WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental economic geography

  1. Whatever Happened to Economic Geography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Maintains that economic geography is alive and well. Describes some of the challenges facing research in economic geography and highlights the changing approaches being applied to economic geography. Includes sections on structural change, economic reorganization, and internationalization of manufacturing and finances. (JDH)

  2. Geography and environmental science

    OpenAIRE

    Milinčić, Miroljub; Souliotis, Lily; Mihajlović, Ljiljana; Požar, Tea

    2014-01-01

    Geography is one of the oldest academic disciplines with a strong holistic approach in conceptualizing the interaction between nature and society, i.e. animate and inanimate parts of the environment. Over time, geography has been increasing and improving its conceptual and terminological abilities for studying and understanding complex relationships among environmental systems. For this reason, geography has advanced from a well-known science about nature and society into a relevant science a...

  3. Applied evolutionary economics and economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.

    2007-01-01

    Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography" aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and

  4. Applications of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.; Puranam, Krishna Kishore; Ravi Kumar Jain B., xx

    2008-01-01

    This paper is written as the first chapter of an edited volume on evolutionary economics and economic geography (Frenken, K., editor, Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, expected publication date February 2007). The paper reviews empirical applications of

  5. Industrial Dynamics and Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capasso, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314016627; Stam, Erik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/215649370; Cefis, Elena|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/274516233

    2015-01-01

    Capasso M., Stam E. and Cefis E. Industrial dynamics and economic geography, Regional Studies. How do industries emerge and evolve over space? In this special issue the fields of industrial dynamics and economic geography are brought together in order to achieve a richer and more fundamental

  6. Applied evolutionary economics and economic geography

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sunley

    2008-01-01

    Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and sociologists, all of whom share an interest in explaining the uneven distribution of economic activities in space and the historical processes that have produced these patterns.

  7. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

  8. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2010-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-à-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and how

  9. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

  10. The role of environmental factors in the New Economic Geography framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Azqueta Oyarzun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a number of outcomes that the increase in the social demand for a higher environmental quality may have on the patterns of spatial specialization, irrespective of the scale of analysis. This paper aims at exploring how, together with new possibilities for backward regions, some sub-optimal solutions can also be found from a social viewpoint. On the other hand, we reflect on how an efficient allocation of resources (internalising environmental considerations, could well be incompatible with the dismantling of protectionism within the agricultural sectors of developed countries. The impact on biological diversity is specifically studied.

  11. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  12. Economic development and the geography of institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    To explain cross-country income differences, research has recently focused on the so-called deep determinants of economic development, notably institutions and geography. This article shows that it is not only absolute geography, in terms of for instance climate or being landlocked, but also

  13. Adding geography to the new economic geography : bridging the gap between theory and empirics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Brakman, S.; Garretsen, J.H.; Schramm, M.

    2010-01-01

    For reasons of analytical tractability, new economic geography (NEG) models treat geography in a very simple way, focusing on stylized 'unidimensional' geography structures (e.g. an equidistant or line economy). All the well-known NEG results are based on these simple geography structures. When

  14. The spaces of urban economic geographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsø Hansen, Høgni; Winther, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....

  15. Physical Geography and Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Thornbush

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this introduction to the Special Issue on Physical Geography and Environmental Sustainability, the links between a variety of physical landscapes located throughout the world and long-term wellbeing are considered from a systems approach. Twelve papers were published as part of this call, with half from Asia, especially China. They represent a contribution across topographic landscapes, from mountainous to estuarine, and cover models as well as case studies encompassing landscape and environmental changes. Remotely sensed data, statistical analysis, and GIS were often incorporated in the work, and this particularly conveys the importance of spatial analysis on inputs by physical geographers in sustainability research. Furthermore, scale variations from the local to global are presented as part of a geographical contribution. The connectedness of environments to humans and the reverse (of humans adapting to environmental change is evident in several of the papers where human impacts and adaptation are concerned. Finally, the last paper provides a comprehensive summary of the potential contribution that physical geographers can make to environmental sustainability from a multidisciplinary approach.

  16. AP Geography, Environmental Science Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today's students--even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem--but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own. Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement (AP) program, participation in geography is rising faster than any…

  17. Producer services, economic geography, and services tradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vaal, A; van den Berg, M

    We investigate how the incorporation of producer services linkages affects the outcome of an economic geography model. We specify the production of manufactures such that a variety of producer services is needed to transform tradable unfinished goods into final consumption goods. We find that

  18. Why is economic geography not an evolutionary science? ; towards an evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2006-01-01

    The paper explains the commonalities and differences between neoclassical, institutional and evolutionary approaches that have been influential in economic geography during the last couple of decades. By separating the three approaches in terms of theoretical content and research methodology, wecan

  19. Economic Geography and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Maarten; Garretsen, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africas (SSA) physical geography is often blamed for its poor economic performance. A countrys geographical location does, however, not only determine its agricultural conditions or disease environment. It also pins down a countrys relative position vis--vis other countries, affecting

  20. Geography, demography, and economic growth in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, D E; Sachs, J D

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate, topography, and natural ecology on public health, nutrition, demographics, technological diffusion, international trade and other determinants of economic development in Africa. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the need for intensified research on the issues at the intersection of ecology and human society. Geography was given emphasis because of three reasons: the minimal gain from another recitation of the damage caused by statism, protectionism and corruption to African economic performance; negligence of the role of natural forces in shaping economic performance; and tailoring of policies to geographical realities. The paper also discusses the general problems of tropical development and the focus of Africa's problems in worldwide tropical perspectives; demographic trends in Africa; use of standard cross-country growth equations with demographic and geographic variables, to account for the relative roles of geography; and the future growth strategies and the need for urban-based export growth in manufacturing and services. Lastly, the authors provide a summary of conclusions and discuss the agenda for future research.

  1. Why is economic geography not an evolutionary science? : towards an evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.; Martin, R.

    2008-01-01

    The paper explains the commonalities and differences between neoclassical, institutional and evolutionary approaches that have been influential in economic geography during the last couple of decades. By separating the three approaches in terms of theoretical content and research methodology, we can

  2. Environmental Concerns in the Geography Curriculum: Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I use the qualitative data generated from my PhD study to show how three of the geography teachers grapple with the meaning of environmental education, sustainable development and education for sustainable development. The data reveals that the three teachers have conceptual difficulties regarding ...

  3. Rethinking (New) Economic Geography Models : Taking Geography and History More Seriously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Martin, Ron

    Two aspects of New Economic Geography models are often singled out for criticism, especially by geographers: the treatment of geography, typically as a pre-given, fixed and highly idealized abstract geometric space; and the treatment of history, typically as 'logical' time (the movement to

  4. GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency helps state and local governments protect the environment by encouraging good environmental management and by regulating human activities to ensure clean air and water. At the Corvallis research laboratory for the EPA, we improve the ways t...

  5. New Economic Geography: the Possibilities and Restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Alexandrovich Izotov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes scientific publications on the new economic geography (NEG relevance. On the basis of the publications array the author determined characteristic features of the simulation and the central idea of this research direction. Analysis showed that modeling in the terms of NEG is based on the approach of general equilibrium under monopolistic competition, endogenous factors and homogeneous space. The NEG central idea can be presented as follows: the increasing economy of scale is the main force for factors migration in homogeneous space. The theoretical studies analysis revealed that the development of NEG models is carried out by consideration of different options for the migration behavior of the agglomeration subjects and inclusion of theoretical constructs from adjacent areas, in particular, new economic growth theory and urban economics models. The article shows that empirical papers mainly test the NEG provisions in the terms of the model “core- periphery”. The extremely rare cases of testing other NEG models are apparently due to the absence of statistical data; the difficulty of obtaining reliable estimates of the elasticity of substitution of goods by different countries, regions and cities. Systematization of the scientific community criticism has allowed identifying the main problems of NEG: identification in the system of socio- economic researches, spatial characteristics ignoring, research object limitations, simplicity of the backgrounds, problems with empirical evidence. Further NEG development, according to experts, depends on obtaining of its specific place in the system of socio-economic researches or NEG may remain as one of the modeling approaches in the general equilibrium framework

  6. Bifurcation theory for hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    This book contributes to an understanding of how bifurcation theory adapts to the analysis of economic geography. It is easily accessible not only to mathematicians and economists, but also to upper-level undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in nonlinear mathematics. The self-organization of hexagonal agglomeration patterns of industrial regions was first predicted by the central place theory in economic geography based on investigations of southern Germany. The emergence of hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography models was envisaged by Krugman. In this book, after a brief introduction of central place theory and new economic geography, the missing link between them is discovered by elucidating the mechanism of the evolution of bifurcating hexagonal patterns. Pattern formation by such bifurcation is a well-studied topic in nonlinear mathematics, and group-theoretic bifurcation analysis is a well-developed theoretical tool. A finite hexagonal lattice is used to express uniformly distri...

  7. Russian Socio-Economic Geography: Status, Challenges, Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov Vasilii

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new space and therefore ignores the "spatial" science, geography. Internal reason is the blurring of socio-economic geography along the variety of new lines of research. The discipline was, in many ways, redundant, and unselective in the application of theoretical and methodological tools liberally borrowed from other branches of both geography and economics. The only way this discipline can return to its former glory is by going all the way back to doing proper spatial research.

  8. Models of economic geography : dynamics, estimation and policy evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, Thijs

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we look at economic geography models from a number of angles. We started by placing the theory in a context of preceding theories, both earlier work on spatial economics and other children of the monopolistic competition ‘revolution.’ Next, we looked at the theoretical properties of

  9. International business and economic geography : knowledge, time and transactions costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip

    This paper sketches out how the ways in which a combination of economic geography and international business approaches can shed light on the spatial behaviour of multinational companies. The emphasis of the argument here is on the nature of the knowledge content embedded in the transactions of the

  10. Employing SWOT Analysis in Coursework on the Geographies of Regional Economic Development and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Sonnichsen, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The use of SWOT analysis is a means through which geography students can investigate key concepts in economic geography and essential topics in regional economic development. This article discusses the results of a course project where economic geography students employed SWOT analysis to explore medium-sized metropolitan areas across the southern…

  11. Models of economic geography: dynamics, estimation and policy evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Knaap, Thijs

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we look at economic geography models from a number of angles. We started by placing the theory in a context of preceding theories, both earlier work on spatial economics and other children of the monopolistic competition ‘revolution.’ Next, we looked at the theoretical properties of these models, especially when we allow firms to have different demand functions for intermediate goods. We estimated the model using a dataset on US states, and computed a number of counterfactuals....

  12. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  13. Environmental Concerns in the Geography Curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education at FET level, the last phase of schooling (Gr 10–12), is to teach ... This is followed by a section on methodology that also provides the profiles of three ..... degree with a major in geography and a Higher Diploma in Education (HDE).

  14. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia. ERF. Economic ... economists can contribute to this work by estimating the monetary value of such environment-related benefits ... One of the few safe places to put money has been land, ...

  15. Geography оf Economic Science: Problem Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nikolaevich Demyanenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to geography of economic science, which is, according to the authors, a kind of a «gray zone», where concepts and methods of science of science, economic geography and economy cross. The authors proceeded from the following methodological prerequisites: 1 the production of economic knowledge is the activity, the scope and the results of which can be measured fairly accurately; 2 the structure of economic science can be presented not only as a sectoral, thematic, institutional, but also as a spatial. As an information base of research the authors used E-library resources which are relevant to the authors that have published the results of studies in Economics and related disciplines in the scientific journals. At the initial stage of the research, the authors focused on the economists who are employees of scientific research organizations (academic institutions, universities and research institutes that are located within the Russian Far East, as well as researchers from other regions of Russia, who have published articles in the Far Eastern scientific journals. Preliminary results of the study show following: 1 the high level of A.N. Demyanenko, N.A. Demyanenko PE No. 1 2014 territorial concentration (85% of all publications belongs to research organizations of Khabarovsk and Vladivostok; 2 the high level of information concentration (up to 90% of all publications belongs to Far Eastern journals. Mostly this is due to the fragmentation of economic scientific community

  16. Oil and the economic geography of the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortepeter, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book gives us the opportunity to follow the development of the field of economic geography as applied to the Middle East during the past half century. The materials are arranged under the following three headings: Geography and Petroleum: Boundaries and Boundary Disputes: and Social Geography

  17. COST Training School on New Economic Complex Geography

    CERN Document Server

    Panchuk, Anastasiia; Radi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the lectures delivered during a short course held at Urbino University in summer 2015 on qualitative theory of dynamical systems, included in the activities of the COST Action IS1104 “The EU in the new economic complex geography: models, tools and policy evaluation”. It provides a basic introduction to dynamical systems and optimal control both in continuous and discrete time, as well as some numerical methods and applications in economic modelling. Economic and social systems are intrinsically dynamic, characterized by interdependence, nonlinearity and complexity, and these features can only be approached using a qualitative analysis based on the study of invariant sets (equilibrium points, limit cycles and more complex attractors, together with the boundaries of their basins of attraction), which requires a trade-off between analytical, geometrical and numerical methods. Even though the early steps of the qualitative theory of dynamical systems have been in continuous time models, in e...

  18. TEACHING AND ASSESSING SKILLS IN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY IN A BILINGUAL CLASS

    OpenAIRE

    FLORINA PĂUNESCU

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents my experience in bilingual teaching, an integrated programme for geography and English language learning for upper secondary students. General geographical aspects are connected to the geography of Great Britain and that of the USA, with an attitude of raising students’ awareness on environmental issues. The topics are a framework for the development of (environmental) geography-related knowledge and skills, cogni...

  19. Agglomeration Economies, Economic Growth and the New Economic Geography in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Diaz-Bautista

    2005-01-01

    The present study of regional economic growth in Mexico is based on the new economic geography, where distance plays an important role in explaining urban regional economic growth. The results show that distance to the northern border of Mexico and labor migration between states of Mexico, after the passage of NAFTA are important factors that explain the regional state growth and agglomerations in Mexico between 1994 and 2000. The results also indicate that job growth and FDI are not signific...

  20. The Implementation of Environmental Education in Geography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    world of rapid change since environmental challenges are dynamic. ... out in secondary schools in the Caprivi region in Namibia (currently ... a number of international agreements concerning the environment, such as the Convention.

  1. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  2. Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Universi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-01-05

    Jan 5, 2016 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 9 (1): 14 – 21, 2016. ISSN:1998-0507 ... A egunle had better quality housing than the slums of Badia,. Iwaya and ... One of such problems relating to housing is the ...

  3. 846 Department of Geography and Environmental Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-10-23

    Oct 23, 2015 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(Suppl. 1): 846 – 854 ... explain causes for regional variations of road development. Secondary ... stock road network was 6400 km in 1951 .... Figure 1: Growth of Rural and urban Roads in Ethiopia, 1992-2009 ..... Zone: A Case Study of Ethiopia”.

  4. Environmental protection economically viable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dartsch, B.; Hildebrandt, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Technology Forum for Industry and Research (Utech) was held for the fifth time this year at the International Congress Centre in Berlin. The main themes of this year's Utech were additive environmental protection, production-integrated environmental protection, management and economic aspects of environmental protection, research and development in environmental protection as well as environmental information legislation. (orig.) [de

  5. Explaining the wage gap: Heckscher-Ohlin, economic geography and services availability

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, J.; Vaal, A. de

    2000-01-01

    In the debate on globalisation and wage inequality Heckscher-Ohlin, economic geography and services availability theory has featured prominently. However, a neglected mechanism by which globalisation affects labour market outcomes is through the in-creased tradability of producer services. By integrating elements of Heck-scher- Ohlin theory, the economic geography literature and the literature on producer services linkages, we show that the impact of globalisation on the relative wages is a s...

  6. Are Geography Students Good "Environmental Citizens?" A Comparison between Year of Study and over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Zoe P.

    2015-01-01

    Are geography students good "environmental citizens?" Has this improved over time with increasing emphasis on sustainability within higher education? This paper compares environmental attitudes and behaviours of geography students at different stages of their degree and over a seven-year period. The findings show that although geography…

  7. Defining competitiveness through the theories of new economic geography and regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Darko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of work is defining competitiveness through a multidisciplinary approach of the theories of new economic geography and regional economy. The paper describes in detail the theory of competitiveness, defined by numerous authors in this area, with special emphasis on the opposing views of Michael Porter and Paul Krugman. A regional competitiveness that is colsely related to economic geography and regional economy, the development of regional economy and typology of regions have been defined in the work. One of the first authors that stressed the importance of geographical location was Michael Porter. In his model called “diamond“, the author emphasizes that geographical concentration of a business enhances the productivity, innovativity and sector export. After this theory, many authors have foccussed on the location problem research, which resulted in better interconnection of economy and geography. As the result of such activities, new directions have been developed, such as the new theory of economic geography and regional economy. New economic geography has been mentioned mostly in connection with the Nobel Prize winner, Paul Krugman, whose theories are often opposed to Porter's ones. Krugman had the most credit for the development of New Economic Geography. At the end of the work, the differences between comparative and competitive adventages were explained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007, br. 47009 i br. 179015

  8. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Brad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradictions and proposes some streams of intervention such as economic growth and environmental sustainability to operate in harmony. A structured framework for innovative problem solving is considered in this respect. Results of this research show that it is possible to induce smart measures in the economic system for directing businesses towards new paradigms where economic growth is possible without negative effects on environmental sustainability.

  9. New economic geography in Germany: testing the Helpman-Hanson model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, S.; Schramm, M.; Garretsen, Harry

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we find evidence that the new economic geography approach is able to describeand explain the spatial characteristics of an economy, in our case the German economy. UsingGerman district data we estimate the structural parameters of a new economic geographymodel as developed by Helpman

  10. Modeling knowledge networks in economic geography: a discussion of four methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekel, Tom; Balland, Pierre-Alexandre; Burger, Martijn; van Oort, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The importance of network structures for the transmission of knowledge and the diffusion of technological change has been recently emphasized in economic geography. Since network structures drive the innovative and economic performance of actors in regional contexts, it is crucial to explain

  11. Adaptation, interaction and urgency : a complex evolutionary economic geography approach to leisure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meekes, Jasper F.; Buda, Dorina M.; de Roo, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Local and regional governments in western European peripheral areas aim to spur leisure-led regional development. We explore planning for leisure by applying an evolutionary economic geography (EEG) approach from a complexity perspective. We identify conditions which enable and constrain leisure

  12. Introduction: Place, space and organization : economic geography and the multinational enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; Mudambi, R.; McCann, P.

    This article discusses the current links between international trade theory, economic geography and strategy and international business. We offer a way forward for building further links between these literatures that focusses on the notions of place, space and organization, and we document how the

  13. Explaining the wage gap : Heckscher-Ohlin, economic geography and services availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.; Vaal, A. de

    2000-01-01

    In the debate on globalisation and wage inequality Heckscher-Ohlin, economic geography and services availability theory has featured prominently. However, a neglected mechanism by which globalisation affects labour market outcomes is through the in-creased tradability of producer services. By

  14. World geography and power, national capitals, and inequality as cross-national causes of food security and environmental outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Kick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatments of sustainability outcomes such as food security, economic development and environmental degradation typically have adopted monocausal approaches. Many have argued for substantial increases in world meat production as the panacea to global food insecurity. We use global and national synthetic explanations and path analytic approaches to examine sustainability outcomes for 200 nations. Both strong direct or indirect links are found among global geography, global power and national capitals, as well as warfare and military expenditures, and economic development. These factors are differentially predictive of the other key measures of sustainability.

  15. Shaping the Environmental Attitude of Military Geography Students at the South African Military Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hennie A. P.

    2009-01-01

    Globally there is a growing environmental awareness among all segments of society, but research on the effect of environmental education in shaping the attitude of military students is lacking. Tertiary environmental education to officers of the South African Department of Defence is seated in the Department of Military Geography at the South…

  16. TEACHING AND ASSESSING SKILLS IN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY IN A BILINGUAL CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORINA PĂUNESCU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents my experience in bilingual teaching, an integrated programme for geography and English language learning for upper secondary students. General geographical aspects are connected to the geography of Great Britain and that of the USA, with an attitude of raising students’ awareness on environmental issues. The topics are a framework for the development of (environmental geography-related knowledge and skills, cognitive skills and language aspects. Therefore, the paper presents various methods of teaching and assessing environmental issues in four distinct structured texts, which combine typical geographical skills (like completing a sketch or a mind map with methods used in English classes (like true/false questions. A special accent is on both the use of specific environmental vocabulary – synonyms, false friends, also anticipated grammar mistakes – as well as on discussions in class, based on cause-effect relationships between processes and phenomena.

  17. Essays in environmental economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz-Marvez, Sherry L.

    This body of work contributes to the literature on two current topics in environmental economics: (1) the relationship between economic development and environmental degradation; and (2) the effectiveness of mandatory information disclosure as a regulatory instrument. For the first topic, we link theoretical and empirical Environmental Kuznets Curve research by using calibration and simulation to test a growth model with environmental quality as a normal good and emissions as a factor of production. We use U.S. macroeconomic, emissions and compliance data to calibrate parameters representing preferences for environmental quality and marginal abatement costs. We simulate the model starting from a less-developed initial condition and compare the predicted pollution-income relationship with that in the data. Our results are mixed. Some support exists for the theory that an inverted U-shape results from a corner solution in which less developed countries do not abate pollution. However, pollution peaks at a level of per capita income which is much lower than that observed in the U.S. data. For the second topic, we study the effectiveness of mandatory information disclosure as environmental regulation. Community-right-to-know programs such as the EPA's Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) use mandatory information disclosure to "shame" dirty firms into reducing emissions. The idea is that the public---armed with previously unavailable emissions information---will pressure firms with higher-than-expected emissions to "clean-up." We use the electricity industry to study the impact of price-and-entry deregulation on the effectiveness of the TRI. Using event studies, we find that, on average, utilities experience losses in firm value immediately following TRI announcements. Using panel regressions, we show that toxic emissions released in regulated states are associated with decreases in firm value while those released in deregulated states are associated with increases in firm

  18. Effects of religion, economics, and geography on genetic structure of Fogo Island, Newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M H; Koertevlyessy, T; Huntsman, R G; Collins, M; Duggirala, R; Martin, L; Keeping, D

    1995-01-01

    The population structure of Fogo Island, Newfoundland is described using geography, religious affiliation, economic factors (such as the presence of a fish-packing plant), and genetic markers. Five different analytic methods, R-matrix analysis, r ii VS. mean per locus heterozygosity, predicted kinship (ϕ), mean first passage time, and Mantel matrix comparisons, were applied to the Fogo Island genetic and demographic data. The results suggest that geography plays a role on Fogo Island in the distribution of genes, while religion, ethnicity, and economic factors play less significant roles. The communities with fish-packing plants and tourism serve as migratory "sinks" for Fogo islanders seeking employment. Reproductively, the most isolated village on Fogo Island is Tilting, and this is reflected in its genetic uniqueness, initially caused by Irish settlement and subsequently the action of stochastic processes. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  19. An Economic Geography of the United States: From Commutes to Megaregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash Nelson, Garrett; Rae, Alasdair

    2016-01-01

    The emergence in the United States of large-scale "megaregions" centered on major metropolitan areas is a phenomenon often taken for granted in both scholarly studies and popular accounts of contemporary economic geography. This paper uses a data set of more than 4,000,000 commuter flows as the basis for an empirical approach to the identification of such megaregions. We compare a method which uses a visual heuristic for understanding areal aggregation to a method which uses a computational partitioning algorithm, and we reflect upon the strengths and limitations of both. We discuss how choices about input parameters and scale of analysis can lead to different results, and stress the importance of comparing computational results with "common sense" interpretations of geographic coherence. The results provide a new perspective on the functional economic geography of the United States from a megaregion perspective, and shed light on the old geographic problem of the division of space into areal units.

  20. The Spatialities of Urban Economic Geographies: New Industrial Spaces in the Outer City of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of the outer city plays in the urban economy of Copenhagen. The centre of attention is on the changing industrial structure, the progressively higher complexity of firm location, and the division of labour that have emerged in the past decade of growth as a result of the resurgence of the metropolitan region...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....

  1. Regional Intergration and Migration: An Economic Geography Model with Hetergenous Labour Force

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola D. Coniglio

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the effect of deepening regional integration on the incentive for factors of production, in particular labour, to spatially relocate. We adopt a general equilibrium, economic-geography model built on Krugman (1991) allowing for skill heterogeneity in the manufacturing sector. At a given level of trade costs, due to the productivity premium associated with the concentration of high-skilled workers in one region, this type of worker will be more willing to migrate tha...

  2. Bones, Bombs and Break Points: The Geography of Economic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Donald R. Davis; David E. Weinstein

    2001-01-01

    We consider the distribution of economic activity within a country in light of three leading theories - increasing returns, random growth, and locational fundamentals. To do so, we examine the distribution of regional population in Japan from the Stone Age to the modern era. We also consider the Allied bombing of Japanese cities in WWII as a shock to relative city sizes. Our results support a hybrid theory in which locational fundamentals establish the spatial pattern of relative regional den...

  3. Racial Geography, Economic Growth and Natural Disaster Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huiping [University of North Carolina at Charlotte; Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Ganguly, Auroop [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2014-03-01

    Recent development of National Response Plans and National Incident Management Plans has emphasized the need for interoperability of plans, systems, technology, and command structures. However, much less emphasis has been placed on equally important elements such as the at-risk populations’ response to those plans, systems, and directions. The community-wide consequences of Hurricane Katrina demonstrated that the protection of communities should no longer be considered only a function of public organizations. Private organizations, nonprofit organizations and individual households have significant roles to play in these plans (Comfort 2006, Salamon 2002). This study is a first attempt to characterize the effect on the resilience (recovery) of metropolitan areas by the presence (or absence) of separate small communities within a larger jurisdiction. These communities can be based on many different social cleavages (ethnic, racial, economic, social, geographic, linguistic, etc.).

  4. Book reviews: Miroslav N. Jovanovic – Evolutionary Economic Geography. Location of Production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca G. Popescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The book tries to answer the problem of locating production of a company in the geographic space analyzing what determines productivity differences between regions using the theory of evolutionary economic geography. Evolutionary economics studies “the origin, change, direction and speed in the spatial distribution and organization of as well as production and consumption in a certain period of time.” The studied problem is relevant in order to know not only what will be the future location of jobs, their quality and quantity but also where will take place the maximization of profits, the collection of taxes, the public spending, etc.

  5. Macro-economic environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wier, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present report, an introduction to macro-economic environmental models is given. The role of the models as a tool for policy analysis is discussed. Future applications, as well as the limitations given by the data, are brought into focus. The economic-ecological system is described. A set of guidelines for implementation of the system in a traditional economic macro-model is proposed. The characteristics of empirical national and international environmental macro-economic models so far are highlighted. Special attention is paid to main economic causalities and their consequences for the environmental policy recommendations sat by the models. (au) (41 refs.)

  6. Environmental Economics Research Strategy (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2005 Environmental Economics Research Strategy outlines EPA’s research effort to provide the necessary behavioral science foundation for making decisions and designing environmental policies at the least cost to American businesses and consumers.

  7. Expanding Students' Ability to Conceptualise the Dynamics of Changing Places in the Teaching of Environmental Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Mike

    2016-01-01

    "Research has consistently found that pedagogy informed by knowledge of students' existing ideas is more efficient in promoting conceptual change than traditional methods of instruction". Learners in the sub-field of environmental geography exhibit preconceptions that frame and sometimes hinder their knowledge acquisition. Those…

  8. Reflected Places of Childhood: Applying the Ideas of Humanistic and Cultural Geographies to Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Sirpa

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates people-environment relationships from the viewpoint of humanistic and cultural geographies and highlights the importance of subjective experiences and emotional place attachment in the construction of environmental attitudes. Some core concepts of these research fields (e.g. "place,"…

  9. Environmentally sustainable economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.G.; Woodruffe, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Shell Canada adopted Sustainable Development in 1990 as the approach to managing the environment. The corporation's president, representing the energy industry on the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, provided key direction on the development of the process. This paper reports on national concepts of Sustainable Development principles that were utilized as a starting point, but quickly a Shell specific policy was approved, followed by Corporate Principles and Targets and Undertakings. These are being further developed in both the upstream and downstream with leadership from Resources (E and P) Department. Cascading of Targets and Undertakings has occurred to E and P followed by operating complexes, the drilling sites and the seismic lines. Steps were carefully programmed to learn from specific application before expanding to all areas. All plans are expected to be in place by mid 1992. Place contain short and long term target but focus on a rolling 2 year identification of actions to meet those targets. The plans permit an annual appraisal of accomplishments as well as budgeting for successive years. The move to Sustainable Development planning is a significant shift in industry attitude and approach but demonstrates the ability for the coexistence of environmental and economic demands

  10. Indonesia's cultural economy: an economic geography using two secondary data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Gibson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic geographers have become increasingly interested in the importance of the 'cultural economy' to cities and regions, but rarely have results been sought or discussed for Southeast Asia or nations in the developing world. This article responds to this lacuna by charting an economic geography of cultural production in Indonesia, examining two sources ofpublicly available data: the United Nations Statistics Division's COMTRADE database of trade statistics, and DISb2b Indonesia (a commercial database of business location details in Indonesia. Results are discussed for the period 1996- 2002, for which reliable data are available. While both sources are limited (and such limitations are discussed here, they provide enough insight for some conclusions about the character of 1ndonesia's cultural economy to emerge. In contrast to studies of cultural economy in overseas contexts, Indonesia's culture-related exports are dominated by emphasis on hardware and manufacturing output, rather than intellectual property or 'symbolic' content. In keeping with overseas examples though, the geography oflndonesiak cultural economy displays high levels of metropolitan primacy. Results suggest that theories of cultural economies must be re-shaped to include consideration of regional and international flows, in addition to locally-unique class, cultural and economic dynamics in particular cities and regions.

  11. Essays in environmental economics

    OpenAIRE

    Stoerk, Thomas,

    2017-01-01

    The first chapter of the dissertation examines the learning process that economic agents use to update their expectation of an uncertain and infrequently observed event. The standard Bayesian updating model is restrictive in that it reflects the strong neo-classical assumption that economic agents efficiently incorporate new information with all available information when updating beliefs. I consider the case of flooding and estimate the effect of first-hand experience on flood insurance ta...

  12. Strategic interactions in environmental economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, Pim

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the strategic interactions important to environmental economics. That includes a wide range of topics: environmental groups influencing or informing consumers, the reaction to taxation by car and fuel producers, the spread of an innovative tax and binary public good games.

  13. To Think Spatially and Environmentally, Put on Your Geography Sunglasses!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Educators need to teach the geographic perspective because spatial and environmental thinking are central to understanding how the earth changes. In the more narrow interest of helping students to excel in school, it is impossible to teach students every possible example that they might encounter on an exam. How to teach perspectives and skills is…

  14. The End of Investment Bank Capitalism? An Economic Geography of Financial Jobs and Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Wójcik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates employment patterns, remuneration, and power relations in the U.S. financial sector between 1978 and 2008. It demonstrates that investment banking has played a central part in the securities industry, which has been by far the most expansive segment of the U.S. financial sector and a significant contributor to growing income inequality. The power of investment banking has risen over the past 30 years under the conditions of the growing demand for investment services, technological changes, deregulation, and globalization. Investment banks were at the heart of the shadow banking system, inventing many of the products used by it and often disguising its operation, thus contributing decisively to the outbreak of the global financial crisis of 2007–9. With leading U.S. investment banks converted into bank holding companies and the threat of reregulation, the future of investment banking is uncertain. One area of uncertainty is the banks’ relationship with sovereign wealth funds, which involves both opportunities and challenges. The article identifies the economic geography of investment banking as one of the keys to understanding the dynamics of the contemporary world economy and promotes a mesolevel approach to geographies of finance.

  15. Dynamic agglomeration patterns in a two-country new economic geography model with four regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commendatore, Pasquale; Kubin, Ingrid; Mossay, Pascal; Sushko, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a two-country New Economic Geography model with four regions. It is defined by a 2D piecewise smooth map that depends on 8 parameters. Using reductions of this map to 1D maps defined on invariant straight lines, we obtain stability conditions of the Core–Periphery fixed points, and show how such reductions can be used to describe basins of attraction of coexisting attractors. Typical bifurcation sequences obtained when varying some parameters are discussed. We find patterns that are much richer than those observed in standard NEG models: there are more types of fixed points including fixed points attracting in Milnor’s sense; their basins of attraction are quite complicated; and coexistence is pervasive.

  16. Introduction: financial geographies: the credit crisis as an opportunity to catch economic geography’s next boat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, E.; Faulconbridge, J.

    2009-01-01

    The story of the financial turmoil that swept the world in 2007 and 2008 has proven to be geographical to the bone. In this introduction to the special issue on ‘financial geographies’ we express concerns that the financial crisis and all it has showcased is going to be economic geography's ‘next

  17. Putting new economic geography to the test : Free-ness of trade and agglomeration in the EU regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; Schrannn, Marc; Schramm, M.

    For the NUTS II EU regions we estimate the wage equation that is central to the new economic geography literature. Our first main finding is that a spatial wage structure exists for the EU regions. Next, we analyze what our estimations imply for the link between the free-ness of trade and

  18. Economic instruments for environmental mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.

    1995-01-01

    A joint International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)/World Energy Council (WEC) Working Group has been studying a range of policy instruments which are being used or considered for use to address the question of ever increasing energy demand versus environmental protection, and pollution reduction. Economic instruments for such environmental protection include direct regulation, market-based instruments, and voluntary approaches. No single policy or device was likely to suffice in addressing the diversity of environmental problems currently faced. Altering energy prices must be seen in a social context, but some direct regulation may also be inevitable. Generally economic instruments of change were preferred as these were viewed as more flexible and cost-effective. (UK)

  19. Why Geography Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Walter A.

    2001-01-01

    It is important to learn geography, yet most Americans leave school functionally illiterate in geography. Geography is fundamental to student maturation, the process of true education, and it is a springboard to every other science and humanities subject. Knowledge of maps and geographical information is crucial to the examination of economic,…

  20. Walter Isard's Contributions to Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, Adam; Folmer, Henk; Nijkamp, Peter

    This article summarizes Walter Isard's important contributions to environmental economics and ecological economics. The former is the traditional field that incorporates some limited aspects of the environment into neoclassical economic theory, while the latter is a more comprehensive integration of

  1. The use of new technology in teaching geography in the EHEA. The subjects of Social and Economic Geography, Cartography and Photointerpretation, and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pallarès

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last five years, the Autonomous University of Barcelona's Geography Department studies have undergone a series of structural changes. Adaptation to an online system has led to a structural change in the way in which knowledge is disseminated and materials produced, and the application of the so-called Bologna Process (adaptation to the European Higher Education Area, EHEA has brought with it the need to change certain habits in the way knowledge is disseminated, a new credit transfer system (ECTS and skills-based training. The Department has taken part in a pilot test project initiated by the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB. In this period of change, we are simultaneously offering three teaching systems: the traditional system, in line with the study plan from 2002; the Bologna Process system, started in 2005-2006, and the online system, which was started in the academic year 2001-2002 and which does not form part of the Bologna Process. Two or three years from now, there will be two systems, face-to-face and online, both of which are to be adapted to the Bologna Process. This article looks to show what these changes have meant, in terms of the experience in subjects we teach (Cartography and Photointerpretation, Social and Economic Geography and Geographic Information Systems, which provides the basis for a discussion of the pros and cons of adaptation of Geogr@phy Online and to the Bologna Process.

  2. COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES IN ECONOMIC CRISES GEOGRAPHY. ECONOMIC STRATEGIES IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Maria Grecu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategies for structural-systemic crisis management have generated, to a geographical level, a number of differences between EU countries. These cleavages are the result of differentialmacroeconomic policies. In this context, this article has the aim of achieving a comparative approach between countries of the south, west and east of the EU space. Also our approach is focused on observing the nature of macroeconomic policies and also on identifying a "pattern" associated with a common ideal -type of "rational choice" in the efficient and effective management of systemic crises. This article aims to identify areas of growth and economic stability of a particular model of public policy and political-economic ideology, to set up a mechanism for "economic engineering”. From the methodological point of view, this article uses a quantitativemethodology, derived from mathematical analysis, statistics and stochastic, in order to explain, understand and predict the possible evolution of the systemic crises in the EU countries. The interest lies in the possibility of giving a model of macroeconomic policy for the adjustment of inflationist imbalances, labor market and pricepolicy, and also in regulating the equation of production-consumption.

