among bacteria. In this review, we outline the latest data on representative naturally transformable Gram-negative bacteria and how their competence windows differ. We also summarize how environmental cues contribute to the initiation of competence in a subset of naturally transformable Gram-negative bacteria and how the complexity of the niche might dictate the fine-tuning of the competence window. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Local or district heating by natural gas: Which is better from energetic, environmental and economic point of views?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarin, R.; Noro, M.

    2006-01-01

    Generally, a CHP plant coupled with district heating is considered more efficient than traditional local heating systems from an economic and environmental point of view. This is certainly true for municipal waste CHP plants, but for plants fuelled by natural gas the important developments of the last years regarding both boilers (premixed and modulating burners, condensing boilers, etc.) and mechanical vapour compression and absorption heat pumps can change the traditional view. At the same time also district heating plants improved. Therefore it is worth to analyse the whole matter comparing advantages and disadvantages of the different alternatives, with a wide difference between them. The paper reports on the analysis of major district heating natural gas based technologies (vapour and gas turbines, internal combustion engine, combined cycles); the cost of heat and power produced in these plants is compared to the cost of producing the same quantity of electrical energy by a reference GTCC-Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (actually the most efficient technology for pure electrical production) and the cost of heat production by modern local heating technologies using natural gas as fuel (condensing boilers, electrical, gas engine and absorption heat pumps). Regarding energy efficiency and emissions, modern local heating turns out to be more efficient than district heating for most CHP technologies. However, the same does not happen from an economic point of view, because in Italy natural gas used by cogeneration plants is subjected to a much lower taxation than local heating technologies

  18. Europa Kinetic Ice Penetrator (EKIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is to validate an initial design for a Europa penetrator that can withstand the high g load associated with the expected hypervelocity...

  19. Environmental impact of coal mining on the natural environment in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysocka, M.; Chalupnik, S.; Michalik, B.; Skowronek, J.; Skubacz, K.

    2002-01-01

    Saline waters occurring in underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226 Ra from uranium series and 228 Ra from thorium series. Approximately 40% of total amount of radium remains underground in a form of radioactive deposits, but 225 MBq of 226 Ra and 400 MBq of 228 Ra are released daily to the rivers with mine effluents. Technical measures as spontaneous precipitation of radium in gobs, decreasing of amounts of water inflows into underground working etc. have been undertaken in several coal mines and as the result total amount of radium released to the surface waters diminished of about 60% during last 5-6 years. Mine waters can cause a severe impact on the natural environment, mainly due to its salinity. But also the enhancement of radium concentration in river waters, bottom sediments and vegetation is observed. Sometimes radium concentration in rivers exceeds 0.7 kBq/m 3 , which is due to Polish law a permissible level for waste waters. The extended investigations were performed in all coal mines and on this basis the radium balance in effluents has been calculated. Measurements done in the vicinity of mine water's settling ponds and in rivers gave us an opportunity to survey radium behaviour in river waters and the range of contamination. Solid waste materials with enhanced natural radioactivity have been produced in huge amounts in power and coal industries in Poland. There are two main sources of these waste products. As a result of combustion of coal in power plants low radioactive waste materials are produced, with 226 Ra concentration seldom exceeding few hundreds of Bq/kg. Different situation is observed in coal mines, where as a result of precipitation of radium from radium-bearing waters radioactive deposits are formed. Sometimes natural radioactivity of such materials is very high, in case of scaling from coal mines radium concentration may reach 400 000 Bq/kg - similar activity as for 3% uranium ore

  20. Environmental Mechanisms Shaping the Nature of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies: The View of Computer Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Mayer

    2010-01-01

    cosmic ultraviolet ionizing flux was much higher than today, and was thus able to keep the gas in the dwarfs warm and diffuse, were rapidly stripped of their baryons via ram pressure and tidal forces, producing very dark-matter-dominated objects with truncated star-formation histories, such as the Draco dSph. The low star-formation efficiency expected in such low-metallicity objects prior to their infall was crucial for keeping their disks gas dominated until stripping took over. Therefore gas stripping along with inefficient star-formation provides a new feedback mechanism, alternative to photoevaporation or supernovae feedback, playing a crucial role in dwarf galaxy formation and evolution. We also discuss how the ultra-faint dSphs belong to a different population of lower-mass dwarf satellites that were mostly shaped by reionization rather than by environmental mechanisms (“reionization fossils”. Finally, we scrutinize the various caveats in the current understanding of environmental effects as well as other recent ideas on the origin of Local Group dSphs.

  1. ZnO-graphene quantum dots heterojunctions for natural sunlight-driven photocatalytic environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suneel; Dhiman, Ankita; Sudhagar, Pitchaimuthu; Krishnan, Venkata

    2018-07-01

    In this work, we report the formation of heterojunctions comprising of graphene quantum dots (GQD) decorated ZnO nanorods (NR) and its use as efficient photocatalysts for environmental remediation. The heterojunctions has been designed to be active both in the UV and visible light regions and anticipated utilize the maximum part of the solar light spectrum. In this view, we examined the photocatalytic performance of our heterojunctions towards the degradation of colored pollutant (methylene blue (MB) dye) and a colorless pollutant (carbendazim (CZ) fungicide) under sunlight irradiation. Compared to bare photocatalyst ZnO and GQD, the heterojunction with 2 wt% of GQD (ZGQD2) showed the best photocatalytic activity by effectively degrading (about 95%) of organic pollutants (MB and CZ) from water within a short span of 70 min. The superior photocatalytic activity of these ZnO-GQD heterojunctions could be attributed to efficient charge carrier separation lead suppressed recombination rate at photocatalyst interfaces. In addition to the enhanced light absorption from UV to visible region, the high specific surface area of ZGQD2 heterojunction (353.447 m2 g-1) also imparts strong adsorption capacity for pollutants over catalyst surface, resulting in high photoactivity. Based on the obtained results, band gap alignment at ZnO-GQD heterojunction and active species trapping experiments, a plausible mechanism is proposed for photocatalytic reaction. The excellent photostability and recyclability of the ZnO-GQD heterojunctions fostering as promising photocatalyst candidate for environmental remediation applications.

  2. Penetration of Photovoltaics in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Giannini; Antonia Moropoulou; Zacharias Maroulis; Glykeria Siouti

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an interesting experiment was completed in Greece concerning photovoltaic penetration into the electricity production sector. Based on the relevant laws and in accordance to the related European directives, an explosive penetration process was completed in less than three years, resulting in a 7% share of photovoltaics in electricity production instead of the previous negligible share. The legislation was based on licensing simplification and generous feed-in-tariffs. This approach ...

  3. Empirical research on the correlation between economic development and environmental pollution in natural resource abundant regions: the case of China Shaanxi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bo; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution in natural resource abundant regions via testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis by regression analysis, based on the statistical data of per capita GDP growth and environmental pollution indicators in Shaanxi Province from 1989 to 2015. The results show that the per capita GDP and environmental pollution in Shaanxi Province do not always accord with the “inverted U” Environmental Kuznets Curve, which mainly show “N” shapes; only SO2 show the “Inverted U” shapes.

  4. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The contemporary management of penetrating splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Regan J; Inaba, Kenji; Okoye, Obi; Pasley, Jason; Teixeira, Pedro G; Esparza, Michael; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2014-09-01

    Selective non-operative management (NOM) is standard of care for clinically stable patients with blunt splenic trauma and expectant management approaches are increasingly utilised in penetrating abdominal trauma, including in the setting of solid organ injury. Despite this evolution of clinical practice, little is known about the safety and efficacy of NOM in penetrating splenic injury. Trauma registry and medical record review identified all consecutive patients presenting to LAC+USC Medical Center with penetrating splenic injury between January 2001 and December 2011. Associated injuries, incidence and nature of operative intervention, local and systemic complications and mortality were determined. During the study period, 225 patients experienced penetrating splenic trauma. The majority (187/225, 83%) underwent emergent laparotomy. Thirty-eight clinically stable patients underwent a deliberate trial of NOM and 24/38 (63%) were ultimately managed without laparotomy. Amongst patients failing NOM, 3/14 (21%) underwent splenectomy while an additional 6/14 (42%) had splenorrhaphy. Hollow viscus injury (HVI) occurred in 21% of all patients failing NOM. Forty percent of all NOM patients had diaphragmatic injury (DI). All patients undergoing delayed laparotomy for HVI or a splenic procedure presented symptomatically within 24h of the initial injury. No deaths occurred in patients undergoing NOM. Although the vast majority of penetrating splenic trauma requires urgent operative management, a group of patients does present without haemodynamic instability, peritonitis or radiologic evidence of hollow viscus injury. Management of these patients is complicated as over half may remain clinically stable and can avoid laparotomy, making them potential candidates for a trial of NOM. HVI is responsible for NOM failure in up to a fifth of these cases and typically presents within 24h of injury. Delayed laparotomy, within this limited time period, did not appear to increase

  6. Study on the Mediterranean coastal seaweed Ulva linza exposed to natural and stressed environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abd Elmoneim El-Gamal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study Ulva linza (U. linza as macro-alga exposed to different levels of ionizing radiation from the natural background of radioactivity. Methods: Samples of U. linza were collected from two different habitats at the two terminals of the rocky shore of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. The western terminal at Abu Qir represented an area of normal background radiation while the eastern terminal at Rosetta represented an area of relatively high background radiation. Distinguishing between the algae grown in areas of relatively high and normal background radiation was investigated by using different indicators. Moreover, the ambient water quality was measured and the concentrations of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K bio-accumulated in the tested macro-alga were detected. Results: The algae naturally exposed to radionuclides (238U series, 232Th series and 40K were investigated. Radiation dose rates in U. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir were calculated as 70.12 and 42.67 nGy/h, respectively. Chemical analysis of algal samples demonstrated that total pigment contents were 2.21 and 2.19 mg/g on a fresh weight basis for U. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir, respectively. Fatty acid compositions showed comparable profiles for both algal samples with saturated fatty acids as major component. The results of protein profiles confirmed slight differential expression in protein bands. Sequence-related randomly amplified polymorphic DNA provided evidence that both samples were strongly similar. By using transmission electron microscopy, no obvious ultra structural changes in the examined cells were observed. Conclusions: These experimental results demonstrate that radiation doses are not high enough to cause damage or manifest any significant variation in Ulva tissues.

  7. Urban Environmental Excursions: Designing field trips to demonstrate sustainable connections between natural and engineered systems in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, L. D.

    2012-12-01

    Field trips are a proven and effective instructional tool to connect students with the world around them. In most communities, opportunities abound to allow students to make connections between concepts introduced in classroom or lab activities and the urban environment that surrounds them. Potential destinations include solid and liquid waste disposal sites, brownfield redevelopment sites, hazardous waste sites, industrial complexes, or sites with ongoing environmental restoration efforts. Each of these locations presents opportunities to explore sustainable aspects of anthropogenic activities in relation to the natural systems that they seek to modify or exploit. Early planning is essential, however, because it can sometimes take several months lead time to arrange for a large group tour of industrial or municipal sites. Several practices may be employed to design effective learning experiences for students when visiting such sites. These include: 1) choose local sites to keep trips relevant and practical; 2) balance sites of environmental concern with those where significant progress is being made in environmental restoration or stewardship; 3) connect sites with a pertinent theme (e.g., air quality, water quality, economic development, environmental justice, etc.); 4) develop a sense of location among student participants by providing a map showing the relationship between campus and the field sites; 5) prepare a guidebook containing one-page descriptions of each stop along with a list of questions to stimulate discussion and promote active engagement among all participants; 6) employ expert guides to maximize students' access to authoritative information; 7) tie each field experience to your curriculum; and 8) model active learning by asking genuine questions and engaging in open discussions with experts and student participants. In this presentation, urban field trip design will be illustrated with examples from trips run in conjunction with freshman

  8. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  9. Monitoring and enforcement of environmental regulations. Lessons from a natural field experiment in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telle, Kjetil

    2012-07-01

    Relying on a small natural field experiment with random assignment of treatments, I estimate effects of three core elements of most monitoring and enforcement practices: self-reporting, audit frequency and specific deterrence. I find evidence of evasive reporting of violations in self-audits, as more violations are detected in on-site audits than in self-audits. Announcing the increased audit frequency has no effect on compliance, but an audit raises the firm's subsequent compliance substantially.(Author)

  10. Evaporation Limited Radial Capillary Penetration in Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchao; Wu, Jian; Gan, Yixiang; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Chen, C Q

    2016-09-27

    The capillary penetration of fluids in thin porous layers is of fundamental interest in nature and various industrial applications. When capillary flows occur in porous media, the extent of penetration is known to increase with the square root of time following the Lucas-Washburn law. In practice, volatile liquid evaporates at the surface of porous media, which restricts penetration to a limited region. In this work, on the basis of Darcy's law and mass conservation, a general theoretical model is developed for the evaporation-limited radial capillary penetration in porous media. The presented model predicts that evaporation decreases the rate of fluid penetration and limits it to a critical radius. Furthermore, we construct a unified phase diagram that describes the limited penetration in an annular porous medium, in which the boundaries of outward and inward liquid are predicted quantitatively. It is expected that the proposed theoretical model will advance the understanding of penetration dynamics in porous media and facilitate the design of engineered porous architectures.

