WorldWideScience

Sample records for environment-friendly agricultural products

  1. Cyanobacterial Farming for Environment Friendly Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Innovations and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jainendra Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable supply of food and energy without posing any threat to environment is the current demand of our society in view of continuous increase in global human population and depletion of natural resources of energy. Cyanobacteria have recently emerged as potential candidates who can fulfill abovementioned needs due to their ability to efficiently harvest solar energy and convert it into biomass by simple utilization of CO2, water and nutrients. During conversion of radiant energy into chemical energy, these biological systems produce oxygen as a by-product. Cyanobacterial biomass can be used for the production of food, energy, biofertilizers, secondary metabolites of nutritional, cosmetics, and medicinal importance. Therefore, cyanobacterial farming is proposed as environment friendly sustainable agricultural practice which can produce biomass of very high value. Additionally, cyanobacterial farming helps in decreasing the level of greenhouse gas, i.e., CO2, and it can be also used for removing various contaminants from wastewater and soil. However, utilization of cyanobacteria for resolving the abovementioned problems is subjected to economic viability. In this review, we provide details on different aspects of cyanobacterial system that can help in developing sustainable agricultural practices. We also describe different large-scale cultivation systems for cyanobacterial farming and discuss their merits and demerits in terms of economic profitability.

  2. New environment-friendly and cost-saving fertiliser recommendation system for supporting sustainable agriculture in Hungary and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor FODOR

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic situation the former, intensive fertiliser recommendation system is unfit to help Hungarian farmers in their fertilising practice. The aim of the new system has been to apply the lowest possible NPK rates required to achieve safe and high yields as well as allowing minimal agricultural NP losses to surface and subsurface waters. The new system was developed by using the correlations revealed by analyzing the results of long-term fertilisation experiments set up in Hungary between 1960 and 2000. Several field experiments as well as comparative analyses confirmed the correctness of the basic principles as well as of the methods of calculating fertiliser rates of the new system. An estimated amount of 3,200,000 € was saved for the Hungarian farmers in 2007 alone by giving recommendations for more than 160,000 ha arable land applying the new system.

  3. Superiour Revaluation of the Pastures in the Cindrel Mountains by Environment Friendly Technologies in Order to Obtain High Quality Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rusu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiments placed in the year 2011 for a superiour valuing of pastures, by their results, lead to the elaboration of some ecological systems of mountain agriculture. The production levels record growths of 13% on the organically fertilised variants and a growth in the weight which can reach 153g/head/day at the young sheep. The selectivity of pasture is reflected in the preference of animals for a more intense grazing on the organically fertilized pastures as compared to the unfertilized ones. The experimental variants (gradual organic fertilization, fertilization + oversowing support a long-lasting pratological system which can lead to an evolution of the floristic composition favourable to the fixation of perennial fodder leguminous plants, obtaining significant growth in weight and improving the quality of the carcasses. The suggested system does not pollute the environment and it is conceived to be achieved besides the protection of prato-ecosystems and acceptable economical results by integrating natural resources and the natural mechanisms of adjustment in agricultural practice so as to replace at maximum the inputs from outside the system, ensures a long-lasting protection of food and high quality products by ecologically preferable technologies, ensures the income of the farmers and supports the multiple functions of agriculture

  4. Fiscal 1998 R and D report on environment-friendly hydrogen production technology; Kankyo chowagata suiso seizo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu 1998 nendo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For efficient oil-free environment-friendly production of hydrogen necessary for oil refining process and effective use of CO{sub 2}, this project develops the efficient hydrogen production techniques by using a capacity of microorganisms. On the R and D on improvement of screening and breeding for photosynthetic microorganisms, introduction of different hydrogenases, acquisition of hydrogen uptake negative strains, control of photosynthetic pigment expression, breeding of PHB synthesis negative strains were carried out continuously, and some problems were arranged confirming the contribution to increasing a hydrogen production capacity. On the R and D on large-scale cultivation techniques, engineering data were collected by using a module continuously. Based on the engineering data collected by the module test, the feasibility study was made on a possibility as industrial technology from the viewpoint of a profitability and environmental harmony. Screening of bacterial strains suitable for 4 kinds of wastewater and capable of producing hydrogen under extreme conditions, and basic studies on photoreactor and cultivation technique were conducted by outside research organizations. (NEDO)

  5. Environment Friendly Biodiesel Fuel in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Gudriniece, E.; Strēle, M.; Skujiņš, V.

    2006-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel (RME and REE) are alternative, environment friendly fuels for diesel engines, obtained from rapeseed oil and methanol or ethanol. RME are produced with capacity 2500 t/year at SIA “Delta Riga” experimental factory Naukseni in Latvia. The laboratory method of production biodiesel fuel (REE) from rapeseed oil and ethanol has been worked out at RTU. Blends RME and REE with fossil diesel fuel are applied, as well.

  6. Peptide Fractions Obtained from Rice By-Products by Means of an Environment-Friendly Process Show In Vitro Health-Related Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Maura; Graen-Heedfeld, Jürgen; Bretz, Karlheinz; Guillon, Fabien; Michelini, Elisa; Calabretta, Maria Maddalena; Lamborghini, Matteo; Gruarin, Nicolò; Roda, Aldo; Kraft, Axel; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the isolation of new health-related bioactive molecules derived from agro-food industrial by-products by means of environment-friendly extraction processes has become of particular interest. In the present study, a protein by-product from the rice starch industry was hydrolysed with five commercial proteolytic enzymes, avoiding the use of solvents or chemicals. The digestion processes were optimised, and the digestates were separated in fractions with four different molecular weight ranges by using a cross-flow membrane filtration technique. Total hydrolysates and fractions were tested in vitro for a wide range of biological activities. For the first time rice-derived peptides were assayed for anti-tyrosinase, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity and irritation capacities. Antioxidant and anti-hypertensive activities were also evaluated. Protamex, Alcalase and Neutrase treatments produced peptide fractions with valuable bioactivities without resulting cytotoxic or irritant. Highest levels of bioactivity were detected in Protamex-derived samples, followed by samples treated with Alcalase. Based on the present results, a future direct exploitation of isolated peptide fractions in the nutraceutical, functional food and cosmetic industrial fields may be foreseen.

  7. Peptide Fractions Obtained from Rice By-Products by Means of an Environment-Friendly Process Show In Vitro Health-Related Bioactivities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ferri

    Full Text Available Recently, the isolation of new health-related bioactive molecules derived from agro-food industrial by-products by means of environment-friendly extraction processes has become of particular interest. In the present study, a protein by-product from the rice starch industry was hydrolysed with five commercial proteolytic enzymes, avoiding the use of solvents or chemicals. The digestion processes were optimised, and the digestates were separated in fractions with four different molecular weight ranges by using a cross-flow membrane filtration technique. Total hydrolysates and fractions were tested in vitro for a wide range of biological activities. For the first time rice-derived peptides were assayed for anti-tyrosinase, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity and irritation capacities. Antioxidant and anti-hypertensive activities were also evaluated. Protamex, Alcalase and Neutrase treatments produced peptide fractions with valuable bioactivities without resulting cytotoxic or irritant. Highest levels of bioactivity were detected in Protamex-derived samples, followed by samples treated with Alcalase. Based on the present results, a future direct exploitation of isolated peptide fractions in the nutraceutical, functional food and cosmetic industrial fields may be foreseen.

  8. Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Highly chemoselective environment friendly deprotection of acetonides and cleavage of acetals and ketones has been ... Keywords. Environment friendly; acetonides; chemoselective; aqueous medium; deprotection; acetals. 1. Introduction ... were obtained using a Qtof Micro YA263 instrument. Ethyl acetate was dried over ...

  9. Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Highly chemoselective environment friendly deprotection of acetonides and cleavage of acetals and ketones has been achieved by heating in aqueous medium without using any catalyst and organic solvent.

  10. Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and cleavage of acetals and ketals in aqueous medium without using any catalyst or organic solvent. S MUKHERJEE, A SENGUPTA and S C ROY. ∗. Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur,. Kolkata 700 ...

  11. Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Environment friendly chemoselective deprotection of acetonides and cleavage of acetals and ketals in aqueous medium without using any catalyst or organic solvent. S Mukherjee A Sengupta ... S C Roy1. Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032, India ...

  12. Environment Friendly Agricultural Brand “Cool Vege” Through Carbon Sequestration by Biochar for Sustainable Management of Food and Water = Cool The Earth from The Dining Table with COOL Vege =

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Shibata

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of of greenhouse gas to mitigate or adapt to drastic climate change are one of the most important issues for human beings. On the other hand, rural development is also important issue for sustainable rural natural resources to secure food and water. Then, we propose the new socio-economic scheme to solve these issues at the same time through biochar carbon capture and sequestration. This scheme contains 4 measure factors that 1 Carbon Capture & Storage(CCS via biochar, 2 Biochar CCS should be carried out at agricultural lands for rural development, 3 Biochar CCS should be monitored and measured to generate carbon credits and social creditability, 4 The ECO-brand “Cool Vege” for agricultural products derived from biochar CCS. And, it consists of many stake holders and actors that local community, compost center, farmers, CCS local committee consisted by local governments and universities as scientific authority, companies, retailers and normal citizen as consumers. Therefore, when proceeding this scheme, it is needed to have holistic aspect like bird view.

