WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental justice task

  1. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  2. Child poverty and environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberg, Claudia; Pauli, Andrea

    2007-10-01

    Child poverty and social inequality in Western countries are growing both in scope and in complexity. The clustering of income poverty in urban settings reflects the complex process of residential segregation. Living in segregated neighbourhoods with much poverty and predominantly substandard housing is usually associated with poor physical, chemical and social environmental living conditions at the individual and community level which influence and shape children's health both directly and indirectly. This paper shows research data on the link between child poverty and income-related health inequalities according to the unequal exposure to environmental hazards as well as the unequal distribution of environmental resources in the domestic environment and within the local context as an increasing public health issue in Germany. The links between these factors are drawn from the conceptual framework of environmental justice. Examples are shown of integrated approaches to alleviate social and environmental disparities at the community level. The implications of environmental justice for public health include the need to uncover the link between socioeconomic factors and environmental health disparities related to the man-made environment. Developing relevant indicators for environmental inequalities in the context of housing and health is an important task for public health research. More emphasis should be placed on a comprehensive holistic approach to understand the mechanisms by which socioeconomic factors modify children's susceptibility and exposure to environmental hazards, particularly in low-income areas.

  3. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  4. Transgenerational epigenetics and environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Mark A; Harrell, Heather L; Marchant, Gary E

    2017-07-01

    Human transmission to offspring and future generations of acquired epigenetic modifications has not been definitively established, although there are several environmental exposures with suggestive evidence. This article uses three examples of hazardous substances with greater exposures in vulnerable populations: pesticides, lead, and diesel exhaust. It then considers whether, if there were scientific evidence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, there would be greater attention given to concerns about environmental justice in environmental laws, regulations, and policies at all levels of government. To provide a broader perspective on environmental justice the article discusses two of the most commonly cited approaches to environmental justice. John Rawls's theory of justice as fairness, a form of egalitarianism, is frequently invoked for the principle that differential treatment of individuals is justified only if actions are designed to benefit those with the greatest need. Another theory, the capabilities approach of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, focuses on whether essential capabilities of society, such as life and health, are made available to all individuals. In applying principles of environmental justice the article considers whether there is a heightened societal obligation to protect the most vulnerable individuals from hazardous exposures that could adversely affect their offspring through epigenetic mechanisms. It concludes that unless there were compelling evidence of transgenerational epigenetic harms, it is unlikely that there would be a significant impetus to adopt new policies to prevent epigenetic harms by invoking principles of environmental justice.

  5. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  6. Incorporating environmental justice into environmental decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Vogt, D.P.; Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Executive Order 12898, signed on February 11, 1994, broadly states that federal activities, programs, and policies should not produce disproportionately high and adverse impacts on minority and low-income populations. Moreover, the Order indicates that these populations should not be denied the benefits of, or excluded from participation in, these activities, programs, and policies. Because a presidential memorandum accompanying the order said that National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents should begin to address environmental justice immediately, much attention has been paid to assessment-related issues. Also important, a topic that appears to have received relatively little attention, is how decision makers should be expected to use information about environmental justice in their decision making. This paper discusses issues surrounding the use of environmental justice information in the decision-making process by focusing on the following five main topics: (1) the importance, or weight, attached to environmental justice within larger decision-making contexts; (2) the potential tension between localized environmental justice issues and regional or national issues and needs; (3) the use of environmental justice information to develop (perhaps in concert with affected minority and low-income communities) appropriate mitigation strategies, or to establish conditions under which activities, programs, and policies may be accepted locally; (4) the general implications of shifting the distribution of broadly defined risks, costs, and benefits among different population groups; and (5) the implications of implementing environmental justice on an individual, ad hoc basis rather than within a larger environmental justice framework. This paper raises the issues and discusses the implications of alternative approaches to them.

  7. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates…

  8. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D. [National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class.

  9. Environmental justice: An issue for states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, L.K.; Davis, S.; Starkey, D.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental justice combines the social justice and the environmental movements. The very term environmental justice is often and inaccurately used interchangeably with environmental racism and environmental equity. Environmental racism refers to any policy, practice or directive, intentional or not, that differentially affects the environment of individuals, groups or communities based on their race. The concept of environmental equity holds that all populations should bear a proportionate share of environmental pollution and health risks. Environmental justice is a broader term that encompasses both these concepts and connotes the laws must be applied with fairness and impartiality. Environmental justice is defined as the achievement of equal protection from environmental and health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture or social class

  10. 32 CFR 989.33 - Environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental justice. 989.33 Section 989.33 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.33 Environmental justice. During the preparation of...

  11. Environmental assessment and social justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hardee, H. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an approach to assessing environmental justice issues at the start of proposed project. It is a structural approach to screening using readily available census data and commercial products that emphasizes the ability to replicate results and provide systematic data that can be used to identify spatial inequities. While our discussion of the methodology addresses only public health and safety issues related to certain minority and cohort sub-groups, systematic use of methodology could provide a valuable screening tool for identifying impacts particular to low-income groups. While the assumptions can be questioned as to applicability, they are based both on theory and practical knowledge.

  12. Environmental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  13. 32 CFR 651.17 - Environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental justice. 651.17 Section 651.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and the Decision Process...

  14. 77 FR 42077 - Environmental Justice: Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ..., rulemaking, and policy formulation. The DOT Order sets forth steps to prevent disproportionately high and... Circular as a whole. Some commenters expressed concerns about perceived administrative and financial... Engagement With Environmental Justice Populations Chapter III contains recommended strategies and techniques...

  15. Environmental Justice: A Panoptic Overview Using Scientometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake R. Nelson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its initial introduction in the 1970s, the field of environmental justice (EJ continues to grow, with significant contributions from the disciplines of sustainability science, geography, political science, public policy and administration, urban planning, law, and many others. Each of these disciplines approach EJ research from slightly different perspectives, but all offer unique and valuable insight to the EJ knowledge domain. Although the interdisciplinary nature of environmental justice should be viewed as a strength, it presents a challenge when attempting to both summarize and synthesize key contributions to the field, due to disciplinary bias, narrow subfield foci, or gaps in knowledge by a research team without a representative disciplinary composition. The purpose of this paper is to provide a succinct, panoptic review of key research contributions to environmental justice, while simultaneously minimizing common problems associated with traditional reviews. In particular, this paper explores the utility of co-citation network analysis, to provide insight into the most important subdomains of environmental justice research. The results suggest that while early EJ research is initially focused on environmental disamenities and a continued focus on race and inequality, the research gradually shifts to foci more concerned with environmental amenities, such as parks and greenspace. We also find that race and inequality remain an important and consist line of research over the duration of the study time period. Implications for environmental justice research and its allied subfields are discussed.

  16. Environmental justice and environmental inequalities: A European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Eloi

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, I highlight a pressing issue facing current and future social policies in the EU: the articulation between social justice and environmental concerns. European social policies have only recently acknowledged the need to integrate the notions of environmental justice and environmental inequalities, which have been part of the US policy arsenal for almost two decades. Indeed, challenges to equality and fairness in the environmental domain are many and growing in Europe. After having defined environmental justice and environmental inequalities in the light of historical developments and recent literature, I address two dimensions of those challenges for the EU: vulnerability and exposure to environmental risk; social fairness in environmental taxation. I finally offer some thoughts on the importance of the justice approach to environmental issues in order to conceive legitimate 'socio-ecological policies' able to change in the long run not only behaviours but attitudes of citizens towards the environment. (author)

  17. Mobilising for environmental justice in China

    OpenAIRE

    Balme, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the situation of environmental rights in China in terms of political interactions and their implications for Chinese politics. Environmental justice is primarily conceived as equity in access to environmental goods and fairness in social processes dealing with market or government failures to provide environmental security. The argument is that environmental deterioration has a significant influence on the pattern of inequalities in the PRC, occasionally creating situati...

  18. Air Pollution and Environmental Justice Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution is not equally dispersed in all neighborhoods and this raises many social concerns, such as environmental justice. "Real world" data, whether extracted from online databases or collected in the field, can be used to demonstrate air quality patterns. When students explore these trends, they not only learn about atmospheric chemistry, but they also become socially aware of any inequities. This presentation outlines specific ways to link air pollution and environmental justice suitable for an undergraduate upper division Air Pollution or Atmospheric Chemistry course.

  19. Environmental Justice and Green-Technology Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an environmental justice (EJ) program adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) as a part of its regulation to phase out a toxic chemical used by dry cleaners. SCAQMD provided financial incentives to switch early and gave establishments in EJ neighborhoods priority in applying for…

  20. Social Justice and the Environmental Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A; Byington, Rachel; Gallay, Erin; Sambo, Allison

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we build on the scholarship on youth civic engagement by turning attention to the environmental commons as a space for political action. We begin with a definition of the term and arguments about ways that social justice is implied in it. Following that, we raise several psychological challenges to motivating action on behalf of the environmental commons and discuss the critical experiences and actions that can defy those challenges. Finally, drawing from Ostrom's empirical evidence opposing a tragedy of the commons, we discuss practices consistent with a social justice approach that nurture in younger generations an identification with and commitment to the environmental commons and discuss how this orientation would benefit human beings, democracies, and the earth. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental justice at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flemming, R.; Hooker, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental justice is the conscious commitment to ensure that poor and/or minority communities are not disproportionately bearing adverse human health and environmental effects from the production, processing, or disposal of hazardous or toxic waste. To focus federal attention on assessing the environmental and human health conditions in minority and/or low-income communities surrounding federal facilities, on February 11, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order (EO) 12898. As part of the strategy to comply with EO 12898, the President required all federal agencies to develop localized strategies to ensure that their programs and policies are consistent with EO 12898. This would incorporate mechanisms for increasing public participation opportunities for involvement in the decision making, easier access to information, and the collection and analysis of economic, demographic, and food consumption data in surrounding communities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) responded by issuing its Environmental Justice Strategy 2 (April 1995), although many of its field offices had been actively implementing activities in support of the executive order since its issuance. One DOE facility, the Savannah River Site (SRS), which is located in west central South Carolina, is making great strides toward implementing a successful public participation program, which includes environmental justice initiatives

  2. Failing to Fulfill Tasks of Social Justice Weakens Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents excerpts from an interview with Walter Mondale in which the former vice president expressed fears that the United States will be weakened by current policies of removing government from the tasks of social justice. Topics discussed include social security cuts, reduction of student loans, and elimination of the legal aid program. (DB)

  3. 76 FR 62434 - HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Justice Strategy AGENCY: Office of the Sustainable Housing and Communities, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Through this notice, HUD announces the release of its draft Environmental Justice Strategy for review and... federal agency, with the law as its guide, should make environmental justice part of its mission. In this...

  4. [Environmental justice as an approach to tackle environmental health inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Gabriele; Bunge, Christiane; Hornberg, Claudia; Köckler, Heike

    2018-06-01

    Current international studies show that environment-related diseases disproportionately affect vulnerable people. This is a case of environmental injustice. Environmental justice goes beyond the mere description of environment- and health-related social inequalities by comprising two dimensions of justice as a normative approach: distributional and procedural justice. Attempts to explain the link between social circumstances, the environment and health deal with both the socially unequal distribution of environmental hazards and environmental resources (exposure variation) and social differences in vulnerability to the health effects of environmental exposures (effect modification). Integrated monitoring approaches provide the basis for deriving interventions under various aspects of environmental justice. Parting from public health research and embedded in the Health in All Policies (HiAP) concept, environmental justice has now been taken up in a number of fields, including politics, administration and practice. There are strategic considerations and attempts to anchor it in politics at the federal, state and the communal level, both by government and non-government groups. Health-promoting urban development is a core field for intervention. The Soziale Stadt (Social City) programme for promoting urban planning and construction as well as place oriented sectoral planning make an important contribution by helping to focus on urban spaces with multiple health hazards and to implement target group-oriented participation processes. There continues to be a need to develop methods and systematically implemented evaluations of political strategies and corresponding interventions regarding their effects on inequalities in health and environmental justice.

  5. Incorporating environmental justice measures during environmental impact statement scoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, J.; Poles, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Executive Order 12898, open-quote Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income populations,close-quote directs Federal agencies to make environmental justice part of their mission by involving minorities and low-income populations and by identifying and addressing as appropriate disproportionately high and adverse human health and environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations. In the Presidential Memorandum transmitting the Executive Order it was stated that environmental justice should be taken into consideration under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). NEPA, with its systematic approach and requirements for alternatives analysis and comprehensive public participation, has served as one of the main mechanisms for involving the public in environmental decision-making. This paper addresses challenges faced by the Department of Energy in involving minority and low-income populations in the public involvement activities associated with a national-level environmental impact statement (EIS) and suggests ways to improve agencies' incorporation of environmental justice considerations in NEPA scoping

  6. Environmental Justice Is a Social Justice Issue: Incorporating Environmental Justice into Social Work Practice Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Ramona; Hacker, Alice; Begun, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Social justice education for social work practice is concerned with addressing issues of power and oppression as they impact intersections of identity, experience, and the social environment. However, little focus is directed toward the physical and natural environment despite overwhelming evidence that traditionally marginalized groups bear the…

  7. The Virtual Water Transactions Promote Environmental Justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Dalla Corte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As natural water, virtual water is essential for the dynamics of life. It, that correspond to the total volume of fresh water used in the production process in one place and that was incorporated into the final goods, is a calculation that can contribute to human access to water be assured in sufficient quantities for a dignified life. Therefore, the objective of this research is, through the hypothetical-deductive method of approach, evaluate virtual water transfers from the perspective of environmental justice in a globalized world in the Anthropocene.

  8. Human biomonitoring from an environmental justice perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrens, Bert; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet

    2017-01-01

    Background: Environmental justice research shows how socially disadvantaged groups are more exposed and more vulnerable to environmental pollution. At the same time, these groups are less represented and, thus, less visible in biomedical studies. This socioeconomic participation bias is a form...... of environmental injustice within research practice itself. Methods: We designed, implemented and evaluated a targeted recruitment strategy to enhance the participation of socially disadvantaged pregnant women in a human biomonitoring study in Belgium. We focused on women of Turkish and Moroccan descent...... in direct, person-to-person contact with trusted buddies and supported by practical advice about cultural and linguistic sensitivity, it was possible to increase study participation of socially disadvantaged people. Above all, this required openness and flexibility in the mind-set of researchers so...

  9. Teaching Coastal Hazard, Risk, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Manduca, C. A.; Blockstein, D.; Davis, F.; McDaris, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience literacy and expertise play a role in all societal issues that involve the Earth. Issues that range from environmental degradation and natural hazards to creating sustainable economic systems or livable cities. Human health and resilience also involves the Earth. Environmental hazard issues have dimensions and consequences that have connections to environmental justice and disproportionate impacts on people based on their ethnicity, gender, cultural and socioeconomic conditions. Often these dimensions are hidden or unexplored in common approaches to teaching about hazards. However, they can provide importance context and meaning to students who would not otherwise see themselves in STEM disciplines. Teaching geoscience in a framework of societal issues may be an important mechanism for building science and sustainability capacity in future graduates. In May 2015, the NSF STEP center InTeGrate held a workshop in New Orleans, LA on teaching about Coastal Hazards, Risk and Environmental Justice. This was an opportunity to bring together people who use these topics as a powerful topic for transdisciplinary learning that connects science to local communities. This workshop was tailored for faculty members from minority-serving institutions and other colleges and universities that serve populations that are under-represented in the geosciences and related fields. The workshop outcome was a set of strategies for accomplishing this work, including participants' experience teaching with local cases, making connections to communities, and building partnerships with employers to understand workforce needs related to interdisciplinary thinking, sustainability science and risk. The participants articulated both the great need and opportunity for educators to help learners to explore these dimensions with their students as well as the challenge of learning to teach across disciplines and using controversial topics.

  10. Education for climate changes, environmental health and environmental justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hens, L.; Stoyanov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The climates changes-health effects-environmental justice nexus is analyzed. The complex issue of climate changes needs to be approached from an interdisciplinary point of view. The nature of the problem necessitates dealing with scientific uncertainty. The health effects caused by climate changes are described and analyzed from a twofold inequalities point of view: health inequalities between rich and poor within countries, and inequalities between northern and southern countries. It is shown thai although the emission of greenhouse gasses is to a large extent caused by the industrialized countries, the effects, including the health effects, will merely impact the South. On the other hand, the southern countries have the highest potential to respond to and offer sustainable energy solutions to counteract climate changes. These inequalities are at the basis to call for environmental justice, of which climate justice is part. This movement calls for diversification of ecologists and their subject of study, more attention for urban ecology, more comprehensive human ecological analyses of complex environmental issues and more participation of stakeholders in the debate and the solution options. The movement advocates a more inclusive ecology targeted to management, sodo-ecological restoration, and comprehensive policies. The fundamental aspects of complexity, inter-disciplinary approaches, uncertainty, and social and natural inequalities should be core issues in environmental health programs. Training on these issues for muitidisciplinary groups of participants necessitates innovative approaches including self-directed, collaborative, and problem oriented learning in which tacit knowledge is important. It is advocated that quality assessments of environmental health programs should take these elements into account. key words: environmental justice, climate changes, sustainable energy solutions

  11. Prioritizing environmental justice and equality: diesel emissions in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julian D; Swor, Kathryn R; Nguyen, Nam P

    2014-04-01

    Existing environmental policies aim to reduce emissions but lack standards for addressing environmental justice. Environmental justice research documents disparities in exposure to air pollution; however, little guidance currently exists on how to make improvements or on how specific emission-reduction scenarios would improve or deteriorate environmental justice conditions. Here, we quantify how emission reductions from specific sources would change various measures of environmental equality and justice. We evaluate potential emission reductions for fine diesel particulate matter (DPM) in Southern California for five sources: on-road mobile, off-road mobile, ships, trains, and stationary. Our approach employs state-of-the-science dispersion and exposure models. We compare four environmental goals: impact, efficiency, equality, and justice. Results indicate potential trade-offs among those goals. For example, reductions in train emissions produce the greatest improvements in terms of efficiency, equality, and justice, whereas off-road mobile source reductions can have the greatest total impact. Reductions in on-road emissions produce improvements in impact, equality, and justice, whereas emission reductions from ships would widen existing population inequalities. Results are similar for complex versus simplified exposure analyses. The approach employed here could usefully be applied elsewhere to evaluate opportunities for improving environmental equality and justice in other locations.

  12. Potential Environmental Justice Areas - (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data are from EJSCREEN, an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for...

  13. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scandrett, Eurig

    2007-01-01

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development

  14. Environmental justice in Scotland: policy, pedagogy and praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandrett, Eurig [Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    In the first decade of Scottish devolution, environmental justice became a significant component of environmental policy for the Scottish Executive, especially under First Minister Jack McConnell. This paper analyses how a discourse developed within policy narratives which separated environmental justice from economic growth and the interests of capital. In particular, it explores the role which research has played in justifying this discourse. By contrast, an alternative discourse has developed through reflexive and dialogical research associated with the praxis of the environmental organization Friends of the Earth Scotland. This alternative discourse is embedded in the embryonic environmental justice movement in Scotland, and identifies environmental justice as a social conflict which exposes negative externalities at the heart of economic development.

  15. A Novel Environmental Justice Indicator for Managing Local Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Gladson, Laura; Cromar, Kevin

    2018-06-14

    Environmental justice efforts in the United States seek to provide equal protection from environmental hazards, such as air pollution, to all groups, particularly among traditionally disadvantaged populations. To accomplish this objective, the U.S. EPA has previously required states to use an environmental justice screening tool as part of air quality planning decision-making. The generally utilized approach to assess potential areas of environmental justice concern relies on static comparisons of environmental and demographic information to identify areas where minority and low income populations experience elevated environmental exposures, but does not include any additional information that may inform the trade-offs that sub-populations of varying socio-demographic groups make when choosing where to reside in cities. In order to address this limitation, job accessibility (measured by a mobility index defining the number of jobs available within a set commuting time) was developed as a novel environmental justice indicator of environmental justice priority areas at the local level. This approach is modeled using real-world data in Allegheny County, PA (USA), and identifies areas with relatively high levels of outdoor air pollution and low access to jobs. While traditional tools tend to flag the poorest neighborhoods for environmental justice concerns, this new method offers a more refined analysis, targeting populations suffering from the highest environmental burden without the associated benefits of urban living.

  16. A Novel Environmental Justice Indicator for Managing Local Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental justice efforts in the United States seek to provide equal protection from environmental hazards, such as air pollution, to all groups, particularly among traditionally disadvantaged populations. To accomplish this objective, the U.S. EPA has previously required states to use an environmental justice screening tool as part of air quality planning decision-making. The generally utilized approach to assess potential areas of environmental justice concern relies on static comparisons of environmental and demographic information to identify areas where minority and low income populations experience elevated environmental exposures, but does not include any additional information that may inform the trade-offs that sub-populations of varying socio-demographic groups make when choosing where to reside in cities. In order to address this limitation, job accessibility (measured by a mobility index defining the number of jobs available within a set commuting time was developed as a novel environmental justice indicator of environmental justice priority areas at the local level. This approach is modeled using real-world data in Allegheny County, PA (USA, and identifies areas with relatively high levels of outdoor air pollution and low access to jobs. While traditional tools tend to flag the poorest neighborhoods for environmental justice concerns, this new method offers a more refined analysis, targeting populations suffering from the highest environmental burden without the associated benefits of urban living.

  17. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative...

  18. Impact of environmental justice analysis on transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    This report presents the findings of a study sponsored by the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT): Impact of Environmental Justice (EJ) on Transportation Planning. The objectives of the study were to determine the state of the practice of EJ ...

  19. EPA Insight Policy Paper: Executive Order #12898 on Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    A memorandum from President Clinton to the heads of all agencies on 'Executive Order on Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, a related statement from EPA Administrator Carol Browner

  20. Comparing Distributions of Environmental Outcomes for Regulatory Environmental Justice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Sheriff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Economists have long been interested in measuring distributional impacts of policy interventions. As environmental justice (EJ emerged as an ethical issue in the 1970s, the academic literature has provided statistical analyses of the incidence and causes of various environmental outcomes as they relate to race, income, and other demographic variables. In the context of regulatory impacts, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding what information is relevant for EJ analysis, and how best to present it. This paper helps frame the discussion by suggesting a set of questions fundamental to regulatory EJ analysis, reviewing past approaches to quantifying distributional equity, and discussing the potential for adapting existing tools to the regulatory context.

  1. Indigenous peoples of North America: environmental exposures and reproductive justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Cook, Katsi; Plain, Ron; Sanchez, Kathy; Waghiyi, Vi; Miller, Pamela; Dufault, Renee; Sislin, Caitlin; Carpenter, David O

    2012-12-01

    Indigenous American communities face disproportionate health burdens and environmental health risks compared with the average North American population. These health impacts are issues of both environmental and reproductive justice. In this commentary, we review five indigenous communities in various stages of environmental health research and discuss the intersection of environmental health and reproductive justice issues in these communities as well as the limitations of legal recourse. The health disparities impacting life expectancy and reproductive capabilities in indigenous communities are due to a combination of social, economic, and environmental factors. The system of federal environmental and Indian law is insufficient to protect indigenous communities from environmental contamination. Many communities are interested in developing appropriate research partnerships in order to discern the full impact of environmental contamination and prevent further damage. Continued research involving collaborative partnerships among scientific researchers, community members, and health care providers is needed to determine the impacts of this contamination and to develop approaches for remediation and policy interventions.

  2. Environmental justice and political recognition in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Merlinsky

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Buenos Aires, at the areas more affected by water pollution, we observe a process of construction of claims in which different groups question the environmental inequality. In this article we focus on a case study that examines the characteristics of these mobilizations, their public presentation and the construction of collective action frames in terms of environmental justice.

  3. Environmental justice and U.S. Forest Service hazardous fuels reduction: A spatial method for impact assessment of federal resource management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D.O. Adams; Susan Charnley

    2018-01-01

    Natural resource managers of federal lands in the USA are often tasked with various forms of social and economic impact analysis. Federal agencies in the USA also have a mandate to analyze the potential environmental justice consequences of their activities. Relatively little is known about the environmental justice impacts of natural resource management in rural areas...

  4. In need of each other: the moderator of task interdependence between LMX variability and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Helen Guohong; Bai, Yuntao

    2014-09-01

    This study examined how leader-member exchange differentiation could affect nurses' perception of organisational justice as well as the moderating effect of task interdependence on this link. Teams are essential to the health-care industry. However, the perception of injustice may lead to a high level of nurse turnover. Data was collected from 187 nurses distributed in eight units in a mid-western hospital in the USA. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the cross-level interaction of leader-member exchange variability and task interdependence on individual-level perceptions of justice. Leader-member exchange variability was significantly related to distributive justice and interactional justice but not significantly related to procedural justice. The interaction term was significantly related to interpersonal justice, but not to procedural justice or distributive justice. This study showed that if leaders demonstrated a variation in treatment of different subordinates, nurses could perceive this as unfair regarding distribution and interaction; when the group was highly task interdependent, this kind of perception of 'unfairness,' particularly regarding interpersonal treatment, became even more salient. Preferential and inconsistent treatment by them within the work group could introduce nurses' perceptions of unfair treatment. It is of crucial importance to provide training for supervisors on how to display relatively consistent behaviour towards nurses, particularly when the teams are highly task interdependent. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 77 FR 18879 - Department of Transportation Final Environmental Justice Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Transportation Final Environmental Justice Strategy AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Transportation, DOT... strategy, which sets forth DOT's commitment to identifying and addressing disproportionately high and...-income populations. This strategy is published as a final document; however, it is a revision of a...

  6. Environmental justice: Grass roots reach the White House lawn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratch, K.

    1995-05-01

    When 500 demonstrators gathered in 1982 to protest the siting of a polychlorinated-biphenyl landfill in predominantly black Warren County, N.C., cries of environmental racism filled the air. In response, District of Columbia Congressional Delegate Walter Fauntroy requested that the General Accounting Office investigate a possible link between hazardous waste landfill siting and the racial and socio-economic mix of surrounding communities. The environmental justice movement, as it is known today, had been born. Environmental justice is conceived as the right of all people--regardless of race, ethnicity, culture or income--to live in a healthy environment, breathe clean air, drink clean water and eat uncontaminated foods. The concept assumes that everyone is entitled to fair environmental protection without any population segment bearing a disproportionate pollution burden.

  7. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; Ruder, Eric; Roman, Henry A.; Geggel, Amelia; Nweke, Onyemaechi; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative measures of health inequality in other settings, and these measures may be applicable to environmental regulatory analyses. In this paper, we provide information to assist policy decision makers in determining the viability of using measures of health inequality in the context of environmental regulatory analyses. We conclude that quantification of the distribution of inequalities in health outcomes across social groups of concern, considering both within-group and between-group comparisons, would be consistent with both the structure of regulatory analysis and the core definition of environmental justice. Appropriate application of inequality indicators requires thorough characterization of the baseline distribution of exposures and risks, leveraging data generally available within regulatory analyses. Multiple inequality indicators may be applicable to regulatory analyses, and the choice among indicators should be based on explicit value judgments regarding the dimensions of environmental justice of greatest interest. PMID:23999551

  8. Right to access to justice in environmental matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gračan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic goals of the Republic of Croatia for the following period is its access to the European Union. In order to fulfill it, the Republic of Croatia has in October 2001 signed the Stabilization and Association Agreement and thus overtaken the obligation to strengthen co-operation with European Union member states in struggle against environmental devastation and in promotion of environmental sustainability (Article 103 of Agreement. With the acceptance of the Agreement the process began of the Croatian legislation adjustment to the European Union legal acquirements, and thus of the implementation of numerous European Union Acts into its own legislation. In the area of environmental protection, a large number of regulations, directives, and decisions resolving the objectives regarding further protection were carried out by the competent bodies of the European Union, which the Republic of Croatia must implement in its own legislation during its process of accessing EU. Sure enough, one of the most important questions of environmental protection is the right to approach the legislation on environmental issues by all stakeholders. This paper brings the authors' elaboration on the right to access to justice in matters of environmental protection, its standardizing characteristics, similarities, and differences from the aspect of the Convention on Environmental Information and Public Participation in Environmental Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, European Union Acts, and Croatian legislation.

  9. Breathless: Schools, Air Toxics, and Environmental Justice in California

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation on both federal and state levels has placed the intersection between children’s health and environmental justice on the forefront of public policy debate. This study looks at the intersection of air quality, children’s health, and school performance in the context of environmental equity in California. Information from the U.S. EPA’s National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) is used to calculate a respiratory hazard ratio for each of California’s census tracts. These ratios ar...

  10. Global Environmental Governance as a Regulatory and Guarantee Criterion for Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Schmitt Siqueira Garcia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the theme of Global Environmental Governance to the achievement of Environmental Justice, presenting as general objective to analyze the importance of the first in its public, business and civil society spheres for the regulation and guarantee of the second. Noting up at the end that the Environmental Justice, as a common humanitarian problem, presents itself as the main objective of Global Environmental Governance. In the methodology was adopted the inductive method, having been applied the techniques of the referent, category, operational concepts, bibliographical research and file.

  11. Community empowerment needs in the struggle for environmental justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The paper addresses the specific empowerment needs of communities and workers fighting for environmental justice. Thousands of people of color and poor communities throughout the United States are victimized by policies and practices of environmental racism which resulted in the disproportionate burden of exposure to environmental contamination where they live, work and play. Powerful interests who own and operate polluting industries and waste disposal facilities prey on poor, low income and non-white communities because they view them as areas of least resistance and {open_quotes}sacrifice zones.{close_quotes} Leaders and members of organizations from communities threatened or already devastated by contamination are waging determined, courageous and heroic struggles against giant corporate polluters. In many instances, the leaders and members of these grassroots environmental groups are literally sick and dying from contamination as they seek to organize for clean, safe and healthy communities. A key issue for communities and workers fighting for environmental justice is realizing true empowerment. Communities and workers must develop empowerment and capacity building skills in the areas of community and labor organizing; media relations and public education; legal advocacy; legislative and regulatory tracking; lobbying; health monitoring and health services; research; scientific technical needs (eg. air, water and soil testing); fundraising and economic sustainable development; institutional and organizational development; voter education and electoral politics; and youth and adult leadership training. When these empowerment skills are combined with a clear vision of justice for the future, communities will be able to fight cooporations armed with high-powered lawyers, lobbyists, public relations firms and bought-off politicians.

  12. Environmental justice: Bridging the gap between experts and laymen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable Development deals with highly technological issues (e.g. genetic manipulation, brain science, environmental protection, etc.). The decision making process therefore tends to be very complex. The task for policymakers is extremely difficult due to the involvement of different

  13. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  14. Value-driven SEA: time for an environmental justice perspective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, Stephen; Richardson, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that we cannot debate SEA procedures in isolation from questions of value, and that these debates should foreground qualities of outcomes rather than become preoccupied with qualities of process. Value differences should not be left as a question of mediation between conflicting positions. As a means of introducing this normative perspective on SEA, the paper explores how theories of environmental justice could provide a useful basis for establishing how to deal with questions of value in SEA, and help in understanding when SEA is successful and when it is not. From this perspective, 'good' SEA is more than good process. Good SEA must be able to take into account the distributional consequences of policies, plans, or programmes, with decisions driven by the recognition that certain groups tend to systematically lose out in the distribution of environmental goods and bads. SEA therefore has a role to play in redressing such imbalances

  15. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental justice (EJ research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1 documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children’s obesity and academic performance; (2 promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3 clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ.

  16. Environmental Justice Research: Contemporary Issues and Emerging Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E

    2016-11-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research seeks to document and redress the disproportionate environmental burdens and benefits associated with social inequalities. Although its initial focus was on disparities in exposure to anthropogenic pollution, the scope of EJ research has expanded. In the context of intensifying social inequalities and environmental problems, there is a need to further strengthen the EJ research framework and diversify its application. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) incorporates 19 articles that broaden EJ research by considering emerging topics such as energy, food, drinking water, flooding, sustainability, and gender dynamics, including issues in Canada, the UK, and Eastern Europe. Additionally, the articles contribute to three research themes: (1) documenting connections between unjust environmental exposures and health impacts by examining unsafe infrastructure, substance use, and children's obesity and academic performance; (2) promoting and achieving EJ by implementing interventions to improve environmental knowledge and health, identifying avenues for sustainable community change, and incorporating EJ metrics in government programs; and (3) clarifying stakeholder perceptions of EJ issues to extend research beyond the documentation of unjust conditions and processes. Collectively, the articles highlight potentially compounding injustices and an array of approaches being employed to achieve EJ.

  17. EDITORIAL: Environmental justice: a critical issue for all environmental scientists everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Carolyn

    2007-10-01

    It is now commonly understood that much of the worldwide burden of environmental ill health falls disproportionately on poorer peoples [1,2]. There is also substantial evidence that much environmental damage internationally is the result of the actions of richer nations or richer groups within nations—with impacts on poorer nations and poorer groups within nations [1,3,4]. It is becoming clear also that poorer peoples internationally experience multiple environmental harms, and that these may have a cumulative effect. The world is becoming more urbanized, and cities are becoming the locus for many of the local issues of environmental damage and environmental harm [4,5]. But cities are also responsible for substantial international environmental damage: for example, it is increasingly evident that cities are one of the main generators of climate change, and that the actions of people in cities in the rich world are deeply linked to the well-being of the overall ecosystem and of people worldwide. Environmental justice is a concept that links the environmental health science documenting these harms, to debates around rights, justice and equity. It fundamentally deals with the distribution of environmental goods and harms—and looks at who bears those harms and who is responsible for creating those harms, in both a practical sense but also in terms of policy decisions. It is a radical environmental health movement that has evolved from civil society groups, angered at what they perceive as the `unjust' distribution of environmental resources for health and, conversely the `unjust' distribution of environmental harms. The movement now includes a collaboration of non-governmental organizations with environmental scientists, public health professionals, and lawyers, all working on the issue of the distributions of environmental harms and the rights of everyone to a healthy environment. This special issue is both timely and important. Environmental justice is moving

  18. How to connect bioethics and environmental ethics: health, sustainability, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, James

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, I explore one way to bring bioethics and environmental ethics closer together. I focus on a question at the interface of health, sustainability, and justice: How well does a society promote health with the use of no more than a just share of environmental capacity? To address this question, I propose and discuss a mode of assessment that combines a measurement of population health, an estimate of environmental sustainability, and an assumption about what constitutes a fair or just share. This mode of assessment provides an estimate of the just and sustainable life expectancy of a population. It could be used to monitor how well a particular society promotes health within just environmental limits. It could also serve as a source of information that stakeholders use when they deliberate about programs, policies, and technologies. The purpose of this work is to focus attention on an ethical task: the need to fashion institutions and forms of life that promote health in ways that recognize the claims of sustainability and justice.

  19. Can the capitalist economic system deliver environmental justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Can a healthy environment for all social groups be delivered through capitalism via market mechanisms? Or is it the capitalist system, itself, that has been at the root of the environmental and social crises we now face? This letter engages with this ongoing debate by drawing on material from a wider study, ‘Achieving Environmental Justice’, which examined the extent, form and causes of environmental justice and injustice in a range of countries with varying depths of marketization—United States, South Korea, United Kingdom, Sweden, China, Bolivia and Cuba. The analysis described here focuses on the interview material from this mixed methods study, drawing on over 140 interviews with officials, policy makers, and civil society leaders. The letter argues that there is an apparent propensity for capitalist processes to exacerbate, rather than reduce, environmental problems and inequities though the pursuit of relentless economic growth and profit accumulation. Therefore, we should perhaps let go of efforts to resolve environmental injustice within the constraints of capitalism and, instead, build an alternative economic system that can meet human needs in the context of a harmonious and respectful relationship with nature.

  20. The TERRA framework: conceptualizing rural environmental health inequities through an environmental justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Patricia; Postma, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The deleterious consequences of environmentally associated diseases are expressed differentially by income, race, and geography. Scientists are just beginning to understand the consequences of environmental exposures under conditions of poverty, marginalization, and geographic isolation. In this context, we developed the TERRA (translational environmental research in rural areas) framework to explicate environmental health risks experienced by the rural poor. Central to the TERRA framework is the premise that risks exist within physical-spatial, economic-resources, and cultural-ideologic contexts. In the face of scientific and political uncertainty, a precautionary risk reduction approach has the greatest potential to protect health. Conceptual and technical advances will both be needed to achieve environmental justice.

  1. 78 FR 27235 - Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Justice in Regulatory Analysis.'' The purpose of this guidance is to provide EPA analysts with technical...-566-2363. Mail: Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OA-2013-0320; FRL-9810-5] Technical Guidance for Assessing...

  2. Wedging Equity and Environmental Justice into the Discourse on Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Gandy, Jr.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the problems and prospects for including meaningful indicators of intragenrational equity into the city based regional planning efforts unfolding around the globe. The central focus of the paper is on the challenges that environmental justice (EJ activists face as they attempt to frame the problem of equity in ways that the general public would see as not only informative, but compelling. After reviewing examples of successful efforts to reframe debates about equity, the paper concludes with a discussion of a set of EJ concerns and indicators that have the greatest potential for capturing public attention and commitment despite mounting resistance to the use of redistributive policies in support of sustainability goals.