  11. Artificial persons against nature: environmental governmentality, economic corporations, and ecological ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Michael S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the 194 nation-state signatories to the global Convention on Biological Diversity, the conservation effort is failing to halt an ongoing spiral of decline in most habitats and ecological communities on land and ocean. Environmental ethicists argue that the failure to halt the unsustainable predation on the ecosystems that sustain industrial civilization is indicative of a moral as well as a scientific crisis. Principal ethical interventions in ecology include the ascription of value to species and ecosystems, wilderness ethics, and ecological virtue. Ecological virtue ethics identifies agency, character, institutions, and practices as crucial to moral formation and outcomes. However, the dominant role of the economic corporation in ecological destruction subverts a virtues approach. Corporations as fictive persons will not learn ecological virtue absent of legal and regulatory reform and the ecological education of business leaders and owners. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Effect of Environmental Factors on Cyanobacterial Abundance and Cyanotoxins Production in Natural and Drinking Water, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Abu; Khomavis, Hisham S; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Haque, Mahfuzul; Khan, Saleha

    2015-02-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms commonly appear during the summer months in ponds, lakes and reservoirs in Bangladesh. In these areas, fish mortality, odorous water and fish and human skin irritation and eye inflammation have been reported. The influence of physicochemical factors on the occurrence of cyanobacteria and its toxin levels were evaluated in natural and drinking water in Bangladesh. A highly sensitive immunosorbent assay was used to detect microcystins (MCs). Cyanobacteria were found in 22 of 23 samples and the dominant species were Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by Microcystisflosaquae, Anabeana crassa and Aphanizomenon flosaquae. Cyanobacterial abundance varied from 39 to 1315 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in natural water and 31 to 49 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in tap water. MC concentrations were 25-82300 pg mL(-1) with the highest value measured in the fish research pond, followed by Ishakha Lake. In tap water, MC concentrations ranged from 30-32 pg mL(-1). The correlation between nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration and cyanobacterial cell abundance was R2 = 0.62 while that between cyanobacterial abundance and MC concentration was R2 = 0.98. The increased NO3-N from fish feed, organic manure, poultry and dairy farm waste and fertilizer from agricultural land eutrophicated the water bodies and triggered cyanobacterial bloom formation. The increased amount of cyanobacteria produced MCs, subsequently reducing the water quality.

  13. Environmental impacts of informal settlements with second homes (vacation homes. A case study: Apuseni Nature Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA ALEXANDRA CIUPE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The past decades has seen the rapid development of second homes in many country of the world. Therefore, secondary dwellings used for tourism-related purposes (vacation homes or second homes are a reality that becomes more pronounced and visible at both nationally and internationally level. However, the rapidity and the novelty of the phenomenon creates difficulties in terms of efficient management and suitable integration in spatial planning and urbanism plans, favoring - in a negative way - expanding of build-up areas (with second homes in a chaotic way. Since there has been no detailed investigation of second homes tourism from the perspective of informal settlements, this article follows a case-study design, with in-depth analysis of informal settlements with vacation homes found in Apuseni Nature Park. Based on long-term field research, will be exemplified 4 types of informal settlements with second homes (vacation homes identified in the case study. The aim of this paper is to critically analyse the effects of informal settlements with vacation homes on the natural environment.

  14. Natural Model based Design in Context: an Effective Method for Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Kameni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing complex problem domains is not easy. Simulation tools support decision makers to find the best policies. Model-based system development is an approach where a model of the application domain is the central driving force when designing simulation tools. State-of-the-art techniques however still require both expert knowledge of the application domain and the implementation techniques as provided by ICT (such as multilevel agent technology. Domain experts, however, usually do not master ICT sufficiently. Modeling is more insightful for the domain expert when its goal is to formalize the language being used in that domain as a semi-natural language. At the meta level, this language describes the main concepts of the type of application domain. The model then is a concretization of this meta model. The main focus of this article is (1 to propose a natural-language-based approach to modeling application domains, (2 to show how these models can be transformed systematically into computational models, and (3 to propose the tool TiC (Tool in Context that supports the domain expert when developing a model and generating a simulation tool. Our research methodology is based on Design Science. We verify our approach by describing the various transformation steps in detail, and by demonstrating the way of working via a sample session applying a real problem of Laf Forest Reserve deforestation in North Cameroon.

  15. Environmental optimisation of natural gas fired engines. Measurement on four different engines. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvist, T.

    2010-10-15

    The emissions of NO{sub x}, CO and UHC as well as the composition of the hydrocarbon emissions were measured for four different stationary lean burn natural gas fired engines installed at different combined heat and power (CHP) units in Denmark. The units have been chosen to be representative for the natural gas engine based on power production in Denmark. The NO{sub x} emissions were varied from around 200 to 500 mg/m3(n) by varying the ignition timing and the excess of air. For each of the examined engines measurements were conducted at different combinations of ignition timing and excess of air. The measurements showed the NO{sub x} emissions were relatively more sensitive to engine setting than UHC, CO and formaldehyde emissions. By reducing the NO{sub x} emissions to 40 % of the initial value (from 500 to 200 mg/m3(n)) the UHC emission were increased by 10 % to 50 % of the initial value. The electrical efficiency was reduced by 0,5 to 1,0 % point. (Author)

  16. How an Organization's Environmental Orientation Impacts Environmental Performance and Its Resultant Financial Performance through Green Computing Hiring Practices: An Empirical Investigation of the Natural Resource-Based View of the Firm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aken, Andrew Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation uses the logic embodied in Strategic Fit Theory, the Natural Resource- Based View of the Firm (NRBV), strategic human resource management, and other relevant literature streams to empirically demonstrate how the environmental orientation of a firm's strategy impacts their environmental performance and resultant financial…

  17. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Soil Penetration Resistance of Recultivated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadorozhnaya Galina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines changes in the spatial distribution of soil penetration resistance in ordinary chernozem (Calcic Chernozem and in the recultivated soil in 2012 and 2014. The measurements were carried out in the field using an Eijkelkamp penetrometer on a regular grid. The depth of measurement was 50 cm, the interval was 5 cm. The indices of variation of soil penetration resistance in space and time have been determined. The degree of spatial dependence of soil penetration resistance has been determined layer by layer. The nature of temporal dynamics of soil penetration resistance of chernozem and technical soil has been described. A significant positive relationship of the structure of chernozem in the two years of the research has been shown. Significant correlations between the data of different years in the technical soil were found to be mostly negative.

  18. Environmental performance of a naturally ventilated city centre library; Milieuprestatie van een natuurlijk geventileerde stadsbibliotheek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krausse, B.; Cook, M.; Lomas, K.

    2008-03-15

    To tackle climate change it is essential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. To this end, it is important to reduce the energy demands of nondomestic buildings. Naturally ventilated buildings can have low energy demands but the strategy is difficult to implement in deep plan, urban sites. The Frederick Lanchester Library at Coventry University, UK, incorporates natural ventilation, daylighting and passive cooling strategies. By using lightwells and perimeter stacks to supply and exhaust air, it can be ventilated by natural means despite its deep plan form and sealed facade. This paper describes the building and presents the energy consumption and the internal temperatures and CO2 levels recorded in 2004/2005. The building's performance is compared to the original design criteria and good practice guidelines. Recommendations for the design of such buildings are made and the likely performance in other UK cities is assessed. It is concluded that the building uses under half the energy of a standard airconditioned building and yet, in summer, can keep the interior comfortable and up to 5C below ambient. The design would perform equally well in the typical weather conditions experienced at 13 other UK cities, but not in London. It is concluded that deep-plan, naturally ventilated buildings with sealed facades, if well designed, could maintain thermal comfort in all but a very few UK sites, whilst consuming much less energy than even good practice standards. [Dutch] Natuurlijk geventileerde gebouwen kunnen een lage energievraag hebben. Het is echter moeilijk om deze strategie te implementeren in gebouwen in stedelijke gebieden met een, in verhouding, diepe plattegrond. De Frederick Lanchester Bibliotheek op de Coventry Universiteit in het Verenigd Koninkrijk brengt natuudijke ventilatie, daglicht en passieve koeling samen tot een geheel. Door gebruik te maken van een atrium en ventilatieschachten voor de toevoer en afvoer van lucht, kan er op een natuurlijke wijze

  19. Interaction of natural complexing agents with soil bound heavy metals -geochemical and environmental technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1994-01-01

    The sanitation of heavy metal polluted soils requires the application of an adequate technology, which should be consistent in its ecological aims and methodology. Therefore a research programme has been developed at the 'Institute of Ecological Chemistry' of the 'GSF-Research Center', Neuherberg, which has its starting point in the study of influences of natural organic complexing agents on the chemical activity and dynamic of heavy metals in soils. The groundlaying idea is to elevate the concentration of complexing agents in the soil solution by additional application and possible stimulation of their microbial production to such an extent, that heavy metals will be enhanced solubilized, mobilized and removed together with the seepage water. Batch experiments in order to extract heavy metals from typical soil components (bentonite, peat) by amino acids demonstrate, that removal rates up to 95% can be obtained. (orig.) [de

  20. Taimyr Reindeer and Environmental Change: Monitoring Wild Reindeer Migration in Changing Natural and Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Taimyr Reindeer Herd (TRH) is both the largest and the longest monitored wild reindeer herd in Eurasia. An important part of Arctic ecosystems and Indigenous livelihood, wild reindeer have been continuously monitored for almost 50 years. During this time, herds have exhibited large changes in size and these changes have been recorded in almost all herds across the animal's range. An increasing number of wild reindeer in the Soviet times was followed by a significant population loss in the last decade. In addition, recent monitoring revealed substantial shifts in the distribution of wild populations. The decline in wild reindeer is likely related to natural cycles and changes in the Arctic environment caused by climate variability and anthropogenic activity. This study investigates patterns and possible drives of reindeer population dynamics in space and time. We identify key climatic factors, possible relationships with biomass dynamics, as well as with hunting practices and other human impacts.

  1. Environmental Studies of Natural Radioactivity at Nugrus -Sikait Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; EI-Shershaby, A.; EI- Bahi, S.; Ali, N.; Ibrahim, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven representative samples were collected from two locations; Wadi Nugrus and Wadi Sikait, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. The area is characterized by abnormal radioactivity and has several archaeological sites (Sikait Temple). Emerald mining is a wide spread activity since Pharonic times at Sikait - Nugrus area. The concentration of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U-series, 232 Th-series and 40 K) are measured in all the rock samples by two techniques (HpGe detector and NaI(TI) detector). The Ra e q, and H e x for all samples are also determined. A comparative study between NaI and HpGe- detectors were carried out. The present work indicated that the equilibrium/disequilibrium ratios by using HpGe detector are more precise than that of Nal detectors. The radioactivity at Wadi Nugrus is higher than Wadi Sikait and also higher than the permissible level

  2. Effects of environmental changes on natural selection active on human polygenic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulizzi, L

    1993-06-01

    During the last century, industrialized countries experienced such an improvement in socioeconomic conditions and in sanitation that it is likely that the selective forces active on human metric traits have been modified. Perinatal mortality as a function of birth weight is one of the clearest examples of natural selection in humans. Here, trends over time of stabilizing and directional selection associated with birth weight have been analyzed in Japan from 1969 to 1989. The population of newborns has been subdivided according to gestational age, which is one of the main covariates of birth weight. The results show that in full-term babies both stabilizing and directional selection are coming to an end, whereas in babies born after 8 months of gestation these selective forces are still active, even if at much lower levels than in the past. The peculiar results found in the 7-month-gestation population are probably due to grossly abnormal cases of immaturity.

  3. Natural radioactivity in groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, A; Zhou, X D; Yi, P; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Hou, X L; Yu, Z B

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater is the most valuable resource in arid regions, and recognizing radiological criteria among other water quality parameters is essential for sustainable use. In the investigation presented here, gross-α and gross-β were measured in groundwater samples collected in the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula, 67 wells in Unite Arab Emirates (UAE), as well as two wells and one spring in Oman. The results show a wide gross-α and gross-β activities range in the groundwater samples that vary at 0.01∼19.5 Bq/l and 0.13∼6.6 Bq/l, respectively. The data show gross-β and gross-α values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water in the majority of the investigated samples except those in region 4 (Jabel Hafit and surroundings). No correlation between groundwater pH and the gross-α and gross-β, while high temperatures probably enhance leaching of radionuclides from the aquifer body and thereby increase the radioactivity in the groundwater. This conclusion is also supported by the positive correlation between radioactivity and amount of total dissolved solid. Particular water purification technology and environmental impact assessments are essential for sustainable and secure use of the groundwater in regions that show radioactivity values far above the WHO permissible limit for drinking water.

  4. Influence of natural organic matter and mineral surfaces upon the radionuclide speciation in an environmental context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janot, N.

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with interactions occurring in a ternary europium(III)/humic acid(HA)/α-Al 2 O 3 system, depending on solution conditions (pH, ionic strength, organic concentration). These interactions were studied at a macroscopic scale - quantifying Eu(III) and/or HA adsorption onto the mineral surface - and using time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. The presence of HA modifies Eu(III) behavior toward the mineral surface. Analysis showed a Eu(III)-HA complexation in the ternary system, in all the conditions studied. However, Eu(III) complexation with the mineral surface is occurring at high pH and ionic strength only. Spectrophotometric titrations were validated as a method to study HA reactivity at environmental relevant concentrations. They have been used to determine modifications of HA reactivity after adsorption onto the alumina surface depending on initial HA concentration. These results have then be used to model Eu(III) speciation in the ternary system, using the CD-MUSIC and NICA-Donnan models for mineral and organic complexation, respectively. (author) [fr

  5. Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to aquatic organisms under naturally varying and controlled environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedtke, S.F.; West, C.W.; Allen, K.N.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Mount, D.I.

    1986-06-01

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was determined in the laboratory for 11 aquatic species. Tests were conducted seasonally in ambient Mississippi River water and under controlled conditions in Lake Superior water. Fifty-one acute toxicity tests were conducted, with LC50 values ranging from 85 micrograms/L for the white sucker Catastomus commersoni during the summer to greater than 7770 micrograms/L for the isopod Asellus racovitzai during the winter. The effect of PCP on growth and/or reproduction was determined for seven species. The most sensitive chronically exposed organisms were the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the snail Physa gyrina. The greatest variation in toxicity was due to species sensitivity. Within a given, season there was as much as a 40-fold difference in LC50 values between species. For any one species, the maximum variation in LC50 between seasons was approximately 14-fold. There were also substantial differences in acute-chronic relationships, with acute/chronic ratios ranging from greater than 37 for C. reticulata to 1 for Simocephalus vetulus. It is suggested that the composition of the aquatic community should be the most important consideration in estimating the potential environmental effects of PCP.