  13. Manufacturing of environment friendly biolubricants from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtisam K. Heikal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environment friendly products such as fuels and lubricants are among the candidates which are studied in several countries including Egypt. The purpose of this work was to utilize commercially available palm oil and Jatropha oil for the production of biolubricants, through two stages of Transesterification. The first stage is the process of using methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide to produce biodiesel. The second stage is the reaction of biodiesel with trimethylolpropane using sodium methoxide as catalyst to yield palm or Jatropha oil base trimethylolpropane esters (biolubricants. Palm oil based trimethylolpropane esters with yield of 97.8% was obtained after 4 h of reaction at 130 °C. Under similar reaction conditions, Jatropha oil based trimethylolpropane esters with a yield of 98.2% was obtained. The resulting products were confirmed by FTIR and evaluated by ASTM analyses. The obtained Jatropha oil based trimethylolpropane esters exhibited high viscosity indices (140, low pour point temperature (−3 °C, and moderate thermal stabilities and met the requirement of commercial industrial oil ISO VG46 grade. In spite of the high pour point of Palm oil based trimethylolpropane esters (5 °C, which needs pour point depressant to reduce the pour point, other lubrication properties such as viscosity, viscosity indices and flash point are comparable to commercial industrial oil ISO VG32 and VG46.

  14. CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    change and the extent to which policies to prevent, mitigate, or adapt to environmental change may affect agriculture and hunger. ... possible changes in the earth's climate to enhance environmental sustainability of agricultural products in our society. ... food aid, but an increase in vulnerability to problems stemming from ...

  15. Microcredit Effect on Agricultural Productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Lautech Ogbomoso

    Department of Agricultural Economics & Farm Management University of Agriculture,. Abeokuta, Nigeria. 2. Institute of Food Security, .... Concept: Micro- credit in relation to rural economy is defined as any credit facility and ancillary ... endogenous with outcomes such as productivity and income. A farmer who avails of loans ...

  16. Irradiation of northwest agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, D. E.; Tingey, G. I.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect ocntrol procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, this program was conducted to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides.

  17. Nitrogen mineralization in production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the effects of N management and how it relates to the N cycle in soil ecosystems is essential to determining N availability. This manuscript describes the importance of N mineralization to production agriculture and introduces a special issue on “N Mineralization in Production Agricult...

  18. Clever farmers give gas: model solutions for agricultural biogas systems. Results from the BMVEL (Federal Ministry for Consumers' Protection, Nutrition and Agriculture) model project 2004/2005: Moel solutions for environment-friendly and economical energy utilization with agricultural biogas systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niebaum, A.; Jaeger, P.

    2005-01-01

    With the examples of biogas system concepts from practical agriculture, farmers, consultants, representatives of authorities and all those interested in biogas are shown successful and proved solutions concepts of generating energy from biogas. The project included agricultural enterprises with biogas systems who have implemented a biologically and technically efficient biomass utilization, who have optimized their operations by means of the biogas system, who have integrated their biogas system in their operational concept and who were able to harmonize the objectives of using a biogas system with the environment and the regional specificities

  19. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.; Anderson, D.B.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing resrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  20. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  1. Preparation of nanoparticles with an environment-friendly approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kefu; Peng, Zhen; Fan, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Developing various approaches for preparing high performance materials has long been topics and tasks both for scientists and for engineers. Despite that many methods have been developed for preparing nanomaterials, developing simple and environment-friendly ways for preparing nanomaterials is very attractive. Here a simple approach of synthesizing Fe3O4 nanoparticles by arc-discharge submerging in water was reported. The results showed that by this method Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be synthesized at large scale. The as-prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited uniform spherical shape and their diameters varied with arc-discharging parameters. The experimental results showed that the size of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be controlled through adjusting the processing parameters. Since no vacuum system has been used, the synthesizing process is greatly simplified. In addition, only cheap deionized water and industrial iron bar are used and no pollution or harmful byproducts are found in the synthesis process. It indicated that the present approach is a simple, low-cost and environment-friendly one for preparing nanoparticles.

  2. Stagnation, Acceleration And Deceleration In Agricultural Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the hypothesis of stagnation/acceleration/deceleration in agricultural production in Nigeria for the period 1970-2000 by fitting exponential trend equations to the output data of the country's 23 major agricultural commodities and computing compound annual growth rates of agricultural production.

  3. Study of Agricultural Product Options Pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONG, Qiu

    2017-09-01

    China is a large agricultural country, and the healthy development of agriculture is related to the stability of the whole society. The agricultural production and management of agricultural products are confronted with many risks, especially the market risks. Option contract is the object of option market transaction, so it is very important to study the option contract of agricultural products. Option trading separates the risk and profit, so that the trader can avoid the risk while retaining the opportunity to obtain income. The option has the characteristics of low transaction cost, simple and efficient, so it is suitable for small and medium investors.

  4. Long Run Relationship Between Agricultural Production And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to estimate the impact of agricultural production on the long run economic growth in Nigeria using the Vector Error Correction Methodology. The result shows that long run relationship exists between agricultural production and economic growth in Nigeria. Among the variables in the model, crop production ...

  5. Relationship between biodiversity and agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti, Ilaria; Tidball, Mabel; Couvet, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. In this work we model the interdependent relationship between biodiversity and agriculture on a farmed land, supposing that, while agriculture has a negative impact on biodiversity, the latter can increase agricultural production. Farmers act as myopic agents, who maximize their instantaneous profit without considering the negative effects of their practice on the evolution of biodiversity. We find that a tax on inputs can have a pos...

  6. Comparative analysis of aggregate agricultural productivity between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... The study compared the aggregate agricultural productivity between the Low External Input. Technology (LEIT) and ... Key words: Aggregate agricultural productivity, low and high external input technology farms. INTRODUCTION ... 2003). The realignment of the naira exchange rate, which resulted in the ...

  7. The Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    High expectations for Norway's Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME).The FME centres address a broad range of areas, allcentral to developing the energy sector of the future. The activities of the eight centres established in 2009 focus on renewable energy, raising energy efficiency, energy planning, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). In 2011 three new FME centres were established which focus on social science-related energy research. The FME scheme is a direct follow-up of the broad-based political agreement on climate policy achieved in the Storting in January 2008, and of the national RandD Energi21 strategy submitted in February 2008 to the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. In April 2008 the Research Council of Norway's Executive Board decided to launch a process to establish centres for environment-friendly energy research, and a funding announcement was issued that same year. In 2010 it was decided that additional FME centres would be established in the field of social science-related energy research. After a thorough assessment of each project (based on feasibility, scientific merit, potential to generate value creation and innovation, and composition of the consortium) eight applicants were selected to become FME centres in February 2009. A new call for proposals was issued in 2010, and three more centres were awarded FME status in February 2011. The objective of the FME scheme is to establish time-limited research centres which conduct concentrated, focused and long-term research of high international calibre in order to solve specific challenges in the energy sphere. The selected centres must exhibit higher goals, a longer-term perspective and a more concentrated focus than is required under other funding instruments for the same scientific area. The make-up of the centres is critical to achieving this objective. The centres bring together Norway's leading research institutions and key players in private enterprise, the

  8. Environment-friendly, flame retardant thermoplastic elastomer-magnesium hydroxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Xiaonan; Ao, Man; Guo, Xinwen; Xue, Dongfeng

    Halogen-free and environment-friendly magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) was synthesized to enhance the flame retardant properties of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). When the Mg(OH)2 content was optimized to 35wt.%, the TPE-Mg(OH)2 composites exhibited the best flame retardant properties. The results showed that there was a delay of ignition time of the samples containing Mg(OH)2; compared with the samples without Mg(OH)2, the heat release rate and total heat release decrease by 31.4% and 35.6%, while total smoke production and mass loss rate reduce by 56% and 34.2%, respectively. This work opens a door to manufacture fire-resistant polymer-based composites with environmental-friendly flame retardant additives by controllable crystallization and chemical strategies.

  9. Capsule-type pe biogas digester: low-cost and environment friendly system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Khan, M.A.; Aslam, M.; Hussain, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Indian model of the biogas digester has been introduced in the country during the last three decades, whereas the Chinese dome-type design could not be introduced due to the skills required for construction of this digester. The other problem associated with Chinese dome-type digester is that large quantities of solid waste are needed to fill the digester. The Chinese dome-type digester constructed on experimental basis could not perform satisfactorily. The Indian Model, although popular in the country, is not environment friendly and is of high cost, both in terms of capital investment and 0 and M. It creates quite dirty environment around the digester due to the free movement of slurry. It also creates problems of mosquitoes, as the environment. is conducive for their breeding. Taking into consideration, these limitations, design of polyethylene capsule-type digester (with black carbon and UV stabilizers) was developed, using water tanks normally constructed for domestic water storage by the local plastic companies. Modification was made in the PE water tank and one of the local companies collaborated to manufacture the capsule-type digester. Solid waste is introduced from the top, whereas the slurry can be disposed from the bottom through a controlled valve. Thus input of solid waste and slurry-disposal is now within the choice of the owner. The slurry can be disposed into a tank, where it can be composted to reduce the pH, before its use for agriculture. The PE capsule-type black-color digester is also attractive for increasing the temperature of the digester due to black body absorption. The production of gas during summer season might take a few days, whereas additional greenhouse effect during winter can raise the temperature by 10 degree C. Hence, this digester is more suitable for cooler regions where the Indian model is not successful. The design is modular in nature; therefore linking additional modules in series can increase the capacity of biogas

  10. Towards Increasing Women's Contribution to Agricultural Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women play a critical role in agricultural production in developing countries, not only in terms of their labour input, but also in terms of their decision-making authority. For example, women provide 70 percent of total agricultural labour in Africa and account for more than three-quarters of the food produced in the region.