  3. The Other May Simply Live: Ecological Design as Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Eisenstein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As a global consensus continues to form about the gravity of the ecological risks facing the world in the new century, a smaller, parallel consensus about the pivotal role to be played by ecological designers and planners has also emerged. Few observers dispute the basic idea that the physical design of the built environment is a critical element of an ecologically healthy civilisation. As such, the planners and designers who focus on holistic, place-based strategies for creating those environments and promoting the long-term protection of ecosystems have much to contribute to the larger debate over the meaning and practice of sustainability. Because their role is potentially so important, it matters how ecological designers and planners conceptualise and present their work to the larger society. In particular, addressing a subtle, conceptual divide between ecological design and environmental justice concerns should be a priority. Far from being solely the province of New Age escapists or idiosyncratic, wealthy clients as it is often caricatured, ecological design practice is in fact critical to confronting the harsh realities of toxic exposure, air pollution, and water contamination that beset disadvantaged communities. After pointing out the key physical and conceptual links between ecological design and environmental justice, this paper argues that landscape architects do not sufficiently emphasise the human impacts of ecological degradation resulting from unsustainable design. It goes on to identify two specific analytical tools (ecological economics and a modified form of ecological footprint analysis that can help the profession make this case. A greater effort to do so would help to expand the influence of ecological landscape design in both the global debates about sustainability and in localised realms of implementation.

  4. Potential Environmental Justice (EJ) areas in Region 2 based on 2000 Census [EPA.EJAREAS_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Potential Environmental Justice (EJ) areas in Region 2 . This dataset was derived from 2000 census data and based on the criteria setforth in the Region 2 Interim...

  5. the search for environmental justice in the niger delta and corporate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    Keywords: Environmental Justice, Niger Delta, Corporate Accountability, Torts, kiobel .... U.S. Courts to Victims of Corporate Human Rights Abuses', 146 Columbia ... 7 Amokaye O.G., Environmental Law and Practice in Nigeria (Lagos, Unilag ...

  6. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ramirez-Andreotta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice.

  7. Linking ‘toxic outliers’ to environmental justice communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Mary B; Munoz, Ian; JaJa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Several key studies have found that a small minority of producers, polluting at levels far exceeding group averages, generate the majority of overall exposure to industrial toxics. Frequently, such patterns go unnoticed and are understudied outside of the academic community. To our knowledge, no research to date has systematically described the scope and extent of extreme variations in industrially based exposure estimates and sought to link inequities in harm produced to inequities in exposure. In an analysis of all permitted industrial facilities across the United States, we show that there exists a class of hyper-polluters—the worst-of-the-worst—that disproportionately expose communities of color and low income populations to chemical releases. This study hopes to move beyond a traditional environmental justice research frame, bringing new computational methods and perspectives aimed at the empirical study of societal power dynamics. Our findings suggest the possibility that substantial environmental gains may be made through selective environmental enforcement, rather than sweeping initiatives. (letter)

  8. Environmental Quality and the U.S. Power Sector: Air Quality, Land Use and Environmental Justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massetti, Emanuele [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradbury, James [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cunliff, Colin [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-04

    This baseline report summarizes key environmental quality issues associated with electricity generation, transmission, distribution, and end use in the United States. Its scope includes non-greenhouse gas air pollution (i.e., sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and hazardous air pollutants), land use, water pollution, ecological impacts, human health, and environmental justice. The discussion characterizes both current impacts and recent trends, as well as assessments of key drivers of change. For example, the air emissions section includes a quantitative decomposition analysis of the drivers of change in sulfur dioxide emissions reductions from coal-fired power plants. The report is divided into four topical sections: air emissions, land use and ecology, water quality, and environmental justice.

  9. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF

  10. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF.

  11. A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, C.H.; Brumburgh, G.P.; Edmunds, T.A.; Kay, D.

    1996-03-01

    President Clinton's Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety analysis report and a computer code were used to develop impact assessment data from a hypothetical facility accident producing a radiological airborne plume. The computer code modeled the plume, plotted dose contours, and provided latitude and longitude coordinates for transfer to the GIS. The GIS integrated and mapped the impact and demographic data toprovide a graphical representation of the plume with respect to the population. Impacts were then analyzed. The GIS was used to estimate the total dose to the exposed population under the plume, the dose to the low-income population under the plume, and the dose to the minority population under the plume. Impacts among the population groups were compared to determine whether a dispropotionate share of the impacts were borne by minority or low-income populations

  12. 78 FR 39284 - Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OA-2013-0320; FRL-9830-1] Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued for public comment a document entitled, ``Technical Guidance for...

  13. Bourdieu does environmental justice? Probing the linkages between population health and air pollution epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature faces a number of conceptual and methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this paper is to probe ways in which these shortcomings can be remedied via recent developments in related literatures: population health and air pollution epidemiology. More sophisticated treatment of social structure, particularly if based on Pierre Bourdieu's relational approach to forms of capital, can be combined with the methodological rigour and established biological pathways of air pollution epidemiology. The aim is to reformulate environmental justice research in order to make further meaningful contributions to the wider movement concerned with issues of social justice and equity in health research.

  14. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  15. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  16. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  17. Social Justice and Environmental Awareness Developed through a Citizens' Jury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J.

    2014-12-01

    A Citizens' Jury (CJ) is a discussion forum in which managers, policymakers or politicians are able to present their case to the general public ('citizens') to whom they are accountable, and for these citizens to critically ask questions of the managers/policymakers/politicians in order to better understand issues surrounding local development, planning and policy, impacts and adaptive measures, and to highlight their concerns. A CJ can be useful with respect to developing social justice and environmental awareness issues because it can empower community action and present different viewpoints. A practical CJ exercise is used in a second-year undergraduate course entitled Climate Change and Society, at University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The CJ is used to consider some of the impacts of management policies used for climate change and sustainable development adaption, based on a hypothetical scenario. This scenario is that a major energy company wants to build a dam with hydroelectric power station in a developing country. This will provide low-carbon renewable energy to the country, investment in electricity infrastructure, and the company is committed to help economic development in the country, including in jobs and education. However, building and flooding of the dam will involve displacing 10,000 people from rural communities, flooding agricultural areas and areas of high biodiversity, and archaeological sites. The exercise is based on students, in groups, assuming different 'identities' which may include a local business person, resident, politician, member of an NGO, tourist, engineer, farmer etc, from which viewpoint they must argue for/against the proposal and to question other peoples' viewpoints. This exercise is useful because it allows students to develop understandings of different viewpoints, evaluate risk and impacts on different communities, and highlights the complexity of real-world decision-making.

  18. Promoting Environmental Justice through Civil-Based Instruments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Toxopeüs and Louis J. Kotzé

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Achieving environmental justice in South Africa is critically important, not only because of historical reasons rooted in the country’s apartheid past, but also to ensure that everyone in the country, especially marginalized and vulnerable sectors of society, are properly protected from disproportional environmental impacts. Another aim of environmental justice in South Africa is to ensure that everyone equally shares in the benefits of the country’s resources. In this article, we interrogate ways through which to achieve environmental justice in South Africa through the use of civil-based instruments (CBIs of environmental governance. The central hypothesis is that CBIs are particularly well-suited to contribute to the achievement of environmental justice since they are essentially instruments which empower civil society to become central stakeholders in environmental governance by fostering active participation in the decisions that may impact on the environment and people’s health and well-being. Through these instruments all of society, particularly disenfranchised people suffering most from environmental injustice, are afforded a platform to pursue their environment-related interests that may be affected by the decisions taken by government and private actors such as polluting companies. For the purpose of the discussion we focus specifically on public participation, access to information and access to justice, all of which are generally accepted as CBIs, including in international law.

  19. 75 FR 18831 - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; Notification of Public Teleconference and Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Act (FACA), Public Law 92-463, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hereby provides notice... liaisons to the Tribal Operations Commission and the Children's Health Protection Advisory Committee School... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9136-1] National Environmental Justice Advisory Council...

  20. Environmental justice, impact assessment and the politics of knowledge: The implications of assessing the social distribution of environmental outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Claims of environmental injustice have increasingly become part of environmental conflicts, both explicitly through the work of environmental justice campaigning groups and implicitly through the arguments deployed about the rights and wrongs of a given situation. Such claims can centre on different notions of justice, including those concerned with questions of distribution and procedure. This paper focuses on distributional or outcome justice and explores what implications follow when the distributional concerns of environmental justice are included in the practice of impact assessment processes, including through social impact assessment (SIA). The current use of impact assessment methods in the UK is reviewed showing that although practices are evolving there is a little routine assessment of distributional inequalities. It is argued that whilst this should become part of established practice to ensure that inequalities are revealed and matters of justice are given a higher profile, the implications for conflict within decision making processes are not straightforward. On the one hand, there could be scope for conflict to be ameliorated by analysis of inequalities informing the debate between stakeholders, and facilitating the implementation of mitigation and compensation measures for disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, contestation over how evidence is produced and therefore what it shows, and disagreement as to the basis on which justice and injustice are to be determined, means that conflict may also be generated and sustained within what are essentially political and strategic settings.

  1. Multi-Contextual Segregation and Environmental Justice Research: Toward Fine-Scale Spatiotemporal Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Min Park

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research. It emphasizes that future research needs to go beyond residential segregation by considering the full spectrum of segregation experienced by people in various geographic and temporal contexts of everyday life. Along with this comprehensive understanding of segregation, the paper also highlights the importance of assessing environmental exposure at a high spatiotemporal resolution in environmental justice research. The successful integration of a comprehensive concept of segregation, high-resolution data and fine-grained spatiotemporal approaches to assessing segregation and environmental exposure would provide more nuanced and robust findings on the associations between segregation and disparities in environmental exposure and their health impacts. Moreover, it would also contribute to significantly expanding the scope of environmental justice research.

  2. Multi-Contextual Segregation and Environmental Justice Research: Toward Fine-Scale Spatiotemporal Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Min; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2017-10-10

    Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research. It emphasizes that future research needs to go beyond residential segregation by considering the full spectrum of segregation experienced by people in various geographic and temporal contexts of everyday life. Along with this comprehensive understanding of segregation, the paper also highlights the importance of assessing environmental exposure at a high spatiotemporal resolution in environmental justice research. The successful integration of a comprehensive concept of segregation, high-resolution data and fine-grained spatiotemporal approaches to assessing segregation and environmental exposure would provide more nuanced and robust findings on the associations between segregation and disparities in environmental exposure and their health impacts. Moreover, it would also contribute to significantly expanding the scope of environmental justice research.

  3. Health, Traffic, and Environmental Justice: Collaborative Research and Community Action in San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammas, Charlie; Seto, Edmund; Bhatia, Rajiv; Rivard, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Health impacts on neighborhood residents from transportation systems can be an environmental justice issue. To assess the effects of transportation planning decisions, including the construction of an intraurban freeway, on residents of the Excelsior neighborhood in southeast San Francisco, PODER (People Organizing to Demand Environmental and Economic Rights), a local grassroots environmental justice organization; the San Francisco Department of Public Health; and the University of California, Berkeley, collaborated on participatory research. We used our findings regarding traffic-related exposures and health hazards in the area to facilitate community education and action to address transportation-related health burdens on neighborhood residents. PMID:19890147

  4. Educational Reflections on the "Ecological Crisis": EcoJustice, Environmentalism, and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    There is a tendency by scholars arguing for a more just and sustainable future to position the "ecological crisis" as a fundamental reason for major educational reforms. Relying on crisis-talk to fuel social and environmental justice and environmentalism reinforces the thinking of the past, which inadvertently perpetuates the acceptance of present…

  5. Pushing the frontiers of equity as a means for environmental justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whilst the usage of this principle to achieve environmental justice in other jurisdictions has been popularized, the reason for poor implementation of the principle in an African context is exacerbated by the placement of same constitutional environmental provision. The South African jurisdiction exemplifies a means to ...

  6. Neighborhood disparities in access to healthy foods and their effects on environmental justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental justice is concerned with an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. These burdens comprise immediate health hazards as well as subtle inequities, such as limited access to healthy foods. We reviewed the literature on neighborhood disparities in access to fast-food outlets and...

  7. 78 FR 33416 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Environmental Justice Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL--9819-3] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science... Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Environmental Justice Technical Guidance Review Panel to provide advice through...

  8. Bread and Roses: A Gender Perspective on Environmental Justice and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen

    2016-10-12

    Gender continues to be a relatively marginal issue in environmental justice debates and yet it remains an important aspect of injustice. To help redress the balance, this article explores women's experience of environmental justice through a review of the existing literature and the author's prior qualitative research, as well as her experience of environmental activism. The analysis confirms that women tend to experience inequitable environmental burdens (distributional injustice); and are less likely than men to have control over environmental decisions (procedural injustice), both of which impact on their health (substantive injustice). It is argued that these injustices occur because women generally have lower incomes than men and are perceived as having less social status than their male counterparts as a result of entwined and entrenched capitalist and patriarchal processes. In the light of this analysis, it is proposed that environmental justice research, teaching, policy and practice should be made more gender aware and feminist orientated. This could support cross-cutting debates and activities in support of the radical social change necessary to bring about greater social and environmental justice more generally.

  9. Bread and Roses: A Gender Perspective on Environmental Justice and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender continues to be a relatively marginal issue in environmental justice debates and yet it remains an important aspect of injustice. To help redress the balance, this article explores women’s experience of environmental justice through a review of the existing literature and the author’s prior qualitative research, as well as her experience of environmental activism. The analysis confirms that women tend to experience inequitable environmental burdens (distributional injustice; and are less likely than men to have control over environmental decisions (procedural injustice, both of which impact on their health (substantive injustice. It is argued that these injustices occur because women generally have lower incomes than men and are perceived as having less social status than their male counterparts as a result of entwined and entrenched capitalist and patriarchal processes. In the light of this analysis, it is proposed that environmental justice research, teaching, policy and practice should be made more gender aware and feminist orientated. This could support cross-cutting debates and activities in support of the radical social change necessary to bring about greater social and environmental justice more generally.

  10. Bread and Roses: A Gender Perspective on Environmental Justice and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Gender continues to be a relatively marginal issue in environmental justice debates and yet it remains an important aspect of injustice. To help redress the balance, this article explores women’s experience of environmental justice through a review of the existing literature and the author’s prior qualitative research, as well as her experience of environmental activism. The analysis confirms that women tend to experience inequitable environmental burdens (distributional injustice); and are less likely than men to have control over environmental decisions (procedural injustice), both of which impact on their health (substantive injustice). It is argued that these injustices occur because women generally have lower incomes than men and are perceived as having less social status than their male counterparts as a result of entwined and entrenched capitalist and patriarchal processes. In the light of this analysis, it is proposed that environmental justice research, teaching, policy and practice should be made more gender aware and feminist orientated. This could support cross-cutting debates and activities in support of the radical social change necessary to bring about greater social and environmental justice more generally. PMID:27754351

  11. Addressing environmental justice under the National Environment Policy Act at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.M.; Bleakly, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    Under Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations, the Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico (SNL) are required to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high, adverse human health or environmental effects of their activities on minority and low-income populations. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) also requires that environmental justice issues be identified and addressed. This presents a challenge for SNL because it is located in a culturally diverse area. Successfully addressing potential impacts is contingent upon accurately identifying them through objective analysis of demographic information. However, an effective public participation process, which is necessarily subjective, is also needed to understand the subtle nuances of diverse populations that can contribute to a potential impact, yet are not always accounted for in a strict demographic profile. Typically, there is little or no coordination between these two disparate processes. This report proposes a five-step method for reconciling these processes and uses a hypothetical case study to illustrate the method. A demographic analysis and community profile of the population within 50 miles of SNL were developed to support the environmental justice analysis process and enhance SNL`s NEPA and public involvement programs. This report focuses on developing a methodology for identifying potentially impacted populations. Environmental justice issues related to worker exposures associated with SNL activities will be addressed in a separate report.

  12. Not so Black and White: environmental justice and cumulative impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, Eric J.; Faber, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of scientific studies in recent years have investigated disparate exposure to ecological hazards in American society. Working from an environmental justice perspective, this body of research consistently reveals that poor communities of color are most likely to bear a disproportionate burden of negative externalities. These studies utilize a wide range of research methodologies, including various indicators of ecological hazards (e.g., proximity to waste sites, industrial emissions, ambient air quality), but few, if any, utilize composite measures to approximate cumulative environmental impact. Consequently, the environmental justice (EJ) literature is characterized by a failure to effectively measure overall impact from an extensive range of ecological hazards. Limitations on available data make this a serious problem for present and future studies. We argue that cumulative measures of environmental impact can play an important role in furthering our understanding of environmental injustices in the United States. In this study of Massachusetts, we develop and implement such a cumulative measure of negative environmental impacts. By controlling for the density and severity of ecological hazardous sites and facilities within every community in the state, we demonstrate that exposure patterns take a generally linear distribution when analyzed by race and class. So, while our results reaffirm previous findings that low-income communities and communities of color bear significantly greater ecological burdens than predominantly White and more affluent communities, our findings also suggest that environmental injustices exist on a remarkably consistent continuum for nearly all communities. In other words, as the minority population and lower-income composition of a community increases, correspondingly, so does cumulative exposure to environmental hazards. In this respect, communities which are more racially mixed and of moderate income status that are

  13. Environmental Justice and the Spatial Distribution of Outdoor Recreation sites: an Applications of Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution of outdoor recreation sites and their proximity to census block groups (CBGs), in order to determine potential socio-economic inequities. It is framed within the context of environmental justice. Information from the Southern Appalachian Assessment database was applied to a case study of the Chattahoochee National Forest in...

  14. Between activism and science: Grassroots concepts for sustainability coined by Environmental Justice Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Alier, J.; Anguelovski, I.; Bond, P.; DelBene, D.; F. Demaria (Federico); J. Gerber (Julien-François); Greyl, L.; Hass, W.; Healy, H.; Marín-Burgos, V.; Ojo, G.U.; Porto, M.; Rijnhout, L.; Rodríguez-Labajos, B.; Spangenberg, J.; Temper, L.; Warlenius, R.; I. Yánez (Ivonne)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In their own battles and strategy meetings since the early 1980s, EJOs (environmental justice organizations) and their networks have introduced several concepts to political ecology that have also been taken up by academics and policy makers. In this paper, we explain the

  15. Transition to a post-carbon society: Linking environmental justice and just transition discourses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Geoff; Phelan, Liam

    2016-01-01

    The Hunter Valley, in New South Wales, Australia, is a globally significant coal mining and exporting region. The Hunter economy's strong basis in fossil fuel production and consumption is challenged by civil society campaigns employing environmental justice discourses. This paper analyses how two civil society campaigns in the Hunter region (‘Stop T4′ and 'Groundswell’) have countered the regional hegemony of fossil fuel interests from an environmental justice perspective. However, the discursive dominance of the 'jobs versus environment’ frame hinders efforts to build solidarity amongst local environmental justice goals on the one hand, and workers and union aspirations for secure, quality jobs on the other. Long-term structural decline of global coal markets adds pressure for economic transition. We argue that campaigns to open up possibilities for transition away from fossil fuel dependency to a post-carbon society can be strengthened by engaging with the 'just transition’ discourses that are typically associated with organised labour. Doing so can create synergy for social change by aligning community and labour movement interests. Inclusive social movement partnerships around this synergy must address structural disadvantage that creates social and economic insecurity if communities are to prevail over the fossil fuel sector's hegemony. - Highlights: • Jobs versus environment. • Environmental justice. • Just transition. • Counter-hegemonic forces.

  16. A long view of polluting industry and environmental justice in Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Boone; Michail Fragkias; Geoffrey L. Buckley; J. Morgan. Grove

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the density of polluting industry by neighborhoods in Baltimore over the long term, from 1950 to 2010, to determine if high pollution burdens correspond spatially with expected demographic and housing variables predicted in the environmental justice literature. For 1960-1980 we use data on heavy industry from Dun and Bradstreet directories and for...

  17. 78 FR 79693 - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; Notification of Public Teleconference Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    .... The primary topics of discussion will be (1) recommendations for integrating environmental justice into EPA's research enterprise and (2) a preliminary discussion about chemical management issues. There... submitting written comments before the Friday January 10, 2014, noon deadline. Non-English speaking attendees...

  18. Mining conflicts around the world: Common grounds from an Environmental Justice perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Özkaynak (Begüm); B. Rodriguez-Labajos (Beatriz); M. Arsel (Murat); D. Avci (Duygu); M.H. Carbonell (María Helena); B. Chareyron (Bruno); G. Chicaiza; M. Conde (Marta); F. Demaria (Federico); R. Finamore (Renan); B. Kohrs (Bertchen); V.V. Krishna (Venni); M. Mahongnao (Mirinchonme); D. Raeva (Dragomira); A.A. Singh (Akoijam); T. Slavov (Todor); T. Tkalec (Tomislav); I. Yánez (Ivonne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. This report aims at exploring contemporary mining conflicts in the context of the sustainable development and environmental justice movement. This is done based on 24 real case studies from 18 different countries which are described by local activists and scholars. While

  19. Contributions of a sociology of public problems to Environmental Justice in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Berger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The political struggles against the environmental, health, social, and economic impacts of neo-developmentalism and neo-extractivism in Latin America have been theoretically fertile. From the diversity of perspectives, we recover the contributions of a sociology of public problems for the struggles for Environmental Justice, basically because it promotes the practice of research as a reflexive and democratic form of cooperation between those directly environmentally affected and all those subject to a structure of environmental injustice. First, we present the epistemological, ethical and political dimension, defined by the active formation of a public. Secondly, we focus on the conceptual, strategic and institutional creativity of the public, with examples of the problems caused by the environmental and health impacts of the massive use of agrotoxics in gmo agriculture. Finally, we establish a bridge between the contributions of a sociology of public problems and Environmental Justice, the latter considered as a field of thought and action with competence in environmentalist discourses, meaning that the concept of justice is not reduced to state administration. Instead it refers to the diversity of practices in the public sphere, claiming and criticizing the unequal distribution of environmental risk and harm. At the same time, these practices creatively promote institutional reforms and transformations toward the full enforcement of rights and guarantees to life, health and the environment. A sociology of public problems aims to provide an understanding of the struggle for rights and recognition of forms of life, social and environmental equity and the right to democratic participation and the broad exercise of self-determination in building a society with environmental justice.

  20. The Materialist Circuits and the Quest for Environmental Justice in ICT’s Global Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibo Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article builds on and contributes to research on the material impacts of Information and Communication Technology and Consumer Electronics (ICT/CE by proposing a holistic framework addressing labour exploitation and environmental destruction in the production, consumption, and disposal of digital devices. Although the emerging media scholarship on digital labour have critically analyzed the material impacts of ICT/CE in terms of labour issues emerged from the production and consumption stages, relatively little research attention has been paid to the end-of-life issues of digital devices and other environmental issues caused by the ICT industry’s global expansion. Based upon previous research on digital labour, environmental management and ecological justice, this article proposes a political economic understanding of the environmental dimension of the ICT industry and how it has contributed to the escalation of environmental crisis and social injustice in developing coun-tries, especially in terms of the urging situation of the global e-waste challenge. The article argues that the critical standpoints taken by political economy of communication and environmental justice re-search provide valuable and promising theoretical connections between labour activism and ecological struggles; and future inquiries on digital economy, in this regard, should combine both perspectives, pay more attention to the enormous social and ecological tensions in the Global South, and make explicit connections between the regressions in labour rights and global environmental justice and ICT’s aggressive and unsustainable expansion.

  1. Rawls´ legacy: a limited possibility of a non-speciesist environmental justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia T. Felipe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Publishing A Theory of Justice in 1971 John Rawls defined a conceptual realm of justice as that of a well-ordered society in which some principles of justice should be tested before seeking to apply them to distribute primary goods among co-operative representative subjects (considered as equals within the basic structure of society and other subjects, who are not necessarily co-operative, even if they are included in the contract of justice by the representatives through the indirect moral duties theory. Representative subjects were interested in possessing and preserving − for themselves and for their descendants − all kinds of goods: natural, primary, social and public ones. They are interested in maintaining economic and social distinctions obtained by fair work distribution, as well. In explaining his theory of a fair distribution of primary social goods, John Rawls does not include, at least explicitly, the kind of goods I am suggesting in this paper to be called natural environmental goods, the kind of goods which are indispensable to secure, with no exception, the survival of all organisms subjected to basic needs, including human needs. Natural environmental goods seems to have been forgotten by Rawls, or at least considered as not implicated in his model of a fair institutional distribution of primary social goods. Following what Michael S. PRITCHARD, Wade L. ROBISON, Russ MANNING, Brent A. SINGER, Daniel P. THERO and Troy W. HARTLEY have critically pointed in some of their articles, I am going firstly to show the lack of the concept of natural environmental goods in Rawls’ Theory of Justice, and secondly, I suggest considering natural environmental goods as part of a non-speciesist theory of justice. So, I hope to contribute to extend the philosophical legacy of A Theory of Justice, in order to include in our moral consideration needs and interests of all living beings. In other words, I will try to consider the issue of justice

  2. Environmental justice and conceptions of the green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ehresman, T.G.; Okereke, Chuks

    2015-01-01

    Green economy has become one of the most fashionable terms in global environmental public policy discussions and forums. Despite this popularity, and its being selected as one of the organizing themes of the United Nations Rio+20 Conference in Brazil, June 2012, its prospects as an effective mobilization tool for global environmental sustainability scholarship and practice remains unclear. A major reason for this is that much like its precursor concepts such as environmental sustainability an...

  3. "No justice, no peace" and the right to self-determination: an interview with Gary Grant and Naeema Muhammed of the North Carolina Environmental Justice Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gary; Muhammed, Naeema; Slatin, Craig; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2014-01-01

    This is an interview with Gary Grant and Naeema Muhammed, leaders of the North Carolina Environmental Justice Network. Each of them talks about where they grew up, their politicization, how their paths crossed, their work together after Hurricane Floyd, and the unique challenges of organizing for social justice for black communities in the South. We learn of their fight against concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), primarily for the hog trade, and they take us up to North Carolina's Moral Monday protests of 2013 against legislation that threatens voting rights, public education, access to medical services, unemployment benefits, workers rights, occupational and environmental health, and women's access to reproductive health care. We are grateful to these two friends of New Solutions for their contribution to the journal, and we hope that their insights regarding struggles for social and environmental justice can serve as guides for us all.

  4. Get even and feel good? Moderating effects of justice sensitivity and counterproductive work behavior on the relationship between illegitimate tasks and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Braucks, Julia; Baethge, Anja; Dormann, Christian; Vahle-Hinz, Tim

    2018-04-23

    We proposed that effects of illegitimate tasks, which comprise unreasonable and unnecessary tasks, on self-esteem and counterproductive work behavior (CWB) are enhanced among employees who are highly sensitive to injustice. CWB was further proposed to be a moderating coping strategy, which restores justice and buffers the detrimental effects of illegitimate tasks on self-esteem. In this study, 241 employees participated in a diary study over five workdays and a follow-up questionnaire one week later. Daily effects were determined in multilevel analyses: Unreasonable tasks decreased self-esteem and increased CWB the same day, especially among employees high in trait justice sensitivity. Unnecessary tasks only related to more CWB the same day, regardless of one's justice sensitivity. Weekly effects were determined in cross-lagged panel analyses: Unreasonable and unnecessary tasks increased CWB, and justice sensitivity moderated the effect of unreasonable tasks on CWB and of unnecessary tasks on self-esteem. Moderating effects of CWB were split: In daily analyses, CWB buffered the negative effects of illegitimate tasks. In weekly analyses, CWB enhanced the negative effects of illegitimate tasks. Overall, illegitimate tasks rather affected CWB than self-esteem, with more consistent effects for unreasonable than for unnecessary tasks. Thus, we confirm illegitimate tasks as a relevant work stressor with issues of injustice being central to this concept and personality having an influence on what is perceived as (il)legitimate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The construction of feelings of justice in environmental management: An empirical study of multiple biodiversity conflicts in Calakmul, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuyer, Lou; White, Rehema M; Schmook, Birgit; Lemay, Violaine; Calmé, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    A failure to address social concerns in biodiversity conservation can lead to feelings of injustice among some actors, and hence jeopardize conservation goals. The complex socio-cultural and political context of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, has historically led to multiple biodiversity conflicts. Our goal, in this case study, was to explore perceptions of justice held by local actors in relation to biodiversity conflicts. We then aimed to determine the following: 1) people's definitions of their feelings of justice; 2) the criteria used in this assessment; 3) variability in the criteria influencing them; and 4) implications for environmental management in the region and beyond. We worked with five focus groups, exploring three examples of biodiversity conflict around forest, water and jaguar management with a total of 41 ranchers, farmers and representatives of local producers. Our results demonstrated that people constructed their feelings of justice around four dimensions of justice: recognition (acknowledging individuals' rights, values, cultures and knowledge systems); ecological (fair and respectful treatment of the natural environment), procedural (fairness in processes of environmental management), distributive (fairness in the distribution of costs and benefits). We identified a list of criteria the participants used in their appraisal of justice and sources of variation such as the social scale of focus and participant role, and whom they perceived to be responsible for resource management. We propose a new framework that conceptualizes justice-as-recognition and ecological justice as forms of conditional justices, and procedural and distributive justices as forms of practical justice. Conditional justice allows us to define who is a legitimate source of justice norms and if nature should be integrated in the scope of justice; hence, conditional justice underpins other dimensions of justice. On the other hand, procedural and distributive address

  6. Global justice and environmental governance: an analysis of the Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the major normative political theory contributions on global climate justice, the present paper analyzes the new international agreement on climate change, adopted at COP 21 in Paris (2015. Therefore, a literary review of the extensive normative theoretical discussion about global climate justice is made, with special attention to the two approaches that have permeated multilateral political negotiations - historical responsibility and equal per capita emissions. From this normative discussion, this paper recalls the global climate change negotiation process, focusing on the Kyoto Protocol. Next, the analysis emphasizes on the Paris Agreement in an effort to evaluate the normative questions on justice and equity within the environmental governance regime. Finally, the set of conclusions indicates that, although the flexibility of the Agreement has encompassed some dimensions of responsibility, necessity and ability to bear the costs, the most complex dimensions of justice and equity has not been completely solved, which may hinder the operation of environmental governance in a near future.

  7. ETHICS AND JUSTICE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and engineering are built on trust. C.P. Snow's famous quote, "the only ethical principle which has made science possible is that the truth shall be told all the time" underscores the importance of honesty in science. Environmental scientists must do work that is useful...

  8. Rough Justice? Exploring the Relationship Between Information Access and Environmental and Ecological Justice Pertaining to Two Controversial Coastal Developments in North-east Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Baxter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between information access and environmental and ecological justice through an historical comparison of two controversial coastal developments in Aberdeenshire, North-east Scotland: the building of a North Sea gas reception terminal by the British Gas Council and the French exploration company Total Oil Marine in the 1970s; and the more recent construction of ‘the greatest golf course anywhere in the world’ by the American property tycoon, Donald Trump. These two projects have much in common, not least because each one has had actual or potential impacts on an environmentally sensitive site, and because each has also been affected by plans for another major structure in its immediate vicinity. But the Trump golf course project has taken place during a period when access to information and citizens’ influence on major planning decisions in Scotland has been significantly greater, at least theoretically. With these points in mind, the paper considers whether or not environmental justice (more specifically, procedural environmental justice and ecological justice are now more attainable in the current era of supposed openness, transparency and public engagement, than in the more secretive and less participative 1970s. It reveals that, at the planning application stage, information on the potential environmental impact of Trump’s golf resort was more readily obtainable, compared with that provided by the Gas Council and Total forty years earlier. However, during and after the construction stage, when considering whether or not the developments have met environmental planning conditions – and whether or not ecological justice has been done – the situation with the gas terminal has been far clearer than with Trump’s golf resort. Despite the golf course being built in an era of government openness, there remain a number of unanswered questions concerning its environmental impact.

  9. Theatre of the oppressed and environmental justice communities: a transformational therapy for the body politic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, John; Petronella, Sharon; Brooks, Edward; Murillo, Maria; Primeau, Loree; Ward, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    Community Environmental Forum Theatre at UTMB-NIEHS Center in Environmental Toxicology uses Augusto Boal's Theatre of the Oppressed (TO) to promote involvement of citizens, scientists, and health professionals in deconstructing toxic exposures, risk factors, and cumulative stressors that impact the well-being of communities. The TO process encourages collective empowerment of communities by disseminating information and elaborating support networks. TO also elicits transformation and growth on a personal level via a dramaturgical system that restores spontaneity through image-making and improvisation. An NIEHS Environmental Justice Project, Communities Organized against Asthma & Lead, illustrates this interplay of personal and collective change in Houston, Texas.

  10. Community Theories of Change: Linking Environmental Justice to Sustainability through Stakeholder Perceptions in Milwaukee (WI, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn Hornik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental justice and sustainability are compatible lenses, yet action toward equity is often missing from urban sustainability initiatives. This study aims to assess the cohesion of these frameworks in practice. To do this, we parse individuals’ theories of change, or how they identify and propose to resolve environmental injustices in the pursuit of sustainability. We posit that these theories of change are comprised of three main components: (1 perceived environmental benefits and burdens; (2 the causal pathways of environmental and social injustice; and (3 visions for positive change. Drawing from 35 stakeholder interviews in Milwaukee (WI, USA we examine individual and institutional perspectives on environmental and social change and their links to the production of injustice. Our findings reveal that participants do not distinguish between environmental and social injustices. Instead, both social and environmental factors are implicated in injustice. Furthermore, we identify two mental maps for how social and economic change reproduce injustice. These findings suggest the need to reorient how urban injustice is considered and make efforts to acknowledge how a diversity of operational theories of change could either be divisive or could bring environmental justice and sustainability initiatives together.

  11. Environmental justice research shows the importance of social feedbacks in ecosystem service trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. Dawson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shine a spotlight on approaches to research ecosystem service trade-offs and critically assess their representation of relevant social dynamics. Although studies linking ecosystem services and human well-being have provided theoretical insights into social and ecological trade-offs, we argue that ecosystem services research has paid insufficient attention to "social feedbacks," people's cognitive and behavioral responses to change. We demonstrate that augmenting ecosystem services research with environmental justice approaches (exploring perceptions of the distribution of costs and benefits, decision making procedures, and recognition of different values and identities can more effectively capture important responses to ecosystem governance. Spatial analysis of land use change, mixed-method assessment of multidimensional well-being, and qualitative environmental justice research were applied in three villages adjacent to Nam Et-Phou Louey National Protected Area in northern Laos. Spatial analysis showed that, from 2006 to 2015, forest clearance for cultivation remained stable within the protected area. Well-being assessment revealed the local population benefited from rapidly increasing incomes, asset ownership, and reduced poverty during that time. In combination, spatial and well-being analyses paint a picture of limited trade-offs, despite growing incentives to exploit protected land and resources through cash crops and high-value forest products. In contrast, results from environmental justice research revealed profound trade-offs between conservation and local practices, and highlight governance deficiencies relating to procedure and recognition. Consequently, formal protected area rules were perceived to be illegitimate by many and actively undermined, for example through negotiated access with alternative authorities. We conclude that although well-being research provides an essential foundation to understand diverse

  12. Notification: Background Investigation Services EPA’s Efforts to Incorporate Environmental Justice Into Clean Air Act Inspections for Air Toxics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY14-0017, March 7, 2014. The OIG plans to begin the preliminary research phase of an evaluation of the EPA's efforts to incorporate environmental justice into Clean Air Act (CAA) inspections for air toxics.