  3. Geography, State and Society in Colombia, 1930-1960. The Republic’s General Comptroller’s project of the Economic Geographies of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Silva Olarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses an official —state-led— initiative, mostly ignored by historians until today, in the context of the Colombian nation-building process during the XX century. This initiative consisted in the elaboration of texts of Economic Geography by the Republic’s Office of the General Comptroller. Its purpose was to use these texts as tools to design national, regional, and sectorial policies, as well as to publicly disseminate a new kind of knowledge about the country and its resources. The examination of this project, which is the direct object of analysis in this article, shows a State that is struggling to leave behind an excessively partisan and political XIX century, while trying to guide itself by a body of technical knowledge. Such knowledge, produced by technicians and experts at the State’s service, tried to put aside partisan politics as its prime referent, and rather serve as an instrument of material and social progress.

  4. Field work in geography. Region with experience in socio-environmental conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ensabella

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the importance of the geographical field work in a region with socio-environmental conflict, such us the problem with water in Sierras Chicas, Cordoba. The main focus is a pedagogical experience, the Socio-Communal Practice (SCP, performed by professors, students and assistants of the subject Rural Geography, of the Bachelor’s in Geography course of studies of the Philosophy and Humanity School (PHS, in the city of La Granja, in Colón, Córdoba. The SCP is an experience that makes the students approach the social field of the territory conflicts. It is an activity that goes beyond the extension project, since it involves all the students doing the subject. And it is also a way to combine -in our case, from the geographic work- the teaching, investigation and extension functions typical of the university students. Through the SCP, we aim to make the Rural Geography students approach the field work, with local social organizations that deeply know the problems of their cities and that work together with our investigation group. In addition, this contact together with the individual thoughts, the group discussion and the debates between the university students, will broaden, in the whole society, the knowledge about the reality in which they live and with which they struggle. This article starts by defining what it is understood by SCP. Then, taking into account our practice, we develop what we consider to be the two logics that support the field work. One refers to the building of knowledge and to the different ways of learning and knowing. The other is related to the understanding of the socio-territory conflict in the area where the practice will be done: the Mesa del Agua and La Granja environment. We include a section about the description of the experience and its results, and we conclude with some reflections made taking into account the continuity of the practice

  5. Environmental economics: Saving lives, money, and ecosystems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-07

    Oct 7, 2010 ... Environmental economics gives developing countries a unique tool to make ... provides decision-makers facing tough economic and environmental choices with vital ... Emerging economies a new force in international giving.

  6. Ecological Economics: Themes, Approaches, and Differences with Environmental Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen C.J.M. van den Bergh

    2000-01-01

    This provides a short overview of the main themes of ecological economics (EE). It isargued that EE provides a platform that fosters multidisciplinary environmental research bybringing together the core contributing disciplines economics and ecology. In addition, EE isregarded as a pluralistic approach to environmental research that can be set opposite to, and hasindeed developed as a response to, traditional environmental and resource economics. Acomparison of the two fields is presented to ...

  7. Handbook of environmental and resource economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, J.C.J.M. van den [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The book contains 79 chapters by experts divided into ten parts entitled: introduction; economics of natural resources; economics of environmental policy; international aspects of environmental economics and policy; space in environmental economics; environmental macroeconomics; economic valuation and evaluation; interdisciplinary issues; methods and models in environmental and resource economics; and prospects. Chapters of particular relevance to the energy sector are entitled: lessons from using transferable permits to control air pollution in the United States; equity in environmental policy with an application to global warming; transboundary environmental problems; tax instruments for curbing CO{sub 2} emissions; transport and the environment; energy-economy-environment models; decompositions methodology in energy demand and environmental analysis, and input-output structural decomposition analysis of energy and the environment.

  8. Minerals on postage stamps: A mix of art, history, economics and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Most people would agree that minerals represent some of the most beautiful natural objects known to mankind, especially in the form of precious and semi-precious gemstones. It is hardly surprising, therefore, that they are often illustrated on stamps. Examples are the fine crystalline forms represented as coloured etchings in the French 1986 issue, and the stylized simplicity of the mineral stamps that were part of the Swiss Pro Patria series, issued annually between 1958 and 1961. I aim in this presentation to introduce the beautiful world of mineral illustrations on stamps. The talk cannot be comprehensive because of the very large number of minerals and stamps concerned, but it will introduce the range of minerals depicted on stamps, then look in some greater detail at several sets from France, Southern Africa and East Germany. Minerals become the subject of sets of stamps for many reasons. In many cases, it is part of an attempt by the particular national post office to depict the whole of the natural history of their country in stamp form - a statement of nationality and politics. The 1986 French issue was an example which followed sets of stamps that had already portrayed insects, flowers, trees and birds native to France. We also find that certain countries have produced several sets of stamps to mark the importance to their economy of mining particular minerals. Many African states depend upon minerals for much of their wealth and economic power, explaining why, for instance, Sierra Leone issued over 35 stamps on the subject of diamonds between 1965 and 1978, and why over 77% of mineral stamps come from countries with major mining interests. Countries with traditional links with the history of the study of geology and mining also produce mineral stamps. These are usually European countries with a long record of the study of the Earth, such as Germany and Switzerland. Curiously enough, though, despite its fine tradition of geological observation and research

  9. Sustainability and Environmental Economics: Some Critical Foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    I present five seminal concepts of environmental economic thought and discuss their applicability to the idea of sustainability. These five, Maximum Sustainable Yield and Steady-state, The Environmental Kuznet’s curve, Substitutability, Discount rate and Intergenerational equity...

  10. Is environmental management an economically sustainable business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschol, Antje; De Giovanni, Pietro; Esposito Vinzi, Vincenzo

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates whether environmental management is an economically sustainable business. While firms invest in green production and green supply chain activities with the primary purpose of reducing their environmental impact, the reciprocal relationships with economic performance need to be clarified. Would firms and suppliers adjust their environmental strategies if the higher economic value that environmental management generates is reinvested in greening actions? We found out that environmental management positively influences economic performance as second order (long term) target, to be reached conditioned by higher environmental performance; in addition, firms can increase their performance if they reinvest the higher economic value gained through environmental management in green practices: While investing in environmental management programs is a short term strategy, economic rewards can be obtained only with some delays. Consequently, environmental management is an economically sustainable business only for patient firms. In the evaluation of these reciprocal relationships, we discovered that green supply chain initiatives are more effective and more economically sustainable than internal actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Medical geography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, D

    2007-10-17

    Hippocrates already noted that geographical factors such as climate, relief, geology but also settlement patterns had influenced the distribution of diseases. The task of medical geography is to investigate the associations between geographical factors and diseases. Thereby, geographic techniques and concepts are applied on health problems. Of particular importance is the mapping of diseases whose causes are environmental-related. In addition, epidemiological, ecological but also social scientific studies play an important part in the investigation of the associations between geographical factors and diseases. In order to understand the associations between the spatial distribution of diseases and environmental exposures, geographic information systems as well as statistical analyses have recently become more important. Some authors regard medical geography merely as supporting discipline of medicine. Nevertheless, as men and environment future and as they play an important part in the diffusion of diseases being regarded as defeated, medical geography will play an important part concerning medical questions. Especially travel medicine will rely on geographic knowledge, if a patient has to be consulted who plans to travel to an unknown country of which knowledge on the geographical distribution and ecology of diseases will be necessary.

  12. Financial Development, Environmental Quality and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationships between financial development, environmental quality and economic growth are studied based on data from 102 countries over the period 1980–2010 using the generalized method of moments (GMM estimation. The econometric results show the following three basic conclusions: First, both financial development and environmental quality have a significant impact on economic growth and should be included in the production function of the economic growth model as important variables. Second, there is a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between financial development and economic growth; with the improvement of the level of financial development, economic growth would first increase and then decrease, which is consistent with the results of previous studies. Third, there is also a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions, indicating that there exists a “critical point” at which achieving economic growth comes at the expense of environmental quality, and after passing the critical point, the deterioration of environmental quality will lead to a significant slowdown in economic growth. In addition, the econometric analysis in this paper also shows that there was a mutually promoting and strengthening relationship between financial development and environmental quality. Specifically, the degree of financial development can further strengthen the promoting effect of environmental quality on economic growth; meanwhile, an improvement in environmental quality can also strengthen the promoting effect of financial development on economic growth. Financial development and environmental quality could influence economic growth through strengthening the marginal product effects of capital and labor, which further indicates the that both financial and environmental factors play an important role in modern economic development.

  13. Using an Environmental Economics Perspective to Influence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will provide funding to the Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Network (LACEEP) to build capacity in environmental and resource economics in the region, including collaborations with think tanks, to influence policy with evidence. Impact, influence, results LACEEP develops researchers' ...

  14. Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on Climate Change Adaptation ... They will develop environmental economics methods to address specific climate change challenges caused by extreme weather stressors. ... Initiative Villes ciblées : gestion des déchets urbains à Cochabamba, en Bolivie.

  15. Chips, bits, and the law: an economic geography of Internet gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Wilson

    2003-01-01

    Online gambling offers valuable insights into the relationship between real and virtual places. Gambling in most countries is highly regulated, with its geography reflecting the licensing of gambling to specific activities and locations. The ability to use the Internet challenges the legal foundation for gambling by offering access in an efficient and private way from distant locations. The heaviest concentration of gambling websites is found in North America and the Caribbean, with the leadi...

  16. Recent Trends in Geography Education in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohli, Robert V.; Binford, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Geography at elementary and middle schools in Louisiana, USA., remains a social studies strand along with civics, economics, and history, with no state-required geography course at any level. But because schools may require more geography than the state standard, this research examines the extent to which K-12 students are exposed to geography in…

  17. Economic growth - environmental protection - quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumm, J.

    1975-01-01

    This is an investigation into the assumption that uncontrolled economic growth puts a burden on the natural environment and lowers the quality of life. This analysis of the natural, technical, economic, and social environment answers the following questions: 1) which development will production and consumption take up to the year 2000; 2) extent of environmental burden to be expected as a result thereof; 3) influence of needs and valid standard of values thus prevailing; 4) administrative measures for environmental policies; 5) influence of environmental policies on the quality of life; 6) possibility of economic growth while the natural environment is sufficiently protected at the same time. The man-environment model presented elucidates the interrelations between economic development and the natural and social environment; it checks the effectiveness of alternate environmental protection measures. (HP) [de

  18. Strengthening Environmental Economics Capacity in Research on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... change are likely to have a negative impact on water availability and quality. ... on water provision services in Latin America using environmental economics methods. ... Effect of hydro-meteorological emergencies on internal migration.

  19. Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    LACEEP) enhances the skills of researchers, teachers and policymakers in the area of environmental economics through short courses, workshops and supervision of research projects. This grant will provide partial support to the core activities of ...

  20. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Obydenkova, SV; Kouris, P Panagiotis; Hensen, EJM Emiel; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, MD Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability....

  1. Economic and environmental considerations of biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The economic and environmental aspects of biomass fuels are considered. Close to source, the cost of useful energy in the form of lignocellulose is often competitive with fossil fuels, say $1-3 per GJ. There are three main options to divert this biomass into commercial energy channels: solid fuels for underboiler use; liquid fuels for automotive use and electric power generation, each of which is discussed. The social, economic and environmental advantages of an afforestation programme are highlighted. (Author)

  2. Administrative and economic tools of environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Staničová, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with administrative and economic instruments of environmental protection, which represent the most important groups of instruments of environmental protection. Administrative and economic instruments are means and methods that affect human behavior in relation to environment. The thesis is systematically divided into two main parts and each of them is subdivided into chapters and subchapters. The first part of the thesis is focused generally and provides overview of ...

  3. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  4. Encounters across Difference: The Digital Geographies of Inuit, The Arctic, and Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    There is broad consensus amongst scholars across a wide range of disciplines that digital technologies are having profound effects on micro- and macropolitical processes across the world. However, research into digital geographies has not rigorously examined the role of the Internet in bridging epistemological difference. Rather, most of this…

  5. Economic instruments and the environmental accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Viveka; Larsson, Maja

    2007-01-01

    The Nordic countries have now had experience with environmental taxes and subsidies as a major component of their environmental policy over an extensive period of time. The Swedish System of Environmental and Economic Accounts (SEEA) include environmental taxes and subsidies as part of the official statistics. This article presents the accounts for taxes and subsidies, linked to the accounts for emissions data by industry. It demonstrates disparities between emissions and environmental taxes, as well as where industries or environmental problems are not regulated. The data show that in Sweden economic instruments are always aimed at particular actors or areas, and are never quite as comprehensive as recommended by economic theory. The environmental taxes are primarily aimed at fossil fuel use and related emissions, and have been mostly applied to the household sector and services sector, while industry often has been given exemptions due to concerns about international competition. The environmentally motivated subsidies are mainly directed to agriculture, fishing and research on renewable resources. A fully developed international data set on taxes and subsidies would provide a sound base for comparing the impact on international competitiveness. Eurostat is promoting the use of environmental accounts data for its member countries by harmonizing methods and engaging in publication of international comparisons. (author)

  6. Environmental economics and the Baltic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.

    1994-03-01

    This volume originates from a workshop on Economics of the Environment held at the Institute of Economics, Copenhagen University, November 14-15, 1990 with participants from Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Denmark. The volume contains the papers presented at the workshop. In all the countries around the Baltic Sea there has been an increasing understainding of the importance of using the economic incentive approach to reach environmental goals. By changing the incentives an individual producer or consumer faces, the best private choice can be made to coincide with the best social choice. All the countries around the Baltic Sea have used direct regulation or command and control in environment regulation. Growing concern about environmental degradation, dissatisfaction with the command and control approach and the need to extend environmental regulation to sectors with a large number of small producers or consumers have increased attention to economic instruments in environmental policy. The Baltic sea is an almost coherent ecological system and there is a growing interest in addressing common environmental problems among the countries around the Baltic Sea. The recent political development offer new possibilites for cooperation in environmental policy. This is important because many environmental problems in the region require solutions involving several countries. (EG)

  7. Dynamic optimization in environmental economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Elke; Tragler, Gernot; Veliov, Vladimir M.; Semmler, Willi

    2014-01-01

    This book contains two chapters with the topics: 1. Chapter: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ECONOMY AND CLIMATE: (a) Climate Change and Technical Progress: Impact of Informational Constraints. (b) Environmental Policy in a Dynamic Model with Heterogeneous Agents and Voting. (c) Optimal Environmental Policy in the Presence of Multiple Equilibria and Reversible Hysteresis. (d). Modeling the Dynamics of the Transition to a Green Economy. (e) One-Parameter GHG Emission Policy With R and D-Based Growth. (f) Pollution, Public Health Care, and Life Expectancy when Inequality Matters. (g) Uncertain Climate Policy and the Green Paradox. (h) Uniqueness Versus Indeterminacy in the Tragedy of the Commons - A ''Geometric'' Approach. 2. Chapter: OPTIMAL EXTRACTION OF RESOURCES: (j) Dynamic Behavior of Oil Importers and Exporters Under Uncertainty. (k) Robust Control of a Spatially Distributed Commercial Fishery. (l) On the Effect of Resource Exploitation on Growth: Domestic Innovation vs. Technological Diffusion Through Trade. (m) Forest Management and Biodiversity in Size-Structured Forests Under Climate Change. (n) Carbon Taxes and Comparison of Trading Regimes in Fossil Fuels. (o) Landowning, Status and Population Growth. (p) Optimal Harvesting of Size-Structured Biological Populations.

  8. Dynamic optimization in environmental economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Elke; Tragler, Gernot; Veliov, Vladimir M. (eds.) [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Mathematical Methods in Economics; Semmler, Willi [The New School for Social Research, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Economics

    2014-11-01

    This book contains two chapters with the topics: 1. Chapter: INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ECONOMY AND CLIMATE: (a) Climate Change and Technical Progress: Impact of Informational Constraints. (b) Environmental Policy in a Dynamic Model with Heterogeneous Agents and Voting. (c) Optimal Environmental Policy in the Presence of Multiple Equilibria and Reversible Hysteresis. (d). Modeling the Dynamics of the Transition to a Green Economy. (e) One-Parameter GHG Emission Policy With R and D-Based Growth. (f) Pollution, Public Health Care, and Life Expectancy when Inequality Matters. (g) Uncertain Climate Policy and the Green Paradox. (h) Uniqueness Versus Indeterminacy in the Tragedy of the Commons - A ''Geometric'' Approach. 2. Chapter: OPTIMAL EXTRACTION OF RESOURCES: (j) Dynamic Behavior of Oil Importers and Exporters Under Uncertainty. (k) Robust Control of a Spatially Distributed Commercial Fishery. (l) On the Effect of Resource Exploitation on Growth: Domestic Innovation vs. Technological Diffusion Through Trade. (m) Forest Management and Biodiversity in Size-Structured Forests Under Climate Change. (n) Carbon Taxes and Comparison of Trading Regimes in Fossil Fuels. (o) Landowning, Status and Population Growth. (p) Optimal Harvesting of Size-Structured Biological Populations.

  9. Economic environmental management of drilling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, H.J.; Akers, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents significant environmental and regulatory initiatives developed by Exxon's New Orleans Drilling Organization. Specifically, the paper will cover drilling waste minimization techniques and disposal options, recycling of drilling waste streams, and environmentally managed drilling location design considerations. The implementation of some of these initiatives at Exxon's Chalkley field land locations have resulted in a fifty percent reduction in drilling location waste management costs. Some of these same initiatives have been successfully applied to Exxon's barge drilling locations. For operations at the environmentally sensitive Mobile Bay, Exxon contracted with a local company and assisted in the development of an economically and environmentally superior drilling waste disposal and treatment system. In summary, it is possible for drilling operators to pro-actively manage escalating environmental and regulatory challenges through the implementation of economic and practical initiatives

  10. Environmental Economics And Policy: Course Evaluation Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to outline the educational aspects of environmental economics referring to an example of a course taught at The University of Economics, Prague. A quantitative survey among students was conducted to describe their perceptions of the environmental topics and the diverse components of the course. This learners’ perspective is compared with students’ examination results and their level of activity in seminars. One of the main questions asked in this text is: do students interested in economic policy and regional economics consider the environmental orientation of the course important? And if yes what aspects of the course do they value, what benefits do they get from the course, what are their learning strategies and what role does this play with regards to students’ concern for environmental issues? Probably the most important finding of the research is the students’ advocacy of environmental economics as a beneficial part of curriculum both by those clustered as ‘environmentalists’ and ‘non-environmentalists’ (or even ‘anti-environmentalists’. Students appreciate having a chance to participate actively in the course. A well balanced proportion of lectures and seminars with enough space for deep discussion seem to be crucial for retaining students’ interest. The data doesn’t equip us with sufficient information to construct regression models with reasonable predictive power concerning exam results. A challenge for further research is to work with a better informed analysis of students’ learning strategies.

  11. Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.

  12. Incineration: efficient, economical and environmental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    2003-01-01

    Significant improvements in incinerator design and technology resulting in optimal performance, increased reliability and reduced capital and operating costs are discussed. The objective of the discussion is to draw attention to incineration as a cost effective and environmentally responsible means of disposing of the waste products generated by the oil and gas industry, while improving air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the same time. The main point put forward is that because the global warming potential of methane is 21 times greater than that of carbon dioxide, the complete combustion potential of incineration, combined with the fact that incineration requires significantly less fuel gas to combust low heat content streams, offers significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions and improved air quality

  13. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kathleen L; Robbins, Alicia S T

    2015-05-01

    Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements-collectively termed metro nature-generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits.

  14. Ecological and Economic Problems of Environmental Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashchenko Maryna A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining a common mechanism for assessing the ecological and economic threats and ecological losses on the basis of a long-term study to ensure the environmental security of the State. The necessity of a new approach to the State regulation through achievement of environmental security is displayed, that will allow to reduce tensions of the ecological-economic problems in Ukraine. For implementation of this approach, a general mechanism for estimation of ecological-economic threats and ecological losses is provided, which is carried out through formation of an integral costs system. The costs system is presented in the article in the form of an in-depth mechanism for estimating the ecological-economic threats on the example of ecological impacts. Structuring and preparation of the costs system for applied researches is the next stage of this prolonged research.

  15. Medical Geography and Topography Works: the first environmental studies in a specific city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lúcia de Araújo Ferreira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment and the geographical circumstances set the basis for the development of an hygiene-oriented thinking and led physicians to investigate and diagnose the regional and urban space between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. These ideas were systematically compiled in works known as Medical Geography and Topography Works which, when known throughout the world, ended up becoming precise descriptions of the cities' territory, providing a spatial account of diseases and identifying their nature, evolution and treatment. Besides recovering the origin of these treaties and stressing their importance as amongst the first "geographical" investigations of urban space, this work aims to include Brazil, and specifically the city of Natal (in northeast Brazil within the context of these analyses, with special emphasis on the work entitled Topography of Natal and its Medical Geography authored by doctor Januário Cicco in 1920.

  16. The cultural economics of performance space: Negotiating fan, labor, and marketing practice in Glee's transmedia geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Stork

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fox television show Glee (2009–present constitutes a cultural phenomenon of the digital age. Through its multiplatform marketing of musical and theatrical performance, the show has attracted a substantial fan base and created a self-sustaining economy of cultural expression. As a serialized narrative with a focus on the underdog's struggle for fame, it constructs a populist forum for fans to live their dream of becoming a star vicariously and learn how to realize it in real life—how to make it. Glee's marketing approach postulates performance as the essential element in forming an intimate relationship between the show and its core fans, the Gleeks. Performances are distributed across several spaces, including a multitude of video and audio channels, to satisfy Gleeks' desire for maximum content. The show's cast and crew further offer to discuss these performances and grant special insights into their creation. Glee's promotional discourse overtly characterizes fans as equals, positioning its programming as a gift to them. The overarching message of this marketing methodology is that Glee rewards its fans for their investment and loyalty by offering up content and interaction in a variety of performative spaces—a transmedia geography—that transcend television. By using an interdisciplinary framework of political economy, cultural geography, and transmedia communications, Glee may be examined in relation to its diegetic and nondiegetic conceptualization and commodification of performance space. Doing this illuminates how the show negotiates—indeed exploits—the concepts of fan and labor practice in contemporary media industries.

  17. Geography and Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Corna Pellegrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests that Tourism and Geography are closely intertwined, because tourists are in search of experience and geographer has as its main purpose the pursuit of knowledge. Models and hypotheses need always to be verified in theterritorial context of daily fieldwork, geographical interpretation and travel experience, were Geography and Tourism entwined in reciprocal relationship of personal attitude, nature, and field research. Environmental responsibility is another and common field were Geography can change and develop Tourism in the same mutual support in a continuous and mutual way. The case studies support it fully.

  18. THE GEOGRAPHY OF DESPAIR: URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL INJUSTICE THROUGH INCOMEBASED RESIDENTIAL ZONATION, GABORONE CITY, BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnyaladzi Batisani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban inter-race environmental injustice is a well-researched field particularly in the northern hemisphere. However, few studies have addressed intra-race urban environmental injustice especially within a developing country setting. An appreciation of the type and extent of this injustice is needed to help policymakers and city planners curb and mitigate its negative effects at this infancy stage before getting worse with economic development. The goal of this paper is to determine the presence and extent of environmental injustice in Gaborone city. To reach this goal, the paper inventories hazardous facilities and also determines the spatial variability of exposure to hazardous facilities with socioeconomic status across the city. The paper finds no relationship between income-based residential area zoning and location of hazardous facilities in the city although these facilities tend to be closer to residential areas in low income municipalities. The paper discusses policies that city planners could adopt to prevent and also minimize the effects of this exposure.

  19. Managing Air Quality - Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  20. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V.; Kouris, Panos D.; Hensen, Emiel J. M.; Heeres, Hero J.; Boot, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative

  1. Interactions between environmental quality and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ambient air quality, surface water quality and near-shore water quality from Shanghai are used as environmental indicators and per capita GDP is used as the economic indicator. We found four types of economy-environment relationships in the studied period in Shanghai. The results also show that surface water indicator ...

  2. What on earth is environmental economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Briguglio, Marie

    1994-01-01

    Although there are as yet few “environmental economists”, the subject seems to be generating quite a bit of curiosity, mingled, perhaps, with a touch of skepticism. The idea of “green” economics really is quite intriguing, even if may seem somewhat obscure: what do you get if you cross a hard-nosed economist with a flower-child?

  3. STRATEGIC AND ECONOMIC MODALITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Bokhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern development of humanity and its well-being is measured by the parameters of progressive achievements, global resonance and ecological warnings. XXI century, forming a new architecture of the world economy, which requires countries to resource diversification, market innovation and modification of the concept of leadership in combinatorial forms of competition and confrontation, consolidation and partnership. The dialogue of civilizations always contains contradictions and demonstrates the relative stability of communities in terms of ecological risk. International politicians are calling for the approval of constructivism economic activities on the basis of environmental diplomacy. Purpose. Determination of activation modality stratagem environmental diplomacy in the context of consolidating the areas of international economic relations, globalization challenges and opportunities. Result. New aspirations of humankind radically change the idea of naturalness and safety of its habitat, increase the importance of information and technological attributes of activity, cause the reactionary nature of the scale of the economic confrontation. Pause economic and technological expansionism unrealistic, but to channel the energy in a more environmental expansionism direction is necessary. Great hopes are placed on the active forms of diplomacy based on multi-level mobility of its subjects and ecological factors strengthen countries stratification. Traditionally, diplomacy is synchronized with the negotiation process, which are presented to the interests and intentions, tactics and strategy of the leaders of the political and business elite of the world. The development of environmental analysis diplomacy takes place under the pressure of massive information flows, multinational business interests and ideology of the hybrid wars. Environmental diplomacy is able to set the modality (way hypothetical implementation, realistic, pragmatic and forward

  4. Economic instruments in environmental protection in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date status on the current use of economic instruments in Danish environmental protection. The report focuses on the implementation and enforcement aspects of the Danish experience. Thereby, the report is intended to provide a contribution to the international efforts to collate and disseminate such experience, and to provide a means of experience sharing and example sharing. It is envisaged that the report may be of use also to countries in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Newly Independent States where the emerging market economies offer an opportunity for an enhanced use of economic instruments. Lastly, the report's emphasis on actual implementation and enforcement aspects renders it highly applicable also to undergraduate and postgraduate students in environmental and/or economic disciplines. (au)

  5. The Use of Exhaustive Micro-Data Firm Databases for Economic Geography: The Issues of Geocoding and Usability in the Case of the Amadeus Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Lennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic geography has begun to explore the options involved in micro-data. New databases have become available and new techniques and an increase in computer power allow their treatment. However, two major issues impede the use of these datasets: the lack of geocoded spatial location and lack of exhaustivity in coverage. In this article, I explore the possibilities of using large micro-scale firm databases for economic geography in Europe. I show that current evolution in European official spatial data dissemination alows for geocoding of such databases using means that are accessible for researchers with minimal programming knowledge. For the specific case of the Amadeus database of the Bureau Van Dijk, I show that its limitations in terms of coverage have to be taken into acount, but do not hinder its use for analysis. Resulting maps show how the data allows to go further than classic databases such as the Eurostat Structural Business Statistics.

  6. Environmental economics. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, L.

    1993-01-01

    This textbook is intended to reveal and explain the most important issues in environmental economics, a) on the basis of a systematic breakdown of the whole field of environmental economics, and b) with the aid of numerous examples taken from practical environmental policy. The material presented in this book has been grouped according to various subjects as, e.g., instruments of environmental policy, effects of pollution control measures on the economy, etc. The conclusions drawn by the author as a result of his study can be summarized in the following general statement: Democratic states with a free economic system corresponding to the social market economy of the FRG for instance are well endowed with the prerequisites for successfully tackling environmental problems, both in terms of financial and regulatory policy- and experience has already shown that the approach adopted is a practicable and promising one. However, there could be much more success along this line of the political instruments were given greater impetas and impact, and if the regulatory instruments were designed so as to gain more effectiveness. (orig.) [de

  7. New CSIR tool produces detailed maps of SA’s economic geography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass media

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A new digital mapping and geographic analysis platform (GAP) is enabling researchers and decision-makers to estimate the spatial distribution of economic activity in South Africa in greater detail than ever before. The result of an 18 month...

  8. The Geography of Entrepreneurial Activity and Regional Economic Development : Multilevel Analyses for Dutch and European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, N.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182375102

    2009-01-01

    Countries and regions are committed to stimulating entrepreneurship by opening doors to (potential) entrepreneurs. The commonly held belief is that a variety of entrepreneurs would lead to an enriched dynamic environment and as such lies at the root of economic prosperity. Over the past 25 years,

  9. Economic development and environmental protection: an ecological economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, William E

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues on both theoretical and empirical grounds that, beyond a certain point, there is an unavoidable conflict between economic development (generally taken to mean 'material economic growth') and environmental protection. Think for a moment of natural forests, grasslands, marine estuaries, salt marshes, and coral reefs; and of arable soils, aquifers, mineral deposits, petroleum, and coal. These are all forms of 'natural capital' that represent highly-ordered self-producing ecosystems or rich accumulations of energy/matter with high use potential (low entropy). Now contemplate despoiled landscapes, eroding farmlands, depleted fisheries, anthropogenic greenhouse gases, acid rain, poisonous mine tailings and toxic synthetic compounds. These all represent disordered systems or degraded forms of energy and matter with little use potential (high entropy). The main thing connecting these two states is human economic activity. Ecological economics interprets the environment-economy relationship in terms of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law sees economic activity as a dissipative process. From this perspective, the production of economic goods and services invariably requires the consumption of available energy and matter. To grow and develop, the economy necessarily 'feeds' on sources of high-quality energy/matter first produced by nature. This tends to disorder and homogenize the ecosphere, The ascendance of humankind has consistently been accompanied by an accelerating rate of ecological degradation, particularly biodiversity loss, the simplification of natural systems and pollution. In short, contemporary political rhetoric to the contrary, the prevailing growth-oriented global development paradigm is fundamentally incompatible with long-term ecological and social sustainability. Unsustainability is not a technical nor economic problem as usually conceived, but rather a state of systemic incompatibility between a economy that is a fully

  10. Three essays in energy and environmental economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, Michael

    This thesis exploits the boom in U.S. oil and gas production to explore several empirical questions in environmental and energy economics. In the first essay, statistical techniques are employed to evaluate learning-by-doing in the Bakken Shale Play. Furthermore, the essay demonstrates organizational forgetting and knowledge spillovers among firms. The results show rates of learning in an important sector the U.S. economy and may have broader lessons for productivity gains and losses. The second essay investigates interfirm learning economies in oil well drilling in terms of productivity improvements and increases in environmental safety. The empirical results improve our understanding of how interfirm relationships influence productivity as well as the drivers of environmental incidents. Lastly, the third essay analyzes the impacts of stricter environmental regulations on oil production and well drilling in North Dakota. The results have particular relevance for policymakers seeking to understand the trade-offs between resource development and environmental quality. These three essays ultimately expand our knowledge of how learning economies occur and the effects of environmental regulations on economic activity.

  11. Economic Geography of Venezuela and Brazil: U.S. National Security Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    parents are paid to ensure school attendance, health care, and proper diet . When families fail to meet requirements, they do not get paid. CCT...with booming exports, healthy external accounts, moderate inflation, decreasing unemployment, and reductions in the debt-to-GDP ratio, led two major...economic organization of ten countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967, by Indonesia, Malaysia , the Philippines

  12. ECONOMIC GROWTH, TRADE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: TESTING ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Budiman Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ASEAN experiences a dynamic economic growth due to its liberalised markets. However concerns arise related to environmental issues resulting from the economic activities. It reflects tradeoffs between economic growth driven by trade and foreign direct investment (FDI, and environment. To investigate such a relation the Environmental Kuznets Curve was applied by regressing amount of carbon emission with gross domestic product (GDP, quadratic GDP, trade openness and FDI. The result reveals that amount of carbon emission is linearly and positively correlated with GDP per capita. It is predicted that as ASEAN economies grow, carbon emission increases. Trade openness is also found to contribute to carbon emission. Keywords: Kuznets curve, carbon emission, gross domestic product, trade, foreign direct investment JEL classification number: F15, F18

  13. Environmental economics. Five basic key notions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroui, F.; Benhaim, J.; Baron, R.; Helioui, K.; Glachant, M.; Corbaz, C.

    1994-12-01

    The greenhouse effect is a good example of the uncertainty inherent to environmental economics. Given the physical and factual uncertainties, the last thing we need is uncertainty in the words we use. Unfortunately, the semantics of environmental economics are sometimes too vague; and this vagueness can sometimes lead to conceptual errors. It is obvious that the concepts must be explicated and the relations which link them must be clarified if we are to use them without any risk of semantic Al confusion. This view, shared by all the participants, provided the theme of the SEO 1994 'Environmental Economics' seminar; its goal was to define and discuss some basic concepts. Jacques Benhaim gives a thorough discussion of the rate of discount. The rate of discount is an important item when it comes to a dynamic analysis in environmental economics. Richard Baron discusses modelling in its relation with the long-term assessment of greenhouse gases. In this context, he provides a 'catalogue raisonne' of the available models, then raises some interesting methodological issues involved in top-down modelling. His critique stresses the need of integrative models. Voluntary agreements constitute an alternative to taxation. Manhieu Glachant gives an overview of existing cases in 11 OECD countries; he then focuses on assessing their efficiency. Catherine Corbaz chose the much debated carbon tax. After giving some data on the greenhouse effect, she focuses on its economic aspects. After discussing uncertainty and technical progress, attention is paid to the reach of the tax: should it be global, or national and coordinated? Khalid Helioui was asked to elaborate on Catherine Corbaz by providing a more theoretical analysis of an optimal taxation on carbon. He proposes a two-goods dynamic model including the possibility of a backstop technique, which allows him to discuss an optimal carbon tax and to give a stimulating interpretation of the usage cost of the atmosphere

  14. The Geography of Economics and Happiness: Spatial Patterns in the Effects of Economic Conditions on Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Luca

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the cross-country distribution of the relationship between economic conditions and well-being. Using a large sample of individuals from 94 countries worldwide, we find that the effect of income on well-being is larger in countries with lower GDP per capita, while the negative effect of being unemployed is stronger in…

  15. Regional geochemical maps of uranium in Northern Scotland: Environmental and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Institute of Geological Sciences began to prepare a series of regional geochemical maps at a scale of 1:250000, showing the surface distribution of those trace elements which are of economic and environmental significance. Particular interest was shown in uranium, important both for a nuclear fuel, and also for fundamental studies of geological processes. The first series of maps was prepared for the northern Highlands of Scotland. Natural levels of uranium in rocks, soils and water are reviewed. The reasons for selecting Northern Scotland and the effect of the environment on the methods of sampling are discussed. A brief summary is given of some of the main applications of these maps, the most important being to economic geology, agriculture, and medical geography. The maps should make it possible to ensure that development of mineral resources and environmental planning are soundly based. (U.K.)

  16. Food allergy trends at the crossing among socio-economics, history and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Dahdah, Lamia; Fierro, Vincenzo; Artesani, Maria C; Valluzzi, Rocco

    2018-06-01

    The epidemiology of food allergy did inspire theories on the reasons for the recent surge of the disease. We offer here a reasoned review on the relationships between the trajectories of human development and the trend of the food allergy epidemics. The exponential trend of the frequency of food allergy paralleled the explosive acceleration of the human development over the last few decades. Dietary factors have been indicated as responsible for these trends and targeted for potential preventive strategies. Other socio-economic factors have been related to this evolution: solar exposure, climate changes, structure of societies, reproductive choices and societal inequalities. The epidemiologic associations of food allergy suggest different causal theories. Future prevention strategies may be predicated not only on dietary interventions, but on wider programmes aimed to restore a human ecology promoting food tolerance.

  17. Sustainable energy-economic-environmental scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-31

    IIASA's Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Project has proposed a quantitative 'working definition' of sustainable development E3 (energy-economic-environmental) scenarios. ECS has proposed four criteria for sustainability: economic growth is sustained throughout the time horizon; socioeconomic inequity among world regions is reduced over the 21st century; reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio for exhaustible primary energy resources do not decline; and long-term environmental stress is mitigated. Using these criteria, 40 long-term E3 scenarios generated by ECS models were reviewed and analyzed. Amongst the conclusions drawn were: slow population growth or stabilization of global population appears to be prerequisite for sustainable development; economic growth alone does not guarantee a sustainable future; carbon intensities of total primary energy must decrease faster than the historical trend; strategies for fossil fuel consumption must aim at non-decreasing R/P ratios; and carbon emissions must be near or below today's levels at the end of this century. The analysis of sustainable development scenarios is an important step towards formulating long-term strategies aimed at climate stabilization. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Diets and Health: How Food Decisions Are Shaped by Biology, Economics, Geography, and Social Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    Health is shaped by both personal choices and features of the food environment. Food-choice decisions depend on complex interactions between biology and behavior, and are further modulated by the built environment and community structure. That lower-income families have lower-quality diets is well established. Yet, diet quality also varies across small geographic neighborhoods and can be influenced by transportation, retail, and ease of access to healthy foods, as well as by attitudes, beliefs, and social interactions. The learnings from the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS II) can be usefully applied to the much larger, more complex, and far more socially and ethnically diverse urban environment of New York City. The Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP) is ideally positioned to advance the understanding of health disparities by exploring the multiple underpinnings of food decision making. By combining geo-localized food shopping and consumption data with health behaviors, diet quality measures, and biomarkers, also coded by geographic location, the KHP will create the first-of-its-kind bio-behavioral, economic, and cultural atlas of diet quality and health for New York City.