  6. Discourse as mediator in environmental education in a natural science class: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Massa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Discourse is an educational practice through which students and teachers are related by a sequence of meanings that are expressed, interchanged, negociated and constructed in the dynamic of a class. In this article, we analize the discursive practices and the arguments that are stated during a Science class when the teacher and her students discuss about the concepts “drinkable water – pollute water” when they are dealing with Environmental Education contents. A qualitative research within the perspective of a case study, centred on discourse analysis, was performed. We examine the content, the resources and the structural features that are used by the teacher and the students in order to construct the arguments and to establish the ideas. Two different templates were detected: the teacher’s, is based on perceptions and operative concepts, while the student’s one is organized in order to seek a microscopic explanation. Nevertheless, negotiation between these two perspectives fails during the dialogic interaction.

  7. Environmental quality modulates the cooperative and competitive nature of a microbial cross-feeding mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Tim; Axelrod, Kevin; Yurtsev, Eugene; Gore, Jeff

    Mutualisms are essential for ecosystem function and stability. However, in some environments the competitive aspects of an interaction may dominate the mutualistic aspects. Although these transitions could have far-reaching implications, it has been difficult to study the causes and consequences of this mutualistic-competitive transition in experimentally tractable systems. Here we experimentally study a microbial cross-feeding mutualism in which each yeast strain supplies an essential amino acid for its partner strain. We find that, depending upon the amino acid concentration, this pair of strains can exhibit any of: obligatory mutualism, facultative mutualism, competition, parasitism, competitive exclusion, or failed mutualism leading to extinction of the population. A simple model capturing the essential features of this interaction predicts that environmental quality specifies the outcome and provides a ``phase diagram'' of net interactions in this mutualism. In addition, the model accurately predicts that changes in the dynamics of the mutualism in deteriorating environments can predict that population collapse is imminent. Our results provide a general framework for how mutualisms may transition between qualitatively different regimes of interaction.

  8. The environmental and socio-economic impacts and benefits associated with developing a natural gas distribution system in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M.E.; Peacock, T. [Sempra Atlantic Gas Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The discovery of large natural gas reserves off the Scotian Shelf has resulted in the development and construction of offshore production platforms as well as underwater and onshore pipelines to transport natural gas to markets on the eastern seaboard. A billion-dollar expenditure is proposed to establish a local distribution company to construct and maintain approximately 8000 km of distribution and lateral pipelines in the province of Nova Scotia. The many aspects of the proposed program were described with particular focus on the regulatory hearings. The paper also discussed the different landscapes that will be crossed and the specialized construction techniques that will be used to meet environmental and economic challenges. The mechanisms in place to ensure maximum benefit for Nova Scotians were also discussed. The proposed project was also compared to other local megaprojects in the province such as the Sable Offshore Energy Project and the Interprovincial Pipeline through Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Some of the successful strategies for implementing benefits plans related to large energy projects were also described. Sempra has been awarded the franchise to distribute natural gas in Nova Scotia. The company has developed a benefits plan that offers significant local involvement in terms of labour and materials. 4 figs.

  9. Public effective doses from environmental natural gamma exposures indoors and outdoors in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Roositalab, Jalil; Mohammadi, Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    The effective doses of public in Iran due to external gamma exposures from terrestrial radionuclides and from cosmic radiation indoors and outdoors of normal natural background radiation areas were determined by measurements and by calculations. For direct measurements, three measurement methods were used including a NaI(TI) scintillation survey meter for preliminary screening, a pressurised ionising chamber for more precise measurements and early warning measurement equipment systems. Measurements were carried out in a large number of locations indoors and outdoors ∼1000 houses selected randomly in 36 large cities of Iran. The external gamma doses of public from living indoors and outdoors were also calculated based on the radioactivity measurements of samples taken from soil and building materials by gamma spectrometry using a high-resolution HPGe system. The national mean background gamma dose rates in air indoors and outdoors based on measurements are 126.9±24.3 and 111.7±17.72 nGy h -1 , respectively. When the contribution from cosmic rays was excluded, the values indoors and outdoors are 109.2±20.2 and 70.2±20.59.4 nGy h -1 , respectively. The dose rates determined for indoors and outdoors by calculations are 101.5±9.2 and 72.2±9.4 nGy h -1 , respectively, which are in good agreement with directly measured dose rates within statistical variations. By considering a population-weighted mean for terrestrial radiation, the ratio of indoor to outdoor dose rates is 1.55. The mean annual effective dose of each individual member of the public from terrestrial radionuclides and cosmic radiation, indoors and outdoors, is 0.86±0.16 mSv y -1 by measurements and 0.8±0.2 mSv y -1 by calculations. The results of this national survey of public annual effective doses from national natural background external gamma radiation determined by measurements and calculations indoors and outdoors of 1000 houses in 36 cities of Iran are presented and discussed. (authors)

  10. Economical and environmental assessments of compressed natural gas for diesel vehicle in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep Chouykerd

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic assessments for the use of compressed natural gas as fuel for several types of diesel vehicles, rarely pick up, non-fixed route truck and private truck, were studied. It is noted that two main technologies of diesel natural gas vehicle (NGV, i.e. dedicated retrofit and diesel dual fuel (DDF, were considered in this work. It was found that the dedicated retrofit needs higher investment costs than dual fuel, but can achieve higher diesel saving than dual fuel. In detail, the payback period of dual fuel non-fixed route truck was found to be identical to dual fuel private truck both in the cases of6 wheel and 10 wheel, while dedicated retrofit non-fixed route truck and private truck are also identical and have longerpay back period than dual fuel due to its higher conversion costs.This work also presents the emissions released from all types of engines especially green house gas CO2. It was found that, in the case of light duty diesel i.e. pickup truck, dedicated retrofit emitted high level of CO2 than both dual fuel and conventional diesel engines. For heavy duty i.e. non-fixed route truck and private truck vehicles, dedicated retrofit emitted a lower level of CO2 than normal diesel engine. Other pollutants from engine emission, i.e. hydrocarbon (HC,nitric oxide (NOx, carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter, (PM were also observed. The results indicated that, inthe case of light duty diesel, dedicated retrofit engine emits higher levels of HC and CO than diesel engine; in contrast, it emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel and dual fuel. Dual fuel emits HC and CO higher than diesel and dedicated retrofit but emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel. Lastly, for heavy duty diesel, it was demonstrated that non-fixed route truck and private truck heavy duty dedicated retrofit have potential to reduce emissions of HC, NOx, CO and PM when compared to normal heavy duty diesel. Engine efficiencies under dual fuel and dedicated

  11. Natural gas vehicles : Status, barriers, and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood Werpy, M.; Santini, D.; Burnham, A.; Mintz, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-29

    In the United States, recent shale gas discoveries have generated renewed interest in using natural gas as a vehicular fuel, primarily in fleet applications, while outside the United States, natural gas vehicle use has expanded significantly in the past decade. In this report for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program - a public-private partnership that advances the energy, economic, and environmental security of the U.S. by supporting local decisions that reduce petroleum use in the transportation sector - we have examined the state of natural gas vehicle technology, current market status, energy and environmental benefits, implications regarding advancements in European natural gas vehicle technologies, research and development efforts, and current market barriers and opportunities for greater market penetration. The authors contend that commercial intracity trucks are a prime area for advancement of this fuel. Therefore, we examined an aggressive future market penetration of natural gas heavy-duty vehicles that could be seen as a long-term goal. Under this scenario using Energy Information Administration projections and GREET life-cycle modeling of U.S. on-road heavy-duty use, natural gas vehicles would reduce petroleum consumption by approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil per day, while another 400,000 barrels of oil per day reduction could be achieved with significant use of natural gas off-road vehicles. This scenario would reduce daily oil consumption in the United States by about 8%.

  12. MODEL PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN TAMAN WISATA ALAM GUNUNG MEJA MANOKWARI PAPUA BARAT (Model Environmental Management of Meja Mountain Natural Manokwari West Papua (Model Environmental Management of Meja Mountain Natural Manokwari West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalsen Basna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Model pengelolaan lingkungan hutan Taman Wisata Alam Gunung Meja mencapai lingkungan keberkelanjutan apabila aspek ekologis, ekonornis, dan sosial budaya yang dinarnis diperlukan suatu konsep model lingkungan yang permanen dalam pengelolaannya. Model lingkungan adalah perwakilan sebuah objek dalam bentuk aktual atau situasi rill yang ditentukan secara sadar dan terencana. Penelitian ini bertujuan (i menganalisis model sistem blok, (2 mengontruksi model rekayasa struktur hutan tanaman lokal campuran sebagai pengedalian lingkungan masa kini, (3 mengonstuksi model arahan lingkungan pengelolaan wisata alam yang berbasis bisnis konservasi.Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah memadukan sumber informasi lingkungan dari data penginderaan jauh, peta tematik, sistem informasi geografis (SIG, dan survei lapangan. Populasi sampel mengenai kerusakan lingkungan dipilih dari peta satuan lahan sesuai dengan liputan citra lansat thematic mapper (TM atau enhanced thematic mapper (ETM seluruh kawasan dan survei lapangan.Hasil penelitian, adalah (1 perumusan model berdasarkan kondisi permasalahan yang terdiri atas model sistem blok berdasarkan blok daerah datar, daerah tangkapan air satu atau daerah dengan kerapatan hutan yang tinggi, blok kerapatan sedang atau daerah tangkapan air dua, blok daerah pernanfaatan dan blok rehabilitasi; (2 mengontruksi model rekayasa struktur hutan tanaman lokal campuran untuk pengendalian lingkungan masa kini berdasarkan stratifikasi tajuk; dan (3 menginstruksi model arahan pengelolaan lingkungan wisata alam yang berbasis bisnis konservasi berdasarkan pada pengembagan jalur pariwisata dan model pengembangan bisnis konservasi. ABSTRACT Model environmental management of forests Meja Mountain Natural Park has achieved thenvironmental aspects of sustainability where ecological, economic and socio-cultural dynamic. At present a concept model of the environment, that can be permanently implied in its management is

  13. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.; Leon-Vintro, L.; Smith, K.; Mitchell, P.I.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  14. Environmental and economic consequences of the overexploitation of natural capital and ecosystem services in Xilinguole League, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, X.B.; Yu, B.H.; Brown, M.T.; Zhang, Y.S.; Kang, M.Y.; Jin, Y.; Zhang, X.S.; Ulgiati, S.

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of natural capital and environmental services has always been an important step in the implementation of sustainable development concepts and policies. The results presented in this study address the demand for environmental support of the economy of Xilinguole League in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as well as the value of its natural and human-made capital. The results show that the reliance of the economy of Xilinguole League on local and imported non-renewable resources (coal and minerals) decreases both the environmental and economic sustainability of the area. Emergy-based performance indicators of the Xilinguole League economy show a low sustainability index (ESI=0.79), though it is higher than for the Chinese economy as a whole (ESI=0.47), as well as a low percentage of renewable resources being used (%REN=0.16, though this is higher than for all of China, 0.09). In contrast, the grassland-based livestock sector shows a higher renewability index (%REN=0.67) and sustainability (ESI=9.61). The emergy exchange ratios (exported emergy/imported emergy) are calculated to be 4.38 for the livestock system and 4.28 for the Xilinguole economy, which is much higher than the value of 1.74 for the overall Chinese economy, indicating uncompensated overexploitation of local systems (meat and coal, respectively). Intensified coal exploitation and intensive cattle grazing are discussed to support the decision-making process for setting local energy policy and ecological compensation. It is proposed that conservation of coal resources (avoiding misuse and moderating excess extraction and trade) and protection of natural grassland capital are more advantageous in emergy terms than the “blind” pursuit of accelerated, economic growth. - Highlights: • The sustainability of theXilinguole League, Inner Mongolia, China, is assessed. • The study deals with the impact of local coal and grassland overexploitation. • Policies for impact reduction by more

  15. The Extent, Nature and Environmental Health Implications of Cottage Industries in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Teare

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cottage industries comprise a sub-group of informal sector income generation activities which are conducted in the home environment and organized around families or households. Cottage industry workers may be at risk of exposure to harmful substances associated with their work, and given the lack of separation of cottage industry activities from living spaces, their families and neighbors may similarly be at risk of exposure. This study was undertaken to determine the extent and nature of cottage industries in five neighborhoods in Johannesburg (South Africa A cross-sectional survey was conducted across five communities in Johannesburg in 2012. Data on metal-related cottage industry activities were collected through the administration of a pre-structured questionnaire. Metal-related cottage industry activities were defined as car repairs, spray painting, scrap metal recycling, electrical appliance repairs, welding, hairdressing and metal jewelry making. One fifth of the households interviewed were operating one or more cottage industries associated with the use of toxic substances. Therefore, the potential exists for associated ill health effects in a considerable proportion of the population. Further research is needed to fully assess exposure to the harmful aspects of cottage industry, as are scaled up campaigns to increase awareness of the risks and correct handling of toxic substances.

  16. Natural Environmental Hazards Reflected in High-Altitude Patagonian Lake Sediments (lake Caviahue, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Anne; Scharf, Burkhard; von Tümpling, Wolf; Pirrung, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Two 6-m long sediment cores drilled in the two basins of Lake Caviahue give new evidence of the impact of natural hazards such as ash fallouts linked to nearby volcanic eruptions in the ecologically sensitive environment of the high-altitude region of the Argentinan Patagonian Andes. The two cores show distinct signals of changes in autochthonous productivity and terrigenous input into the lake from ash fallout as well as from river load and shore erosion. Multiproxy records of the sediments indicate whether these changes can be related to volcanic activity. High values of magnetic susceptibility in the cores reflect periods of basaltic ash fallouts during eruptions of the nearby Copahue Volcano. The southern basin is located in the prevalent direction of ash fallouts and has been affected by these volcanic inputs more intensely than the northern basin of the lake. In contrast, sedimentation and authochthonous productivity in the northern basin are strongly affected by fluvial inputs such as suspended river load and acidic stream waters.