  11. Comparative analysis of aggregate agricultural productivity between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study compared the aggregate agricultural productivity between the Low External Input Technology (LEIT) and High External Input Technology (HEIT) Farms in Imo State of Nigeria. The state is divided into three agricultural zones, out of which two were randomly selected for the study. Using a multistage sampling ...

  12. Increasing Agricultural Productivity Through Rural Infrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    products is obvious and well known through intensification of agricultural practices / activities, increased investments in monitoring of the quality of farm inputs, decentralized public agricultural extension system among others (KIPPRA 2007). Patel. (undated) identified the components of infrastructure as three; namely capital ...

  13. AN ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. Under different reforms that occurred since 1961, Benin agricultural productivity has changed and decreased significantly after the country's agricultural liberalization in 1990. This paper used simple linear regression to explore major driving factors that change and propose policies which will contribute to improve ...

  14. Microcredit Effect on Agricultural Productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Lautech Ogbomoso

    This study examines the effect of access to credit on the productivity of rural farming households in Ogun State,. Nigeria. Data were collected, with the use of well structured questionnaire, from 240 small-scale rural farmers, who were categorized into users and non-users of micro-credit based on their statement, through ...

  15. Marketing research of organic agricultural products' customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of customers' marketing research is to acquire information about the way domestic customers behave towards organic agricultural products. This research focuses the overview of conditions and factors influencing customer behavior in nutrition processes in the EM and in Yugoslavia. The acquired information about changes and directions directly affect the possibilities of getting involved into supply processes as well as the 'transmission' of some directions in customer behavior. Anticipations based, on marketing research deal with changes on customers' level, in consumption, products and other competitors. The results of a part of problems concerning customer behavior in nutrition processes follow below, with an emphasis on organic agricultural products.

  16. Agricultural Productivity and Policy Interventions in Nyamagabe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving agricultural productivity has received considerable policy intervention in many African countries and particularly in Rwanda. The question remains to know the extent to which the policy contributes to the variation being upwards or downwards of the crop productivity. There are number of determinant factors some ...

  17. Mass production of entomopathogenic fungi using agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Similarly carrot, jack seeds and ladies finger also supported good growth and sporulation of all the three tested fungi. Coconut water supported maximum growth and sporulation. Key words: Entomopathogenic fungi, mass production, agricultural products. INTRODUCTION. Biopesticides based on bacteria, ...

  18. Agricultural productivity growth and technology progress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this investigation was to analyze the impact of some variables of production(input) on agricultural productivity growth (output) in China over the period 1989-2002. To this aim, Cobb-Douglas function has been used. The methodology used in this study is correct and the resulting conclusion is that labor, capital ...

  19. Agricultural production data for the Sizewell area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The proposed site for the Sizewell B nuclear power station is located at the centre of the East Suffolk coastline. The county itself is predominantly agricultural, producing a very wide range of foodstuffs which in the case of one or two particular foodstuffs contribute a significant proportion of the total national production. A general view of the agricultural setting within which the development would be sited and a compendium of more detailed agricultural data relating to the immediate vicinity of the site, which has been drawn on in the Ministry's assessment of the radiological impact of routine atmospheric waste emission, are given. (U.K.)

  20. Characterization of tea polyphenols as potential environment-friendly fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengqi; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Haihui; Tao, Junjun

    2018-02-01

    In this work we investigated the oxidation properties of tea polyphenols and their potential as the fire retardants. Two types of tea polyphenols were adopted, which were extracted from red tea and green tea leaves, respectively. Their macroscopic performance during pyrolysis and oxidation at elevated temperatures were examined by using a heating furnace. Mass change, heat evolution and gas products of tea polyphenols during heating in air were also monitored by using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) integrated with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in conjunction with online Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). A tea polyphenol sample first becomes a brown semi-fluid after heating, and gradually turns into highly-porous black chars with significantly expanded volume. By raising the temperature to ∼550 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min, the mass of a sample reduces by nearly 70% to form a large quantity of inert gases that are mainly composed of H2O and CO2. It was found that the aerial oxidation products of tea polyphenols in the solid phase possess good heat insulation property; meanwhile, the substantial release of a lot of water and its evaporation during oxidation of tea polyphenols removes a large amount of heat from a sample located in a heating environment. The heat insulation of tea polyphenols may withstand up to 550 °C. The present work confirms tea polyphenols as potential superior and environment-friendly fire retardants.

  1. Cotton expansion and biodiversity loss in African savannahs, opportunities and challenges for conservation agriculture: a review paper based on two case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudron, F.; Corbeels, M.; Monicat, F.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    We review agricultural impacts on biodiversity and the potential of conservation agriculture in developing productive and environment-friendly cropping systems. We then analyse experiences from two African landscapes of global importance for conservation: the Mid Zambezi Valley in Southern Africa

  2. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    structured questionnaires from 90 respondents using multi-stage procedure. Data were subjected to both ... should focus more attention on educating students in areas that are more technologically inclined such as in ... Keywords: West African Agricultural Productivity Programme, Adopted schools project, student farmers.

  3. energetic performance analysis of drying agricultural products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Renewable energy sources such as solar energy for drying purposes in a more effective and efficient way is inevitable for preservation of agricultural products in developing nations with inadequate access to electricity. This study investigates the effects ... alternative methods of drying in a sustainable and more effective and ...

  4. Increasing Agricultural Productivity Through Rural Infrastructure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined access to infrastructure and its effects on agricultural productivity in Surulere and Ife East Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Oyo and Osun States. Using multistage sampling procedure, data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires administered on one hundred and sixty ...

  5. Crop succession requirements in agricultural production planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Stegeman, A.

    2005-01-01

    A method is proposed to write crop succession requirements as linear constraints in an LP-based model for agricultural production planning. Crop succession information is given in the form of a set of inadmissible successions of crops. The decision variables represent the areas where a certain

  6. Energetic performance analysis of drying agricultural products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy sources such as solar energy for drying purposes in a more effective and efficient way is inevitable for preservation of agricultural products in developing nations with inadequate access to electricity. This study investigates the effects of using a solar tracking device on the energy performance of drying ...

  7. Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that farm sizes, capital input, number of crops planted in a mixture in the farm, labour input, expenditure on planting materials, non farm income, distance to the nearest market, level of education and farming experience are the statistically significant determinants of aggregate agricultural productivity among ...

  8. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than half (55.6%) of them were favourably disposed to the programme while respondents' farming background (r=3.740, p ≤ 0.05) was significantly related to their perception of the programme. It was recommended that West African Agricultural Productivity Programme officials should focus more attention on ...

  9. Measuring excess capital capacity in agricultural production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhengfei, G.; Kumbhakar, S.C.; Myers, R.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept "excess capital capacity" and employ a stochastic input requirement frontier to measure excess capital capacity in agricultural production. We also propose a two-step estimation method that allows endogenous regressors in stochastic frontier models. The first step uses

  10. The agricultural regulatory framework and biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuch, P.J.; Crosswhite, W.M. [Renewable Natural Resources Sector Program, Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper examines programs and implementing regulations that provide a framework for the application of agricultural and environmental policy to biomass crop production. Administration of policies and programs is accomplished through Federal agencies including the United States Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the United States Corps of Engineers as well as State laws, regulations, permits and local plans and zoning ordinances. Impacts of the various programs and regulations on biomass production depend upon the crop, how it is grown and prior land use on the site. There is reliance on both regulations and assistance programs that provide price and income support, technical assistance and cost sharing benefits that can influence the production of biomass crops. Biomass crop production can promote greater stewardship on farms and woodlots contributing favorably to environmental improvement and use of renewable sources of energy. (Author)

  11. Economies of Size in Production Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Economies of size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for economies of size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the economies of size.

  12. Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Classified Marketing of Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Fengying

    2014-01-01

    Classified marketing of agricultural products was analyzed using the Logistic Regression Model. This method can take full advantage of information in agricultural product database, to find factors influencing best selling degree of agricultural products, and make quantitative analysis accordingly. Using this model, it is also able to predict sales of agricultural products, and provide reference for mapping out individualized sales strategy for popularizing agricultural products.