  13. Just fracking: a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Emily; Bell, Derek

    2016-02-01

    This letter presents a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in the area of Pennsylvania lying over the Marcellus Shale, the largest shale gas formation in play in the United States. The extraction of shale gas using unconventional wells, which are hydraulically fractured (fracking), has increased dramatically since 2005. As the number of wells has grown, so have concerns about the potential public health effects on nearby communities. These concerns make shale gas development an environmental justice issue. This letter examines whether the hazards associated with proximity to wells and the economic benefits of shale gas production are fairly distributed. We distinguish two types of distributive environmental justice: traditional and benefit sharing. We ask the traditional question: are there a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells in Pennsylvania? However, we extend this analysis in two ways: we examine income distribution and level of education; and we compare before and after shale gas development. This contributes to discussions of benefit sharing by showing how the income distribution of the population has changed. We use a binary dasymetric technique to remap the data from the 2000 US Census and the 2009-2013 American Communities Survey and combine that data with a buffer containment analysis of unconventional wells to compare the characteristics of the population living nearer to unconventional wells with those further away before and after shale gas development. Our analysis indicates that there is no evidence of traditional distributive environmental injustice: there is not a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells. However, our analysis is consistent with the claim that there is benefit sharing distributive environmental injustice: the income distribution of the population nearer to shale gas wells

  14. A Ten Year Retrospective on Environmental Justice: What Have We Learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael J.; Jaksch, John A.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Beginning in 1994, Executive Order 12898 has directed federal executive agencies to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high and adverse health or environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low income populations. The policy behind the Executive Order was to prevent minority and low income groups from bearing disproportionate adverse environmental consequences of federal actions. During the last ten years, federal agencies have implemented Executive Order 12898, and some also have developed explicit procedures or guidance for the steps that need to be taken during the preparation of environmental impact statements. Based on the authors experience, the paper examines how environmental justice practice has evolved in the ten years since the original Executive Order was issued. This evolution has been both procedural and substantive. The paper examines how the actual practice of environmental justice analysis has progressed in federal agencies that deal with waste management issues. Reference is made to changes in case law and agency practice. The 2000 Census of Population and the ongoing development of geographic information systems in particular have made it easier to identify minority and low-income populations at risk. At the same time, a number of stakeholder groups have taken positions over specific federal actions that have given rise to novel issues and challenges for analysts. The paper discusses how NEPA practice is evolving to deal with these issues and challenges

  15. Environmental protection, a task of chemical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, H

    1980-12-01

    The environmental burden in air and water in Germany is surveyed. The terms 'eco-unobjectionable technology' and 'disposal technology' are then considered with the aid of examples. These are fundamental chemical engineering approaches for reducing or eliminating environmental burdens due to industrial production processes. 'Eco-unobjectionable processes' are those in which undesired pollutants are not even formed, i.e. when possible emissions are eliminated at source. If this is only partly possible, or impossible, then disposal measures are adopted. This means removal of unavoidable pollutants from waste gases and waste water, and the disposal of other wastes.

  16. Environmental protection - a permanent task in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laermann, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of practical environment politics can be summarized as follows: 1) Environmental policy measures do not necessarily induce restrictive effects on economic growth but also positive ones. 2) A serious conflict situation only presents itself, when with limited time available and short-term aims in mind hybernetic interrelations are disregarded and the views of an effluent society are hung onto. 3) Environmental protection measures are to be applied from the point of view of the national economy as a whole. (orig.) [de

  17. Using Constitutional Provisions to Advance Environmental Justice – Some Reflections on Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camena Guneratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of environmental justice and its potential applicability to developing countries such as Sri Lanka. It first considers the interpretation and application of the principle in its country of origin, the United States, where it is used primarily to address problems of discrimination in the context of pollution. The paper takes the view that while such an interpretation of environmental justice is valid in this particular context, it cannot address issues of environment and development that arise in countries of the global South, which are grappling with development processes. These processes give rise to issues that may be subject to judicial determination, including sustainable development, protection of natural resources, human rights and social equity. The principle must therefore be re-interpreted to encompass all these dimensions. This paper argues that such an expansion and implementation of the principle of environmental justice in a context of environment and development in countries such as Sri Lanka, is most effective within a constitutional framework of human rights. Constitutions provide both the substantive and procedural foundation of rights, which are interpreted, enforced and given validity at the highest level of the judicial process. Even where environmental rights per se are not contained in a constitution, the existing rights can be, and have been, re-formulated to address issues of environment and development and related human rights. This paper analyses constitutional rights in Sri Lanka, which although limited in scope, has nevertheless formed the basis of a wide body of jurisprudence which brings new dimensions to the principle.

  18. Environmental justice and the distributional deficit in policy appraisal in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G P

    2007-01-01

    Environmental justice brings a particular set of concerns to the policy process in asking not only what the environmental impacts of a new policy, programme or regulation might be, but also how these impacts are likely to be distributed across different social groups. This letter evaluates the extent to which appraisal tools currently used to inform environmental and related decision-making in the UK incorporate the analysis of such distributional effects. It reports on research that assessed the existence of requirements for distributional analysis across 16 different appraisal tools, the depth of guidance that is provided for those using the tool and the scope of its coverage. It is concluded that there is distributional deficit in current policy and impact appraisal tools, particularly in the context of the breadth of definition of environmental justice being applied in the UK and the range of population groups with which this is concerned. Only in the health area and in the use of health impact assessment can more positive conclusions be reached. Research evaluating the use of tools in practice is needed and a number of steps to improve on the current situation are discussed

  19. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia. (paper)

  20. Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides EJ policy, information resources, compliance and enforcement data tools and community outreach activities. Additional topics are grants and program info documents, federal advisory committee and interagency working group activities.

  1. Environmental justice: a form of passive revolution and civil society against capitalist system hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Keuly Luz Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the notion of civil society, hegemony and passive revolution in the thoughts of Antonio Gramsci and its relation to the need for implementation of environmental justice. The concept of civil society in Gramsci's view appears as a group of organisms commonly designated as “private”, formed by the organizations responsible for drafting much as the dissemination of ideologies, so understanding the school system, the churches, trade unions, political parties, professional organizations, material culture of the organization, while the concept of hegemony arises within the Marxist tradition as a response to new social settings. Despite its origins in the Russian social democracy and to be present at the thought of Lenin, this concept was developed in a more elaborated by Gramsci. The concept of “passive revolution”, “revolution–restoration” or “evolutionism” is crucial category that Gramsci uses to understand the formation of the modern bourgeois state in Italy (starting from the facts of the Risorgiment o, which culminated in the national unification, to define the fundamental features of the passage of Italian capitalism to step monopoly capitalism and to point fascism as a form of “passive revolution”. It is from this understanding that we use the concept of “passive revolution” to discuss pratics the principles of environmental justice, given that this concept applies to many episodes of the story, as well as more generally, the transition from the industrial model capitalist development of the capitalist system of sustainable development. It consists in a literature review from the work of Gramsci, where it can be concluded that the movements that call for environmental justice in Brazil and the world, mitigated by civil society through a process of passive revolution, based on the insertion of dignity human and the environment as key goals of the state, propose a new model of sustainable

  2. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Fairburn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

  3. Beyond Box Checking: Toward Sound Environmental Justice Analyses for Informed Decision-Making and Meaningful Tribal Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, R. E.; Rivers, L., III; Blank, G. B.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental justice analyses are mandatory components of federal environmental reviews in the United States. They are intended to help regulators and developers identify and address disproportionate impacts on poor and/or minority populations. In many cases, however, environmental justice analyses are treated as "box checking" exercises that employ weak or flawed designs unable to detect disparate impacts on vulnerable populations. We use a recent example of an environmental review led by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to demonstrate how flawed analyses mask disproportionate impacts on poor and/or minority populations. In this case, regulators conducted a flawed environmental justice analysis for the proposed Atlantic Coast Pipeline concluding no disproportionate impacts on vulnerable populations. We reanalyze data from the project's environmental impact statement and provide a more accurate assessment of impacts on Native Americans in North Carolina. Specifically, we show that Native Americans make up a disproportionately large fraction of residents along the proposed pipeline route (13.2%) compared to their representation in the affected counties (6.2%) or in the state at large (1.2%). We discuss implications of the original, flawed analysis for tribes representing nearly 30,000 Native Americans along the project route, and we discuss efforts by affected tribes to have their unique perspectives incorporated into the decision-making process. We conclude with general recommendations for designing environmental justice analyses that serve as useful tools to guide environmental decision-making and consultation with affected groups.

  4. Research and institutional dimensions of environmental justice: Implications for NEPA documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1995-07-01

    Satisfying the environmental justice requirements imposed on the NEPA process is a challenging imperative. Among the challenges for NEPA documentation are: (1) adapting existing disciplinary methodologies that address distributional effects to the dictates of the executive order; (2) determining operational and, perhaps, threshold values for policy directives (e.g., disproportionately high and adverse effects); (3) identifying and involving representatives of minority, Native American, and low-income communities and populations in the NEPA process without jeopardizing their independence and integrity; (4) developing strategies, approaches, and methodologies that are more responsive to the consideration of multiple and cumulative exposures; and (5) developing professional standards for environmental justice assessment that are consistent with the letter and intent of the executive order, protective of the environments of minority, Native American, and low-income populations and communities, and useful to decision makers. This report will address current research and institutional activities associated with these issues, present alternative approaches available for their resolution, and identify the implications of those alternative approaches.

  5. Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: Environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy W. [Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Guyn, Lindsay [Department of Information and Evaluation Unit, Mental Health and Psychiatric Services, Calgary Health Region (Canada); Lane, Stephanie E.

    2006-09-15

    In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current

  6. Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: Environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Timothy W.; Guyn, Lindsay; Lane, Stephanie E.

    2006-01-01

    In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current policy of including

  7. Who benefits from environmental policy? An environmental justice analysis of air quality change in Britain, 2001-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon; Norman, Paul; Mullin, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Air quality in Great Britain has improved in recent years, but not enough to prevent the European Commission (EC) taking legal action for non-compliance with limit values. Air quality is a national public health concern, with disease burden associated with current air quality estimated at 29 000 premature deaths per year due to fine particulates, with a further burden due to NO2. National small-area analyses showed that in 2001 poor air quality was much more prevalent in socio-economically deprived areas. We extend this social distribution of air quality analysis to consider how the distribution changed over the following decade (2001-2011), a period when significant efforts to meet EC air quality directive limits have been made, and air quality has improved. We find air quality improvement is greatest in the least deprived areas, whilst the most deprived areas bear a disproportionate and rising share of declining air quality including non-compliance with air quality standards. We discuss the implications for health inequalities, progress towards environmental justice, and compatibility of social justice and environmental sustainability objectives.

  8. Environmental justice: Implications for siting of Federal Radioactive Waste Management Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, J.B.; Poles, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental justice is a term that has developed as a result of our need to address whether some of the environmental decisions we have made -- and others we will make -- are fair. The idea of environmental justice has been actively pursued by the Clinton Administration, and this consideration has resulted in Executive Order 12898, which was signed by President Clinton on February 11, 1994. The Executive Order calls for adverse impacts of Federal actions on minority or low-income populations to be identified before decisions implementing those actions are made. Numerous studies show that noxious facilities, such as incinerators and landfills, have been constructed in minority or low-income communities. And since the Department has not yet decided on sites for high-level waste storage or disposal facilities, it will have to take the new Executive Order into consideration as another piece in the complicated quilt of requirements that cover facility siting. An interesting twist to this is the fact that twenty Native American Indian Tribes expressed interest in voluntarily hosting a high-level radioactive waste management facility for temporary storage. They made these expressions on their own initiative, and several Tribes continue to pursue the idea of negotiations with either the Federal Government or private entities to locate a temporary storage site on Tribal land. The Executive Order goes beyond simply studying the effect of siting a facility and addresses in spirit a criticism that the Federal Government has been guilty of open-quotes environmental racismclose quotes in its siting policies -- that it has intentionally picked minority or low-income communities for waste management facilities. What Department of Energy staff and others may have considered foregone conclusions in terms of interim storage facility siting and transportation options will have to be reevaluated for compatibility with provisions of the new Executive Order

  9. A Different Trolley Problem: The Limits of Environmental Justice and the Promise of Complex Moral Assessments for Transportation Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Shane

    2016-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure tremendously affects the quality of life for urban residents, influences public and mental health, and shapes social relations. Historically, the topic is rich with social and political controversy and the resultant transit systems in the United States cause problems for minority residents and issues for the public. Environmental justice frameworks provide a means to identify and address harms that affect marginalized groups, but environmental justice has limits that cannot account for the mainstream population. To account for this condition, I employ a complex moral assessment measure that provides a way to talk about harms that affect the public.

  10. [Economic development axis and socioenvironmental conflicts generation in Brazil: challenges to sustainability and environmental justice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The 1st National Environmental Health Conference, in December 2009, presents countless challenges to the field of Public Health. It debates key concepts as development, sustainability, production and consumption processes, democracy and public policies; advocating for innovative, interdisciplinary and intersectorial aspects of Environmental Health. The Conference recovers and articulates important themes for the Public Health, and also indicates the need of reflecting the socio-environmental determinants of health at the present time, in order to provide progresses in the construction of guidelines and actions to health surveillance and promotion. This article discusses the characteristics of the Brazilian model of development, its impacts and conflicts within social, environmental and health fields. We use theoretical and empirical contributions from the fields of Ecological Economy and Political Ecology, as well as, experiences of cooperation with the Brazilian Network on Environmental Justice and several social movements. Two cases are discussed in more detail: the first related to agribusiness and the use of pesticides, and the other about the expansion of the iron and steel industry in Brazil. We conclude proposing some elements that could be incorporated by a research agenda committed to the debate about the 'socioenvironmental crisis'.

  11. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Prochaska, John D.; Nolen, Alexandra B.; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are cu...

  12. Student Empowerment in an Environmental Science Classroom: Toward a Framework for Social Justice Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Alexandra Schindel

    2012-01-01

    Social justice education is undertheorized in science education. Given the wide range of goals and purposes proposed within both social justice education and social justice science education scholarship, these fields require reconciliation. In this paper, I suggest a student empowerment framework for conceptualizing teaching and learning social…

  13. Can data science inform environmental justice and community risk screening for type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Allen; Burgoon, Lyle D

    2015-01-01

    Having the ability to scan the entire country for potential "hotspots" with increased risk of developing chronic diseases due to various environmental, demographic, and genetic susceptibility factors may inform risk management decisions and enable better environmental public health policies. Develop an approach for community-level risk screening focused on identifying potential genetic susceptibility hotpots. Our approach combines analyses of phenotype-genotype data, genetic prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphisms, and census/geographic information to estimate census tract-level population attributable risks among various ethnicities and total population for the state of California. We estimate that the rs13266634 single nucleotide polymorphism, a type 2 diabetes susceptibility genotype, has a genetic prevalence of 56.3%, 47.4% and 37.0% in Mexican Mestizo, Caucasian, and Asian populations. Looking at the top quintile for total population attributable risk, 16 California counties have greater than 25% of their population living in hotspots of genetic susceptibility for developing type 2 diabetes due to this single genotypic susceptibility factor. This study identified counties in California where large portions of the population may bear additional type 2 diabetes risk due to increased genetic prevalence of a susceptibility genotype. This type of screening can easily be extended to include information on environmental contaminants of interest and other related diseases, and potentially enables the rapid identification of potential environmental justice communities. Other potential uses of this approach include problem formulation in support of risk assessments, land use planning, and prioritization of site cleanup and remediation actions.

  14. Resilient development and environmental justice in divided territory: political ecology in the San Diego-Tijuana bioregion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haines

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores issues in the expansion of environmental justice rhetoric to the developing world, and propose insights from resilience theory, political ecology, and bioregionalism as supplements. I do this from the frame of the San Diego-Tijuana region, where regional inequalities are stark and global processes have a heavy local footprint. Sharing a broadly-defined natural region, the growing evidence of ecological crisis increasingly calls for collaboration between two communities which often perceive themselves as relatively disconnected. Understanding challenges to social-ecological resilience and environmental justice in the San Diego-Tijuana region, however, also requires understanding it as an inflection point for global economic, military, and human migration flows occurring at many scales. It is in the context of building effective regional collaboration that environmental justice must engage the analyses of scale and political economy contained in political ecology as a challenge. I suggest, however, that any environmental justice discourse informed by political ecology cannot remain abstract from the local context. A “bioregional” community forged around shared ecological systems may serve as an important resource for creating social-ecological resilience in politically divided territory.

  15. Local perceptions of jaguar conservation and environmental justice in Goiás, Matto Grosso and Roraima states (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yennie K. Bredin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife conservation often leads to various conflicts with other human activities, resulting in concerns about the justice of conservation. Although species' protection – notably of large carnivores – can have negative consequences for economic interests and human well-being, environmental justice issues related to species conservation are rarely explored. In Brazil, jaguars (Panthera onca have become flagships for a series of conservation initiatives. Whereas jaguars' direct impact on cattle farming has been studied, their influence on other rural stakeholders is poorly understood. Here we study local people's views on jaguars and jaguar conservation across the Cerrado savannah and the Amazon rainforest biomes. Using Q-methodology, we identified five distinct narratives regarding jaguar conservation in relation to environmental justice issues. These were shared among fishermen, tourist guides, cattle breeders, crop farmers and jaguar hunters. Interestingly, we did not find any systematic differences in subjective views, across regions, or professions/livelihood forms. However, our results showed a strong desire among the stakeholders for more local empowerment to influence the management of both jaguars and nature where they live. Moreover, we detected a widespread discontent with the lack of consistent implementation and predictable enforcement of environmental laws. Keywords: Jaguar conservation, Environmental justice, Brazil, Q methodology, Local views

  16. Environmental health literacy in support of social action: an environmental justice perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brandi M; Hall, Eric S; Johnson, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Different demographic groups in the U.S. experience unequal exposures to environmental hazards, i.e., 56% of the population in neighborhoods containing commercial waste facilities are people of color, with the associated poverty rates in those communities being 50% higher than in neighborhoods without commercial waste facilities. Developing programs to educate communities about environmental hazards affecting their health and quality of life is an essential component for a community to understand their true risk. The study described in this article examined the risk of environmental hazards as perceived by public housing residents and assessed the residents' preference for educational programs on environmental hazards. Residents perceived their risk factors in a broad context and they included environmental health risks caused by pollutants along with physical safety concerns from crime and law enforcement interactions. The most trusted sources of information on environmental health include community organizations, trusted individuals in the community, and television programs. Recommendations for developing community-specific environmental health education programs include using sources of environmental health information that community members trust.

  17. Reflexive Research Ethics for Environmental Health and Justice: Academics and Movement-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordner, Alissa; Ciplet, David; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Community-engaged research on environmental problems has reshaped researcher-participant relationships, academic-community interaction, and the role of community partners in human subjects protection and ethical oversight. We draw on our own and others’ research collaborations with environmental health and justice social movement organizations to discuss the ethical concerns that emerge in community-engaged research. In this paper we introduce the concept of reflexive research ethics: ethical guidelines and decision-making principles that depend on continual reflexivity concerning the relationships between researchers and participants. Seeing ethics in this way can help scientists conduct research that simultaneously achieves a high level of professional conduct and protects the rights, well-being, and autonomy of both researchers and the multiple publics affected by research. We highlight our research with community-based organizations in Massachusetts, California, and Alaska, and discuss the potential impacts of the community or social movement on the research process and the potential impacts of research on community or social movement goals. We conclude by discussing ways in which the ethical concerns that surface in community-engaged research have led to advances in ethical research practices. This type of work raises ethical questions whose answers are broadly relevant for social movement, environmental, and public health scholars. PMID:22690133

  18. A phenomenological understanding of residents' emotional distress of living in an environmental justice community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dory, Gabriela; Qiu, Zeyuan; Qiu, Christina M; Fu, Mei R; Ryan, Caitlin E

    2017-12-01

    Deteriorative environmental conditions in environmental justice (EJ) communities not only post direct health risks such as chronic illnesses, but also cause emotional distress such as anxiety, fear, and anger among residents, which may further exacerbate health risks. This study applies a descriptive phenomenological method to explore and describe the emotional experience of residents living in Ironbound, a known EJ community located in Newark, New Jersey. Twenty-three residents participated in the study. Four essential themes regarding the residents' emotional experiences were elicited from 43 interviews: (1) being worried about the harmful effects of the surrounding pollution; (2) being distressed by the known historical pollution sources; (3) being frustrated by the unheard voices and/or lack of responses; and (4) being angered by the ongoing pollution sources. Participants not only expressed their emotions of worry, distress, frustration, and anger in detail but also described reasons or situations that provoked such negative emotions. Such detailed depictions provide insights into potential meaningful strategies to improve residents' psychological wellbeing by alleviating negative emotions and meaningfully engaging residents in developing, implementing, and enforcing environmental laws, regulations, and policies to achieve EJ goals.

  19. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix A, environmental justice analysis. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix A to a draft Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. This appendix addresses environmental justice for the acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States. Analyses of environmental justice concerns are provided in three areas: (1) potential ports of entry, (2) potential transportation routes from candidate ports of entry to interim management sites, and (3) areas surrounding potential interim management sites. These analyses lead to the conclusion that the alternatives analyzed in this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) would result in no disproportionate adverse effects on minority populations or low-income communities surrounding the candidate ports, transport routes, or interim management sites

  20. Constitutional Justice and the Perennial Task of ‘Constitutionalizing’ Law and Society through ‘Participatory Justice’

    OpenAIRE

    PETERSMANN, Ernst-Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    This contribution argues that concepts of social justice in European and international private law must remain consistent with the principles of justice underlying European and international public law. The contribution begins with a brief explanation of the diversity of conceptions of constitutional justice and of their legal impact on ever more fields of European public and private law (1). After clarifying the constitutional terminology used in this contribution (2), Rawlsian p...

  1. Guidance for Incorporating Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document defines the approaches by which EPA will ensure that disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects on minority communities and low-income communities are identified and addressed.

  2. Environmental hardening of robots for nuclear maintenance and surveillance tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintenlang, D.E.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wheeler, R.; Roy, T.

    1990-01-01

    The University of Florida, in cooperation with the Universities of Texas, Tennessee, and Michigan and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is developing an advanced robotic system for the US Department of Energy under the University Program for Robotics for Advanced Reactors. As part of this program, the University of Florida has been pursuing the development of environmentally hardened components so that autonomous robotic systems can successfully carry out their tasks under the most extreme expected environmental conditions. This requirement means that the designed robotic system with its onboard computer-based intelligence must be able to successfully complete tasks in toxic, radioactive, wet, temperature extremes, and other physically impairing environments. As part of this program, a study was carried out to determine the environmental conditions that should be set as the design criteria for robotic systems to maintain reasonable operations for nuclear plants in the course of maintenance, testing, and surveillance under all conditions, including plant upset. It was decided that Florida would build a combined environmental testing facility to test specific devices in high-radiation/high-temperature combined environments. This environmental test chamber has been built and successfully tested to over 250 degree F. This facility will provide some of the first combined temperatures/radiation data for many large-scale integrated components

  3. School Locations and Traffic Emissions — Environmental (InJustice Findings Using a New Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philine Gaffron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling. We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits.

  4. Environmental justice implications of industrial hazardous waste generation in India: a national scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-12-01

    While rising air and water pollution have become issues of widespread public concern in India, the relationship between spatial distribution of environmental pollution and social disadvantage has received less attention. This lack of attention becomes particularly relevant in the context of industrial pollution, as India continues to pursue industrial development policies without sufficient regard to its adverse social impacts. This letter examines industrial pollution in India from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective by presenting a national scale study of social inequities in the distribution of industrial hazardous waste generation. Our analysis connects district-level data from the 2009 National Inventory of Hazardous Waste Generating Industries with variables representing urbanization, social disadvantage, and socioeconomic status from the 2011 Census of India. Our results indicate that more urbanized and densely populated districts with a higher proportion of socially and economically disadvantaged residents are significantly more likely to generate hazardous waste. The quantity of hazardous waste generated is significantly higher in more urbanized but sparsely populated districts with a higher proportion of economically disadvantaged households, after accounting for other relevant explanatory factors such as literacy and social disadvantage. These findings underscore the growing need to incorporate EJ considerations in future industrial development and waste management in India.

  5. The Role of Cumulative Risk Assessment in Decisions about Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sexton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is strong presumptive evidence that people living in poverty and certain racial and ethnic groups bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk. Many have argued that conducting formal assessments of the health risk experienced by affected communities is both unnecessary and counterproductive—that instead of analyzing the situation our efforts should be devoted to fixing obvious problems and rectifying observable wrongs. We contend that formal assessment of cumulative health risks from combined effects of chemical and nonchemical stressors is a valuable tool to aid decision makers in choosing risk management options that are effective, efficient, and equitable. If used properly, cumulative risk assessment need not impair decision makers’ discretion, nor should it be used as an excuse for doing nothing in the face of evident harm. Good policy decisions require more than good intentions; they necessitate analysis of risk-related information along with careful consideration of economic issues, ethical and moral principles, legal precedents, political realities, cultural beliefs, societal values, and bureaucratic impediments. Cumulative risk assessment can provide a systematic and impartial means for informing policy decisions about environmental justice.

  6. Photovoice and Youth Empowerment in Environmental Justice Research: A Pilot Study Examining Woodsmoke Pollution in a Pacific Northwest Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickle, Mattie B; Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Woodsmoke pollution is an environmental justice issue for youth living in certain Pacific Northwest cities. Participatory methods such as Citizen Science and Photovoice are effective ways to involve youth in environmental justice research. Little is understood about how youth may be empowered to address woodsmoke issues in their communities. We examined youth empowerment in a citizen science study on woodsmoke, using Photovoice methodology. Ten diverse youth collected and analyzed indoor air samples and photos, then presented their findings to the community and policy makers. Entrance and exit surveys revealed an increased sense of empowerment to take action on woodsmoke pollution. Youth also expressed increased optimism and a resolve to become scientists to combat environmental injustices.

  7. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: an unrealized opportunity for environmental health and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Wernham, Aaron

    2008-08-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act and related state laws require many public agencies to analyze and disclose potentially significant environmental effects of agency actions, including effects on human health. In this paper we review the purpose and procedures of environmental impact assessment (EIA), existing regulatory requirements for health effects analysis, and potential barriers to and opportunities for improving integration of human health concerns within the EIA process. We use statutes, regulations, guidelines, court opinions, and empirical research on EIA along with recent case examples of integrated health impact assessment (HIA)/EIA at both the state and federal level. We extract lessons and recommendations for integrated HIA/EIA practice from both existing practices as well as case studies. The case studies demonstrate the adequacy, scope, and power of existing statutory requirements for health analysis within EIA. The following support the success of integrated HIA/EIA: a proponent recognizing EIA as an available regulatory strategy for public health; the openness of the agency conducting the EIA; involvement of public health institutions; and complementary objectives among community stakeholders and health practitioners. We recommend greater collaboration among institutions responsible for EIA, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated HIA/EIA practice.

  8. Environmental task for energy utilities. Reporting and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    According to the Dutch Energy Distribution Law one of the tasks of energy distribution companies is to stimulate the efficient and environment-friendly use of energy. In order to be able to carry out this legal environmental task energy distribution companies can make use of a specific percentage of the energy tariff. The conditions are formulated in the so-called Environmental Action Plan (MAP, abbreviated in Dutch). The General Auditor in the Netherlands carried out an investigation into the public reporting activities of energy distribution companies with respect to the fore-mentioned legal task and supervision of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs in 1997. It is concluded that the supervision of the Ministry shows several inadequacies and that other interested parties would benefit from an improved reporting by the energy distribution companies. The first recommendation (to improve the supervision) is adopted by the Ministry. There is disagreement between the General Auditor and the Association of Energy Distribution Companies (EnergieNed) on the second recommendation. 9 refs

  9. Adventurous activities, embodiment and nature: spiritual, sensual and sustainable? Embodying environmental justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Humberstone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines research on adventurous physical activities in nature from the perspective of the sentient body. Drawing upon ethnographic and autoethnographic research, I examine what has been termed 'peak' happenings or 'flow' which many who practise adventurous activities claim to experience through their whole body when in the 'zone'. I consider the concept of 'edgework', voluntary risk-taking, and insightful mobile and social understanding of the relationships between body, emotions and the elements, where the adventurous activity is experienced and interpreted as oneness with nature or expressed as 'spiritual' not only in high but also low risk nature-based sport. I then consider if and in what ways these knowledges may bring about greater understanding and action in relation to social and environmental justice. I argue that adventurous activities/nature-based sport may provide processes and practices that are alternative or complementary to traditional sporting 'body techniques' or 'body pedagogics'. I suggest that modern embodied adventurous practices in nature challenge dominant narratives of body/mind separation and potentially provide a pedagogic process fostering kinetic empathy. Finally I draw attention to the paradox of (re-presenting sensorial experiences of sport in nature and ask for consideration on how we interconnect with the environment when we participate in adventureous nature-based sports.

  10. Hurricane Harvey, Houston's Petrochemical Industry, and US Chemical Safety Policy: Impacts to Environmental Justice Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Johnson, C.; Gutierrez, A.; Declet-Barreto, J.; Berman, E.; Bergman, A.

    2017-12-01

    When Hurricane Harvey made landfall outside Houston, Texas, the storm's wind speeds and unprecedented precipitation caused significant damage to the region's petrochemical infrastructure. Most notably, the company Arkema's Crosby facility suffered a power failure that led to explosions and incineration of six of its peroxide tanks. Chemicals released into the air from the explosions sent 15 emergency responders to the hospital with severe respiratory conditions and led to the evacuation of hundreds of surrounding households. Other petrochemical facilities faced other damages that resulted in unsafe and acute chemical releases into the air and water. What impacts did such chemical disasters have on the surrounding communities and emergency responders during Harvey's aftermath? What steps might companies have taken to prevent such chemical releases? And what chemical safety policies might have ensured that such disaster risks were mitigated? In this talk we will report on a survey of the extent of damage to Houston's oil and gas infrastructure and related chemical releases and discuss the role of federal chemical safety policy in preventing and mitigating the potential for such risks for future storms and other extreme weather and climate events. We will also discuss how these chemical disasters created acute toxics exposures on environmental justice communities already overburdened with chronic exposures from the petrochemical industry.

  11. Primary tasks of environmental improvement of the Aral Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauipbaev, S.T.; Turebaev, Sh.Kh.; Kusherbaev, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Main reasons of environmental crisis in Aral Sea region are analyzed. Primary tasks of its environmental improvement are planed: - creation of conditions of guarantee ensuring (by territory and time) for all water consumers of water resources of the Syr-Dariya and Amu Dariya rivers at the expense of increase of water system efficiency and organization of Water Union of Basin Countries; - acceptance of regional measures on good quality water supply for the Aral Sea region population, mainly at expense of underground water use; -fulfillment of primary measures for Aral Sea save, envisaging building of land dam separating the Small Aral: - solution of unemployment problem by capacity of strengthening of farm economy and rebirth of native business

  12. Resilient development and environmental justice in divided territory: political ecology in the San Diego-Tijuana bioregion.

    OpenAIRE

    K. Haines

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores issues in the expansion of environmental justice rhetoric to the developing world, and propose insights from resilience theory, political ecology, and bioregionalism as supplements. I do this from the frame of the San Diego-Tijuana region, where regional inequalities are stark and global processes have a heavy local footprint. Sharing a broadly-defined natural region, the growing evidence of ecological crisis increasingly calls for collaboration between two communities whi...

  13. Comparing residential contamination in a Houston environmental justice neighborhood before and after Hurricane Harvey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Horney

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are complex environmental toxicants. Exposure to them has been linked to adverse health outcomes including cancer, as well as diseases of the skin, liver, and immune system. Based on an ongoing community engagement partnership with stakeholder groups and residents, we conducted a small longitudinal study to assess domestic exposure to PAHs among residents of Manchester, an environmental justice neighborhood located in the East End of Houston, TX.In December, 2016, we used fiber wipes to collect samples of household dust from 25 homes in Manchester. Following Hurricane Harvey, in September 2017, we revisited 24 of the 25 homes to collect soil samples from the front yards of the same homes. Wipes and soil were analyzed for the presence of PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS methods. Principal component analysis plots, heatmaps, and PAH ratios were used to compare pre- and post-Hurricane Harvey samples.While direct comparison is not possible, we present three methods for comparing PAHs found in pre-hurricane fiber wipes and post-hurricane soil samples. The methods demonstrate that the PAHs found before and after Hurricane Harvey are likely from similar sources and that those sources are most likely to be associated with combustion. We also found evidence of redistribution of PAHs due to extreme flooding associated with Hurricane Harvey.Residents of the Manchester neighborhood of Houston, TX, are exposed to a range of PAHs in household dust and outdoor soil. While it was not possible to compare directly, we were able to use several methods to assess detected concentrations, changes in site-specific PAH allocations, and PAH origination. Additional research is needed to identify specific sources of domestic PAH exposure in these communities and continued work involving community members and policy makers should aim to develop interventions to reduce domestic exposure to and prevent negative

  14. Comparing residential contamination in a Houston environmental justice neighborhood before and after Hurricane Harvey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Casillas, Gaston A; Baker, Erin; Stone, Kahler W; Kirsch, Katie R; Camargo, Krisa; Wade, Terry L; McDonald, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex environmental toxicants. Exposure to them has been linked to adverse health outcomes including cancer, as well as diseases of the skin, liver, and immune system. Based on an ongoing community engagement partnership with stakeholder groups and residents, we conducted a small longitudinal study to assess domestic exposure to PAHs among residents of Manchester, an environmental justice neighborhood located in the East End of Houston, TX. In December, 2016, we used fiber wipes to collect samples of household dust from 25 homes in Manchester. Following Hurricane Harvey, in September 2017, we revisited 24 of the 25 homes to collect soil samples from the front yards of the same homes. Wipes and soil were analyzed for the presence of PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Principal component analysis plots, heatmaps, and PAH ratios were used to compare pre- and post-Hurricane Harvey samples. While direct comparison is not possible, we present three methods for comparing PAHs found in pre-hurricane fiber wipes and post-hurricane soil samples. The methods demonstrate that the PAHs found before and after Hurricane Harvey are likely from similar sources and that those sources are most likely to be associated with combustion. We also found evidence of redistribution of PAHs due to extreme flooding associated with Hurricane Harvey. Residents of the Manchester neighborhood of Houston, TX, are exposed to a range of PAHs in household dust and outdoor soil. While it was not possible to compare directly, we were able to use several methods to assess detected concentrations, changes in site-specific PAH allocations, and PAH origination. Additional research is needed to identify specific sources of domestic PAH exposure in these communities and continued work involving community members and policy makers should aim to develop interventions to reduce domestic exposure to and prevent negative health outcomes

  15. Educational Reflections on the ``Ecological Crisis'': EcoJustice, Environmentalism, and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2009-08-01

    There is a tendency by scholars arguing for a more just and sustainable future to position the “ecological crisis” as a fundamental reason for major educational reforms. Relying on crisis-talk to fuel social and environmental justice and environmentalism reinforces the thinking of the past, which inadvertently perpetuates the acceptance of present cultural attitudes which frame our relationships with others and the natural world. To evaluate previous cultural thinking and associated traditions of Euro-West society, Chet Bowers asserts that we ought to analyze how assumptions are carried forward as metaphors, which are associated with attitudes towards science, technology, and nature. This pedagogy is called ecojustice education and serves to conserve and sustain cultural diversity and the biodiversity of Earth’s ecosystems, which are threatened and vulnerable. But, also carried forward in the language of ecojustice philosophy (and other ecological works) is a presumption that feeds into scientifically proving that a crisis exists, which is associated with organizing schools around an implicit shock doctrine of fear and urgency. This paper explores these assumptions and others associated with a supposition of ecological crisis. The ecological crisis has the potential to marginalize many diverse people who are needed during these times of increasing ecological awareness and uncertainties. Situating education (and the world) in the frenzy associated with crisis, versus the assertion that schools should increase awareness around the belief that a more sustainable lifestyle is beneficial for the individual, the community and the environment is a worthwhile debate and is rich with respect to research opportunities in education.