  17. The extent, nature and environmental health implications of cottage industries in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teare, June; Kootbodien, Tahira; Naicker, Nisha; Mathee, Angela

    2015-02-05

    Cottage industries comprise a sub-group of informal sector income generation activities which are conducted in the home environment and organized around families or households. Cottage industry workers may be at risk of exposure to harmful substances associated with their work, and given the lack of separation of cottage industry activities from living spaces, their families and neighbors may similarly be at risk of exposure. This study was undertaken to determine the extent and nature of cottage industries in five neighborhoods in Johannesburg (South Africa) A cross-sectional survey was conducted across five communities in Johannesburg in 2012. Data on metal-related cottage industry activities were collected through the administration of a pre-structured questionnaire. Metal-related cottage industry activities were defined as car repairs, spray painting, scrap metal recycling, electrical appliance repairs, welding, hairdressing and metal jewelry making. One fifth of the households interviewed were operating one or more cottage industries associated with the use of toxic substances. Therefore, the potential exists for associated ill health effects in a considerable proportion of the population. Further research is needed to fully assess exposure to the harmful aspects of cottage industry, as are scaled up campaigns to increase awareness of the risks and correct handling of toxic substances.

  18. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils and synthetic fragrances against selected environmental pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Vaughan, Brent M; Vollmer, David L

    2017-12-01

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products-air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray-for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay. The new EO blend significantly inhibited the growth of the four microorganisms. The zones of inhibition of new EO blend were greater than the air freshener and similar to the liquid soap and body spray, with the exception of Str. pneumoniae in which the body spray provided greater inhibitory zone. The new EO blend and the single oils, with the exception of peppermint, equally inhibited the growth of S. aureus and Str. pneumoniae suggesting no additive effect. P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis showed variable susceptibility to all EOs except for no susceptibility to orange and limonene. No difference was found between (-) and (+)-limonene; whereas, (+)-menthol showed greater effect than (-)-menthol. In conclusion, blending the EO of orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was beneficial in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, Str. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. brasiliensis providing a natural antimicrobial fragrance option over synthetics fragrances used in soaps, body sprays, and air fresheners.

  19. Omics and Environmental Science Genomic Approaches With Natural Fish Populations From Polluted Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Goran; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptomics and population genomics are two complementary genomic approaches that can be used to gain insight into pollutant effects in natural populations. Transcriptomics identify altered gene expression pathways while population genomics approaches more directly target the causative genomic polymorphisms. Neither approach is restricted to a pre-determined set of genes or loci. Instead, both approaches allow a broad overview of genomic processes. Transcriptomics and population genomic approaches have been used to explore genomic responses in populations of fish from polluted environments and have identified sets of candidate genes and loci that appear biologically important in response to pollution. Often differences in gene expression or loci between polluted and reference populations are not conserved among polluted populations suggesting a biological complexity that we do not yet fully understand. As genomic approaches become less expensive with the advent of new sequencing and genotyping technologies, they will be more widely used in complimentary studies. However, while these genomic approaches are immensely powerful for identifying candidate gene and loci, the challenge of determining biological mechanisms that link genotypes and phenotypes remains. PMID:21072843

  20. Environmental and occupational impacts of natural radioactivity from some non-nuclear industries in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, C.W.M.; Steen, J. van der

    1996-01-01

    The existence of natural radioactivity in ores and other raw materials and in their products and wastes has long been recognized. National governments have imposed certain levels, above which the use of radioactive materials is restricted. In the Netherlands, the levels are laid down in the Implementing Orders of the Nuclear Energy Act. In general, the present levels are such that they are not exceeded when the primordial radioactive materials are present only in the form of contaminants. However, the concentration of radioactive materials can be such that somewhere in the raw material-product-waste chain or at releases, these levels might be exceeded. Under such circumstances, the industries have to apply for a licence under the Nuclear Energy Act. Part of the application for a licence is that the industry has to demonstrate that the dose to the workers and to the public is ALARA and below certain dose and risk constraints. In some industries compliance with the individual risk criterion for members of the public (10 -6 year -1 as a maximum risk for dying as a consequence of the practice) can be problematic. Direct irradiation from stock piles and contamination of the environment by releases in the atmosphere or surface waters might give rise to risks around the constraint value. In this paper some examples are given. (author)

  1. Study of leukemia mortality in Bavaria under the aspects of natural and artificial environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsasser, U.; Huber, O.; Hinz, G.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of the official statistics on the causes of death, leukaemia mortality of the years 1970-1978 was investigated. The following aspects were worked out: 1) Acquisition, preparation, and documentation of the relevant data in tables and graphic representations. 2) Temporary development of mortality in Bavaria by trend analysis, subdivided into different types of leukaemia and summarized for all leukaemia types. 3) Bavarian regions were investigated on differences in leukaemia mortality. Criteria for this investigation were the following: a) the presence of nuclear power stations, b) the amount of the exposure to natural irradiation c) number of employees in chemical plants, d) number of employees in the manufacture of leather. The most important results are: 1) For the considered period an increase of the leukaemia mortality rate from the 70th year of life upwards was found in Bavaria. In the other age groups the values for the individual years of life varied too strong to permit any statements about a detectable trend. 2) A correlative connection between the parameters given under 3) and leukaemia mortality could not be proved. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Theory of activated penetrant diffusion in viscous fluids and colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rui; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    We heuristically formulate a microscopic, force level, self-consistent nonlinear Langevin equation theory for activated barrier hopping and non-hydrodynamic diffusion of a hard sphere penetrant in very dense hard sphere fluid matrices. Penetrant dynamics is controlled by a rich competition between force relaxation due to penetrant self-motion and collective matrix structural (alpha) relaxation. In the absence of penetrant-matrix attraction, three activated dynamical regimes are predicted as a function of penetrant-matrix size ratio which are physically distinguished by penetrant jump distance and the nature of matrix motion required to facilitate its hopping. The penetrant diffusion constant decreases the fastest with size ratio for relatively small penetrants where the matrix effectively acts as a vibrating amorphous solid. Increasing penetrant-matrix attraction strength reduces penetrant diffusivity due to physical bonding. For size ratios approaching unity, a distinct dynamical regime emerges associated with strong slaving of penetrant hopping to matrix structural relaxation. A crossover regime at intermediate penetrant-matrix size ratio connects the two limiting behaviors for hard penetrants, but essentially disappears if there are strong attractions with the matrix. Activated penetrant diffusivity decreases strongly with matrix volume fraction in a manner that intensifies as the size ratio increases. We propose and implement a quasi-universal approach for activated diffusion of a rigid atomic/molecular penetrant in a supercooled liquid based on a mapping between the hard sphere system and thermal liquids. Calculations for specific systems agree reasonably well with experiments over a wide range of temperature, covering more than 10 orders of magnitude of variation of the penetrant diffusion constant

  3. Environmental Noise Exposure On Occupants In Naturally Ventilated Open-Plan Offices Case Of Selected Offices In Kumasi Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koranteng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of buildings in public educational institutions in Ghana predominantly adopts open-plan offices that are naturally ventilated with the aid of operable windows for reasons such as achieving adaptable spaces improved social climate and effective ventilation. However adoption of open-plan naturally ventilated offices in these educational institutions expose occupants to noise that emanates indoors and from outdoor sources which can interfere with and impede work performance. The study aimed at assessing noise exposure levels and occupants satisfaction with noise level in selected naturally ventilated open-plan offices in Ghana. The study employed an empirical assessment of the noise levels in and around three of the office buildings using a PCE222 Digital Sound Level Meter and a survey involving interviews to assess workers satisfaction of noise levels of the open-plan offices at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Kumasi. The results show that mean outdoor noise levels for offices ranged from 11 per cent below to 5 per cent above the WHO permissible limits while mean indoor noise levels exceeded the limit by between 20-40 per cent during the course of the day. In spite of the high levels of noise occupants generally considered the overall noise level in their offices as acceptable. Likewise the results indicate that there are no significant differences in occupants exposure to noise from their various sitting positions in an office space and floor levels in an office building. The paper recommends strategies to manage and improve ambient noise quality within naturally ventilated open-plan office spaces in Ghana. The study will be of relevance as a useful guide to organizations and policy makers concerned with built environmental issues.

  4. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils and synthetic fragrances against selected environmental pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula L. Vieira-Brock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils (EOs are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products–air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray–for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay. The new EO blend significantly inhibited the growth of the four microorganisms. The zones of inhibition of new EO blend were greater than the air freshener and similar to the liquid soap and body spray, with the exception of Str. pneumoniae in which the body spray provided greater inhibitory zone. The new EO blend and the single oils, with the exception of peppermint, equally inhibited the growth of S. aureus and Str. pneumoniae suggesting no additive effect. P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis showed variable susceptibility to all EOs except for no susceptibility to orange and limonene. No difference was found between (− and (+-limonene; whereas, (+-menthol showed greater effect than (−-menthol. In conclusion, blending the EO of orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was beneficial in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, Str. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. brasiliensis providing a natural antimicrobial fragrance option over synthetics fragrances used in soaps, body sprays, and air fresheners. Keywords: Essential oils, Soap, Body spray, Air freshener

  5. Penetration shielding applications of CYLSEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexheimer, D.T.; Hathaway, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of penetration and discontinuity shielding is necessary to meet 10CFR20 regulations for ensuring personnel exposures are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Historically, those shielding evaluations have been done to some degree on all projects. However, many early plants used conservative methods due to lack of an economical computer code, resulting in costly penetration shielding programs. With the increased industry interest in cost effectively reducing personnel exposures to meet ALARA regulations and with the development of the CYLSEC gamma transport computer code at Bechtel, a comprehensive effort was initiated to reduce penetration and discontinuity shielding but still provide a prudent degree of protection for plant personnel from radiation streaming. This effort was more comprehensive than previous programs due to advances in shielding analysis technology and increased interest in controlling project costs while maintaining personnel exposures ALARA. Methodology and resulting cost savings are discussed

  6. Environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy): aspects of soil and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Giupponi, Luca; Cassinari, Chiara; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-05-01

    This work, originating in the preliminary analyses of a Life project and co-financed by the European Union ("Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified by a new treatment technology for land reconstruction", Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"; http://www.lifeplusecosistemi.eu), aims to evaluate the environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy) by analysing the characteristics of soil and vegetation. The area of study is located in the municipal territory of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) along the eastern shores of the river Trebbia and is made up of the closed landfill of Solid Urban Waste of Borgotrebbia (active from 1972 to 1985) and of the neighbouring areas (in North-South order: riverside area, northern borders of the landfill, landfill disposal, southern borders and cultivated corn fields). For each area pedological and vegetational analyses were carried out and in particular, as regards the soil, various chemical-physical analyses were done among which: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, salinity, exchangeable bases and granulometry. The ground vegetation data were collected using phytosociological relevés according to the method of the Zurich-Montpellier Sigmatist School, (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). For the analysis of the environmental quality of each area, the floristic-vegetation indexes system was applied as proposed by Taffetani & Rismondo (2009) (updated by Rismondo et al., 2011) conveniently created for analysing the ecological functionality of the agro-ecosystems. The results obtained by such applications drew attention to a dynamic vegetation mass in the landfill which, despite a value of the floristic biodiversity index (IFB) comparable to that of the borders, shows a much lower value of the maturity index (IM). This is due to the elevated percentage of annual species (index of the therophytic component = 52.78%) belonging to the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex

  7. Gas hydrates and clathrates. Flow assurance, environmental and economic perspectives and the Nigerian liquefied natural gas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbaruko, B.C.; Igwe, J.C.; Nwokeoma, R.C.; Gbaruko, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    Gas hydrates are nonstoichiometric crystalline compounds that belong to the inclusion group known as clathrates. They occur when water molecules attach themselves together through hydrogen bonding and form cavities which can be occupied by a single gas or volatile liquid molecule. Gas hydrates, asphaltenes and waxes are three major threats to flow assurance that must be well assessed by design team uptime. Gas hydrates are also looked upon as a future energy source and as a potential climate hazard. The purpose of this review is to show the chemistry and mechanism of gas hydrate formation, the problems they pose, especially to flow assurance, their system implications, their environmental and economic perspectives with respect to their prospects as storage and transport alternative to the liquefied natural gas technology. (author)

  8. Natural terrestrial radiation exposure in Hong Kong. A survey on environmental gamma absorbed dose rate in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.C.; Poon, H.T.; Chan, Y.K.; So, C.K.

    2000-01-01

    portable high pressure ionization chamber Reuter-Stokes Model RSS-112 was employed in the survey. In total, 98 measurements were made (37 in the open field, 61 in the built-up areas). The open field survey results were compiled together with available data from the RMN stations. After cosmic and seasonal corrections, the value in the open field ranges from 51 to 123 nGy/h with an average of 87 nGy/h. This is typical of the igneous geology in south China and compares well with those of neighbouring cities. Environmental gamma absorbed dose rate in air in the built-up areas in Hong Kong is greatly enhanced due to the source geometry of the high rise buildings closely packed along the streets, and also the change in source intensity due to paving of the natural environment. After cosmic and seasonal corrections, the value in the built-up areas ranges from 135 to 229 nGy/h with an average of 179 nGy/h. The significant difference between the open field and built-up area values suggests that it would be useful if the outdoor gamma dose rates in air would be reported separately for open field and built-up areas so as to enable meaningful comparison of environmental gamma absorbed dose rates in air at various places on a 'like-with-like' basis. (author)

  9. A unified model for energy and environmental performance assessment of natural gas-fueled poly-generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    Poly-generation systems for combined production of manifold energy vectors such as electricity, heat at different enthalpy levels (for instance, in the form of hot water and steam), and cooling power from a unique source of primary energy (typically natural gas) are increasingly spreading, above all on a small-scale basis (below 1 MW e ), owing to their enhanced energy, environmental and economic characteristics. Availability of suitable tools for assessing the performance of such systems is therefore fundamental. In this paper, a unified general model is proposed for assessing the energy and CO 2 emission performance of any type of poly-generation system with natural gas as the energy input. In particular, the classical energy saving model for cogeneration systems is extended to include in the analysis further energy vectors by defining the novel PPES (Poly-generation Primary Energy Saving) indicator. In addition, equivalent efficiencies for CO 2 emission assessment are defined and used in the formulation of the new PCO2ER (Poly-generation CO 2 Emission Reduction) indicator, specifically introduced for environmental analysis. The formal analogy between the PPES and the PCO2ER indicators is highlighted. Numerical applications are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed models and to quantify the typical benefits that poly-generation systems can bring. In particular, the new indicators are of relevant interest for both energy planners and policy makers, above all in the outlook of formulating financial incentive strategies, as it already occurs for cogeneration systems, or of participating to specific energy-related markets such as the ones for trading white certificates or emission allowances

  10. Hydrological classification of natural flow regimes to support environmental flow assessments in intensively regulated Mediterranean rivers, Segura River Basin (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar, Oscar; Velasco, Josefa; Martinez-Capel, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Hydrological classification constitutes the first step of a new holistic framework for developing regional environmental flow criteria: the "Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA)". The aim of this study was to develop a classification for 390 stream sections of the Segura River Basin based on 73 hydrological indices that characterize their natural flow regimes. The hydrological indices were calculated with 25 years of natural monthly flows (1980/81-2005/06) derived from a rainfall-runoff model developed by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Public Works. These indices included, at a monthly or annual basis, measures of duration of droughts and central tendency and dispersion of flow magnitude (average, low and high flow conditions). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated high redundancy among most hydrological indices, as well as two gradients: flow magnitude for mainstream rivers and temporal variability for tributary streams. A classification with eight flow-regime classes was chosen as the most easily interpretable in the Segura River Basin, which was supported by ANOSIM analyses. These classes can be simplified in 4 broader groups, with different seasonal discharge pattern: large rivers, perennial stable streams, perennial seasonal streams and intermittent and ephemeral streams. They showed a high degree of spatial cohesion, following a gradient associated with climatic aridity from NW to SE, and were well defined in terms of the fundamental variables in Mediterranean streams: magnitude and temporal variability of flows. Therefore, this classification is a fundamental tool to support water management and planning in the Segura River Basin. Future research will allow us to study the flow alteration-ecological response relationship for each river type, and set the basis to design scientifically credible environmental flows following the ELOHA framework.