  13. Drought, Climate Change and Potential Agricultural Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Caylor, K. K.; Wood, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a major factor in agricultural productivity, especially in developing regions where the capacity for water resources management is limited and climate variability ensures that drought is recurrent and problematic. Recent events in East Africa are testament to this, where drought conditions that have slowly developed over multiple years have contributed to reduced productivity and ultimately food crises and famine. Prospects for the future are not promising given ongoing problems of dwindling water supplies from non-renewable sources and the potential for increased water scarcity and increased drought with climate change. This is set against the expected increase in population by over 2 billion people by 2050 and rise in food demand, coupled with changes in demographics that affect food choices and increases in non-food agriculture. In this talk we discuss the global variability of drought over the 20th century and recent years, and the projected changes over the 21st century, and how this translates into changes in potential agricultural productivity. Drought is quantified using land surface hydrological models driven by a hybrid reanalysis-observational meteorological forcing dataset. Drought is defined in terms of anomalies of hydroclimatic variables, in particular precipitation, evaporation and soil moisture, and we calculate changes in various drought characteristics. Potential agricultural productivity is derived from the balance of precipitation to crop water demand, where demand is based on potential evaporation and crop coefficients for a range of staple crops. Some regional examples are shown of historic variations in drought and potential productivity, and the estimated water deficit for various crops. The multitude of events over the past decade, including heat waves in Europe, fires in Russia, long-term drought in northern China, southeast Australia, the Western US and a series of droughts in the Amazon and Argentina, hint at the influence of

  14. Solar installations for drying agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motulevich, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    Six types of solar installations for drying various agricultural products are presented: the solar drying platform, the solar dryer for granular products, the hotbed dryer, solar dryer with natural draught, radiation-convection solar dryer and solar dryer for cotton. Relative simplicity, cheapness and opportunity of use near to a place of these products cultivation are the general characteristics of these installations. The numerous long tests which have been carried out in the Scientific-Industrial Corporation [Sun] of Turkmenistan Academy of Sciences have proved their efficiency and convenience in operation

  15. Solar energy: an environment friendly reliable and sustainable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.A.; Akhtar, W.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid enhancement in consumption of fossil fuels in order to meet the day-to day increasing energy requirements has blown a danger sign for all nations. Global warming effect has compelled researchers to discover other techniques of energy generation instead of traditional ways in order to reduce adverse effects on global terrain. Renewable energy resources have got attention of global entrepreneurs due to their long lasting availability and environment friendliness. Solar technology is finding increased application in both domestic and military application. This paper discusses the ideas behind the art of design of solar cells and their historical developments. It also covers the kind of techniques/ methodologies used for solar energy conversion into electrical energy with comparison between different renewable technologies and solar technology. This paper gives the brief review of world energy resources and their consumption v/s Solar energy production percentage. Researchers in the field of energy generation have impressed by the Prodigious results of Renewable Energies. Today's most of the high ranked international universities of developed countries in collaboration with government/ industries have been carrying on advance researches in the field of renewable technologies. (author)

  16. Market problems of agricultural products in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Marku

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of fruits and vegetables in our country still faces challenges, including informality in sector of planting material, high costs of inputs purchased and fuel (especially affecting the green houses with heating, low productivity and high losses of post-harvest, especially in the case of fruit. Fresh fruit and vegetable marketing is different in many respects from the marketing of other agricultural and nonagricultural products. Hundreds of individual commodities comprise the total group. Each product has its own special requirements for growing and handling, with its own quality attributes, merchandising methods, and standards of consumer acceptance (How, R. B. 2012, 1. Food safety standards of fruits and vegetables their compliance with key standards and certification as a prerequisite and a challenge to be addressed in order to increase Albanian exports of agricultural products to European markets. Concerning vegetables and fruits, Albanian farmers face important marketing problems. Such problems are encountered at all stages of the production system-provision of inputs, both in terms of processing, promotion and other market incentives, which directly assist in the efficient realization of the sale of fruits and vegetables.

  17. Agricultural R&D, technology and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesse, J.; Thirtle, C.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between basic and applied agricultural R&D, developed and developing country R&D and between R&D, extension, technology and productivity growth are outlined. The declining growth rates of public R&D expenditures are related to output growth and crop yields, where growth rates have also fallen, especially in the developed countries. However, growth in output value per hectare has not declined in the developing countries and labour productivity growth has increased except in the EU. Total factor productivity has generally increased, however it is measured. The public sector share of R&D expenditures has fallen and there has been rapid concentration in the private sector, where six multinationals now dominate. These companies are accumulating intellectual property to an extent that the public and international institutions are disadvantaged. This represents a threat to the global commons in agricultural technology on which the green revolution has depended. Estimates of the increased R&D expenditures needed to feed 9 billion people by 2050 and how these should be targeted, especially by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), show that the amounts are feasible and that targeting sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia can best increase output growth and reduce poverty. Lack of income growth in SSA is seen as the most insoluble problem. PMID:20713401

  18. Agricultural R&D, technology and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesse, J; Thirtle, C

    2010-09-27

    The relationships between basic and applied agricultural R&D, developed and developing country R&D and between R&D, extension, technology and productivity growth are outlined. The declining growth rates of public R&D expenditures are related to output growth and crop yields, where growth rates have also fallen, especially in the developed countries. However, growth in output value per hectare has not declined in the developing countries and labour productivity growth has increased except in the EU. Total factor productivity has generally increased, however it is measured. The public sector share of R&D expenditures has fallen and there has been rapid concentration in the private sector, where six multinationals now dominate. These companies are accumulating intellectual property to an extent that the public and international institutions are disadvantaged. This represents a threat to the global commons in agricultural technology on which the green revolution has depended. Estimates of the increased R&D expenditures needed to feed 9 billion people by 2050 and how these should be targeted, especially by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), show that the amounts are feasible and that targeting sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia can best increase output growth and reduce poverty. Lack of income growth in SSA is seen as the most insoluble problem.

  19. Multiple knowledges for agricultural production: Implications for the development of conservation agriculture in Kenya and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Keith M.; Lamb, Jennifer N.; Sikuku, D.N.; Ashilenje, Dennis S.; R. Laker-Ojok; Norton, James

    2014-01-01

    Metadata only record This article explores the interactions of different agricultural knowledges in order to examine mindset changes related to the adoption of conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS). Farmers in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya and Uganda were presented with 20 statements representing three different agricultural frames: conventional modern agriculture, conservation agriculture, and risk-averse agriculture. Responses were recorded on a five-point Likert scale. Fa...

  20. Management of efficiency of agricultural production on the basis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of efficiency of agricultural production on the basis of margin approach. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... the economic efficiency of agricultural production.the conceptual approaches generalized and systematized to the management of production costs of agricultural products, the proposed ...

  1. Agricultural innovations for sustainable crop production intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pisante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable crop production intensification should be the first strategic objective of innovative agronomic research for the next 40 years. A range of options exist (often very location specific for farming practices, approaches and technologies that ensure sustainability, while at the same time improving crop production. The main challenge is to encourage farmers in the use of appropriate technologies,  and  to  ensure  that  knowledge  about  sound  production  practices  is  increasingly accepted and applied by farmers. There is a huge, but underutilized potential to link farmers’ local knowledge with science-based innovations, through favourable institutional arrangements.  The same  holds  for  the  design,  implementation  and  monitoring  of  improved  natural  resource management  that  links  community  initiatives  to  external  expertise.  It is also suggested that a comprehensive effort be undertaken to measure different stages of the innovation system, including technological adoption and diffusion at the farm level, and to investigate the impact of agricultural policies on technological change and technical efficiency. This paper provides a brief review of agronomic management practices that support sustainable crop production system and evidence on developments  in the selection of crops and cultivars; describes farming systems for crop which take a predominantly ecosystem approach; discusses the scientific application of ecosystem principles for the management of pest and weed populations; reviews the  improvements in fertilizer and nutrient management that explain productivity growth; describes the benefits and constraints of irrigation technologies; and suggests a way forward. Seven changes in the context for agricultural development are proposed that heighten the need to examine how innovation occurs in the agricultural sector.

  2. SBA-15-Pr–SO3H: An efficient, environment friendly and recyclable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    s12039-014-0762-1. SBA-15-Pr–SO3H: An efficient, environment friendly and recyclable heterogeneous nanoreactor catalyst for the one-pot multicomponent synthesis of β-acetamido ketones. KIUMARS BAHRAMIa,b,∗, MOHAMMAD M KHODAEIa ...

  3. Organic agricultural products in Europe and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrodzka Violetta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the most developed countries of Western Europe and North America, the share of organic farming in the food market is between 2% and 6%. The share of organic products on the Polish food market is only 0.33% (Dryjańska E. 2017. The aim of this article is to compare organic agricultural products in the US and EU. The scope of the comparison was covered by the legal regulations for organic production in the mentioned regions and the availability of organic products for customers. In order to highlight differences between the organic product and their traditional counterpart, selected meta-analyzes were conducted by authors in the field of medical and natural sciences. The possibilities of buying organic products are described on the basis of personal experiences of the author as a consumer. The offer of organic products was analyzed on the example of one European country (Poland and the example of several states of America (Colorado, Virginia, New York. The rules for producing organic food in the US are more rigorous than in the EU. The offer of organic and conventional food targeted to the American consumer is comparable. Although Polish consumers have a positive perception of organic food, its supply is significantly different from the US market. The main differences are in distribution channels, product range, price and visual design of organic products.

  4. Minilivestock in Argentina. Integration with Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biasatti, NR.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative agricultural production can take different forms. In Argentina there is an important diversity of species available to be incorporated into production systems, giving support for the use of natural resources based on taking advantage of the regional fauna. Moreover the use of different animal species can be incorporated under the concept of the optimization of flows of energy and materials, tending to minimize the environmental impact of livestock production, and also to make more efficient use of the ingredients required for developing the activity. The integration of non-traditional species (minilivestock within the context of sustainable agricultural development was the motivation for the present study A module for raising Myocastor coypus (coypu or false nutha was developed, to which was linked a module for raising Eisenia foetida (the socalled red worm, in both cases with a dual purpose. Preliminary estimates were made of the productive aspects of both species, as well as an analysis of their integration, to understand the extent to which diversification linked with complementation tends to optimize the system.