  16. Climate Change, Climate Justice, and Environmental Health: Implications for the Nursing Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Patrice K; Breakey, Suellen

    2017-11-01

    Climate change is an emerging challenge linked to negative outcomes for the environment and human health. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing recognition of the need to address climate change and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions implicated in the warming of our planet. There are also deleterious health outcomes linked to complex climate changes that are emerging in the 21st century. This article addresses the social justice issues associated with climate change and human health and discussion of climate justice. Discussion paper. A literature search of electronic databases was conducted for articles, texts, and documents related to climate change, climate justice, and human health. The literature suggests that those who contribute least to global warming are those who will disproportionately be affected by the negative health outcomes of climate change. The concept of climate justice and the role of the Mary Robinson Foundation-Climate Justice are discussed within a framework of nursing's professional responsibility and the importance of social justice for the world's people. The nursing profession must take a leadership role in engaging in policy and advocacy discussions in addressing the looming problems associated with climate change. Nursing organizations have adopted resolutions and engaged in leadership roles to address climate change at the local, regional, national, and global level. It is essential that nurses embrace concepts related to social justice and engage in the policy debate regarding the deleterious effects on human health related to global warming and climate change. Nursing's commitment to social justice offers an opportunity to offer significant global leadership in addressing the health implications related to climate change. Recognizing the negative impacts of climate change on well-being and the underlying socioeconomic reasons for their disproportionate and inequitable distribution can expand and optimize the profession's role

  17. Transborder Environmental Justice in Regional Energy Trade in Mainland South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Middleton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is mainland South-East Asia’s largest energy consumer. Since the early 1990s, community and civil society opposition to new domestic large-scale power projects has strengthened within Thailand. Partly in response and facilitated by deepening regional economic integration, Thailand’s electricity utility, private sector energy, and construction companies have increasingly looked to- wards neighbouring Laos and Myanmar to supply Thailand’s energy markets. This paper assesses the political economy of Thailand’s power sector development through the lens of distributive and procedural environmental justice, including the role of social movements and civil society in Thailand in reforming the country’s power planning process. The environmental and social costs of domestic power projects and power import projects are discussed. The author concludes that Thailand’s exist- ing energy imports from hydropower projects in Laos and a gas project in Myanmar have exported environmental injustice associated with energy production across borders, exploiting the compara- tively weak rule of law, judicial systems, and civil and political freedoms in these neighbouring countries. ----- Thailand ist der größte Energieverbraucher in Festland-Südostasien. Seit den frühen 1990-er Jahren hat sich der zivilgesellschaftliche Widerstand gegen neue großflächige Energieprojekte in Thailand verstärkt. Teilweise als Antwort darauf und erleichtert durch sich vertiefende regionale Integration haben thailändische Stromversorgungsunternehmen sowie private Energie- und Bauunternehmen zunehmend in die Nachbarländer Laos und Myanmar geblickt, die den Energiebedarf Thailands decken sollen. Dieser Artikel beurteilt die politische Ökonomie der Entwicklung des thailändischen Energiesektors durch die Brille distributiver und prozeduraler Umweltgerechtigkeit sowie die Rolle von sozialen Bewegungen und Zivilgesellschaft in den Reformprozessen der

  18. The Rise and Implications of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Southeast Asia through an Environmental Justice Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Middleton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article maps the rise of the water-energy-food 'nexus' as a research, policy and project agenda in mainland Southeast Asia. We argue that introducing the concept of environmental justice into the nexus, especially where narratives, trade-offs and outcomes are contested, could make better use of how the nexus is framed, understood and acted upon. With funding from high-income country donors, it is found to have diffused from a global policy arena into a regional one that includes international and regional organisations, academic networks, and civil society, and national politicians and government officials. The nexus is yet to be extensively grounded, however, into national policies and practices, and broad-based local demand for nexus-framed policies is currently limited. The article contends that if the nexus is to support stated aspirations for sustainable development and poverty reduction, then it should engage more directly in identifying winners and losers in natural resource decision-making, the politics involved, and ultimately with the issue of justice. In order to do so, it links the nexus to the concept of environmental justice via boundary concepts, namely: sustainable development; the green economy; scarcity and addressing of trade-offs; and governance at, and across, the local, national and transnational scale.

  19. Assessing the environmental justice consequences of flood risk: a case study in Miami, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Marilyn C.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Recent environmental justice (EJ) research has emphasized the need to analyze social inequities in the distribution of natural hazards such as hurricanes and floods, and examine intra-ethnic diversity in patterns of EJ. This study contributes to the emerging EJ scholarship on exposure to flooding and ethnic heterogeneity by analyzing the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population residing within coastal and inland flood risk zones in the Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), Florida—one of the most ethnically diverse MSAs in the U.S. and one of the most hurricane-prone areas in the world. We examine coastal and inland flood zones separately because of differences in amenities such as water views and beach access. Instead of treating the Hispanic population as a homogenous group, we disaggregate the Hispanic category into relevant country-of-origin subgroups. Inequities in flood risk exposure are statistically analyzed using socio-demographic variables derived from the 2010 U.S. Census and 2007-2011 American Community Survey estimates, and 100-year flood risk zones from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Social vulnerability is represented with two neighborhood deprivation indices called economic insecurity and instability. We also analyze the presence of seasonal/vacation homes and proximity to public beach access sites as water-related amenity variables. Logistic regression modeling is utilized to estimate the odds of neighborhood-level exposure to coastal and inland 100-year flood risks. Results indicate that neighborhoods with greater percentages of non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Hispanic subgroups of Colombians and Puerto Ricans are exposed to inland flood risks in areas without water-related amenities, while Mexicans are inequitably exposed to coastal flood risks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of treating coastal and inland flood risks separately while controlling for water-related amenities, and

  20. Poultry litter incineration as a source of energy: reviewing the potential for impacts on environmental health and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingone, Jeanette A; Wing, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Legislation in North Carolina has mandated obtaining renewable energy from the incineration of poultry waste, resulting in proposals for three poultry-litter-fueled power plants statewide. This article summarizes environmental health and environmental justice issues associated with incineration of poultry waste for the generation of electric power. Emissions from poultry waste incineration include particulate matter, dioxins, arsenic, bioaerosols and other toxins; various components are associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory illness, and other diseases. Industrial farm animal production tends to be concentrated in low-income, rural communities, where residents may be more vulnerable to air pollutants due to pre-existing diseases, other exposures and stressors, and poor access to medical services. These communities lack the political clout to prevent citing of polluting facilities or to pressure industry and government to follow and enforce regulations. Policies intended to reduce reliance on fossil fuels have the potential to increase environmental injustices and threats to environmental health.

  1. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Nolen, Alexandra B; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are currently available for this assessment, clarifying data needs, identifying data gaps, and considering how those gaps could be filled. Analyses suggested that the traditionally defined EJ community in Port Arthur may have a lower environmental risk from air toxics than the rest of the City of Port Arthur (although the entire city has a higher risk than the average for the state), but may have a larger burden from social determinants of health. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the availability of data, the definitions of community boundaries, and the areal unit utilized. Continued focus on environmental justice communities and the cumulative risks faced by their residents is critical to protecting these residents and, ultimately, moving towards a more equitable distribution and acceptable level of risk throughout society.

  2. An analysis of the theoretical rationale for using strategic environmental assessment to deliver environmental justice in the light of the Scottish Environmental Assessment Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Tony; Illsley, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The different ways in which its territorial jurisdictions have chosen to apply the European Union's (EU's) Directive on strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to their public sector policies, plans and programmes (PPPs) suggest that the United Kingdom (UK) continues to be uncertain about the theoretical rationale for this technique. In order to evaluate the analytical significance of these alternative interpretations, their methodological foundations need to be examined. Baseline-led approaches to SEA which are intended to operationalise sustainability can be shown to place unrealistic expectations on instrumental rationality. Objectives-led policy appraisal makes SEA contingent on whatever particular social construction of sustainable development holds sway. These expert-driven approaches contrast with a reflexive interpretation of environmental governance, in which SEA helps to expose the conflictual nature of public actions claiming to deliver sustainability, and offers stakeholders increased opportunities to challenge these. The approach adopted in Scotland, in which SEA forms part of an agenda for environmental justice, is evaluated in the light of this critique. The Scottish Executive's eclectic legislation, which covers all its public sector PPPs, may offer a way of mediating between these competing interpretations of SEA

  3. The Environmental Protection Agency's Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) and its potential use for environmental justice efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartarian, Valerie G; Schultz, Bradley D; Barzyk, Timothy M; Smuts, Marybeth; Hammond, Davyda M; Medina-Vera, Myriam; Geller, Andrew M

    2011-12-01

    Our primary objective was to provide higher quality, more accessible science to address challenges of characterizing local-scale exposures and risks for enhanced community-based assessments and environmental decision-making. After identifying community needs, priority environmental issues, and current tools, we designed and populated the Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) in collaboration with stakeholders, following a set of defined principles, and considered it in the context of environmental justice. C-FERST is a geographic information system and resource access Web tool under development for supporting multimedia community assessments. Community-level exposure and risk research is being conducted to address specific local issues through case studies. C-FERST can be applied to support environmental justice efforts. It incorporates research to develop community-level data and modeled estimates for priority environmental issues, and other relevant information identified by communities. Initial case studies are under way to refine and test the tool to expand its applicability and transferability. Opportunities exist for scientists to address the many research needs in characterizing local cumulative exposures and risks and for community partners to apply and refine C-FERST.

  4. Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scoggins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA and state authorities like the California Air Resources Board (CARB, have sought to address the concerns of environmental justice (EJ advocates who argue that chemical-by-chemical and source-specific assessments of potential health risks of environmental hazards do not reflect the multiple environmental and social stressors faced by vulnerable communities. We propose an Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM as a relatively simple, flexible and transparent way to examine the relative rank of cumulative impacts and social vulnerability within metropolitan regions and determine environmental justice areas based on more than simply the demographics of income and race. We specifically organize 23 indicator metrics into three categories: (1 hazard proximity and land use; (2 air pollution exposure and estimated health risk; and (3 social and health vulnerability. For hazard proximity, the EJSM uses GIS analysis to create a base map by intersecting land use data with census block polygons, and calculates hazard proximity measures based on locations within various buffer distances. These proximity metrics are then summarized to the census tract level where they are combined with tract centroid-based estimates of pollution exposure and health risk and socio-economic status (SES measures. The result is a cumulative impacts (CI score for ranking neighborhoods within regions that can inform diverse stakeholders seeking to identify local areas that might need targeted regulatory strategies to address environmental justice concerns.

  5. Finding Common Ground: Environmental Ethics, Social Justice, and a Sustainable Path for Nature-Based Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Yun, Jessica; Larson, Lincoln

    2016-08-25

    Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment's capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the natural world. This discourse often centers on the complex interplay between the tangible and intangible benefits associated with nonhuman nature (e.g., green space), both of which are relevant to public health. When ecosystem degradation is coupled with socio-demographic transitions, additional concerns related to distributional equity and justice can arise. In this commentary, we explore how environmental ethics can inform the connection between the ecosystem services from green space and socially just strategies of health promotion.

  6. Combining Conflicting Environmental and Task Requirements in Evolutionary Robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasdijk, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    The MONEE framework endows collective adaptive robotic systems with the ability to combine environment- and task-driven selection pressures: it enables distributed online algorithms for learning behaviours that ensure both survival and accomplishment of user-defined tasks. This paper explores the

  7. Which came first, people or pollution? A review of theory and evidence from longitudinal environmental justice studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohai, Paul; Saha, Robin

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of quantitative analyses have been conducted in the past several decades that demonstrate the existence of racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of a wide variety of environmental hazards. The vast majority of these have been cross-sectional, snapshot studies employing data on hazardous facilities and population characteristics at only one point in time. Although some limited hypotheses can be tested with cross-sectional data, fully understanding how present-day disparities come about requires longitudinal analyses that examine the demographic characteristics of sites at the time of facility siting and track demographic changes after siting. Relatively few such studies exist and those that do exist have often led to confusing and contradictory findings. In this paper we review the theoretical arguments, methods, findings, and conclusions drawn from existing longitudinal environmental justice studies. Our goal is to make sense of this literature and to identify the direction future research should take in order to resolve confusion and arrive at a clearer understanding of the processes and contributory factors by which present-day racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of environmental hazards have come about. Such understandings also serve as an important step in identifying appropriate and effective societal responses to ameliorate environmental disparities. (paper)

  8. Which came first, people or pollution? A review of theory and evidence from longitudinal environmental justice studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohai, Paul; Saha, Robin

    2015-12-01

    A considerable number of quantitative analyses have been conducted in the past several decades that demonstrate the existence of racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of a wide variety of environmental hazards. The vast majority of these have been cross-sectional, snapshot studies employing data on hazardous facilities and population characteristics at only one point in time. Although some limited hypotheses can be tested with cross-sectional data, fully understanding how present-day disparities come about requires longitudinal analyses that examine the demographic characteristics of sites at the time of facility siting and track demographic changes after siting. Relatively few such studies exist and those that do exist have often led to confusing and contradictory findings. In this paper we review the theoretical arguments, methods, findings, and conclusions drawn from existing longitudinal environmental justice studies. Our goal is to make sense of this literature and to identify the direction future research should take in order to resolve confusion and arrive at a clearer understanding of the processes and contributory factors by which present-day racial and socioeconomic disparities in the distribution of environmental hazards have come about. Such understandings also serve as an important step in identifying appropriate and effective societal responses to ameliorate environmental disparities.

  9. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  10. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...

  11. Notification: Background Investigation Services New Assignment Notification: EPA’s Efforts to Incorporate Environmental Justice Into Clean Air Act Inspections for Air Toxics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this memorandum is to notify you that the EPA OIG plans to begin the preliminary research phase of an evaluation of the U.S. EPA's efforts to incorporate environmental justice into Clean Air Act inspections for air toxics.

  12. The Vida Verde Women's Co-Op: Brazilian Immigrants Organizing to Promote Environmental and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Eduardo; Goldberg, Julia S.; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Mônica; Pirie, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed the key steps in the launch of the Vida Verde Women's Co-Op among Brazilian immigrant housecleaners in Somerville, MA. The co-op provides green housecleaning products, encourages healthy work practices, and promotes a sense of community among its members. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 of the first co-op members, who reported a reduction in symptoms associated with the use of traditional cleaning agents and a new sense of mutual support. Critical to the co-op's success have been the supportive roles of its academic partners (Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts, Lowell), effective media outreach, and a focus on advancing social justice. Next steps include implementing a formal business plan and assessing the appropriateness of cooperatives in other industries. PMID:19890146

  13. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Identify Environmental Justice Issues in an Inner-City Community and Inform Urban Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansyur, Carol Leler; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Holloman, Erica; DeBrew, Linwood

    2016-01-01

    The Southeast CARE Coalition has been using community-based participatory research to examine environmental degradation in the Southeast Community, Newport News, Virginia. A survey was developed to collect assessment data. Up to 66% of respondents were concerned about environmental problems in their community. Those with health conditions were significantly more likely to identify specific environmental problems. The top 5 environmental concerns included coal dust, air quality, crime, water quality, and trash. The community-based participatory research process is building community capacity and participation, providing community input into strategic planning, and empowering community members to take control of environmental justice issues in their community.

  14. Indigenising environmentalism - a task for the next millennium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of environmentalism global arising from perceived threat to the environment on all front and thus requiring attention of everyone. In as much as productive activities have contributed to environmental degradation, then it is necessary to address the processes. The environment as a concept however holds different ...

  15. The effects of environmental support and secondary tasks on visuospatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Lindsey; Hale, Sandra; Myerson, Joel

    2014-10-01

    In the present experiments, we examined the effects of environmental support on participants' ability to rehearse locations and the role of such support in the effects of secondary tasks on memory span. In Experiment 1, the duration of interitem intervals and the presence of environmental support for visuospatial rehearsal (i.e., the array of possible memory locations) during the interitem intervals were both manipulated across four tasks. When support was provided, memory spans increased as the interitem interval durations increased, consistent with the hypothesis that environmental support facilitates rehearsal. In contrast, when environmental support was not provided, spans decreased as the duration of the interitem intervals increased, consistent with the hypothesis that visuospatial memory representations decay when rehearsal is impeded. In Experiment 2, the ratio of interitem interval duration to intertrial interval duration was kept the same on all four tasks, in order to hold temporal distinctiveness constant, yet forgetting was still observed in the absence of environmental support, consistent with the decay hypothesis. In Experiment 3, the effects of impeding rehearsal were compared to the effects of verbal and visuospatial secondary processing tasks. Forgetting of locations was greater when presentation of to-be-remembered locations alternated with the performance of a secondary task than when rehearsal was impeded by the absence of environmental support. The greatest forgetting occurred when a secondary task required the processing visuospatial information, suggesting that in addition to decay, both domain-specific and domain-general effects contribute to forgetting on visuospatial working memory tasks.

  16. Engaging Global Justice Through Internships (Penultimate Draft)

    OpenAIRE

    Ericka Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Engaging with Global Justice through InternshipsGlobal justice, on its face, seems like an impossible task. As individuals, even citizens of wealthy and powerful countries, the task of economic, social and political justice seems to outstrip our intellectual, practical and emotional abilities. Considering the scope of 'global' justice, it would appear that a massive coordinated effort would be necessary to overcome the problems of global injustice, yet it would seem such coordination may be i...

  17. Hip-Hop, Social Justice, and Environmental Education: Toward a Critical Ecological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This essay describes an educational initiative that used environmentally themed (green) hip-hop to stimulate learning in an environmental science classroom. Students were then challenged to compose their own green hip-hop and their lyrics demonstrated skills that have thematic consistency around what is called a Critical Ecological Literacy (CEL).…

  18. "The World Is Our Home": Environmental Justice, Feminisms, and Student Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevin, Arlene

    2006-01-01

    From interacting with their students, many teachers are aware that the concepts of feminism and environmentalism can conjure up impoverished, deficient, and equally painful stereotypes. For some college students, feminism can mean merely equal pay for equal work. Environmentalism may trigger similarly limited associations, but inevitably…

  19. Engineering Task Plan to Expand the Environmental Operational Envelope of Core Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan authorizes the development of an Alternative Generation and Analysis (AGA). The AGA will determine how to expand the environmental operating envelope during core sampling operations

  20. Environmental policy is a joint task of all European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pag-Kuhn, S.; Schmuck, O.

    1987-01-01

    The volume presents material illustrating European environmental policy and the situation in the various countries, and is intended among others for use as a teaching aid at school or in adult courses. A documentation of newspaper articles and other material is the center piece of the volume, arranged by environmental problems and cases, covering also basic text parts from the fields of law and politics. The six main subjects dealt with include: Pollution of the Rhine river, the Sandoz accident; - Nuclear power, Chernobyl and Cattenom; - Forest decline, acid rain and motor vehicle off-gas; - Toxic waste, Seveso and no end to be seen; - Agriculture and ecology; - Environmental impact statement, an EC Directive. The documentation has been selected so as to reflect a broad spectrum of political opinions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Environmental Justice Aspects of Exposure to PM2.5 Emissions from Electric Vehicle Use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shuguang; Cherry, Christopher R; Zhou, Wenjun; Sawhney, Rapinder; Wu, Ye; Cai, Siyi; Wang, Shuxiao; Marshall, Julian D

    2015-12-15

    Plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) in China aim to improve sustainability and reduce environmental health impacts of transport emissions. Urban use of EVs rather than conventional vehicles shifts transportation's air pollutant emissions from urban areas (tailpipes) to predominantly rural areas (power plants), changing the geographic distribution of health impacts. We model PM2.5-related health impacts attributable to urban EV use for 34 major cities. Our investigation focuses on environmental justice (EJ) by comparing pollutant inhalation versus income among impacted counties. We find that EVs could increase EJ challenge in China: most (~77%, range: 41-96%) emission inhalation attributable to urban EVs use is distributed to predominately rural communities whose incomes are on average lower than the cities where EVs are used. Results vary dramatically across cities depending on urban income and geography. Discriminant analysis reveals that counties with low income and high inhalation of urban EV emissions have comparatively higher agricultural employment rates, higher mortality rates, more children in the population, and lower education levels. We find that low-emission electricity sources such as renewable energy can help mitigate EJ issues raised here. Findings here are not unique to EVs, but instead are relevant for nearly all electricity-consuming technologies in urban areas.

  2. Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM) Score, San Joaquin Valley CA, 2013, Occidental College and UC Berkeley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Cumulative Impacts (CI) screening method is jointly being developed by Manuel Pastor, Jim Sadd (Occidental College), and Rachel Morello-Frosch (UC Berkeley) ....

  3. The Pied Piper of the ghetto: Lyndon Johnson, environmental justice, and the politics of rat control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    When Congress rejected President Lyndon Johnson’s Rat Extermination and Control Bill in the summer of 1967, in a mood of growing conservatism, it inadvertently sparked a heated political controversy that brought the desperate conditions of life in inner-city America into sharp focus. This article focuses on the issue of rat infestation to explore the conditions of “urban blight” that disproportionately afflicted ghetto communities in the United States during the 1960s and that represented a form of environmental inequality linked to racial marginalization and poverty. It is suggested that a growing awareness of environmental aspects of inequality increasingly fueled ghetto discontent, feeding the outbreak of riots during the “long, hot summers,” and spurring liberals to think of new ways to understand the problems of inner-city poverty.

  4. Forensic aerial photography: projected 3-D exhibits facilitating rapid environmental justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Robert A.

    2009-02-01

    Forensic stereoscopic analysis of historical aerial photography is successfully identifying the causes of environmental degradation, including erosion and unlawful releases of hazardous wastes into the environment. The photogrammetric evidence can successfully pinpoint the specific locations of undocumented hazardous waste landfills and other types of unlawful releases of chemicals and wastes into the environment, providing location data for targeted investigation, characterization, and subsequent remediation. The findings of these studies are being effectively communicated in a simple, memorable, and compelling way by projecting the three-dimensional (3-D) sequences of historical aerial photography utilizing polarized 3-D presentation methods.

  5. Political ecology and environmental justice analysis of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wang-Jin

    There has been rapid growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development during the last decades. Worldwide PC numbers will rise to 2 billion by 2015, with more than 1 billion in use by the end of 2008. Over 4 billion subscribers use mobile cellular telephones, translating into a worldwide penetration rate of 61 percent by the end of 2008. Analyses have shown evidence that ICT has significantly contributed to capitalist growth economy. Regarding the environmental impacts of ICT, optimists hail a rosy future of a weightless knowledge economy, critics, however, point out that ICT also threatens environment through reinforcing capitalist growth economy and accelerating commodification of nature. Although some case studies have shown the potential environmental benefits through ICT application, these approaches need to be balanced against a range of countervailing effects, including negative direct impacts of ICT manufacture, use, and disposal, effects of incomplete substitution of ICT for existing services, and rebound effects. In addition, the migration of ICT, which includes not only manufacturing facilities of ICT devices, but electronic wastes, coincides with the distribution of environmental and social problems of high technology. Examples of how ICT reinforces economic growth, and at the same time, results in environmental problems are evident in a Korean context. Since the middle of the 1990s, the ICT industry has been a new growth driver in the Korean economy, and has played a critical role in restoring economic activity after the financial crisis in 1997. Due to the rapid diffusion of ICT products and a market trend that makes the life span of the products become shorter, the amount of e-waste has drastically increased in Korea. However, society's concern over environmental problems caused by ICT is at a rudimentary stage in Korea. Although Korea has established the EPR program to manage the e-waste problem, limited scope of e-waste items for

  6. Participatory testing and reporting in an environmental-justice community of Worcester, Massachusetts: a pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvache Maria-Camila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite indoor home environments being where people spend most time, involving residents in testing those environments has been very limited, especially in marginalized communities. We piloted participatory testing and reporting that combined relatively simple tests with actionable reporting to empower residents in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts. We answered: 1 How do we design and implement the approach for neighborhood and household environments using participatory methods? 2 What do pilot tests reveal? 3 How does our experience inform testing practice? Methods The approach was designed and implemented with community partners using community-based participatory research. Residents and researchers tested fourteen homes for: lead in dust indoors, soil outdoors, paint indoors and drinking water; radon in basement air; PM2.5 in indoor air; mold spores in indoor/outdoor air; and drinking water quality. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates by residents and researchers used real-time data to stimulate dialogue. Results Given the newness of our partnership and unforeseen conflicts, we achieved moderate-high success overall based on process and outcome criteria: methods, test results, reporting, lessons learned. The conflict burden we experienced may be attributable less to generic university-community differences in interests/culture, and more to territoriality and interpersonal issues. Lead-in-paint touch-swab results were poor proxies for lead-in-dust. Of eight units tested in summer, three had very high lead-in-dust (>1000 μg/ft2, six exceeded at least one USEPA standard for lead-in-dust and/or soil. Tap water tests showed no significant exposures. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates raised awareness of environmental health risks, especially asthma. Conclusions Timely reporting back home-toxics' results to residents is ethical but it must be empowering. Future work should fund the active

  7. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development of a socio-ecological environmental justice model for watershed-based management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Georgina M.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Woznicki, Sean A.; Habron, Geoffrey; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra; Shortridge, Ashton

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics and relationships between society and nature are complex and difficult to predict. Anthropogenic activities affect the ecological integrity of our natural resources, specifically our streams. Further, it is well-established that the costs of these activities are born unequally by different human communities. This study considered the utility of integrating stream health metrics, based on stream health indicators, with socio-economic measures of communities, to better characterize these effects. This study used a spatial multi-factor model and bivariate mapping to produce a novel assessment for watershed management, identification of vulnerable areas, and allocation of resources. The study area is the Saginaw River watershed located in Michigan. In-stream hydrological and water quality data were used to predict fish and macroinvertebrate measures of stream health. These measures include the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family IBI, and total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa. Stream health indicators were then compared to spatially coincident socio-economic data, obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2010), including race, income, education, housing, and population size. Statistical analysis including spatial regression and cluster analysis were used to examine the correlation between vulnerable human populations and environmental conditions. Overall, limited correlation was observed between the socio-economic data and ecological measures of stream health, with the highest being a negative correlation of 0.18 between HBI and the social parameter household size. Clustering was observed in the datasets with urban areas representing a second order clustering effect over the watershed. Regions with the worst stream health and most vulnerable social populations were most commonly located nearby or down-stream to highly populated areas and agricultural lands.

  9. Book review: Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act: Environmental litigation and the crippling battle over America's lands, endangered species, and critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act is authored by Lowell E. Baier, an attorney, political scientist, and historian whose conservation portfolio includes the J. N. “Ding” Darling Conservation Award from the National Wildlife Federation (2016), Citizen Conservationist Award from the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (2013), Conservationist of the Year Award from Outdoor Life magazine (2010), and Conservationist of the Year Award from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (2008). In the book, Baier stresses the need to reform the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) because of unintended provisions that incentivize and reward environmental litigants for filing suit against federal regulatory and land management agencies, consequentially hindering pro-active, cooperative, conservation efforts. The book is the culmination of several years of legal research, case history analyses, and personal interviews with several key individuals from congress, conservation management agencies, and non-government organizations.

  10. A task management system for compliance with health, safety, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, J.J.; O'Gorman, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    Shell Western E and P Inc. (SWEPI) has developed a new computer system to help it comply with health, safety, and environmental (HS and E) regulations. It is a task management system that functions at the detailed inventory level. It schedules work, instructs operations, and records compliance status. This article discusses design and development of the system

  11. Conference-EC-US Task Force Joint US-EU Workshop on Metabolomics and Environmental Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PI: Lily Y. Young

    2009-06-04

    Since 1990, the EC-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research has been coordinating transatlantic efforts to guide and exploit the ongoing revolution in biotechnology and the life sciences. The Task Force was established in June 1990 by the European Commission and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The Task Force has acted as an effective forum for discussion, coordination, and development of new ideas for the last 18 years. Task Force members are European Commission and US Government science and technology administrators who meet annually to enhance communication across the Atlantic, and to encourage collaborative research. Through sponsoring workshops, and other activities, the Task Force also brings together scientific leaders and early career researchers from both sides of the Atlantic to forecast research challenges and opportunities and to promote better links between researchers. Over the years, by keeping a focus on the future of science, the Task Force has played a key role in establishing a diverse range of emerging scientific fields, including biodiversity research, neuroinformatics, genomics, nanobiotechnology, neonatal immunology, transkingdom molecular biology, biologically-based fuels, and environmental biotechnology. The EC-US Task Force has sponsored a number of Working Groups on topics of mutual transatlantic interest. The idea to create a Working Group on Environmental Biotechnology research was discussed in the Task Force meeting of October 1993. The EC-US Working Group on Environmental Biotechnology set as its mission 'To train the next generation of leaders in environmental biotechnology in the United States and the European Union to work collaboratively across the Atlantic.' Since 1995, the Working Group supported three kinds of activities, all of which focus one early career scientists: (1) Workshops on the use of molecular methods and genomics in environmental biotechnology; (2) Short courses with theoretical

  12. Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their interactions…

  13. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  14. Juvenile Justice

    OpenAIRE

    International Child Development Centre

    1998-01-01

    The third Innocenti Digest deals with the main issues connected with children and young people coming into conflict with the law and contact with the justice system. It looks at standards and problems from arrest through to the court hearing and sentencing, use of custodial measures and ways of avoiding the child’s unnecessary and counter-productive involvement with the formal justice system. It also covers prevention questions. Like previous publications in the series, it contains practical ...

  15. Quality assurance task force, an interagency cooperative approach to assess quality of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, L.M.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.; Conklin, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    In 1985, the Washington State Legislature charged the Department of Social and Health Services' Office of Radiation Protection with reviewing, evaluating and improving environmental monitoring programs within the state. Special emphasis was placed on the Hanford Site in Richland. Government and private organizations involved in monitoring radiation effects on the environment were asked to advise and support the State of Washington. Together, these organizations formed the Environmental Radiation Quality Assurance Task Force for the Pacific Northwest. Data on radiation levels are collected by the various organizations and compared. If findings are not consistent, the Task Force investigates and makes recommendations for long-term solutions. Thus, a system of checks and balances is created, enhancing the credibility of the various monitoring programs. Efficiency in use of resources is increased because overlap and duplication by different monitoring agencies are minimized

  16. Environmental Enrichment Expedites Acquisition and Improves Flexibility on a Temporal Sequencing Task in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Rountree-Harrison

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE via increased opportunities for voluntary exercise, sensory stimulation and social interaction, can enhance the function of and behaviours regulated by cognitive circuits. Little is known, however, as to how this intervention affects performance on complex tasks that engage multiple, definable learning and memory systems. Accordingly, we utilised the Olfactory Temporal Order Discrimination (OTOD task which requires animals to recall and report sequence information about a series of recently encountered olfactory stimuli. This approach allowed us to compare animals raised in either enriched or standard laboratory housing conditions on a number of measures, including the acquisition of a complex discrimination task, temporal sequence recall accuracy (i.e., the ability to accurately recall a sequences of events and acuity (i.e., the ability to resolve past events that occurred in close temporal proximity, as well as cognitive flexibility tested in the style of a rule reversal and an Intra-Dimensional Shift (IDS. We found that enrichment accelerated the acquisition of the temporal order discrimination task, although neither accuracy nor acuity was affected at asymptotic performance levels. Further, while a subtle enhancement of overall performance was detected for both rule reversal and IDS versions of the task, accelerated performance recovery could only be attributed to the shift-like contingency change. These findings suggest that EE can affect specific elements of complex, multi-faceted cognitive processes.

  17. Incorporating Indigenous Rights and Environmental Justice into Fishery Management: Comparing Policy Challenges and Potentials from Alaska and Hawaíi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Laurie

    2013-11-01

    Colonial processes including the dispossession of indigenous lands and resources and the development of Western management institutions to govern the use of culturally important fish resources have served in many ways to marginalize indigenous interests within the United States fisheries. In recent years, several US fishery institutions have begun to develop policies that can confront this colonial legacy by better accommodating indigenous perspectives and rights in fishery management practices. This paper analyzes two such policies: the 2005 community quota entity program in Alaska which permits rural communities (predominantly Alaska Native villages) to purchase and lease commercial halibut fishing privileges and the 1994 State of Hawaíi community-based subsistence fishing area (CBSFA) legislation through which Native Hawaiian communities can designate marine space near their community as CBSFAs and collaborate with the state of Hawaíi to manage those areas according to traditional Hawaiian practices. The analysis reveals a striking similarity between the trajectories of these two policies. While they both offered significant potential for incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into state or federal fishery management, they have so far largely failed to do so. Environmental managers can gain insights from the challenges and potentials of these two policies. In order to introduce meaningful change, environmental policies that incorporate indigenous rights and environmental justice require a commitment of financial and institutional support from natural resource agencies, a commitment from indigenous groups and communities to organize and develop capacity, and careful consideration of contextual and cultural factors in the design of the policy framework.

  18. Health Law as Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  19. Environmental Justice and Sustainability Impact Assessment: In Search of Solutions to Ethnic Conflicts Caused by Coal Mining in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government adopted more specific and stringent environmental impact assessment (EIA guidelines in 2011, soon after the widespread ethnic protests against coal mining in Inner Mongolia. However, our research suggests that the root of the ethnic tension is a sustainability problem, in addition to environmental issues. In particular, the Mongolians do not feel they have benefited from the mining of their resources. Existing environmental assessment tools are inadequate to address sustainability, which is concerned with environmental protection, social justice and economic equity. Thus, it is necessary to develop a sustainability impact assessment (SIA to fill in the gap. SIA would be in theory and practice a better tool than EIA for assessing sustainability impact. However, China’s political system presents a major challenge to promoting social and economic equity. Another practical challenge for SIA is corruption which has been also responsible for the failing of EIA in assessing environmental impacts of coal mining in Inner Mongolia. Under the current political system, China should adopt the SIA while continuing its fight against corruption.

  20. Empowering Energy Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. PMID:27657101

  1. Empowering Energy Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Finley-Brook

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1 fossil fuel divestment; (2 carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3 cap-and-trade; (4 renewable energy; and (5 energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.

  2. Economic and environmental scheduling of smart homes with microgrid: DER operation and electrical tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An MILP model is formulated for energy consumption scheduling among smart homes. • Environmental and economic aspects are both addressed. • The model is implemented on an example with data profiles from the UK. • Pareto-optimal curves between cost and CO_2 emissions are obtained. • Real-time pricing and critical peak pricing schemes are investigated. - Abstract: Microgrids are promising in reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions, compared with the current centralised energy generation systems. Smart homes are becoming popular for their lower energy cost and provision of comfort. Flexible energy-consuming household tasks can be scheduled co-ordinately among multiple smart homes to reduce economic cost and CO_2. However, the electricity tariff is not always positively correlated with CO_2 intensity. In this work, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is proposed to schedule the energy consumption within smart homes using a microgrid system. The daily power consumption tasks are scheduled by coupling environmental and economic sustainability in a multi-objective optimisation with ε-constraint method. The two conflicting objectives are to minimise the daily energy cost and CO_2 emissions. Distributed energy resources (DER) operation and electricity-consumption household tasks are scheduled based on electricity tariff, CO_2 intensity and electricity task time window. The proposed model is implemented on a smart building of 30 homes under three different price schemes. Electricity tariff and CO_2 intensity profiles of the UK are employed for the case study. The Pareto curves for cost and CO_2 emissions present the trade-off between the two conflicting objectives.

  3. From empowerment to response-ability: rethinking socio-spatial, environmental justice, and nature-culture binaries in the context of STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Shakhnoza; McGuire, Chad J.; Cardello, Suzanne

    2018-04-01

    In this conceptual paper, we draw upon the insights of Feminist Science Studies, in particular Karen Barad's concept of agential realism, as a critical analytical tool to re-think nature and culture binaries in dominant science knowledge-making practices and explanatory accounts, and their possible implications for science education in the context of socio-spatial and environmental injustices. Barad's framework proposes a relational and more expansive approach to justice, which takes into account consequential effects of nature-culture practices on humans, non-humans, and more than human vitalities. In efforts to understand potentialities of Barad's theory of agential realism, we situate our argument in the "story" of local children who encounter a bottle of cyanide in a former manufacturing building. The story takes place in a post-industrial urban city located in the U.S., caught up in an inverse relationship between the technological and scientific advances observed "globally" and the deteriorating environmental and living conditions experienced "locally" as the result of erstwhile industrial activity. Based on agential realist readings of the story and taking into consideration children's developing subjectivities, we argue that equity-oriented scholarship in science education might not be able to achieve justice devoid of understanding of the relatedness to plurality of life forms. We invite our readers to consider (re)configuring socio-spatial and environmental issues as an ethical response-ability that is constituted through relationships of care, recognition, openness, and responsiveness to vitalities of humans and nonhumans equally, one which cannot be conceptualized from a priori and distant calculations, but rather continuous entangled relations.

  4. Ecopedagogy in the Age of Globalization: Educators' Perspectives of Environmental Education Programs in the Americas Which Incorporate Social Justice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiaszek, Gregery William

    2011-01-01

    Ecopedagogy is defined in this research as transformative environmental education which critically and dialectically deconstructs how social conflicts and environmental (socio-environmental) devastation are connected. Understanding these connections is necessary because environmental destructive actions are inherently political--benefiting some…

  5. Water Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Perreault, T.; Vos, J.M.C.

    2018-01-01

    Water justice is becoming an ever-more pressing issue in times of increasing water-based inequalities and discrimination. Megacities, mining, forestry, industry and agribusiness claim an increasingly large share of available surface and groundwater reserves. Water grabbing and pollution generate

  6. Enviromental Justice (EJSCREEN) Block Group Data (USEPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN is an environmental justice (EJ) screening and mapping tool that provides EPA with a nationally consistent dataset and methodology for calculating "EJ...

  7. Network effects in environmental justice struggles: An investigation of conflicts between mining companies and civil society organizations from a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cem Iskender; Ozkaynak, Begum; Rodríguez-Labajos, Beatriz; Yenilmez, Taylan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines conflicts that occur between mining companies and civil society organizations (CSOs) around the world and offers an innovative analysis of mining conflicts from a social network perspective. The analysis showed that, as the number of CSOs involved in a conflict increased, its outcome was more likely to be perceived as a success in terms of environmental justice (EJ); if a CSO was connected to other central CSOs, the average perception of EJ success was likely to increase; and as network distance between two conflicts increased (or decreased), they were more likely to lead to different (or similar) EJ outcomes. Such network effects in mining conflicts have policy implications for EJ movements. It would be a strategic move on the part of successful CSOs to become involved in other major conflicts and disseminate information about how they achieved greater EJ success.