  11. Colony size-frequency distribution of pocilloporid juvenile corals along a natural environmental gradient in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Cortés, Diego F; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-04-30

    Coral colony size-frequency distributions can be used to assess population responses to local environmental conditions and disturbances. In this study, we surveyed juvenile pocilloporids, herbivorous fish densities, and algal cover in the central and southern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We sampled nine reefs with different disturbance histories along a north-south natural gradient of physicochemical conditions (higher salinity and wider temperature fluctuations in the north, and higher turbidity and productivity in the south). Since coral populations with negatively skewed size-frequency distributions have been associated with unfavorable environmental conditions, we expected to find more negative distributions in the southern Red Sea, where corals are potentially experiencing suboptimal conditions. Although juvenile coral and parrotfish densities differed significantly between the two regions, mean colony size and size-frequency distributions did not. Results suggest that pocilloporid colony size-frequency distribution may not be an accurate indicator of differences in biological or oceanographic conditions in the Red Sea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Siren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an upland area of 1400 km2 surrounding the indigenous Kichwa community of Sarayaku in the Ecuadorian Amazon, based on oral history elicited from local elders as well as historical source documents and some modern scientific studies. Although data is scarce, one can conclude that the impacts of humans on the environment have varied in time and space in quite intricate ways. Hunting has affected, and continues affecting, basically the whole study area, but it is now more concentrated in space than what it has probably ever been before. Also forest clearing has become more concentrated in space but, in addition, it has gone from affecting only hilltops forests to affecting alluvial plains as well as hilltops and, lately, also the slopes of the hills.

  13. Identification of key processes ruling environmental behaviour of naturally occurring radionuclides on example of Polish Observatory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, Boguslaw [Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Glowny Instytut Gornictwa, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Developing a sufficient understanding of environmental processes and exposure pathways that permit observations to be explained and robust predictions to be made over spatial and temporal scales is a clear challenge that radioecology needs to address. This scientific challenge has been developed as a separate section of the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) a document produced by the STAR Network of Excellence in Radioecology that outlines a suggested prioritisation of research topics in radioecology. Reality is that in order to bring the SRA to fruition, besides considerable resources and time, an available proving ground is required. The sole sources of such data are areas affected by nuclear accidents but the conditions provided do not follow requirements for scientific experiment. On the other hand, it is hard to imagine anyone deliberately releasing substantial amount of radioactivity into environment in order to observe what would happen- Some of coal mines at Upper Silesia Coal Basin have discharged radium reach brines continuously for many years. The total amount of radium released to inland water is quite well known and varies with time or exploitation conditions. This phenomenon has been observed for more than 30 years and many contaminated sites being in different state were identified. Natural radionuclides (mainly radium isotopes) present in mine water after its release into the environment are subject to different chemical and/or physical processes influencing their final fate. The processes of concern are e.g. precipitation, sedimentation, adsorption, absorption, ion exchange, desorption, leaching, erosion, sequential decay etc. Based on physical and chemical rules, available data and real environmental conditions the key processes that govern radium and its progeny behaviour after discharge with mine water, associated transfers among environmental compartments and resulting exposures of both non-human and humans populations have been identified. The

  14. Risk forewarning of regional development sustainability based on a natural resources and environmental carrying index in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Wang, Yafei; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Lijuan; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Wang, Chuansheng; Xu, Weihua; Li, Jiuyi; Yu, Jianhui; Zhou, Kan

    2017-02-01

    It is a matter of public consensus that China's high growth rate has been achieved at the expense of natural resources and the environment, leading to serious risks to sustainability. This research, which proposes a theoretical model to forewarn of risks to regional developmental sustainability in China, constitutes the first empirical evaluation of this to be undertaken there. The results show that: (a) the areas at risk cover almost 43% of the land and 44% of the population of mainland China. In those areas, 83.56% of people at risk are threatened by the low carrying capacity of the environment and limited water resources. (b) With 70% of the total population living in "at risk" areas, urbanization zones remain as the primary category suffering from overload across China. Extensive industrialization has resulted in environmental pollution, which contributes the most to the forewarning status, while the secondary cause is found to be the special coupling of the scarcity of natural water resources and their inefficient use. In addition, most urban conglomerations suffer from pollution by industrial production and household consumption, which tends to extend to their surrounding agricultural areas. Extensive mineral exploitation in ecologically fragile areas has made them increasingly more vulnerable to disturbances from their neighboring resource-driven urban areas. The paper uses these findings to suggest how to intensify the special regulatory administration of resources and the environment, and to transform approaches to industrialization, in order to address sustainable development issues in developing countries.

  15. The development of learning model for natural science based on environmental in conservation area of Bengkulu University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyadi, B.; Susanta, A.; Winari, E. W.; Ekaputri, R. Z.; Enersi, D.

    2018-05-01

    Research on development of a learning model for Natural Science base on conservation area in Bengkulu University has been conducted. The research methods were referred to the standard steps of Research and Development. Stage activities were (a) analysis of needs, (b) observation of the ecological aspects of conservation area as a learning resource, and (c) instructional design based on conservation area for secondary school students. The observation results on the ecological aspects revealed that the diversity of plants and animals, at the conservation area were sufficient as a source for learning. The instructional design was prepared in three phase activities namely Introduction-Exploration-Interpretation (IEI), and then it was compiled in a teaching material Based on Surrounding Natural Environment” (BSNE). The results of a limited scale trial at secondary school students in two districts of Bengkulu province showed that, the students who learned using the IEI model at the conservation area have a good performance and critical thinking. The product from the research is a book named BSNE that can be used for teachers and conservation practitioners in doing the learning activities on environmental conservation which involved public participation.

  16. Relation of desert pupfish abundance to selected environmental variables in natural and manmade habitats in the Salton Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B.A.; Saiki, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the relation between abundance of desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, and selected biological and physicochemical variables in natural and manmade habitats within the Salton Sea Basin. Field sampling in a natural tributary, Salt Creek, and three agricultural drains captured eight species including pupfish (1.1% of the total catch), the only native species encountered. According to Bray-Curtis resemblance functions, fish species assemblages differed mostly between Salt Creek and the drains (i.e., the three drains had relatively similar species assemblages). Pupfish numbers and environmental variables varied among sites and sample periods. Canonical correlation showed that pupfish abundance was positively correlated with abundance of western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and negatively correlated with abundance of porthole livebearers, Poeciliopsis gracilis, tilapias (Sarotherodon mossambica and Tilapia zillii), longjaw mudsuckers, Gillichthys mirabilis, and mollies (Poecilia latipinnaandPoecilia mexicana). In addition, pupfish abundance was positively correlated with cover, pH, and salinity, and negatively correlated with sediment factor (a measure of sediment grain size) and dissolved oxygen. Pupfish abundance was generally highest in habitats where water quality extremes (especially high pH and salinity, and low dissolved oxygen) seemingly limited the occurrence of nonnative fishes. This study also documented evidence of predation by mudsuckers on pupfish. These findings support the contention of many resource managers that pupfish populations are adversely influenced by ecological interactions with nonnative fishes. ?? Springer 2005.

  17. Prediction of electric vehicle penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The object of this report is to present the current market status of plug-in-electric : vehicles (PEVs) and to predict their future penetration within the world and U.S. : markets. The sales values for 2016 show a strong year of PEV sales both in the...

  18. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  19. Industrial Penetration and Internet Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-C. Wu (Yu-Chieh)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the effect of industrial penetration and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 two-digit industry

  20. Import market penetration in services

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.

    1991-01-01

    The EC-1992 programme foresees the complete liberalization of trade in services among member countries. To what extent has import market penetration in the Community already begun in selected service industries? Which EC member countries have been the forerunners to date? The following paper uses a new data base released recently by EUROSTAT in an attempt to answer these and other related questions.

  1. Microstructured barbs on the North American porcupine quill enable easy tissue penetration and difficult removal

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Woo Kyung; Ankrum, James A.; Guo, Dagang; Chester, Shawn A.; Yang, Seung Yun; Kashyap, Anurag; Campbell, Georgina A.; Wood, Robert J.; Rijal, Ram K.; Karnik, Rohit; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    North American porcupines are well known for their specialized hairs, or quills that feature microscopic backward-facing deployable barbs that are used in self-defense. Herein we show that the natural quill’s geometry enables easy penetration and high tissue adhesion where the barbs specifically contribute to adhesion and unexpectedly, dramatically reduce the force required to penetrate tissue. Reduced penetration force is achieved by topography that appears to create stress concentrations al...

  2. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  3. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  4. Environmental effects on natural frequencies of the San Pietro bell tower in Perugia, Italy, and their removal for structural performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Filippo; Comanducci, Gabriele; Cavalagli, Nicola; Laura Pisello, Anna; Luigi Materazzi, Annibale; Cotana, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Continuously identified natural frequencies of vibration can provide unique information for low-cost automated condition assessment of civil constructions and infrastructures. However, the effects of changes in environmental parameters, such as temperature and humidity, need to be effectively investigated and accurately removed from identified frequency data for an effective performance assessment. This task is particularly challenging in the case of historical constructions that are typically massive and heterogeneous masonry structures characterized by complex variations of materials' properties with varying environmental parameters and by a differential heat conduction process where thermal capacity plays a major role. While there is abundance of documented monitoring data highlighting correlations between environmental parameters and natural frequencies in the case of new structures, such as long-span bridges, similar studies for historical constructions are still missing, with only a few literature works occasionally reporting increments in natural frequencies with increasing temperature of construction materials due to the closure of internal micro-cracks in the mortar layers caused by thermal expansion. In order to gain some knowledge on the effects of changes in temperature and humidity on the natural frequencies of slender masonry buildings, the paper focuses on the case study of an Italian monumental bell tower that has been monitored by the authors for more than nine months. Correlations between natural frequencies and environmental parameters are investigated in detail and the predictive capabilities of linear statistical regressive models based on the use of several environmental continuous monitoring sensors are assessed. At the end, three basic mechanisms governing environmentally-induced changes in the dynamic behavior of the tower are identified and essential information is achieved on the optimal location and minimum number of environmental

  5. Host-symbiont recombination versus natural selection in the response of coral-dinoflagellate symbioses to environmental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJeunesse, Todd C; Smith, Robin; Walther, Mariana; Pinzón, Jorge; Pettay, Daniel T; McGinley, Michael; Aschaffenburg, Matthew; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L; Pérez, Andrés López; Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Warner, Mark E

    2010-10-07

    Mutualisms between reef-building corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates are particularly sensitive to environmental stress, yet the ecosystems they construct have endured major oscillations in global climate. During the winter of 2008, an extreme cold-water event occurred in the Gulf of California that bleached corals in the genus Pocillopora harbouring a thermally 'sensitive' symbiont, designated Symbiodinium C1b-c, while colonies possessing Symbiodinium D1 were mostly unaffected. Certain bleached colonies recovered quickly while others suffered partial or complete mortality. In most colonies, no appreciable change was observed in the identity of the original symbiont, indicating that these partnerships are stable. During the initial phases of recovery, a third species of symbiont B1(Aiptasia), genetically identical to that harboured by the invasive anemone, Aiptasia sp., grew opportunistically and was visible as light-yellow patches on the branch tips of several colonies. However, this symbiont did not persist and was displaced in all cases by C1b-c several months later. Colonies with D1 were abundant at inshore habitats along the continental eastern Pacific, where seasonal turbidity is high relative to offshore islands. Environmental conditions of the central and southern coasts of Mexico were not sufficient to explain the exclusivity of D1 Pocillopora in these regions. It is possible that mass mortalities associated with major thermal disturbances during the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation eliminated C1b-c holobionts from these locations. The differential loss of Pocillopora holobionts in response to thermal stress suggests that natural selection on existing variation can cause rapid and significant shifts in the frequency of particular coral-algal partnerships. However, coral populations may take decades to recover following episodes of severe selection, thereby raising considerable uncertainty about the long-term viability of these communities.