  5. The preparation, characterization, and application of environment-friendly monoclonal antibodies for human blood cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenjie; Gao, Xuechao; He, Shixiang; Gao, Xiaoling; Zhuang, Jialin; Huang, Lirong; Guo, Hengchang

    2017-03-01

    Monoclonal anti-human blood group A (51A8) and B (63B6) antibody reagents were prepared using the serum-free technique. The aims of this research were to characterize the serum-free reagents and prove their reliabilities in routine use. Experiments including antigen-antibody agglutination testing, stability testing, SDS-PAGE, protein and IgM quantification, flow cytometry, and variable domain sequencing were performed to characterize the anti-A (51A8) and anti-B (63B6) reagents. Over 12 000 samples were tested using these reagents as routine blood grouping reagents. Serum-free anti-A (51A8) and anti-B (63B6) reagents were stable in longitudinal and accelerated testing, and their high purity was shown in SDS-PAGE and IgM quantification. These reagents have high specificity to red blood cells in serologic agglutination testing and flow cytometric analysis. A1 and A2 subgroup antigens can be distinguished clearly by patterns of flow cytometric histograms. No discrepancy was found in clinical trials of 12 000 samples. To reduce the risk of being affected by any animal additives, a serum-free culture system was applied to get mass-production of monoclonal anti-A/B antibodies. The high specificity and the high purity of the reagents were verified by the lab experiments. Lab research and clinical trial showed that serum-free monoclonal anti-A (51A8) and anti-B (63B6) reagents meet the requirements of routine blood grouping reagents. Moreover, these reagents featured ultra-high purity that is missing in other commercial counterparts, and therefore are recommended as more environment-friendly reagents.

  6. Characteristics of Price Fluctuation of Agricultural Products in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiao-hui; Ge, Dang-qiao

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic trend of the price of agricultural products in China, and analyzes the causation of rigid rise of agricultural product price. We also study on the fluctuation characteristics of the prices of Chinese and classification agricultural products.

  7. Independent Innovation System of China's Agricultural Products Processing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Ailian

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the importance of innovation system for agricultural products processing industry. Based on the principles of openness, dynamics, systematization, outstanding industrial characteristics and close cooperation, a diversified agro-processing innovation system is constructed. It is an innovation subject system of agricultural products processing industry which takes agricultural products processing industry as the core, independent innovation as the center, and university, s...

  8. Cyanobacterial Farming for Environment Friendly Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Innovations and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jainendra Pathak; Rajneesh; Pankaj K. Maurya; Shailendra P. Singh; Donat-P. Häder; Rajeshwar P. Sinha

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable supply of food and energy without posing any threat to environment is the current demand of our society in view of continuous increase in global human population and depletion of natural resources of energy. Cyanobacteria have recently emerged as potential candidates who can fulfill abovementioned needs due to their ability to efficiently harvest solar energy and convert it into biomass by simple utilization of CO2, water and nutrients. During conversion of radiant energy into che...

  9. Agricultural Production. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with agricultural production. SMAT materials…

  10. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134 Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137 Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  11. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Radioactive Contamination Department, Warsaw (Poland)

    2003-06-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the {sup 134}Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of {sup 137}Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  12. Use of plant protection products in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Moura

    2017-01-01

    Results: The application of this research has shown the good practices adopted by the workers who were questioned and which are reading the labels, use of equipment for individual safety and proceed the correct disposal of waste of empty containers of PPP. However it can be noted that there are still aspects that the workers have to improve awareness level about the risk they are exposed to when handling PPP since not all employees were careful to adopt these good agricultural practices. Conclusions: The results also demonstrate the need for further action by the supervisory bodies to ensure that the PPP applicators have all the required training certificate by law. It should also be created more awareness campaigns about the safety issues when these products are used like the importance of reading labels, use of appropriate equipment for individual safety for each product type and exposure, and properly route for the waste package.

  13. Agricultural Productivity Forecasts for Improved Drought Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh; McNider, Richard; Moss, Donald; Alhamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Water stresses on agricultural crops during critical phases of crop phenology (such as grain filling) has higher impact on the eventual yield than at other times of crop growth. Therefore farmers are more concerned about water stresses in the context of crop phenology than the meteorological droughts. However the drought estimates currently produced do not account for the crop phenology. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a drought monitoring decision support tool: The U.S. Drought Monitor, which currently uses meteorological droughts to delineate and categorize drought severity. Output from the Drought Monitor is used by the States to make disaster declarations. More importantly, USDA uses the Drought Monitor to make estimates of crop yield to help the commodities market. Accurate estimation of corn yield is especially critical given the recent trend towards diversion of corn to produce ethanol. Ethanol is fast becoming a standard 10% ethanol additive to petroleum products, the largest traded commodity. Thus the impact of large-scale drought will have dramatic impact on the petroleum prices as well as on food prices. USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) serves as a focal point for economic intelligence and the commodity outlook for U.S. WAOB depends on Drought Monitor and has emphatically stated that accurate and timely data are needed in operational agrometeorological services to generate reliable projections for agricultural decision makers. Thus, improvements in the prediction of drought will reflect in early and accurate assessment of crop yields, which in turn will improve commodity projections. We have developed a drought assessment tool, which accounts for the water stress in the context of crop phenology. The crop modeling component is done using various crop modules within Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT). DSSAT is an agricultural crop

  14. Research and innovation in agriculture: beyond productivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Viaggi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the effects of research and innovation in agriculture have been largely characterised by efforts to make a connection between expenditure and productivity. A number of issues have challenged the ability of productivity to measure the effects of research, namely, in recent years, increasing efforts towards improving the environmental performance of the farming sector. Besides environmental concerns, however, a number of recent concepts have emerged that are shaping the current research and policy agenda and which could result in a revision of the productivity concepts used to evaluate research impacts. The objective of this paper is to discuss these issues and their implications for studies on the impact of research and innovation. We address, in particular, the following issues: a the development of the of bioeconomy and related concepts such as the circular economy, resource efficiency and bio-refinery; b the connection with entrepreneurship and eco-innovation; c changing tools in research assessment, in particular the widespread use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA; and d the evolving concepts of sustainability and ecosystem services. We argue that while the traditional notion of productivity, intended as output/input ratio, maintains (and may be strengthens its role on the aggregate, a more analytical interpretation of the pathways towards research impacts is needed, as well as a broadened view of productivity and its determinants.

  15. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  16. Radiation technology for enhancing agriculture productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to develop improved crop varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate of pesticides, to study fertilizer and plant micronutrient uptake and to preserve agricultural produce. This is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit. Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has contributed significantly in this area especially in the development of new mutant crop varieties which are benefitting the farmers in enhancing their productivity. With an effective blend of induced mutagenesis and recombination breeding, 42 new crop varieties developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) have been released and Gazette notified by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for commercial cultivation. These include 21 in oilseeds (15-groundnut, 3 mustard , 2 soybean, 1 sunflower), 19 in pulses (8-mungbean, 5-urdbean, 5-pigeonpea, 1-cowpea) and one each in rice and jute. Some of the desirable traits which have been bred through induced mutations in these crops include higher yields, improved quality traits, early maturity and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Several of these varieties have high patronage from the farming community and are grown extensively across the country. Groundnut varieties have given record yields in farmer's fields. Pulses such as mung, urid and tur are popular among farmers in view of their disease resistance and suitability to rice fallow situations. Many of the breeding programmes in national/state systems have been utilizing BARC varieties as parental materials/donors and have developed several other improved varieties using them. (author)

  17. Environment-Friendly Control of Pear Scab and Rust Using Lime Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hoon Cha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pear scab and rust are the major diseases causing severe epidemics in organic cultivation of pear trees. Incidences of pear scab and rust were compared in organically managed plots and conventionally managed plots to obtain optimum application schedule of environment-friendly control agents in organically managed plots. Organically cultural practice with 10 time-applications of lime sulfur and Bordeaux mixture showed higher than 40% of control efficacies of pear scab and rust compared to conventionally cultural practice. Organically cultural practice with 8 time-applications of lime sulfur considering weather condition showed higher than 30% of control efficacies of pear scab compared to conventionally cultural practice. The results suggest that proper application of environment-friendly control agents such as lime sulfur considering weather condition will enable effective control of the major diseases for organic cultivation of pear.

  18. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural production of liquid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural production of liquid biofuels can have positive effects. It can decrease dependence on fossil fuels and increase farmers’ incomes. Agricultural production of mixed perennial biofuel crops may increase pollinator and avian richness. Most types of agricultural crop-based liquid biofuel

  19. Systems of innovation and agricultural productivity in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essay presents an overview of the prevailing theoretical literature on innovation and agriculture. It also examines the adequacy of existing innovation to guide policy regarding agricultural productivity. In addition, the essay sketches some directions for fruitful linkage in innovation systems and agricultural productivity.

  20. Unpacking the Nexus in Food Prices, Agricultural Productivity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rising food prices and low agricultural productivity are major threats to feeding the teeming population of the most populous nation in Africa - Nigeria. Besides, poverty incidence in Nigeria constitutes a drawback to agricultural and economic development. Low agricultural productivity (output per hectare or yield) for cereals ...