  19. Responsible geographies and geographies of response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    This dissertation engages with Danish University geographers at work and their explication of the role of geography in shaping socio-environmental debates in an era of the anthropocene. Situating sustainability concepts in a historygeographical context the dissertation examines responses and resp......This dissertation engages with Danish University geographers at work and their explication of the role of geography in shaping socio-environmental debates in an era of the anthropocene. Situating sustainability concepts in a historygeographical context the dissertation examines responses...... in higher education literature. The methodological framework is based on the social nature approach that tangles these quite distinct epistemological communities by consulting the socio-natures produced. It is concluded that though geographers find sustainability themes important to geography......, sustainability is more often implicit than it is explicit. This produces a number of dilemmas and contradictions since geographers both seek to distance themselves from produced politics while at the same time elucidating them. Geographies of response and responsibilities address the battleground over...

  20. Geography teachers' interpretation of a curriculum reform initiative: the case of the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaeka Raselimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses how teachers in a specific developing world context interpreted a curriculum reform initiative. It is located within a broader interpretive study that investigated the integration of Environmental Education into the formal education system of Lesotho with particular reference to secondary school geography. More specifically the focus was on a Danish donor-fundedproject, known as the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP. Driven by a sustainable development imperative, the project was intended to assist Lesotho with the implementation of local action for Agenda 21 by introducing environmental education into the formal education system. It is widely accepted that teachers play an important role in implementing curriculum change. Using a previous framework, we generate insights for understanding how teachers' epistemologies interact with contextual factors to impede the process ofcurriculum sense-making. Furthermore, guided by the notion ofcurriculum as a contextualised social process, we present the findings on the contextual/structural factors enabling or constraining implementation ofthe LEESP curriculum policy intentions as perceived by the teachers.

  1. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V; Kouris, Panos D; Hensen, Emiel J M; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability. The first factor, the logistics scheme, exhibited the disadvantage of the centralized approach, owing to prohibitively expensive transportation costs of the low energy-dense lignin. Life cycle analysis (LCA) displayed the second critical factor related to alternative energy carrier selection. Natural gas (NG) chosen over additional biomass boosts well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions (WTW GHG) to a level incompatible with the reduction targets set by the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS). Adversely, the process' economics revealed higher profits vs. fossil energy carrier. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.

    1995-01-01

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a 'sustainable city'; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined 'recipe' is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs

  3. Sustainable city policy. Economic, environmental, technological

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Economics Dept.; Nijkamp, P. [Dept. of Spatial Economics. Fac. of Economics and Econometrics. Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    While the reasons for advocating intensified environmental concerns at the urban level are more and more accepted and clear, the question how to overcome such concerns is still fraught with many difficulties. The aim of the present paper is to formulate some policy guidelines, based on economic principles, for a `sustainable city`; it is an ambitious aim, since a unique and operationally defined `recipe` is difficult to envisage. An urban policy for a sustainable city needs to take different (and contrasting) aspects and many conflicting interests into consideration, while many political, social and economic frictions need to be overcome. A description of various aspects and concepts concerning sustainability issues at the urban level is given in Section 2. Section 3 then provides some considerations on possible technological, economic and environmental urban policies, by creating a typo logy of policy tools associated with different causes of urban decline. Section 4 provides some new, and partly provocative, suggestions for specific urban sustainability policies; in particular it deals with the problem of urban sustainability indicators, measures, and critical threshold levels at which urban sustainability policies should be implemented. Some reflective remarks will conclude the paper. 3 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs.

  4. Environmental approvals in New Brunswick : economic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrack, C.; Maitland, R. [Suez Renewable Energy North America, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation provided a timeline of economic considerations related to New Brunswick's regulatory approval process for wind power developments. The economics of wind power projects require careful consideration during the initial planning phases, as it is not yet known if projects are viable. Spending in the early stages of a project should therefore be limited to items that focus on components of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process that include establishing a relationship with First Nations groups in the area, and conducting seasonal bird studies. Economic considerations change when project viability is confirmed, and developers can then progress to conducting traditional knowledge studies and further seasonal bird studies. Baseline information studies should be reviewed, and biophysical surveys should involve the identification of any wetlands, sensitive areas, and rare plants. Archaeology studies are also required by the provincial government, as well as bat studies to determine if the site has a resident population of bats. Public and stakeholder consultations and open houses should then be held with an adequate time-frame for the submission of questions and concerns and the development of mitigation strategies. Project viability should be confirmed before power purchase agreements (PPAs) are signed. After PPAs are signed, the largest economic consideration is the schedule-related risk associated with legal and financial problems. It was concluded that noise impact, visual impact, and socioeconomic assessments and studies can be conducted after the PPA is secured. tabs., figs.

  5. A genome-wide gene expression signature of environmental geography in leukocytes of Moroccan Amazighs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Idaghdour

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The different environments that humans experience are likely to impact physiology and disease susceptibility. In order to estimate the magnitude of the impact of environment on transcript abundance, we examined gene expression in peripheral blood leukocyte samples from 46 desert nomadic, mountain agrarian and coastal urban Moroccan Amazigh individuals. Despite great expression heterogeneity in humans, as much as one third of the leukocyte transcriptome was found to be associated with differences among regions. Genome-wide polymorphism analysis indicates that genetic differentiation in the total sample is limited and is unlikely to explain the expression divergence. Methylation profiling of 1,505 CpG sites suggests limited contribution of methylation to the observed differences in gene expression. Genetic network analysis further implies that specific aspects of immune function are strongly affected by regional factors and may influence susceptibility to respiratory and inflammatory disease. Our results show a strong genome-wide gene expression signature of regional population differences that presumably include lifestyle, geography, and biotic factors, implying that these can play at least as great a role as genetic divergence in modulating gene expression variation in humans.

  6. Economic environmental dispatch using BSA algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihane, Kartite; Mohamed, Cherkaoui

    2018-05-01

    Economic environmental dispatch problem (EED) is an important issue especially in the field of fossil fuel power plant system. It allows the network manager to choose among different units the most optimized in terms of fuel costs and emission level. The objective of this paper is to minimize the fuel cost with emissions constrained; the test is conducted for two cases: six generator unit and ten generator unit for the same power demand 1200Mw. The simulation has been computed in MATLAB and the result shows the robustness of the Backtracking Search optimization Algorithm (BSA) and the impact of the load demand on the emission.

  7. Environmental and economic benefits of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, P.; Kelly, B.; Passmore, J.

    1997-01-01

    The panel on sustainable development was moderated by Paul McKay of the Wildside Foundation. Bryan Kelly, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development at Ontario Hydro, and Jeffrey Passmore of Passmore Associates International were the panel members. Bryan Kelly described the objectives of his group's program as reducing market barriers, and get renewables on a level playing field through technological advances to ensure that ' when Ontario Hydro or its successors make decisions about new capacity, renewables will be a viable option and will not be dismissed out of hand'. To illustrate the approach, he described several ongoing research and development projects. Jeffrey Passmore reported on a study he conducted for the Canadian Wind Energy Association and Environment Canada to determine the environmental and economic benefits of wind energy in Canada. He estimated achievable wind energy potential in Canada at around 6400 MW by 2010. He stressed wind energy's potential for job creation and CO 2 reduction as the principal economic and environmental benefits

  8. Strategies for environmentally sound economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchin, F.; Lange, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it has been estimated that the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests account for 6-7 billion tons of carbon emissions each year. Combustion also results in significant emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. While the growth in the use of fuels has slowed considerably in the developed regions of North America, western Europe, and Japan over the past decade, pressure for increased energy use and the clearing of forests can be expected with even moderate economic and population growth in the developing regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Researchers at the Institute for Economic Analysis have begun the formulation and analysis of alternative scenarios describing environmentally sound economic development over the next 50 years. These scenarios include activities aimed at improving the standards of living in developing countries while reducing emissions of the aforementioned gases or removing carbon from the atmosphere. Specific alternatives include tropical forestation; the adoption of relatively clean and efficient boilers, especially for the production of electricity in developing countries, as well as greater use of cogeneration systems and hydroelectricity; alternative transportation strategies; and conservation of energy in households of rich and middle-income countries (e.g., efficient lighting fixtures, appliances, and cooling equipment)

  9. Geography Teachers' Stories of Sustainability: An Introduction to Narrative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Geography teacher recruitment and retention is an important issue for the future of geography education. This Special Issue of "International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education" ("IRGEE") tackles this issue head on by focusing on geography teachers' narratives about their experiences of teaching geography, and…

  10. The Analysis Of Environmental Effects On The Design And Production Of Arts In Use, Based On Principles Of Human Geography (Case Study: Iranian Carpet)

    OpenAIRE

    Moghanipoor, Majidreza; Marasy, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The main topic of this article is recognition and analysis of influences of "Arts in use", as a human phenomenon (from a geographical viewpoint) and one of physical manifestations of culture ( from the environmental viewpoint). Accordingly, opinions and concepts related to this issue have been analyzed in the field of human geography science by an interdisciplinary approach and a descriptive-analytical methodology. Therefore, an "Iranian carpet" as a centerpiece of these studies d...

  11. Nuclear energy centers: Economic and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollezhal', N.A.; Bobolovich, V.N.; Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Kochenov, A.S.; Koryakin, Yu.I.; Stolyarevskij, A.Ya.; Chernyaev, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The report deals with qualitative and quantitative analysis of factors and problems, which may arise in the nearest future with the dispersion of sites of nuclear and fuel cycle plants. These problems arise with a large increase in the transportation of radioactive nuclear fuel, the necessity in valuable land and water resources, delay in construction and scheduled commercial operation of nuclear power plant, increase in the cost of labour and other economic and environmental factors and limitations. The report has an analysis of one of the ways of decreasing these difficulties, connected with the construction of large nuclear energy centres, consisting of a cluster of reactors on a single reactor site with the combined capacity of 40,000-50,000 MWe. The centres may consist, for example, of a cluster of conventional nuclear power plants that mainly consist of fast breeders and fuel cycle plants. They should be located in regions with a low density population and low value and deficiency of land and water resources. Electricity will be transmitted to consumers. The social-economic functions of such centres as factors that give birth to industrial regions are considered. Also given is the comparative estimate of benefits and problems of these two ways of further development of nuclear power system [ru

  12. Environmental flows in hydro-economic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereau, Jean-Christophe; Pryet, Alexandre

    2018-03-01

    The protection of environmental flows, as a management objective for a regulating agency, needs to be consistent with the aquifer water balance and the degree of resource renewability. A stylized hydro-economic model is used where natural recharge, which sustains environmental flows, is considered both in the aquifer water budget and in the welfare function as ecosystem damage. Groundwater recharge and the associated natural drainage may be neglected for aquifers containing fossil water, where the groundwater is mined. However, when dealing with an aquifer that constitutes a renewable resource, for which recharge is not negligible, natural drainage should explicitly appear in the water budget. In doing so, the optimum path of net extraction rate does not necessarily converge to the recharge rate, but depends on the costs associated with ecosystem damages. The optimal paths and equilibrium values for the water volume and water extraction are analytically derived, and numerical simulations based on the Western La Mancha aquifer (southwest Spain) illustrate the theoretical results of the study.

  13. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  14. The environmental cost of a reference withdrawal from surface waters: Definition and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligno, Irene; Ridolfi, Luca; Laio, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    World freshwater ecosystems are significantly deteriorating at a faster rate than other ecosystems. Water withdrawals are recognized as one of the main drivers of growing water stress in river basins worldwide. Over the years, much effort has been devoted to quantify water withdrawals at a global scale; however, comparisons are not simple because the uneven spatiotemporal distribution of surface water resources entails that the same amount of consumed water does not have the same environmental cost in different times or places. In order to account for this spatiotemporal heterogeneity, this work proposes a novel index to assess the environmental cost of a withdrawal from a generic river section. The index depends on (i) the environmental relevance of the impacted fluvial ecosystem (e.g., bed-load transport capacity, width of the riparian belt, biodiversity richness) and (ii) the downstream river network affected by the water withdrawal. The environmental cost has been estimated in each and every river section worldwide considering a reference withdrawal. Being referred to a unitary reference withdrawal that can occur in any river section worldwide, our results can be suitably arranged for describing any scenario of surface water consumption (i.e., as the superposition of the actual pattern of withdrawals). The index aims to support the interpretation of the volumetric measure of surface water withdrawal with a perspective that takes into account the fluvial system where the withdrawal actually occurs. The application of the index highlights the river regions where withdrawals can cause higher environmental costs, with the challenge of weighting each water withdrawal considering the responsibilities that it has on downstream freshwater ecosystems.

  15. Taking Stock in Geography Education around the World: An International Perspective on the Teaching of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil

    2011-01-01

    The identity of geography as a discipline since the nineteenth-century naissance of contemporary academia, if not before, has been often disputed. In higher education, geography is often part of the geosciences, often located in a geography, geology, earth science, and environmental science department or departments. In the world of education…

  16. Environmental problems and economic development in an endogenous fertility model

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Joest; Martin Quaas; Johannes Schiller

    2006-01-01

    Population growth is often viewed as a most oppressive global problem with respect to environmental deterioration, but the relationships between population development, economic dynamics and environmental pollution are complex due to various feedback mechanisms. We analyze society’s economic decisions on birth rates, investment into human and physical capital, and polluting emissions within an optimal control model of the coupled demographic-economic-environmental system. We show that a long-...

  17. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  18. Critical Analysis of Methods for Integrating Economic and Environmental Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguet Ferran, Pau; Heijungs, Reinout; Vogtländer, Joost G.

    2018-01-01

    The application of environmental strategies requires scoring and evaluation methods that provide an integrated vision of the economic and environmental performance of systems. The vector optimisation, ratio and weighted addition of indicators are the three most prevalent techniques for addressing

  19. Remapping Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan M.; Norwine, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Little that occurs in contemporary academic geography will surprise members of the National Association of Scholars, for a large part of the field has joined the other humanities and social sciences in the bawdy saloon of progressive politics, cultural nihilism, and subjective epistemology. That geographers are in there roistering with the…

  20. Commonsense Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHoul, Alec

    1990-01-01

    Presents an ethnomethodological study of how Australian high school geography teachers and students rely on common sense knowledge and reasoning to facilitate learning. Analyzes portions of transcripts from a class activity in which students built a scale model of a city. Explains location categorization devices, illustrating how learning involves…

  1. The HTR, applications, economics and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Schad, M.; Candeli, H.

    1990-01-01

    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR), as the only nuclear system producing high temperature heat up to 1000 deg. C, offers a wide variety of applications. Besides electricity production, via steam turbines and in future via gas turbines, there is: District heat with high efficiency, long distance energy for urban energy supply, high pressure injection steam production for enhanced oil recovery, medium range temperature heat direct application in chemical and related industry and last not least, high temperature application for the refinement of fossil energy carriers. Recent results of studies and programmes will be presented: Near term applications are identified, e.g. refineries and alumina industry with smaller HTR units. Another large market is the production of hydrogen, methanol and ammonia on the basis of natural gas, the relevant technology has been developed up to the pilot scale. The refinement of fossil energy carriers, in particular of coal, is subject of the R+D programme in the cooperation between German industrial companies and the Nuclear Research Center. The results are very promising and will be explained in detail. This programme will be continued. Objectives are: improvement of the technology and of the economics as well as environmental aspects, e.g. the reduction of emissions of carbon-dioxid. The topics of the programme deal with the different apparatus, e.g. steam methane reformer, steam coal gasifier, intermediate heat exchanger and last not least, the process heat HTR. (author)

  2. Geography, Depreciation, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon M. Hsiang; Amir S. Jina

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that geography influences economic growth for many reasons. Previous analyses of comparative development seem to have sidestepped the question of location-dependent depreciation. However the construction of new measures of tropical cyclone exposure enables us to consider the potential impact of this single source of capital depreciation. Using an estimate of asset destruction due to tropical cyclones, we identify the "sandcastle depreciation" rate, and find support for lo...

  3. Economic and environmental benefits of interconnected systems. The Spanish example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicharro, A.S.; Dios Alija, R. de

    1996-01-01

    The interconnected systems provide large technical and economic benefits which, evaluated and contrasted with the associated network investment cost, usually produce important net savings. There are continental electrical systems formed by many interconnected subsystems. The optimal size of an interconnection should be defined within an economic background. It is necessary to take into account the global environmental effects. The approach and results of studies carried out by Red Electrica is presented, in order to analyse both economic and environmental benefits resulting from an increase in the present Spanish interconnection capacities. From both economic and environmental points of view, the development of the interconnected systems is highly positive. (author)

  4. Society environmental economic benefits of swan-labelled workwear service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Dall, Ole; Thomsen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental and socio-economic comparison of textile supply of workwear with and without the Nordic Swan labelling scheme. The study is part of a project for development of a methodology for the environmental and socio-economic comparison for product groups. The study...... is transferred into economic impacts demonstrating a substantial saving for the society when purchasing the eco-labelled service....

  5. 77 FR 45604 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board; Environmental Economics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Science Advisory Board; Environmental Economics Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...) Staff Office announces two public teleconferences of the SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee...., notice is hereby given that the SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee (EEAC) will hold public...

  6. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY INTURKEY: ARE THEY OPPOSITE CONCEPTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yasemin Bozdağlıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in global environmental issues whose importance hasbeen steadily increasing and the demand for environmental quality and theirmutual relation with economic growthare closely related. Economic growth,while increasing the level ofnational income over time, brings with it concernsabout environmental quality.The purpose of this study is to examine therelationship between Turkey's economicgrowth (Gross Domestic Income-GDPand environmental quality. In this study,the Environmental Kuznet Hypothesis,which assumes a correlation between various indicators of environmentaldegradation and per capita income in examining the relationship, will be used.The Granger Causality Test and Cointegration Test methods will be used indetermining the relationship between thecourse of environmental degradation inthe first phase of economic growth and thedegree of environmental effect in theperiod between 1960 and 2011 (with annual data in Turkey.

  7. Environmental and economic report 2009; Umweltwirtschaftsbericht 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    This is the first Umweltwirtschaftsbericht published by the Federal Minister of the Environment and the Federal Environmental Office; it outlines the structure and relevance of the environmental industry and the multiple dimensions that characterize the interdependence of environment, environmental policy, and economy. The report is based on many research projects of the past few years, as well as on data and figures obtained from research institutions and statistical offices. The wealth of information is compiled and linked here for the first time. (orig.)

  8. Economic and environmental efficiency using a social accounting matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilla, Carmen Rodriguez; Diaz-Salazar, Gaspar Llanes; Cardenete, M. Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to show the utility of the so-called Social Accounting Matrix and Environmental Accounts (SAMEA) for economic and environmental efficiency analysis. The article uses the SAMEA for Spain in 2000, applied to water resources and greenhouse gas emissions. This matrix is used as a central core of a multisectorial model of economic and environmental performance, and it calculates the denominated 'domestics SAMEA multipliers' and their decomposition into characteristic, direct, indirect and induced effects. These multipliers show some evaluation of economic and environmental efficiency. Also, we present an application of these multipliers that demonstrates that there is no causal interrelation between those sectors with higher economic backward linkages and those with higher environmental deterioration backward linkages. (author)

  9. New approaches to the formation of concepts in the school course «Socio-economic geography of the world»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Чишкала

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of concepts’ formation in the course «Socio-economic geography of the world». In the formation of economic-geographical concepts in the 10th form we propose to use various tools of learning and specific approaches. 1st approach - the formation of concepts with the help of maps. Maps are models of economic and geographic facts reflection in the space. Statistics put on the map is an effective tool in the formation of economic and geographic concepts, in the analysis of concrete situation in the country or the world. With the help of maps we propose to form the concepts of megalopolis, urban agglomeration, population reproduction, demographic transition, migration, urbanization, and the like. 2nd approach - the formation of concepts on the basis of charts and diagrams. The diagram is the evidence which determines the dominance of one process or object over another. We propose to use diagrams for the formation of concepts about the occupational structure of population, sex-age composition of the population, exports, imports, employment, etc. The graph performs the function of digital data interpretation, comparison and grouping of objects and processes, illustrating the dynamics of the indicators. With the help of graphs we propose to reflect the dynamics of population, population explosion, migration, fertility, mortality, population density, etc 3rd approach - the formation of concepts on the basis of illustrations and schemes. By the illustrations we propose to form the concepts of suburbanity, pseudourbanity, agriculture, and so on. Schematic images are effective in constructing concepts about the geographical division of labour, depopulation, surrounding geo-environment, monitoring, etc. 4th approach - the formation of concepts with the help of tables. Tables are a transitional link between the text and the graphic image. Using tables we can form such concepts as: Republic, monarchy, life

  10. Environmental Interfaces in Teaching Economic Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Celso; Wodewotzki, Maria Lucia; Jacobini, Otavio; Ferrira, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is, based on the Critical Statistics Education assumptions, to value some environmental interfaces in teaching Statistics by modeling projects. Due to this, we present a practical case, one in which we address an environmental issue, placed in the context of the teaching of index numbers, within the Statistics…

  11. Biofuels: Network Analysis of the Literature Reveals Key Environmental and Economic Unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Despite rapid growth in biofuel production worldwide, it is uncertain whether decision-makers possess sufficient information to fully evaluate the impacts of the industry and avoid unintended consequences. Doing so requires rigorous peer-reviewed data and analyses across the entire range of direct and indirect effects. To assess the coverage of scientific research, we analyzed over 1600 peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2009 that addressed 23 biofuels-related topics within four thematic areas: environment and human well-being, economics, technology, and geography. Greenhouse gases, fuel production, and feedstock production were well-represented in the literature, while trade, biodiversity, and human health were not. Gaps were especially striking across topics in the Southern Hemisphere, where the greatest potential socio-economic benefits, as well as environmental damages, may co-occur. There was strong asymmetry in the connectedness of research topics; greenhouse gases articles were twice as often connected to other topics as biodiversity articles. This could undermine the ability of scientific and economic analyses to adequately evaluate impacts and avoid significant unintended consequences. At the least, our review suggests caution in this developing industry and the need to pursue more interdisciplinary research to assess complex trade-offs and feedbacks inherent to an industry with wide-reaching potential impacts. PMID:22229835

  12. Environmental law, policy, and economics: reclaiming the environmental agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldart, Charles C; Ashford, Nicholas Askounes

    2008-01-01

    ... of Information Regarding Chemical Risks 771 11 Enforcement: Encouraging Compliance with Environmental Statutes 807 12 Alternative Forms of Government Intervention to Promote Pollution Reduction 879 13 Polici...

  13. Behavioural economics, travel behaviour and environmental-transport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Sierra, M.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Miralles, C.

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector creates much environmental pressure. Many current policies aimed at reducing this pressure are not fully effective because the behavioural aspects of travellers are insufficiently recognised. Insights from behavioural economics can contribute to a better understanding of travel

  14. Economic approach of the environment and environmental conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, A.

    2008-01-01

    This book takes the non-economist by the hand in a step-by-step economic approach of environmental issues and how to handle them. Two chapters provide an introduction to the concepts of the economy, chapter six in decision theory. In the first chapter, the economist discovers a broader vision by testing the economic approach to insights from other disciplines. Chapter 4 explains how economic reasoning can contribute tot environmental protection in practice. The consideration of the costs and benefits of environmental protection indicates objectives that must be pursued for the community. The conflict between private and public interest forces policy makers to get and maintain the numerous polluters focused on environmental protection. Suitable instruments are discussed in chapter five, including criteria for choice and an in-depth study of the economic instruments levies and tradable emission permits. The EU Emission trading Scheme is used as reference. [mk] [nl

  15. Economic and environmental impacts of alternative transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This project has focused on comparing alternative transportation technologies in terms of their : environmental and economic impacts. The research is data-driven and quantitative, and examines the : dynamics of impact. We have developed new theory an...

  16. Economic and environmental performance of the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2007-01-01

    Changing customer requirements, unpredictable disturbances combined with expensive production facilities, are major problems for food processing companies to achieve synergy between the economic and environmental performance. There notably is a lack of tools to support decision to explore effects...

  17. Prospects for the introduction of HTR's: economical and environmental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-05-03

    The working paper describes the economic and environmental aspects related to the introduction of HTRs into the marketplace. The calculation methods available at ISPRA are noted, and the programme for 1972 is outlined.

  18. Environmental Economics Research Competition for the Middle East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , to extend its work in environmental economics by supporting a series of small research projects in the Middle East and North Africa. Project proposals will be solicited through two competitions: one with and one without a specific theme.

  19. Economic Valuation of European Commercial Fisheries under Good Environmental Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goulding, Ian; Hutniczak, Barbara; Münch, Angela

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on assessing the economic impact of achieving Good Environmental Status in the EU’s commercial capture fisheries, being one of the descriptors listed under the MSFD in terms of landed value using 2010 prices. The approach adopted is to assess the values of landings under...... different environmental scenarios, and use the differences between them to highlight the economic impacts of each....

  20. Areva 2006 figures - Economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the 2006 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation, stakeholder relations, local economic development, Financial performance; 2 - Commitment to employees: Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, employees and training; 3 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 4 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  1. Assessing the Economic and Environmental Prospects of Stand-By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an economic analysis of two stand-by power supply options for a typical Nigerian household namely diesel generator plant and solar powered systems. The analysis reveals that solar systems are the most economically viable. The environmental benefits associated with substituting diesel powered ...

  2. Environmental Aspects of Economic Development in Sub-Saharn Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Baytas, A.

    1991-01-01

    Studies on the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa have generally neglected the links between economic growth and environmental quality. In many such studies, economics and ecology have been treated as mutually exclusive rather than complementary domains. The key to Sub-Saharan Africa's future is to achieve sustainable growth. This calls for replacing the traditional concept of growth based economic output alone with a new approach that stresses development through conserv...

  3. Energy and economic development (environmental implications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    An examination, for developed countries, of significant correlations among economic growth, electric energy intensity and elasticity, per capita values of gross national product and greenhouse gas emissions, indicates notable possibilities for a healthier global environment with increased world-wide diffusion of clean and rational energy use technologies coupled with substantial economic growth. This scenario, however, is contrasted by worrisome doubts as to the chances for a successful outcome of recently proposed tenable growth policies when it is pointed out that forecasts, based on current demographic trends, call for a doubling of the world population in the near future. The foreseen unrestrained population explosion, leading to an unprecedented proliferation in the use of fossil fuels, now appears to represent the most serious threat to the global environment

  4. Economic development and Environmental quality: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to analyze evidence of an environmental Kuznets curve for water pollution in the developing and developed countries. The study was conducted based on a panel data set of 54 countries – that were categorized into six groups of “developed countries”, “developing countries”, “developed ...

  5. Essays in environmental policy and household economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motavasseli, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues regarding the consequences of environmental policy and its optimal level, as well as household's decisions on energy consumption and labor supply. In chapter two, a theoretical analysis investigates whether fossil fuel taxation or a consumption cap is

  6. Economic framework for integrating environmental stewardship into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of agricultural production technologies (based on natural resource management principles) exist that offer opportunities for achieving the two seemingly divergent goals because they have the characteristics to produce joint multiple outputs, i.e, they produce food and provide environmental services. However ...

  7. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to

  8. 77 FR 17475 - Notification of Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board; Environmental Economics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Advisory Board; Environmental Economics Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Office announces public teleconferences of the SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee to conduct... Economics Advisory Committee (EEAC) will hold a public teleconferences to review the EPA draft report...

  9. Economic versus environmental improvement potentials of Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2006-01-01

    This article demonstrates how economic and environmental improvement potentials of Danish pig farms can be estimated using Data envelopment analysis (DEA). To avoid some of the problems associated with the definition of undesirable outputs, environmental variables are included as nutrients applied...

  10. Do 'green' taxes work? Decoupling environmental pressures and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2005-01-01

    This essay intends to shed light on whether environmental taxation can help to decouple environmental pressures from economic growth, a policy outcome widely desired and particularly pressing in the context of climate change where radical measures are needed to curb CO2 build up....

  11. WAEA Keynote Address Behavioral Environmental Economics: Money Pumps & Nudges

    OpenAIRE

    Shogren, Jason F.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we explore how money pumps from rational choice theory and nudges from behavioral economics work toward helping create better environmental policy. We examine the role of money pumps in environmental policy, and whether policymakers can use nudges to "supercharge" incentives. We summarize insight that has emerged from both camps in the areas of conflict/cooperation and mechanism design.

  12. Women's Marginalization, Economic Flows, and Environmental Flows: A Classroom Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Lear, Shannon

    1999-01-01

    Discusses environmental security, focusing on the meaning of "security." Defines the global economy as a process in which the security of groups is sought, maintained, or threatened. Illustrates connections among environmental security, the global economy, and abuse of women and children in less economically developed places,…

  13. Regional geochemical maps of uranium in Northern Scotland. Environmental and economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Institute of Geological Studies geochemical mapping programme is outlined. The natural levels of uranium in rocks, soils and waters are discussed. Some practical details of geochemical mapping are given. Applications of geochemical maps of uranium in Scotland are considered: economic applications and medical geography and agriculture. A list of 38 references is appended. (U.K.)

  14. Integrated environmental and economic assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica

    in the “Optimization approach” the scenarios are the results of an optimization process. • The cost approach describes cost principles and level of LCA integration. Conventional and Environmental LCCs are financial assessments, i.e. include marketed goods/services, but while Environmental LCCs include environmental...... assessment of SWM systems alongside environmental impacts assessment to take budget constrains into account. In light of the need for combined environmental and economic assessment of SWM, this PhD thesis developed a consistent and comprehensive method for integrated environmental and economic assessment...... of SWM technologies and systems. The method resulted from developing further the generic Life Cycle Costing (LCC) framework suggested by Hunkeler et al. (2008) and Swarr et al. (2011) to apply it on the field of SWM. The method developed includes: two modelling approaches (Accounting and Optimization...

  15. Does environmental economics produce aeroplanes without engines? On the need for an environmental social science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Henk; Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    In this paper we first critically review conventional environmental economics. We conclude that the standard theory offers too narrow a perspective for many real world problems and that many theories are not empirically tested. Consequently, environmental economics is at risk of producing aeroplanes

  16. Economic valuation of the environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Assmus, Gustavo

    1996-01-01

    The article tries about the restlessness ecological World cup born under the spectrum of an eventual environmental crisis and their serious consequences for the sustenance of the life in the earth, that which has put to the overdraft a series of fundamental errors to the interior of the classic considerations of the economy. For it, from the decade of the years 70 in the developed countries and from the 90 in those developing countries, it has been intensified the reflection notably around what is and it can be the economy of the well-being, closely related, not alone with the ecology but also with the emergence of the man's cultural phase that acts under new pertinent values to the environmental ethics

  17. Mathematical model in economic environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

  18. Elements for a comprehensive assessment of natural resources: bridging environmental economics with ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Romero, Paulo Cesar; Cubillos Gonzalez, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The predominance of economic assessments regarding the value of natural resources has caused a sub-valuing of the real benefits which societies can obtain from nature. This is due to a lack of knowledge about the complexity of ecological functions, as well as a dismissal of the integrated relations of the sub-systems which make up the environment. It is therefore necessary to establish conceptual bridges between environmental sciences to fill in the gaps in economic valuation methods by recurring to diverse measuring scales, participation from the different actors involved, and a principle of precaution regarding the limits of nature. This paper explores the concepts of value and economic valuation methods from the perspectives of Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics. It then proposes an integration of valuing methodologies which take into account how complementary and complex natures value relations are. This proposal of valuing integrally ecosystem goods and services contributes to adjusting political decisions more accordingly to real environmental conditions.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF "GREEN ECONOMY" RUSSIA'S ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Botavina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article tells the story of the emergence of "green" economy, as opposed to the traditional "brown" ekonomike, given its concept shown shortcomings of the existing definitions of "green" economy, conclusions about the real possibilities of the transition to the growth of "green" economy. The relevance of this work lies in the fact that the changing paradigm of understanding the basis and essence of sustainable development of the national socio-economic systems necessitates the integration of economic and environmental solutions, this integration is seen as part of the concept of "green economy".The approach of this article is based on an interdisciplinary concept of quality management in relation to the specifics of functioning and development of the domestic socio-economic systems.The purpose / goal. The purpose of this article, and its main task is to systematize the areas of environmentally oriented development of economic entities, as well as the determination of the list of key provisions of environmental policy, which will provide further socio-economic development of Russia in line with the green economy. As a result, Russia as one of the great powers of the world will find a stable geopolitical situation.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are comparative, economic and statistical analysis methods.Results. This article suggests some solutions to be included in the national environmental policy as a major incentive for the further transition to a green economy.Conclusions: The material contained in this article show the special role of the concept of "green economy" in the social and economic processes in the development of Russia's geo-economic stability. The above article aspects of the further development of the green economy in Russia can complement scientific and practical base solutions that provide active creation, implementation and use of green technologies to provide environmentally responsible sustainable

  20. Economic Savings from Using Economic Incentives for Environmental Pollution Control (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic incentives, such as emission taxes, effluent trading, deposit refund systems, information reporting requirements, liability for harm caused by pollution, and voluntary programs have the potential to achieve environmental objectives at lower cost.

  1. EEE (environmental engineering economics) attributes for oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isreb, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlined the basic attributes of environmental engineering economics (EEE) with reference to the oil and gas industry in Australia. The paper was designed as a reference guide for policy-makers, educators, and environmental engineers. Methods of calculating the Pareto Optimum status were discussed, and environmental values and principles were identified. Air quality indicators were outlined. The paper considered multidisciplinary approaches to EEE and sustainable development, as well as the application of statistics and qualitative methods in addressing contemporary issues. The ethical aspects of environmental policies were discussed. Issues related to environmental toxicity and public health were also examined. Various taxation approaches and financial incentives were reviewed. Environmental laws related to the oil and gas industry were outlined. Environmental assessment procedures were presented. It was concluded that environmental regulations within the industry will help to ensure appropriate pollution reductions. 7 refs

  2. Geography, Economic Education and Global Education: European and Austrian Aspects of the "Fifobi--Developing Business Competencies in School" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The EU-funded research project "Fifobi--Fit for Business--developing business competencies in school" (2009-2012) focused on the implementation of economic education in seven European countries. The purpose of the project and this paper is to investigate the current programmes that exist within the final two years of compulsory…

  3. "Publish or Perish" as citation metrics used to analyze scientific output in the humanities: International case studies in economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneyx, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, the most commonly used source of bibliometric data is the Thomson ISI Web of Knowledge, in particular the (Social) Science Citation Index and the Journal Citation Reports, which provide the yearly Journal Impact Factors. This database used for the evaluation of researchers is not advantageous in the humanities, mainly because books, conference papers, and non-English journals, which are an important part of scientific activity, are not (well) covered. This paper presents the use of an alternative source of data, Google Scholar, and its benefits in calculating citation metrics in the humanities. Because of its broader range of data sources, the use of Google Scholar generally results in more comprehensive citation coverage in the humanities. This presentation compares and analyzes some international case studies with ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar. The fields of economics, geography, social sciences, philosophy, and history are focused on to illustrate the differences of results between these two databases. To search for relevant publications in the Google Scholar database, the use of "Publish or Perish" and of CleanPoP, which the author developed to clean the results, are compared.

  4. Corporate sustainability: environmental, social, economic and corporate performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with corporate sustainability and environmental and social issues of the integration of corporate performance measurement that may lead to sustainable economic success. Sustainability is a strategy of the process of sustainable development. Sustainability of businesses and sustainable performance can be defined as an integration of environmental, social and economic performance. First and foremost, businesses will want to know what indicators can be used to measure environmental, social and economic performance. What is the mutual relationship between environmental, social and economic performance? How can firms arrive at a comprehensive assessment of their performance in relation to sustainability? The aim of this paper is to analyze corporate environmental, social and economic performance and to analyze their mutual relationships. The final part of the article is an assessment of the contemporary situation and draft Key Performance Indicators (KPI for assessment of corporate sustainability that will be the subject of further research in a selected NACE-CZ sector and in accordance with Corporate Sustainability Reporting. KPI provide businesses with a means of measuring progress toward achieving objectives.