  6. Host–symbiont recombination versus natural selection in the response of coral–dinoflagellate symbioses to environmental disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaJeunesse, Todd C.; Smith, Robin; Walther, Mariana; Pinzón, Jorge; Pettay, Daniel T.; McGinley, Michael; Aschaffenburg, Matthew; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L.; Pérez, Andrés López; Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Warner, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Mutualisms between reef-building corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates are particularly sensitive to environmental stress, yet the ecosystems they construct have endured major oscillations in global climate. During the winter of 2008, an extreme cold-water event occurred in the Gulf of California that bleached corals in the genus Pocillopora harbouring a thermally ‘sensitive’ symbiont, designated Symbiodinium C1b-c, while colonies possessing Symbiodinium D1 were mostly unaffected. Certain bleached colonies recovered quickly while others suffered partial or complete mortality. In most colonies, no appreciable change was observed in the identity of the original symbiont, indicating that these partnerships are stable. During the initial phases of recovery, a third species of symbiont B1Aiptasia, genetically identical to that harboured by the invasive anemone, Aiptasia sp., grew opportunistically and was visible as light-yellow patches on the branch tips of several colonies. However, this symbiont did not persist and was displaced in all cases by C1b-c several months later. Colonies with D1 were abundant at inshore habitats along the continental eastern Pacific, where seasonal turbidity is high relative to offshore islands. Environmental conditions of the central and southern coasts of Mexico were not sufficient to explain the exclusivity of D1 Pocillopora in these regions. It is possible that mass mortalities associated with major thermal disturbances during the 1997–1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation eliminated C1b-c holobionts from these locations. The differential loss of Pocillopora holobionts in response to thermal stress suggests that natural selection on existing variation can cause rapid and significant shifts in the frequency of particular coral–algal partnerships. However, coral populations may take decades to recover following episodes of severe selection, thereby raising considerable uncertainty about the long-term viability of these communities

  7. Environmental modulation of somatic mutations: nature of interactions. Final report, 1 June 1974--31 May 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mericle, L.W.

    1977-05-01

    Research on this project has had as a major goal a combined ecologic-genetic investigation of somatic mutations in order to evaluate the impacts of certain changing environmental parameters. The ultimate aim, to better understand how such environmental-mutation interactions operate and to assure the information obtained be extrapolatable to conditions and events in nature. Higher plants delineate reproductive tissues late in development from meristematic, somatic tissues. Moreover, the prevailing method of reproduction may be without sexual fusion of gametes and/or wholly asexual (vegetative). Therefore, somatic mutations can have as far-reaching genetic significance for a plant population as when germ cells, themselves, are directly affected. Our data show diurnal temperature differences (DTD) of greater than or equal to 22.2 C-degrees to be very effective mutagenic agents in the Tradescantia somatic mutation system. Further, these ranges of DTD were found to occur often in important seed production areas. A DTD of 22.2 in magnitude can increase mutations 10-fold. And, durations short as 1-day can induce significant increases in mutation rate. Whether interaction of 22.2 DTD with low-level radiation (800 mR/day) is synergistic or attenuative is still debatable. We believe, however, that spontaneous, and 22.2 DTD induced, mutations occur mainly via the genetic mechanism of somatic crossing-over; mutations from acute ionizing radiation (e.g., 30-60 R γ) via chromosome breakage, producing micronuclei. Requirements for maximizing the Discriminatory Response Capability (DRC) in the Tradescantia somatic mutation system are set forth

  8. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  9. Soil and geomorphological parameters to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the Guadarrama Range (Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Inclán-Cuartas, Rosa M.; Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo; Saa, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Tanarro-Garcia, Luis M.; Luque, Esperanza; Pelayo, Marta; Ubeda, Jose; Tarquis, Ana; Diaz-Puente, Javier; De Marcos, Javier; Rodriguez-Alonso, Javier; Hernandez, Carlos; Palacios, David; Gallardo-Díaz, Juan; Fidel González-Rouco, J.

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain ecosystems are often complex and remarkably diverse and are seen as important sources of biological diversity. They play a key role in the water and sediment cycle for lowland regions as well as preventing and mitigating natural hazards especially those related to drought such as fire risk. However, these ecosystems are fragile and vulnerable to changes due to their particular and extreme climatic and biogeographic conditions. Some of the main pressures on mountain biodiversity are caused by changes in land use practices, infrastructure and urban development, unsustainable tourism, overexploitation of natural resources, fragmentation of habitats, particularly when located close to large population centers, as well as by pressures related toclimate change. The objective of this work is to select soil and geomorphological parameters in order to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the newly created National Park of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Central Spain, where the presence of the Madrid metropolitan area is the main factor of impact. This is carried out within the framework of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet) of the Campus de ExcelenciaInternacionalMoncloa, where long-term monitoring of the atmosphere, soil and bedrock are priority. This network has a total of ten stations located to the NW of Madrid and in this case, three stations have been selected to represent different ecosystems that include: 1) an alluvial plain in a lowland pasture area (La Herreria at 920 m a.s.l.), 2) mid mountain pine-forested and pasture area (Raso del Pino at 1801 m a.s.l.) and 3) high mountain grassland and rock area (Dos Hermanas at 2225 m a.s.l.). At each station a site geomorphological description, soil profile description and sampling was carried out. In the high mountain area information was obtained for monitoring frost heave activity and downslope soil movement. Basic soil laboratory analyses have been carried out

  10. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the frequency of catastrophes induced by natural hazard has increased and flood events in particular have been recognized as one of the most threatening water-related disasters. Severe floods have occurred in Europe over the last decade causing loss of life, displacement of people and heavy economic losses. Flood disasters are growing as a consequence of many factors, both climatic and non-climatic. Indeed, the current increase of water-related disasters can be mainly attributed to the increase of exposure (increase elements potentially at risk in floodplains area) and vulnerability (i.e. economic, social, geographic, cultural, and physical/environmental characteristics of the exposure). Besides these factors, the strong effect of climate change is projected to radically modify the usual pattern of the hydrological cycle by intensifying the frequency and severity of flood events both at local, regional and global scale. Within this context, it becomes urgent and dramatically relevant the need of promoting and developing effective and pro-active strategies, tools and actions which allow to assess and (possibly) to reduce the flood risks that threats different relevant receptors. Several methodologies to assess the risk posed by water-related natural hazards have been proposed so far, but very few of them can be adopted to implement the last European Flood Directive (FD). The present study is intended to introduce and present a state-of-the-art Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The methodology, developed within the recently phased out FP7-KULTURisk Project (Knowledge-based approach to develop a cULTUre of Risk prevention - KR) is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The FD compliant

  11. Stakeholder Analysis in Utilizing of Environmental Services and Natural Attractions in Tuk Semuncar Utilization Zone of Gunung Merbabu National Park: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Muhammad Arif; Muhammad, Fuad

    2018-02-01

    Many stakeholders in the utilizing of environmental services and natural attraction of Tuk Semuncar Utilization Zone needs to get the attention of the Gunung Merbabu National Park Officer. The existence of natural resources has an important role for the life of the community, making the complexity of the relationship between various parties who have interests in natural resource management. The existence of stakeholders and their interests should receive attention and be considered to be accommodated as an effort to prevent the occurrence of losses to the conservation area of Gunung Merbabu National Park. Every stakeholder's interest can have a positive and negative impact on other stakeholders. Stakeholder analysis can help in understanding the conflict on the utilizing of environmental services and natural attraction that is happening, as well as input strategy in involving stakeholders for the achievement of goals.

  12. Stakeholder Analysis in Utilizing of Environmental Services and Natural Attractions in Tuk Semuncar Utilization Zone of Gunung Merbabu National Park: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan Muhammad Arif

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many stakeholders in the utilizing of environmental services and natural attraction of Tuk Semuncar Utilization Zone needs to get the attention of the Gunung Merbabu National Park Officer. The existence of natural resources has an important role for the life of the community, making the complexity of the relationship between various parties who have interests in natural resource management. The existence of stakeholders and their interests should receive attention and be considered to be accommodated as an effort to prevent the occurrence of losses to the conservation area of Gunung Merbabu National Park. Every stakeholder's interest can have a positive and negative impact on other stakeholders. Stakeholder analysis can help in understanding the conflict on the utilizing of environmental services and natural attraction that is happening, as well as input strategy in involving stakeholders for the achievement of goals.

  13. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  14. Mobile Termination and Mobile Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  15. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two opposing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that firm...

  16. Fluorescent penetration crack testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    1979-01-01

    The same cleaning, penetration, washing, development and evaluation agents are used in this method as for known methods. In order to accelerate or shorten the testing, the drying process is performed only to optical dryness of the material surface by blowing on it with pressurized air, the development by simple pressing into or dusting of the material with the developer and the temperature of the washing water is selected within room temperature range. (RW) [de

  17. HMO penetration and physicians' earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Mitchell, J M

    1999-11-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate whether cross-sectional variations in enrollment in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) affected physicians' earnings and hourly income in 1990. Using data from a nationally representative sample of 4,577 younger physicians (penetration is endogenous and used the instrumental variables approach to obtain unbiased estimates. HMO penetration had a negative and statistically significant impact on physicians earnings in 1990. A doubling of the average level of HMO penetration in the market is estimated to reduce annual earnings by 7% to 10.7%, and hourly earnings by approximately 6% to 9%. It appears that HMOs were successful in reducing physicians' annual and per hour earnings in 1990, presumably through a combination of fewer visits and lower payment rates for people covered by HMOs. Although these results cannot be generalized to all physicians, the experience of a younger cohort of physicians may still be a good indicator of the future effects of HMOs because younger physicians may be more susceptible to market forces than older and more established physicians. Moreover, these results may be somewhat conservative because they reflect market behavior in 1990, several years before the rapid growth and more aggressive market behavior of HMOs in recent years.

  18. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  19. Towards tributyltin quantification in natural water at the Environmental Quality Standard level required by the Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasonati, Enrica; Fettig, Ina; Richter, Janine; Philipp, Rosemarie; Milačič, Radmila; Sčančar, Janez; Zuliani, Tea; Tunç, Murat; Bilsel, Mine; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan; Fisicaro, Paola

    2016-11-01

    The European Union (EU) has included tributyltin (TBT) and its compounds in the list of priority water pollutants. Quality standards demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) require determination of TBT at so low concentration level that chemical analysis is still difficult and further research is needed to improve the sensitivity, the accuracy and the precision of existing methodologies. Within the frame of a joint research project "Traceable measurements for monitoring critical pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive" in the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), four metrological and designated institutes have developed a primary method to quantify TBT in natural water using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SSIDMS). The procedure has been validated at the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) level (0.2ngL(-1) as cation) and at the WFD-required limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.06ngL(-1) as cation). The LOQ of the methodology was 0.06ngL(-1) and the average measurement uncertainty at the LOQ was 36%, which agreed with WFD requirements. The analytical difficulties of the method, namely the presence of TBT in blanks and the sources of measurement uncertainties, as well as the interlaboratory comparison results are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The social nature of environmental knowledge among the nomadic WoÉ - aaÉ"e of Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Schareika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral nomads such as West Africa's WoÉ - aaÉ"e are renowned for the impressive environmental knowledge they apply to successfully raise animal herds in arid and variable environments. We looked at such herders' knowledge not as based on individual learning and expertise but as ultimately social in the sense that it is formed, made available, and linked to pastoral decision making in the public and interactive space of permanent talking, discussing, and negotiating among peers. Drawing on theoretical ideas from science and technology studies, a number of concrete social situations of information management and pastoral decision making were explored in detail to reveal the distinctly social character of WoÉ - aaÉ"e knowledge. Special emphasis has been given to the institutional framework of knowledge exchange; the blending of moral values and empirical facts in particular statements of knowledge; the dialogic and collaborative nature of information procurement and assessment; and the contingency of decisions reached after lengthy rounds of discussion among herders.

  1. Natural gas fuelled vehicles, energetic and environmental problems; Il gas naturale in autotrazione, aspetti energetici ed ambientali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancia, A; Pede, G [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt.Energia

    1998-03-01

    The present report deals with the analysis and the presentation of the main problems concerning the introduction of the natural gas fuel for vehicles. The offer and demand side of the NGV market are analyzed, together with the presently available NG fuelled vehicles and the status of the technology for engines and on-board storage systems, with particular regard to the energetic and environmental performance of the system. Finally the NGV market development is presented, and the actors on the stage, showing the opportunities together with the possible obstacle to a wider diffusion of this technology. [Italiano] Il rapporto e` dedicato all`esposizione ed all`analisi delle principali tematiche afferenti all`introduzione del metano nel settore dell`autotrazione. Vengono quindi esaminati nell`ordine la situazione del mercato della domanda e dell`offerta di metano, le realizzazioni veicolari oggi disponibili, la tecnologia e le prestazioni dei motori alimentati a metano e quelle dei sistemi di accumulo a bordo, l`impatto ambientale di questi veicoli. Vengono infine trattati i temi dello sviluppo del mercato e degli attori di questo sviluppo, evidenziandone i possibili sbocchi insieme agli ostacoli che ne limitano la diffusione.

  2. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  3. Environmental Sensitivity in Nuclear Emergencies in Rural and Semi-natural Environments. Report of Working Group 8, Environmental Sensitivity of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by comparison with measured values in the environment or by comparing them with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. The programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in transfer data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. The following topics were addressed in nine working groups: Reference Approaches for Human Dose Assessment - Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases; - Working Group 2: Reference Approaches to Modelling for Management and Remediation at NORM and Legacy Sites; - Working Group 3: Reference Models for Waste Disposal Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment; - Working Group 4: Biota Modelling; - Working Group 5: Wildlife Transfer Coefficient Handbook; - Working Group 6: Biota Dose

  4. Network Penetration Testing and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brandon F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus the on research and testing done on penetrating a network for security purposes. This research will provide the IT security office new methods of attacks across and against a company's network as well as introduce them to new platforms and software that can be used to better assist with protecting against such attacks. Throughout this paper testing and research has been done on two different Linux based operating systems, for attacking and compromising a Windows based host computer. Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu (Linux based penetration testing operating systems) are two different "attacker'' computers that will attempt to plant viruses and or NASA USRP - Internship Final Report exploits on a host Windows 7 operating system, as well as try to retrieve information from the host. On each Linux OS (Backtrack 5 and BlackBuntu) there is penetration testing software which provides the necessary tools to create exploits that can compromise a windows system as well as other operating systems. This paper will focus on two main methods of deploying exploits 1 onto a host computer in order to retrieve information from a compromised system. One method of deployment for an exploit that was tested is known as a "social engineering" exploit. This type of method requires interaction from unsuspecting user. With this user interaction, a deployed exploit may allow a malicious user to gain access to the unsuspecting user's computer as well as the network that such computer is connected to. Due to more advance security setting and antivirus protection and detection, this method is easily identified and defended against. The second method of exploit deployment is the method mainly focused upon within this paper. This method required extensive research on the best way to compromise a security enabled protected network. Once a network has been compromised, then any and all devices connected to such network has the potential to be compromised as well. With a compromised

  5. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Faily, Shamal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C.