  8. Network effects in environmental justice struggles: An investigation of conflicts between mining companies and civil society organizations from a network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Iskender Aydin

    Full Text Available This paper examines conflicts that occur between mining companies and civil society organizations (CSOs around the world and offers an innovative analysis of mining conflicts from a social network perspective. The analysis showed that, as the number of CSOs involved in a conflict increased, its outcome was more likely to be perceived as a success in terms of environmental justice (EJ; if a CSO was connected to other central CSOs, the average perception of EJ success was likely to increase; and as network distance between two conflicts increased (or decreased, they were more likely to lead to different (or similar EJ outcomes. Such network effects in mining conflicts have policy implications for EJ movements. It would be a strategic move on the part of successful CSOs to become involved in other major conflicts and disseminate information about how they achieved greater EJ success.

  9. Network effects in environmental justice struggles: An investigation of conflicts between mining companies and civil society organizations from a network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cem Iskender; Ozkaynak, Begum; Rodríguez-Labajos, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines conflicts that occur between mining companies and civil society organizations (CSOs) around the world and offers an innovative analysis of mining conflicts from a social network perspective. The analysis showed that, as the number of CSOs involved in a conflict increased, its outcome was more likely to be perceived as a success in terms of environmental justice (EJ); if a CSO was connected to other central CSOs, the average perception of EJ success was likely to increase; and as network distance between two conflicts increased (or decreased), they were more likely to lead to different (or similar) EJ outcomes. Such network effects in mining conflicts have policy implications for EJ movements. It would be a strategic move on the part of successful CSOs to become involved in other major conflicts and disseminate information about how they achieved greater EJ success. PMID:28686618

  10. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 4, Task 5, Operation of PFH on beneficiated shale, Task 6, Environmental data and mitigation analyses and Task 7, Sample procurement, preparation, and characterization: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The objective of Task 5 (Operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydro-Retorting (PFH) on Beneficiated Shale) was to modify the PFH process to facilitate its use for fine-sized, beneficiated Eastern shales. This task was divided into 3 subtasks: Non-Reactive Testing, Reactive Testing, and Data Analysis and Correlations. The potential environment impacts of PFH processing of oil shale must be assessed throughout the development program to ensure that the appropriate technologies are in place to mitigate any adverse effects. The overall objectives of Task 6 (Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses) were to obtain environmental data relating to PFH and shale beneficiation and to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the integrated PFH process. The task was divided into the following four subtasks. Characterization of Processed Shales (IGT), 6.2. Water Availability and Treatment Studies, 6.3. Heavy Metals Removal and 6.4. PFH Systems Analysis. The objective of Task 7 (Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization) was to procure, prepare, and characterize raw and beneficiated bulk samples of Eastern oil shale for all of the experimental tasks in the program. Accomplishments for these tasks are presented.

  11. Organizational Justice as an Antecedent of Job Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research examines the influence of organizational justice (distributive justice and procedural justice on predicting job performance (task performance and contextual performance. Survey data were drawn from a sample of 136 customer-contact employees within the telecommunications industry in Malaysia. Results of the regression analysis illustrate that distributive justice alone has a significant and positive relationship with task performance. On the other hand, only procedural justice is found to be significantly and positively related to contextual performance. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are highlighted.

  12. Green justice in the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2016-01-01

    tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment of andde...... of anddecision-making around UGS. On this basis we discuss potentials for European urban green space researchto take up a more explicit environmental justice framing to shed much-needed light on injustices inEuropean cities and inspire change in policy and practice.......tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment...

  13. Choosing children: intergenerational justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyal, Len; McLean, Sheila

    2005-03-01

    In this discussion, we argue that the concept of intergenerational justice, usually used in environmental matters, is applicable to reproductive decisions also. Additionally, we propose that this permits certain reproductive choices to be made prior to conception or during the pregnancy, and that these choices should not be confined to clinical concerns. In particular, we argue that consideration of the interests of future children should be viewed from the perspective of objective well-being. That being the case, decisions about the sex of future offspring can, in terms of intergenerational justice, be legitimate. We do not argue that every reproductive choice is legitimate; for example it would not be legitimate deliberately to choose characteristics that prevent future children from potentially successful participation in social life.

  14. IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental performance assessment of glazing and windows - context, overview, main concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, J.L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Sustainable Development Dept., Saint-Martin D' Heres (France); Krogh, H. [Danish Building and Urban Research, Energy and Indoor Climate Div., Hoersholm (Denmark); Tarantini, Mario [The Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    While all industrial sectors are integrating the environment concern into their culture and strategy, actors of the construction field seem to be torn between motivation and suspicion in front of this new topic. In most countries, the economic situation of the passed years for building was not suitable for investing in new long-term approaches, and the strong particularities of the building world appear as many complicating elements for introducing new concepts easily. But now the awareness for a sustainable development of all human activities is also growing in our sector, and it is time to take benefit of some favourable habits like the use of multi-criteria analysis: beyond performances, suitability for use, and durability, environmental quality criteria will just widen the actual scope of the technical assessment of building products. The first question is a double one : Who will use environmental criteria related to the building products, and for which purpose? Because actors in the field are many, we will have several distinct answers, which may call for different tools. In other industrial sectors, two approaches have been experimented: the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and the environmental labelling. Between LCA and green labels, several relevant tools are in development for the building products, each of them adapted to specific users and objectives, and most often of limited use in other contexts. A short review of the studies already performed on the environmental quality of glazing and windows revealed quite a small amount of available matter, and justifies the work undertaken within the programme of IEA/SHCP/Task 27, which will be presented in the third part of this paper. (au)

  15. ITER safety task NID-5a: ITER tritium environmental source terms - safety analysis basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Kalyanam, K.M.

    1994-09-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project's (CFFTP) is part of the contribution to ITER task NID-5a, Initial Tritium Source Term. This safety analysis basis constitutes the first part of the work for establishing tritium source terms and is intended to solicit comments and obtain agreement. The analysis objective is to provide an early estimate of tritium environmental source terms for the events to be analyzed. Events that would result in the loss of tritium are: a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), a vacuum vessel boundary breach. a torus exhaust line failure, a fuelling machine process boundary failure, a fuel processing system process boundary failure, a water detritiation system process boundary failure and an isotope separation system process boundary failure. 9 figs

  16. FY 1993 task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to individuals and populations. The primary objective of work to be performed in FY 1993 is to complete the source term estimates and dose estimates for key radionuclides for the air and river pathways. At the end of FY 1993, the capability will be in place to estimate doses for individuals in the extended (32-county) study area, 1944--1991. Native American research will continue to provide input for tribal dose estimates. In FY 1993, the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) will decide whether demographic and river pathways data collection should be extended beyond FY 1993 levels. The FY 1993 work scopes and milestones in this document are based on the work plan discussed at the TSP Budget/Fiscal Subcommittee meeting on August 19--20, 1991. Table 1 shows the FY 1993 milestones; Table 2 shows estimated costs. The subsequent work scope descriptions are based on the milestones. This document and the FY 1992 task plans will form the basis for a contract with Battelle and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The 2-year dose reconstruction contract is expected to begin in February 1992. This contract will replace the current arrangement, whereby the US Department of Energy directly funds the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to conduct dose reconstruction work. In late FY 1992, the FY 1993 task plans will be more fully developed with detailed technical approaches, data quality objectives, and budgeted labor hours. The task plans will be updated again in July 1993 to reflect any scope, milestone, or cost changes directed during the year by the TSP. 2 tabs

  17. Justiça Ambiental: uma abordagem ecossocial em saúde Justicia Ambiental: un abordaje eco-social en salud Environmental Justice: an ecossocial health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Habermann

    2008-12-01

    .The paper addresses the risk of contemporary technologies in the light of our current technological paradigm, its perception and tolerability, as well as its unequal distribution across society. The fundamental hypothesis, which emphasizes Environmental Justice, refers to hazards that are disproportionately or unjustly distributed across more socially and economically vulnerable groups, which are generally the poor and the minorities affected by the environmental risks posed by modernity. Therefore, vulnerability and the different levels of deprivation act as drivers of the different levels of health across population groups. Although Environmental Justice has initially been observed as a grassroots movement in the United States, its principles showed compatibility with global and local geographical scales. Therefore, the aim of the study was to understand how the risks of contemporary technologies unequally affect the population under the perspective of Environmental Justice.

  18. Retributive and restorative justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  19. Integration, status and potential of environmental justice and the social impact assessment process in transportation development in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    This research examines the Social Impact Assessment Process at the Missouri Department of Transportation as directed by the : National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The analysis includes an examination of the influences of the more recent directiv...

  20. Environmental management technology demonstration and commercialization: Tasks 2, 3, 4, and 8. Semiannual report, October 1994--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Nowok, J.W.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.; Hurley, J.P.; Steadman, E.N.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of the Environmental Management program at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) is to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize technologies that address the environmental management needs of contaminated sites, including characterization, sensors, and monitoring; low-level mixed waste processing; material disposition technology; improved waste forms; in situ containment and remediation; and efficient separation technologies for radioactive wastes. Task 2 is the extraction and analysis of pollutant organics from contaminated solids using off-line supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and on-line SFE-infrared spectroscopy. Task 3, pyrolysis of plastics, has as its objectives to develop a commercial process to significantly reduce the volume of mixed-plastics-paper-resin waste contaminated with low-level radioactive material; concentrate contaminants in a collectible form; and determine the distribution and form of contaminants after pyrolysis of the mixed waste. Task 4, stabilization of vitrified wastes, has as its objectives to (1) demonstrate a waste vitrification procedure for enhanced stabilization of waste materials and (2) develop a testing protocol to understand the long-term leaching behavior of the stabilized waste form. The primary objective of Task 8, Management and reporting, is coordination of this project with other programs and opportunities. In addition, management oversight will be maintained to ensure that tasks are completed and coordinated as planned and that deliverables are submitted in a timely manner. Accomplishments to date is each task are described. 62 refs

  1. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-01-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  2. Teachers' understandings and enactments of social and environmental justice issues in the classroom: What's "critical" in the manufacturing of road-smart squirrels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, Alison J.

    How do five new teachers understand and enact counter-hegemonic pedagogies in their own classes? This study developed from this question. The question arose as I taught critical environmental education, a counter-hegemonic pedagogy, to preservice science teachers. I encouraged the exploration of social and environmental injustices and how they function to reproduce dominant economic agendas. To understand how five teachers, in the second year of their practice and my former students, made sense of the critical environmental education I taught them, I used Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology as my research frame. Gadamer argues that meaning develops through dialogue, so data collection occurred mainly through lively research conversations over leisurely dinners. As practicing teachers, the six of us jointly explored taken-for-granted meanings and actions in our everyday pedagogical experiences. In these conversations we made meaning (the hermeneutic aspect) of the lived experiences (phenomenological aspect) of incorporating critical environmental education into our practices. This led me to a deeper understanding and increased awareness of how science education reform agendas have influenced and shaped our individual science pedagogies. The analytic lens of critical education showed that these teachers were strongly influenced by the dominant science reform agenda. Regardless of the science curriculum, or the strong social and environmental beliefs some of these teachers held, they did not perceive the teaching of the social and environmental justice issues to be 'critical' or 'their job.' They demonstrated a belief that it was 'critical' to teach well-defined, "hard science" facts. Student success, hence teacher success, involved playing the academic game well and gaining long-term financial security. Re/viewing the data stories through the additional analytic lens of feminist poststructuralism, I saw how dominant discourse constructs the identity of teachers

  3. Finding common ground: environmental ethics, social justice, and a sustainable path for nature-based health promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Jessica Yun; Lincoln  Larson

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment’s capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the...

  4. Problematising Development in Sustainability: Epistemic Justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. ... justice in education for sustainable development (ESD) and presents alternative ... that global definitions of development cement the dominant hegemonic discourse .... constituted by collective community and ecological components, social responsibility becomes.

  5. FY 1991 Task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to populations and individuals. The objectives of work in Fiscal Year (FY) 1991 are to analyze data and models used in Phase 1 and restructure the models to increase accuracy and reduce uncertainty in dose estimation capability. Databases will be expanded and efforts will begin to determine the appropriate scope (space, time, radionuclides, pathways and individuals/population groups) and accuracy (level of uncertainty in dose estimates) for the project. Project scope and accuracy requirements, once defined, can be translated into additional model and data requirements later in the project. Task plans for FY 1991 have been prepared based on activities approved by the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) in October 1990 and mid-year revisions discussed at the TSP planning/budget workshop in February 1991. The activities can be divided into two broad categories: (1) model and data development and evaluation, (2) project, technical and communication support. 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Environmental health sciences center task force review on halogenated organics in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinzer, M; Schaumburg, F; Klein, E

    1978-06-01

    The disinfection of drinking water by chlorination has in recent years come under closer scrutiny because of the potential hazards associated with the production of stable chlorinated organic chemicals. Organic chemical contaminants are common to all water supplies and it is now well-established that chlorinated by-products are obtained under conditions of disinfection, or during tertiary treatment of sewage whose products can ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies. Naturally occurring humic substances which are invariably present in drinking waters are probably the source of chloroform and other halogenated methanes, and chloroform has shown up in every water supply investigated thus far.The Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility of assessing the public health effects resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. It has specifically undertaken the task of determining whether organic contaminants or their chlorinated derivatives have a special impact, and if so, what alternatives there are to protect the consumer against bacterial and viral diseases that are transmitted through infected drinking waters. The impetus to look at these chemicals is not entirely without some prima facie evidence of potential trouble. Epidemiological studies suggested a higher incidence of cancer along the lower Mississippi River where the contamination from organic chemicals is particularly high. The conclusions from these studies have, to be sure, not gone unchallenged.The task of assessing the effects of chemicals in the drinking water is a difficult one. It includes many variables, including differences in water supplies and the temporal relationship between contamination and consumption of the finished product. It must also take into account the relative importance of the effects from these chemicals in comparison to those from occupational exposure, ingestion of contaminated foods, inhalation of polluted air, and many

  7. Spatiotemporal Patterns, Monitoring Network Design, and Environmental Justice of Air Pollution in the Phoenix Metropolitan Region: A Landscape Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Ronald L.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in most urban areas around the world, which has a number of negative ecological and human health impacts. As a result, it's vitally important to detect and characterize air pollutants to protect the health of the urban environment and our citizens. An important early step in this process is ensuring that the air pollution monitoring network is properly designed to capture the patterns of pollution and that all social demographics in the urban population are represented. An important aspect in characterizing air pollution patterns is scale in space and time which, along with pattern and process relationships, is a key subject in the field of landscape ecology. Thus, using multiple landscape ecological methods, this dissertation research begins by characterizing and quantifying the multi-scalar patterns of ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan region. Results showed that pollution patterns are scale-dependent, O3 is a regionally-scaled pollutant at longer temporal scales, and PM10 is a locally-scaled pollutant with patterns sensitive to season. Next, this dissertation examines the monitoring network within Maricopa County. Using a novel multiscale indicator-based approach, the adequacy of the network was quantified by integrating inputs from various academic and government stakeholders. Furthermore, deficiencies were spatially defined and recommendations were made on how to strengthen the design of the network. A sustainability ranking system also provided new insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the network. Lastly, the study addresses the question of whether distinct social groups were experiencing inequitable exposure to pollutants - a key issue of distributive environmental injustice. A novel interdisciplinary method using multi-scalar ambient pollution data and hierarchical multiple regression models revealed environmental inequities between air pollutants and race, ethnicity

  8. Ontario’s Experience of Wind Energy Development as Seen through the Lens of Human Health and Environmental Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Songsore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The province of Ontario has shown great commitment towards the development of renewable energy and, specifically, wind power. Fuelled by the Green Energy Act (GEA of 2009, the Province has emerged as Canada’s leader in wind energy development (WED. Nonetheless, Ontario’s WED trajectory is characterized by social conflicts, particularly around environmental health. Utilizing the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, this paper presents an eight-year longitudinal media content analysis conducted to understand the role Ontario’s media may be playing in both reflecting and shaping public perceptions of wind turbine health risks. We find that before and after the GEA, instances of health risk amplification were far greater than attenuations in both quantity and quality. Discourses that amplified turbine health risks often simultaneously highlighted injustices in the WED process, especially after the GEA. Based on these findings, we suggest that Ontario’s media may be amplifying perceptions of wind turbine health risks within the public domain. We conclude with policy recommendations around public engagement for more just WED.

  9. Ontario’s Experience of Wind Energy Development as Seen through the Lens of Human Health and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsore, Emmanuel; Buzzelli, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The province of Ontario has shown great commitment towards the development of renewable energy and, specifically, wind power. Fuelled by the Green Energy Act (GEA) of 2009, the Province has emerged as Canada’s leader in wind energy development (WED). Nonetheless, Ontario’s WED trajectory is characterized by social conflicts, particularly around environmental health. Utilizing the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, this paper presents an eight-year longitudinal media content analysis conducted to understand the role Ontario’s media may be playing in both reflecting and shaping public perceptions of wind turbine health risks. We find that before and after the GEA, instances of health risk amplification were far greater than attenuations in both quantity and quality. Discourses that amplified turbine health risks often simultaneously highlighted injustices in the WED process, especially after the GEA. Based on these findings, we suggest that Ontario’s media may be amplifying perceptions of wind turbine health risks within the public domain. We conclude with policy recommendations around public engagement for more just WED. PMID:27399738

  10. Ontario's Experience of Wind Energy Development as Seen through the Lens of Human Health and Environmental Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsore, Emmanuel; Buzzelli, Michael

    2016-07-06

    The province of Ontario has shown great commitment towards the development of renewable energy and, specifically, wind power. Fuelled by the Green Energy Act (GEA) of 2009, the Province has emerged as Canada's leader in wind energy development (WED). Nonetheless, Ontario's WED trajectory is characterized by social conflicts, particularly around environmental health. Utilizing the Social Amplification of Risk Framework, this paper presents an eight-year longitudinal media content analysis conducted to understand the role Ontario's media may be playing in both reflecting and shaping public perceptions of wind turbine health risks. We find that before and after the GEA, instances of health risk amplification were far greater than attenuations in both quantity and quality. Discourses that amplified turbine health risks often simultaneously highlighted injustices in the WED process, especially after the GEA. Based on these findings, we suggest that Ontario's media may be amplifying perceptions of wind turbine health risks within the public domain. We conclude with policy recommendations around public engagement for more just WED.

  11. Siting of a low-level radioactive waste management facility - environmental assessment experiences of the Canadian siting task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorber, D.M.; Story, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    After public opposition to the plans for a low-level radioactive waste facility at one of two candidate areas at Port Hope, Canada the Environmental Assessment process was postponed, and an independent Siting Process Task Force was set-up to assess the most suitable technologies for LLRW disposal, the areas with the best potential in the province to use these technologies, and the most promising approaches to site selection. The Task Force recommended a five-phased siting process known as the 'Co-operative Siting Process', which was based on the voluntary participation of local communities and a collaborative, joint-planning style of decision making. An independent Siting Task Force was to be established to ensure that the principles of the recommended process was upheld. This siting process is still underway, and problems and successes that have been encountered are summarized in this contribution

  12. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Campbell, K.R.; Wood, M.A.; Rash, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir

  13. Justice and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit.

  14. Environmental Justice Assessment for Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Application of Executive Order 12898 to risk assessment of highway or rail transport of hazardous materials has proven difficult; the location and conditions affecting the propagation of a plume of hazardous material released in a potential accident are unknown, in general. Therefore, analyses have only been possible in geographically broad or approximate manner. The advent of geographic information systems and development of software enhancements at Sandia National Laboratories have made kilometer-by-kilometer analysis of populations tallied by U.S. Census Blocks along entire routes practicable. Tabulations of total, or racially/ethnically distinct, populations close to a route, its alternatives, or the broader surrounding area, can then be compared and differences evaluated statistically. This paper presents methods of comparing populations and their racial/ethnic compositions using simple tabulations, histograms and Chi Squared tests for statistical significance of differences found. Two examples of these methods are presented: comparison of two routes and comparison of a route with its surroundings

  15. ECONOMIC EQUALITY OR JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Tufan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of economic life, equality has been a matter for human. Intrinsically human has two legs: Selfish and Groupish. Our selfish side does not care equality while Groupish side cares. What about the justice? Does human wants justice more than equalities in economic life? In this research, we have applied a questionnaire to find these two questions answer. As a result we can report that respondents prefer equality rather than justice in negative outcomes. On the other hand, they tend to prefer justice if there is possibility for positive outcomes. We cannot give evidence about gender, education and age differences effect on equality and justice preference.

  16. Environmental impacts of nuclear power plants and the tasks of meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, J.; Skulec, S.; Tomlain, J.

    1984-01-01

    The system of meteorological service is presented which is part of the nuclear power plant monitoring system. Tasks are described which the meteorological service fulfils in routine nuclear power plant operation and in case of accident. The meteorological service also studies the potential impacts of heat emissions and water effluents on the environment of nuclear power plants. (E.S.)

  17. Acting Globally: Cultivating a thousand community solutions for climate justice

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Di Chiro

    2011-01-01

    Giovanna Di Chiro is Director of Environmental Programs at Nuestras Raíces, Inc. and Research Associate at the Five College Women's Studies Research Center. She has published widely on the intersections of race, gender, and environmental justice with a focus on women's activism and policy change addressing environmental health disparities in lower income communities. She is completing a book Embodied Ecologies: Science, Politics, and Environmental Justice. Her current work examines environmen...

  18. Correlation between observation task performance and visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and environmental light in a simulated maritime study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Assmuss, Jörg; Høvding, Gunnar

    2018-03-25

    To examine the relevance of visual acuity (VA) and index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) as predictors for visual observation task performance in a maritime environment. Sixty naval cadets were recruited to a study on observation tasks in a simulated maritime environment under three different light settings. Their ICS were computed based on contrast sensitivity (CS) data recorded by Optec 6500 and CSV-1000E CS tests. The correlation between object identification distance and VA/ICS was examined by stepwise linear regression. The object detection distance was significantly correlated to the level of environmental light (p maritime environment may presumably be ascribed to the normal and uniform visual capacity in all our study subjects. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Effects of Different Types of Environmental Noise on Academic Performance and Perceived Task Difficulty in Adolescents With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batho, Lauren P; Martinussen, Rhonda; Wiener, Judith

    2015-07-28

    To examine the effects of environmental noises (speech and white noise) relative to a no noise control condition on the performance and difficulty ratings of youth with ADHD (N = 52) on academic tasks. Reading performance was measured by an oral retell (reading accuracy) and the time spent reading. Writing performance was measured through the proportion of correct writing sequences (writing accuracy) and the total words written on an essay. Participants in the white noise condition took less time to read the passage and wrote more words on the essay compared with participants in the other conditions, though white noise did not improve academic accuracy. The participants in the babble condition rated the tasks as most difficult. Although white noise appears to improve reading time and writing fluency, the findings suggest that white noise does not improve performance accuracy. Educational implications are discussed. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  20. The EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) Process in Relation to the Proposed Naval Task Force at Everett, Washington,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    decision before filing the EA. Also, the transfer of fuel and arms and the change in economic and social enviromental effects warranted an EIS. Facts: The...must deal with many of the same environmental, social , and economic problems that are evident. The basing of a Naval Task Force in Puget Sound stems from...which involves unresolved conflicts e. V.V..4 President OMB Cirua * NEPA of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321) CEQ/EIS Guidelines 40 CFR 1500-1508 . 7 Excuiv Ordc

  1. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program. Task, OU 1-03 and OU 4-10 Track 2 investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippet, W.A. II [IT Corp., (United States); Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG&G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  2. Environmental tasks of anthropogenic actions and climatic changes in pozo del Molle, Cordoba Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, L.; Karlsson, A.; Ayala, R.

    2007-01-01

    This work was made in Pozo del Molle town, Rio Segundo, Cordoba. Argentina. The human impact added to climate changes, mainly the increase of precipitations, affects negatively in the environmental problems. In the area, in the last years, the problems that lead to the degradation of the environment were accentuated. The disposition of the final waste disposal has been determined through the following studies: analysis of the geological conditions of the area, consideration of the climatic situation, and the elevation and contamination the phreatic. Also an analysis about the rate of the habitant/day solid residual generation, the distance between the site where is located the urban solid residues and the town, the predominant winds and the vulnerability of the phreatic, which represents the greatest problem of the area, was made. It has been established the alternatives to carry out an appropriate environmental administration. Key words: human impact, climatic changes, environmental problems, phreatic, Pozo del Molle (Argentina). (author)

  3. Environmental aspects of PV power systems. Report on the IEA PVPS Task 1 Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwlaar, E.; Alsema, E.

    1997-12-01

    During normal operation, photovoltaic (PV) power systems do not emit substances that may threaten human health or the environment. In fact, through the savings in conventional electricity production they can lead to significant emission reductions. There are, however, several indirect environmental impacts related to PV power systems that require further consideration. The production of present generation PV power systems is relatively energy intensive, involves the use of large quantities of bulk materials and (smaller) quantities of substances that are scarce and/or toxic. During operation, damaged modules or a fire may lead to the release of hazardous substances. Finally, at the end of their useful life time PV power systems have to be decommissioned, and resulting waste flows have to be managed. An expert workshop was held as part of the International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems Implementing Agreement Programme, to address these environmental aspects of PV power systems. The objectives of the workshop were: (a) review/overview of issues and approaches regarding environmental aspects of PV power systems; (b) enhanced clarity and consensus regarding e.g. Energy Pay-Back Time; (c) identification of issues of environmental importance regarding PV power systems ('hot spots'); (d) identification of issues requiring further attention ('white spots'); and (e) establish a network of researchers working on PV environmental issues. 25 participants from Europe, the United States, Japan, and Australia attended the workshop, representing the researchers in the field of environmental aspects of PV systems, R ampersand D managers, industry and utilities. The environmental issues that are considered most relevant for PV power systems were identified in the workshop as well as the approaches that may be used to investigate them. The main environmental issues discussed at the workshop were: energy use; resource depletion (e.g. the resource availability for indium

  4. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  5. Contemporary Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the contemporary expression of transitional justice, a field of practice through which global governance is exercised. It argues that transitional justice is being normalised, given the normative and empirical de-legitimisation of its premise of exceptionalism. The article...... theorises exceptionalism and normalcy in transitional justice and identifies three macro-level causes of normalisation: the legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization of the field. This argument is illustrated by a study of Uganda’s trajectory of transitional justice since 1986. Across five...... phases of transitional justice, processes of legalisation, internationalisation, and professionalization have contributed to the gradual dismantling of the country’s exceptional justice. The case demonstrates, further, that normalization is a contested and incomplete process....

  6. Psychology and criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  7. Orienting in virtual environments: How are surface features and environmental geometry weighted in an orientation task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Debbie M; Bischof, Walter F

    2008-10-01

    We investigated how human adults orient in enclosed virtual environments, when discrete landmark information is not available and participants have to rely on geometric and featural information on the environmental surfaces. In contrast to earlier studies, where, for women, the featural information from discrete landmarks overshadowed the encoding of the geometric information, Experiment 1 showed that when featural information is conjoined with the environmental surfaces, men and women encoded both types of information. Experiment 2 showed that, although both types of information are encoded, performance in locating a goal position is better if it is close to a geometrically or featurally distinct location. Furthermore, although features are relied upon more strongly than geometry, initial experience with an environment influences the relative weighting of featural and geometric cues. Taken together, these results show that human adults use a flexible strategy for encoding spatial information.

  8. Methods for environmental auditing: The task force on hazardous waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spann, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the types of environmental audits conducted in the United States; specifically, the transactional audit, the regulatory or enforcement audit, and the internal due diligence audit. The need for careful selection of a team of auditors with a mix of expertise and educational background is emphasized. Audit protocol is addressed, with emphasis on prior definition of purpose, information retrieval, cross-checking, and preparation of concise and candid audit reports

  9. Environmental heat stress enhances mental fatigue during sustained attention task performing: evidence from an ASL perfusion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shaowen; Li, Min; Li, Guoying; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Jiang, Qingjun; Li, Li; Yang, Zhen; Sun, Gang

    2015-03-01

    This study was to investigate the potential enhancing effect of heat stress on mental fatigue progression during sustained attention task using arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Twenty participants underwent two thermal exposures in an environmental chamber: normothermic (NT) condition (25°C, 1h) and hyperthermic (HT) condition (50°C, 1h). After thermal exposure, they performed a twenty-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) in the scanner. Behavioral analysis revealed progressively increasing subjective fatigue ratings and reaction time as PVT progressed. Moreover, heat stress caused worse performance. Perfusion imaging analyses showed significant resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations after heat exposure. Specifically, increased CBF mainly gathered in thalamic-brainstem area while decreased CBF predominantly located in fronto-parietal areas, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and medial frontal cortex. More importantly, diverse CBF distributions and trend of changes between both conditions were observed as the fatigue level progressed during subsequent PVT task. Specifically, higher CBF and enhanced rising trend were presented in superior parietal lobe, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, while lower CBF or inhibited rising trend was found in dorsolateral frontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe and thalamic-brainstem areas. Furthermore, the decrease of post-heat resting-state CBF in fronto-parietal cortex was correlated with subsequent slower reaction time, suggesting prior disturbed resting-state CBF might be indicator of performance potential and fatigue level in following task. These findings may provide proof for such a view: heat stress has a potential fatigue-enhancing effect when individual is performing highly cognition-demanding attention task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex differences in a landmark environmental re-orientation task only during the learning phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Iasevoli, Luigi; Giannone, Gianluca; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2011-10-10

    Sex differences are consistently reported in human navigation. Indeed, to orient themselves during navigation women are more likely to use landmark-based strategies and men Euclidean-based strategies. The difference could be due to selective social pressure, which fosters greater spatial ability in men, or biological factors. And the great variability of the results reported in the literature could be due to the experimental setting more than real differences in ability. In this study, navigational behaviour was assessed by means of a place-learning task in which a modified version of the Morris water maze for humans was used to evaluate sex differences. In using landmarks, sex differences emerged only during the learning phase. Although the men were faster than the women in locating the target position, the differences between the sexes disappeared in delayed recall. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. FY 1992 revised task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to populations and individuals. The primary objectives of work to be performed in FY 1992 is to determine the appropriate scope (space, time, and radionuclides, pathways and individuals/population groups) and accuracy (level of uncertainty in dose estimates) for the project. Another objective is to use a refined computer model to estimate Native American tribal doses and individual doses for the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS). Project scope and accuracy requirements defined in FY 1992 can translated into model and data requirements that must be satisfied during FY 1993

  12. Modern environmental penal law in the light of the jurisdiction - review and tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengier, R.

    1992-01-01

    The jurisdiction in modern environmental penal law has gone beyond just adopting the ecological tenets of the legislature: it has farthered their development, thus contributing substantially to an ecologically oriented understanding of the offences of water pollution and ecologically harmful waste disposal. This orientation has made prosecution more efficient and through its preventive effects has increased ecological awareness. A good example within the sphere of public interest are communal plant operators. In other areas such as private business and private households the preventive effect is not yet as apparent, but this will probably change in the course of time. (orig.) [de

  13. Restorative justice and victimology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of restorative justice has sparked debate over the future of the criminal justice system, which has historically adopted a retributive, punitive philosophy and advocated for an individualistic, treatment-orientated approach. This approach has over time failed to address the needs of crime victims, communities and.

  14. Military Justice Study Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    statute within the military system, persons unfamiliar with the military justice system may find the procedure something of a paradox at first blush...Manual for Courts-Martial) Is RM Nemitafinuestlitimelf.(er- V. GRAD*: c. ORGANIZATION dDT FRPR ast eiRO t: fII) EPR LCDR/ Naval Justice School

  15. Justice as Europe's Signifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Suryapratim; Kochenov, Dimitry; de Burca, Grainne; Williams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the fact that justice is never explained in European legal discourse, but is used in conjunction with other principles and institutional decisions, this contribution argues that justice is used as a rhetorical tool to provide legitimacy to such principles and decisions. An analogous

  16. Social Justice in Outdoor Experiential Education: A State of Knowledge Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen; Roberts, Nina S.; Breunig, Mary; Alvarez, M. Antonio G.

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor experiential education has often been critiqued for its White, male, middle/upper-class, able-bodied history, thereby causing professionals and programs to consider issues of social justice. This state of knowledge paper will review the literature on social and environmental justice, identify gaps in current social justice literature and…

  17. FY 1992 task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Phase 1 of the HEDR Project was designed to develop and demonstrate a method for estimating radiation doses people may have received from Hanford Site operations since 1944. The method researchers developed relied on a variety of measured and reconstructed data as input to a modular computer model that generates dose estimates and their uncertainties. As part of Phase 1, researchers used the reconstructed data and computer model to calculate preliminary dose estimates for populations from limited radionuclides, in a limited geographical area and time period. Phase 1 ended in FY 1990. In February 1991, the TSP decided to shift the project planning approach away from phases--which were centered around completion of major portions of technical activities--to individual fiscal years (FYs), which span October of one year through September of the next. Therefore, activities that were previously designated to occur in phases are now designated in an integrated schedule to occur in one or more of the next fiscal years into FY 1995. Task plans are updated every 6 months. In FY 1992, scientists will continue to improve Phase 1 data and models to calculate more accurate and precise dose estimates. The plan for FY 1992 has been prepared based on activities and budgets approved by the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) at its meeting on August 19--20, 1991. The activities can be divided into four categories: (1) model and data evaluation activities, (2) additional dose estimates, (3) model and data development activities, and (4) technical and communication support. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Integrated Task Plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, FY 1992 through May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to populations and individuals. The primary objective of work to be performed through May 1994 is to (1) determine the project's appropriate scope (space, time, radionuclides, pathways and individuals/population groups), (2) determine the project's appropriate level of accuracy (level of uncertainty in dose estimates) for the project, (3) complete model and data development, and (4) estimate doses for the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS), representative individuals, and special populations as described herein. The plan for FY 1992 through May 1994 has been prepared based on activities and budgets approved by the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) at its meetings on August 19--20, 1991, and April 23--25, 1992. The activities can be divided into four broad categories: (1) model and data evaluation activities, (2)additional dose estimates, (3) model and data development activities, and (4)technical and communication support

  19. Integrated task plans for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, June 1992 through May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate radiation doses from Hanford Site operations since 1944 to representative individuals. The primary objective of work to be performed through May 1994 is to determine the project's appropriate scope: space, time, radionuclides, pathways and representative individuals; determine the project's appropriate level of accuracy/level of uncertainty in dose estimates; complete model and data development; and estimate doses for the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study and representative individuals. A major objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate doses to the thyroid of individuals who were exposed to iodine-131. A principal pathway for many of these individuals was milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 released into the air from Hanford facilities. The plan for June 1992 through May 1994 has been prepared based on activities and budgets approved by the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) at its meetings on January 7--9, 1993 and February 25--26, 1993. The activities can be divided into three broad categories: (1) computer code and data development activities, (2) calculation of doses, and (3) technical and communication support to the TSP and the TSP Native American Working Group (NAWG). The following activities will be conducted to accomplish project objectives through May 1994

  20. Health Physics Society Comments to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Reform Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Joseph; Tupin, Edward; Elder, Deirdre; Hiatt, Jerry; Sheetz, Michael; Kirner, Nancy; Little, Craig

    2018-05-01

    The Health Physics Society (HPS) provided comment to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on options to consider when developing an action plan for President Trump's Executive Order to evaluate regulations for repeal, replacement, or modification. The HPS recommended that the EPA reconsider their adherence to the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for radiation risk calculations and improve several documents by better addressing uncertainties in low-dose, low dose-rate (LDDR) radiation exposure environments. The authors point out that use of the LNT model near background levels cannot provide reliable risk projections, use of the LNT model and collective-dose calculations in some EPA documents is inconsistent with the recommendations of international organizations, and some EPA documents have not been exposed to the public comment rule-making process. To assist in establishing a better scientific basis for the risks of low dose rate and low dose radiation exposure, the EPA should continue to support the "Million Worker Study," led by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement.

  1. Crippling Sexual Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Exploring homosexuals' citizenship in Denmark from a justice perspective, this article critically interrogates society's supposed gay-friendliness by asking how far it has moved in achieving sexual justice, and inquiring into the gains and pains of the existing modes of achieving this end...... and representation within family law, civil society, and in the labour market. In conclusion, I suggest the possibility of different evaluations of the level of sexual justice reached, a mainly positive, partially negative one. Additionally, I discuss the gains and pains of the existing normalizing politics....

  2. distributive justice and human rights in climate policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    considerable ethical challenges when issues of justice and human rights .... change damages for GHG emissions pathways based on 'business-as- usual' as well ... (3) Global environmental change 297-301; William Nordhaus, 'A review of the.

  3. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN FRANCE. BETWEEN SINGULARITY AND CLASSICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Flavier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The administrative justice in France oscillates between classicism and singularity. Multiple factors explain how administrative justice has come to occupy a particular place in French administrative law. Administrative justice has not only settled disputes between administration and private persons, but as well, built the French administrative law. One of the main tasks during 19th and 20th century consisted in strengthen the independence from the executive branch and the efficiency in order to satisfy the idea of good justice. Many reforms have been led since the 1990’s. That is why we propose to depict the French system and evaluate the activity of French administrative justice concerning the judicial organization, its jurisdiction and the remedies before the administrative judge. We will enlighten also our paper with a comparative approach and some statistical elements.