  5. A Study on improvement of environmental assessment system in social, economic, and environmental sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Young Sook; Koo, Doh Wan; Keum, Kee Yong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The environmental assessment system is assessed as a mechanism that can achieve the goal for environmental policy in 21st century. As it can evaluate social and economic feasibility of large-scale development program, this system can achieve a sustainable society by mitigating social conflicts arising from environmental problems. For making the environmental assessment system substantial, this study was implemented by the need of improvement of the system, by analyzing problems of social, economic, and environmental evaluation, which is implemented under the present system. 44 refs., 1 fig., 25 tabs.

  6. Environmental Proactivity and Environmental and Economic Performance: Evidence from the Winery Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Barba-Sánchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability in the winery sector is receiving increased attention from governments, environmental groups, and consumers. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the degree of proactivity of a firm’s environmental strategies and its business performance. The novelty of this research work lies in its definition of business performance, which includes business environmental performance in terms of reducing the firm’s environmental impacts and eco-efficiency in the use of resources such as water, energy, and raw materials, in addition to its economic performance. A model is proposed and tested using a sample of 312 Spanish wineries. Data were analysed using partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM. The fitness and robustness of the structural model proved adequate. The results indicate positive correlation of environmental proactivity with economic and environmental performance. Although environmental proactivity improves business performance, it has a greater impact on reducing environmental impacts and improving eco-efficiency.

  7. Greenlining. Economic and Environmental Effects of Government Facilitated Lending to Sustainable Economic Activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-03-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We analyze the effect on taxes, economic growth, employment, as well as on the emission of a number of gases and on solid waste production. We find that the economic effects in general are positive. However, the environmental effects are quite mixed. It is concluded that the policy instrument could be used much more effective

  8. Environmental degradation and remediation: is economics part of the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Burton, Ian

    2003-01-01

    It is argued that standard environmental economic and 'ecological economics', have the same fundamentals of valuation in terms of money, based on a demand curve derived from utility maximization. But this approach leads to three different measures of value. An invariant measure of value exists only if the consumer has 'homothetic preferences'. In order to obtain a numerical estimate of value, specific functional forms are necessary, but typically these estimates do not converge. This is due to the fact that the underlying economic model is not structurally stable. According to neoclassical economics, any environmental remediation can be justified only in terms of increases in consumer satisfaction, balancing marginal gains against marginal costs. It is not surprising that the optimal policy obtained from this approach suggests only small reductions in greenhouse gases. We show that a unidimensional metric of consumer's utility measured in dollar terms can only trivialize the problem of global climate change.

  9. DETERMINATION OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUCCESS OF PRODUCTS:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESEN GÜRBÜZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An Empirical Investigation on the Turkish Food Industry Altough there are studies which evaulate and explain the importance of environmental, social and economic success of a product, it is important to evaluate the considerable success of these three variables together. This paper aims to evaluate economic, social and environmental success of a product all together (but not seperatly by conducting a research.  In this paper for some sample firms operating in the Turkish Food Industry, the variables, which effect the products’ economic, social and enviromental successes, are defined theoretically and the research results are explained investigating if there is a relationship between enviromental, social, economic success criteria and firm size, export, import use of intermediary.

  10. Integrated environmental policy: A review of economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeth, Hans; Häckl, Dennis

    2017-04-01

    Holistic environmental policies, which emerged from a mere combination of technical activities in waste management some 40 years ago, constitute the most advanced level of environmental policies. These approaches to environmental policy, among them the policies in integrated waste management, attempt to guide economic agents to an environment-friendly behaviour. Nevertheless, current holistic policies in waste management, including policies on one-way drinks containers and waste electrical and electronic equipment, and implementations of extended producer responsibility with further applications to waste electrical and electronic equipment, reveal more or less severe deficiencies - despite some positive examples. This article relates these policy failures, which are not necessarily the result of an insufficient compliance with the regulations, to missing constitutive elements of what is going to be called an 'integrated environmental policy'. This article therefore investigates - mostly from a practical point of view - constitutive elements, which are necessary for a holistic policy to serve as a well-functioning allocation mechanism. As these constitutive elements result from a careful 'integration' of the environmental commodities into the economic allocation problems, we refer to these policies as 'integrated environmental policies'. The article also discusses and illustrates the main steps of designing such a policy - for waste electrical and electronic equipment and a (possible) ban of Glyphosat in agriculture. As these policies are dependent on economic and political stability with environmental awareness sufficiently developed, the article addresses mostly waste management policies in highly industrialised countries.

  11. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu Tao; Ma Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu Jian; Zhang Shiqiu

    2007-01-01

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  12. Engineering, environmental and economic planning for tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellot, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    There are two principal points made in this paper. First, mining waste materials, or tailings, are geotechnical materials. Their behavior follows the principles of soil mechanics and is predictable by these principles. Second, proper disposal, meaning safe, environmentally sound and economical disposal, requires planning and recognizing waste disposal as part of the total mining system and process. In the development of these two principles, planning, design, and economic considerations of mine tailings are discussed

  13. Economic targets and loss-aversion in international environmental cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    İriş, Doruk

    2015-01-01

    In the standard emission problem, each country’s ruling party decides on an optimal level of emissions by analyzing the cost and benefit to the country. However, such policy decisions are often influenced by political parties’ incentives to be elected. Voters tend to give higher priority to economic issues than they do to environmental ones. As a result, political parties have additional incentives to reach a critical economic benefit level, at a cost of higher emission level, in order to sat...

  14. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND EU CITIZENS’ PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES

    OpenAIRE

    Elena N. UNTARU; Ana ISPAS; Adina N. CANDREA

    2014-01-01

    The present paper aims to determine the influence of EU member countries’ economic development on their citizens’ pro-environmental attitudes, using a Cluster Analysis, a Principal Components Analysis and a series of multiple regressions. In this sense, we have used the results of the 2012 survey on the „Attitudes of Europeans towards building the single market for green products”, as well as the 2012 statistical information referring to EU member countries’ economic development, provided by ...

  15. Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.

    2014-01-01

    that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can......Nowadays, companies are looking for new sustainable design alternatives that improve their original processes.To assesst he best designalternative, economic aspects have been the preferred indicators. However, environmental and social concerns should also be included in the decision process so...

  16. Three Essays in Energy and Environmental Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Paul A.

    implications for environmental policy in industries with imperfect competition and differentiated products.

  17. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  18. Areva. 2007 figures economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the 2007 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation; 2 - Financial performance: 2007 results; 3 - Commitment to employees: Stakeholder relations, Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, Workforce, Workforce and training; 4 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 5 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  19. Use Of Instruments For Environmental Marketing In Economic Activity Of Agricultural Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksiy Shkuratov; Irina Voronetska

    2012-01-01

    Improved marketing mechanism of agricultural enterprise through the introduction of environmental marketing. Grounded place, tasks and functions of environmental marketing in integrated environmental and economic management.

  20. The economic impact of environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, B.; Rothengatter, W.

    2004-01-01

    The economic assessment of the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) scenarios developed throughout this paper are part of Phase 3 of the overall project, which is on social and economic assessment and on devising packages of instruments that - if implemented - would result in attaining EST. Two methods were chosen for the assessment of the scenarios: a qualitative evaluation based on a simplified cybernetic model (SCM) and a system dynamics model (SDM). In the assessment with the simplified cybernetic model, a conservative baseline has been chosen in order to start with a scenario that incorporates some pessimistic views of the industry. The aim is to show that, even in this case, an economic disaster will not occur. The System Dynamics Model ESCOT was designed to consider the ecological and technical aspects of a transition towards sustainable transportation. It is important that ESCOT considers not only first round effects but also secondary effects, which makes it a powerful instrument for the assessment of such large ecological changes. The economic assessment of environmentally sustainable scenarios shows that the departure from car and road freight oriented transport policy is far from leading to an economic collapse. The effects concerning economic indices are rather low, even though the measures proposed in the EST-80% scenario designate distinct changes compared to today's transport policy. The impacts on some economic indicators, however, are clearly negative. With an expansion of the time period for the transition in the EST-50% scenario we derived even more encouraging results than for EST-80%

  1. A review of mathematical models in economic environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahorski, Z.; Ravn, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a review of mathematical models used,in economic analysis of environmental problems. This area of research combines macroeconomic models of growth, as dependent on capital, labour, resources, etc., with environmental models describing such phenomena like natural resources...... exhaustion or pollution accumulation and degradation. In simpler cases the models can be treated analytically and the utility function can be optimized using, e.g., such tools as the maximum principle. In more complicated cases calculation of the optimal environmental policies requires a computer solution....

  2. Environmental/Economic Analysis and Recycling of Wastes from Air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and economic analysis was performed on the wastes from Air Liquid Nigeria Ltd. The company's waste water, spent oil, noise and air pollutants were examined. Results show no serious adverse impact on the ambient air quality. There was serious noise pollution problem around the factory hall and generator ...

  3. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  4. The economic and environmental benefits of reprocessing and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, R.

    1977-01-01

    Recently published reports and papers on the economic, environmental and resource conservation benefits of reprocessing and the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors provide an important background to the essentially political discussions in the United States on non-proliferation. Some of the main arguments and conclusions are presented. (author)

  5. Socio–economic and environmental impact of crude oil exploration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio–economic and environmental impact of crude oil exploration and production on agricultural production: a case study of Edjeba and Kokori communities in Delta State of ... The results also showed an increase in the occurrence of health hazard, air/noise pollution and heightened deforestation in these communities.

  6. The Supply of Environmentalism: Psychological Interventions and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Glaeser

    2014-01-01

    Long before behavioral economists began to combine economic theory with discoveries from psychology, environmentalists were nudging and framing and pushing their cause through psychological interventions. These interventions appear to have changed behavior by altering beliefs, norms, and preferences. However, because psychological interventions are often coarse, they have also resulted in inadvertent, offsetting side effects. This article discusses the interactions between environmental prefe...

  7. Socio-economic data for global environmental change research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ilona; Biewald, Anne; Coumou, Dim

    2015-01-01

    Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing....

  8. Methodology for reliability, economic and environmental assessment of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, T.W.; Muirhead, S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Preliminary Actions in Wave Energy R and D for DG XII's Joule programme, methodologies were developed to facilitate assessment of the reliability, economics and environmental impact of wave energy. This paper outlines these methodologies, their limitations and areas requiring further R and D. (author)

  9. Economic and environmental packaging sustainability: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván González Boubeta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyze the suitability of the packaging strategy of an important Spanish agro-food company, regarding to economic and environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Three different types of packaging are analyzed to obtain a diagnostic of the initial situation. In this process, cost and carbon footprint are calculated in order to measure the economic and environmental impacts, respectively. Then, a new packaging allocation logic is proposed with the aim of improving both aspects. Findings: The results show that the carbon footprint is strongly and positively affected by the cost reduction, showing the viability of a win-win relationship between both aspects. Research limitations/implications: The strength of this win-win relationship may be conditioned by the input values considered in this case study. Conversion factors used to calculate carbon footprint vary a lot among researchers, showing the need of standardization in this topic. Practical implications: Since the existence of a positive relationship between economic and environmental sustainability has been demonstrated, organizations should find this kind of situations in themselves to satisfy their own stakeholders. Originality/value: This article shows the potential of unite waste elimination with eco-friendly activities with the aim of increasing the competitiveness of companies. This paper also contributes to the knowledge of economic and environmental sustainability and reinforces theoretical aspects, paving the way for further research on these topics.

  10. Environmental economic calculation prices for emissions; Miljoeoekonomiske beregningspriser for emissioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.

    2010-05-15

    The project's aim has been to present updated environmental-economic calculation prices which make it possible to differentiate between traffic sources and stationary sources of air pollution. Furthermore, for the first time calculation prices for emissions to the aquatic environment and for the heavy metal lead are included. (ln)

  11. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of Pretoria, endeavors to increase capacity for research and policy analysis in environmental and resource economics in Africa through a program of research grants and related support services, including short courses, workshops and supervision of research projects. The first phase was supported under project 104296.

  12. Environmental economic variables - what has been measured until now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlroth, S.; Palm, V.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental accounting encompasses a variety of economic variables. They range from production values of different branches of industry, through fiscal instruments such as environmental taxes, and to valuation studies of external effects of the economy. This paper tries to map out the different aspects of variables, and to point out their linkages and uses, viewed from an environmental accounting perspective. Also, the estimated size of the different types of variables is discussed, based mainly on Swedish studies and on a national scale. Included variables are GDP, export and import, environmental taxes, subsidies, environmental costs, remediation costs, environmental damage costs and examples of prevention costs. We will divide the economic variables into four different types: 1. Those that are recorded as the actors payment on the market 2. Those that are part of the government budget 3. Those that serve as a valuation of the costs incurred on society 4. Those that could be invested to prevent environmental damage The size of the different costs will be taken from a variety of studies, mainly Swedish, and be put in relation to GDP or similar. A brief discussion of the Swedish situation as compared to international figures will also be made

  13. The geography of openness to foreign trade in Poland: The role of special economic zones and foreign-owned entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarczuk Jarosław M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the spatial distribution of openness to foreign trade assessed at the local level (LAU 1, poviats in Poland, between 2005 and 2012, with particular reference to its two determinants: activity of foreign-owned enterprises (FOEs and functioning of special economic zones (SEZs. With the use of data from different sources, including the foreign trade statistics for the Polish regions, constituting a set of indicators on openness to foreign trade, we deliberate on the determinants and the character of regional openness, as well as the quality of the proxies used in order to assess their spatial distribution. Our results indicate high regional dissimilarities in terms of export activity, correlated with the broader picture of regional inequalities. The role of FOEs has been crucial in determining the spatial distribution of exports. As regards the SEZs, their sole contribution increased significantly during the time span. In the times of the world financial crisis, the export performance diversity of poviats increased temporarily but diminished afterwards.

  14. Economic instruments for environmental policy making in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barg, S.; Duraiappah, A.; Van Exan, S.

    2000-01-01

    The conditions and approaches required for a successful implementation of economic instruments in Ontario are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of economic instruments are discussed, as are some design issues. Some best practices and practical experiences from Canada, the United States, and Europe are examined through the use of nine specific case studies. Each one highlights a different environmental challenge, such as energy efficiency, air pollution, water pollution, waste management along with the solutions that were implemented. The situations described were not all successful, but there is much to be learned from unsuccessful episodes. Lessons learned from the review of the case studies were presented. The points to ponder when using economic instruments in Ontario were highlighted. The command and control policy instrument must be kept in context when considering economic instruments. The reasons that underline the preference of the economic theory for economic instruments are discussed. The different types of economic instruments are described, and the considerations related to the design and comparison of economic instruments is briefly discussed. The authors concluded with several points to ponder: there are a number of options available, details must not be neglected, consultation with the interested parties is important, there is a need for frequent reassessment, and using a number of instruments is helpful. 55 refs., tabs., figs

  15. A spatial analysis of variations in health access: linking geography, socio-economic status and access perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper analyses the relationship between public perceptions of access to general practitioners (GPs) surgeries and hospitals against health status, car ownership and geographic distance. In so doing it explores the different dimensions associated with facility access and accessibility. Methods Data on difficulties experienced in accessing health services, respondent health status and car ownership were collected through an attitudes survey. Road distances to the nearest service were calculated for each respondent using a GIS. Difficulty was related to geographic distance, health status and car ownership using logistic generalized linear models. A Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was used to explore the spatial non-stationarity in the results. Results Respondent long term illness, reported bad health and non-car ownership were found to be significant predictors of difficulty in accessing GPs and hospitals. Geographic distance was not a significant predictor of difficulty in accessing hospitals but was for GPs. GWR identified the spatial (local) variation in these global relationships indicating locations where the predictive strength of the independent variables was higher or lower than the global trend. The impacts of bad health and non-car ownership on the difficulties experienced in accessing health services varied spatially across the study area, whilst the impacts of geographic distance did not. Conclusions Difficulty in accessing different health facilities was found to be significantly related to health status and car ownership, whilst the impact of geographic distance depends on the service in question. GWR showed how these relationships were varied across the study area. This study demonstrates that the notion of access is a multi-dimensional concept, whose composition varies with location, according to the facility being considered and the health and socio-economic status of the individual concerned. PMID:21787394

  16. Environmental economics and biodiversity management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munasinghe, M. (Policy and Research Div., Environment Dept., World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Reconciling and operationalizing the three main concepts of sustainable development - the economic, ecological, and sociocultural - poses formidable problems. Environmental economics and valuation can play a key role in helping to incorporate concerns about biodiversity loss into the traditional decision-making framework. A case study from Madagascar examines the impact of a new national park on tropical forests by using both conventional and newer techniques to economically value damage to forests and watersheds, timber and nontimber forest products, other impacts on local inhabitants, impacts on biodiversity, and ecotourism benefits. In the Sri Lanka case study, an integrated energy-environmental analysis was developed, which helps to eliminate projects with unacceptable impacts, and redesign others. Where economic valuation of environmental impacts was not possible, multiple attribute evaluation techniques were used. Improving the incomes and welfare of local communities, especially poor ones, while simultaneously preserving physical and biological systems, offers opportunities for developing countries to pursue all three goals of sustainable development in a complementary manner. (14 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.).

  17. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution.

  18. Using lean methodologies for economically and environmentally sustainable foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Torielli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is often seen as a set of tools that reduce the total cost and improve the quality of manufactured products. The lean management philosophy is one which targets waste reduction in every facet of the manufacturing business; however, only recently have studies linked lean management philosophies with improving environmental sustainability. These studies suggest that lean manufacturing is more than a set of lean tools that can optimize manufacturing efficiencies; it is a process and mindset that needs to be integrated into daily manufacturing systems to achieve sustainability. The foundry industry, as well as manufacturing in general, has significant challenges in the current regulatory and political climate with developing an economically and environmentally sustainable business model. Lean manufacturing has proven itself as a model for both economic sustainability and environmental stewardship. Several recent studies have shown that both lean and green techniques and “zero-waste” policies also lead to reductions in overall cost. While these strategies have been examined for general manufacturing, they have not been investigated in detail for the foundry industry. This paper will review the current literature and describe how lean and green can provide a relevant framework for environmentally and economically sustainable foundries. Examples of lean and green technologies and techniques which can be applied to foundries in a global context will be described.

  19. Environmental support, energy security and economic growth in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparatos, Alexandros; Gadda, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the resource consumption of Japanese society since 1979 and its subsequent effects on the economic output of the nation and the environment. In order to quantify resource appropriation and trends in production and consumption, the concept of emergy synthesis is employed. Our results show a significant increase in the total amount of emergy consumed by 66.9% between 1979 and 2003 which comes hand in hand with an increase in the level of environmental stress by 93.7% (quantified as the environmental loading ratio). On the other hand the emergy required to produce 1 USD of economic output has been gradually decreasing which denotes an increase in the efficiency of the conversion of natural capital into economic output. What is most interesting though is the growing dependence of the Japanese economy on imported emergy, increasingly from developing nations, that severely affects the potential for unhindered economic growth. This can prove to be a big barrier that could affect the resource security of the Japanese economy and render it susceptible to risks associated with access to natural resources which in turn can jeopardise its long-term economic sustainability.

  20. Comparative economic evaluation of environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrascu, Roxana; Athanasovici, Victor; Raducanu, Cristian; Minciuc, Eduard; Bitir-Istrate, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    Cogeneration is one of the most powerful technologies for reduction of environmental pollution along with renewable energies. At the Kyoto Conference cogeneration has been identified as being the most important measure for reducing emissions of greenhouse effect gases. It has also been mentioned that cogeneration has a potential of reducing pollution with about 180 million tones per year. In order to promote new cogeneration technologies and evaluate the existing ones it is necessary to know and to be able to quantify in economical terms the environmental issues. When comparing different cogeneration technologies: steam turbine (TA), gas turbine (TG), internal combustion engine (MT), in order to choose the best one, the final decision implies an economic factor, which is even more important if it includes the environmental issues. The environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies is quantified using different criteria: depletion of non-renewable natural resources, eutrofisation, greenhouse effect, acidification etc. Environmental analysis using these criteria can be made using the 'impact with impact' methodology or the global one. The results of such an analysis cannot be quantified economically directly. Therefore there is a need of internalisation of ecological effects within the costs of produced energy: electricity and heat. In the energy production sector the externalizations represent the indirect effects on the environment. They can be materialised within different types of environmental impact: - Different buildings of mines, power plants etc; - Fuel losses during transportation and processing; - Effect of emissions in the air, water and soil. Introduction of the environmental impact costs in the energy price is called internalisation and it can be made using the direct and indirect methods. The paper discusses aspects regarding the emissions of cogeneration systems, the eco-taxes - method of 'internalisation' of environmental

  1. Environmental and economical aspects of selected energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    An analysis of environmental and economical aspects of selected renewable energy systems is presented. The aim was to provide a basis for estimating the competitive status in each case, to review the consequences of technological development, to identify attractive markets and to evaluate the effects of various economic conditions. Calculation methods are described and individual solar heating systems are compared to oil-fired boilers, boilers fired with solid fuels are compared to oil-fired boilers and straw-fired cogeneration plants are compared with coal, fuel-oil and straw-fired district heating plants. Results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. (AB)

  2. Can the capitalist economic system deliver environmental justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Can a healthy environment for all social groups be delivered through capitalism via market mechanisms? Or is it the capitalist system, itself, that has been at the root of the environmental and social crises we now face? This letter engages with this ongoing debate by drawing on material from a wider study, ‘Achieving Environmental Justice’, which examined the extent, form and causes of environmental justice and injustice in a range of countries with varying depths of marketization—United States, South Korea, United Kingdom, Sweden, China, Bolivia and Cuba. The analysis described here focuses on the interview material from this mixed methods study, drawing on over 140 interviews with officials, policy makers, and civil society leaders. The letter argues that there is an apparent propensity for capitalist processes to exacerbate, rather than reduce, environmental problems and inequities though the pursuit of relentless economic growth and profit accumulation. Therefore, we should perhaps let go of efforts to resolve environmental injustice within the constraints of capitalism and, instead, build an alternative economic system that can meet human needs in the context of a harmonious and respectful relationship with nature.

  3. Helping Your Child Learn Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1996-01-01

    By the year 2000, all students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter including English, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography, and every school in America will ensure that all students learn to use their minds well, so they may be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our Nation's modern economy.

  4. Wind pumps for farms: Economic and environmental feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccoli, F.

    1992-01-01

    The cost and environmental benefits of four different types of water pumps for use on farms are compared. The factors considered in the analysis of the different pumps categorized according to head (7, 30 and 50 m) and energy source (wind energy, electricity, gasoline or fuel oil) include operating and maintenance costs, and payback periods. Particular attention is given to the socio-economic implications of the use of wind pumps in developing countries. In this case, the various aspects taken into account are: wind pump siting requirements, optimum sizing, the feasibility of water pumping-power production with the use of wind turbines, required skill levels of operators, and environmental compatibility

  5. Reactor parameters for European economic, safety and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.; Cooke, P.I.H.; Spears, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Parameter sets for five 1200 MW e tokamak reactors were developed for the European Study Group on the Environmental, Safety-related and Economic Potential of Fusion Power, showing today's perception of the range of reactors likely to be available as a result of the Commission's fusion programme. On the basis of the cost of generating electricity, relative to a fission reactor, a reference set was chosen and endorsed by the Group for further studies including that on the environmental impact of fusion power. Key physics and technology parameters for the reference reactor are compared with values used in the ITER design, and with those from American studies. (author)

  6. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water... ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation... Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and...

  7. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related... Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land...

  8. 78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related.... L. 110-114) directed the Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles...

  9. Asia energy mixes from socio-economic and environmental perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thavasi, V.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable clean energy is the top social, economic, and environmental agenda of political leaders, policy makers, enlightened business executives, and civil society in Asia. Strong economic growth in Asia has caused a great demand for energy which has resulted in an enormous increase in CO 2 emissions. The association of Southeast Asian nations (ASEAN), India, China, South Korea and Japan are the most important regions in Asia as their economies have been growing steadily. These countries though heavily dependent on fossil fuels have stepped up their measures towards low-carbon society amid domestic affordability challenges and changing global mindset. This report highlights the current energy scenario in these countries and their effort towards an affordable and sustainable clean energy future. The energy policy to enhance energy security and improve environmental sustainability is also explicated in this article. (author)

  10. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND EU CITIZENS’ PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. UNTARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to determine the influence of EU member countries’ economic development on their citizens’ pro-environmental attitudes, using a Cluster Analysis, a Principal Components Analysis and a series of multiple regressions. In this sense, we have used the results of the 2012 survey on the „Attitudes of Europeans towards building the single market for green products”, as well as the 2012 statistical information referring to EU member countries’ economic development, provided by Eurostat. Using multiple regression analyses, we have outlined a significant influence of macroeconomic variables, such as: the employment rate, tertiary educational attainment, GDP per capita, human development index value, unemployment rate, share of gross value added in services and share of employment in services on European citizens’ pro-environmental attitudes.

  11. A study on the relationship of environmental regulations and economic performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Jia; Chen, Shen

    2017-11-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanism transmission of environmental regulation affecting on economic performance from a new perspective. It shows that environmental regulations affect country’s economic performance through direct transmission and indirect transmission. Direct transmission means that environmental regulations affect economic performance from influencing corporation’s cost and revenue, and indirect transmission is that environmental regulations affect economic performance through leading to the increased effort of corporations in improving the quality of environment and building the image of fulfilling environmental responsibility.

  12. Ranking agricultural, environmental and natural resource economics journals: A note

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2012-01-01

    This paper by applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) ranks for the first time Economics journals in the field of Agricultural, Environmental and Natural Resource. Specifically, by using one composite input and one composite output the paper ranks 32 journals. In addition for the first time three different quality ranking reports have been incorporated to the DEA modelling problem in order to classify the journals into four categories (‘A’ to ‘D’). The results reveal that the journals with t...

  13. Aligning economic impact with environmental benefits: a green strategy model

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Q.; Lago, P.; Potenza, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve lower energy consumption many green strategies (e.g. virtualize applications and consolidate them on shared server machines, or optimize the usage of the private cloud by opening up to external consumers) have been discussed. In practice, however, the major incentive for a company to go green is reducing costs. While green strategies often focus on technical and environmental issues, they hardly address the economic impact that they may bring. If green strategies do not lead to an ...

  14. From partial to total economic analysis. Five applications to environmental and energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, T.

    2006-05-04

    The studies presented in this thesis address the consequences of market distortions of governmental policies - predominantly in the area of environmental and energy policy. The studies cover different economic aggregation levels: The first study aims at investigating firm-level effects. Thus, the results refer only to a small number of well-defined economic entities, e.g. electricity supply companies in Germany. Subsequently, issues - such as the evaluation of efficiency effects of the European Emissions Trading system - are addressed on a multi-sectoral and multi-regional level, but still only one market is considered. Thereupon, the scope of investigation is broadened by interactions of different markets - e.g. as in the case of the economic evaluation of renewable energy promotion strategies. Finally, a general equilibrium analysis of a European nuclear phase-out scenario covers all economic feed-backs on the national and international level. (orig.) 5.

  15. In situ leaching of uranium: Technical, environmental and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Within the framework of its activities in nuclear raw materials the International Atomic Energy Agency has convened a series of meetings to discuss various aspects of uranium ore processing technology, recovery of uranium from non-conventional resources and development of projects for the production of uranium concentrates including economic aspects. As part of this continuing effort to discuss and document important aspects of uranium production the IAEA convened a Technical Committee Meeting on Technical, Economic and Environmental Aspects of In-Situ Leaching. Although the use of this technique is limited by geological and economic constraints, it has a significant potential to produce uranium at competitive prices. This is especially important in the current uranium market which is mainly characterised by large inventories, excess production capability and low prices. This situation is not expected to last indefinitely but it is unlikely to change drastically in the next ten years or so. This Technical Committee Meeting was held in Vienna from 3 to 6 November 1987 with the attendance of 24 participants from 12 countries. Eight papers were presented. Technical sessions covered in-situ mining research, environmental and licensing aspects and restoration of leached orebodies; the technological status of in-situ leaching, the current status and future prospects of in-situ leaching of uranium in Member States, general aspects of planning and implementation of in-situ projects and the economics of in-situ leaching. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. The Economic Geography of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    when distinguishing between standardized and advanced activities. Asia attracts as many advanced activities as Western Europe while North America attracts more advanced activities even in manufacturing. Central and Eastern Europe attract offshoring in manufacturing and IT, but the activities...... that are offshored to these regions are typically not advanced. One important theoretical implication of this study is that a more detailed understanding of the nature of offshored activities is needed, since such attributes appear to be an important determinant of location choice....

  17. Economic development and nuclear geography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, Andre.

    1976-01-01

    In a study previously presented at the European Nuclear Conference on the Maturity of Nuclear Energy (Paris-1975), an overall balance of the world energy needs had been drawn and the part played by nuclear energy had been underlined. A model is presented here, which, on the basis of the present situation in each country (i.e. its population, level of development, and level of power consumption), of selected outlines of foreseeable growth, and the possible mechanics of introduction and penetration of nuclear power, offers the possibility of simulating the evolution of nuclear capacity in that country [fr

  18. Analysis of Environmental Law Enforcement Mechanism Based on Economic Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjun; Shao, Haohao; Cai, Xuesen

    2017-11-01

    Strengthening and improving the environmental law enforcement mechanism is an important way to protect the ecological environment. This paper is based on economical principles, we did analysis of the marginal management costs by using Pigou means and the marginal transaction costs by using Coase means vary with the quantity growth of pollutant discharge Enterprises. We analyzed all this information, then we got the conclusion as follows. In the process of strengthening the environmental law enforcement mechanism, firstly, we should fully mobilize all aspects of environmental law enforcement, such as legislative bodies and law enforcement agencies, public welfare organizations, television, newspapers, enterprises, people and so on, they need to form a reasonable and organic structure system; then we should use various management means, such as government regulation, legal sanctions, fines, persuasion and denounce, they also need to form an organic structural system.

  19. Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

  20. Deep nirS amplicon sequencing of San Francisco Bay sediments enables prediction of geography and environmental conditions from denitrifying community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica A; Francis, Christopher A

    2017-12-01

    Denitrification is a dominant nitrogen loss process in the sediments of San Francisco Bay. In this study, we sought to understand the ecology of denitrifying bacteria by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to survey the diversity of a denitrification functional gene, nirS (encoding cytchrome-cd 1 nitrite reductase), along the salinity gradient of San Francisco Bay over the course of a year. We compared our dataset to a library of nirS sequences obtained previously from the same samples by standard PCR cloning and Sanger sequencing, and showed that both methods similarly demonstrated geography, salinity and, to a lesser extent, nitrogen, to be strong determinants of community composition. Furthermore, the depth afforded by NGS enabled novel techniques for measuring the association between environment and community composition. We used Random Forests modelling to demonstrate that the site and salinity of a sample could be predicted from its nirS sequences, and to identify indicator taxa associated with those environmental characteristics. This work contributes significantly to our understanding of the distribution and dynamics of denitrifying communities in San Francisco Bay, and provides valuable tools for the further study of this key N-cycling guild in all estuarine systems. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Diagnóstico da Educação Ambiental no ensino de Geografia: Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí hidrographic basins Environmental education diagnosis from geography teaching on public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlêude Bortolozzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou buscar a integração entre a questão ambiental e o sistema educacional, detectando as potencialidades disponíveis nas escolas públicas de 1º grau, localizadas nas bacias hidrográficas dos rios Piracicaba, Capivari e Jundiaí no Estado de São Paulo, para o desenvolvimento de um processo educativo que inclua a temática ambiental. Analisando qualitativamente as atividades da chamada Educação Ambiental, faz o seu diagnóstico na rede oficial de ensino, levantando, registrando e analisando, através de questionários e entrevistas, as atividades desenvolvidas pelos professores que ensinam Geografia para detectar suas visões de crise ambiental e da própria Educação Ambiental. Procurando contribuir com a capacitação dos professores e a melhoria da qualidade de ensino, oferece sugestões para o desenvolvimento de programas interdisciplinares que permitam maior compreensão dos problemas ambientais da região, uma vez que esses envolvem tanto os aspectos do meio físico como também os socioeconômicos, políticos e culturais. Visa contribuir, sobretudo, para a construção da cidadania e a promoção de ações educativas mais adequadas à busca de soluções dos problemas ambientais das comunidades onde as escolas estão inseridas.The goals of this study are to identify the potencialities avaiable in elementary public schools for the development of an educational process wich includes environmental issues helpping to find its integration with university in order to contribuite raises teaching levels for a better comprehension of regional environmental problems. Research data were collected through questionnaires and interviews with geography teachers analyising theirs activities and perspectives on the environmental crisis and environmental education. The study also offers sugestions for the devellopment of interdisciplinaires programs trying to contibute for the construction of citizenship showing the importance

  2. Regional Geography is Dead. Long Live Regional Geography!

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Werner, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2006), s. 2-8 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : regional geography * regions * geography * methodology * Ostrava region Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  3. Biological invasions: economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pimentel, David

    2011-01-01

    ...: Economic and Environmental Costs of Alien Plant, Animal, and Microbe Species, this reference discusses how non-native species invade new ecosystems and the subsequent economic and environmental effects of these species...

  4. Economic and environmental evaluation of investment projects of biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán Marrero, Elizabeth; Guzmán Chinea, Jesús Manuel; Mata Varela, Milagros C.; Pérez González, Yanet

    2015-01-01

    The economic evaluation of the implementation and use of renewable energy is an issue of paramount importance and has been approached from different perspectives by different authors in different countries. Biogas technology has its own characteristics that make it more complex analysis involved not only in this case the energy aspect but there is also a significant impact on health assessment difficult, fertilization, soil improvement, animal feed and improved conditions of life. The capital budgeting, in conjunction with the planning process, is a key economic tool for decision making and in turn represents an ongoing challenge for the agricultural sector. It is a necessity of our country, together with the entire world, potentiate the action to correct management of organic waste generated in intensive pig farming, to contribute to the reduction of environmental impacts that this work causes. Studies in this area show the shortcomings that exist in Cuban law established for the evaluation of investment projects, both in its structure and in its cycle, without taking into account important elements such as risk analysis. This research evaluates the economic and financial feasibility of an investment project, including a social and environmental assessment of the same financial justification for the inclusion of risk analysis in the evaluation process (full text)

  5. Economic efficiency of environmental management system operation in industrial companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukmasova, N.; Ershova, I.; Plastinina, I.; Boyarinov, A.

    2017-06-01

    The article examines the issue of the efficiency of the environmental management system (EMS) implementation in the Russian machine-building companies. The analysis showed that Russia clearly lags behind other developed and developing countries in terms of the number of ISO 14001 certified companies. According to the authors, the main cause of weak system implementation activity is attributed to the lack of interest in ISO 14001 certification on the Russian market. Five-year primary (field) research aimed at the analysis of the environmental priorities of the civilians suggests that the image component of the economic benefits ensures the increase in economic and financial performance of the company due to the increase in customers’ loyalty to the products of the EMS adopter. To quantify economic benefits obtained from EMS implementation, a methodological approach with regard to the image component and the decrease in semi-fixed costs due to the increase in the production scale has been developed. This approach has been tested in a machine-building electrical equipment manufacturer in Ekaterinburg. This approach applied to data processing yields the conclusion that EMS gives a good additional competitive advantage to its adopters.