    2015-01-01

    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  6. Instability in the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Isaías G. de

    2015-01-01

    Under the view of the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau theory we have investigated the penetration of the magnetic field in the type II superconductors. We show that the single vortices, situated along the borderline, between the normal region channel and the superconducting region, can escape to regions still empty of vortices. We show that the origin of this process is the repulsive nature of vortex–vortex interaction, in addition to the non-homogeneous distribution of the vortices along the normal region channel. Using London theory we explain the extra gain of kinetic energy by the vortices situated along this borderline. - Highlights: • TDGL is used to study the magnetic field penetration in type II superconductors. • Instability process is found during the magnetic field penetration. • Vortices along the front of the normal region escape to superconducting region. • We explain the extra-gain of kinetic energy by vortices along the borderline

  7. The Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed-based Approach: where social and natural sciences meet to address today's water resource challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    A growing number of governmental organizations at the local, state, and federal level collaborate with nongovernmental organizations and individuals to solve watershed scale problems (Imperial and Koontz, 2007). Such a shift in policy approach from hierarchical regulation to bottom-up collaboration is largely a result of regulator’s recognition of the interdependence of natural and socio-economic systems on a watershed scale (Steelman and Carmin, 2002. Agencies throughout the federal government increasingly favored new governing institutions that encourage cooperation between local actors with conflicting interests, divergent geographic bases, and overlapping administrative jurisdictions to resolve continuing disputes over resource management (Bardach 1998). This favoritism of collaborative over command-and-control approaches for managing nonpoint source pollution led to the development of watershed partnerships and the watershed-based approach (Lubell et al., 2002). This study aims to further collaborative governance scholarship and aid decision-makers in identifying the critical elements of collaborative governance resulting in environmental improvements. To date, this relationship has not been empirically determined, in spite of the fact that collaborative governance is used routinely by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in resolving issues related to watershed management and other applications. This gap in the research is largely due to the lack of longitudinal data. In order to determine whether changes have occurred, environmental data must be collected over relatively long time periods (Koontz and Thomas, 2006; Sabatier, et al., 2005). However, collecting these data is often cost prohibitive. Monitoring water quality is expensive and requires technical expertise, and is often the first line item cut in environmental management budgets. This research is interdisciplinary, looking at the physical, chemical, and biological parameters for 44 waterbodies

  8. Kali Linux wireless penetration testing essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Alamanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This book is targeted at information security professionals, penetration testers and network/system administrators who want to get started with wireless penetration testing. No prior experience with Kali Linux and wireless penetration testing is required, but familiarity with Linux and basic networking concepts is recommended.

  9. Effect of compressibility on the hypervelocity penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. J.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, P.

    2018-02-01

    We further consider the effect of rod strength by employing the compressible penetration model to study the effect of compressibility on hypervelocity penetration. Meanwhile, we define different instances of penetration efficiency in various modified models and compare these penetration efficiencies to identify the effects of different factors in the compressible model. To systematically discuss the effect of compressibility in different metallic rod-target combinations, we construct three cases, i.e., the penetrations by the more compressible rod into the less compressible target, rod into the analogously compressible target, and the less compressible rod into the more compressible target. The effects of volumetric strain, internal energy, and strength on the penetration efficiency are analyzed simultaneously. It indicates that the compressibility of the rod and target increases the pressure at the rod/target interface. The more compressible rod/target has larger volumetric strain and higher internal energy. Both the larger volumetric strain and higher strength enhance the penetration or anti-penetration ability. On the other hand, the higher internal energy weakens the penetration or anti-penetration ability. The two trends conflict, but the volumetric strain dominates in the variation of the penetration efficiency, which would not approach the hydrodynamic limit if the rod and target are not analogously compressible. However, if the compressibility of the rod and target is analogous, it has little effect on the penetration efficiency.

  10. Development of penetrant materials from used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Azhar Azmi

    2014-01-01

    This paper described the results of experiment to produce penetrant for nondestructive testing using used engine oil. The used engine oil was obtained from motor vehicle. It was mixed with kerosene at several mix proportion. The penetrability of these mixing were measured and compared with the penetrant available on the market. The results of measurement were explained and discussed. (author)

  11. Neurosurgical Management of Nonmissile Penetrating Cranial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Luciano Ferreira; Pereira, Benedito Jamilson A; Holanda, Rafael Rodrigues; Neto, José Targino; de Holanda, Carlos Vanderlei M; Giudicissi Filho, Miguel; de Oliveira, Nathalia Ribeiro Cunha; de Oliveira, Jean G

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to present a case series of nonmissile penetrating (NMP) injuries and to establish a workflow for an uncommon mechanism of traumatic head injury through the analysis of each case, classification of the type of lesion, management, and outcome score at follow-up. From January 1991 to December 2008, 36,000 patients presenting with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were admitted in the Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Antônio Targino, Campina Grande-PB, Brazil. From these patients, 11 presenting with lesions caused by NMP objects were selected. Among the 11 patients, 9 were men and 2 were women. Their ages ranged from 7 to 74 years old (mean age ± SD, 29.1 ± 22.99 years). All patients underwent neuroradiologic evaluation. The entry point was classified as natural (orbit) or artificial (skull transfixation), and we also divided the patients presenting with secondary parenchymal or vascular damage from those presenting with only lesions caused by the primary penetration into the cranium and meninges. All patients were neurosurgically treated with removal of the foreign body through craniotomy, except the patient whose object (pen) was removed without craniotomy with local anesthesia. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission was a statistically significant factor on prognosis, and any patient who presented with a GCS score of 15 evolved satisfactorily, and there were no deaths in this group of patients (P = 0.04). TBIs caused by NMP objects are unusual and caused by aggression, self-inflicted harm (in the case of psychiatric patients), and accident. The foreign body may enter into the skull through a natural hole (orbit, nose, mouth, or ear) or crosses the skull, causing a fracture and creating an artificial hole. Preoperative neuroradiologic assessment is paramount for the correct neurosurgical approach. The main prognostic factor for these patients is the GCS score at admission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Female and Male Teachers' Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Conceptions and Attitudes Towards Nature and the Environment Do Not Differ: Ecofeminism Put to the Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Ewen, B.; Clément, P.; Gericke, N. M.; Nyberg, E.; Hagman, M.; Landström, J.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' pro-environmental behaviour, conceptions and attitudes towards nature and the environment were investigated using 47 questions from the BIOHEAD-Citizen questionnaire. The sample included 1,109 pre- and in-service teachers from Sweden and France. Analyses showed only few significant differences between female and male teachers. Forty-one…

  13. Environmental impact efficiency of natural gas combined cycle power plants: A combined life cycle assessment and dynamic data envelopment analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gamboa, Mario; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2018-02-15

    The energy sector is still dominated by the use of fossil resources. In particular, natural gas represents the third most consumed resource, being a significant source of electricity in many countries. Since electricity production in natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants provides some benefits with respect to other non-renewable technologies, it is often seen as a transitional solution towards a future low‑carbon power generation system. However, given the environmental profile and operational variability of NGCC power plants, their eco-efficiency assessment is required. In this respect, this article uses a novel combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach in order to estimate -over the period 2010-2015- the environmental impact efficiencies of 20 NGCC power plants located in Spain. A three-step LCA+DEA method is applied, which involves data acquisition, calculation of environmental impacts through LCA, and the novel estimation of environmental impact efficiency (overall- and term-efficiency scores) through dynamic DEA. Although only 1 out of 20 NGCC power plants is found to be environmentally efficient, all plants show a relatively good environmental performance with overall eco-efficiency scores above 60%. Regarding individual periods, 2011 was -on average- the year with the highest environmental impact efficiency (95%), accounting for 5 efficient NGCC plants. In this respect, a link between high number of operating hours and high environmental impact efficiency is observed. Finally, preliminary environmental benchmarks are presented as an additional outcome in order to further support decision-makers in the path towards eco-efficiency in NGCC power plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1978. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances is conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1978 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and groundwater, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs

  15. Adélie penguins coping with environmental change: Results from a natural experiment at the edge of their breeding range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.; Lyber, Phil O'B.; Schine, Casey

    2014-01-01

    We investigated life history responses to extreme variation in physical environmental conditions during a long-term demographic study of Adélie penguins at 3 colonies representing 9% of the world population and the full range of breeding colony sizes. Five years into the 14-year study (1997–2010) two very large icebergs (spanning 1.5 latitude degrees in length) grounded in waters adjacent to breeding colonies, dramatically altering environmental conditions during 2001–2005. This natural experiment allowed us to evaluate the relative impacts of expected long-term, but also extreme, short-term climate perturbations on important natural history parameters that can regulate populations. The icebergs presented physical barriers, not just to the penguins but to polynya formation, which profoundly increased foraging effort and movement rates, while reducing breeding propensity and productivity, especially at the smallest colony. We evaluated the effect of a variety of environmental parameters during breeding, molt, migration and wintering periods during years with and without icebergs on penguin breeding productivity, chick mass, and nesting chronology. The icebergs had far more influence on the natural history parameters of penguins than any of the other environmental variables measured, resulting in population level changes to metrics of reproductive performance, including delays in nesting chronology, depressed breeding productivity, and lower chick mass. These effects were strongest at the smallest, southern-most colony, which was most affected by alteration of the Ross Sea Polynya during years the iceberg was present. Additionally, chick mass was negatively correlated with colony size, supporting previous findings indicating density-dependent energetic constraints at the largest colony. Understanding the negative effects of the icebergs on the short-term natural history of Adélie penguins, as well as their response to long-term environmental variation, are

  16. U(VI) adsorption on natural iron-coated sands: comparison of approaches for modeling adsorption on heterogeneous environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logue, Brian A.; Smith, Robert W.; Westall, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Adsorption of U(VI) on 6 samples of natural Fe-rich sands from Oyster, VA was studied over a range of U(VI) concentrations (0.1-100 μM), pH values (3-7.6), and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) extractable amounts of Fe (3.1-12.3 μmol/g). Four modeling approaches were applied to represent the U(VI) adsorption data. Model I was a two-site, diffuse double layer, surface complexation model based on data for synthetic ferrihydrite [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (1994) 5465-5478]. Considering the magnitude of approximations necessary for application of the laboratory-based model to natural sands, Model I was surprisingly accurate, as determined by the goodness of fit parameter, χ 2 /N of 53.1-22.2. Model II was based on the reactions and diffuse double layer treatment of Model I, but was calibrated to a portion of U(VI) adsorption data for each sand, and then used to predict adsorption data for the same sand under different experimental conditions. Model II did not increase the accuracy of the predictions made with Model I, χ 2 /N of 42.4-27.6. Models III and IV were four-site affinity spectrum models, without an explicit electric double layer model or explicit surface hydrolysis reactions. Model III was based on a discrete log K spectrum approach, and Model IV was obtained from adjusting all surface stability constants and site concentrations for all surface sites. Models III and IV represented the U(VI) adsorption data with the greatest accuracy, χ 2 /N ranged from 13.8 to 4.4. Model I provides evidence supporting the practice of using pure phase thermodynamic reaction constants for describing the adsorption characteristics of environmentally important sorbents in certain simple cases. Yet, affinity spectrum approaches (Models III and IV) become increasingly important as more accurate interpolation of adsorption data is necessary, the sorbent becomes increasingly complex, or the range of experimental conditions expands

  17. Simultaneous effects of environmental factors on motile Aeromonas dynamics in an urban effluent and in the natural seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Sami; Mahjoubi, Amira; Elazri, Chafai; Dukan, Sam

    2003-07-01

    Seasonal dynamics of motile Aeromonas in a treated urban effluent and in natural seawater along the Sfax coast (Mediterranean sea, Tunisia) were measured over a year concurrently with seven environmental factors, and compared with those of faecal coliforms. Counts for Aeromonas from a standard plate count method, ranged from 1.48 x 10(5)CFU.100 ml(-1) to 2.2 x 10(8)CFU.100 ml(-1) in the effluent and from 7.9 x 10(3)CFU.100 ml(-1) to undetectable level in the surface marine waters. Contrary to faecal coliforms, the Aeromonas dynamics exhibited a seasonal distribution in seawater which was inverse of the seasonal distribution in the sewage: From the end of November 1998 to April 1999 (cold period), Aeromonas counts increased in the treated effluent, while it decreased very rapidly in seawater. From May to October (warm period), Aeromonas abundance decreased in the effluent but showed an increasing fluctuating trend in the marine waters with a maximum in late summer/early autumn when the temperatures were around 22-23 degrees C. Multiple correlation and regression analyses suggest, by the coefficient of determination (R(2)), that 42% of variance in Aeromonas number changes in the treated effluent, may be explained by only turbidity, radiation and Aeromonas density in the previous sample, while 37% of variance in marine ecosystem were explained by radiance and conductivity. Furthermore, the t statistics and their p values and the coefficient of partial determination (r(2)) indicated that radiance contributed the most (r(2)=0.3184, t=-3.2, p=0.0041) to the dynamics of motile Aeromonas in seawater, when combined with conductivity. The models relevant for changes in faecal coliforms abundance incorporated turbidity, radiance in the effluent and conductivity, pH, radiance, turbidity in coastal marine environment. These models explain 66% and 73% of the observed cell number fluctuation, with turbidity (r(2)=0.529, t=5.08, p=0.0001) and conductivity (r(2)=0.5407, t=4.97, p=0

  18. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Activities - An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.G.

    1998-10-20

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently characterizing low cycle fatigue specimens that will support the needs of penetrant manufacturers, commercial airline industry and the Federal Aviation Administration. The main focus of this characterization is to maintain and enhance the evaluation of penetrant inspection materials and apply resources to support the aircraft community needs. This paper discusses efforts to-date to document the Wright Laboratory penetrant evaluation process and characterize penetrant brightness readings in the initial set of sample calibration panels using Type 1 penetrant.