  4. Rural science education as social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2017-03-01

    What part can science education play in the dismantling of obstacles to social justice in rural places? In this Forum contribution, I use "Learning in and about Rural Places: Connections and Tensions Between Students' Everyday Experiences and Environmental Quality Issues in their Community"(Zimmerman and Weible 2016) to explicitly position rural education as a project of social justice that seeks full participatory parity for rural citizens. Fraser's (2009) conceptualization of social justice in rural education requires attention to the just distribution of resources, the recognition of the inherent capacities of rural people, and the right to equal participation in democratic processes that lead to opportunities to make decisions affecting local, regional, and global lives. This Forum piece considers the potential of place-based science education to contribute to this project.

  5. Environmental Justice and Sustainability Impact Assessment: In Search of Solutions to Ethnic Conflicts Caused by Coal Mining in Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lee; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese government adopted more specific and stringent environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines in 2011, soon after the widespread ethnic protests against coal mining in Inner Mongolia. However, our research suggests that the root of the ethnic tension is a sustainability problem, in addition to environmental issues. In particular, the Mongolians do not feel they have benefited from the mining of their resources. Existing environmental assessment tools are inadequate to address su...

  6. Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document

  7. Executive Order 12898 and Social, Economic, and Sociopolitical Factors Influencing Toxic Release Inventory Facility Location in EPA Region 6: A Multi-Scale Spatial Assessment of Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrea Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Toxic Release Inventory facilities are among the many environmental hazards shown to create environmental inequities in the United States. This project examined four factors associated with Toxic Release Inventory, specifically, manufacturing facility location at multiple spatial scales using spatial analysis techniques (i.e., O-ring statistic and…

  8. Measuring Intergenerational Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Kotlikoff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern with intergenerational justice has long been a focus of economics. This essay considers the effort, over the last three decades, to quantify generational fiscal burdens using label-free fiscal gap and generational accounting. It also points out that government debt -- the conventional metric for assessing generational fiscal justice,– has no grounding in economic theory. Instead, official debt is the result of economically arbitrary government labelling decisions: whether to call receipts “taxes” rather than “borrowing” and whether to call payments “transfer payments” rather than “debt service”. Via their choice of words, governments decide which obligations to put on, and which to keep off, the books. The essay also looks to the future of generational fiscal-justice analysis. Rapid computational advances are permitting economists to understand not just direct government intergenerational redistribution, but also how such policies impact the economy that future generations will inherit.

  9. Civilisation of Criminal Justice: Restorative Justice amongst other strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Blad (John)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be

  10. Special Justice for Peace: A Transitional Justice Model According to Modern Tendencies and Orientations of Law and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the constitutional implications of the peace agreement about Colombia’s armed conflict. It examines constitutional rules and international instruments about human rights, confronting the agreement with justice criteria in the national and international context, to underline the role of justice for the definitive solution of the conflict. By using the methodology of opposing concepts, it reviews the implications of formal justice and material justice, to establish the superiority of the last one and it’s relation with social justice; it analyses the differences between individual justice and global justice, to demonstrate the need to obtain an integral justice; it contrasts alternative justice and traditional justice, to propose an integrated justice; it explains that justice based upon the formal syllogism should be overcome by a justice based upon equity, to obtain a justice anchored in the Constitution, universal and concentrated in the human rights; it hypothesizes that justice supported in the atonement and retribution should be overcome by a justice that is preventive and restorative, that allows the construction of a justice focused in the future, without ignoring the past; it clarifies that justice with one jurisdiction and special justice are the components of a integrative transitional justice; it explains the presence of justice in different institutions with different functions and justice concentrated in one institution, although with different functions, because there is a search for an integrative justice; it exposes the search for a constitutional and political justice, discussing the vision of justice as a triumph of the force or the scandalous concession of benefits; it exalts that it is a justice in search of a positive discrimination, not a negative discrimination, overcoming the discussion between justice for the powerful and justice for the weak; finally, it considers that it is a justice

  11. Juvenile Justice in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Frías Armenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice

  12. Reflexivity and social justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksimovic, Tijana; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2017-01-01

    Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded in the co......Career practitioners’ reflexive understanding of their professional role as change agents in career guidance and counselling practices has a major impact on how social justice can be achieved. This entitles an awareness of the way in which guidance and counselling practices are embedded...

  13. Saúde do trabalhador e o desafio ambiental: contribuições do enfoque ecossocial, da ecologia política e do movimento pela justiça ambiental Workers’ health and the environmental challenge: contributions from the ecosocial approach, the political ecology and the moviment for environmental justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Firpo Porto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relaciona o campo da saúde do trabalhador à temática ambiental, tendo por referências o enfoque ecossocial, a ecologia política e o movimento pela justiça ambiental, cada qual destacando uma dimensão específica: (1 no enfoque ecossocial destacamos a dimensão do conhecimento, com ênfase no desenvolvimento de análises integradas e na análise do papel da ciência e sua necessária renovação, sem a qual a luta política pode recair em ideologias simplistas baseadas em ciências positivistas e fragmentadas, as quais ignoram a complexidade dos problemas socioambientais e suas incertezas; (2 na abordagem da ecologia política e no conceito de justiça ambiental enfatizamos a dimensão do poder a partir da (reprodução das relações de dominação centro-periferias marcadas pelo desprezo sobre as pessoas e a natureza; e finalmente (3 no movimento pela justiça ambiental realçamos a dimensão da ação gerada pela consciência que inúmeros problemas ambientais possuem sua origem em um modelo de desenvolvimento injusto, particularmente para com as populações mais pobres e discriminadas. Nesse tópico destacamos a experiência da Rede Brasileira de Justiça Ambiental como um exemplo estratégico para o enfrentamento de problemas socioambiental em países latino-americanos como o Brasil.This article links the workers’ health and the environmental issue, using as references the ecosocial approach, the political ecology and the movement for environmental justice. Each reference detaches a specific dimension: (1 the ecosocial approach emphasizes the dimension of knowledge through the development of integrated assessment and the new role of science in order to surpass simplistic ideologies based on positivism and fragmentation, which ignore the complexity of socio-environmental problems and their uncertainties; (2 the political ecology and the concept of environmental justice discuss the dimension of power, in which socio-environmental

  14. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  15. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  16. From "sit and listen" to "shake it out yourself": Helping urban middle school students to bridge personal knowledge to scientific knowledge through a collaborative environmental justice curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Shamu Fenyvesi

    Science education and environmental education are not meeting the needs of marginalized communities such as urban, minority, and poor communities (Seller, 2001; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 1996). There exists an equity gap characterized by the racial and socioeconomic disparities in: levels of participation in scientific and environmental careers and environmental organizations (Lewis & James, 1995; Sheppard, 1995), access to appropriate environmental education programs (U.S. EPA, 1996), exposure to environmental toxins (Bullard, 1993), access to environmental amenities and legal protections (Bullard, 1993), and in grades and standardized test scores in K-12 science (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; Johnston & Viadero, 2000). Researchers point to the cultural divide between home and school culture as one of the reasons for the equity gap in science education (Barton, 2003; Delpit, 1995; Seiler, 2001). This study is designed to address the equity gap by helping students connect personal/cultural knowledge to scientific knowledge. A collaborative action research study was conducted in 8th-grade science classrooms of low-income African American and Latino students. The participating teacher and the researcher developed, enacted and evaluated a curriculum that elicited students' personal and cultural knowledge in the investigation of local community issues. Using qualitative methods, data were collected through student and teacher interviews, observation, and written documents. Data were analyzed to answer questions on student participation and learning, bridging between personal and scientific knowledge, and student empowerment. The most compelling themes from the data were described as parts of three stories: tensions between the empire of school and the small student nation, bridging between the two nations, and students gaining empowerment. This study found that the bridging the curriculum intended was successful in that many students brought personal

  17. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  18. Corrective Justice vs. Social Justice in the Aftermath of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Kalmanovitz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available How do we justify the practice of corrective justice for losses suffered during armed conflicts? This article seeks to show the force and relevance of this question, and to argue that, in cases of massively destructive wars, social justice should gain priority over corrective justice. Starting from a liberal Rawlsian conception of the relationship between corrective and social justice, it is argued that, paradoxically, the more destructive a war is, the less normative force corrective rights have and the higher priority policies of social justice, which guarantee basic rights to all citizens, should have.

  19. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  20. Environmental protection law of the European Community (EU). Source index and content index including the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice with actual jurisdiction service and special literature according to the individual legal regulations. 34. ed.; Umweltschutzrecht der Europaeischen Union (EU). Fundstellen- und Inhaltsnachweis, einschliesslich der Rechtsprechung des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes - EuGH; mit aktuellem Rechtsprechungsdienst und Spezialliteratur zu den einzelnen Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The 34th edition of the source index of the environment law of the European Union contains the documentary evidence of the total jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice (Luxemburg) with respect to the following topics: (a) General infrastructure / integral environment law; (b) Nature protection, landscape protection as well as protection of species; (c) Dangerous materials and preparations; (d) Waste management law; (e) Water legislation; (f) environmental traffic law; (g) law of air pollution control of climate protection; (h) noise control; (i) environmental commercial law; (j) environmental law of energy.

  1. Criminal Justice in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    An introduction to criminal law, processes, and justice is provided in this high school level text. Content is divided into six chapters, each treating a particular aspect of criminal procedure and the social and political issues surrounding it. Chapter 1 considers the criminal, the effects of crime on its victims, and legislation to aid victims.…

  2. The Social Justice Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Gladys; Pollard, William

    2010-01-01

    This article shines an important light on the continuing struggle of disabled people for dignity, citizenship rights, and access to the marketplace. Common threads bind the struggle for basic human rights among disenfranchised groups, offer experience and approaches to facilitate change, and move society towards social justice. The philosophy…

  3. Criminal Justice Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates 15 criminal justice Web sites that have been selected according to the following criteria: authority, currency, purpose, objectivity, and potential usefulness to researchers. The sites provide narrative and statistical information concerning crime, law enforcement, the judicial system, and corrections. Searching techniques are also…

  4. Publicity and Egalitarian Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the issue of publicity has surfaced in discussions of the correct interpretation of the Rawlsian principles of justice. In an intriguing critique of G.A. Cohen's preferred interpretation of the difference principle as a principle that is incompatible with incentive-based inequalities...

  5. The Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    1995-06-16

    Jun 16, 1995 ... Gallinetti "Child Justice" 648; Le Roux-Kemp 2008 Annual Survey of South African Law 298 (the. Act contains a "separate, but parallel, ... The various aspects of section 68 are then evaluated. The greatest challenges lie in the ... See also, eg, Picardi Hotels v Thekwini. Properties 2009 1 SA 493 (SCA) para ...

  6. Justice in health care: the contribution of Edmund Pellegrino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, R M

    1990-06-01

    Edmund Pellegrino has pioneered work in medical ethics calling for a reconstruction of Hippocratic ethics. In particular, he has spoken of incorporating principles that concern justice and the common good. This article traces his commitment to the common good, concern for the poor, opposition to libertarianism, acknowledgement of the necessity of rationing, and reluctance to give clinicians social allocational tasks. It asks how Pellegrino relates distributive justice to the common good. Drawing on his theory relating autonomy to patient-centered beneficence (in which autonomy is one element of the good rather than a side constraint on the good), the author argues that Pellegrino appears to make justice one element of the common good rather than a distributional moral constraint on promoting the good. He suggests that Pellegrino stands in three consequentialist or teleological moral traditions: professional physician ethics, Aristotelianism, and Catholic moral theology, but that there are the makings of a more independent, more egalitarian theory of justice in his writings.

  7. Transitional Justice as Elite Justice? Compromise Justice and Transition in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher; Pannwitz, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects upon the ways in which transitional justice debates and processes impacted Tunisia's transition. It explores key questions such as what demands for justice emerged in the aftermath of the Tunisian revolution? Did Tunisia's transitional justice process reflect these demands?

  8. Setting standards of restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miomira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author deals with the basic theoretical statements and discussions about the practical use of restorative justice. She discusses the questions of introducing and application of restorative justice in order to reach the balance of interests between a victim, society and a delinquent. There is no unique statement about the restorative justice concept, so the authors make this concept by listing certain activities with rispect of standards and principles. Also she emphasizes the values of restorative justice process. A part of the article is dedicated to the standards for restorative justice that are harmonized with the international documents of human rights. .

  9. Public comments and Task Force responses regarding the environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-03-01

    This document contains responses by the NRC Task Force to comments received on the report ''Environmental Survey of the Reprocessing and Waste Management Portions of the LWR Fuel Cycle'' (NUREG-0116). These responses are directed at all comments, inclding those received after the close of the comment period. Additional information on the environmental impacts of reprocessing and waste management which has either become available since the publication of NUREG-0116 or which adds requested clarification to the information in that document.

  10. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  11. The role of non-governmental organisations in the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... However, this paper analyses the role of NGOs in the environmental justice paradigm. ... review of the influence of NGOs in the environmental justice paradigm.

  12. Use of Human Modeling Simulation Software in the Task Analysis of the Environmental Control and Life Support System Component Installation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation applications are becoming widespread in human task analysis. These programs have many benefits for the Human Factors Engineering field. Not only do creating and using virtual environments for human engineering analyses save money and time, this approach also promotes user experimentation and provides increased quality of analyses. This paper explains the human engineering task analysis performed on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) space station rack and its Distillation Assembly (DA) subsystem using EAI's human modeling simulation software, Jack. When installed on the International Space Station (ISS), ECLSS will provide the life and environment support needed to adequately sustain crew life. The DA is an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) that provides means of wastewater (primarily urine from flight crew and experimental animals) reclamation. Jack was used to create a model of the weightless environment of the ISS Node 3, where the ECLSS is housed. Computer aided drawings of the ECLSS rack and DA system were also brought into the environment. Anthropometric models of a 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female were used to examine the human interfaces encountered during various ECLSS and DA tasks. The results of the task analyses were used in suggesting modifications to hardware and crew task procedures to improve accessibility, conserve crew time, and add convenience for the crew. This paper will address some of those suggested modifications and the method of presenting final analyses for requirements verification.

  13. Racial isolation and exposure to airborne particulate matter and ozone in understudied US populations: Environmental justice applications of downscaled numerical model output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Bell, Michelle L; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers are increasingly focused on combined exposures to social and environmental stressors, especially given how often these stressors tend to co-locate. Such exposures are equally relevant in urban and rural areas and may accrue disproportionately to particular communities or specific subpopulations. To estimate relationships between racial isolation (RI), a measure of the extent to which minority racial/ethnic group members are exposed to only one another, and long-term particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of poverty. RI is associated with higher 5year estimated PM2.5 concentrations in urban, suburban, and rural census tracts, adding to evidence that segregation is broadly associated with disparate air pollution exposures. Disproportionate burdens to adverse exposures such as air pollution may be a pathway to racial/ethnic disparities in health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Criminal Justice Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McAra, Lesley; McVie, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This report explores transitions into the adult criminal justice system amongst a large cohort of young people who were involved in the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime. It includes: a description of patterns of criminal convictions and disposals for young people up to age 19 (on average); an examination of the characteristics and institutional histories of cohort members with a criminal record as compared with youngsters with no such record; and an exploration of the profile of...

  15. Climate Change Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Posner, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Greenhouse gas reductions would cost some nations much more than others and benefit some nations far less than others. Significant reductions would impose especially large costs on the United States, and recent projections suggest that the United States has relatively less to lose from climate change. In these circumstances, what does justice require the United States to do? Many people believe that the United States is required to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions beyond the point that is ...

  16. Towards an explicit justice framing of the social impacts of conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Adrian; Akol, Anne; Gross-Camp, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes that biodiversity conservation practice will benefit from assessment of environmental justice outcomes, especially in contexts of poverty and social marginalisation. Whilst there is an existing body of work that implicitly considers the justices and injustices arising from biodiversity conservation interventions, we suggest that a more explicit justice assessment might complement this work. We develop some general guidelines for such assessment, drawing on traditions of so...

  17. the influence of organisational justice on employees' commitment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    five manufacturing firms from Industrial Estates in Ibadan, Oyo. States. ... payment for the performance of concrete tasks are basis ... discussions in the utilisation of organisational justice in the work place ... rules are to be applied, they are equality (to each the same) .... organization, and has implication for the decision to.

  18. Basins of Attraction for Generative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglash, Ron; Garvey, Colin

    It has long been known that dynamic systems typically tend towards some state - an "attractor" - into which they finally settle. The introduction of chaos theory has modified our understanding of these attractors: we no longer think of the final "resting state" as necessarily being at rest. In this essay we consider the attractors of social ecologies: the networks of people, technologies and natural resources that makeup our built environments. Following the work of "communitarians" we posit that basins of attraction could be created for social ecologies that foster both environmental sustainability and social justice. We refer to this confluence as "generative justice"; a phrase which references both the "bottom-up", self-generating source of its adaptive meta stability, as well as its grounding in the ethics of egalitarian political theory.

  19. Procedural justice seen to be done. The judiciary’s press guidelines in the light of publicity and procedural justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lent, Leonie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the recent attempts by the Dutch judiciary to gain more public acceptance of its tasks and functioning in criminal justice by enhancing its relationship with the press. The central question to be answered is to what extent the current stance towards the media, as

  20. Fiber Arts and Generative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kuhn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fiber arts, because they are practiced in different forms around the globe, have the potential to teach us much about generative justice that unites labor, ecological, and expressive values. The ecological mutualism documented in Navajo corrals supports traditional weaving, dyeing, food, and medicinal practices in a sustainable and generative cycle that survives despite disruption and exploitation. The network of fiber craftspeople, retailers, ranchers, teachers, spinners, and dyers and their organizations supports the social mutualism of fiber communities. Fiber arts practices can benefit individuals, communities, the environment, and public health, among other things. Conscious fiber activism and critical making can also be used to explicitly draw attention to problems such as overconsumption, waste, industrial “fast fashion,” labor exploitation, environmental degradation, toxic risks, intolerance, and the devaluing of women and their work. Fiber arts have the potential to support environmental and social mutualism and catalyze a new aesthetic of long-term attachment to meaningful objects and communities, reinforcing the creation and conservation of expressive, ecological, and labor value. 

  1. Research and development of technologies for safe and environmentally optimal recovery and disposal of explosive wastes. Task 2, Preliminary impact assessment for environment, health and safety (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F. [Risoe (Denmark); Larsen, S.G. [DEMEX A/S (Denmark)

    1998-09-01

    As described in the project proposal `Research and Development of Technologies for Safe and Environmentally optimal recovery and Disposal of Explosive Wastes`, dated 31. May 1996, the objective of Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety, is to: Analyse the environmental impact of noise and emissions to air, water and soil; Assess the risk of hazards to workers` health and safety and to the public. Task 2, Preliminary Impact Assessment for Environment, Health and Safety (EIA), has been performed from August 1997 to September 1998. First, a methodology has been established, based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to select the `best` technology on the basis of clearly defined objectives, including minimal impacts on environment, health and safety. This included a review of different types of explosive waste with a focus on the environment implications, identifying the issues relevant to defining the criteria or objectives with respect to environment and safety in the framework of explosive waste, as well as the preliminary definition of objectives for the final impact assessment. Second, the previously identified recovery and disposal technologies (Task 1) have been qualitatively assessed on the basis of the relevant objectives. This qualitative assessment includes also economic considerations and an attempt to rank the technologies in an MCDA framework. (au)

  2. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith

    2012-04-01

    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  3. Justice and feelings: Toward a new era in justice research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David); K. van den Bos (Kees)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position

  4. Justice and Feelings: Toward a New Era in Justice Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, D. de; Bos, K. van den

    2007-01-01

    In this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position of past

  5. Applying Social Justice Principles through School-Based Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Embse, Nathan; von der Embse, Daniel; von der Embse Meghan; Levine, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Social justice has recently received attention within the school psychology community. Yet, social justice is a nebulous term, as opined by Connelly (2009), who cautioned against searching for what is wrong and instead striving for the highest standards and recognizing needs of every unique child. Shriberg and colleagues (2008) have sought to…

  6. Doing justice to social justice in South African higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to develop a conceptualisation of social justice in higher education based on a close reading of the current literature in the field. An important assumption we make is that higher education is a valuable mechanism for social justice. We set the literature against policy documents that detail South African ...

  7. Student Perceptions of Social Justice and Social Justice Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Steele, Cheronda; Schulz, Erica; Taha, Farah; Pico, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students' open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of…

  8. Justice delayed is justice denied: Protecting Miners against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justice delayed is justice denied: Protecting Miners against Occupational ... of section 35 of Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act 130 of ... of the Mankayi case for the system of occupational health and safety in South Africa. ... KEYWORDS: Occupational health; diseases; injuries; employees; protection; ...

  9. Justice on Both Sides: Transforming Education through Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Maisha T.

    2018-01-01

    Restorative justice represents "a paradigm shift in the way Americans conceptualize and administer punishment," says author Maisha T. Winn, from a focus on crime to a focus on harm, including the needs of both those who were harmed and those who caused it. Her book, "Justice on Both Sides," provides an urgently needed,…

  10. Justice in Cyberwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerd Giesen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p27 The text aims at providing an ethical framework for cyber warfare. The latter is changing our understanding of war (and peace as well as the relationship between the human being and the machine. Rejecting Heidegger’s fatalistic stance towards technology it is argued that norms of international justice should be formulated in order to attempt to regulate this new military dimension. The potentially considerable destructive force of cyberweapon systems for civilian infrastructure is emphasized, especially as far as the « Internet of Things » (all physical objects connected to the Internet is concerned. In a foreseeable future cyberwar operations may kill many civilians. After defining the concept of cyberwar and explainig why it is a new and important moral issue, the paper heavily relies on just war ethics in order to reach norms for justice in cyberwar. It is shown that Immanuel Kant has not just been a philosopher of (perpetual peace, but (in the Metaphysics of Morals also a just war theorist who developed his normative framework in a fruitful dialog with Aquinas (against Vitoria and Suarez. His norms for jus ad bellum and jus in bello are carefully and critically applied to cyberwar. However, Kant’s major innovation in just war theory has been the concept of jus post bellum. The paper demonstrates how important this dimension of justice is in cyberwar, and how to apply it, including through recommendations for a treaty in international law.

  11. Restorative Justice in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-06-29

    An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extension of the protection of the individual against environmental encroachments - a task for private and public law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronellenfitsch, M.; Wolf, R.

    1986-01-01

    In the opinion of the author an substantial extension of the protection of the individual against environmental encroachments is not necessary. In many fields of law, for instance in the atomic law or the law for the protection against nuisance, the protection of the individual can be improved by minor corrections. In civil law the same improvement can be gained by an interpretation of existing provisions taking into account the requirements of environmental protection. (WG) [de

  13. The extension of the protection of the individual person against environmental pollution as a task for public law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author has the opinion that an extension of protection of individuals against environmental pollution is not desirable in the field of fundamental rights. The atomic energy and radiation protection law extends the protection of individuals even further than to warding off a danger. An extension is limited by the structure and complexity of modern environmental pollution. The existing system of individual protection generally is sufficient, the author objects esspecially against the action of an association. (CW) [de

  14. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. 40 CFR 27.40 - Stay ordered by the Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stay ordered by the Department of Justice. 27.40 Section 27.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 27.40 Stay ordered by the Department of Justice. If at any time the Attorney...

  16. Social Justice and Career Development: Views and Experiences of Australian Career Development Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Career development practice had its origins in social justice reform over 100 years ago. A social justice perspective requires practitioners to examine the environmental context of their work, including the social, economic and political systems that influence people's career development. Achieving socially just outcomes for clients may…

  17. Service-Learning as a Model for Integrating Social Justice in the Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Richard W.; Clark, Lauren

    2002-01-01

    A service learning nursing course grounded in social justice principles focused on minority health, poverty, environmental health, and medically underserved populations. Students worked in community agencies, advocated for the underserved, and reflected on the relationship of social justice and citizenship to nursing. (SK)

  18. Mapping Common Ground: Ecocriticism, Environmental History, and the Environmental Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergthaller, Hannes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the environmental humanities presents a unique opportunity for scholarship to tackle the human dimensions of the environmental crisis. It might finally allow such work to attain the critical mass it needs to break out of customary disciplinary confines and reach a wider public, at a time when natural scientists have begun to acknowledge that an understanding of the environmental crisis must include insights from the humanities and social sciences. In order to realize this potential, scholars in the environmental humanities need to map the common ground on which close interdisciplinary cooperation will be possible. This essay takes up this task with regard to two fields that have embraced the environmental humanities with particular fervour, namely ecocriticism and environmental history. After outlining an ideal of slow scholarship which cultivates thinking across different spatiotemporal scales and seeks to sustain meaningful public debate, the essay argues that both ecocriticism and environmental history are concerned with practices of environing: each studies the material and symbolic transformations by which “the environment” is configured as a space for human action. Three areas of research are singled out as offering promising models for cooperation between ecocriticism and environmental history: eco-historicism, environmental justice, and new materialism. Bringing the fruits of such efforts to a wider audience will require environmental humanities scholars to experiment with new ways of organizing and disseminating knowledge.

  19. GPS positioning and desktop mapping. Applications to environmental monitoring. Report on task JNT B898 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansanaho, A.; Ilander, T.; Toivonen, H.

    1995-10-01

    Satellite navigation has been used for in-field applications by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety since 1993. Because of this experience, training in the use of GPS positioning and desktop mapping was chosen as a task under the Finnish Support programme to IAEA safeguards. A lecture and a field experiment was held in the training course on environmental monitoring at the IAEA headquarters in June 1995. Real-time mapping of the co-ordinates and storing information on sampling sites and procedures can make safeguards implementation more efficient and effective. Further software development are needed for these purposes. (author) (6 figs.)

  20. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP

  1. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  2. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG&G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  3. Social welfare and restorative justice

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Darrell

    2009-01-01

    "This paper explores the links and connections between social work and restorative justice. After a brief description of social work, restorative justice and family group conferencing, I will explore some the complementary theoretical links and practice applications, critically examining the potential implications and opportunities for social work practitioners and academics in relation to practice." [author's abstract

  4. Educational Administration and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard

    2006-01-01

    After observing that texts in educational administration have largely failed to address the problem of the justice and fairness of social and educational arrangements, this article goes on to examine the necessary relationships between ethical leadership, community and the notion of social justice. Such relationships are argued to be necessarily…

  5. Experiential Social Justice Judgment Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social justice can be thought of as an idea that exists within the minds of individuals and that concerns issues like what is right and wrong, what ought to be or not to be, and what is fair or unfair. This subjective quality of the justice judgment process makes it rather unpredictable how people

  6. Corporate accountability and transitional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Michalowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, transitional justice processes do not address the role of corporations in dictatorships or in armed conflicts that give rise to the need for dealing with grave and systematic human rights violations. However, there is a growing awareness that in many contexts corporations contribute to these violations, often in the form of corporate complicity with the principal violators. An argument can therefore be made that to achieve the aims of transitional justice and establish a holistic narrative of the past as well as obtain justice and reparations for victims requires investigating and addressing the role of corporate actors. This article uses the example of Colombia’s Justice and Peace process to show some of the complexities, opportunities and challenges that arise if transitional justice measures focus primarily on criminal law and create a specific legal framework, outside of the ordinary justice systems, only for a limited group of primary perpetrators, in the Colombian case for members of the armed groups who demobilised. It is argued that the exclusion of corporate actors in contexts where their role is regarded as significant leads to victims seeking alternatives ways to obtain justice and that both victims and corporations would benefit if transitional justice mechanisms addressed the role of corporations.

  7. Educational Justice and Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shahar, Tammy Harel

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the effects of incorporating information and communication technologies in schools in terms of distributive justice. To do so, four issues that are central to educational justice are discussed: scarcity of resources, the positional nature of education, peer effects, and biases in educational decision-making. The discussion…

  8. Gender Justice and School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Desheng

    2009-01-01

    Gender justice includes three basic dimensions: gender equality, respect for difference, and free choice. In reality, schools construct and reproduce the gender injustice of the social culture through multiple dimensions that include the visible and the invisible curriculum, and the teacher's behaviour. In terms of gender justice, the social…

  9. Comparative Supreme Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the great variety of Supreme Courts in the world today and presents some selected courts. Supreme Courts are found in most countries both as only apex courts or in a courts’ system where also supreme administrative courts or constitutional courts are found. The starting point is the variation of supreme justice in the Nordic countries where one apex court is the system of Denmark and Norway whereas administrative courts are found in Sweden and Finland. Constitutional courts stem from the European tradition and are most abundant in Europe and in countries with a civil law system but especially in Africa they are also found in common law countries. Mexico is mentioned as a specific example of a Supreme Court that has taken upon itself to be a main player in the endeavour to communicate the law to a general audience. The article is a presentation with samples of what is going to be a project on comparative supreme justice in which the position of supreme courts in the various states, the recruitment scheme and competence of the courts and other such factors will be analyzed on a global basis.

  10. Social Justice and the “Green” City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liette Gilbert

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A transition to a new, greener urbanism is increasingly imperative in the face of environmental crises. However, such a transition is not possible without considering social justice. This essay examines some ten¬sions between social justice and urban sustainability and some of the reasons why a social justice approach to urban sustainability is often marginalized by a neoliberal sustainability ontology. This essay first engages with various normative concepts of social justice and its long existing but unfulfilled claim in the city. It then considers some gains toward greener urbanism but contends that urban sustainability responses have ge¬nerally been more preoccupied with ecological modernization and the reproduction of best practices rather than with socio-spatial justice. In looking at some workings of green neoliberalism, the essay points to how the ecological is easily recuperated for neoliberal ends. The last section addresses some reasons why the social is de-privileged in the dominant sustainability discourses and practices, and how social justice serves, through citizenship practices, as a claim to urban change where participation is not a bureaucratized process but an everyday practice. Overall, the essay cautions against certain sustainability discourses and green neoliberalism without addressing its ingrained inequalities.

  11. Renewable, ethical? Assessing the energy justice potential of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Banerjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy justice is increasingly being used as a framework to conceptualize the impacts of energy decision making in more holistic ways and to consider the social implications in terms of existing ethical values. Similarly, renewable energy technologies are increasingly being promoted for their environmental and social benefits. However, little work has been done to systematically examine the extent to which, in what ways and in what contexts, renewable energy technologies can contribute to achieving energy justice. This paper assesses the potential of renewable electricity technologies to address energy justice in various global contexts via a systematic review of existing studies analyzed in terms of the principles and dimensions of energy justice. Based on publications including peer reviewed academic literature, books, and in some cases reports by government or international organizations, we assess renewable electricity technologies in both grid integrated and off-grid use contexts. We conduct our investigation through the rubric of the affirmative and prohibitive principles of energy justice and in terms of its temporal, geographic, socio-political, economic, and technological dimensions. Renewable electricity technology development has and continue to have different impacts in different social contexts, and by considering the different impacts explicitly across global contexts, including differences between rural and urban contexts, this paper contributes to identifying and understanding how, in what ways, and in what particular conditions and circumstances renewable electricity technologies may correspond with or work to promote energy justice.

  12. Desktop mapping using GPS. SAHTI - a software package for environmental monitoring. Report on task JNTB898 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilander, T; Kansanaho, A; Toivonen, H

    1996-02-01

    Environmental sampling is the key method of the IAEA in searching signatures of a covert nuclear programme. However, it is not always easy to know the exact location of the sampling site. The satellite navigation system, utilizing a small receiver (GPS) and a PC, allows to have independent positioning data easily. The present task on the Finnish Support Programme was launched to create software to merge information about sampling and positioning. The system is build above a desktop mapping software package. However, the result of the development goes beyond the initial goal: the software can be used to real- time positioning in a mobile unit utilizing maps that can be purchased or produced by the user. In addition, the system can be easily enlarged to visualize data in real time from mobile environmental monitors, such as a Geiger counter, a pressurized ionisation chamber of a gamma-ray spectrometer. (orig.) (7 figs.).

  13. Desktop mapping using GPS. SAHTI - a software package for environmental monitoring. Report on task JNTB898 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilander, T.; Kansanaho, A.; Toivonen, H.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental sampling is the key method of the IAEA in searching signatures of a covert nuclear programme. However, it is not always easy to know the exact location of the sampling site. The satellite navigation system, utilizing a small receiver (GPS) and a PC, allows to have independent positioning data easily. The present task on the Finnish Support Programme was launched to create software to merge information about sampling and positioning. The system is build above a desktop mapping software package. However, the result of the development goes beyond the initial goal: the software can be used to real- time positioning in a mobile unit utilizing maps that can be purchased or produced by the user. In addition, the system can be easily enlarged to visualize data in real time from mobile environmental monitors, such as a Geiger counter, a pressurized ionisation chamber of a gamma-ray spectrometer. (orig.) (7 figs.)

  14. Justice-based social assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Armando

    2016-01-01

    What are the main objectives of social protection institutions in developing countries? What should be their scope and reach? What is the source of their legitimacy? Finding appropriate answers to these questions is essential to understanding, and shaping, the emergence of welfare institutions in low- and middle-income countries. Most available answers rely on instrumental arguments. Few make reference to normative principles. This article draws on three concepts from Rawls – social justice as regulating cooperation, the social minimum, and the need for a freestanding political notion of social justice – to develop a coherent argument for grounding social assistance on social justice. In line with this argument, it identifies some parameters for a justice-based social assistance. This article then discusses, with examples, the tensions existing between a social justice-based social minimum and ‘real’ social assistance institutions emerging in developing countries. PMID:27708544

  15. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr.

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts

  16. Environmental survey of the reprocessing and waste management portions of the LWR fuel cycle: a task force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, W.P.; Miraglia, F.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-10-01

    This Supplement deals with the reprocessing and waste management portions of the nuclear fuel cycle for uranium-fueled reactors. The scope of the report is limited to the illumination of fuel reprocessing and waste management activities, and examination of the environmental impacts caused by these activities on a per-reactor basis. The approach is to select one realistic reprocessing and waste management system and to treat it in enough depth to illuminate the issues involved, the technology available, and the relationships of these to the nuclear fuel cycle in general and its environmental impacts.

  17. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Office of Justice Assistance, Research, and Statistics Procedures Relating to the Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration; the Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics; or the... environmental coordinator shall be designated in the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Law Enforcement.... 1451, et seq.; and other environmental review laws and executive orders. 7. Actions planned by private...

  18. The role and tasks of industrial hygienists in occupational and environmental medicine and their code of ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzesik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers changes in occupational medicine in the last fifty years, describes industrial hygienists tasks and the reasons why their activities grew in importance. Also the needs of compliance with their own professional Code of Ethics are discussed. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, voted and accepted by the United Nations in 1948 changed the strategic target of occupational medicine. Since then the most important task became prevention of health damage caused by work, which should enable the employees to stay healthy throughout the whole period of professional activity. Before that the main target was to restore the health of employees injured by work. To make the used preventive measures to be effective, they must be selected appropriately to professional harmfulness posing threat to employees health. This requires to reveal all factors potentially harmful to health, which occur in the work-environment, to measure their concentrations or intensity, to determine the employees exposure to those factors and to estimate the level of the health risk, caused by this complex exposure. Contemporarily occupational medicine service encompass with its preventive supervision the municipal environments, because they become seriously polluted due to emission of harmful industrial pollutants what brings about a negative impact to health of exposed dwellers. Those activities, being to a large extent outside the scope of competence and tasks of doctors – specialists of occupational medicine, are performed by industrial hygienists, who the required knowledge and skills acquired during university studies on technical and natural faculties. This caused a substantial increase of the role of industrial hygienists in the present activity of occupational medicine service and simultaneously took into consideration the ethical aspects of the work of these professionals. Evaluation of the backbone and the scope of work drew attention not only to the

  19. 76 FR 60590 - Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... oral presentations about the two proposed Circulars and allow attendees an opportunity to ask... of the comfort and safety of all attendees and the maximum seating capacity of meeting rooms, FTA... and non-traditional media, as well as digital media. Additional strategies to increase involvement of...

  20. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada); Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study.

  1. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Brenda L.; Kuhn, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study

  2. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  3. Organization, relational justice and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzer, Ulrich; Åborg, Carl; Johansson, Gun; Svartengren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for more knowledge on how to manage companies towards healthier and more prosperous organizations with low levels of absenteeism. Relational Justice can be a useful concept when managing such organizations. Organizational factors can help to explain why some companies have relatively low absenteeism rates, even though they are equal to other companies in many other aspects. Previous studies suggest that management may be one important factor. Efficient management may depend on good relations between the leaders and the employees. The concept of Relational Justice is designed to capture these relations. Consequently, a Relational Justice framework may be used to understand why some companies have a low incidence of absenteeism. Managers from a representative body of Swedish companies. Interviews were analyzed to explore whether the items representing the concept of Relational Justice can be used to further understand the strategies, procedures and structures that characterize organizations and management in companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. Strategies, procedures or principles related to Relational Justice were common and highlighted in companies with an incidence of absenteeism. The most frequently occurring factors were; to be treated with kindness and consideration, personal viewpoint considered and to be treated impartially. The results suggested that a Relational Justice framework could be used to increase understanding of the organizational and managerial factors typical for companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. A Relational Justice approach to organizational management may be used to successfully lower absenteeism, change organizations and promote healthy and prosperous companies.