  6. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.; Swaminathan, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Livestock are vital to subsistence farming and sustainable livelihood in most developing countries. Of India's population of one billion people, more than 70 percent live in the rural areas. India also has more than 30 percent of the world's bovine population. This has resulted in not only egalitarian ownership of cattle, but also in an almost inseparable cultural and symbiotic relationship between rural families and their farm animals, particularly large ruminants. It is against this scenario that the ethical, social and environmental issues of gene-based technologies need to be carefully evaluated. The use of transgenic cows with modified milk composition or for any other purpose has little economic benefit in a system of 'production by masses', as typifies India and a few other developing countries, compared with 'mass production' systems in developed countries. Rather, the use of rDNA technology for developing drought-resistant fodder and forage crops is likely to bring immediate relief to most regions. Cattle, particularly in India, have poor quality feeds and this results in poor nutrition, with production of large amounts of methane. Irnmunocastration -through biotechnological means would also be advantageous. Developing countries like India need sustainable livelihood security, and, in this regard, gene-based technologies in animal agriculture seem more to raise ethical, social and environmental concerns, rather than being likely to transform 'subsistence farming' into vibrant agribusiness. Ethical issues concerning animal welfare, rights and integrity are also discussed, in addition to social, environmental and economic issues. (author)

  7. Economic prosperity, biodiversity conservation, and the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Julianne H.; Waite, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Many conservationists contend that economic growth and biodiversity conservation are incompatible goals. Some economists contest this viewpoint, arguing that wealthier countries have the luxury of investing more heavily in efforts to conserve biodiversity. Under this assumption, we expect a U-shaped relationship between per capita wealth and proportion of species conserved. We test this environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using estimates of per capita income and deforestation rates (index of biodiversity threat) for 35 tropical countries. A prior analysis [Dietz, S., Adger, W.N., 2003. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort. Journal of Environmental Management, 68:23-35] using conventional regression techniques failed to provide any support for the parabolic relationship predicted by the EKC hypothesis. Here, we introduce the use of quantile regression and spatial filtering to reanalyze this data, addressing issues of heteroskedasticity and spatial autocorrelation. We note that preliminary analysis using these methods provides some initial evidence for an EKC. However, a series of panel analyses with country-specific dummy variables eliminated or even reversed much of this support. A closer examination of conservation practices and environmental indicators within the countries, particularly those countries that drove our initial support, suggests that wealth is not a reliable indicator of improved conservation practice. Our findings indicate that an EKC for biodiversity is overly simplistic and further exploration is required to fully understand the mechanisms by which income affects biodiversity. (author)

  8. Economic prosperity, biodiversity conservation, and the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Julianne H.; Waite, Thomas A. [Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, 300 Aronoff Laboratory, 318 W. 12th Ave., Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Many conservationists contend that economic growth and biodiversity conservation are incompatible goals. Some economists contest this viewpoint, arguing that wealthier countries have the luxury of investing more heavily in efforts to conserve biodiversity. Under this assumption, we expect a U-shaped relationship between per capita wealth and proportion of species conserved. We test this environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using estimates of per capita income and deforestation rates (index of biodiversity threat) for 35 tropical countries. A prior analysis [Dietz, S., Adger, W.N., 2003. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort. Journal of Environmental Management, 68:23-35] using conventional regression techniques failed to provide any support for the parabolic relationship predicted by the EKC hypothesis. Here, we introduce the use of quantile regression and spatial filtering to reanalyze this data, addressing issues of heteroskedasticity and spatial autocorrelation. We note that preliminary analysis using these methods provides some initial evidence for an EKC. However, a series of panel analyses with country-specific dummy variables eliminated or even reversed much of this support. A closer examination of conservation practices and environmental indicators within the countries, particularly those countries that drove our initial support, suggests that wealth is not a reliable indicator of improved conservation practice. Our findings indicate that an EKC for biodiversity is overly simplistic and further exploration is required to fully understand the mechanisms by which income affects biodiversity. (author)

  9. USING LITERATURE IN GEOGRAPHY LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA HOBAI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Including in a novel information about relief, climate, vegetation, fauna and various aspects of socio-economic life can make literature a real source of geographical information. Using realistic literary works in Geography lessons has multiple benefits, which are not limited only to geographical knowledge. In this paper there are some fragments from literature, suggestions of activities about how to integrate the fragments during Geography lessons and the results of these activities. The activities are from fifth to twelfth grade, passing through a first example of water pollution resulting from a Hercules labour, through the lyricism of the aurora borealis description, through the dramatic life of a refugee from Darfur, through the Dobrudgea winter landscape, through the grey urban landscape of Bucharest in the 90s and so on. Students were put into learning situations that stimulated their creativity, developed communication competencies and enriched their general knowledge.

  10. FDI, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption & Environmental Nexus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip SARKER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the relationship among economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission, FDI and natural gas usage in Bangladesh through co-integration and Vector Error Correction model (VECM over the period 1978 to 2010. Using ADP unit root tests it is found that all the four variables are integrated in first difference. The Johansen co-integration tests indicate that there is existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The VECM long run causality model indicates that there is a long run causality running from energy consumption and natural gas usage by industrial sector to GDP as well as from CO2 emission to FDI. Likewise in the short run a causal relationships have also been found among the variables. Moreover our model is found be error free based on several statistical test. Our results provide important policy suggestions regarding our foreign direct investment, environmental issues and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh.

  11. Energy-, environmental and economic evaluation of energy crops utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary project is prepared in order to clarify the economic possibilities and rentability of energy crops. Examples of energy crop resource potential, environmental and economic consequences are calculated on the basis of existing data. Utilization of annual and perennial crops is evaluated with regard to the usual following of agricultural areas, and to the traditional power generation in a coal-fueled plant. Two technological options are discussed: one based on energy crop fuels supplementing the conventional coal fuel, and the other based on a separate biomass-fueled boiler, connected to the conventional coal-fueled unit. Implementation of the main project,following the preliminary one will permit to estimate the future prospects and strategies of energy crop utilization as a profitable energy resource. (EG)

  12. 76 FR 70444 - Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value of Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9491-7] Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented... Economics Advisory Committee to provide early advice on the value of water to the United States (U.S... to FACA and EPA policy, notice is hereby given that the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee...

  13. Economic, safety and environmental prospects of fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, R W; Holdren, J P; Sharafat, S [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research; and others

    1990-09-01

    Controlled fusion energy is one of the long term, non-fossil energy sources available to mankind. It has the potential of significant advantages over fission nuclear power in that the consequences of severe accidents are predicted to be less and the radioactive waste burden is calculated to be smaller. Fusion can be an important ingredient in the future world energy mix as a hedge against environmental, supply or political difficulties connected with the use of fossil fuel and present-day nuclear power. Progress in fusion reactor technology and design is described for both magnetic and inertial fusion energy systems. The projected economic prospects show that fusion will be capital intensive, and the historical trend is towards greater mass utilization efficiency and more competitive costs. Recent studies emphasizing safety and environmental advantages show that the competitive potential of fusion can be further enhanced by specific choices of materials and design. The safety and environmental prospects of fusion appear to exceed substantially those of advanced fission and coal. Clearly, a significant and directed technology effort is necessary to achieve these advantages. Typical parameters have been established for magnetic fusion energy reactors, and a tokamak at moderately high magnetic field (about 7 T on axis) in the first regime of MHD stability ({beta} {le} 3.5 I/aB) is closest to present experimental achievement. Further improvements of the economic and technological performance of the tokamak are possible. In addition, alternative, non-tokamak magnetic fusion approaches may offer substantive economic and operational benefits, although at present these concepts must be projected from a less developed physics base. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Nuclear power: is it the future's economic and environmental alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Liz.

    1989-01-01

    The future for uranium mining and nuclear power in the Asian Pacific region and in particular in Australia, is discussed. Given the depressed uranium market, where there is ample capacity (both worldwide and within Australia) to meet uncommitted demand, there does not seem to be any overwhelming economic imperative for new production centres in Australia. However, in the context of growing environmental concerns of the Greenhouse Effect, if the coal-fired stations are to compete with the cleanliness of nuclear stations it is suggested that governments will have to rethink their energy policies. 2 tabs

  15. Annealed Demon Algorithms Solving the Environmental / Economic Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristidis VLACHOS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and reliable Annealed Demon (AD algorithm for the Environmental/Economic Dispatch (EEB problem. The EED problem is a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem with constraints. This problem is one of the fundamentals issues in power system operation. The system of generation associates thermal generators and emissions which involves sulphur oxides (SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx. The aim is to minimize total fuel cost of the system and control emission. The proposed AD algorithm is applied for EED of a simple power system.

  16. Economic and environmental efficiency of district heating plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2005-01-01

    heat, have arbitrary valuation.This study concerns the most developed European district heating and cogeneration system, the Danish.By assessing environmental and economic ef¿ciency, the impact of governmental, market and managerial imperfections are estimated.The principal methodological base......District heating, the conversion of primary energy into distributed thermal energy and possible electric energy, is a challenge to regulate.In addition to the ever present asymmetric information in any suf¿ciently complex activity, some of the inputs for district heating, such as excess process...

  17. A Regional Analysis of the Life Cycle Environmental and Economic Tradeoffs of Different Economic Growth Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Mo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Different economic development strategies may result in varied socioeconomic and environmental synergies or tradeoffs, suggesting an opportunity for environmentally conscious planning. To understand such synergies or tradeoffs, a dynamic environmental life cycle assessment was conducted for eleven groups of New Hampshire industries. Historical state level Gross Domestic Product (GDP-by-industry data was combined with economic input-output analysis to calculate the direct and life cycle energy use, freshwater use, greenhouse gas emissions, and eutrophication potential of each industry on a yearly basis for the period of 1997–2012. The future development of agriculture, traditional manufacturing, high tech, and tourism industries were investigated based on government projections. Total life cycle impacts of the 11 industries were found to represent around three to seven times those of direct impacts, indicating the significance of the supply chain impacts. Traditional manufacturing has the highest life cycle impacts even though it contributes to less than 10% of the state GDP. Future development of high tech was found to be the best strategy to increase GDP while imposing the least additional environmental impacts. Tourism presents relatively high impacts in terms of freshwater use and eutrophication potential, and a change in recreational style might be able to reduce its impacts.

  18. Addressing global health, economic, and environmental problems through family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, J Joseph; Grossman, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    Although obstetrician-gynecologists recognize the importance of managing fertility for the reproductive health of individuals, many are not aware of the vital effect they can have on some of the world's most pressing issues. Unintended pregnancy is a key contributor to the rapid population growth that in turn impairs social welfare, hinders economic progress, and exacerbates environmental degradation. An estimated 215 million women in developing countries wish to limit their fertility but do not have access to effective contraception. In the United States, half of all pregnancies are unplanned. Voluntary prevention of unplanned pregnancies is a cost-effective, humane way to limit population growth, slow environmental degradation, and yield other health and welfare benefits. Family planning should be a top priority for our specialty.

  19. Economic and environmental performance of future fusion plants in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, T.; Saez, R.M.; Lako, P.

    2001-01-01

    If the good performance of fusion as technology with no CO 2 emission during normal operation and rather low external costs, reflecting the advantageous environmental and safety characteristics, are considered in future energy regulations, fusion can win considerable market shares in future electricity markets. The economic performance was elaborated for Western Europe for the time period till 2100. The software tool MARKAL widely used in energy research was used to simulate and optimise the development of the Western European energy system. Two different scenarios were considered, the main difference was the interest rate for investments. Stringent CO 2 -emission strategies lead to considerable market shares for fusion. As a comprehensive indicator of the environmental and safety performance of fusion plants the external costs following the ExternE method was used. External costs of fusion are rather low, much below the cost of electricity, and are in the same range as photovoltaics and wind energy. (author)

  20. Energy efficiency: Key to solving economic, environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanigan, T.

    1991-01-01

    Energy efficiency can boost economic development and competitiveness, maximize capital productivity, improve environmental quality, and guarantee lasting energy security. Each of these benefits is reason enough, but collectively they form an imperative for action. The energy future must be based on cultural development, not the wanton growth that has served as an indicator of success in the past. Energy efficiency provides not only technical fixes, regulatory innovation, and a host of new financing methods, it also provides a template - a model - for a resource-efficiency ethic congruent with the notion of respecting the rights of future citizens. The good news is that the authors now know how to check environmental despoliation caused by an unquenchable thirst for energy resources. Existing energy-efficiency opportunities allow them to redefine the national energy strategy and take account of the environment and the future

  1. Multiple Cultures of Doing Geography Facilitate Global Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to explain why geography is a prime discipline for analysing globalisation and a multicultural view of Global Studies. The generic approach of human geography to first select an appropriate methodology is taken as a key approach. Design/methodology/approach: Concepts from aggregate disciplines such as history, economics,…

  2. Geography, sustainability and the concept of glocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Theodoor Verstappen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability focuses on the question whether our planet can sustain the present and future global human impact. The related environmental issues and particularly global changes, such as increasing temperatures, rising sea level, deforestation and deteriorating biodiversity, have become a key subject in earth science research. The social and economic components of sustainability, however, get less scientific attention and are often ignored in political and religious circles. Emphasis is on the symptoms of the issue rather than on coping strategies. Are the growing population numbers and social discrepancies compatible with sustainability and is the free market economy of our consumption society compatible with the ecological limits of growth, social balance and human aspirations? Sustainable development is a realistic concept only if its economic aspects are shouldered by social and environmental considerations and if regional and local diversity is respected. The globalization required today thus should be coupled with decentralized glocalization. In this interdisciplinary field of regional differentiation geography can make important contributions. Earth observation from satellites and data handling using geoinformation systems are essential tools.

  3. Geography of conservation spending, biodiversity, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Rankin, P S

    2016-10-01

    We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance. Consequently, nations lacking social traits frequently associated with modernization, environmentalism, and conservation spending have the largest component of Earth's biodiversity. This has significant implications for setting policies and priorities for resource management given that biological diversity is rapidly disappearing and cultural traits change slowly. Therefore, we suggest natural resource management adapt to and use characteristics of existing social organization rather than wait for or promote social values associated with conservation spending. Supporting biocultural traditions, engaging leaders to increase conservation commitments, cross-national efforts that complement attributes of cultures, and avoiding interference with nature may work best to conserve nature in collective and hierarchical societies. Spending in modernized nations may be a symbolic response to a symptom of economic development and environmental degradation, and here conservation actions need to ensure that biodiversity is not being lost. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Thermo economical optimization of sugar plants with environmental constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, Mauricio; Mele, Fernando Daniel; Hernandez, Maria Rosa [Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (UNT), Tucuman (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologia], Email: macolombo@herrera.unt.edu.ar; Gatica, Jorge [Cleveland State University (CSU), Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering], Email: j.gatica@csuohio.edu; Silveira, Jose Luz [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEG/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia], Email: joseluz@feg.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper highlights the need for analysis and optimization techniques which can be applied to new energy systems and include considerations for environmental issues. These techniques have proven indispensable in dealing with the constrained optimization problem of finite natural resources and growing demands of energy. Within this framework, thermo economical optimization has gradually been brought to the forefront as a powerful tool in assisting the decision-making process. This work uses the technique of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) as a means to include environmental indexes in the optimization process. While most of the environmental approaches formulate the optimization problem aiming to reduce residue generation without assessing the impact of this reduction on related processes, LCA considers environmental issues as an integral part of the optimization problem. A sugar cane processing plant located in Tucuman (Argentina) is selected as a case study. This example serves to highlight the importance of formulating solutions that ensure an efficient use of a common fuel to meet useful heat, shaft power, and electricity demands. (author)

  5. 75 FR 9878 - Draft Principles and Standards Sections of the “Economic and Environmental Principles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Draft Principles and Standards Sections of the ``Economic and... the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources... may be accessed at the Internet addresses indicated: ``Economic and Environmental Principles and...

  6. Towards a more efficient environmental policy. A socio-economic analysis of four persistent environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    For the benefit of the National Environmental Policy Plan that will be published in 2001, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis analysed four persistent environmental problems. These problems are the environmental effects of the manure surplus in the agricultural sector; the climate problem; the acidification by traffic and the air traffic noise around the airport Schiphol. This study not only looks ahead, but also looks back on 30 years of environmental policy. From a welfare economic perspective an analysis is made of the efficiency and effectiveness of that policy. Several questions are answered,e.g.: how could the manure problem of such a small sector as the livestock breeding persist for so many years?; how effective were the agreements with the industry and other sectors on energy efficiency improvement?; what made the acidification policy directed on traffic so successful?; why is the noise production of air traffic still a problem whereas the number of seriously bothered houses is decreased? The answers on these questions provide information which can be useful for the formulation of the future environmental policy. This information refers to the conditions for formulating adequate policy goals, the relation between those goals and policy instruments and the differences between direct versus indirect steering. This report also gives some points of interest for tackling complex international environmental problems. refs

  7. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

  8. Modern environmental and economic approach of mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Drebenstedt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the need of transition to the rational subsoil use (the alternative mining approach is proved, which unlike general one supposes the increasing of extraction rate of valuable components in the deposit and multiple use of raw materials, the maximizing recycling, the decreasing of land occupation, the increasing of the development period of deposit at some income decrease up to the moderate level, which is enough to provide the attraction for investors. The multicriteriality is considered as the crucial principle of rational subsoil use at taking management decisions, i.e. the considering of ecological, economic and social targets, aimed at receiving moderate profit at proper social and environmental standards. The graphic representation of models of the general mining approach and the alternative one allows to emphasize the specified advantages of transition to rational subsoil resources development and reflect them in design equation. In the paper, three performance strategies providing the implementation of the alternative approach are offered: full-field development, application ecologically and economically effective systems and the development processes, consideration of reclamation and minimization of long term environmental effects of mining

  9. The Practices of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2016-01-01

    Sarah Bednarz begins by thanking Rebecca Theobald for the invitation to contrubute to this issue of "The Geography Teacher"("TGT"). As a member of the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) Publications Committee and coeditor of the "Journal of Geography," Bednarz confesses that she was not favorably…

  10. South African School Geography:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lorraine Innes

    Academic Associate, Department of Geography, University of South Africa, ... In conclusion, a case is made for enhancing the status of school Geography by making it a recommended subject for tertiary studies in university programs offering geospatial .... response to the education crisis of the 1970s and 1980s the Human ...

  11. Emotional Geographies of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2001-01-01

    Introduces emotional geographies, which describe patterns of closeness and distance in human interactions that shape the emotions people experience about relationships to themselves, others, and the world around them. Using an interview-based study of elementary and secondary teachers, the paper describes five emotional geographies of…

  12. Applied social geography

    OpenAIRE

    Hilpert, Markus

    2002-01-01

    Applied social geography : management of spatial planning in reflective discourse ; research perspectives towards a ‚Theory of Practice‘. - In: Geografija in njene aplikativne moˆznosti = Prospects of applied geography. - Ljubljana : Oddelek za Geografijo, Filozofska Fakulteta, 2002. S. 29-39. - (Dela / Oddelek za geografijo Filozofske fakultete v Ljubljani ; 18)

  13. Economic and environmental benefits of higher-octane gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L; Chow, Eric W; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R H; Heywood, John B; Green, William H

    2014-06-17

    We quantify the economic and environmental benefits of designing U.S. light-duty vehicles (LDVs) to attain higher fuel economy by utilizing higher octane (98 RON) gasoline. We use engine simulations, a review of experimental data, and drive cycle simulations to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption associated with using higher-RON gasoline in individual vehicles. Lifecycle CO2 emissions and economic impacts for the U.S. LDV fleet are estimated based on a linear-programming refinery model, a historically calibrated fleet model, and a well-to-wheels emissions analysis. We find that greater use of high-RON gasoline in appropriately tuned vehicles could reduce annual gasoline consumption in the U.S. by 3.0-4.4%. Accounting for the increase in refinery emissions from production of additional high-RON gasoline, net CO2 emissions are reduced by 19-35 Mt/y in 2040 (2.5-4.7% of total direct LDV CO2 emissions). For the strategies studied, the annual direct economic benefit is estimated to be $0.4-6.4 billion in 2040, and the annual net societal benefit including the social cost of carbon is estimated to be $1.7-8.8 billion in 2040. Adoption of a RON standard in the U.S. in place of the current antiknock index (AKI) may enable refineries to produce larger quantities of high-RON gasoline.

  14. Learning Economics and Attitudes to Market Solutions to Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Harring

    2017-03-01

    not have different attitudes toward environmental policy instruments, compared to students who do not answer the questions correctly. Hence, there seems to be some other factor affecting students in economics during their first semester, that changes their attitudes towards environmental policy instruments.

  15. Gm crops: between biological risk and environmental and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic crops were the result of the application of recombinant DNA technology in agriculture. These crops were developed by transfer of foreign genes (transgenes) from any biological origin (animal, plant, microbial, viral) to the genome of cultivated species of plants. The crops genetically modified (GM) have been used in the world since 1996; up to December 2010 they counted to a billion hectares planted throughout the period. In just the past year 2010 148 million hectares were planted, grown by 15.4 million farmers in 29 countries. GM crops that are used in global agriculture are mainly soybean, cotton, corn and canola, which express transgenes derived from bacteria, and confer resistance to lepidopteron insects (ILR) or herbicide tolerance (HT; glyphosate and glufosinate ammonium). the first transgenic varieties containing only a single transgene, or simple event, while the current varieties express several transgenes, or stacked, conferring resistance to different species of Lepidoptera and coleopteran insects and tolerance to two different herbicides. In 2010 were planted in Colombia, 18.874 hectares of GM cotton, 16.793 hectares of GM corn, and 4 hectares of GM carnations and GM roses. GM corn and GM cotton were planted in Sucre, Cesar, Cordoba, Huila and Tolima. GM corn was planted in Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Meta, Cundinamarca and Santander. Carnations and roses were planted in Cundinamarca. GM maize and GM cotton expressing ILR and HT features, as simple events or stacked. In the case of GM carnation and GM roses, these genotypes that express the color blue. Academia has tried to organize the debate on the adoption of GM crops around the analysis of biological risks and environmental vs environmental and economic benefits. Biological hazards are defined by the possible negative effects on human consumers or negative effects on the environment. The environmental benefits are related to reduce use of agrochemicals (insecticides and herbicides

  16. Environmental pressures from European consumption and production. A study in integrated environmental and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D. [Copenhagen Resource Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fernandez, J.A.; Wittmer, D. [Wuppertal Institute, Wuppertal (Germany); Gravgaerd Pedersen, O. [Statistics Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); European Topic Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    Environmental pressures from European consumption and production shows how economic and environmental data can be integrated to analyse environmental performance and material efficiency of whole economies as well as their individual elements. The analyses presented in the report provide policy makers with a tool to target economic incentives and information campaigns, encouraging a shift to more sustainable production and consumption patterns in order to reduce Europe's global footprint. The report discusses two analytical approaches. The production-based method considers direct environmental pressures caused by European industries and service providers - for example, the extraction of material resources by the mining and quarrying sector, air pollutants from power stations, greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and so on. The consumption-based method focuses on the indirect environmental pressures caused by European consumers. In this approach, the direct production-related pressures are attributed to broad groups of products and services, also taking into account pressures that are embodied in goods imported into the EU. Using Environmentally Extended Input Output Analysis (EE-IOA) it is possible to estimate the environmental pressures ultimately generated by individual product groups and also by European consumption as a whole. Four types of environmental pressures are considered by the report: raw material use, greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying air emissions, and air pollutants leading to harmful ground-level ozone. However, the method has the potential to assess many other types of environmental pressure including land use, water use, waste generation and energy use. Thanks to the conceptual consistency between the system of national economic accounts and environmental accounts, data on environmental pressures is directly comparable to economic expenditure. Policy makers can thus see which sectors have been most successful in decoupling

  17. The Inclusion of Geography in TIMSS: Can Consensus Be Reached?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Terri; Lane, Rod

    2017-01-01

    An initial call by the editors of International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education prompted a study about the inclusion of geography in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) tests. This study found that the geography education community were overwhelmingly in favour of such a move, believing that the…

  18. The environmental and economic sustainability of carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-05-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO(2) abated--there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications-indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO(2) entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  19. The Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuran Sivapalan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For carbon capture and storage (CCS to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO2 abated—there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications—indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO2 entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and

  20. Economic, safety and environmental prospects of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Holdren, J.P.; Sharafat, S.

    1990-01-01

    Controlled fusion energy is one of the long term, non-fossil energy sources available to mankind. It has the potential of significant advantages over fission nuclear power in that the consequences of severe accidents are predicted to be less and the radioactive waste burden is calculated to be smaller. Fusion can be an important ingredient in the future world energy mix as a hedge against environmental, supply or political difficulties connected with the use of fossil fuel and present-day nuclear power. Progress in fusion reactor technology and design is described for both magnetic and inertial fusion energy systems. The projected economic prospects show that fusion will be capital intensive, and the historical trend is towards greater mass utilization efficiency and more competitive costs. Recent studies emphasizing safety and environmental advantages show that the competitive potential of fusion can be further enhanced by specific choices of materials and design. The safety and environmental prospects of fusion appear to exceed substantially those of advanced fission and coal. Clearly, a significant and directed technology effort is necessary to achieve these advantages. Typical parameters have been established for magnetic fusion energy reactors, and a tokamak at moderately high magnetic field (about 7 T on axis) in the first regime of MHD stability (β ≤ 3.5 I/aB) is closest to present experimental achievement. Further improvements of the economic and technological performance of the tokamak are possible. In addition, alternative, non-tokamak magnetic fusion approaches may offer substantive economic and operational benefits, although at present these concepts must be projected from a less developed physics base. For inertial fusion energy, the essential requirements are a high efficiency (≥ 10%) repetitively pulsed pellet driver capable of delivering up to 10 MJ of energy on target, targets capable of an energy gain of about 100, reactor chambers capable of

  1. Using Technology for Geography Teacher Education: Web-Based Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Cheryl A.; Boehm, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the perceived value of a video-based online workshop in Geography, "Watershed Management," part of the Geography: Teaching with the Stars series, a 22 program professional development series for teachers of geography, social studies, and environmental science. Results indicated that teachers reported…

  2. Geography: Key to World Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Delineates the nature of applied geography, asserting that geography links the natural and social sciences. Underscores geography's role in data analysis and problem solving on a global scale. Traces the discipline's history. Maps geography's status in higher education institutions. Discusses new technologies used by geographers. Summarizes career…

  3. The Rise of Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpponneau, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of the use of the science of geography for practical purposes. Topics discussed include British schools of geography during the 19th century, contributions of many of the founders of applied geography, forms in which geographical work can be used for practical purposes, and the status of applied geography in various…

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECT OF GROWING MISCANTHUS GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián KOTRLA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deliberate cultivation of plants for energy biomass is becoming increasingly important. Biomass should significantly contribute to increase the share of renewable energy in the European Union. On the research locality of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra localized in the village Kolíňany (Slovak Republic is implemented basic research focused on the growth and production of the two genotypes energy grass Miscanthus. Research is carried out since 2010. In the third year after planting (the year 2012 were confirmed biomass production depending on the genotype of 35.45 and 36.67 t ha-1. Based on the analysis of growth and production performance of Miscanthus genotypes can be evaluated the high environmental and socio-economic aspects of growing energy crops, depending on the specific agro-ecological conditions.

  5. Transportation, economical development and environmental considerations in the Arctic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    There is a need for increased development in Arctic regions for obtaining resources such as hydrocarbons and ores. Development of these resources in remote areas requires suitable transportation routes and proper attention to the environmental sensitivity of northern lands. Developing a transport route must take into account such matters as resource location, economic feasibility, type of material to be transported, length of time the route will be needed, the interest of the route to tourism, and the effect of transport on the environment. Design, construction, and maintenance of the transport route requires collection of reliable data and conformity to specifications relevant to the region concerned. Construction and maintenance in northern areas is affected by such complicated and costly factors as the short construction season, long distances for transportation of both equipment and workers, presence of permafrost, and low winter temperatures. 6 figs

  6. Energy, Economic, and Environmental Benefits of the Solar America Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, S.

    2007-08-01

    The President's Solar America Initiative (SAI) was launched in January 2006 as part of the administration's Advanced Energy Initiative. The SAI is being led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP), with NREL providing analytical and technical support. The SAI has a goal of installing 5-10 GW of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States by 2015 and 70-100 GW of PV systems in the United States by 2030. To make PV cost-competitive with other energy resources, this requires that the installed cost of PV fall from approximately $8/Wdc in 2005 to $3.3/Wdc in 2015 and $2.5/Wdc in 2030. This report presents estimates of the potential energy, economic, and environmental benefits that could result should the SAI PV installation goals be achieved.

  7. ECONOMICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola BAREJA-WAWRYSZUK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is observed that quality of mass produced and highly processed food forces consumers to change their consumption habits and become more interested in locally available food products. Consumers are becoming aware of negative consequences of global food systems. As an alternative, Local Food Systems are gaining on popularity because short food supply chains offer fresh, healthy and not modified products. The popularity of Local Food Systems is reflected in the need for analysing impact and significance of those systems. Thus, this paper presents main benefits of acting locally. Local Food Systems has been reviewed in case of positive economic, environmental and social influence on the region. What is more, the paper presents consumers’ attitude to Local Food Systems. As a conclusion authors justify significance of development and investment in Local Food Systems as an alternative to agriculture networks.

  8. Enforcing environmental standards: Economic mechanisms as viable means?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfrum, R.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1996-01-01

    The papers presented at the symposium organised by the Heidelberg Max-Planck-Institute for international law touch upon two major aspects of developments in international law, relating to international environmental law for protection of the global atmosphere and environment, and to international and national means of enforcing existing laws. The situation is shown against the background of conflicts of interests arising from the different perspectives and objectives involved, i.e. those of protection of the environment or economic development. The 21 contributions, all in English, present an outline picture of developments and activities as well as legal regimes and instruments and address details of agreements and their implementation and enforcement. Individual subject analyses of 17 papers are available in the database. (CB)

  9. Green roof valuation: a probabilistic economic analysis of environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie; Adriaens, Peter; Talbot, F Brian

    2008-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs have gained global acceptance as a technologythat has the potential to help mitigate the multifaceted, complex environmental problems of urban centers. While policies that encourage green roofs exist atthe local and regional level, installation costs remain at a premium and deter investment in this technology. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively integrate the range of stormwater, energy, and air pollution benefits of green roofs into an economic model that captures the building-specific scale. Currently, green roofs are primarily valued on increased roof longevity, reduced stormwater runoff, and decreased building energy consumption. Proper valuation of these benefits can reduce the present value of a green roof if investors look beyond the upfront capital costs. Net present value (NPV) analysis comparing a conventional roof system to an extensive green roof system demonstrates that at the end of the green roof lifetime the NPV for the green roof is between 20.3 and 25.2% less than the NPV for the conventional roof over 40 years. The additional upfront investment is recovered at the time when a conventional roof would be replaced. Increasing evidence suggests that green roofs may play a significant role in urban air quality improvement For example, uptake of N0x is estimated to range from $1683 to $6383 per metric ton of NOx reduction. These benefits were included in this study, and results translate to an annual benefit of $895-3392 for a 2000 square meter vegetated roof. Improved air quality leads to a mean NPV for the green roof that is 24.5-40.2% less than the mean conventional roof NPV. Through innovative policies, the inclusion of air pollution mitigation and the reduction of municipal stormwater infrastructure costs in economic valuation of environmental benefits of green roofs can reduce the cost gap that currently hinders U.S. investment in green roof technology.

  10. Urbanization and the Geography of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, J. Vernon

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on several interrelated key questions on the geography of development. Although we herald cities with their industrial bases as 'engines of growth,' does industrialization in fact drive urbanization?1 What economic activities do cities of different sizes undertake? Does this change as countries develop? If so, what are the policy implications? Do development policies hav...

  11. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Pérez, Inocente; Gutiérrez Benítez, Omar; Martínez Bermúdez, Guillermo; Padrón Padrón, Wilfredo; Águila Cabrera, Cira

    2015-01-01

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  12. Achieving a secure energy future: Environmental and economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, David; Herdendorf, M.; Eisenfeld, S.

    1994-01-01

    Energy, economics, and the environment are interdependent. Land, water, atmospheric, and biological resources are being degraded by current high energy consumption. U.S. energy consumption is the highest in the world and the U.S. Department of Energy reports that the United States has only about 10 years of known and potentially discoverable oil reserves. The U.S. should reduce its energy consumption by one half to help restore the quality of the environment while improving the American standard of living by strengthening the economy and increasing the number of jobs. Because of the interdependence of energy, economics, and the environment, energy efficiency and transition to renewable energy sources are critical. An estimated 40% of current energy consumption could be produced employing solar energy technologies, but would require about 20% of total U.S. land area. Therefore, the development of solar energy technologies to substitute for fossil energy is projected to compete for land required for agriculture and forestry as well as have other environmental impacts

  13. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  14. Brazilian waste potential: energy, environmental, social and economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.B.; Rosa, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy that could be produced from solid wastes in Brazil tops 50 TWh. Equivalent to some 17% of the nation's total power consumption at costs that are competitive with more traditional options, this would also reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, managing wastes for energy generation purposes could well open up thousands of jobs for unskilled workers. Related to power generation and conservation, energy use requires discussions on the feasibility of each energy supply option, and comparison between alternatives available on the market. Power conservation is compared to projects implemented by the Federal Government, while power generation is rated against thermo-power plants fired by natural gas running on a combined cycle system. Although the operating costs of selective garbage collection for energy generation are higher than current levels, the net operating revenues of this scheme reach some US$ 4 billion/year. This underpins the feasibility of garbage management being underwritten by energy uses and avoided environmental costs. The suggested optimization of the technical, economic, social and environmental sustainability of the expansion of Brazil's power sector consists of compatibilizing the use of fossil and renewable fuels, which is particularly relevant for hybrid thermo-power plants with null account on greenhouse gases emissions

  15. Economic interpretation of environmental flow regime downstream diverted river reaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Perona, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    feasible and doesn't imply high costs or advanced management tools. Our approach is a simple but effective step towards eco-sustainability in the growing market of mini hydropower plants, where operation rules like MFR are still widespread. As such, this method is a powerful instrument for political managers to explicit contradictions thus enlightening best compromise measures/decisions. References Perona, P., Characklis, G., Duerrenmatt, D.J., in revision. Inverse parameters estimation of simple riparian benefit economical models. Journal of Environmental Management . Gorla, L. and Perona, P., in revision. On quantifying ecologically sustainable flow releases in a diverted river reach. Journal of Hydrology.

  16. Saussure and Linguistic Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Saussures's "Cours de linguistique generale," which was published in 1916, and devotes specific attention to the significance of Part VI, which is devoted to linguistic geography. (16 references) (Author/VWL)

  17. The Tyranny of Geography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Tyranny of Geography. The North-East is a hilly region. Except Assam, pop. is sparse and spread out. Under-development implies lack of infrastructure: Power is a major problem.

  18. Geography and Values in Higher Education: 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, John

    1978-01-01

    The geography curriculum in higher education reflects values held by the geographical and educational communities and by society in general. Teachers should transmit an environmental ethic by adopting relevant approaches from moral and political education. For journal availability, see SO 506 224. (Author/AV)

  19. Possibilities for an International Assessment in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Rod; Bourke, Terri

    2017-01-01

    A recent editorial in International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education (IRGEE) highlighted an opportunity for the inclusion of geography as a subject in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) tests. At present, TIMSS tests only encompass mathematics and physical sciences. The IRGEE editors encouraged…

  20. Assessment of eco-environmental quality of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Shi, Longyu

    2016-05-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the key and foundation to the sustainable socio-economic development of a region. Eco-environmental quality assessment can reveal the capacity of sustainable socio-economic development in a region and the degree of coordination between social production and the living environment. As part of a new development strategy for Fujian Province, the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone) provides an important guarantee for the development of China's southeastern coastal area. Based on ecological and remote sensing data on the Economic Zone obtained in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this study investigated county-level administrative regions with a comprehensive index of eco-environmental indicators. An objective weighting method was used to determine the importance of each indicator. This led to the development of an indicator system to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone. ArcGIS software was used to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone based on each indicator. The eco-environmental quality index (EQI) of the county-level administrative regions was calculated. The overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone during the period studied is described and analyzed. The results show that the overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone is satisfactory, but significant intraregional differences still exist. The key to improving the overall eco-environmental quality of this area is to restore vegetation and preserve biodiversity.

  1. Constructing Aggregate Environmental-Economic Indicators. A Comparison of 12 OECD Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Bergh, C.J.M. [Tinbergen Institute, Labor, Region and Environment, Amsterdam/Rotterdam (Netherlands); Van Veen-Groot, D.B. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The application of aggregate indicators in environmental-economic research has received little attention so far. An important reason is the incompleteness of environmental data. This article presents a systematic approach to construct indicators of environment and economy on a macro level. It includes a distinction into the following categories: the volume of economic activities as an indicator of potential environmental pressure; actual environmental pressure; environmental quality; and environmental policy. In each category aggregate indicators are calculated for 12 OECD countries. Subsequently, the correlation between these indicators is examined. Significant correlation is found between the economic activity indicators (or 'potential' environmental pressure), actual environmental pressure and environmental quality, whereas a very weak correlation exists with these indicators and two types of aggregate indicators of environmental policy. Due to some arbitrary choices, which are inevitable, the results are to be judged with caution. Several suggestions are offered to improve the calculation and comparison of aggregate indicators. 20 refs.