  1. Preparation and mechanism analysis of an environment-friendly maize seed coating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Defang; Fan, Zhao; Tian, Xu; Wang, Wenjin; Zhou, Mingchun; Li, Haochuan

    2017-11-23

    Traditional seed coating agents often contain toxic ingredients, which contaminate the environment and threaten human health. This paper expounds a method of preparing a novel environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize and researches its mechanism of action. The natural polysaccharide polymer, which is the main active ingredient of this environment-friendly seed coating agent, has the characteristics of innocuity and harmlessness, and it can replace the toxic ingredients used in traditional seed coating agents. This environment-friendly seed coating agent for maize was mainly made up of the natural polysaccharide polymer and other additives. The field trials results showed that the control efficacy of Helminthosporium maydis came to 93.72%, the anti-feeding rate of cutworms came to 81.29%, and the maize yield was increased by 17.75%. Besides, the LD 50 value (half the lethal dose in rats) of this seed coating agent was 10 times higher than that of the traditional seed coating agents. This seed coating agent could improve the activity of plant protective enzymes (peroxidase, catalase and superoxidase dismutase) and increase the chlorophyll content. This seed coating agent has four characteristics of disease prevention, desinsectization, increasing yield and safety. Results of mechanism analyses showed that this seed coating agent could enhance disease control effectiveness by improving plant protective enzymes activity and increase maize yield by improving chlorophyll content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  3. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  4. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  5. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Improving food and agricultural production with nuclear and related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderdeelen, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the northern and north-eastern regions of Thailand, low agricultural production is due mainly to poor soil conditions and variability in the seasonal rainfall distribution. With respect to the former aspect, phosphorus fertilization is one of the major constraints. The aim of the mission was to provide guidance on the studies addressing the use of naturally occurring rock phosphate deposits or phosphate fertilizer. 9 refs, 3 tabs

  6. Effects of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity in the Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the dynamics of climate on agricultural production are the thrust of this paper. Temperature, rainfall and crops (rice, maize, cassava, groundnut and garden eggs) data were collected for a period of 10 years from the meteorological and agricultural department of the Agricultural development programme (ADP) ...

  7. Utilization of agricultural waste in power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, J.C. [ELSAMPROJEKT A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Rasmussen, I. [MIDTKRAFT Power Co., Aarhus (Denmark)

    1993-12-31

    It is a goal of the Danish energy policy for the last decade to reduce energy consumption and to introduce fuels for power production with less CO{sub 2} emission than coal. This measure has caused a considerable effort by the Danish utilities to develop technologies that reduce CO{sub 2} emissions without causing heavy cost increases of power. Agricultural waste in the form of surplus straw is available in an amount equivalent to 20% of the annual coal imports to Denmark. Straw firing is difficult due to its significant contents of alkaline components. Consequently, its utilization presupposes the development of new technologies. The biomass development program is concentrated on two ways which are (1) co-firing of existing coal fired power station with a modest amount of straw and (2) development of CFB technology that allows a high share of biomass as well as coal only. These options were tested in a coal fired 70 MW spreader stoker unit and a 125 MW PF unit. Approx. 4000 t of straw were burned. Additional tests will be launched this autumn, burning 35,000 t of straw at rates up to 20% straw. The CFB option is pursued from the platform of a 80 MWth unit, operational early `92. This plant burns a mix of 50% straw and 50% coal and consumes annually 70.000 t of straw. Future development is aiming towards CFBs of 250 MW(e), burning in excess of 50% biomass.

  8. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Braide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of ethanol production from agro wastes. Agro waste from sugarcane Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane baggasse, sugarcane bark and maize plant Zea mays (corncob, corn stalk, corn husk was subjected to a pretreatment process using acid hydrolysis was applied to remove lignin which acts as physical barrier to cellulolytic enzymes. Ethanolic fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 5days and the ethanol yield, specific gravity, pH and total reducing sugar were also determined. From the results, the specific gravity, sugar content and pH decreased over time while the Sugarcane baggasse, Sugarcane bark, Cornstalk, Corncob and Cornhusk gave maximum percentage ethanol yield of 6.72, 6.23, 6.17, 4.17 and 3.45 respectively at 72hrs Fermentation. Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste.

  9. Green biotechnology, nanotechnology and bio-fortification: perspectives on novel environment-friendly crop improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashveer, Shikha; Singh, Vikram; Kaswan, Vineet; Kaushik, Amit; Tokas, Jayanti

    2014-10-01

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are prominent issues for this century. As the world's population continues to increase, ensuring that the earth has enough food that is nutritious too will be a difficult task. Today one billion people of the world are undernourished and more than a third are malnourished. Moreover, the looming threat of climate change is exasperating the situation even further. At the same time, the total acreage of arable land that could support agricultural use is already near its limits, and may even decrease over the next few years due to salination and desertification patterns resulting from climate change. Clearly, changing the way we think about crop production must take place on multiple levels. New varieties of crops must be developed which can produce higher crop yields with less water and fewer agricultural inputs. Besides this, the crops themselves must have improved nutritional qualities or become biofortified in order to reduce the chances of 'hidden hunger' resulting from malnourishment. It is difficult to envision the optimum way to increase crop production using a single uniform strategy. Instead, a variety of approaches must be employed and tailored for any particular agricultural setting. New high-impact technologies such as green biotechnology, biofortification, and nanotechnology offer opportunities for boosting agricultural productivity and enhancing food quality and nutritional value with eco-friendly manner. These agricultural technologies currently under development will renovate our world to one that can comfortably address the new directions, our planet will take as a result of climate change.

  10. Biorefinery concept in organic agriculture: combined bioethanol and biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Kádár, Zsófia; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Organic agriculture is one sustainable alternative to avoid the negative environmental effects often caused by conventional agriculture. BioConcens is an interdisciplinary project aims at developing new biorefinery concept and processes for co-production of bioethanol, biogas and animal feed based on resources from organic agriculture (clover grass, straw) and associated food processing (whey). Bioenergy produced in organic agriculture can reduce its dependency of fossil fuels and decrease gr...

  11. Climate change and agricultural production | Offiong | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The threat of global environmental change has tended to focus on the possible impacts of a changing environment on agriculture and the implications for global food security. From a policy viewpoint, however, it is also difficult to understand the level to which agriculturally related activities may contribute to global-scale ...

  12. Pests and Agricultural Production under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Ameden, Holly A.; Just, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the effect of climate change on agricultural pests has been studied by biologists, thus far, large-scale assessments of climate change and agriculture have not included the impact of pests. We develop a simple theoretical model of farmer-pest interaction under climate change and explore the potential impacts on land values.

  13. Research on the Eco-tourism and Environment-friendly Land Use Patterns in Shangri-La

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Fei; Li, Wei; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Through the analysis of the geographical features of the Shangri-La, the eco-tourism and environment-friendly land use patterns were proposed. And the significances of the mode of economic development in Shangri-La were analyzed.

  14. PRODUCTION POTENTIAL AND AGRICULTURAL EFFECTIVENESS IN EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Baer-Nawrocka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to assess the relation between agricultural production factors and effectiveness in European Union’s agriculture. For each country two synthetic coefficients were calculated using TOPSIS method. The first one characterises production factors relations, the latter one displays effectiveness of production factors. The objective of the research was to verify the correlation between these indices. The analysis proved that in many analysed countries the agricultural potential is correlated positively with the agricultural effectiveness. 

  15. Evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiti, K.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960 with the help of variable quantifies of products, the cultured area and the exported quantifies of products. A comparative analysis of quantifies of studied products shows that after 1960, the agricultural production of basis foodstuffs of the Zairian population has fallen of the order of 91 % in comparison with the first period. This study shows that the system of peasantry introduced in 1936 by the INEAC, the rationalization of cultural methods connected to the governmental explain the agricultural expansion of Zaire before 1960.

  16. Size and efficiency of the production factors in Romanian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burja Camelia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania has favourable conditions to develop the agriculture thanks to its significant agricultural land, climate conditions and labour force employed in this sector. In the last decades, the economic transition has determined major structural transformations within the agriculture sector, which generated certain disparities between the performance of Romania's agriculture and that of the EU's developed countries. This paper deals with the relationship between the size of agricultural holdings and the performance of the agricultural production factors in Romania. In order to achieve the paper's goal, we used the Data Envelopment Analysis and the comparative analysis, taking into account the features of the other EU countries. The research findings revealed that the efficiency of production factors used in agriculture is low and, therefore, a new organization of holdings is required. This can lead to an optimal sizing of the holdings, so that the differences in performance compared to the EU's developed countries to be minimized or even eliminated.

  17. 46 CFR 111.105-45 - Vessels carrying agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying agricultural products. 111.105-45... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-45 Vessels carrying agricultural products. (a) The following areas are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on vessels...

  18. The Status of Human Nutrition and Agricultural Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Bonita; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The authors state that the U.S. Department of Agriculture should be considering productive alternatives for the American farmer, exploring ways to use or export the excess fat, and should be spending at least half of its resources to convince the consumers of the value they are getting from agricultural products. (CT)

  19. Improving agricultural production under water scarcity in Fars province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, M.R.; Haile, A.M.; McClain, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water scarcity is one of the major limiting factor for improving agricultural production in the world, which significantly affects agricultural production and livelihood of millions of people who live in arid and semi-arid regions. This case study presents the analysis of the effectiveness

  20. Effects Of Agricultural Extension On Cassava And Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the effects of agricultural extension on food production in Abak Agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom state. Specifically, the effect was measured using the productivity of small-scale maize and cassava farmers between the years 2004 and 2005. Data for the study were collected from 108 ...

  1. Implications of middlemen in the supply chain of agricultural products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper appraised the roles of middlemen in the distribution of agricultural products and the inherent implications to food security. The results showed that climate and weather are known limiting factors of production in agriculture. Also, middlemen intervention raise price for consumers. The result showed that farmers ...