  4. Exploring Intervening Influence of Interactional Justice between Procedural Justice and Job Performance: Evidence from South Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the intervening influence of interactional justice between procedural justice and job performance (task, contextual and adaptive performance of the faculty members of Karachi (Pakistan and Dhaka (Bangladesh based government colleges by using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. Data, for this study, has been collected through pre-designed close-ended questionnaire. The intervening variable fully mediated the relationship between procedural justice and job performance. The result of this study indicates that the performance of government college faculty members can be improved by ensuring fair procedures and dignified treatment of faculty members in the working environment. It can be concluded that teachers can accommodate harsh procedures, subject to courteously and fairly communicated. Significance of this study is that it has investigated the least researched areas in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Its findings can be helpful to the government and college administration while making and implementing policies for college education development in both countries

  5. Developing a training module on Gender & spatial justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Justice is more than a legal matter: it has spatial and environmental implications and is related to engineering. The concept of ‘spatial justice’ was introduced in 2010 in planning by Eduard Soja. It indicates the accessibility of urban resources such as education and healthcare. Under democratic

  6. Organising Data Exchange in the Dutch Criminal Justice Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip LANGBROEK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective exchange of information in the criminal justice chain is crucial for effective law enforcement, but difficult to achieve. This article describes the case of the development and introduction of electronic data exchange in the Dutch Criminal Justice chain. Basic theories on the introduction of IT in justice organizations are tested by means of qualitative empirical research. Case flow management automation is technically feasible in the criminal justice chain but presupposes willingness of different organizations attached to that chain to adapt working processes for that purpose. The Dutch case shows a relative failure of the development and implementation of an integrated case flow management system for the entire chain (from the police via the public prosecutions office and the courts up to the prison service. It also shows a relative success of connecting xml-based data files to different reference indexes using intelligent agent software. Compared to the intended integrated case flow management system this solution for inter-organizational data exchange is much more simple and flexible because it does not demand a far reaching adaptation of internal organizational routines. It avoids the complexities of justice organizations and simplifies tasks related to data exchange. The data therefore are more accurate and are faster available. The most important advantage however is that risks of failure of development and implementation are reduced.

  7. APA efforts in promoting human rights and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Pickren, Wade E; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2017-11-01

    This article reviews the American Psychological Association's (APA) efforts in promoting human rights and social justice. Beginning with a historical review of the conceptualizations of human rights and social justice, the social challenges that have faced the United States over time are discussed in relation to the APA's evolving mission and strategic initiatives enacted through its boards, committees, and directorates. From early efforts on the Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility in Psychology and the Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs to the establishment of the Public Interest Directorate, the APA's efforts to address these human rights and social justice challenges through its task force reports, guidelines, and policies are described. Specifically, issues related to diversity and underrepresentation of minority group members and perspective within the APA, as well as women's issues (prochoice, violence against women, sexualization of young girls, human trafficking) were central to these efforts. These minority groups included racial and ethnic minority groups; immigrants and refugees; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer individuals; and those with disabilities. Later attention shifted to broader social justice challenges within a public health perspective, such as AIDS, obesity, and violence. Also included is a brief discussion of the Hoffman Report. The article ends with a discussion of future directions for the APA's efforts related to human rights and social justice related to health disparities, violent extremism, social inequality, migration, cultural and racial diversity, and an evidence-based approach to programming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A hermeneutic of justice. Justice as discernment in Matthew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In some important dictionaries for the study of the New Testament, δικαιοσύνη has two meanings: justice in the sense of distributive justice and righteousness as a relational notion. In Matthew, we discover that the word concerns a threefold loyalty: loyalty to the law, loyalty to fellow people, and loyalty to the will of God. In the ...

  9. 78 FR 10636 - Task Force on Research on Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native Women; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, 810 7th Street NW., 3rd Floor Ballroom, Washington, DC 20531... the Director of the Office on Violence Against Women, established the Task Force on March 31, 2008. A... Violence Against Women, United States Department of Justice, 145 N Street NE., Suite 10W.121, Washington...

  10. Challenges and Possibilities for Accommodating Wild Animals in the Realm of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Björnegran, Amalia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This research seeks to investigate the possibilities and inadequacies of including wild animals within the justice realm. It bases this research on the reasons and rationales of representatives within environmental non- governmental organizations (ENGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and public agency working with animal- rights and welfare or environmental protection. These representatives reason from a personal and organizational perspective concerning justice, ethics and...

  11. Organizational Justice Perception According to Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki YÜKSEKBİLGİLİ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many different researches on the subject of organizational justice, there is no research on organizational justice perception according to generations. In this study, the research subject is defined if there is a difference on the perception of organizational justice between x and y generations. After a conduct of 430 surveys the Organizational Justice Scale is used. As a result, it is proved that there is no significant difference between the organizational justice perceptions according to generations

  12. Gendering agency in transitional justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Selimovic, Johanna Mannergren

    2015-01-01

    -Herzegovina, where we point out instances of critical, creative, and transformative agency performed by women that challenge or negotiate patterns of gendered relations of domination. We collect women’s oral narratives and explore new sets of questions to capture women’s unique experiences in doing justice......Mainstream transitional justice and peacebuilding practices tend to re-entrench gendered hierarchies by ignoring women or circumscribing their presence to passive victims in need of protection. As a consequence we have limited knowledge about the multifaceted ways women do justice and build peace....... To address this lacuna we conceptualize and unpack the meaning of gendered agency, by identifying its critical elements and by locating it in space and in time. The conceptual work that we undertake is underpinned by empirical mapping of the transitional justice spaces in post-conflict Bosnia...

  13. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  15. Justice orientation as a moderator of the framing effect on procedural justice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Justice orientation is a justice-relevant personality trait, which is referred to as the tendency to attend to fairness issues and to internalize justice as a moral virtue. This study examined the moderating role of justice orientation in the relationship between justice perception and response to a decision problem. The authors manipulated procedural justice and the outcome valence of the decision frame within a vignette, and measured justice orientation of 174 Japanese participants. As hypothesized, the results indicated an interaction between procedural justice and framing manipulation, which was moderated by individual differences in justice orientation. In negative framing, justice effects were larger for individuals with high rather than low justice orientation. The results are explained from a social justice perspective, and the contributions and limitations of this study are also discussed with respect to our sample and framing manipulation.

  16. Radionuclide analysis of environmental field trial samples at STUK. Report on Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Klemola, S.; Saxen, R.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Moring, M.

    1994-12-01

    Radionuclide determinations on seventeen field trial test samples were carried out for the International Atomic Energy Agency by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). All the samples, i.e., samples of sea water, grass and biota were analysed for gamma emitting nuclides. 3 H was determined in water, 90 Sr in grass and 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in biota samples. To avoid losses of radionuclides before gamma activity measurements, the sequence of treatments was adjusted considering the unknown radionuclide composition. The radionuclide contents found in the samples were roughly the same or lower than contents in same types of environmental samples in the Northern hemisphere. The ratios of Pu and Am nuclides in two of the biota samples referred to an origin other than the global atmospheric fallout. The work was carried out under Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards. (orig.) (21 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.)

  17. "FACILS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology" (hereafter "FACILS") presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methe, Barbara

    2016-02-03

    As we enter the 21st century, the sustainability of the biosphere is a global challenge that can best be met with a global response. This includes how we train and promote our next generation of research scientists in the emerging arenas of genome-enabled biology and a bio-based economy. It is this fundamental issue that formed the motivation for designing and conducting a shortcourse entitled “FACILIS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology” (hereafter “FACILIS”) presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research. This WG was established in 1994 under the umbrella of the US-EC Task Force on Biotechnology Research, a transatlantic collaborative group overseen by the US Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the EC. The Environmental Biotechnology Working Group maintains several goals, including establishing research links between scientists in EU countries and the US and fostering the careers of junior scientists from both sides of the Atlantic to the global nature of scientific cooperation. To that end, a shortcourse was held at the University of Milan in Italy on July 12-25 2014 organized around cross-cutting themes of genomic science and designed to attract a stellar group of interdisciplinary early carrier researchers. A total of 22 students, 10 from the US and 12 from the EU participated. The course provided them with hands-on experience with the latest scientific methods in genomics and bioinformatics; using a format that combines lectures, laboratory research and field work with the final goal to enable researchers to finally turn data into knowledge.

  18. Jurisprudence by the European Court of Justice in the field of environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, C.O.

    1993-01-01

    The lecture gives a detailed overview of the jurisprudence by the European Court of Justice, especially of the legal and contractual basis of environment protection. It deals with the distribution of responsibilities, jurisprudence on water protection, clean air presevation, and disposal law. From a global viewpoint, the European Court of Justice can only give impulses, the implementation of concrete measures being the task of the politicians. (HSCH) [de

  19. Environmental guidance regulatory bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the background on expanding public participation in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and DOE's response. The bulletin also describes the changes made by the final rule to existing regulations, guidance provided by EPA in the preamble and in the revised RCRA Public Participation Manual, the relationship between public participation and environmental justice, and DOE's recent public participation and environmental justice initiatives

  20. Towards an Explicit Justice Framing of the Social Impacts of Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that biodiversity conservation practice will benefit from assessment of environmental justice outcomes, especially in contexts of poverty and social marginalisation. Whilst there is an existing body of work that implicitly considers the justices and injustices arising from biodiversity conservation interventions, we suggest that a more explicit justice assessment might complement this work. We develop some general guidelines for such assessment, drawing on traditions of social and environmental justice, highlighting the importance of considering two types of justice outcome: distribution and recognition. We note the non-equivalence of these different justice values, implying that they cannot be traded-off against each other. We try out these guidelines through a case study of the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. We find that the assessment helps us to identify intolerable social impacts of conservation, notably failures to adequately address the long-term impoverishment and domination of the indigenous Batwa people, and offers constructive insight for how conservation can better align with the need for environmental justice.

  1. Radionuclide analysis of environmental field trial samples at STUK/II. Second report on task FIN A 847 of the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.; Klemola, S.

    1995-06-01

    Radionuclide determinations of 35 environmental samples of eight different materials were carried out for the International Atomic Energy Agency by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). All the samples were analysed for gamma emitting nuclides, 90 Sr, 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu. In most of the samples the found radionuclide contents were roughly at the same levels as in the same types of environmental samples in the northern hemisphere. However, some samples of grass, moss, lichen and sheep faeces showed exceptionally great contents of radionuclides measured. The maximum contents of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu were found in the sam individual samples. The ratios of nuclide concentrations in these samples also deviated from ratios in other samples. This referred to an origin of these nuclides other than the global fallout. The work was a continuation to the study carried out under the Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguard. (orig.) (1 ref., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  2. Employees' perceptions of justice in performance appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasset, Frøydis; Marnburg, Einar; Furunes, Trude

    2010-05-01

    Of all the tasks undertaken by human resource managers, performance appraisals (PAs) are one of the most unpopular among employees (Meyer 1991, Murphy and Cleveland 1995, Holbrook 2002, Jackman and Strober 2003). As PA guides and plans show (Fletcher 2004, CatalystOne 2010), PAs can be implemented in similar ways in organisations throughout Europe and developed countries elsewhere. But, if employees perceive PA processes as unfair, they may reject the usefulness and validity of the information they receive and so may not be motivated to change behaviour. This article concerns perceptions of organisational justice and explains the results of a study of perceived fairness in PAs among nurses and auxiliary nurses in Norway's municipal health service.

  3. Gendered Justice Gaps in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Mannergren Selimovic, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    , and reparations gaps-this article examines structural constraints for women to engage in shaping and implementing transitional justice, and unmasks transitional justice as a site for the long-term construction of the gendered post-conflict order. Thus, the gendered dynamics of peacebuilding and transitional...... justice have produced a post-conflict order characterized by gendered peace and justice gaps. Yet, we conclude that women are doing justice within the Bosnian-Herzegovina transitional justice project, and that their presence and participation is complex, multilayered, and constrained yet critical....

  4. Mathematics education for social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhendra

    2016-02-01

    Mathematics often perceived as a difficult subject with many students failing to understand why they learn mathematics. This situation has been further aggravated by the teaching and learning processes used, which is mechanistic without considering students' needs. The learning of mathematics tends to be just a compulsory subject, in which all students have to attend its classes. Social justice framework facilitates individuals or groups as a whole and provides equitable approaches to achieving equitable outcomes by recognising disadvantage. Applying social justice principles in educational context is related to how the teachers treat their students, dictates that all students the right to equal treatment regardless of their background and completed with applying social justice issues integrated with the content of the subject in order to internalise the principles of social justice simultaneously the concepts of the subject. The study examined the usefulness of implementing the social justice framework as a means of improving the quality of mathematics teaching in Indonesia involved four teacher-participants and their mathematics classes. The study used action research as the research methodology in which the teachers implemented and evaluated their use of social justice framework in their teaching. The data were collected using multiple research methods while analysis and interpretation of the data were carried out throughout the study. The findings of the study indicated that there were a number of challengesrelated to the implementation of the social justice framework. The findings also indicated that, the teachers were provided with a comprehensive guide that they could draw on to make decisions about how they could improve their lessons. The interactions among students and between the teachers and the students improved, they became more involved in teaching and learning process. Using social justice framework helped the teachers to make mathematics more

  5. Rescuing 'defenseless selves': tasking the Nigeria Criminal Justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria will still make effective use of capital punishment in the 21st century, at least to satisfy the principle of double effect. Better capital punishment than the violence of capital crime. More than the better of two evils, this paper argued that the death penalty is crucial for those facing trails for capital crimes in Nigeria ...

  6. 83 CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very .... The Nigerian criminal justice system, of which the juvenile justice system is an integral part, ... as instruments of security and justice but as weapons of oppression8.

  7. Special Justice for Peace: A Transitional Justice Model According to Modern Tendencies and Orientations of Law and Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Arturo Gómez Pavajeau

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the constitutional implications of the peace agreement about Colombia’s armed conflict. It examines constitutional rules and international instruments about human rights, confronting the agreement with justice criteria in the national and international context, to underline the role of justice for the definitive solution of the conflict. By using the methodology of opposing concepts, it reviews the implications of formal justice and material justice, to establish the supe...

  8. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  9. Social Justice, Research, and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T

    2016-03-01

    In what ways might research on adolescence contribute to social justice? My 2014 Presidential Address identified strategies for social justice in our field. First, we need research that is conscious of biases, power, and privilege in science, as well as in our roles as scholars. Second, we need research that attends to inequities in lives of adolescents, and as scholars we need to question the ways that our research may unwittingly reinforce those inequalities. Third, we need research that attends to urgencies, that is, issues or conditions that influence adolescents' well-being which demand attention and action. I draw from a range of concepts and theoretical perspectives to make the case for a framework of social justice in research on adolescence.

  10. Spheres of Justice within Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbagh, Clara; Resh, Nura; Mor, Michal

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that there are distinct spheres of justice within education and examines a range of justice norms and distribution rules that characterize the daily life of schools and classrooms. Moving from the macro to micro level, we identify the following five areas: the right to education......, the allocation of (or selection into) learning places, teaching–learning practices, teachers’ treatment of students, and student evaluations of grade distribution. We discuss the literature on the beliefs by students and teachers about the just distribution of educational goods in these five domains......, and on the practices used in the actual allocation of these goods. In line with normative ‘spheres of justice’ arguments in social theory, we conclude that the ideals of social justice within schools vary strongly according to the particular resource to be distributed. Moreover, these ideals often do not correspond...

  11. A broader view of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2008-10-01

    In this paper I argue that a narrow view of justice dominates the bioethics literature. I urge a broader view. As bioethicists, we often conceive of justice using a medical model. This model focuses attention at a particular point in time, namely, when someone who is already sick seeks access to scarce or expensive services. A medical model asks how we can fairly distribute those services. The broader view I endorse requires looking upstream, and asking how disease and suffering came about. In contrast to a medical model, a social model of justice considers how social determinants affect the health of a population. For example, social factors such as access to clean drinking water, education, safe workplaces, and police protection, profoundly affect risk for disease and early death. I examine one important social determinant of health, health care coverage, to show the limits of a medical model and the merits of a broader view.

  12. Social justice, climate change, and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aileen Y; Fuller, Douglas O; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Beier, John C

    2014-06-14

    Climate change should be viewed fundamentally as an issue of global justice. Understanding the complex interplay of climatic and socioeconomic trends is imperative to protect human health and lessen the burden of diseases such as dengue fever. Dengue fever is rapidly expanding globally. Temperature, rainfall, and frequency of natural disasters, as well as non-climatic trends involving population growth and migration, urbanization, and international trade and travel, are expected to increase the prevalence of mosquito breeding sites, mosquito survival, the speed of mosquito reproduction, the speed of viral incubation, the distribution of dengue virus and its vectors, human migration patterns towards urban areas, and displacement after natural disasters. The burden of dengue disproportionately affects the poor due to increased environmental risk and decreased health care. Mobilization of social institutions is needed to improve the structural inequalities of poverty that predispose the poor to increased dengue fever infection and worse outcomes. This paper reviews the link between dengue and climatic factors as a starting point to developing a comprehensive understanding of how climate change affects dengue risk and how institutions can address the issues of social justice and dengue outbreaks that increasingly affect vulnerable urban populations. Copyright © 2014 Chang, Fuller, Carrasquillo, Beier. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  13. Editors' Introduction: Justice, Rights, Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles gathered in this issue are the result of papers presented at the workshop held at the Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law on 20-21 May 2013 on Perspectives of Justice in Literature: Perspectives from Justice and Fundamental Rights in Literature: an Approach from Legal Culture in a European context. Literature and literary fiction can act as a thread that helps different disciplines to communicate with each other and can thus help go beyond the strictly legal field opening up to questions of justice and rights. These papers deal with issues of justice - mainly Fundamental Rights, but also procedural aspects of justice and its administration, philosophical perspectives of justice - and of legal culture - local, European, Universal - as reflected through and by literature. Los artículos que conforman este número son el resultado de las ponencias presentadas en el workshop celebrado en el Instituto Internacional de Sociología Jurídica de Oñati el 20 y 21 mayo de 2013 sobre las perspectivas de la justicia en la literatura: Perspectivas desde la Justicia y los Derechos Fundamentales en la Literatura: un Enfoque de Cultura Jurídica en el Contexto Europeo. La literatura y la ficción literaria pueden ser un hilo que favorece que diferentes disciplinas se comuniquen entre sí y pueden de esta forma ayudar a ir más allá del campo jurídico estricto, planteando cuestiones sobre justicia y derechos. Estos artículos tratan sobre aspectos de la justicia (principalmente derechos fundamentales, pero también sobre procedimiento judicial y administración de la justicia, perspectivas filosóficas de la justicia y de cultura jurídica (local, europea, universal, de la forma en la que se han reflejado en la literatura.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2543450

  14. Engineering justice transforming engineering education and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leydens, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Using social justice as a catalyst for curricular transformation, Engineering Justice presents an examination of how politics, culture, and other social issues are inherent in the practice of engineering. It aims to align engineering curricula with socially just outcomes, increase enrollment among underrepresented groups, and lessen lingering gender, class, and ethnicity gaps by showing how the power of engineering knowledge can be explicitly harnessed to serve the underserved and address social inequalities. This book is meant to transform the way educators think about engineering curricula through creating or transforming existing courses to attract, retain, and motivate engineering students to become professionals who enact engineering for social justice. Engineering Justice offers thought-provoking chapters on: why social justice is inherent yet often invisible in engineering education and practice; engineering design for social justice; social justice in the engineering sciences; social justice in human...

  15. Globalization and Social Justice in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Kauder; Niklas Potrafke

    2015-01-01

    Social justice is a topic of importance to social scientists and also political decision makers. We examine the relationship between globalization and social justice as measured by a new indicator for 31 OECD countries. The results show that countries that experienced rapid globalization enjoy social justice. When the KOF index of globalization increases by one standard deviation, the social justice indicator increases by about 0.4 points (on a scale from 1 to 10). The policy implication is t...

  16. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1512] Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice and Certification Program...

  17. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  18. Common Frame of Reference and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Satyanarayana, R.

    2009-01-01

    The article "Common Frame of Reference and Social Justice" by Martijn W. Hesselink evaluates the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) of social justice. It discusses the important areas, namely a common frame of Reference in a broad sense, social justice and contract law, private law and

  19. Juvenile Justice: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondak, Ann

    1979-01-01

    Provides information on the background and legal framework of the juvenile justice system, the issues that confront it, and the pressures for change, as well as noting some sources of information on the system. Available from American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1201, Chicago, Illinois 60604; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  20. Current Issues and Distributive Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosal, Lorenca Consuelo

    1992-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the issue of distributive justice, or fairness in the ways things are distributed among individuals and groups. Includes a student reading concerning a proposed guaranteed standard of living. Proposes an activity that calls for student discussion of a constitutional amendment that would offer such a guarantee. (SG)

  1. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  2. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  3. Social Justice for Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nathalia

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice in U.S. teacher education has a long and protracted history that harkens back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, with its attendant legal rulings and constitutional amendments that sought to undo the legacy of discrimination against communities of color, women, and the poor. What is lost,…

  4. Flaunting It for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Janna

    2010-01-01

    By examining various movements in education in "Flaunt It! Queers Organizing for Public Education and Justice," Quinn and Meiners show a systematic and intentional "straightening" of American public schools. Throughout the book, the authors explore how various public and private realms operate to try to silence queer voices, and they discuss ways…

  5. Terrorism, forgiveness and restorative justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to enhance understanding of the complexities of restorative justice in cases of terrorism from a victimological perspective. It does so first by analysing what separates terrorism from other forms of crime. The author argues that the main distinction concerns the peculiarly

  6. Social Justice and Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Christine; Torrance, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    The revised professional standards for the teaching profession in Scotland are underpinned by a set of values which includes a detailed articulation of social justice for education covering rights, diversity and sustainability. There is a future orientation in these standards that privileges the contribution of teachers and leaders to realizing a…

  7. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  8. What is Justice for Juveniles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1997-01-01

    Provides background information and related learning activities for three areas of inquiry involving youth and violence: (1) "Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System"; (2) "The Literature of Crime and Poverty"; (3) "Youth Crime and Public Policy." Includes a list of six recommended Web sites. (MJP)

  9. Two Ideals of Educational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwaggon, James

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: This essay takes up McClintock's (2004) critique of educational discourses as overly dependent upon a distributive model of justice and largely ignorant of the formative assumptions that ground educational policy and practice. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The question that McClintock's analysis begs is…

  10. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility.

  11. 75 FR 47622 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Cloverdale Rancheria of Pomo Indians' Proposed 70...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Rancheria of Pomo Indians (Tribe), National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), Environmental Protection Agency...; visual resources; environmental justice; growth inducing effects, indirect effects; cumulative effects...

  12. When Push Comes to Love: Partnership and Social Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Frimoth

    2018-01-01

    Despite major accomplishments of the modern era, the protection of women, children, and the environment remain vulnerable. In response, there has been increasing growth of social justice protests that use social media to express the need for social change. This article provides a discussion of the rise of several social movements and their attempts to address issues of injustice, particularly focusing on sexual violence and environmental destruction. The increased use of social media prompted...

  13. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE DALAM SISTEM PERADILAN PIDANA ANAK / Restorative Justice In Juvenile Justice System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Pradityo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anak sebagai generasi penerus bangsa sudah selayaknya mendapatkan perhatian khusus. Hal tersebut bertujuan dalam rangka pembinaan anak untuk mewujudkan sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas. Maka dari itu, diperlukan pula sarana dan prasarana hukum yang mengantisipasi segala permasalahan yang timbul. Sarana hukum ini bertujuan untuk mengantisipasi stigma atau cap jahat yang ditimbulkan ketika anak berhadapan dengan hukum, sekaligus memulihkan dan memasyarakatkan kembali anak tersebut. Salah satu solusinya adalah dengan mengalihkan atau menempatkan pelaku tindak pidana anak keluar dari sistem peradilan pidana serta memberikan alternatif bagi penyelesaian dengan pendekatan keadilan demi kepentingan terbaik bagi anak, yang kemudian dikenal dengan pendekatan restorative justice. Restorative justice yang merupakan implementasi konsep dari diversi telah dirumuskan dalam sistem peradilan pidana anak, namun sistem yang baik haruslah diiringi dengan suatu sikap yang dijiwai kehendak untuk memandang dan berkeyakinan bahwa dunia ini selalu menjadi lebih baik. Selain itu, hendaknya prinsip the best interest of the children selalu diutamakan ketika menangani anak yang berhadapan dengan hukum.   Children as the nation's next generation is already deserve special attention. It aims in order to develop the child to realize the quality of human resources. Therefore, it is also necessary legal infrastructure to anticipate any problems that arise. The legal means to anticipate stigma or stamp evil inflicted when the child against the law, as well as restoring and re-socialize the child. One solution is to divert or placing the offender children out of the criminal justice system as well as providing an alternative to the settlement with justice approach in the best interests of the child, who was then known as restorative justice approach. Restorative justice which is the implementation of the concept of diversion has been formulated in the juvenile justice system

  14. Ports Primer: 7.1 Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port operations can lead to environmental impacts on air, water and land. Many communities with environmental justice concerns also experience disparities in health outcomes that they attribute to exposure to emissions from port operations.

  15. Ports Primer: 7.0 Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port operations can lead to environmental impacts on air, water and land. Many communities with environmental justice concerns also experience disparities in health outcomes that they attribute to exposure to emissions from port operations.

  16. Justice in the Air: Tracking Toxic Pollution from America's Industries and Companies to Our States, Cities, and Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Ash; James Boyce; Grace Chang; Justin Scoggins; Manuel Pastor

    2009-01-01

    This new environmental justice study, (co-authored by PERI’s James Boyce, Michael Ash, & Grace Chang, along with Manuel Pastor, Justin Scoggins, & Jennifer Tran of the Program for Environmental and Regional Equity at the University of Southern California) examines not only who receives the disproportionate share of toxic air releases -- low-income communities and people of color -- but who is releasing them. Justice in the Air: Tracking Toxic Pollution from America's Industries and Companies ...

  17. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  18. Social Justice : Perspectives from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    SOCIAL JUSTICE, HEALTH AND POVERTY IN UGANDA John Barugahare Injustice in Uganda manifests in many ways. One most serious, yet least discussed social injustice, is inequity in Health. Although there are two equally important aims of health systems – efficiency and equity, in Uganda too much focus has been on ensuring efficiency and as a consequence concerns of equity have been relegated. Ultimately, health policy in Uganda has disproportionately negatively affected the poor’s livelihoods in g...

  19. Basic Military Justice Handbook. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    unmistakable odor of burning marijuana outside the accused’s barracks room, acted correctly when he demanded entry to the room and placed all occupants under...conspirator in furtherance of the conspiracy to be the act of all the conspirators. Suppose, therefore, that A and B agree to burn down the Naval Justice...September 19CY, without authority, fail to go at the time precribed to his appointed place of duty, to wit: the 0600 restricted muster on the fantail. (2

  20. Rawlsian Justice and Palliative Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Carl; Albertsen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care serves both as an integrated part of treatment and as a last effort to care for those we cannot cure. The extent to which palliative care should be provided and our reasons for doing so have been curiously overlooked in the debate about distributive justice in health and healthcar...... to provide pain relief to those who need it as a supplement to treatment and, without justice-based reasons to provide palliative care to those whose opportunities cannot be restored. We conclude that this makes Daniels' framework much less attractive.......Palliative care serves both as an integrated part of treatment and as a last effort to care for those we cannot cure. The extent to which palliative care should be provided and our reasons for doing so have been curiously overlooked in the debate about distributive justice in health and healthcare....... We argue that one prominent approach, the Rawlsian approach developed by Norman Daniels, is unable to provide such reasons and such care. This is because of a central feature in Daniels' account, namely that care should be provided to restore people's opportunities. Daniels' view is both unable...

  1. Food justice and Christian ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dealt with the moral and political problem of international food justice in which the deep contradiction between the present situation of malnourishment and starvation in large parts of the global population on the one hand and the biblical notion of the preferential option for the poor on the other hand was described. This ecumenically widely accepted notion was clarified in several aspects. How deeply this is rooted in the history of Christian social thought was shown by Martin Luther�s writings on the economy which have remained relatively unknown in the churches and in the scholarly world. The article then presented three models of Christian economic ethic: the technical economic model, the utopian economic model and the public theological economic model. On the basis of the public theological model seven challenges for international food justice were presented. The basis for these challenges is an understanding of globalisation which guarantees just participation for everyone and deals with nature in an ecologically sustainable way. The interests of small farmers are the basis for judging the activities of big agro-corporations. Public theology is the background for an active involvement of the churches as agents of a global civil society to promote international food justice.

  2. Dissertation Journeys of Scholar-Practitioners in an Educational Leadership for Social Justice Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Ardella; Harris, Margaret; Plough, Bobbie; Porfilio, Brad; Winkelman, Peg

    2016-01-01

    The task of guiding the development of scholar-practitioners as leaders for social justice is inherently challenging. The dissertation journey, unlike any other journey practitioner-based doctoral students face in urban school settings, provides a steep learning curve as they transition from practitioner to scholar-practitioner. This journey…

  3. Linking well-being with cultural revitalization for greater cognitive justice in conservation: lessons from Venezuela in Canaima National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iokiñe Rodriguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Across the globe, conservation policies have often suppressed nonscientific forms of knowledge and ways of knowing nature, along with the social practices of the groups that are informed by such knowledge. Reversing this process of epistemic supremacy is crucial both for achieving greater cognitive justice in conservation areas and ensuring that conservation aims are achieved. Doing so, however, is not an easy task. In situations of cultural violence, hidden environmental knowledge is not easily made visible unless adequate conditions for it to emerge are created. I show that one way forward is by conservation engaging with the well-being agendas of indigenous people, in particular, with the construction of their life plans. This discussion is illustrated through a case study in Canaima National Park, Venezuela, where over the last 20 years, social-ecological research has been studying existing conflicts over the use of fire while supporting the development of Pemon (the indigenous peoples in this area Life Plans. Assisting in the development of life plans through participatory historical reconstructions, territorial self-demarcation processes, and facilitation of community reflexivity about its social-ecological changes and desired future has been decisive for the Pemon, and has revealed fire management knowledge that challenges conventional explanations of landscape change that simplistically place the blame for such changes on the local use of fire. This local knowledge, combined with results from studies of Pemon fire regimes, fire behavior ecology, and paleoecological research, now informs a counter narrative of landscape change that is influencing a shift in environmental discourse and policy-making toward an intercultural fire management approach. By documenting how social-ecological research has engaged with the Pemon Life Plan processes, I show the important role that cultural revitalization plays in making hidden and silenced local

  4. Million Hearts 2022: Understanding the Links between Environmental Pollutant Exposure and Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events - Justus-Warren Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    The webinar was requested by the Justus-Warren Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Task Force. From their website, “The task force was established in 1995 in North Carolina to provide statewide leadership for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. Meetings are...

  5. When Push Comes to Love: Partnership and Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Frimoth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite major accomplishments of the modern era, the protection of women, children, and the environment remain vulnerable. In response, there has been increasing growth of social justice protests that use social media to express the need for social change. This article provides a discussion of the rise of several social movements and their attempts to address issues of injustice, particularly focusing on sexual violence and environmental destruction. The increased use of social media prompted a global response, within the context of popular culture, which was then followed by mainstream news coverage of the protests. This technological shift in news sharing promoted increased awareness about issues of sexual violence and environmental destruction. The lasting impact, however, is unknown. Yet there may be links between current social justice movements and Riane Eisler’s Cultural Transformation Theory that could foster social change. This article formulates a more direct connection between social movements and Eisler’s Cultural Transformation Theory in a manner that intentionally urges progressive social justice groups to understand and move toward partnership in general, and specifically toward a cultural transformation that protects the environment and eliminates violence against women and children. 

  6. 28 CFR 0.92 - National Institute of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Institute of Justice. 0.92 Section 0.92 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.92 National Institute of Justice. The National...

  7. Personality traits and perceptions of organisational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos, Maria; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2018-01-04

    This study examined the association between five-factor model personality traits and perceptions of organisational justice. The sample for the study comprised 903 participants (35-50 years old; 523 women) studied in 2007 and 2012. Measures used were the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory questionnaire and the short organisational justice measure. The results showed that high neuroticism was associated with low distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Furthermore, high agreeableness was associated with high procedural and interactional justice and high openness with high distributive justice. This study suggests that neuroticism, agreeableness and openness are involved in perceptions of organisational justice and that personality should be considered in research and in practices at the workplace. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. The future of morality and international justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Vojin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper will be on the issue of justice, specifically in international relations. In that context, a number of existing theories of international justice will be briefly reviewed. Afterwards, I will turn to the question of what justice actually is. The assertion that justice is based on the idea of freedom will be substantiated. I will attempt to support my position with Doyle's and Kant's argumentation. It will be concluded that there are robust arguments in favor of the thesis that our historical development is marked by a gradual expansion of freedom and justice. Furthermore, we have strong reasons to aspire liberal internationalism based on the idea of humanity's gradual approximation of some form of global state because such a conception might be the best warrant of justice in international relations.

  9. Co-workers' Justice Judgments, own Justice Judgments and Employee Commitment: A multi-foci approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Stinglhamber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of 212 employees, we conducted a study to examine whether employees use their co-workers' fairness perceptions to generate their own justice judgments and to develop their subsequent affective commitment. The conceptual framework used to investigate these linkages is social exchange theory combined with a multiple foci approach. Results of the structural equation modeling analyses revealed that co-workers' procedural justice judgments strengthened employee's own procedural justice judgments, which in turn influenced their affective commitment to the organisation. Similarly, co-workers' interactional justice judgments increased employee's own interactional justice judgments, which in turn impacted on their affective commitment to both the supervisor and the organisation. As a whole, findings suggest that coworkers' justice judgments strengthened employee's affective attachments toward the justice sources by reinforcing employee's own justice perceptions.

  10. Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, J A; Conlon, D E; Wesson, M J; Porter, C O; Ng, K Y

    2001-06-01

    The field of organizational justice continues to be marked by several important research questions, including the size of relationships among justice dimensions, the relative importance of different justice criteria, and the unique effects of justice dimensions on key outcomes. To address such questions, the authors conducted a meta-analytic review of 183 justice studies. The results suggest that although different justice dimensions are moderately to highly related, they contribute incremental variance explained in fairness perceptions. The results also illustrate the overall and unique relationships among distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice and several organizational outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational commitment, evaluation of authority, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal, performance). These findings are reviewed in terms of their implications for future research on organizational justice.

  11. Geographies of justice: preschool-childcare provision and the conceptualisation of social justice

    OpenAIRE

    S L Holloway

    1998-01-01

    During the 1990s geographers of diverse philosophical orientations have shown a renewed interest in questions of justice. The author draws on empirical work on childcare provision in Sheffield, England, in order to evaluate two different approaches to the geography of justice and hence the theories of social justice which lie behind these; in particular she explores the different geographies of childcare produced by the territorial-justice approach, which is based on a liberal conception of s...

  12. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  13. The Criminal justice system in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...

  14. Organisational justice and change in justice as predictors of employee health: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Ferrie, Jane E; Head, Jenny; Shipley, Martin J; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G

    2004-11-01

    Organisational justice has been proposed as a new way to examine the impact of psychosocial work environment on employee health. This article studied the justice of interpersonal treatment by supervisors (the relational component of organisational justice) as a predictor of health. Prospective cohort study. Phase 1 (1985-88) measured relational justice, job demands, job control, social support at work, effort-reward imbalance, and self rated health. Relational justice was assessed again at phase 2 (1989-90) and self rated health at phase 2 and phase 3 (1991-93). 20 civil service departments originally located in London. 10 308 civil servants (6895 men, 3413 women) aged 35-55. Self rated health. Men exposed to low justice at phase 1 or adverse change in justice between phase 1 and phase 2 were at higher risk of poor health at phase 2 and phase 3. A favourable change in justice was associated with reduced risk. Adjustment for other stress indicators had little effect on results. In women, low justice at phase 1 predicted poor health at phase 2 and phase 3 before but not after adjustment for other stress indicators. Adverse change in justice was associated with worse health prospects irrespective of adjustments. The extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces seems to predict their health independently of established stressors at work. Evidence on reduced health risk after favourable change in organisational justice implies a promising area for health interventions at workplace.