  2. Constructing Aggregate Environmental-Economic Indicators. A Comparison of 12 OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, C.J.M.; Van Veen-Groot, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    The application of aggregate indicators in environmental-economic research has received little attention so far. An important reason is the incompleteness of environmental data. This article presents a systematic approach to construct indicators of environment and economy on a macro level. It includes a distinction into the following categories: the volume of economic activities as an indicator of potential environmental pressure; actual environmental pressure; environmental quality; and environmental policy. In each category aggregate indicators are calculated for 12 OECD countries. Subsequently, the correlation between these indicators is examined. Significant correlation is found between the economic activity indicators (or 'potential' environmental pressure), actual environmental pressure and environmental quality, whereas a very weak correlation exists with these indicators and two types of aggregate indicators of environmental policy. Due to some arbitrary choices, which are inevitable, the results are to be judged with caution. Several suggestions are offered to improve the calculation and comparison of aggregate indicators. 20 refs

  3. Geography and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, O

    1981-01-01

    The most important factors affecting the social, economic, and cultural development are geography, climate, and social fertility. The interaction of these different influences are described, and their relationship with the world's health as shown. Of particular interest is how the introduction of modern techniques can counteract certain of the effects of climatic and geographical factors. Health in the various population groups of the world results from the successive interplay of a long series of factors. Generally, it is known that poverty and ignorance breed disease. Possibly the extent to which economic and educational development is dependent upon climatic and other geographical factors is not fully realized. The distribution of humans over the world's surface is governed by the availability of food and water. Agriculture alone allows the congregation of large populations and the establishment of settled communities, villages, and eventually towns. Social development ensues which may give rise to culture and science. This will allow the birth of industry and the improvement of agricultural techniques. Together they will permit economic development, capable in turn of supporting a competent administration, part of which will cater to the sanitary and medical needs of the community and contribute the health of the population. Apart from the general consequences of living in isolation, or in communities of humankind's social and cultural development, there is also an immediate and direct effect upon health. Complete isolation interferes with the transmission of cultural traditions and with the transmission of most infections. Community life creates chances of mutual infection with resulting immunity. Large cities present many opportunities for acquiring numerous infections and building up resistance to them at an early age. Their endemicity will replace epidemics. The extremely cold climate of the arctic and subarctic regions is usually well tolerated provided

  4. Developing models that analyze the economic/environmental trade-offs implicit in water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    Hydro-economic models have been used to analyze optimal supply management and groundwater use for the past 25 years. They are characterized by an objective function that usually maximizes economic measures such as consumer and producer surplus subject to hydrologic equations of motion or water distribution systems. The hydrologic and economic components are sometimes fully integrated. Alternatively they may use an iterative interactive process. Environmental considerations have been included in hydro-economic models as inequality constraints. Representing environmental requirements as constraints is a rigid approximation of the range of management alternatives that could be used to implement environmental objectives. The next generation of hydro-economic models, currently being developed, require that the environmental alternatives be represented by continuous or semi-continuous functions which relate water resource use allocated to the environment with the probabilities of achieving environmental objectives. These functions will be generated by process models of environmental and biological systems which are now advanced to the state that they can realistically represent environmental systems and flexibility to interact with economic models. Examples are crop growth models, climate modeling, and biological models of forest, fish, and fauna systems. These process models can represent environmental outcomes in a form that is similar to economic production functions. When combined with economic models the interacting process models can reproduce a range of trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives, and thus optimize social value of many water and environmental resources. Some examples of this next-generation of hydro-enviro- economic models are reviewed. In these models implicit production functions for environmental goods are combined with hydrologic equations of motion and economic response functions. We discuss models that show interaction between

  5. Geography and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, L

    1989-05-01

    Most people in Britain today work in jobs dominated very markedly by either women or men. Sex-typing occurs in many other activities. For example, child care and domestic work, whether paid or unpaid, are generally considered to be tasks for women. However, with the exception of domestic work and child care, the allocation of activities to women or men varies between societies. For example, in much of sub-Saharan Africa, women work in fields, growing basic subsistence crops for their families, whereas in much of Latin America, women's agricultural work is confined to tending animals and food processing. Inequality arises because the role of women is generally associated with inferior status, socially, politically and/or economically. When mapping the geography of gender, an example shows that female life expectancy at birth is highest in the developed countries and lowest in the poorest countries of the Third World. Regarding the relationship between gender divisions and various aspects of spatial organization within societies most attention has focused on differences in ethnic group, social class, and stage in the life cycle. In mid-19th century Britain large-scale factory production precipitated a spatial separation between home and work and created the possibility of separate spheres of life for women and men. A particular social form, namely a nuclear family with a dependent wife, can operate as a factor contributing to changes in the spatial organization of urban areas in the form of suburban growth. After decades of outward movement by affluent social groups, a return to small pockets within inner-urban areas is now evident. This process is known as gentrification. An additional factor of significance in connection with gentrification is the increasing success of middle-class women in obtaining well-paid career jobs.

  6. Economical-environmental assessment on technologies producing electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafzadeh, K.

    2000-01-01

    Currently, the electric power industry is undergoing substantial regulatory and organizational change with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Under these circumstances, with utilization of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) concept, we consider the assessment of Technologies producing energy from financial and pollution viewpoint. AHP techniques is one of the efficient methods in analysis of complex and multi-criteria problems, which has plenty of applications. General pattern of this assessment has been introduced, and the main goal is determining of overall priority weights for each technology. With using this pattern, overall priority weights has been determined for thermal, combined cycle and Gas turbine plants. It has been cleared that relative priority of these plants will change, if relative priority of assessment criterions changes. For application of this approach, capital budgeting process and selection of some suitable technologies among the alternatives candidate for construction have been presented. In this process the objective is to maximize the sum of overall priority weights of technologies which have been identified from AHP. Constraints are about the construction budget and annual budget for emission allowances. This process is in the integer programming IP form an has been applied to three kind of power plants with reasonable assumptions

  7. Economic and Environmental Impact of Energy Saving in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic and environmental impacts of energy consumption derived from healthcare buildings and proposes several energy-saving options in the sector. An experimental energy consumption study was development between 2005 and 2013 in 12 hospitals and 70 healthcare centres in Spain, built between 1980 and 2005 through audits carried out between 2005 and 2012, performed by the Extremadura Energy Agency. The study focused on electric energy, HVAC, DWH, lighting systems, renewable energies, maintenance strategy, thermal insulation, and optimal building size. Specifically, the following parameters were evaluated: energy savings, investment emission of CO2, NO2, and SO2 gases, and payback. The results revealed that through an appropriate energy management of healthcare buildings it is possible to save up to 8.60 kWh/m2 per year, for buildings of less than 5000 m2 (with no beds, which represents an expense of 1.55 €/m2. In healthcare buildings larger than 5000 m2 (with beds, it was possible to save up to 6.88 kWh/m2 per year, which represents an expense of 1.25 €/m2.

  8. Research of Environmental and Economic Interactions of Coke And By-Product Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Vladimir; Kiseleva, Tamara; Bugrova, Svetlana; Muromtseva, Alina; Mikhailova, Yana

    2017-11-01

    The issues of showing relations between environmental and economic indicators (further - environmental and economic interactions) of coke and by-product process are considered in the article. The purpose of the study is to reveal the regularities of the functioning of the local environmental and economic system on the basis of revealed spectrum of environmental and economic interactions. A simplified scheme of the environmental and economic system "coke and by-product process - the environment" was developed. The forms of the investigated environmental-economic interactions were visualized and the selective interpretation of the tightness of the established connection was made. The main result of the work is modeling system of environmental and economic interactions that allows increasing the efficiency of local ecological and economic system management and optimizing the "interests" of an industrial enterprise - the source of negative impact on the environment. The results of the survey can be recommended to government authorities and industrial enterprises with a wide range of negative impact forms to support the adoption of effective management decisions aimed at sustainable environmental and economic development of the region or individual municipalities.

  9. Analysis of the environmental and economic indicators of the industrial enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. G.; Kiseleva, T. V.

    2018-05-01

    In the paper the features of the analysis of the environmental and economic indicators of the industrial enterprise are considered. The purpose of the study is to improve the system of environmental and economic analysis at the enterprise for more accurate forecasting of its main environmental and economic indicators. The study of the main approaches to the implementation of environmental and economic analysis based on the corresponding systems of indicators with identification of the most significant factors was carried out. The main result of the study is the choice of a system for analyzing the environmental and economic indicators, maximally oriented to a specific enterprise, taking into account its production specific features. The practical significance of the study consists in the selection of an adequate system of indicators at enterprises to improve the effectiveness from preparation of an environmentally safe management decision.

  10. Environmental degradation, economic growth and energy consumption: Evidence of the environmental Kuznets curve in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboori, Behnaz; Sulaiman, Jamalludin

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests for the short and long-run relationship between economic growth, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and energy consumption, using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) by employing both the aggregated and disaggregated energy consumption data in Malaysia for the period 1980–2009. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology and Johansen–Juselius maximum likelihood approach were used to test the cointegration relationship; and the Granger causality test, based on the vector error correction model (VECM), to test for causality. The study does not support an inverted U-shaped relationship (EKC) when aggregated energy consumption data was used. When data was disaggregated based on different energy sources such as oil, coal, gas and electricity, the study does show evidences of the EKC hypothesis. The long-run Granger causality test shows that there is bi-directional causality between economic growth and CO 2 emissions, with coal, gas, electricity and oil consumption. This suggests that decreasing energy consumption such as coal, gas, electricity and oil appears to be an effective way to control CO 2 emissions but simultaneously will hinder economic growth. Thus suitable policies related to the efficient consumption of energy resources and consumption of renewable sources are required. - Highlights: • We investigated the EKC hypothesis by using Malaysian energy aggregated and disaggregated data. • It was found that the EKC is not supported, using the aggregated data (energy consumption). • However using disaggregated energy data (oil, coal and electricity) there is evidence of EKC. • Causality shows no causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption in the short-run. • Economic growth Granger causes energy consumption and energy consumption causes CO 2 emissions in long-run

  11. Transformation of Geography as an Interdisciplinary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Afrakhteh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geography as a science of the spatial analysis of phenomena is based on three main objectives: studying spatial structures, examining the locational-spatial order of socio-economic activities, and searching spatial relationships and functions through hierarchical leveling of rural and urban settlements. The applied form of geography or “spatial planning” addresses the modification of spatial structures, the locational-spatial order of activities, and the organization of spatial relationships and functions. There are mutual interactions between structure and function in this spatial order. Science has developed a complex structure through the electronic revolution, which is called “third wave science”; also specialized studies have developed. Specialized studies result in a very deep understanding of subjects, but this deep understanding always remains just in a “spot” and its applications could be traumatic, which is because it is not regulated in combination with other dimensions of human life. This kind of science cannot be beneficial in human life or solve some important problems. The main aim of this article, which is based on qualitative content analysis, is to analyze geography as an interdisciplinary science. The findings of the study show that geographical research has interdisciplinary characteristics; otherwise it cannot explain today’s complex problems. Geography can both use the findings of other sciences, including statistics, mathematics, economics, sociology, history and psychology, and provide them with services and help.

  12. The Geography of the Beatles Approaching Concepts of Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Robert J., II

    2004-01-01

    Human geography can be taught by focusing on popular culture contexts with which undergraduate students may already be familiar such as rock music. The Geography of the Beatles introduced undergraduate students to concepts of "new" cultural geography such as space, place, representation, geopolitics, social space, and tourism-pilgrimage…

  13. Geography Teachers' Views on Effective Geography Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocalar, Ali Osman; Demirkaya, Hilmi

    2017-01-01

    Geography teaching is fulfilled within the frame of a specific curriculum and in order to achieve some acquirements in Turkey. Though there are course books prepared in accordance with the curriculum and activities in order to achieve the acquirements in geography teaching, they are geography teachers who will coordinate and fulfill the curriculum…

  14. What Is Innovative Geography Teaching? A Perspective from Geography Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artvinli, Eyüp

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine views of geography teachers on innovative geography teaching. The study group consists of 15 geography teachers (8 Females, 7 Males). The study is designed in keeping with phenomenological research. Semi-structured interview form is used as a data collection tool in the study. The collected data are analyzed…

  15. Geography Teachers' Metaphors Concerning the Concept of "Geography"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to reveal geography teachers' perception on the concept of "Geography", by means of the metaphors they use. The study was participated by 116 geography teachers working in several high-schools in Istanbul City center within the 2012-2013 academic year. Answers to the following questions were sought in…

  16. Integration of environmental stewardship and local economic development to enhance community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jay F

    2011-01-01

    Environmental groups working to preserve natural ecosystems and groups working to enhance local economic development often find themselves on philosophically opposite sides of the negotiation table. Case histories of cooperative engagement are provided that serve as examples of how environmental stewardship is compatible with local economic development and community health.

  17. Some Thoughts on Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritzner, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    The geography student should be offered the option of applied geography courses as well as the more conservative humanistic approach, in order to respond to the challenges presented by existing societal needs and vocational opportunities. (Author/CK)

  18. A Study on the development of macro environmental economic model(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Keun; Han, Min Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is the first year study of the two year research project for developing a macro environmental economic model to analyze environment and economics. By using this model, the economic effects of investment on pollution reduction and on energy conservation are analyzed. Also, a comprehensive modeling of analyzing effects of environmental tax, reduction on greenhouse gas emission, and problems on foreign exchange on environment and economy is a main goal of this study. It is planned to develop a simulation program for the estimation of model and policies using environmental and economic data. 126 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Climate, economic, and environmental impacts of producing wood for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, Richard; Duffy, Philip; Smyth, Carolyn; Kurz, Werner A.; Dugan, Alexa J.; Houghton, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Increasing combustion of woody biomass for electricity has raised concerns and produced conflicting statements about impacts on atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, climate, and other forest values such as timber supply and biodiversity. The purposes of this concise review of current literature are to (1) examine impacts on net GHG emissions and climate from increasing bioenergy production from forests and exporting wood pellets to Europe from North America, (2) develop a set of science-based recommendations about the circumstances that would result in GHG reductions or increases in the atmosphere, and (3) identify economic and environmental impacts of increasing bioenergy use of forests. We find that increasing bioenergy production and pellet exports often increase net emissions of GHGs for decades or longer, depending on source of feedstock and its alternate fate, time horizon of analysis, energy emissions associated with the supply chain and fuel substitution, and impacts on carbon cycling of forest ecosystems. Alternative uses of roundwood often offer larger reductions in GHGs, in particular long-lived wood products that store carbon for longer periods of time and can achieve greater substitution benefits than bioenergy. Other effects of using wood for bioenergy may be considerable including induced land-use change, changes in supplies of wood and other materials for construction, albedo and non-radiative effects of land-cover change on climate, and long-term impacts on soil productivity. Changes in biodiversity and other ecosystem attributes may be strongly affected by increasing biofuel production, depending on source of material and the projected scale of biofuel production increases.

  20. The Green Launching Plan for New Hampshire's Environmental and Economic Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittell, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Economic vitality and environmental protection have long been linked in New England, and will be again with efforts to address climate change in the region. There is an emerging body of literature to support the potential economic benefits of a so-called "green economy" in the region and the nation. In New Hampshire, economic studies of…

  1. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  2. Environmental Ethics: Questions for Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of questions through which adult educators can explore controversial questions of environmental values and moral behavior in their programs. The subjects include geography, local history, natural history, economics, politics, business, labor education, world affairs, literature, women's studies, psychology, and courses for the…

  3. Financing environmental and energy transition - Opinion of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virlouvet, Gael

    2013-09-01

    Ecological transition is a concrete and progressive measure, to be committed to here and now, aimed at better taking environmental challenges into account, with a strong regional dimension. The 4 main environmental challenges are attenuation and adaptation to climate change, the preservation of biodiversity, access to raw materials and the protection of human health. This approach is within the context of sustainable development. It implies a profound change from our current development model. Energy transition is one of the strands of ecological transition. Certain examples from abroad are worth bearing in mind in the field of energy transition (Germany, the United Kingdom), or the scope of stimulus packages aimed at ecological transition (South Korea). Ecological transition has a cost: collective anticipation. In France, available financing tools are above all those of traditional environmental policies, some of which benefit from dedicated financing. Other public policies integrate the challenges of ecological transition in a diverse manner, and mostly very poorly. As for the private financing of this transition, this depends firstly on the profitability of the economic framework, which is still far from optimal. It also depends on taking extra-financial criteria into account, something which is still very weak. To implement ecological transition, room for manoeuvre needs to be created in a constrained financial context: weakening growth, public expenditure contingencies, and difficulties in deploying private saving. To properly meet economic and social challenges, ecological transition must contribute to the economic dynamism of regions, facing the challenge of 'sustainable competitiveness'. To achieve this we need to identify the uncertainties which hinder the proactive approach of key stakeholders, to better articulate the various decision-making levels and improve the resilience of regional economies. The mobilisation of civil society is a key

  4. Swedish Environmental and Economic Accounts. Physical accounts for energy and emissions to air 1993 and 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Statistical Report presents results from the physical Swedish Environmental and Economic Accounts for the years 1993 and 1995 according to the classification NACE. The Environmental Economic Accounts constitute an integrated and comprehensive system for environmental and economic statistics. Environmental data are systematically presented together with economic data in a common framework. The system can be used for analyses of various relationships between economy and environment. Data on emissions to air of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia are presented for 39 industries, government services and private consumption. The use of energy commodities in monetary and physical terms are also presented for the same sectors. Economic, energy and emission data are also presented in environmental and economic profiles and indicators. Environmental and economic profiles provide an illustration of the relationship between industry, consumption of energy commodities and emission to air. Indicators, that show e.g. emissions (in kg) by value added (in SEK) for economic activities, is another way to illustrate the relation between emissions and economic data

  5. Economic Transformation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region: Is It Undergoing the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Integration Plan is one of the most important national strategies in China promoting regional economic development. The environmental problems in this region, however, especially air pollution and contaminated groundwater, have enormous influence on the people’s health while also causing economic loss. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the pattern of its environmental and economic development. Panel data in the period 2004–2014 are used to establish an advanced model of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The results indicate that the economic growth and environmental pollution of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region do not completely meet the Environment Kuznets Curve assumptions. The discharge volume of industrial wastewater and economic growth reflect a wave-type relation. The sulfur dioxide discharge volume and economic growth reflect a U-shaped relation; the generated volume of industrial solid wastes and economic growth reflect a reversed N-shaped relation, which is in accordance with the Environmental Kuznets Curve characteristics at the second inflection point. The variables added value of the secondary industry, population size and raw coal consumption volume have a significant positive influence on the discharge of various environmental pollutants in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The analysis provides policy recommendations for the government to develop regional economic and environmental protection policies.

  6. System of environmental and economic accounting for water pollution and the result analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yarong

    2017-10-01

    With the gradual acceleration of China's industrialization process, the environmental pollution caused by industrial production is more and more serious, especially water pollution. To construct a System of Environmental and Economic Accounting for water pollution, to a certain extent, can promote the green development of national economy in China. The System of Environmental and Economic Accounting for water pollution is analyzed and studied in this paper.

  7. A qualitative approach to economic-environmental dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjengedal, T.; Hansen, O.; Johansen, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the principles, and suggests a methodology for expanding the dispatch of electrical power production systems for involving a pure minimum cost dispatch, to also include environmental objectives. The approach is qualitative in that no attempt is made as to assign a specific monetary value to environmental impacts, but rather maintaining the physical value of the impact through the decision process. However, the initial relative weights assigned to environmental impacts in the methodology are based on the many recent attempts to monetize environmental damages. The main contribution of the approach is to analyze how dispatch changes as a function of the total environmental weight, and as a function of the relative weighing of individual environmental insults, e.g., SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 . The methodology is illustrated with a sample production system involving environmental coast estimates from major US studies

  8. Technical progress of nuclear energy: economic and environmental prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, G.

    1994-01-01

    This document deals with three different aspects of the nuclear energy: first the operating and economic performances of nuclear power plants in the world, the French nuclear competitiveness. Then, the technical and economic perspectives about reactors and fuels cycle and the advantages towards atmospheric pollution are discussed to favour a new worldwide nuclear development. (TEC). 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  10. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  11. Moral Teaching in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that geography is in a unique position to highlight and emphasize moral issues that otherwise might be neglected. Contemporary issues that naturally intersect with geographic concepts include citizenship and immigration, and the allocation of resources. Recommends examining relative concepts of justice, equality, and community. (MJP)

  12. (Im)mobile Geographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.

    2013-01-01

    The growing tendency to evaluate – sometimes even ''measure'' – the ''productivity'' of academics is seriously affecting what we consider to be relevant geographical output. This tendency is also significantly reshaping the actual geographies of the disciplinary debate, by introducing important

  13. The Revenge of Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ia. Belokrenitsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This author discussed the prominent book of American journalist and expert Robert D. Kaplan in the light of the recent publication of its Russian translation: [Kaplan R. Mest’ geografi i (The revenge of geography / Transl. by M. Kotov. Moscow: Ko-Libri, 2015. P.277].

  14. Geography from Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Suggests utilizing foreign coins and banknotes as teaching aids for geography. Discusses coins portrayal of such issues as societal goals, historical commemorations, or conservation of wildlife. Cites banknotes as a source of even more geographical information than coins. Suggests sources of information, coins, and banknotes. (DK)

  15. Economic growth and environmental pollution in Myanmar: an analysis of environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Thiri Shwesin; Saboori, Behnaz; Rasoulinezhad, Ehsan

    2017-09-01

    This empirical study examines the short- and long-run relationship between GDP as an economic growth indicator and CO 2 emissions as an environmental pollution indicator in Myanmar by using annual time series data over the period of 1970-2014. It also carefully considered other proxies, such as trade openness, financial openness and urbanization, and structural breaks in the country. The fundamental objective of this study is to test the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the context of Myanmar. The dynamic estimates of the long- and short-term relationship among greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O), GDP, trade intensity, financial openness, and urbanization growth are built through an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model. The empirical findings indicate that there is positive short- and long-run relationship between CO 2 and GDP and thus, no evidence of EKC hypothesis is found for CO 2 in Myanmar. Nevertheless, the existence of the EKC is observed for CH 4 and N 2 O. On the other hand, trade and financial openness have inverse relationship with CO 2 emissions. These results demonstrate that trade liberalization and financial openness will improve the environment quality in Myanmar in the long run.

  16. Practice of Environmentally Significant Behaviours in Rural China: From Being Motivated by Economic Gains to Being Motivated by Environmental Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan

    2017-08-22

    A continuous and increasing crisis that present-day China is facing is environmental degradation. The cultivation of citizens who have environmentally friendly behaviours has been deemed as a fundamental way to solve environmental crises. However, the main focus of environmentalism studies has been urban residents, whereas rare research attention was put on rural Chinese. This paper focuses on environmentally significant behaviours in rural China and aims to clarify the practice of five environmentally significant behaviours and two motivations underlying these behaviours. In total, 508 rural residents in 51 villages of Ningyang county were interviewed. Analytical results derived from survey data showed that environmentally significant behaviours are widely conducted in rural areas. However, these behaviours are mainly motivated by economic gains rather than environmental considerations. In addition, based on the norm-activation theory and considering the influences of demographic factors, the formation of environmentally motivated behaviours were quantitatively analysed. Analytical results indicated that the more people worried about environmental deterioration, the more likely they were to form environmentally motivated behaviours, and people who ascribe the most important environmental responsibility to the government are less likely to form environmentally motivated behaviours. Increasing people's anxiety towards the environment, decreasing people's dependency on the government in protecting the environment, and using females, the elderly, and people with low income and education levels as the main targets of environmental education are suggested to promote environmentally motivated behaviours in rural China.

  17. Practice of Environmentally Significant Behaviours in Rural China: From Being Motivated by Economic Gains to Being Motivated by Environmental Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan

    2017-01-01

    A continuous and increasing crisis that present-day China is facing is environmental degradation. The cultivation of citizens who have environmentally friendly behaviours has been deemed as a fundamental way to solve environmental crises. However, the main focus of environmentalism studies has been urban residents, whereas rare research attention was put on rural Chinese. This paper focuses on environmentally significant behaviours in rural China and aims to clarify the practice of five environmentally significant behaviours and two motivations underlying these behaviours. In total, 508 rural residents in 51 villages of Ningyang county were interviewed. Analytical results derived from survey data showed that environmentally significant behaviours are widely conducted in rural areas. However, these behaviours are mainly motivated by economic gains rather than environmental considerations. In addition, based on the norm-activation theory and considering the influences of demographic factors, the formation of environmentally motivated behaviours were quantitatively analysed. Analytical results indicated that the more people worried about environmental deterioration, the more likely they were to form environmentally motivated behaviours, and people who ascribe the most important environmental responsibility to the government are less likely to form environmentally motivated behaviours. Increasing people’s anxiety towards the environment, decreasing people’s dependency on the government in protecting the environment, and using females, the elderly, and people with low income and education levels as the main targets of environmental education are suggested to promote environmentally motivated behaviours in rural China. PMID:28829395

  18. Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovenmuehle, Timo R.H. von der

    2013-01-01

    Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

  19. Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovenmuehle, Timo R.H. von der [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

  20. Environmental crises in developing countries: control measures in economic sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayana, K.B.N.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the developing countries consist of similar type of problems and crises of environment. This may be due to industries vehicles, or agriculture. Referring to the Asian countries it may be due to policy, relocation of industries, different levels of economic crises etc. This study includes impact of environment vs socio, policy, population, demography. The feasibility observed as enhancement of economic status, involving local society, cost base sharing, upgrading the employment opportunities, firm steps and policies, and agenda changes and adoptions. (Author)

  1. Relevance of Environmental, Institutional and Economic Developments for ASEAN-6

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhlaq, Muhammad Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Economic Growth is influenced by large number of factors and there is an ongoing debate on the extent to which some of these strong and more quantifiable variables are effective. In order to comprehensively discuss the mainstream determinants of Economic Growth explored through past literature, the study chose to focus on ASEAN-6 countries encompassing Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines and Vietnam. By considering three decades from 1985 to 2014 period and dividing it into ...

  2. Assessment of Eco-Environmental Stress in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyu Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eco-environmental stress refers to the pressure borne by the environment in sustaining the pre-existing non-industrialized state and/or in counteracting adverse impacts caused by natural and human factors. The present article introduces the concept, research progress, and method for assessing eco-environmental stress. An eco-environmental stress index (ESI is established to assess the eco-environmental stress of 13 cities in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone during the period from 2000 to 2010. The research provides a reference for the strategic planning of industrial development and environmental protection. The results show that the overall eco-environmental stress of the Economic Zone was slight and did not have significant change during the past 10 years. The cities with the most severe eco-environmental stress are distributed in the north and south of the Economic Zone. Most areas of Fujian Province have a low degree of eco-environmental stress, a situation that is being constantly improved. The regions with high atmospheric and water pollutant emissions are concentrated in the northern, middle, and southern coastal regions of the Economic Zone. The pollutant emissions of coastal cities are higher than those of inland cities. In the future, ecological restoration and compensation mechanisms should be established for regions where environmental protection and remediation is urgently needed.

  3. Microbial community-based polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from wastewater : Techno-economic analysis and ex-ante environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Dacosta, Cora; Posada, John A.; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Cuellar, Maria C.; Ramirez, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the potential for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production from wastewater, from a techno-economic and an environmental perspective, examining scale-up opportunities and bottlenecks prior to commercialisation. Conceptual process design, economic, environmental impacts and

  4. How economic growth affects emissions? An investigation of the environmental Kuznets curve in Portuguese and Spanish economic activity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Victor; Varum, Celeste; Madaleno, Mara

    2017-01-01

    It is a disquieting reality that increased economic growth for many years now in the Western world is at odds with environmental degradation. In this paper the relationship between economic growth and environmental variables is analyzed under two non-linear specifications, a quadratic and a cubic specification. The study is conducted for Portugal and Spain in the period 1975–2012, using data for 13 sectors. GVA is used as proxy for income, while energy use and carbon dioxide account for environmental degradation. There is evidence for an inverted U-shaped EKC. However, there are also other inverted N–shaped functions that explain the relationship between economic growth and emissions. Altogether, empirical results do indicate particular differences between Portuguese and Spanish sectors. The results are of interest not only for researchers but also for policy-makers. Political mitigation measures are also analyzed. - Highlights: • We study the EKC hypothesis using economic activity sectors in the Iberian Market. • There is evidence for a clear N-shaped EKC in Portugal. • Inverted N–shaped function explains the economic growth and emissions relationship. • Positive and significant effect of energy consumption in emissions for sectors. • Promote renewables substitution and tax benefits are urgent to accomplish goals.

  5. Genetics: A New Landscape for Medical Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Emch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of human pathogens resistant to medical treatment will present a challenge to the international public health community in the coming decades. Geography is uniquely positioned to examine the progressive evolution of pathogens across space and through time, and to link molecular change to interactions between population and environmental drivers. Landscape as an organizing principle for the integration of natural and cultural forces has a long history in geography, and, more specifically, in medical geography. Here, we explore the role of landscape in medical geography, the emergent field of landscape genetics, and the great potential that exists in the combination of these two disciplines. We argue that landscape genetics can enhance medical geographic studies of local-level disease environments with quantitative tests of how human-environment interactions influence pathogenic characteristics. In turn, such analyses can expand theories of disease diffusion to the molecular scale and distinguish the important factors in ecologies of disease that drive genetic change of pathogens. PMID:24558292

  6. Social and Economic Determinants of the Level of Support for Environmental Protection and Economic Growth in a Rural Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Steve H.; Schriner, Eldon C.

    Based on a secondary analysis of data from a statewide survey of North Dakota residents conducted during the spring of 1976, this study examined the differences in levels of support for environmental protection and economic growth via respondent characteristics, respondent characteristics within residence types, and occupational and social class…

  7. Ethical, social, environmental and economic issues in animal agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S [Research Foundation, Third Cross Street, Taramani Institutional Area, Chennai - 600 113 (India); net, mssrfed@vsnl

    2003-07-01

    environmental balance and social harmony with the forest, coastal and hill communities of various regions of India. The ethical issues from a technological point of view centre around both gene-based and nongene- based technologies to improve the nutrition, health and productivity of the farm animals. In particular, a reference needs to be made to bovine somatotropin (bST), a natural growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary in all animals, with a major effect on the regulation of growth and also milk production. Since the quantities of bST obtained from slaughtered animals are quite small, recombinant DNA technology-based r-bST is produced, and widely used in the USA to increase the milk production by 10% to 20%. Exhaustive evaluation tests conducted in the USA have shown that r-bST has no harmful effects in milk, but a high production of milk makes higher demands on animal physiology, and if an adequate food supply is lacking, negative effects are observed on fertility besides other health problems, especially mastitis and ketosis. Presently, neither r-bST, nor adequate nutritious feed is available for millions of dairy cattle in the developing countries. The economic benefits of 'mass production' over 'production by masses' are obvious; further, the access to the r-bST in the 'mass production' system, but not in the system of 'production by masses' could accentuate the economic disparity. The above-said scenario has further ramifications in view of the implications arising from the WTO-related Agreement on Agriculture. With an array of domestic supports, products of 'mass production' could be dumped into developing countries causing a substantial rise in the already high levels of livelihood and food insecurity. Since the r-DNA based technologies for 'pharming' or for human food are not yet applied to farm animals in the developing countries there are no serious concerns of bio-safety, and violation of ethical norms. In the countries, where animals for human food are

  8. Energy, Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability: Five Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Sorrell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances five linked and controversial propositions that have both deep historical roots and urgent contemporary relevance. These are: (a the rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements are significant and limit the potential for decoupling energy consumption from economic growth; (b the contribution of energy to productivity improvements and economic growth has been greatly underestimated; (c the pursuit of improved efficiency needs to be complemented by an ethic of sufficiency; (d sustainability is incompatible with continued economic growth in rich countries; and (e a zero-growth economy is incompatible with a fractional reserve banking system. These propositions run counter to conventional wisdom and each highlights either a "blind spot" or "taboo subject" that deserves closer scrutiny. While accepting one proposition reinforces the case for accepting the next, the former is neither necessary nor sufficient for the latter.

  9. Examining the Geographies of Supply Chains in Introductory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafsky, Ronald V.; Conner, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Supply chains and other trade networks are of interest to geographers, due to their ability to connect economic processes at various scales. Relatively recent research, however, suggests that core concepts and topics in economic geography are not being fully and effectively engaged in the classroom environment. With such findings as a motivation,…

  10. Simultaneous environmental and economic process synthesis of Isobutane Alkylation

    OpenAIRE

    García, Norberto; Fernandez-Torres, Maria J.; Caballero, José A.

    2014-01-01

    This multidisciplinary study concerns the optimal design of processes with a view to both maximizing profit and minimizing environmental impacts. This can be achieved by a combination of traditional chemical process design methods, measurements of environmental impacts and advanced mathematical optimization techniques. More to the point, this paper presents a hybrid simulation-multiobjective optimization approach that at once optimizes the production cost and minimizes the associated environm...

  11. Moral Matters: De-Romanticising Worker Agency and Charting Future Directions for Labour Geography

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, T.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of labour geography over the last 20 years has ensured that labour politics, worker rights and employment-related struggles have remained strong themes in economic geography. This article provides an updated review of labour geography's development, charting its expansion from an early focus on organised spatial ‘resistance’ at a range of scales, to a more varied project incorporating a wider range of analytical and empirical inquiries. Despite this progression the paper suggests tha...

  12. An introductory note on the environmental economics of the circular economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper provides an introduction to some of the fundamental principles and approaches in environmental economics which are of significance to achieving an integrated sustainability science. The concept of a circular economy, introduced by the late David Pearce in 1990, addresses...... the interlinkages of the four economic functions of the environment. The environment not only provides amenity values, in addition to being a resource base and a sink for economic activities, it is also a fundamental life-support system. Environmental economists have suggested that, taking these four functions...... reached as a result of such interdisciplinary research are gradually being applied to the economic analysis of environmental policy priorities. Although such figures provide only a partial and incomplete picture of the environmental costs at stake, they support and inform the analysis of the virtues...

  13. Impacts of nuclear and hydroelectric great projects: economical, technological, environmental and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Sigaud, L.; Mielnik, O.

    1988-01-01

    Some studies about the Great Impacts of Energy Sources, mainly nuclear power plant and hydroelectric power plant, in Brazil are presented. The technological, economical, social and environmental aspects are described [pt

  14. Case Studies: Improving Environmental Performance and Economic Prosperity at Ports and in Near-Port Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case Study links for improving environmental performance and economic prosperity at ports and in near-port communities. Case studies on equipment upgrades, jobs and benefits, land use and transportation, port-community engagement, and citizen science.

  15. Environmental life cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis of triboelectric nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Ibn-Mohammed, Taofeeq; Mostafa, Hassan; Reaney, Ian M.; Koh, Lenny S. C.; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    along with low material and manufacturing costs as well as a favorable environmental profile in comparison with other energy harvesting technologies, can the true potential of TENGs be established. This paper presents a detailed techno-economic lifecycle

  16. Environmental and economic impacts of fertilizer drawn forward osmosis and nanofiltration hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jung Eun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Chekli, Laura; Hong, Seungkwan; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Choi, Joon Yong; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2017-01-01

    Environmental and economic impacts of the fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system were conducted and compared with conventional reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid scenarios using microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration

  17. A critical realist perspective on decoupling negative environmental impacts from housing sector growth and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin

    2012-01-01

    The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses...... this question from the position of critical realism. An empirical study focusing on the housing sector is conducted, indicating that housing stock growth and economic growth have been, at best, weakly decoupled from environmental impacts. In the long run, it seems implausible that the degree of decoupling can...... be increased at a rate sufficient to compensate for continual growth in the volume of housing stock. A further elaboration of the topic at an ontological level leads to the conclusion that continual economic growth and long-term environmental sustainability can hardly be combined....

  18. Environmental and resource economics in South Africa: status quo and lessons for developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the potential contributions of environmental and resource economics (ERE) to the achievement of sustainable development in developing countries and highlights the limitations associated with applying ERE within a developing country...

  19. Environmental Economics for Watershed Restoration: Valuation for Non-Economists

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA economists completed research projects and summarized related valuation methods and case studies, mostly dealing with acid mine drainage. Their recent book (edited by Thurston, et al.) is intended to make stakeholders more comfortable talking about economic jargon and to info...

  20. Integrated economic and environmental analysis of agricultural straw reuse in edible fungi industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencong Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background China currently faces severe environmental pollution caused by burning agricultural straw; thus, resource utilization of these straws has become an urgent policy and practical objective for the Chinese government. Methods This study develops a bio-economic model, namely, “straw resource utilization for fungi in China (SRUFIC,” on the basis of a field survey of an edible fungi plant in Zhejiang, China, to investigate an integrated economic and environmental performance of straw reuse in fungi production. Five scenarios, which cover changes in the production scale, wage level, and price fluctuations of the main product and inputs, are simulated. Results Results reveal that (1 the pilot plant potentially provides enhanced economic benefits and disposes added agricultural residues by adjusting its production strategy; (2 the economic performance is most sensitive to fungi price fluctuations, whereas the environmental performance is more sensitive to production scale and price of fungi than other factors; (3 expanding the production scale can be the most efficient means of improving the performance of a plant economically and environmentally. Discussion Overall, agricultural straw reuse in the edible fungi industry can not only reduce the environmental risk derived from burning abandoned straws but also introduce economic benefits. Thus, the straw reuse in the fungi industry should be practiced in China, and specific economic incentive policies, such as price support or subsidies, must be implemented to promote the utilization of agricultural straws in the fungi industry.