  19. Web penetration testing with Kali Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux contains various penetration testing methods using BackTrack that will be used by the reader. It contains clear step-by-step instructions with lot of screenshots. It is written in an easy to understand language which will further simplify the understanding for the user.""Web Penetration Testing with Kali Linux"" is ideal for anyone who is interested in learning how to become a penetration tester. It will also help the users who are new to Kali Linux and want to learn the features and differences in Kali versus Backtrack, and seasoned penetration testers

  20. More than a Pretty Place: Assessing the Impact of Environmental Education on Children’s Knowledge and Attitudes about Outdoor Play in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M. M.; Heller, Elizabeth F.; Bizub, Jessica M.; Kistner, Amy J.; Szabo, Aniko; Shawgo, Erin E.; Zetts, Corey J.

    2015-01-01

    Our work assessed the influence of an urban environmental education program on children’s attitudes toward outdoor play, as well as knowledge of neighborhood features that can facilitate this type of activity. The project team engaged 6 schools near the newest Urban Ecology Center location in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, through a community-academic partnership entitled More Than a Pretty Place. Intervention classrooms participated in programming over the 2012–2013 academic year and pre and post surveys were implemented in classrooms. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression models. The intervention group reported reduced fears of outdoor play in nature and increased frequency of visits to the Urban Ecology Center. The proportion of students who acknowledged knowing of a place to play outside in nature increased significantly in both groups. Our findings indicate an important role for environmental education in addressing fears that may dissuade children from engaging in outdoor play in natural areas. PMID:25685953

  1. [Construction and validation of a socio-environmental vulnerability index for monitoring and management of natural disasters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Mazoto, Maíra Lopes; Martins, Raphael Nascimento; do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Asmus, Carmen Ildes Fróes

    2014-10-01

    Floods account for approximately 40% of natural disasters that occur around the world and they are therefore considered a major public health problem. While floods constitute a global problem, data from the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction showed that almost all of the deaths or individuals affected are concentrated in developing countries. It is assumed that, although they have natural causes, the consequences of floods also involve social issues. To try to predict such vulnerability in the occurrence of natural disasters, a social and environmental index that shows the degree of vulnerability of a location was developed in this paper. This index was developed using multivariate analysis involving factor analysis and demographic, social and environmental variables. The index was applied in the municipalities of the state of Rio de Janeiro and compared with the official figures of the Civil Defense Unit. The results found suggest that the proposed index meets the expectation of predicting the vulnerability of the local population.

  2. More than a Pretty Place: Assessing the Impact of Environmental Education on Children’s Knowledge and Attitudes about Outdoor Play in Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. M. Beyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Our work assessed the influence of an urban environmental education program on children’s attitudes toward outdoor play, as well as knowledge of neighborhood features that can facilitate this type of activity. The project team engaged 6 schools near the newest Urban Ecology Center location in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, through a community-academic partnership entitled More Than a Pretty Place. Intervention classrooms participated in programming over the 2012–2013 academic year and pre and post surveys were implemented in classrooms. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression models. The intervention group reported reduced fears of outdoor play in nature and increased frequency of visits to the Urban Ecology Center. The proportion of students who acknowledged knowing of a place to play outside in nature increased significantly in both groups. Our findings indicate an important role for environmental education in addressing fears that may dissuade children from engaging in outdoor play in natural areas.

  3. More than a pretty place: assessing the impact of environmental education on children's knowledge and attitudes about outdoor play in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Heller, Elizabeth F; Bizub, Jessica M; Kistner, Amy J; Szabo, Aniko; Shawgo, Erin E; Zetts, Corey J

    2015-02-12

    Our work assessed the influence of an urban environmental education program on children's attitudes toward outdoor play, as well as knowledge of neighborhood features that can facilitate this type of activity. The project team engaged 6 schools near the newest Urban Ecology Center location in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, through a community-academic partnership entitled More Than a Pretty Place. Intervention classrooms participated in programming over the 2012-2013 academic year and pre and post surveys were implemented in classrooms. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression models. The intervention group reported reduced fears of outdoor play in nature and increased frequency of visits to the Urban Ecology Center. The proportion of students who acknowledged knowing of a place to play outside in nature increased significantly in both groups. Our findings indicate an important role for environmental education in addressing fears that may dissuade children from engaging in outdoor play in natural areas.

  4. Behaviour at thermal ageing of power cable components through penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puiu, D.; Gyongyosi, T.; Dinu, E.

    2009-01-01

    The materials for electric insulation and exterior jackets of the power cables are formulated organic compounds. The environmental service conditions will induce chemical and/or physical processes at molecular level of the material; these processes are the ageing mechanisms. The power cables passing through penetrations lead to an increase of the rate of thermal ageing mechanisms, resulting in irreversible degradation of mechanical and electric properties of the organic compounds and of the functional properties of the cable. The paper presents the results of the laboratory tests when the real environmental service conditions for penetration are simulated, the comparison with the results of the thermal computation of the power cables heating and the evaluation of the influence of temperature increase of the power cable components on the cable lifetime. For the particular case of a power cable with PVC insulation, we estimated a lifetime decrease about seven years as referred to lifetime of about 30 years for operation in air. (authors)

  5. Adverse reactions from essential oil-containing natural flea products exempted from Environmental Protection Agency regulations in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Allison G; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar A

    2012-08-01

    To describe adverse effects in dogs and cats exposed to Environmental Protection Agency exempted plant-derived flea preventatives containing mixtures of essential oils. Retrospective study from 2006 to 2008. Records of dog and cat cases were reviewed from the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Animal Poison Control Center database. Thirty-nine cats and 9 dogs with history of exposure to natural flea preventatives. The following information was retrieved from each incident: number of animals, species involved, frequency, types, onset time, duration of clinical signs, exposure appropriateness, final outcome, and treatment information. Ninety-two percent of animals (n = 44) showed presence of one or more adverse effects. The frequency of adverse effects in dogs (n = 8; 89%) and cats (n = 36; 92%) was similar. Onset time of adverse effects in 39 of 44 animals occurred within 24 hours. The duration of signs in 24 animals ranged from 30 minutes to 149 hours. The products were used as per label in 77% animals (n = 37). Of 28 animals with known outcome, 50% (n = 14) recovered with bathing alone while others received intravenous fluids, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsive medications. Death (1 cat; n = 1/28; 4%) or euthanasia (1 cat and 1 dog; n = 2/28; 7%) was reported in 3 animals. Dogs and cats can experience significant adverse effects when exposed to plant-derived flea preventatives even when used according to label directions. The number of reports of exposure in cats was higher than dogs, but the frequency of reported adverse effects was similar between the 2 species. Agitation and hypersalivation were common in cats, whereas lethargy and vomiting were common in dogs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  6. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  7. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  8. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmahos George C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.

  9. Penetration testing with Raspberry Pi

    CERN Document Server

    Muniz, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    If you are looking for a low budget, small form-factor remotely accessible hacking tool, then the concepts in this book are ideal for you. If you are a penetration tester who wants to save on travel costs by placing a low-cost node on a target network, you will save thousands by using the methods covered in this book. You do not have to be a skilled hacker or programmer to use this book. It will be beneficial to have some networking experience; however, it is not required to follow the concepts covered in this book.

  10. Correlation Between Cone Penetration Rate And Measured Cone Penetration Parameters In Silty Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows, how a change in cone penetration rate affects the cone penetration measurements, hence the cone resistance, pore pressure, and sleeve friction in silty soil. The standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s, and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while...... drained penetration occurs in sand. When lowering the penetration rate, the soil pore water starts to dissipate and a change in the drainage condition is seen. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in a drainage condition that could be undrained......, partially or fully drained. However, lowering the penetration rate in silty soils has a great significance because of the soil permeability, and only a small change in penetration rate will result in changed cone penetration measurements. In this paper, analyses will be done on data from 15 field cone...

  11. The external costs of electricity generation. A comparison of environmental damage of silicon photovoltaic electricity, produced with different electricity mixes, vs natural gas and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Veltkamp, A.C.; Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In this paper the environmental damages of crystalline silicon photovoltaics are calculated, using the most recent photovoltaics data, and compared with those of the prevalent conventional energy technologies. A life cycle assessment of selected environmental impacts of 1kWh of electricity generated by various technologies was performed using Simapro software (version 7.2.4) in conjunction with the Ecoinvent database (version 2.2). The environmental impacts were assessed using the ReCiPe methodology. Because of the important role of coal and natural gas in the global electricity generation portfolio, special attention is given to the comparison of PV with those technologies. The environmental consequences of manufacturing PV modules with renewable, UCTE or 100% coal electricity mixes are explored. A brief update of the estimated monetarization of damages due to coal and climate change is included. A rough estimate of the true cost of coal and PV electricity is made in 2011.

  12. Experiences on current national income measures with reference to environmental and natural resources; Esperienze e proposte relative alla correzione in senso ambientale delle misure del reddito nazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, R; Gaudioso, D [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1995-06-01

    The environment provides both a source of goods and services and a `sink` for residues of the production and consumption processes. This is not reflected into conventional estimate of GDP (gross domestic product), the most commonly used measure of aggregate income. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether environmentally-adjusted national income measure can be derived. In the first part, the authors discuss both the shortcomings of the current national income measures, with reference to environmental and natural resources, and the debate on this issues; then they analyse the existing experiences to provide environmentally-adjusted indicators of national accounts. In the second part, the authors present an evaluation of the costs of environmental degradation in Italy in the period 1988-1990, based on the methodologies adopted in a pilot study carried out by UNSO (United Nations Statistical Office) and the World Bank for Mexico.

  13. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1994. Data were collected to assess external penetrating radiation, airborne emissions, liquid effluents, radioactivity of environmental materials and food stuffs, and environmental compliance.

  14. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1994. Data were collected to assess external penetrating radiation, airborne emissions, liquid effluents, radioactivity of environmental materials and food stuffs, and environmental compliance

  15. Are high penetrations of commercial cogeneration good for society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jeremy F.; Apt, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Low natural gas prices, market reports and evidence from New York State suggest that the number of commercial combined heat and power (CHP) installations in the United States will increase by 2%-9% annually over the next decade. We investigate how increasing commercial CHP penetrations may affect net emissions, the distribution network, and total system energy costs. We constructed an integrated planning and operations model that maximizes owner profit through sizing and operation of CHP on a realistic distribution feeder in New York. We find that a greater penetration of CHP reduces both total system energy costs and network congestion. Commercial buildings often have low and inconsistent heat loads, which can cause low fuel utilization efficiencies, low CHP rates-of-return and diminishing avoided emissions as CHP penetration increases. In the northeast, without policy intervention, a 5% penetration of small commercially owned CHP would increase CO2 emissions by 2% relative to the bulk power grid. Low emission CHP installations can be encouraged with incentives that promote CHP operation only during times of high heat loads. Time-varying rates, such as time-of-day and seasonal rates, are one option and were shown to reduce customer emissions without reducing profits. In contrast, natural gas rate discounts, a common incentive for industrial CHP in some states, can encourage CHP operation during low heat loads and thus increase emissions.

  16. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  17. Environment, Agriculture and Sustainability Relations: From the Environmental Degradation to the Necessity of Conservation of Natural Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórida Rosa Mali Assêncio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief approach on environmental aspects related to the development of agriculture in the world and especially in Brazil, detaching some historical aspects. Some characteristics of the social and environmental degradation generated by the processes of production of modern agriculture, based on studies of Environmental Sciences, in general, and, more specifically, of Agroecology, are presented, as well as the necessity of searching for new models of development according to the recent paradigm of sustainability (social, economic and environmental, debated in international conferences on 'environment and development'.

  18. Natural and environmental vulnerability analysis through remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Indigirka River basin, Eastern Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boori, Mukesh S.; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Evers, Mariele

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research work is to understand natural and environmental vulnerability situation and its cause such as intensity, distribution and socio-economic effect in the Indigirka River basin, Eastern Siberia, Russia. This paper identifies, assess and classify natural and environmental vulnerability using landscape pattern from multidisciplinary approach, based on remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. A model was developed by following thematic layers: land use/cover, vegetation, wetland, geology, geomorphology and soil in ArcGIS 10.2 software. According to numerical results vulnerability classified into five levels: low, sensible, moderate, high and extreme vulnerability by mean of cluster principal. Results are shows that in natural vulnerability maximum area covered by moderate (29.84%) and sensible (38.61%) vulnerability and environmental vulnerability concentrated by moderate (49.30%) vulnerability. So study area has at medial level vulnerability. The results found that the methodology applied was effective enough in the understanding of the current conservation circumstances of the river basin in relation to their environment with the help of remote sensing and GIS. This study is helpful for decision making for eco-environmental recovering and rebuilding as well as predicting the future development.

  19. Energy and environmental studies associated to the emergency plan of natural gas thermal power plants; Estudos energeticos e ambientais associados ao plano emergencial de termeletricas a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Grynberg, Sueli E.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Branco, Otavio E.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martinez, Carlos B.; Versiani, Bruno R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos. Centro de Pesquisas Hidraulicas

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a first exertion to evaluate the environmental impacts due to the operation of planned gas power plants. This study was carried out with the model EcoSense, that is a computer program developed for the quantification of environmental impacts and their external costs resulting from the operation of thermal power plants or other industrial activities. EcoSense is still in development and the achieved results should still be considered with caution although it becomes clear the potentiality of the use of this tool in the support of the decision making process in energy planning. Based on the method of approach of the damage function established in the ExternE project this program provides models for an integrated evaluation of the impact rate from the air pollutants resulting from burning fossil fuel, which are transported by the air. (author)

  20. Annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1976 the maximum neutron dose near the site boundary was 3.4 mrem. This represents about 3.4% of the annual dose from natural sources at this elevation and 0.68% of the technical standard of 500 mrem per person annually. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC also continues to make only a negligible environmental impact and result in a site boundary annual dose of less than 0.01 mrem, which represents less than 0.01% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment and about 0.002% of the technical standard