  15. Restorative Justice as Social Justice for Victims of Gendered Violence: A Standpoint Feminist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims…

  16. Organizational justice and health: Contextual determinants and psychobiological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis entitled "Organizational Justice and Health: Contextual Determinants and Psychobiological Consequences" aimed to investigate associations between organizational justice and employee health and biological functioning. Organizational justice is an occupational

  17. Perception on justice, trust and tax compliance behavior in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellywati Mohd Faizal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between justice and trust with tax compliance behavior in Malaysia was studied. Previous studies have acknowledged the perception that justice does have an impact on tax compliance. This study distinguishes justice into procedural justice, distributive justice, and retributive justice. Therefore, this study examined the effect of these three types of justice on tax compliance. Trust also influences the act of tax compliance and it also has a relationship to the element of justice. Perceptions from individual taxpayers were gathered using questionnaires from previous studies. The findings suggest only procedural justice and trust affect tax compliance and procedural justice was positively and significantly correlated to trust. However, trust does not mediate the relationship between justice and compliance. This research will contribute to the tax literature with widened scope on justice in Malaysia.

  18. OVERVIEW OF RUSSIAN CIVIL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Russian civil procedure is not a pure Continental model because it also has procedural features of the common law system, as well as some other original and exceptional features. This article examines the main aspects of Russian civil justice: its main principles; judicial organization, including the structure of the courts and the division between courts of general jurisdiction and arbitrazh (commercial courts, and the Intellectual Property Court; sources of procedural law; bar organization; the jurisdiction of the courts; actions and proceedings; legal costs; evidence; administrative procedure; class actions; enforcement proceedings; and arbitration and mediation.

  19. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  20. Justice seems not to be for all: Exploring the scope of justice

    OpenAIRE

    Lima-Nunes, Aline; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Correia, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The idea that “justice is for everyone” seems to be over. A justice perception can have unfair consequences for those who are perceived not to be included within the boundaries of fairness. This is what the scope of justice is all about: who is within and who is outside of the “justice boundaries”. This paper intends to clarify the concept and explain how social psychologists work with it in real-life contexts. We argue that the scope of justice is a key concept that helps us to understand a ...

  1. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  2. 77 FR 70473 - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE [OMB Number 1121-0218] Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention... Justice (DOJ), Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, will be... Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, 810 Seventh...

  3. Formative Justice: The Regulative Principle of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Concepts of justice relevant to making personal and public decisions about education. Purpose: To clarify a concept of formative justice that persons and the public often ignore in making decisions about educational effort. Setting: "The windmills of your mind" Research Design: Reflective essay.…

  4. Social Justice, Disability, and Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Daniel; Smart, Julie F.

    2012-01-01

    The academic field and the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling focuses on one aspect of social justice, assisting individuals with disabilities to attain full community inclusion. Nonetheless, social justice focuses on many marginalized groups and in the related fields of counseling and psychology, those with disabilities are rarely…

  5. Prabowo and the shortcomings of international justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Nikolas Feith

    2015-01-01

    under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, temporal jurisdiction renders prosecution impossible. This article explores Prabowo’s human rights abuses, and how international criminal law has failed to achieve justice for these crimes. It concludes that Prabowo’s political rise threatens...... the aims of international criminal justice....

  6. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  7. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if, with...

  8. Social Justice Advocacy in Graduate Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Amy Gratch

    2018-01-01

    This article includes a description and analysis of a graduate teacher education course designed to engage teachers in taking action for social justice. In the course, students participate in a community of learners in which they examine their cultural identities and engage in social justice advocacy work. Students developed content knowledge and…

  9. Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…

  10. African Transitional Justice Research Network | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... little African-led research on the cultural appropriateness and impact of such models of transitional justice. This grant will facilitate the creation and sustainable expansion of an electronically-based research network on options and lessons learned pertaining to transitional justice. A second objective is to build the capacity ...

  11. Restorative Justice: Principles, Practices, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sandra Pavelka

    2007-01-01

    A modern-day movement is transforming the way that communities and justice systems think about and respond to crime and wrongful occurrences. This response implements a holistic continuum of services, providing for prevention, intervention, diversion, commitment, probation, reentry, and aftercare. This approach--known as restorative justice--seeks…

  12. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  13. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  14. Using the Juvenile Justice Poster. Teaching Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson that can help students review and summarize what they have learned about the juvenile justice system. Explains that the students discuss how the juvenile justice system can be improved and conduct a survey on how it might be changed in the future. Provides a copy of the survey and directions. (CMK)

  15. Strategic Activism, Educational Leadership and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the strategic activism of educational leaders who promote social justice. Given the risks, educational leaders need to be strategic about the ways in which they pursue their activism. Citing current research, this article explores the ways in which leaders strategically pursue their social justice agendas within their own…

  16. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Implications for Educational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Magnus O.

    2016-01-01

    Educational justice is a major global challenge. In most underdeveloped countries, many students do not have access to education and in most advanced democracies, school attainment and success are still, to a large extent, dependent on a student's social background. However, it has often been argued that social justice is an essential part of…

  17. Educational Justice, Segregated Schooling and Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The philosophical debate on educational justice currently focusses on the Anglo-American situation. This essay brings in an additional perspective. It provides a justice-oriented critique of the segregated education systems in German-speaking countries. First, arguments that are commonly put forward in favour of these systems are rejected. Second,…

  18. Economic globalisation and economic justice: Covenanting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The premise of this article is that ethical moral formation or 'covenanting for justice' leads to action. The covenanting church itself, in conjunction with other movements, works for justice in all areas of life. The article uses the six aspects of ethical moral formation of Heinz Tödt to analyse some aspects of economic ...

  19. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  20. Operationalizing Social Justice Counseling: Paradigm to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice counseling, like all humanistic models, recognizes the dignity of each human being, affirms the right of all people to choose and work toward their own goals, and asserts the importance of service to community. The social justice paradigm brings a special emphasis on the role of the environment. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  1. The Law of Peoples and Global Justice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 135-150 ISSN 1210-3055 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : international justice * global justice * Rawls * recognition Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  2. Implementation Of Law Number 11 Of 2012 Concerning Child Related Criminal Justice System Concept Restorative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Karangan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine how the application of the concept of restorative justice in accordance with Law No. 11 of 2012 on Child Criminal Justice system. This study uses normative namely a study that discusses the problem based on the literature and legislation relating to the matter to be investigated. Law No. 11 of 2012 on the Criminal Justice System Child has provided a new concept in the criminal justice system, especially those in the juvenile justice system. Related to the concept of Restorative Justice or restorative justice is a resolution processes involving perpetrators, victims, families, and other relevant parties in a criminal act, jointly seek solutions to the offense and its implications by emphasizing restoration and not retribution

  3. An Introduction to Generative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Eglash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marx proposed that capitalism’s destructive force is caused, at root, by the alienation of labor value from its generators. Environmentalists have added the concept of unalienated ecological value, and rights activists added the unalienated expressive value of free speech, sexuality, spirituality, etc. Marx’s vision for restoring an unalienated world by top-down economic governance was never fulfilled. But in the last 30 years, new forms of social justice have emerged that operate as “bottom-up”. Peer-to-peer production such as open source software or wikipedia has challenged the corporate grip on IP in a “gift exchange” of labor value; community based agroecology establishes a kind of gift exchange with our nonhuman allies in nature. DIY citizenship from feminist makerspaces to queer biohacking has profound implications for a new materialism of the “knowledge commons”; and restorative approaches to civil rights can challenge the prison-industrial complex. In contrast to top-down “distributive justice,” all of the above are cases of bottom-up or “generative justice” 

  4. Procedural (in)justice in the implementation of solar energy: The case of Charanaka solar park, Gujarat, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenneti, Komali; Day, Rosie

    2015-01-01

    Solar PV is being rolled out on a large scale in India and other emerging economies, but in the enthusiasm for solar’s promise of plentiful, low carbon energy, the social and environmental justice concerns accompanying such infrastructure development are in danger of being overlooked. In this context, this paper, using the case study of ‘Charanaka Solar Park’ in Gujarat state, qualitatively analyses the degree of provision for procedural justice in solar energy implementation in India using a framework drawn from social environmental and energy justice literatures. The case study illustrates how the failure of various aspects of procedural justice can result in unnecessarily large impacts on the livelihoods of rural communities and the further marginalisation of those of lowest status. We conclude with discussion of the aspects of procedural justice that need attention in low carbon energy developments in developing countries alongside some policy and governance suggestions for the achievement of this in India and elsewhere. - Highlights: • Procedural justice issues in Charanaka solar park implementation are examined • New insights into participation, enfranchisement, and recognition are provided • Lack of information sharing and acknowledgement of local knowledge • Lack of adequate participation and enfranchisement of the affected communities • Consideration of procedural justice important for success of National Solar Mission

  5. 75 FR 19659 - Bureau of Justice Assistance; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Notice of Information Collection Under Review: New Collection Bureau of Justice Assistance Application Form: Federal Law Enforcement Officers Congressional Badge of Bravery. The Department of Justice... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OMB Number 1121-NEW] Bureau of Justice...

  6. Riscos, saúde e justiça ambiental: o protagonismo das populações atingidas na produção de conhecimento Environmental risk, health and justice: the protagonism of affected populations in the production of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Firpo Porto

    2012-06-01

    concealment of conflicts and uncertainties, the lack of contextualization of exposure to risk and effects on health, as well as the difficulties of dialogue with the communities. The article also presents contributions and advances presented by environmental justice movements. The conclusion is that a constructivist, procedural and democratic perspective of confronting forms of knowledge and practices can guide the scientific production to benefit of environmental justice.

  7. Relations between OCBs, organizational justice, work motivation and self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Oren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs in organizations is well documented, and studies that originate from the interactionist perspective and combine personal and situational factors in predicting OCBs are needed. Toward this end, and based on a recent theoretical model, the current study attempted to predict OCB by organizational justice, work motivation, and self-efficacy. A research questionnaire measuring the three predictors was administered to 151 employees, and a measure of their OCB was provided by their supervisors. Whereas OCBs were found to be positively correlated with the three predictors, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that only organizational justice and work motivation were significant predictors of OCBs. The study emphasizes the importance of using an interactionist perspective integrating endogenous and exogenous forces in studying the antecedents of OCBs. OCBs may be closely related to task performance and may be predicted by motivation related variables. Organizations may facilitate OCBs by improving organizational justice and raising work motivation among employees.

  8. McSustainability and McJustice: Certification, Alternative Food and Agriculture, and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Hatanaka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative food and agriculture movements increasingly rely on market-based approaches, particularly voluntary standards and certification, to advance environmental sustainability and social justice. Using a case study of an ecological shrimp project in Indonesia that became certified organic, this paper raises concerns regarding the impacts of certification on alternative food and agriculture movements, and their aims of furthering sustainability and justice. Drawing on George Ritzer’s McDonaldization framework, I argue that the ecological shrimp project became McDonaldized with the introduction of voluntary standards and certification. Specifically, efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control became key characteristics of the shrimp project. While the introduction of such characteristics increased market access, it also entailed significant costs, including an erosion of trust and marginalization and alienation of farmers. Given such tradeoffs, in concluding I propose that certification is producing particular forms of environmental sustainability and social justice, what I term McSustainability and McJustice. While enabling the expansion of alternative food and agriculture, McSustainability and McJustice tend to allow little opportunity for farmer empowerment and food sovereignty, as well as exclude aspects of sustainable farming or ethical production that are not easily measured, standardized, and validated.

  9. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  10. A survey on constitutional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirollah Parvin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of supervising the conformity of statutory law with constitutional law, is due to necessities rooted in two essential principles: the supremacy of constitution and the hierarchy of the law. Constitution as the supreme law in the sense of status and legal value , is placed at the top of the legal pyramid of every political system and therefore requires a special organization and discipline that will act as the sanction of the principles and the main content incorporated in this legal instrument. this special organization and discipline known as Constitutional justice in legal Literature now and have studing in two main patterns. Firs pattern based on Supervision of courts on rules and other pattern is Apply by Emphasis on role of Political Institutions in Supervision on rules. This two patterns have common purpose but have different backgrounds and methods.

  11. Criminal Courts of Justice, Dublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tooth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The newly completed Criminal Courts of Justice (CCJ at Parkgate Street in Dublin 8 is the largest courts project undertaken in the history of the Irish State. The design of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems was based on computer simulated modelling of the build ing to determine the optimum plant selection and operation based on the contract conditions and energy targets. The report will analyse the computer simulated energy targets versus the actual energy consumption and assess the benefit of engineering solutions such as twin-skin facades and heat recovery based on real data. The report will draw conclusions on the real benefit of such systems with in the built environment. In addition to the energy targets, the report will discuss the commission ing processes involved in delivering the energy targets required and the importance of designing metering strategies to enable the data to be collected and analysed.

  12. Just sustainability? sustainability and social justice in professional codes of ethics for engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Should environmental, social, and economic sustainability be of primary concern to engineers? Should social justice be among these concerns? Although the deterioration of our natural environment and the increase in social injustices are among today's most pressing and important issues, engineering

  13. Justice in development? An analysis of water interventions in the rural South

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venot, J.P.J.N.; Clement, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a fruitful convergence between the distributive and procedural dimensions of environmental justice theory and current debates in the field of development studies over capitals and capabilities, institutions, and discourse formation to shed new light on natural resource management

  14. Restorative Justice in Indonesia: Traditional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Achjani Zulfa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available “Restorative Justice” is a model approach which emerged in the 1960s in an effort to solve criminal cases. Unlike the approach used in conventional criminal justice system, this approach focuses on the direct participation of perpetrators, victims and society in the settlement process. This theory of the approach is still debated, but the view is in fact growing and it exercises a lot of influence on legal policies and practices in several countries. The UN through its basic principles considers the approach of restorative justice as the approach which could be used in the rational criminal justice system. Restorative justice is a concept of thinking that supports the development of the criminal justice system with emphasis on the required involvement of the community. It is also involving the casualties who with the current criminal justice system are excluded. In several countries, restorative justice has been translated into a variety of formulations to accommodate a variety of values, philosophical basis, terms, strategies, mechanisms, and programs. Good consultation with the perpetrators and the victims themselves may provide the public with a different mindset in preventing emerging problems. This process can involve the police, prosecutorial institution or the traditional institutions. Therefore, without excluding the work in the formal legal system, the institutional mechanism for resolution through consultation was working in the community. In the various principles and models of the restorative justice approach, the process of dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim is a fundamental and the also the most important part of the application of the restorative justice. The direct dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim gave the victim the opportunity to express what he/she felt, hope for human rights and the desire to reach a criminal settlement.

  15. Robot task space analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.; Osborn, J.

    1997-01-01

    Many nuclear projects such as environmental restoration and waste management challenges involve radiation or other hazards that will necessitate the use of remote operations that protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote work is far more costly to execute than what workers could accomplish directly with conventional tools and practices because task operations are slow and tedious due to difficulties of remote manipulation and viewing. Decades of experience within the nuclear remote operations community show that remote tasks may take hundreds of times longer than hands-on work; even with state-of-the-art force- reflecting manipulators and television viewing, remote task performance execution is five to ten times slower than equivalent direct contact work. Thus the requirement to work remotely is a major cost driver in many projects. Modest improvements in the work efficiency of remote systems can have high payoffs by reducing the completion time of projects. Additional benefits will accrue from improved work quality and enhanced safety

  16. Shame and Guilt in Restorative Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the relevance and desirability of shame and guilt to restorative justice conferences. I argue that a careful study of the psychology of shame and guilt reveals that both emotions possess traits that can be desirable and traits that can be undesirable for restoration. More...... in particular, having presented the aims of restorative justice, the importance of face-to-face conferences in reaching these aims, the emotional dynamics that take place within such conferences, and the relevant parts of the empirical psychology of shame and guilt, I argue that restorative justice...

  17. Gilabert on the Feasibility of Global Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin M. Macleod

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss the analysis of the feasibility of global justice developed by Pablo Gilabert in his recent book From Global Poverty to Global Equality: A Philosophical Exploration. Gilabert makes many valuable contributions to this topic and I agree with most of his analysis. However, I identify a distinction between strategic justification and moral justification that Gilabert neglects. I show how this distinction is useful in addressing objections to the feasibility of global justice. I also claim that Gilabert makes some problematic assumptions concerning the way in which global justice is morally demanding.

  18. The first year of implementation of the Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 mandates the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development to report annually on the implementation of the Child Justice Act to the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Justice and Constitutional Development. On 1 April 2011 a year had passed since the implementation of the Child ...

  19. 24 CFR 17.9 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral to Department of Justice... Procedures § 17.9 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 17.8, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the...

  20. 5 CFR 177.108 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to Department of Justice. 177... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.108 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required, or the advice of the Department of Justice is...

  1. 44 CFR 11.17 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Justice. 11.17 Section 11.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 11.16, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the Chief Counsel...

  2. 10 CFR 1014.7 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to Department of Justice. 1014.7 Section 1014.7... § 1014.7 Referral to Department of Justice. (a) When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 1014.6, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the...

  3. 34 CFR 21.1 - Equal Access to Justice Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal Access to Justice Act. 21.1 Section 21.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE General § 21.1 Equal Access to Justice Act. (a) The Equal Access to Justice Act (the Act) provides for the award of fees and...

  4. 40 CFR 1620.8 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Department of Justice... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.8 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required, or the advice of the Department of Justice is...

  5. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau...

  6. 28 CFR 0.93 - Bureau of Justice Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bureau of Justice Statistics. 0.93...-Office of Justice Programs and Related Agencies § 0.93 Bureau of Justice Statistics. The Bureau of Justice Statistics is headed by a Director appointed by the President. Under the general authority of the...

  7. On the relationship between justice and forgiveness: are all forms of justice made equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G

    2014-09-01

    This research investigates whether, following a wrongdoing, the restoration of justice promotes forgiveness. Three studies - one correlational recall study and two experimental scenario studies - provide evidence that while a restored sense of justice is overall positively related to forgiveness, forgiveness is highly dependent on the means of justice restoration being retributive (punitive) versus restorative (consensus-seeking) in nature. The findings showed that, overall, restorative but not retributive responses led to greater forgiveness. Although both retributive and restorative responses appeared to increase forgiveness indirectly through increased feelings of justice, for retributive responses these effects were counteracted by direct effects on forgiveness. Moreover, the experimental evidence showed that, while feelings of justice derived from restorative responses were positively related to forgiveness, feelings of justice derived from retributive responses were not. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Somatic Arc protein expression in hippocampal granule cells is increased in response to environmental change but independent of task-specific learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, J P; Willis, E F; Bartlett, P F; Vukovic, J

    2017-09-29

    Activated neurons express immediate-early genes, such as Arc. Expression of Arc in the hippocampal granule cell layer, an area crucial for spatial learning and memory, is increased during acquisition of spatial learning; however, it is unclear whether this effect is related to the task-specific learning process or to nonspecific aspects of the testing procedure (e.g. exposure to the testing apparatus and exploration of the environment). Herein, we show that Arc-positive cells numbers are increased to the same extent in the granule cell layer after both acquisition of a single spatial learning event in the active place avoidance task and exploration of the testing environment, as compared to naïve (i.e. caged) mice. Repeated exposure the testing apparatus and environment did not reduce Arc expression. Furthermore, Arc expression did not correlate with performance in both adult and aged animals, suggesting that exploration of the testing environment, rather than the specific acquisition of the active place avoidance task, induces Arc expression in the dentate granule cell layer. These findings thus suggest that Arc is an experience-induced immediate-early gene.

  9. What is justice in education? Sketch of answer based on theories of justice and economics.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Waltenberg , Fábio

    2004-01-01

    D. Waltenberg, F. (2004). What is justice in education? Sketch of answer based on theories of justice and economics. Les Cahiers de Recherche du Girsef, 32.; What is justice in education? How can we evaluate whether given distributions of educational inputs or educational outcomes are just or not? How should a society distribute its educational resources? How can we evaluate the level of (un)fairness of a schooling system? In this paper, we try to provide a basic framework for thinking about ...

  10. Towards climate justice: how do the most vulnerable weigh environment-economy trade-offs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Katrina

    2015-03-01

    The world's poor are especially vulnerable to environmental disasters, including the adverse consequences of climate change. This creates a challenge for climate justice advocates who seek to ensure that those least responsible for causing climate change do not bear unwanted burdens of mitigation. One way to promote climate justice could be to pay particular attention to the environmental policy preferences of citizens from poorer, lower-emitting countries. This paper examines opinions on environment-economy trade-offs and willingness to make personal financial contributions to protect the environment among residents of 42 developed and developing countries using data from the 2005-2008 World Values Survey, the 2010 Climate Risk Index, and World Bank development indicators. Results reveal that individuals in developing countries are less likely to support policies to prioritize environmental protection over economic growth but are more willing to donate personal income for pro-environmental efforts compared to citizens of more developed nations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. From distributive to procedural justice. Justice as a constitutive value of public administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The justice as an ethical value can be considered constitutive for contemporary administrative systems. These ones are asked to transpose into practice the ideal of justice in the community. The functioning of a modern state cannot be conceived without a series of institutions that would guarantee the achievement of justice. The legal system was established specifically to administer justice. Modern democratic systems felt the need for certain courts and extrajudicial procedures to create justice. The institutions required to implement the extrajudicial distribution of justice are part of the public administration, representing a central element of it. The model of a political system based on justice is a minimalist one; the role of the state is limited to making it possible for individuals to follow their own ideal of welfare. Opposed to justice, the ideal of welfare requests the state, and implicitly the administration, to ensure the individual the minimum conditions to live in that community. The minimal state centered on justice is the result of a modern paradigm with post-Kantian reverberations, which emphasize the rationality of human action. If the individual is rational, he only needs fair conditions in order to pursue his own welfare. The role of the administration is to ensure those conditions and to oversee the distribution of goods and services, as well as the distribution and redistribution of added value.

  12. What Justice for Rwanda? Gacaca versus Truth Commission?

    OpenAIRE

    Reuchamps, Min

    2008-01-01

    In post-genocide Rwanda, in addition to gacaca courts, a truth commission is needed in order to promote justice and foster reconciliation. In the context of transitional justice, retributive justice, which seeks justice and focuses on the perpetrators, appears to be inadequate to lead a society towards reconciliation. Therefore, some forms of restorative justice, which emphasize the healing of the whole society, seem necessary. In Rwanda, gacaca courts and a truth commission are complementary...

  13. Temporal Justice, Youth Quotas and Libertarianism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissenburg, M.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Quotas, including youth quotas for representative institutions, are usually evaluated from within the social justice discourse. That discourse relies on several questionable assumptions, seven of which I critically address and radically revise in this contribution from a libertarian perspective.

  14. Governance and Justice | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This program fosters better governance and justice systems so people can lead ... A man peers through a hole in a wall that separates Tijuana, Mexico, from the United States. ... Denial of health care or an education is unthinkable for most.

  15. Justice And Legal Certainty For Child Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Setiadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.

  16. Justice and Social Cohesion: Some conservative perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of recent debates on multiculturalism and value-pluralism, the pressing questions now focuses on whether social cohesion and the notion of justice are sustainable and can be upheld, at least from a European perspective. There are many theoretical and academic responses, mainly from...... liberals, on how to accommodate the different demands of various ethnic and religious groups and at the same time sustain a minimum of social cohesion and justice. One voice is missing and that is a conservative perspective. The purpose of this paper is to formulate a modern conservative analysis...... of this problem. The argument presented in this paper will, first, take its point of departure from David Hume’s notion of sympathy and how this makes social cohesion possible. Second, it will be argued that social cohesion is a prerequisite for the existence of justice, and therefore justice is a derivative...

  17. REFORMATIONS IN ZIMBABWE'S JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    1996-05-23

    May 23, 1996 ... The article is based on a desk review of existing literature on juvenile crime in the country. ... that Zimbabwe's juvenile justice system is transforming from being ... recommendations include expanding the Pre-trial Diversion ...

  18. Climate Justice and the Paris Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelot, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    The concept of climate justice has been, for the first time, used in an international agreement - namely, the Paris Agreement. But this recognition of the notion of climate justice is extremely restricted by the very way it is formulated. Preamble of the Paris Agreement 'notes' that climate justice is recognized by 'certain cultures'. Does it mean that particular and concrete stakes of climate justice of the pre-COP21 agenda have been recognized or, on the contrary, that the notion so introduced is actually an empty shell without any genuine legal perspective? Considering this uncertainty, it appears relevant to analyze the Paris Agreement through the claims of various groups and coalitions, which influenced the COP21 negotiations

  19. Justice et miséricorde

    OpenAIRE

    Heyer, René

    2012-01-01

    On n’imagine pas de justice sans possibilité de faire miséricorde ; inversement, une miséricorde qui ne tiendrait pas compte de la justice ne serait plus la miséricorde. Les deux notions sont liées, mais sur un socle inégal : car la justice inspirée par la loi naturelle déborde la justice positive, de même que la misère des miséreux ne se laisse pas ramener au mal commis par le misérable. En découlent des variations où l’on peut voir se profiler trois moments : 1. La loi coutumière est bouscu...

  20. Equal Access to Justice Act Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A dataset containing payment amounts made by the Social Security Administration for court-approved Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) payments for fiscal year 2010...

  1. Restorative justice: a changing community response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We draw attention to this emerging trend via current research and resources that enable us to put forward a definition, theoretical background and list the characteristic traits of this alternative mode of life consequence. Finally, we argue that the use of restorative justice in schools is a focus that is really a paradigm shift within the landscape of the educational enterprise.

  2. Distributive principles of economic justice: an Islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiyuddin Baidhawy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and impoverishment in the world currently continue to increase as aresult of distributive justice systems and its principles that became the basis ofcontemporary economics did not succeed in allocating and distributing resourcesjustly. Based on this problem, this study aimed at describing the Islamic responseto the problem of distributive injustice, and how necessarily the state played arole in upholding distributive justice. Through the thematic-induction method andthe synthetic analysis, the study finds out several findings as follows. Firstly,Islam formulated three principles of distributive justice as follows: 1 the Distributionof natural and the environmental resources was in the framework of participation;2 the Redistribution of the wealth and the income were joint responsibilityof ascertaining social security, the increase in the capacity and the authorityfor them who were disadvantage; and 3 the Role of the state was certaintythat was complementary for the ethical market in order to guarantees the senseof justice and the achievement of public welfare. Secondly, according to Islam,the process of the redistribution of the wealth and the income aimed at givingsocial security on the fulfillment of basic needs for the poor; strove for the increasein the capacity through education and skills; and increased the poor’sbargaining position through their participation in decision making that was linkedwith their interests and the control on its implementation. Thirdly, the intention of establishing justice was to gain both individual and public welfare and the happiness(al-fala>h}.Kemiskinan dan pemiskinan di dunia kontemporer terus meningkat sebagai akibatsistem keadilan distributif dan prinsip-prinsipnya yang menjadi basis ekonomisaat ini tidak berhasil dalam mengalokasikan dan memeratakan sumber dayasecara adil. Berdasarkan masalah ini, kajian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskanrespon Islam atas problem ketidakadilan distributif, dan

  3. Knowledge for Justice: Critical Perspectives from Southern African-Nordic Research Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Tor; Ibsen, Hilde; Evans, Henri-Count; Penderis, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    With the adoption of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement, the purpose of development is being redefined in both social and environmental terms. Despite pushback from conservative forces, change is accelerating in many sectors. To drive this transformation in ways that bring about social, environmental and economic justice at a local, national, regional and global levels, new knowledge and strong cross-regional networks capable of foregrounding diffe...

  4. Climate Change, Social Justice and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Barker; Şerban Scrieciu; David Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Terry Barker, Şerban Scrieciu and David Taylor discuss the implications of climate change for social justice and the prospects for more sustainable development pathways. They state that the analysis and discussions surrounding the climate change problem, particularly those drawing on the traditional economics literature, have relied on a crude economic utilitarianism that no moral philosopher would endorse. Such arguments have typically ignored the concept of justice itself and wider e...

  5. SOCIAL JUSTICE FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazire Diker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to question the living conditions of disabled people in the 21st century from  the framework of social justice. The concept of “social justice” has a long history, influenced  by the works of numerous writers including Rawls (1971, Miller (1999, Reeves (2005, Fainstein (2009, Marcuse (2009 and Harvey (1992, 2009 and by the recent debates on  inequality, diversity, segregation, exclusion, and discrimination. The debates on segregation, exclusion and discrimination are generally focused on inequalities in terms of economic,  ethnic and gender dimensions; however, in these debates, there is very little reference to unequal opportunities of disabled people. On the other hand, the diversity issue is generally discussed with respect to ethnic and cultural elements, again with very little concern for the  rights of disabled people. In many developing countries, including Turkey, a legal framework  for addressing disability issues has started to be put in place. Awareness among governments and society of the needs and rights of people with disabilities is growing. In the  last decade in Turkey, the difficulties faced by disabled people have started to be taken into  consideration seriously. Before that, the only information about the disabled population could  be obtained from General Population Census in Turkey. In 2002 “Turkey Disability Survey” was carried out collectively by the State Institute of Statistics and the Presidency of  Administration on Disabled People. In this survey, it has been targeted to estimate the number of disabled people and comprehend their socio-economic characteristics, their  problems in social life, expectations, types and causes of disability, regional differences and also the proportion of population having chronic illnesses. After this survey, many projects  have started to be realized in order to propose strategies for eliminating discrimination in  Turkey. In this paper, we will

  6. Against Generationism. A Conceptual Outline of Justice for Future Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Savić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Humanity faces a global ecological crisis in the context of climate change which challenges established forms of political thought and action. The discussion of justice is applied to the future, where we understand time and the natural environment as a common bond between people from different periods. We put today’s generation in a relationship with the generations in the near and more distant future. The term »generacism«, describing the current way of thinking as another form of discrimination, allows us to show the inadequacy of our attitudes towards future generations. By destroying the global environment, we create injustice towards future generations on the basis of the time of peoples’ birth. In this context, time is understood as an arbitrary circumstance, which does not suffice as a basis for discriminating between people. We defend the concept of intergenerational justice that gives the state the responsibility for implementing environmental protection measures in order to protect future generations and eliminate generacism from our society and economy. We propose the so-called green state, which bases environmental protection measures on fairness to future generations.

  7. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  8. CIVIL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Loggerenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.

  9. Towards Communicative Justice in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    This article approaches care from a different angle by looking ethnographically at how it is shaped by structural differences in the power to control the circulation of knowledge. I focus on an investigation conducted by people classified as "indigenous", of an epidemic that killed 38 children and young adults in a Venezuelan rainforest. I trace how health/communicative inequities structured clinical interactions, documents, epidemiological investigations, news stories, and dialogues with healers, thwarting the identification of the epidemic, clinically identified as rabies. Although the Bolivarian socialist government provided access to care, professionals denigrated parents' contributions to care and communication and reduced complex, unequal relations between languages to practical problems of translation. Pointing to parallels with US social movements, I suggest that responding to demands for communicative justice in health requires seeing how health inequities are entangled with health/communicative inequities. The typographical slash points to importance of challenging the subdisciplinary boundary-work that relegates their study to non-overlapping conversations in medical and linguistic anthropology.

  10. Institutions and Mechanisms for Internal Conflict Resolution: Legal and Non-Legal Means in Resolving Dispute and Attaining Justice in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Azmin Mokhtar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Seeking justice is a noble cause and dispensing justice is an obligation that the state must fulfill. Under the doctrine of separation of powers courts exist to protect people and their rights, to guarantee fairness and justice for all. The task to combat injustices, produce a just ordering of society, ensure a fair distribution of material and legal resources, safeguard the rule of law, promote equality, ensure proportionality in punishment, and protect entitlements and legitimate expectations should not be put on the shoulders of judges and courts only. It must be spread out and shared by other institutions and by whatever means available

  11. [Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal]: Task 7.1, Strategic planning. Topical report, February 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The nations of East Central Europe regained their political and economic freedom in 1989, ending nearly a half century of centrally planned economies under the hegemony of the former Soviet Union (FSU). These nations are now emerging from economic conditions marked by price distortions and a focus on heavy industry, isolation from world markets, and a lack of occupational health and environmental safeguards. Economic recovery, environmental restoration, and political stability, as well as eventual entrance into the European Community (EC), require a reordering of policies and priorities, including those bearing on energy and the environment. This report, prepared as a background document for the Second International Conference on Energy and Environment to be held in Prague in November 1994, is composed of a summary table (Table 1) and supporting text and is intended to provide a concise review of issues related to energy and the environment for the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary, Poland, and Bulgaria. Organized by subject and country, Table 1 contains country profiles (Row A), information on the economy (Row B), primary energy consumption, environmental priorities, energy resources, production, and utilization (Rows C, D, F, G, H, and I), electrical generation and transmission (Rows J and K), district heating (Row L), briquettes (Row M), and environmental regulations (Row N). Pertinent policy goals, issues, and trends are noted. The reports is based largely on a review of documents published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as well as selected sources obtained from the countries of the region. Reference citations are keyed to information presented in Table 1

  12. Research and development of technologies for safe and environmentally optimal recovery and disposal of explosive wastes. Task 10, Impact assessment for environment, health and safety (EIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    2000-03-01

    Modern technologies like high-pressure water washout and Fluidised Bed Combustion provide safe and environmentally acceptable solutions for demilitarisation. The environmental impact from the traditional techniques Open Burning and Open Detonation can be drastically reduced. High-pressure water washout in combination with Fluidised Bed Combustion and NO{sub x}-reduction using urea-injection is the best well-demonstrated technology considered in this study. This technology can be used for large/medium sized calibre munitions, but additional removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gases is required in order to comply with European emission standards. It has been made credible at existing Rotary Kilns used for hazardous waste in general can be used also for incineration of de-sensitised, down sized munitions (slurries), with a similar performance with respect to environmental and safety aspects as Fluidised Bed Combustion. Using a Closed Detonation chamber with flue-gas cleaning has important environmental advantages compared to Open Burning and Open Detonation, especially for small munitions (e.g. fuzes, antipersonnel mines, pyrotechnics). However, because Closed Detonation is labour-intensive and requires operation of complex, pressurised systems, it poses more risk on the personnel. For that reason, it is recommended to develop other systems to demilitarise small munitions. It appears that the air pollution emissions from transport of munitions to disposal facilities is significant compared to the process emissions of the 'cleanest' technologies. Similarly, risks related to transport (due to ordinary accidents involving trucks) are not dominating, but cannot be ignored compared to process risks. These considerations need to be included when comparing less sophisticated local or mobile facilities with central facilities having advanced flue gas cleaning. (au)

  13. Exogenous vs. endogenous governance in innovation communities: Effects on motivation, conflict and justice - An experimental investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Störmer, Niclas; Herstatt, Cornelius

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examine the effects of exogenous vs. endogenous governance rules on a virtual community handling an innovative task. Specifically we investigate the relationship between the two modes (exogenous vs. endogenous) and factors such as motivation, conflict and justice. We conducted an experiment with 70 students, divided into teams of five. We manipulated procedural legitimacy by allowing one group to choose a set of rules and giving the other group the same rules exogenously. Our...

  14. Assessment for Social Justice: The Role of Assessment in Achieving Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for "assessment for social justice", through which a greater focus is given to the role of assessment in achieving the social justice aspirations of higher education. It takes inspiration from work on assessment for learning to propose that as assessment is a powerful driver of how and what students…

  15. Restorative Justice at Work: Examining the Impact of Restorative Justice Resolutions on Juvenile Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Programs with restorative justice ideals attempt to incorporate victims and community members into the administration of justice. Although these programs have become increasingly popular, only a few programs in the United States have been the focus of prior studies. Using official juvenile court data from an urban, metropolitan area, this study…

  16. "The Path of Social Justice": A Human Rights History of Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Gibson, Melissa Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Although not often recognized, social justice education in the U.S. is historically and philosophically tied to the twentieth century's human rights initiatives. The efforts of human rights pioneers, such as those who authored the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, have indelibly shaped social justice efforts, including within education, in…

  17. The Administration of Justice in al-Andalus and the Principles of Justice in Constitutional Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    exanimating some of the distinctive elements of the Andalusian administration of justice and the role that specialized judges developed. The paper then exposes the meaning and scope of modern principles of justice, as prescribed by Article 10 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in Article 14...

  18. Navigating the Meanings of Social Justice, Teaching for Social Justice, and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunhee

    2017-01-01

    This article uses well-received contemporary scholarship--works by Iris Young, Nancy Fraser, Morva McDonald, Connie North, and Geneva Gay--to illuminate a high degree of coherence among the substantive meanings of social justice, teaching for social justice, and multicultural education. Based on these relationships, the article suggests that…

  19. Rethinking Discussions of Justice in Educational Research: Formative Justice, Educational Liberalism, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Winston C.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational research tends to borrow accounts of justice from scholarship embedded within the structures and commitments of other disciplines or fields of study. This has created a body of educational research that largely responds to the "justice" goals of those disciplines rather than education qua education.…

  20. Commentary: School Psychologists as Advocates for Racial Justice and Social Justice: Some Proposed Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, David

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Shriberg acknowledges that social justice and racial justice are critical frameworks from which to view school psychology. Individually and collectively, the works in this special issue of "School Psychology Forum" have added a tremendous service to the field. In addition to advancing research, the articles challenge…