  1. Environmental Disaster and Economic Change: Do tropical cyclones have permanent effects on economic growth and structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.; von der Goltz, J.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters have important, often devastating, effects upon economic growth and well-being. Due to this, disasters have become an active area of recent research and policy attention. However, much of this research has been narrowly focused, relying on anecdotal evidence and aggregated data to support conclusions about disaster impacts in the short-term. Employing a new global data set of tropical cyclone exposure from 1960 to 2008, we investigate in greater detail whether permanent changes in economic performance and structure can result from these extreme events in some cases. Our macro-economic analyses use the World Development Indicator dataset and have shown promising results: there are dramatic long-term economic transformations associated with tropical cyclones across a number of countries and industries. This effect is most clearly seen in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and some countries in Latin America, where negative changes in long-term growth trends are observed in the years following a large tropical cyclone. In many economies with a high exposure to tropical cyclone damage, there are noticeable structural changes within the economy. The impacts of disasters might be expressed through various economic and social channels, through direct loss of lives and infrastructure damage; for instance, the destruction of infrastructure such as ports may damage export opportunities where replacement capital is not readily available. These structural changes may have far-reaching implications for economic growth and welfare. Larger nations subjected to the impacts of tropical cyclones are thought to be able to relocate economically important activities that are damaged by cyclones, and so long-term trend changes are not observed, even for events that cause a large immediate decrease in national productivity. By investigating in a more rigorous fashion the hypothesis that the environment triggers these permanent economic changes, our work has

  2. Economic instruments for environmental protection: Can we trust the 'magic carpet'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Huitema, D.

    1999-01-01

    Economic instruments appear at first to be a promising alternative to regulations as instruments of environmental policy. Because they put market forces to work for the goal of a sustainable society, they are often portrayed as achieving goals at much lower costs. In this sense, economic instruments

  3. Economic instruments for environmental protection : Can we trust the "magic carpet"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Hans Th A.; Huitema, Dave

    Economic instruments appear at first to be a promising alternative to regulations as instruments of environmental policy. Because they put market forces to work for the goal of a sustainable society, they are often portrayed as achieving goals at much lower costs. In this sense, economic instruments

  4. Methodologies for environmental, micro- and macro-economic evaluation of bioenergy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van

    2006-01-01

    An overview is given of methodologies used for evaluation of bioenergy systems on envoronmental, micro- and macro-economic spects. To evaluate micro-economic impacts net present value and annualised cost calculation are used. For environmental impacts, methods used are: qualitative studies, energy

  5. Exploring variation in economic, environmental and societal performance among Dutch fattening pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolman, M.A.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable production of pork requires farms that are economically viable, ecologically sound and socially acceptable, both now and in the future. Promising mitigation options to improve the integrated sustainability of a pig farm can be deduced from variation in their economic, environmental and

  6. Imagined Transcultural Histories and Geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Winter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world, an assumption prevails that the nation has somehow lost its power to regulate our lives, being undermined by other forces, either top-down through the impact of global capitalism or bottom-up through migrations, transnational religious, ethnic or social movement communities or other transversal politics. A related idea is that ‘culture’ is now irrevocably hybridised and border-zoned, that we no longer live in a world of discrete, located, identifiable and historically grounded cultures but in some unstable and for-the-moment insterstitiality, a sort of cultural interlanguage that sits outside well-mapped structures of power. Yet, just as the nation and the boundaries it sets around culture are being conceptually chased from our maps of the world, they come galloping back to reassert themselves. They do so politically, economically, legally, symbolically. Amidst all the noise of our transnationalisms, hybridities and interstitialities, the idea of what it is to be ‘Australian’ or ‘French’ or ‘Filipino’ or ‘Asian’ reaffirms itself, in mental geographies and constructed histories, as our ‘imagined community’ (to use Benedict Anderson’s famous term [Anderson 1983], or indeed, ‘imagined Other’, even if it is an imagined ‘Other’ that we would somehow wish to incorporate into our newly hybridised Self. Using the notion of transcultural mappings, the articles in this special issue investigate this apparent paradox. They look at how the Self and Other have been mapped through imagined links between geography, history and cultural location. They interrogate the tension between the persistence of mappings of the world based on discrete national or cultural identities on one hand, and, on the other hand, the push to move beyond these carefully guarded borders and problematise precise notions of identity and belonging.

  7. GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT to study geography: the homepage and reflections from the users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajtok-Tari, I.

    2009-04-01

    answers to the question, how the active teachers use the homepage, 98 % collect illustrations for the lessons, 71 % obtain new professional information from there, and 47 % of them enjoy the games on geography. The median of their age is ca. 36 years. The College students were asked about the competences being developed by using the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT. The most frequently mentioned competences as successfully developed by the aid were (i) ability to visualise (i.e. to memorise and to reconstruct) the pieces of knowledge, (ii) ability to reconstruct the patterns in space (based on their 2D images), (iii) ability to explain the matters (images and documents) in their own words and (iv) ability to work in cooperation with each-other, thanks to the commonly elaborated tasks in the classroom. The nEtQUIPMENT is designated not only for geography. Having retained the structure of the above specified homepage for geography, there are other homepages in preparation, too. They are environmental sciences, chemistry, physics, mathematics, informatics, biology and sport, again for teachers and pupils of the above listed phenomena. In case of hands-on possibilities during the session, these branches of the homepage were also be introduced.

  8. Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this issue of Portal is to reach across the methodological boundaries of history, politics, literature and geography to apply their complementary perspectives to the study of identity and its relation to space and place, an aim that involves attempting to identify the many different ways the notoriously slippery concepts of identity and geography may intersect. For this issue we have selected articles that cast a fresh perspective on two areas where identity and geography intersect: the construction of identity through the imaginative recreation of place in literature: Mapping Literary Spaces; and the study of the shifting relationships of centre and periphery, exclusion and inclusion in urban settings and geopolitical confrontations: Social and Political Peripheries. Gerard Toal has written that geography is not a noun but a verb: it does not describe what space is but studies what we do with space, imaginatively and politically. The articles in this issue illustrate the exercise of the literary and political imagination and the role of materiality and memory in the creation of geographic representation. They show too a new awareness of the centrality of space in the constitution of identities, and the need for a new geocritical reading of its discourse, as the interrelations of place and community are played out on the many scales of social and political life, from the local to the global.   The special issue is organised thus: Introduction Matthew Graves (Aix-Marseille University & Liz Rechniewski (Sydney University: “Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities.” I. Mapping Literary Spaces - Isabelle Avila (University of Paris XIII, "Les Cartes de l'Afrique au XIXe siècle et Joseph Conrad : Perceptions d'une Révolution Cartographique." - Daniela Rogobete (University of Craiova, "Global vs Glocal: Dimensions of the post-1981 Indian English Novel." II. Social and Political Peripheries - Elizabeth Rechniewski (Sydney

  9. Geography 2050, November 19, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-04

    16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: On November 19, 2014, the American Geographical Society hosted Geography 2050, a high?level symposium including top...UU UU UU UU 04-02-2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Geography 2050, November 19, 2014 The views, opinions and/or findings...ABOVE ADDRESS. University of Kansas 2385 Irving Hill Road Lawrence, KS 66044 -7552 ABSTRACT Geography 2050, November 19, 2014 Report Title On November

  10. Economic and environmental impacts of a hypothetical global GMO ban

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, Harrison H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on...

  11. Biomass feedstock production systems: economic and environmental benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; John A. Stanturf

    2006-01-01

    The time is ripe for expanding bioenergy production capacity and developing a bio-based economy. Modern society has created unprecedented demands for energy and chemical products that are predominately based on geologic sources. However, there is a growing consensus that constraints on the supply of petroleum and the negative environmental consequences of burning...

  12. Environmental policy in (former) centrally planned economics. A Polish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.; Sleszynski, J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to identify the general causes of poor environmental performance of the European non-market economies and to discuss ways of its improvement. Poland's experiences are emphasized although most conclusions apply to any centrally planned economy. Former centrally planned economies constitute extremely non-homogeneous group and include Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Eastern part of Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Soviet Union. Moreover, the description 'former' in many cases appears still a wishful thinking only of the authors. The authors argue that the failure can not be explained in terms of system inefficiency exclusively. In addition to resource administrative allocation effect environmental abuse here has its policy roots as well. Despite their clear ineffectiveness the environmental policy favored emission charges rather than alternative non-financial instruments. There is an obvious tendency to adhere to this approach especially now and to wait until it allegedly produces right results in the new market context. The authors point out that administrative solutions in environmental policy are widely used by the OECD governments and that there is a every reason to use them in the reformed economies of Eastern Europe. This does not exclude an application of taxes or effluent charges. Moreover, this does not preclude developing transferable permits and permit markets wherever appropriate. (au) (14 refs.)

  13. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some are as immediate and visible as backyard livestock waste. Others, like ... Household environmental conditions and disease prevalence in Uganda : the impact of access to safe water and improved sanitation on diarrhea ... Determinants of non-compliance with light attraction regulation among inshore fishers in Ghana.

  14. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  15. Passenger transport in Nigeria: Environmental and economic analysis with policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujba, H.; Mulugetta, Y.; Azapagic, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the life cycle environmental impacts and economic costs of the passenger transport sector in Nigeria for 2003–2030. Four scenarios are considered: business as usual (BAU); increased use of public transport (buses) at the expense of cars (LOWCAR) and motorcycles (LOWMC), respectively; and high economic growth with increased car ownership and decline of public transport (HICAR). The findings show that for the BAU scenario the life cycle environmental impacts double over the period, despite the assumption of increased fuel and vehicle efficiency of 35% over time. The total fuel costs at the sectoral level increase three times, from US$3.4 billion/yr in 2003 to US$9.7 billion in 2030. Increasing the use of buses would reduce the environmental impacts on average by 15–20% compared to BAU; at the same time, the total fuel costs would be 25–30% lower. If the use of cars grows much faster due to a high economic growth as in HICAR, the environmental impacts and fuel costs would increase by 16% and 26%, respectively. These results demonstrate clearly that future transport policy in Nigeria should promote and incentivise public (bus) transport as a much more environmentally and economically sustainable option than transport by cars and motorcycles. - Highlights: ► The life cycle environmental impacts of passenger transport in Nigeria estimated for 2003–2030. ► The tradeoffs between economic costs and environmental impacts discussed. ► Scenarios considered: business as usual; sustainable transport; high economic growth. ► Public transport is more sustainable than transport by cars and motorcycles. ► Ending gas flaring would improve substantially environmental, economic and social impacts

  16. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

  17. Social and Economic Influences in Curriculum Change in Japan: Case History of Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Yasuo

    1981-01-01

    Surveys social, economic and environmental characteristics of Japan in the 1960s and 1970s and describes their influence on curriculum changes in secondary science education. Discusses Japanese attitudes towards nature as a foundation for environmental education, the impact of western culture on this attitude, and the future of environmental…

  18. Economic evaluation of technical, environmental and institutional barriers on biomass residue collection cost in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, P.; Tiangco, V.; Dee, V.; Simons, G.; Lee, Y.; Yomogida, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic impacts of the technical, environmental, and institutional barriers in the production, harvesting, and processing of various biomass fuels in California. For each biomass fuel, a base case scenario was developed to characterize the procedures of harvesting, processing and transporting. An economic model was utilized to project the biomass production costs supplied to direct-combustion power plants for each technical, environmental, and institutional barrier. These results will enable the California Energy Commission to identify the most significant barriers to economical biomass energy production (production, harvesting, and processing). (author)

  19. Contemporary trends in improvement of organizational-economic mechanism of environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, T. V.; Mikhailov, V. G.; Mikhailov, G. S.

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with the effective functioning of ecological and economic systems of various levels on the basis of an adequate organizational and economic management mechanism. The compliance matrix of the presented innovative elements in the structure of organizational and economic mechanism of environmental management is developed. The practical component of the conducted study can be recommended to municipal, regional and federal authorities, as well as industrial enterprises, to support effective, environmentally reasonable management decisions that are consistent with the global concept of sustainable development.

  20. How to reconcile environmental and economic performance to improve corporate sustainability: corporate environmental strategies in the European paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Marcus

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between environmental and economic performance and the influence of corporate strategies with regard to sustainability and the environment. After formulating a theoretical model, results are reported from an empirical analysis of the European paper manufacturing industry. New data are used to test hypotheses derived from the theoretical model, using environmental performance indices representing different corporate environmental strategy orientations. In particular, an emissions-based index largely reflecting end-of-pipe strategies and an inputs-based index reflecting integrated pollution prevention are distinguished. For the emissions-based index, a predominantly negative relationship between environmental and economic performance is found, whereas for the inputs-based index no significant link is found. This is consistent with the theoretical model, which predicts the possibility of different relationships. The results also show that for firms with pollution prevention-oriented corporate environmental strategies, the relationship between environmental and economic performance is more positive, thus making improvements in corporate sustainability more likely. Based on this last insight, managerial implications of this are discussed with regard to strategy choices, investment decisions and operations management.

  1. Economic and environmental balancing in response to NEPA for electric power generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of principles that can provide guidance in responding to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in the planning of electric power generating plants. The environmental assessment procedure described is initiated by considering alternative decisions in concern for environmental assessment. Having defined the decision paths, the assessment proceeds in a four-phase sequence: Correlation of the alternatives with resource and marketing restraints; screening the alternatives for environmental adequacy and specifying the needed technological refinement; examination of the economics in terms of energy costs; comparing the energy cost with the environmental index and selecting the combination that best reflects the current social preference. (Auth.)

  2. Economic and environmental balancing in response to NEPA for electric power generating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M [Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. (USA)

    1976-03-01

    A discussion is given of principles that can provide guidance in responding to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in the planning of electric power generating plants. The environmental assessment procedure described is initiated by considering alternative decisions in concern for environmental assessment. Having defined the decision paths, the assessment proceeds in a four-phase sequence: correlation of the alternatives with resource and marketing restraints; screening the alternatives for environmental adequacy and specifying the needed technological refinement; examination of the economics in terms of energy costs; comparing the energy cost with the environmental index and selecting the combination that best reflects the current social preference.

  3. [Adaptability assessment of economic and environmental development of Tangshan, Hebei, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui-Ling; Zhu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Qiu-Luan

    2014-10-01

    It is vital to explore whether the economic system adapts to the environmental system as the relationship between economy and environment becomes a gradually concerned problem. Tangshan, a typical resource-based city, was chosen to study the adaptabilities and performances of economic developments in response to environmental changes from 1992 to 2011. It was found that the economic-environmental adaptation curve of Tangshan City had an overall fluctuating and increasing tendency. The systematic adaptability kept advancing, reflecting Tangshan paid much attention to environmental development in addition to economic performances, and the two aspects became more and more coordinated. Filtering analysis of the adaptive curve with Eviews software revealed that the potential systematic coordinating index was rising continuously, however, the sum of resilience gap for 20 years was still negative, which implied that fundamental contradictions between high economic development and high energy consumption and high pollutant emission still existed. Carrying out adaptive researches not only helps people to adapt to climate changes better, but also has significances for economic and environmental coordination and sustainability research.

  4. Corporate Initiatives and Strategies to Meet the Environmental Challenges – Contributions Towards a Green Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ogrean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize, based on an interdisciplinary and multi-level approach, on the actual and potential contributions of businesses towards a green economic development - through the positive integration of the environmental challenges within their initiatives and strategies. The main objectives that the paper will target in order to accomplish this mission are: (1. to outline the general framework of the green economic development; (2. to identify the specific environmental challenges businesses could and have to address in order to support the green economic development; (3. to analyze particular initiatives and strategies which have been successfully developed by companies aiming at internalizing the environmental imperative - and to argue in favor of a new business model, able to end, through the green economic development, a virtuous circle of co-evolution between businesses and the environment.

  5. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 2, 4 were inputted to INIS. They deal with nuclear fusion as a potential energy source, with environmental aspects of disposal of ashes from power plants in the Czech Republic, and with land reclamation after mining activities. (Z.S.)

  6. Economic consequences of the German environmental liability act: Capital market response for the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsch, Elga

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Liability Act (Umwelthaftungsgesetz) enacted January 1, 1991 is claimed to have substantially tightened the environmental liability regime in Germany. The economic consequences of the amendment of the German environmental liability legislation initiated by the Sandoz accident are investigated for a portfolio of firms in the chemical industry. By means of an event study it is determined whether the UmweltHG has led to a revision of expectations regarding the profitability of ...

  7. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 1, 2 were inputted to INIS. They deal with models of radionuclide transport in food chains and the use of aerial monitoring in the study of environmental contamination. (Z.S.)

  8. Economic evaluation of environmental impacts of open cast mining project - an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.K.; Pathak, K.

    1998-01-01

    Economic valuation of environmental attributes are pragmatic approach to evaluating the impacts and it helps decision makers to arrive at objective decisions on the basis of cost benefit ratio. For determining the physical impact and its quantification, four evaluation methods, namely-market price method, surrogate market price, survey based and cost based approaches are generally used. The present paper reviews the importance of environmental evaluation of impacts of mining and also reviews a few suitable methodologies that could be effectively used for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in open cast mining projects. (author)

  9. Effect of economic growth and environmental quality on tourism in Southeast Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah

    2017-02-01

    The tourism is an important sector in generating income for a country, nevertheless, tourism is sensitive toward the changes in economy, as well as changes in environmental quality. By employing econometric models of error correction on annual data, this study examines the influence of environmental quality, domestic and global economic growth on foreign tourist arrivals in selected Southeast Asian countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Singapore. The findings of this study showed that all of countries long run model were proved statistically, indicated that world economic growth as well as environmental quality affect foreign tourism arrivals.

  10. Input-output model of regional environmental and economic impacts of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.H.; Bennett, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    The costs of delayed licensing of nuclear power plants calls for a more-comprehensive method of quantifying the economic and environmental impacts on a region. A traditional input-output (I-O) analysis approach is extended to assess the effects of changes in output, income, employment, pollution, water consumption, and the costs and revenues of local government disaggregated among 23 industry sectors during the construction and operating phases. Unlike earlier studies, this model uses nonlinear environmental interactions and specifies environmental feedbacks to the economic sector. 20 references

  11. Environmental, health and economic conditions perceived by 50 rural communities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Moji, Kazuhiko; Karim, Enamul; Yoshinaga, Mari

    2002-12-01

    For randomly selected 50 villages in Bangladesh, an interview survey with a structured questionnaire was conducted to reveal their perception on the environmental, health and economic conditions at present and for the past 10-year change. The eight following items were analyzed in this paper: air pollution and water pollution, which represent environmental conditions with close relation to health conditions, soil degradation and deforestation, which represent environmental conditions with close relation to economic conditions, epidemic diseases and malnutrition, which represent health conditions, and poverty and jobless, which represent economic conditions. Among the 50 villages, deforestation was most frequently perceived serious at present and worsened in the past 10 years. Of the remaining seven items, those related to economic conditions were more seriously perceived than those related to health and environmental conditions. As revealed by the cluster analysis for the inter-item relations, epidemic diseases, which formed the same cluster with the environmental items, were recognized less serious whereas malnutrition, which formed the same cluster with the economic items, was recognized more serious. These findings are useful not only for rural development programs but also for mitigation programs toward health and environmental hazards in Bangladesh.

  12. Aesthetics in Geography: Ideas for Teaching Geography Using Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how poetry can be used for teaching geography. The rational for using and writing poetry, its relationship to the National Standards for Geography, grade levels, pedagogical concerns associated with poetry writing, and subject integration are discussed. There are also classroom activities, sample discussion questions, lesson…

  13. Economic and environmental impacts of community-based residential building energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Morrison, Drew; Hallinan, Kevin P.; Brecha, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input–output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can be estimated for various conservation measures. A ‘worst to first’ (WF) energy efficient investment strategy is adopted to optimize the level of various direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts on the local community. This evaluation helps to illumine opportunities to establish specific energy reduction targets having greatest economic impact in the community. From an environmental perspective, short term economy-wide CO 2 emissions increase because of the increased community-wide economic activities spurred by the production and installation of energy efficiency measures, however the resulting energy savings provide continuous CO 2 reduction for various target savings. - Highlights: • WF energy efficient strategy helps to optimize various level of economic impacts. • Greatest community benefits are achieved from specific energy reduction targets. • Community-wide economic impacts vary for different energy conservation measures

  14. The Production, Dissemination, and Assimilation of Information Contained in Journal Articles in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    This study focuses on the production, dissemination, and assimilation of material published in the major journals on geography. The "core" journals selected for the study were: "Economic Geography,""Geographical Review,""Annals of AAG" and "Professional Geographer." The tangential journal included…

  15. Unveiling the geography of historical patents in the United States from 1836 to 1975

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petralia, Sergio; Balland, Pierre-Alexandre; Rigby, David L

    2016-01-01

    It is clear that technology is a key driver of economic growth. Much less clear is where new technologies are produced and how the geography of U.S. invention has changed over the last two hundred years. Patent data report the geography, history, and technological characteristics of invention.

  16. Lifestyle and Landscapes: The Element of Culture in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Addressing the study of man/land relationships, this article discusses the following: cultural geography, environmental determinism (a la Friedrich Ratzel), "possibilism" (a la Paul Vidal de la Balche), cultural landscapes (a distinction is made between cultural and natural landscapes), and environmental perception. (JC)

  17. Sources of information on medical geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, L S

    1966-07-01

    Adequate research in the peripheral field of medical geography requires familiarity with the literature of medicine, geography, and other environmentally oriented fields. The pertinent literature of the two primary disciplines, as well as that of anthropology, nutrition, and human bioclimatology, is surveyed from a bibliographical point of view. A brief review of historical sources is presented, followed by a discussion of the contemporary organizations, both international and national, active in the field. Emphasis is placed on the publishing programs and projects, maps, atlases, symposia, reports, and other literature sponsored or stimulated by these organizations. Regional bibliographical surveys for East Africa, India, and the Soviet Union are also noted. Pertinent aspects of bibliographies, indexes, abstracts, library card catalogs and accession lists, and other resources are listed, with emphasis on the various subject headings and other approaches to them. Throughout, the sources of information are approached from a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary viewpoint.

  18. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  19. State environmental regulation and economic development: Are they compatible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.

    1992-01-01

    An underlying assumption of the partial preemption approach is the belief that minimum federal standards contribute to the prospective decentralization of environmental protection programs by removing or reducing industry incentives to shop around for states with a more lenient regulatory stance. This assumption was examined through a survey of chiev executive officers of pollution-generating firms. The data suggest that corporate officials see regulatory climate as an important component of overhead costs. The author concludes that the desire to retain industries within state boundaries does inhibit the promulgation of strict environment regulations by public officials. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Italian information geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paradiso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A range of papers focusing on Italian cases of ICTs use and changes in society are presented here in this NETCOM issue. A national research group on Geography of Information Society was founded in 2007 and hosted by the Italian Geographical Society later evolved in a specialty group within AgeI, the Association of Italian Geographers. This issue brings together papers from members of the Italian specialty group along the general theme of Internet mediation in everyday life. A pre...

  1. Reasoning about geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, A; Brown, N R

    2000-06-01

    To understand the nature and etiology of biases in geographical judgments, the authors asked people to estimate latitudes (Experiments 1 and 2) and longitudes (Experiments 3 and 4) of cities throughout the Old and New Worlds. They also examined how people's biased geographical judgments change after they receive accurate information ("seeds") about actual locations. Location profiles constructed from the pre- and postseeding location estimates conveyed detailed information about the representations underlying geography knowledge, including the subjective positioning and subregionalization of regions within continents; differential seeding effects revealed between-region dependencies. The findings implicate an important role for conceptual knowledge and plausible-reasoning processes in tasks that use subjective geographical information.

  2. Educational Geographers and Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of applied geography programs and restructuring of curricula with an emphasis on new technique and methodology courses, though retaining the liberal arts role. Educational geographers can help the programs to succeed through curriculum analysis, auditing, advising students, and liaison with other geography sources. (CK)

  3. Environmental and economic benefits of the recovery of materials in a municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; Ferrara, Carmen; Finelli, Alessio; Grosso, Alberto

    2017-12-07

    The main aim of this study was to perform a Life cycle assessment study as well as an economic evaluation of the recovery of recyclable materials in a municipal solid waste management system. If citizens separate erroneously waste fractions, they produce both environmental and economic damages. The environmental and economic evaluation was performed for the case study of Nola (34.349 inhabitants) in Southern Italy, with a kerbside system that assured a source separation of 62% in 2014. The economic analysis provided a quantification of the economic benefits obtainable for the population in function of the achievable percentage of source separation. The comparison among the environmental performance of four considered scenarios showed that the higher the level of source separation was, the lower the overall impacts were. This occurred because, even if the impacts of the waste collection and transport increased, they were overcome by the avoided impacts of the recycling processes. Increasing the source separation by 1% could avoid the emission of 5 kg CO 2 eq. and 5 g PM10 for each single citizen. The economic and environmental indicators defined in this study provide simple and effective information useful for a wide-ranging audience in a behavioural change programme perspective.

  4. The impact of the economic downturn on environmental health services and professionals in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-Cox, Paula

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the authors' study was to examine the impact of the economic recession on the environmental health profession between budget year (BY) 2006-2007 and BY 2010-2011 in the following areas: (1) environmental health department fees for services; (2) changes in staffing levels, benefits, or pay; (3) changes in staff responsibilities; and (4) the impact to the private environmental sector compared to public environmental health professionals. Data were summarized from the following surveys: North Carolina Environmental Health Supervisors Association Fee and Economic Surveys; University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Government Current Salary Index; and a created online survey of private-sector environmental professionals. Total fees in the public sector for services have risen for most environmental health departments, but not enough to offset budget reductions. All of the counties that participated in the survey either have reduced staff, pay, or benefits due to budget cuts, and some counties utilized staff in other areas through cross-training. The private environmental sector also reduced staff in response to a reduced workload. Public sector employers may have difficulties retaining existing employees and recruiting new employees over the long-term in the current economic climate.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL INNOVATIVE BUSINESS SOLUTIONS AS A STRATEGIC FACTOR OF ECONOMIC SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Senin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this work lies in the fact that it attempts to disclose the key theoretical and practical issues of economic security solutions, taking into account the problems of global transformations taking place in the global economy. As part of the article we have been studied various aspects that characterize global economic, environmental trends that will shape the future of modern civilization. The article also addresses the problem of exit from the raw model of the economy, the formation of economic mechanisms that take into account environmental costs, proposed internalization of environmental externalities.The purpose/goal. The purpose of this article and its main task is to systematize the areas of environmentally oriented development of economic entities, as well as the determination of the list of key provisions of environmental policies, which will ensure the further socio-economic development of Russia in line with the green economy.Methods. In this article, based on content analysis of theoretical and empirical basic conceptual provisions of economic security were formulated in the context of eco-oriented production, the transition to which world civilization is currently implementing. It was concluded that the economic, energy, environmental and social issues of sustainable development of modern civilization is directly linked, so the transition to ecooriented production is possible, firstly, it provided aggressive reduction of production and wasteful use of traditional hydrocarbon resources, and, secondly, on the condition of rational replacement of traditional energy sources with renewable energy.Results. This article outlines the basic solutions that can be used to provide environmentally responsible operation and development of Russian business and corporate structures. Also offered in the basic decisions that are to be included in the national environmental policy as a major incentive for the further transition to a

  6. Ownership structure and economic and socio-environmental disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aquino Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The disclosure of sustainable practices has become important in the search for competitive advantage, so as to meet the expectations of the various stakeholders. Thus, the study aims to investigate the relationship between the ownership structure and the economic and environmental voluntary disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies, analyzing ownership concentration and the identity of the controlling shareholder. For the analysis, we considered the economic, social and environmental perspectives, addressed both individually and jointly. The sample consists of 47 companies from the 100 largest public companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, according to the magazine Exame Biggest and Best, edition 2013. The research is descriptive and quantitative, using Multiple Linear Regression for statistical analysis. The descriptive analysis of the prospects of (economic, social, environmental and sustainability disclosure showed lower average disclosure for the environmental aspect. The state control organizations stood out with the highest average in three of the four levels of disclosure: economic, social and sustainability. As regards the application of statistical analysis, the regression models were not statistically significant, indicating that, for the companies in the sample, the ownership structure does not influence the economic and socio-environmental disclosure.

  7. Ranking of biomass pellets by integration of economic, environmental and technical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, Arifa; Kumar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Interest in biomass as a renewable energy source has increased recently in response to a need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this study is to develop a multi-criteria assessment model and rank different biomass feedstock-based pellets, in terms of their suitability for use in large heat and power generation plants and show the importance of environmental, economical and technical factors in making decision about different pellets. Five pellet alternatives, each produced from a different sustainable biomass feedstock i.e., wood, straw, switchgrass, alfalfa and poultry litter, are ranked according to eleven criteria, using the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluation (PROMETHEE). Both quantitative and qualitative criteria are considered, including environmental, technical and economic factors. Three scenarios, namely base case, environmental and economic, are developed by changing the weight assigned to different criteria. In the base case scenario, equal weights are assigned to each criterion. In the economic and environmental scenarios, more weight is given to the economic and environmental factors, respectively. Based on the PROMETHEE rankings, wood pellets are the best source of energy for all scenarios followed by switchgrass, straw, poultry litter and alfalfa pellets except economic scenario, where straw pellets held higher position than switchgrass pellets. Sensitivity analysis on weights, threshold values, preference function and production cost indicate that the ranking was stable. The ranking in all scenarios remained same when qualitative criteria were omitted from the model; this indicates the stronger influence of quantitative criteria. -- Highlights: ► This study ranks the pellets produced from different biomass feedstocks. ► The ranking of the pellets is based on technical, economical and environmental factors. ► This study uses PROMETHEE method for ranking pellets based on a range of

  8. Economic and environmental evaluation of compressed-air cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, Felix; Kammen, Daniel M; Papson, Andrew; Schipper, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and energy security require a reduction in travel demand, a modal shift, and technological innovation in the transport sector. Through a series of press releases and demonstrations, a car using energy stored in compressed air produced by a compressor has been suggested as an environmentally friendly vehicle of the future. We analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of a compressed-air car powered by a pneumatic engine and consider the merits of compressed air versus chemical storage of potential energy. Even under highly optimistic assumptions the compressed-air car is significantly less efficient than a battery electric vehicle and produces more greenhouse gas emissions than a conventional gas-powered car with a coal intensive power mix. However, a pneumatic-combustion hybrid is technologically feasible, inexpensive and could eventually compete with hybrid electric vehicles.

  9. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem...... from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis...... Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999....

  10. Essays on environmental, energy, and natural resource economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan

    My dissertation focuses on examining the interrelationship among the environment, energy and economic development. In the first essay, I explore the effects of increased uncertainty over future output prices, input costs and productivity levels on intertemporal emission permits trading. In a dynamic programming setting, a permit price is a convex function of each of these three sources of uncertainty. Increased uncertainty about future market conditions increases the expected permit price and causes risk-neutral firms to reduce ex ante emissions to smooth marginal abatement costs over time. Empirical analysis shows that increased price volatility induced by electricity market restructuring could explain 8-11% of the allowances banked during Phase I of the U.S. sulfur dioxide trading program. Numerical simulation suggests that high uncertainty may generate substantial initial compliance costs, thereby deterring new entrants and reducing efficiency; sharp emission spikes are also more likely to occur under industry-wide uncertainty shocks. In the second essay, I examine whether electricity restructuring improves the efficiency of U.S. nuclear power generation. Based on the full sample of 73 investor-owned nuclear plants in the United States from 1992 to 1998, I estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal efficiency changes associated with restructuring, at the plant level. Various modeling strategies are presented to deal with the policy endogeneity bias that high cost plants are more likely to be restructured. Overall, I find a strikingly positive relationship between the multiple steps of restructuring and plant operating efficiency. In the third essay, I estimate the economic impact of China's national land conversion program on local farm-dependent economies. The impact of the program on 14 industrial sectors in Gansu provinces are investigated using an input-output model. Due to regulatory restrictions, the agricultural sector cannot automatically expand or shrink

  11. Crisis and Geography : Some Observations on Peripheral Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Alper Arısoy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With a focus on the role of geographical factors in economic performance, the main research question of this study is as follows: given that the ongoing crisis in Europe in general and within the Eurozone in particular is felt much strongly in peripheral areas, how and to what extent might geography be relevant to this process? The answer to this question will be searched through historical-comparative approach, focusing on the turning points in the evolution of Europe's economic and political geography, with particular regard to the key concepts such as "core-periphery dichotomy", "centres of gravity" and "isolation". Departing from these concepts, it will be argued that the structural factors, which contribute to the high vulnerability of certain countries towards crisis, are essentially geographical. However, the role of geography and the patterns of peripherality differ from one country to another, as will be demonstrated by means of a particular focus on the case of Greece.

  12. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation: Evidence from BRIC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: artur.tamazian@usc.es; Chousa, Juan Pineiro [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: efjpch@usc.es; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: kc_dcm@yahoo.co.in

    2009-01-15

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO{sub 2} reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings.

  13. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation. Evidence from BRIC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur; Chousa, Juan Pineiro; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya [Department of Financial Economics and Accounting, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO{sub 2} reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings. (author)

  14. Does higher economic and financial development lead to environmental degradation. Evidence from BRIC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamazian, Artur; Chousa, Juan Pineiro; Vadlamannati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2009-01-01

    A vast number of studies addressed the environmental degradation and economic development but not financial development. Moreover, as argued by Stern [2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32, 1419-1439] they present important econometric weaknesses. Using standard reduced-form modeling approach and controlling for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity, we investigate the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also the financial development. Panel data over period 1992-2004 is used. We find that both economic and financial development are determinants of the environmental quality in BRIC economies. We show that higher degree of economic and financial development decreases the environmental degradation. Our analysis suggests that financial liberalization and openness are essential factors for the CO 2 reduction. The adoption of policies directed to financial openness and liberalization to attract higher levels of R and D-related foreign direct investment might reduce the environmental degradation in countries under consideration. In addition, the robustness check trough the inclusion of US and Japan does not alter our main findings. (author)

  15. Recycling and Disposal of Lithium Battery: Economic and Environmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataur Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of Lithium-ion battery technology for Electric Vehicle/Hybrid electric vehicle has received attention worldwide recently. The price of cobalt (Co and lithium (Li has increased due to the production of EV/HEV.  The used lithium battery is the valuable source of active metals (Co, Li, and Al and the optimal way of extract these metals from this waste is still studied. The focus of this paper is to recovering active metals by using a hydro-metallurgical method in laboratory scale with 48.8 Wh battery to reveal the economic and environment benefits. Calcination on extracted active metals as pre-thermal treatment has been conducted at 700°C to remove the organic compounds from the surface of active metals. The experiment has been conducted and the result shows that the recovery of active metals (cathode is 41% of cell cathode and an anode is 8.5% of the cell anode materials, which are 48.8% and 23.4% of the cathode and anode cell material price, respectively. By recycling the battery active metals about 47.34%, the emission can be reduced by 47.61% for battery metal production and 60.7% for transportation of used battery disposal. The total emission can be controlled about 52.85% by recycling the active metals on battery production.

  16. Technological, Economic, and Environmental Optimization of Aluminum Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin

    2013-08-01

    The four strategic directions (referring to the entire life cycle of aluminum) are as follows: production, primary use, recycling, and reuse. Thus, in this work, the following are analyzed and optimized: reducing greenhouse gas emissions from aluminum production, increasing energy efficiency in aluminum production, maximizing used-product collection, recycling, and reusing. According to the energetic balance at the gaseous environment level, the conductive transfer model is also analyzed through the finished elements method. Several principles of modeling and optimization are presented and analyzed: the principle of analogy, the principle of concepts, and the principle of hierarchization. Based on these principles, an original diagram model is designed together with the corresponding logic diagram. This article also presents and analyzes the main benefits of aluminum recycling and reuse. Recycling and reuse of aluminum have the main advantage that it requires only about 5% of energy consumed to produce it from bauxite. The aluminum recycling and production process causes the emission of pollutants such as dioxides and furans, hydrogen chloride, and particulate matter. To control these emissions, aluminum recyclers are required to comply with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production. The results of technological, economic, and ecological optimization of aluminum recycling are based on the criteria function's evaluation in the modeling system.

  17. Environmental and economic report 2011. Data and facts for Germany; Umweltwirtschaftsbericht 2011. Daten und Fakten fuer Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The environmental and economic report 2011 published by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) and Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the economic factor environmental protection, sustainable economic management, green future markets as well as on resource conservation.