  2. A Spatial Data Model Desing For The Management Of Agricultural Data (Farmer, Agricultural Land And Agricultural Production)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkanat, Talha; İbrahim İnan, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 2000s, it has been conducted many projects such as Agricultural Sector Integrated Management Information System, Agriculture Information System, Agricultural Production Registry System and Farmer Registry System by the Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and the Turkish Statistical Institute in order to establish and manage better agricultural policy and produce better agricultural statistics in Turkey. Yet, it has not been carried out any study for the structuring of a system which can meet the requirements of different institutions and organizations that need similar agricultural data. It has been tried to meet required data only within the frame of the legal regulations from present systems. Whereas the developments in GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and standardization, and Turkey National GIS enterprise in this context necessitate to meet the demands of organizations that use the similar data commonly and to act in terms of a data model logic. In this study, 38 institutions or organization which produce and use agricultural data were detected, that and thanks to survey and interviews undertaken, their needs were tried to be determined. In this study which is financially supported by TUBITAK, it was worked out relationship between farmer, agricultural land and agricultural production data and all of the institutions and organizations in Turkey and in this context, it was worked upon the best detailed and effective possible data model. In the model design, UML which provides object-oriented design was used. In the data model, for the management of spatial data, sub-parcel data model was used. Thanks to this data model, declared and undeclared areas can be detected spatially, and thus declarations can be associated to sub-parcels. Within this framework, it will be able to developed agricultural policies as a result of acquiring more extensive, accurate, spatially manageable and easily updatable farmer and

  3. Impact of greenhouse gases on agricultural productivity in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valasai, G.D; Harijan, K.; Uqaili, M.S.; Memon, H.R

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan is an agricultural developing country. About 68% of the country's population resides in rural areas and is mostly linked with agriculture. Agricultural sector contributes more than 25% to GDP, employees about 45% of the labour force and contributes significantly to export earnings of the country. Energy sector is the major source (80%) of emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Agriculture and livestock sectors are also responsible for GHGs emissions. The emissions of GHGs results in acid rain and earth's temperature rise (global warming). The destabilization of the global climate destroys natural ecosystem and increases natural disasters, such as violent storms, floods, droughts etc. The acid rain and these natural disasters affect the agricultural productivity. The study indicates that the agricultural productivity per capita in Pakistan decreased continuously during the last two decades. The paper concludes that due to emissions of GHGs, the agricultural productivity is significantly affected in the country. The government should take concrete measures to minimize the emissions of GHGs for increasing the agricultural productivity and reducing other harmful impacts in the country. This paper presents the review and analysis of the effects of GHGs emissions on the agricultural productivity in Pakistan. (author)

  4. Marketing Agricultural Products. Curriculum Guide Developed for Secondary and Post Secondary Agriculture Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    This curriculum guide can be used by secondary and postsecondary agriculture instructors for a semester course in marketing agricultural products or individual units can be incorporated in other courses. The curriculum guide consists of six units of study made up of two to eight lessons each. The units cover the following topics: (1) marketing…

  5. Agricultural Production. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  6. Fiscal 1998 R and D project on global environmental industrial technology. R and D result report on environment- friendly production technology (advanced chemical synthesis reactor); 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Kankyo chowagata seisan gijutsu (kokino kagaku gosei bio reactor) kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For high-efficiency production of substances by bioreactor, study was made on a bio-control mechanism as its elementary technology. On the study of breeding technology by expression control, the structure design of a control region and development of new expression vectors had been finished, and study was made on breeding of high-efficiency recombinant production cells by using candidate expression vectors. On the study of breeding technology by multi-stage enzyme reaction control, the enzyme gene of a system synthesizing cysteine from glycerol was searched, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde hydrogenase gene was isolated as substance production model. Cysteine production Escherichia coli combined with serineacetyl transferase gene was also prepared. In addition, study started on cloning of hydroxyacetone oxidase gene. On development of reactor system technology, for conversion of serine to cysteine, study was made on optimization of a reaction condition by theory of enzyme reaction rate. (NEDO)

  7. Energy production and use in Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, W.A.; Lange, J.M.; Wit, de C.T.

    1974-01-01

    Energy relationschips in the agriculture of one of the most densely populated areas of the world, the Nether lands, are described. The Netherlands appear selfsupporting in food energy. However, if one takes account of energy consumption in horticulture, the direct and indirect fossil energy cost

  8. Alternative Agricultural Enterprises. Production, Management & Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Linda Kirk; And Others

    These nine cooperative extension bulletins provide basic information on various alternative agricultural enterprises. Discussed in the first eight bulletins are the following topics: business ownership (sole proprietorship, partnership, incorporation, cooperatives); business and the family (goals, qualifications, ways of ensuring family support,…

  9. Agricultural Productivity, Co-Operatives and Organisational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, coffee farmers were able to innovate a new structure for harmonising the institutional linkages between their cooperative societies (AMCOS and SACCOS) which is called “integrated co-operative model”. The model proves to be one among the key organizational tools for revamping and sustaining agricultural ...

  10. PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM AGRICULTURAL WASTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Braide W, Kanu I.A, Oranusi U.S and Adeleye S.A

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... sugars that make up these left over materials could not be efficiently converted into ethanol by. Saccharomyces ... agricultural waste using separate hydrolysis and fermentation also had problems as the higher .... at 24hrs of nitrogen starvation, reduced the fermentative capacity by 70-75percent depending.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    Global climate change is recognised as one of the major current challenges to humanity. At the same time, climate change is human induced and we hold the opportunity to react accordingly. While global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to rise, emissions from agriculture and land-use change...

  12. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Policies for reduced deforestation and their impact on agricultural production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsen, Arild

    2010-11-16

    Policies to effectively reduce deforestation are discussed within a land rent (von Thünen) framework. The first set of policies attempts to reduce the rent of extensive agriculture, either by neglecting extension, marketing, and infrastructure, generating alternative income opportunities, stimulating intensive agricultural production or by reforming land tenure. The second set aims to increase either extractive or protective forest rent and--more importantly--create institutions (community forest management) or markets (payment for environmental services) that enable land users to capture a larger share of the protective forest rent. The third set aims to limit forest conversion directly by establishing protected areas. Many of these policy options present local win-lose scenarios between forest conservation and agricultural production. Local yield increases tend to stimulate agricultural encroachment, contrary to the logic of the global food equation that suggests yield increases take pressure off forests. At national and global scales, however, policy makers are presented with a more pleasant scenario. Agricultural production in developing countries has increased by 3.3-3.4% annually over the last 2 decades, whereas gross deforestation has increased agricultural area by only 0.3%, suggesting a minor role of forest conversion in overall agricultural production. A spatial delinking of remaining forests and intensive production areas should also help reconcile conservation and production goals in the future.

  14. Norway's centres for environment-friendly energy research (CEERs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    In February 2009 Norway's Minister of Petroleum and Energy announced the establishment of eight new Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (CEERs). The centres form national teams within the areas of offshore wind energy, solar energy, energy efficiency, bio energy, energy planning and design, and carbon capture and storage. These centres are: BIGCCS Centre - International CCS Research Centre; Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy (CEDREN); Bioenergy Innovation Centre (CenBio); Norwegian Centre for Offshore Wind Energy (NORCOW E); Norwegian Research Centre for Offshore Wind Technology (NOWITECH); The Norwegian Research Centre for Solar Cell Technology; SUbsurface CO{sub 2} storage - Critical Elements and Superior Strategy (SUCCESS) The Research Centre on Zero Emission Buildings - ZEB (AG)

  15. Agricultural productivity, malnutrition and human health in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review examined the current state of agricultural productivity, food security, the prevalence of malnutrition and health status in Sub-Saharan Africa. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy of most countries in this region, and this sector is characterized by gross underperformance. This is because majority of farmers ...

  16. Effects of climate change on agricultural production and rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is need for sustainable agriculture to meet the increasing demand for food for the growing population in Nigeria. In order to ensure food security, we need to understand the climatic changes around us and how it affects agricultural productivity and rural livelihood. Climate change and global warming is the current ...

  17. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  18. Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although agriculture is the major economic activity in Nigerian rural areas, its inhabitants are among the most vulnerable to food and nutrition insecurity. Therefore, any effort aimed at minimizing food and nutrition insecurity must start from rural areas. This study examines agricultural production, food and nutrition security in ...

  19. Socio – Economic Determinants Of Agricultural Production By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined socio-economic determinants of agricultural production by women farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 120 women farmers across the three agricultural zones of Aba, Umuahia and Ohafia using a well structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the ...

  20. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  1. Fiscal 1996 report on the results of the R and D under a consignment from NEDO of the environment friendly type production technology. High-functional chemical synthesis bioreactor (for public); 1996 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin Energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Kankyo chowagata seisan gijutsu (kokino kagaku gosei bioreactor) kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of developing production technology of chemical substances which are resource conservative, energy saving and less in environmental loads, a R and D was conducted of a high-functional chemical synthesis bioreactor. The paper reported the results of fiscal 1996. As for proliferation control breeding technology, relating to the switch control technology of proliferation related genes by regulatory factors, the effectiveness on an incubator level was demonstrated, and at the same time improvement of reactor performance in using this technology was studied on paper. As to the manifestation control breeding technology, the actual design of the development of manifestation promotion technology by bent DNA, etc. was proceeded with, and at the same time the following were commenced: selection of bent DNA, confirmation of bent characteristics, and work of vector construction using candidate bent DNA. Further, the simple assessment system of manifestation vectors was constructed. In the development of bioreactor system technology, the actual design was started of the two-stage culture continuance system which separated proliferation and enzyme production. 48 refs., 41 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Determinants and impacts of public agricultural research in Japan: Product level evidence on agricultural Kosetsushi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukugawa, Nobuya

    2017-12-01

    The public sector is an important source of agricultural research as the agricultural sector in many countries consists of a number of individual farmers who have difficulty in bearing the cost of research and development. Public institutes for testing and research called Kosetsushi help agriculture and manufacturing improve labor productivity through technology transfer activities, whereby constituting an important component of regional innovation systems in Japan. This study establishes panel data of agricultural Kosetsushi and examines whether their research activities are responsive to local needs and which type of research effort is conducive to the promotion of agricultural product innovations. Estimation results reveal variations across plants in the impacts of agricultural clusters on research on the plant conducted by Kosetsushi located in the cluster. A positive impact is observed only for vegetable while negative or statistically insignificant relationships are found for rice, fruit, and flower. The impact of research on plant breeding on agricultural product innovations also varies across plants. Policy implications of the major findings are discussed.