  18. The Use of Planning in English and German (NRW) Geography School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Veit; Budke, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Although it is not possible to predict the future, at least some ideas can be developed through planning. Geography focuses on current social, environmental and spatial problems; however, it should, at the same time, teach us to plan its future handling. At school, this is a responsible role for the subject geography. This article compares how…

  19. Biomass power production in Amazonia: Environmentally sound, economically productive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.B. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC (United States); Hollomon, J.B. [Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    With the support of the US Agency for International Development, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) is assisting their utility counterparts in Bolivia to improve electric service in the country`s rural population. In remote areas, the cost of extending transmission lines to small communities is prohibitive, and diesel generators represent an expensive alternative, especially for baseload power. This has led to serious consideration of electric generating systems using locally available renewable resources, including biomass, hydro, wind, and solar energy. A project has recently been initiated in Riberalta, in the Amazonian region of Bolivia, to convert waste Brazil nut shells and sawmill residues to electricity. Working in tandem with diesel generators, the biomass-fired plant will produce base-load power in an integrated system that will be able to provide reliable and affordable electricity to the city. The project will allow the local rural electric cooperative to lower the price of electricity by nearly forty percent, enable the local Brazil nut industry to increase its level of mechanization, and reduce the environmental impacts of dumping waste shells around the city and in an adjacent river. The project is representative of others that will be funded in the future by NRECA/AID.

  20. The economic valuation of environmental quality: A methodological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Yucsheng.

    1991-01-01

    Conducted in the context of sportfishing, this study uses Michigan data to estimate fishing demand and resulting consumer surplus accruing from environmental-policy implementation. For the modeling of fish-species and site decisions, a nested multinomial logit model is employed. On a pre-determined choice occasion during which a trip of a specific duration will be taken, an angler is assumed first to make a fish-species decision, then choose a site. The seasonal-participation decision is modeled by a competing-risks stochastic renewal process, incorporating time-varying parameters to account for changes in site quality through time. Since the number of trips would most likely change after a potential site-quality improvement, the proposed seasonal compensating variation (CV) calculation takes into account (1) the CV associated with the trips that would have been taken before the quality improvement, and (2) the CV associated with the new trips. The approach proposed in this study is applied to two real world policy scenarios: The termination of the Ludington Pumped Storage plant operation, and the removal of PCB contamination in the Kalamazoo River. The compensating variation is derived for both applications

  1. Borrowing green. Economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We analyze the effect on tax income, economic growth, employment, as well as on the emission of a number of gases and on solid waste production. We find that the economic effects in general are positive. This policy instrument increases growth, employment, and net tax income. However, the environmental effects are quite mixed. This especially results from the fact that a lot of projects would have been undertaken anyhow. Furthermore, we find that this green fiscal policy instrument is skewed towards energy and building. It appears to neglect environmental problems with consumer households, industry, and transport. 8 refs

  2. Balancing environmental and economic performance in the food-processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Changing customer requirements, unpredictable disturbances combined with expensive production facilities, are major problems for food processing companies to achieve synergy between the economic and environmental performance. There notably is a lack of tools to support decisions to explore effect...... in exploring the effect of uncertainty in demand and production. As a result, process design can be more robust: both economic and environmental. This position paper explores the problem and the main elements of the proposed scenario-based simulation approach.......Changing customer requirements, unpredictable disturbances combined with expensive production facilities, are major problems for food processing companies to achieve synergy between the economic and environmental performance. There notably is a lack of tools to support decisions to explore effects...

  3. A flexible environmental reuse/recycle policy based on economic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, C A

    2007-01-01

    Environmental policies based on fixed recycling rates may lead to increased environmental impacts (e.g., landfilled wastes) during economic expansion. A rate policy is proposed, which is adjusted according to the overall strength or weakness of the economy, as reflected by overall packaging demand and consumption, production and imports-exports. During economic expansion featuring rising consumption, production or exports, the proposed flexible policy suggests a higher reuse/recycle rate. During economic slowdown a lower rate results in lower impacts. The flexible target rates are determined in terms of annual data, including consumption, imports-exports and production. Higher environmental gains can be achieved at lower cost if the flexible policy is applied to widely consumed packaging products and materials associated with low rates, or if cleaner recycling technology is adopted.

  4. Social, economic and environmental evaluation of agri-environmental beneficial management practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchen, Amy Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In British Columbia, the Canada-British Columbia Environmental Farm Plan Beneficial Management Practices Program (BMP Program) encourages the adoption of agri-environmental practices on farms. The BMP Program is a voluntary and confidential program, which is jointly funded by the BC Ministry of Agriculture and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Since 2005 the BMP Program has provided funding to farmers to adopt agri-environmental Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) and during this time no e...

  5. Environmental and social risk evaluation of overseas investment under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilian; Andam, Francis; Shi, Guoqing

    2017-06-01

    Along with the further implementation of the "One Belt, One Road" initiative and the promotion of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), the construction of the CPEC will likely face challenges owing to differences between China and Pakistan in politics, economics, culture, religion, language, customs, environmental management systems, environmental protection laws, social management systems, and social management regulations. To address potential environmental and social risks associated with Chinese enterprises as they invest in the CPEC region, this paper examines previous studies addressing topics such as the environmental and social safeguards of international institutions and Pakistan's domestic environmental and social management requirements. We then systematically identify the environmental and social risk factors involved in CPEC construction, which cover risks regarding water, air, soil, noise, biodiversity, politics, economics, culture, technology, and individuals. By establishing and calculating these risks and using a multi-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model, we found that noise and individual risks belong to a medium risk category, while others belong to a higher risk category. In view of these risks, the Chinese government must create a friendly and peaceful environment for Chinese enterprises to invest in the CPEC region, and Chinese enterprises must adopt a development strategy of strength and capacity building and establish enterprises capable of addressing environmental and social issues during the investment process. All stakeholders must understand that if no determined and diligent steps are taken, CPEC construction might be doomed for failure from the start.

  6. Techno-economic viability assessments of greener propulsion technology under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalianda, D.K.; Kyprianidis, K.G.; Sethi, V.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced method is presented for techno-economic assessment under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios. • The viability of the contra-rotating open rotor concept is investigated under various environmental policies. • CO_2 taxation is needed to drive the aerospace industry towards greener solutions. - Abstract: Sustainability of the aviation industry, as any other industry, depends on the elasticity of demand for the product and profitability through minimising operating costs. Of paramount importance is assessing and understanding the interdependency and effects of environmentally optimised solutions and emission mitigation policies. This paper describes the development and application of assessment methodologies to better understand the effects of environmental taxation/energy policies aimed at environmental pollution reduction and the future potential economic impact they may have on the adaptation of “greener” novel technologies. These studies are undertaken using a Techno-economic Environmental Risk Assessment approach. The methodology demonstrated allows the assessment of the economic viability of new technologies compared to conventional technologies, for various CO_2 emission taxation and fuel price scenarios. It considers relative increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. A study undertaken as a ‘proof of concept’ compares a Counter Rotating Open Rotor aircraft with a conventional aircraft for short range operations. It indicates that at current fuel price and with no carbon taxation, a highly fuel efficient technology, such as the one considered, could be rendered economically unviable. The work goes on to demonstrate that in comparison to the conventional aircraft, any economic benefits that may be accrued from improvement in fuel consumption through such a technology, may well be negated through increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. The work further demonstrates that if policy

  7. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHANGELSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Shelomentsev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the analysis of a role of process of extraction and processing of the natural resources, mastered in territory of region on socio-economic development of the Arkhangelsk region. Features of dynamics of density of kinds of natural resources on indicators and spheres of influence are revealed. Also in this paper prospect of development and an opportunity of increase of a role of environmental management in socio-economic development of the Arkhangelsk region are considered.

  8. Environmental and economic life cycle analysis of plastic waste management options. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, C. A.; Simões, Carla L.; Pinto, Lígia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, rising worldwide plastic consumption led to the generation of increasing amounts of plastic waste and to the awareness of the importance of its management. In that framework, the present work describes how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and economic assessment methodologies can be used for evaluating environmental and economic impacts of alternative plastic waste management systems. The literature on LCA of plastic waste management systems is vast and the results reported are ge...

  9. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine

    2013-01-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  10. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaianes; Menzel, Francine, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  11. Energetic, exergetic, economic and environmental evaluations of geothermal district heating systems: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keçebaş, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Applying exergy, economic, environment and sustainability analyses to the GDHSs. ► Assessing energy and exergy efficiencies, economic and environmental impacts. ► Calculating the energy and exergy efficiencies of 34.86% and 48.78%, respectively. ► Proposing GDHSs as the most economic heating system. ► Providing a significant contribution towards reducing the emissions of air pollution. - Abstract: This study deals with an energetic and exergetic analysis as well as economic and environmental evaluations of Afyon geothermal district heating system (AGDHS) in Afyon, Turkey. In the analysis, actual system data are used to assess the district heating system performance, energy and exergy efficiencies, specific exergy index, exergetic improvement potential and exergy losses. And, for economic and environmental evaluations, actual data are obtained from the Technical Departments. The energy and exergy flow diagrams are clearly drawn to illustrate how much destructions/losses take place in addition to the inputs and outputs. For system performance analysis and improvement, both energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall AGDHS are determined to be 34.86% and 48.78%, respectively. The efficiency improvements in heat and power systems can help achieving energy security in an environmentally acceptable way by reducing the emissions that might otherwise occur. Present application has shown that in Turkey, geothermal energy is much cheaper than the other energy sources, like fossil fuels, and makes a significant contribution towards reducing the emissions of air pollution.

  12. Solar-Powered Compaction Garbage Bins in Public Areas: A Preliminary Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Duc Nghiem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An excel-based model was developed to evaluate economic and environmental benefits of the solar-powered compaction garbage bins in public areas in Australia. Input data were collected from Brisbane and Wollongong City councils, and Sydney Olympic Park. The results demonstrate that solar-powered compaction garbage bins would provide environmental benefits in all scenarios. However, results of the economic analysis of the three studied areas varied significantly. The unique situation of Sydney Olympic Park made implementation in that facility particularly appealing. A lower monthly rental cost is needed for the implementation of this novel waste management practice.

  13. The Geography of the Knowledge Economy in Denmark:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt, Christine Benna

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge, and its centrality in contemporary economic activities, has been the pivotal focus in academic literature in recent decades. It has been claimed that the contemporary stage of capitalism is one of a knowledge economy characterised by intensive globalisation processes and new...... communication technologies producing new international markets and enhanced competition among economic actors. In this context, it has been argued that the ability continuously to create, aggregate, use and re-use knowledge has become a matter of vital importance for economic development in firms, cities...... and regions. Consequently, debates about the knowledge economy have raised questions about how geography affects processes and practices of knowledge creation. Two main approaches have been particularly influential in economic geography: the first stresses geographical proximity between economic actors...

  14. Environmental and economic evaluation of the Massachusetts Smoke-Free Workplace Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Carpenter, Carrie M; Travers, Mark J; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-08-01

    An environmental and economic evaluation of the smoke-free law in Massachusetts provides a broad appreciation of how a state-wide smoking ban affects the health of patrons and workers as well as the industries that are commonly concerned about the effects of smoking bans on business. The aim of this study is to evaluate environmental and economic effects of the statewide Massachusetts statewide Smoke-Free Workplace Law. Before and after the smoking ban, air quality testing was conducted in a sample (n = 27) of hospitality venues and state-wide economic changes were assessed. Compliance, in terms of patronage was measured by person-counts. Environmental outcomes were respirable suspended particles (RSP) less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5). Economic outcomes were meals tax collections, employment in the food services and drinking places and accommodations industries. On average, levels of respirable suspended particles (RSPs) less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) decreased 93% in these venues after the Massachusetts Smoke-free Workplace Law went into effect. No statistically significant changes were observed among the economic indicators. This evaluation demonstrates that the state-wide Massachusetts law has effectively improved indoor air quality in a sample of Massachusetts venues and has not negatively affected several economic indicators.

  15. Economic compensation standard for irrigation processes to safeguard environmental flows in the Yellow River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Aiping; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng

    2013-03-01

    SummaryAgriculture and ecosystems are increasingly competing for water. We propose an approach to assess the economic compensation standard required to release water from agricultural use to ecosystems while taking into account seasonal variability in river flow. First, we defined agricultural water shortage as the difference in water volume between agricultural demands and actual supply after maintaining environmental flows for ecosystems. Second, we developed a production loss model to establish the relationship between production losses and agricultural water shortages in view of seasonal variation in river discharge. Finally, we estimated the appropriate economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders based on crop prices and production losses. A case study in the Yellow River Estuary, China, demonstrated that relatively stable economic compensation for irrigation processes can be defined based on the developed model, taking into account seasonal variations in river discharge and different levels of environmental flow. Annual economic compensation is not directly related to annual water shortage because of the temporal variability in river flow rate and environmental flow. Crops that have stable planting areas to guarantee food security should be selected as indicator crops in economic compensation assessments in the important grain production zone. Economic compensation may be implemented by creating funds to update water-saving measures in agricultural facilities.

  16. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating demand to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels has been driving widespread attention to renewable fuels, such as biogas. In fact, in the last decade numerous policy guidelines and laws regarding energy, the environment and agriculture have been issued to encourage the use of animal sewage as a raw material for the production of biogas. The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm’s income from traditional sources and helping to reduce the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This paper investigates the trade-off between the environmental and economic benefits of an agro-energy farm in the Umbria region of Italy that employs livestock sewage and manure, dedicated energy crops (corn and triticale silage and olive waste. The environmental analysis was performed using the LCA methodology, while the economic investigation was carried out by reconstructing the economic balance of the agro-energetic supply chain based on the budgets of each activity performed. The LCA results show, on the one hand, the predominant weight of producing dedicated crops compared to all other processes in the supply chain and, on the other hand, a significant reduction in environmental impact compared to that caused by energy production from fossil fuels. Economic analysis revealed that the results depend significantly on what rate per kWh the government incentives guarantee to agricultural producers of renewable energy.

  17. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard; Garnett, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  18. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  19. Environmental regulation of households. An empirical review of economic and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on sustainable consumption and environmental regulation of household behavior is dominated by conceptual and normative approaches. As a result, many suggestions lack a firm empirical basis. To overcome this deficiency, econometric studies in three areas of environmentally relevant activities of households are reviewed: residential use of energy, generation of solid waste and recycling, and residential use of water. Next to price and income elasticities, attention is devoted to individual socio-economic features and psychological factors, such as attitudes, knowledge, perceptions and values. Potential psychological determinants and related insights are further examined by discussing a range of representative and illustrative statistical-psychological studies of environmental behavior. One important general finding is that there are very few empirical studies that systematically combine socio-economic and psychological determinants. A range of insights for environmental policy is derived, and research recommendations are offered. (author)

  20. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND LEGAL ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Hubanova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased danger of environmental crime is primarily determined by an increase in anthropogenic pressure on the natural environment, which, in the conditions of the global environmental crisis, threatens to cause significant, often non-renewable, damage to the vital interests of man, society, and the state. Ukraine belongs to the countries with the worst ecological situation. Pollution of the environment reached unprecedented levels in recent years. The purpose of the study is to reveal the essence and causes of environmental crime in Ukraine, socioeconomic aspects of the identified phenomenon, analyse the impact of negative consequences of environmental crime on the Ukrainian economy, as well as study legal aspects of criminal liability for environmental crimes and international legal standards on the raised issues. The subject of the study is the socio-economic and legal aspects of environmental crime in Ukraine. Methodology. In order to achieve the goal, the authors of the study carried out an analysis of the definition of the system of environmental crimes in the scientific literature, various statistical data on the state of the ecological situation and crime in Ukraine, as well as laws and regulations defining the national environmental policy of Ukraine. As a result of the study, the essence and causes of environmental crime in Ukraine are highlighted, socio-economic aspects of the phenomenon, the impact of negative consequences of environmental crime on the Ukrainian economy, and legal aspects of criminal liability for environmental crimes and international legal standards on the raised issues are revealed. Value/originality. The raised issues repeatedly attracted the attention of many researchers; in the scientific literature, various aspects of environmental crime were given attention in the works of famous scholars in the field of criminal and environmental law, experts in the field of economics of natural resources. However, the

  1. An Analysis of Geography Content in Relation to Geography for Life Standards in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" in the United States (Geography Education Standards Project, 1994), it has been widely used to develop quality curriculum materials for what students should know and able to do in geography. This study compared geography content taught in Omani public schools…

  2. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

  3. [Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants.

  4. Analyze the economic and environmental viability in distributed generation of electric power from renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantim Neto, Humberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper brings a brief of economical and social environmental analysis about distributed electric's energy generation, based on a comparison to centralized generation. The motivation of the proposed analysis has its origin on a reflection about politics and scheming directed to Brazilian's energy sector. This study has renewable energy resources as setting, represented for Belo Monte generation's plant and undertaking registered on the Reservation's Energy Auction 2010. The study took into account economics and technical aspects, whereas the viability analysis was formed from benefits got from different forms of electric's generation. The conclusions of this shows that distributed electric's energy generation may have economics and socio environment benefits over centralized generation. (author)

  5. Environmental-economic benefits and trade-offs on sustainably certified coffee farms

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Jeremy; Soto, Gabriela; Casanoves, Fernando; de Melo Virginio, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Coffee with diverse shade trees is recognized as conserving greater biodiversity than more intensive production methods. Sustainable certification has been proposed as an incentive to conserve shade grown coffee. With 40% of global coffee production certified as sustainable, evidence is needed to demonstrate whether certification supports the environmental benefits of shade coffee. Environmen-tal and economic data were taken from 278 coffee farms in Nicaragua divided between non-certified and...

  6. 21st Century Environmental Challenges: The Need For a New Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Michie, Jonathan; Oughton, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Research on environmental economics and policy has been dominated by neoclassical theory. While there have been advances in this approach, including more sophisticated analysis of imperfect information and time, and the development of endogenous growth theory, neoclassical models contain a number of underlying characteristics that limit their relevance for modelling firm behaviour especially in relation to environmental issues, innovation and change. The limitations spring fundamentally from ...

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  8. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  9. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Oberheitmann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO 2 -emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities

  10. Technology geography: studying the relationships between technology, location and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Operations management, international management, public policy and economic geography are scientific areas which come together in the study of international technology transfer. This study shows how each of these areas has its own central issues but also has specific parts that are relevant for

  11. Technology geography: a new area of scientific inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Operations management, international management, public policy and economic geography are four scientific areas, which come together in the study of international technology transfer. This paper shows how each of these four areas has its own central issues but also have specific parts that are

  12. Rethinking Postgraduate Education in Geography: The Case of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuijn, Joos Droogleever

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses reforms in postgraduate education in geography in the Netherlands in the context of Europeanization and globalization. Europeanization and globalization have resulted in challenges as well as opportunities for students and universities. In terms of internationalization, Europeanization and the global economic crisis have…

  13. Geography From Another Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The GEODESY software program is intended to promote geographical awareness among students with its remote sensing capabilities to observe the Earth's surface from distant vantage points. Students and teachers using GEODESY learn to interpret and analyze geographical data pertaining to the physical attributes of their community. For example, the program provides a digital environment of physical features, such as mountains and bodies of water, as well as man-made features, such as roads and parks, using aerial photography, satellite imagery, and geographic information systems data in accordance with National Geography Standards. The main goal is to have the students and teachers gain a better understanding of the unique forces that drive their coexistence. GEODESY was developed with technical assistance and financial support from Stennis Space Center's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, now known as the Earth Science Applications Directorate.

  14. The assessment of eco-design with a comprehensive index incorporating environmental impact and economic profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Fu, Yun; Wang, Xiuteng; Xu, Bingsheng; Li, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Eco-design is an advanced design approach which plays an important part in the national innovation project and serves as a key point for the successful transformation of the supply structure. However, the practical implementation of the pro-environmental designs and technologies always faces a dilemma situation, where some processes can effectively control their emissions to protect the environment at relatively high costs, while others pursue the individual interest in making profit by ignoring the possible adverse environmental impacts. Thus, the assessment on the eco-design process must be carried out based on the comprehensive consideration of the economic and environmental aspects. Presently, the assessment systems in China are unable to fully reflect the new environmental technologies regarding their innovative features or performance. Most of the assessment systems adopt scoring method based on the judgments of the experts, which are easy to use but somewhat subjective. The assessment method presented in this paper includes the environmental impact (EI) assessment based on LCA principal and willingness-to-pay theory, and economic profit (EP) assessment mainly based on market price. The results from the assessment are in the form of EI/EP, which evaluate the targeted process from a combined perspective of environmental and economic performance. A case study was carried out upon the utilization process of coal fly ash, which indicates the proposed method can compare different technical processes in an effective and objective manner, and provide explicit and insightful suggestions for decision making.

  15. Environmental quality and economic growth: Searching for environmental Kuznets curves for air and water pollutants in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orubu, Christopher O.; Omotor, Douglason G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between per capita income and environmental degradation in Africa, using longitudinal data on suspended particulate matter and organic water pollutants. The specific objective was to estimate environmental Kuznets curves for two indicators of environmental quality and to establish whether the estimated relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. The results of the empirical investigation generally suggest the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. In the case of organic water pollutants, the evidence weighs more in favor of rising pollution as per capita income increases. The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators of environmental quality were however generally low, when compared to evidence from existing studies. On the face value, this suggests that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income, much in line with the emerging idea of a 'revised environmental Kuznets curve'. The results also suggest that economic growth and rising incomes may matter in African countries in order to curb pollution from these pollutants, but more stringent policy measures, particularly at the industrial level would be required to curb environmental degradation from organic water pollutants. - Highlights: → The specific objective was to establish whether the relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. → Evidence suggests the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. → The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators were however generally low. → We conclude that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income.

  16. Environmental quality and economic growth: Searching for environmental Kuznets curves for air and water pollutants in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orubu, Christopher O. [Department of Economics, Delta State University, Abraka (Nigeria); Omotor, Douglason G., E-mail: yomotor@yahoo.com [Department of Economics, Delta State University, Abraka (Nigeria)

    2011-07-15

    This study investigated the relationship between per capita income and environmental degradation in Africa, using longitudinal data on suspended particulate matter and organic water pollutants. The specific objective was to estimate environmental Kuznets curves for two indicators of environmental quality and to establish whether the estimated relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. The results of the empirical investigation generally suggest the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. In the case of organic water pollutants, the evidence weighs more in favor of rising pollution as per capita income increases. The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators of environmental quality were however generally low, when compared to evidence from existing studies. On the face value, this suggests that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income, much in line with the emerging idea of a 'revised environmental Kuznets curve'. The results also suggest that economic growth and rising incomes may matter in African countries in order to curb pollution from these pollutants, but more stringent policy measures, particularly at the industrial level would be required to curb environmental degradation from organic water pollutants. - Highlights: > The specific objective was to establish whether the relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. > Evidence suggests the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. > The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators were however generally low. > We conclude that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income.

  17. Changing Formulations of the Man-Environment Relationship in Anglo-American Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    The following six formulations of the Man-Environment relationship have held successive favor in Geography since the 1900's: Economic Determinism, Possibilism, Cultural Relativism, the Landscape School, Perception of Environment, and Ecological Approach. (JH)

  18. Integrating uncertainties to the combined environmental and economic assessment of algal biorefineries: A Monte Carlo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Paula; Montazeri, Mahdokht; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2018-06-01

    The economic and environmental performance of microalgal processes has been widely analyzed in recent years. However, few studies propose an integrated process-based approach to evaluate economic and environmental indicators simultaneously. Biodiesel is usually the single product and the effect of environmental benefits of co-products obtained in the process is rarely discussed. In addition, there is wide variation of the results due to inherent variability of some parameters as well as different assumptions in the models and limited knowledge about the processes. In this study, two standardized models were combined to provide an integrated simulation tool allowing the simultaneous estimation of economic and environmental indicators from a unique set of input parameters. First, a harmonized scenario was assessed to validate the joint environmental and techno-economic model. The findings were consistent with previous assessments. In a second stage, a Monte Carlo simulation was applied to evaluate the influence of variable and uncertain parameters in the model output, as well as the correlations between the different outputs. The simulation showed a high probability of achieving favorable environmental performance for the evaluated categories and a minimum selling price ranging from $11gal -1 to $106gal -1 . Greenhouse gas emissions and minimum selling price were found to have the strongest positive linear relationship, whereas eutrophication showed weak correlations with the other indicators (namely greenhouse gas emissions, cumulative energy demand and minimum selling price). Process parameters (especially biomass productivity and lipid content) were the main source of variation, whereas uncertainties linked to the characterization methods and economic parameters had limited effect on the results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Geography of Financial Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bumcrot

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how well equipped today’s households are to make complex financial decisions in the face of often high-cost and high-risk financial instruments. Specifically we focus on financial literacy. Most importantly, we describe the geography of financial literacy, i.e., how financial literacy is distributed across the fifty US states. We describe the correlation of financial literacy and some important aggregate variables, such as state-level poverty rates. Finally, we examine the extent to which differences in financial literacy can be explained by states’ demographic and economic characteristics. To assess financial literacy, five questions were added to the 2009 National Financial Capability Study, covering fundamental concepts of economics and finance encountered in everyday life: simple calculations about interest rates and inflation, the workings of risk diversification, the relationship between bond prices and interest rates, and the relationship between interest payments and maturity in mortgages. We constructed an index of financial literacy based on the number of correct answers provided by each respondent to the five financial literacy questions. The financial literacy index reveals wide variation in financial literacy across states. Much of the variation is attributable to differences in the demographic makeup of the states; however, a handful of states have either higher or lower levels of financial literacy than is explained by demographics alone. Also, there is a significant correlation between the financial literacy of a state and that state’s poverty level. The findings indicate directions for policy makers and practitioners interested in targeting areas where financial literacy is low.

  20. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, TOURISM, SUGGESTION OF HEALTHCITY ANDMEDICALPARK

    OpenAIRE

    KALYONCU, Kahraman

    2016-01-01

    In general these differences among the countries are mentioned: in terms of human and physical capital accumalation, technological differences, production power and depending on this production power they have difeerences for human capital power, educational structure, creativity. Therefore, these differences create the differences among the countries for productivity and efficiency level, producing the quality goods and services. Thus, we propose healthcity and medical park in terms of havin...

  1. Migration modelling in the New Economic Geography

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Pérez, Maria del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The benchmark of this paper is the Fujita and Thisse (2002) core-periphery model, which adds a R&D sector with skilled labor to create new varieties for the modern sector. The number of R&D firms increases not only with the number of existing patents and knowledge spillovers but also with the number of skilled workers who can migrate and choose theregion offering the better lifetime salary.The main objective of the present work is to analyse the long-term consequences of the choice of the mig...

  2. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 39 papers contained in Vol. 3, 3 were inputted to INIS. They deal with the use of portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzers in the determination of building material contamination by toxic elements, with underground waste repositories and ground water contamination, and the impact of the Temelin nuclear power plant on the hydrosphere and other environmental components. (Z.S.)

  3. Factors Influencing Compensation Demanded for Environmental Impacts Generated by Different Economic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna Vaneza Gutiérrez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work advances the understanding of compensation demanded for environmental impacts on atmosphere, lakes and rivers, soil, and ocean generated by mining, urban, fishing and agriculture activities. Our aims are to determine whether compensation demanded depends on the standard variables used in the field of risk perception (as perceived risk, public acceptability and trust in regulating authorities, and to explore whether these relationships depend on the environment affected and on the economic activity generating the impacts. General Linear Models were used to analyze survey responses from 427 citizens of Santiago, Chile. Results showed that compensation demanded depends on perceived risk, acceptability, and on the economic activity, but not on the environment affected. Acceptability depends on trust in authorities, on perceived risk and on the economic activity. Perceived risk depends on trust, the economic activity and the environment affected. Overall, environmental impacts from the mining industry are perceived as riskier, less acceptable, and have a higher compensation demanded than those generated by the other sectors. These results suggest that to achieve sustainable development, regulations should consider not only environmental impacts but also the economic activity originating them.

  4. Two economic, energetic, and environmental assessments of the French nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielle, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents two studies, which try to assess the economic, energy and environmental impact of the French nuclear program. First, the two models used are described briefly and then each study is discussed separately. The main results are summarized in the conclusion. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  5. Australia is ‘free to choose’ economic growth and falling environmental pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Schandl, Heinz; Adams, Philip D.; Baynes, Timothy M.; Brinsmead, Thomas S.; Bryan, Brett A.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Graham, Paul W.; Grundy, Mike; Harwood, Tom; McCallum, Rebecca; McCrea, Rod; McKellar, Lisa E.; Newth, David; Nolan, Martin; Prosser, Ian; Wonhas, Alex

    2015-11-01

    Over two centuries of economic growth have put undeniable pressure on the ecological systems that underpin human well-being. While it is agreed that these pressures are increasing, views divide on how they may be alleviated. Some suggest technological advances will automatically keep us from transgressing key environmental thresholds; others that policy reform can reconcile economic and ecological goals; while a third school argues that only a fundamental shift in societal values can keep human demands within the Earth’s ecological limits. Here we use novel integrated analysis of the energy-water-food nexus, rural land use (including biodiversity), material flows and climate change to explore whether mounting ecological pressures in Australia can be reversed, while the population grows and living standards improve. We show that, in the right circumstances, economic and environmental outcomes can be decoupled. Although economic growth is strong across all scenarios, environmental performance varies widely: pressures are projected to more than double, stabilize or fall markedly by 2050. However, we find no evidence that decoupling will occur automatically. Nor do we find that a shift in societal values is required. Rather, extensions of current policies that mobilize technology and incentivize reduced pressure account for the majority of differences in environmental performance. Our results show that Australia can make great progress towards sustainable prosperity, if it chooses to do so.

  6. Multiplicative utility and the influence of environmental care on the short-term economic growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of determining under what circumstances economic growth rates are influenced by environmental care. The models used are extensions of the model by Lucas. The extensions consist of output leading to pollution and there is a stock of nature. There is also abatement to

  7. Assessment of potential economic and environmental impacts caused by Phytophthora ramorum in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hella Kehlenbeck

    2008-01-01

    Economic and environmental impacts of Phytophthora ramorum in Europe were evaluated within the European Union framework 6 project on ?Risk Analysis for P. ramorum a pathogen threat to Europe? (RAPRA). Impact assessment was conducted according to three different scenarios: 1. ?Nursery System? - describes losses occurring in...

  8. On the implications of thresholds for economic science and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, R.F.T.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation analyses the implications for economic analyses of the occurrence of thresholds in environmental damage functions. This research question is analysed for the case of global warming from three different perspectives. The first perspective is that of certainty of information. Using

  9. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track? Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Seok

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, which is presented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which indicate the economic performance of the intermodal freight system. The truck-only system is always regarded as the counterpart of the intermodal freight system in this dissertation. To examine the environmental performance of the intermodal freight system, CO2 emissions generated from all the processes in the intermodal chain, such as pre-haulage and post-haulage, long distance haulage, and transshipment, are estimated considering different sources that generate electricity and transmission loss of electricity (Chapters 3 and 4). To examine the economic performance of the system, two approaches are considered: (1) finding the intermodal breakeven distance for which the intermodal system is more competitive than the truck-only system (Chapter 5); (2) examining the economies of scale in the intermodal network and finding the route/system choice that minimizes the total freight transportation costs (Chapter 6). Finally, this dissertation attempts to find the trade-off between CO2 emissions (representing the environmental performance) and freight transportation cost (representing the economic performance) (Chapter 7)

  10. Effects of incorporating environmental cost and risk aversion on economic values of pig breeding goal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B M; de Mey, Y; Bastiaansen, J W M; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2018-06-01

    Economic values (EVs) of traits, accounting for environmental impacts and risk preferences of farmers, are required to design breeding goals that contribute to both economic and environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of incorporating environmental costs and the risk preferences of farmers on the EVs of pig breeding goal traits. A breeding goal consisting of both sow efficiency and production traits was defined for a typical Brazilian farrow-to-finish pig farm with 1,500 productive sows. A mean-variance utility function was employed for deriving the EVs at finishing pig level assuming fixed slaughter weight. The inclusion of risk and risk aversion reduces the economic weights of sow efficiency traits (17%) while increasing the importance of production traits (7%). For a risk-neutral producer, inclusion of environmental cost reduces the economic importance of sow efficiency traits (3%) while increasing the importance of production traits (1%). Genetic changes of breeding goal traits by their genetic standard deviations reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and excretions of nitrogen and phosphorus per finished pig by up to 6% while increasing farm profit. The estimated EVs could be used to improve selection criteria and thereby contribute to the sustainability of pig production systems. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Australia is 'free to choose' economic growth and falling environmental pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Schandl, Heinz; Adams, Philip D; Baynes, Timothy M; Brinsmead, Thomas S; Bryan, Brett A; Chiew, Francis H S; Graham, Paul W; Grundy, Mike; Harwood, Tom; McCallum, Rebecca; McCrea, Rod; McKellar, Lisa E; Newth, David; Nolan, Martin; Prosser, Ian; Wonhas, Alex

    2015-11-05

    Over two centuries of economic growth have put undeniable pressure on the ecological systems that underpin human well-being. While it is agreed that these pressures are increasing, views divide on how they may be alleviated. Some suggest technological advances will automatically keep us from transgressing key environmental thresholds; others that policy reform can reconcile economic and ecological goals; while a third school argues that only a fundamental shift in societal values can keep human demands within the Earth's ecological limits. Here we use novel integrated analysis of the energy-water-food nexus, rural land use (including biodiversity), material flows and climate change to explore whether mounting ecological pressures in Australia can be reversed, while the population grows and living standards improve. We show that, in the right circumstances, economic and environmental outcomes can be decoupled. Although economic growth is strong across all scenarios, environmental performance varies widely: pressures are projected to more than double, stabilize or fall markedly by 2050. However, we find no evidence that decoupling will occur automatically. Nor do we find that a shift in societal values is required. Rather, extensions of current policies that mobilize technology and incentivize reduced pressure account for the majority of differences in environmental performance. Our results show that Australia can make great progress towards sustainable prosperity, if it chooses to do so.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS FOR USAGE OF PULTRUDED COMPOSITE SHEET PILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURYA Alexander I.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the description of pultruded composite sheet piles. The article covers the production technology, advantages over other traditional materials, as well as environmental and economic prospects for expanding of the usage of composite sheet piling.

  13. Borrowing green : economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands

  14. Environmental and economic sustainability of integrated production in bio-refineries : The thistle case in Sardinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazan, Devrim; Mandras, Giovanni; Garau, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating the environmental and economic sustainability of bio-refineries that produce multiple products through their supply chains (SCs). A physical enterprise input-output (EIO) model is used to quantify the material/energy/waste flows and integrated to the monetary EIO model

  15. Global experience with jatropha cultivation for bioenergy : an assessment of socio-economic and environmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van J.A.J.; Romijn, H.A.; Balkema, A.J.; Faaij, A.

    2014-01-01

    This is an assessment of key economic, environmental and social issues pertaining to jatropha biofuels, based on almost 150 studies covering 26 countries. The assessment aims to furnish a state-of-the-art overview and identify knowledge gaps. So far, total jatropha production has remained small.

  16. Global experience with jatropha cultivation for bioenergy: an assessment of socio-economic and environmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijck, Janske; Romijn, Henny; Balkema, Annelies; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    This is an assessment of key economic, environmental and social issues pertaining to jatropha biofuels, based on almost 150 studies covering 26 countries. The assessment aims to furnish a state-of-the-art overview and identify knowledge gaps. So far, total jatropha production has remained small.

  17. Effect of corporate economic performance on firm-level environmental performance in a transition economy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Earnhart, D.; Lízal, Lubomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2010), s. 303-329 ISSN 0924-6460 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Czech Republic * environmental protection * financial performance * pollution Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2010

  18. Integrating environmental and economic performance to assess modern silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.; Graves, A.R.; Burgess, P.J.; Werf, van der W.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    The environmental and economic performance of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe is highly variable. Multi-criteria analysis, using the PROMETHEE outranking approach, was used to evaluate the integrated performance of silvoarable agroforestry on hypothetical farms in nineteen landscape test sites in

  19. Opportunities for biomaterials : economic, environmental and policy aspects along their life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Little was known at the start of these studies regarding the environmental impacts of bulk chemicals production from biomass and whether they could be produced economically. We have therefore analysed the entire life cycle of biomaterials: the production of bio-based chemicals, the application of

  20. Random regret minimization : Exploration of a new choice model for environmental and resource economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiene, M.; Boeri, M.; Chorus, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the discrete choice model-paradigm of Random Regret Minimization (RRM) to the field of environmental and resource economics. The RRM-approach has been very recently developed in the context of travel demand modelling and presents a tractable, regret-based alternative to the