  3. Studies on preservation of agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.H.; Kwon, S.H.; Lee, Y.I.; Chae, J.C.; Shin, I.C.

    1981-01-01

    This study was attempted to develop and establish the preservation techniques of agricultural products by irradiation through ascertainment of the optimum irradiation doses for sprout inhibition of white potato and chestnut, and for disinfestation of rice insects during storage

  4. Radiation Processed Materials in Products from Polymers for Agricultural Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This publication results from a technical meeting on radiation processed materials in products from polymers for agricultural applications, which was held from 8 to 12 July 2013 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting provided a forum for the sharing of practical experiences and lessons learned, and reviewed the recent developments in the use of radiation technologies for the preparation of environmental friendly products based on polymers for agricultural applications

  5. Computerised image analysis of biocrystallograms originating from agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens-Otto; Henriksen, Christian B.; Laursen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Procedures are presented for computerised image analysis of iocrystallogram images, originating from biocrystallization investigations of agricultural products. The biocrystallization method is based on the crystallographic phenomenon that when adding biological substances, such as plant extracts...... on up to eight parameters indicated strong relationships, with R2 up to 0.98. It is concluded that the procedures were able to discriminate the seven groups of images, and are applicable for biocrystallization investigations of agricultural products. Perspectives for the application of image analysis...

  6. 27 CFR 24.204 - Other agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., provided the alcohol content of the finished wine after complete fermentation or after complete... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other agricultural products. 24.204 Section 24.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...

  7. Production of extracellular amylase from agricultural residues by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of extracellular amylases by solid state fermentation (SSF) was investigated employing our laboratory isolate Aspergillus sp.MK07. Various agricultural residual substrates like wheat bran, rice bran and green gram husk were studied for enzyme production. Highest enzyme production was obtained with ...

  8. A THEORETICAL SPOTLIGHT OVER THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcza Teodora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at identifying and classifying new types of agricultural products, especially in Romania, but not only. As we well know, all the countries all over the world have their own history, traditions, economic structure, and a certain type of agriculture, adapted to their soil, climate, and nevertheless to theirs people needs. So, we know that certain countries used to cultivate certain agricultural products, while others are wellknown for others. Usually, we associate Spain with great wines, Belgium with delicious chocolate, Turkey with coffee, India with rice, Romania with grain, Russia with cereals, SUA – tobacco, etc.\\r\

  9. Environment-friendly green chemistry approaches for an efficient synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols catalyzed by tannic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, facile, cost-effective and environment-friendly protocol is reported for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols exploring tannic acid as a novel, cheap and biodegradable catalyst. β-naphthol is condensed with substituted aromatic aldehydes and various amides using catalytic amount of tannic acid in the absence of solvent under thermal (hot plate and oil bath and microwave irradiation techniques. This green protocol offers many advantages such as short reaction time, use of environment-friendly and cheap catalyst and good to excellent yields.

  10. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  11. Production of Cellulosic Polymers from Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Israel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic polymers namely cellulose, di-and triacetate were produced from fourteen agricultural wastes; Branch and fiber after oil extraction from oil palm (Elais guineensis, raffia, piassava, bamboo pulp, bamboo bark from raphia palm (Raphia hookeri, stem and cob of maize plant (Zea mays, fruit fiber from coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera, sawdusts from cotton tree (Cossypium hirsutum, pear wood (Manilkara obovata, stem of Southern gamba green (Andropogon tectorus, sugarcane baggase (Saccharium officinarum and plantain stem (Musa paradisiaca. They were subjected to soda pulping and hypochlorite bleaching system. Results obtained show that pulp yield from these materials were: 70.00, 39.59, 55.40, 86.00, 84.60, 80.00, 40.84, 81.67, 35.70, 69.11, 4.54, 47.19, 31.70 and 52.44% respectively. The pulps were acetylated with acetic anhydride in ethanoic acid catalyzed by conc. H2SO4 to obtain cellulose derivatives (Cellulose diacetate and triacetate. The cellulose diacetate yields were 41.20, 17.85, 23.13, 20.80, 20.23, 20.00, 39.00, 44.00, 18.80, 20.75, 20.03, 41.20, 44.00, and 39.00% respectively while the results obtained as average of four determinations for cellulose triacetate yields were: 52.00, 51.00, 43.10, 46.60, 49.00, 35.00, 40.60, 54.00, 57.50, 62.52, 35.70. 52.00, 53.00 and 38.70% respectively for all the agricultural wastes utilized. The presence of these cellulose derivatives was confirmed by a solubility test in acetone and chloroform.

  12. Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael; Tilman, David

    2017-06-01

    Global agricultural feeds over 7 billion people, but is also a leading cause of environmental degradation. Understanding how alternative agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice drive environmental degradation is necessary for reducing agriculture’s environmental impacts. A meta-analysis of life cycle assessments that includes 742 agricultural systems and over 90 unique foods produced primarily in high-input systems shows that, per unit of food, organic systems require more land, cause more eutrophication, use less energy, but emit similar greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) as conventional systems; that grass-fed beef requires more land and emits similar GHG emissions as grain-feed beef; and that low-input aquaculture and non-trawling fisheries have much lower GHG emissions than trawling fisheries. In addition, our analyses show that increasing agricultural input efficiency (the amount of food produced per input of fertilizer or feed) would have environmental benefits for both crop and livestock systems. Further, for all environmental indicators and nutritional units examined, plant-based foods have the lowest environmental impacts; eggs, dairy, pork, poultry, non-trawling fisheries, and non-recirculating aquaculture have intermediate impacts; and ruminant meat has impacts ∼100 times those of plant-based foods. Our analyses show that dietary shifts towards low-impact foods and increases in agricultural input use efficiency would offer larger environmental benefits than would switches from conventional agricultural systems to alternatives such as organic agriculture or grass-fed beef.

  13. An Application of RFID in Monitoring Agricultural Material Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianhui; Li, Peipei; Gao, Wanlin; Wang, Dezhong; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Yilong

    With the development of modern agriculture, more and more agricultural material products are used in it. While how to keep these things safe is a big problem at present, which needs to be paid more attention. This article develops an agricultural material products monitor system based on RFID which gives alarm as soon as possible if there is anything unmoral. Every warehouse exit is equipped with a RFID reader, while each agricultural material product has a tag on them. When passing though, the reader identifies the tag's information and transfer it to the PC, The PC inquiries the database storing all tags' information, and tells which one is not taken out legally by alarming aloud.

  14. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Tu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and farmers′ practices involved for making energy available. With the production of bioenergy in rural areas, practices within agriculture are transformed, requiring new ways of organizing production processes. Research has left the question largely unanswered of how agricultural biogas production and use are – and can best be – organized within rural society. Which kinds of social organization exist, how are these embedded in existing agricultural institutions and practices, and how do these systems function? Under which conditions may the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use work sustainably? This introduction article to the Special Issue “The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use” presents a framework for analysing the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use presented hereafter. Analysis parameters are the supply network, distribution network, distribution of benefits, social boundaries of the system (accessibility) and scale. Using these parameters, the Special Issue articles are outlined. - Highlights: • Through agricultural institutions and farmers′ practices, biogas is made available. • Scale, supply and delivery network distinguish biogas infrastructural systems. • Access and benefit distribution are key for a biogas system′s sustainability

  15. Globalisation, Powerty and Genetically Modified Agricultural Product

    OpenAIRE

    Aktas, Erkan

    2006-01-01

    Poverty and income equality have become to stand in the forefront of the world that globalised through neo-classical policies after 1980. Besides technological dependence, globalisation wave has also led to a commercial dependence of surrounding countries to the central countries as well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate globalisation process in the world through its results of technological development and poverty. Production of genetically modified products which were justified as a...

  16. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Radiation exposure has been paid attention as an alternative technique of methylbromide to protect agricultural products against insects. However, it has been pointed out that radiation at a dose lower than 300-400 Gy necessary for insecticidal effects might produce damages in fresh agricultural products. To reduce such radiation damages, radiation sensitivities of various fresh products were determined to clarify whether sugar treatment is effective for reduction of damages. Further, the timing of the treatment and its influence on the metabolism of agricultural product were investigated. When sucrose was added to a cut flower of chrysanthemum via water before and during irradiation, the withering time of its leaves and flowers was earlier than that of the untreated product, whereas continuous administration of sucrose after radiation exposure caused to lengthen the flower`s life and delay the leave`s yellowing. Thus, it was indicated that continuous sugar supply after irradiation was effective for prevention of radiation damages. (M.N.)

  17. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Radiation exposure has been paid attention as an alternative technique of methylbromide to protect agricultural products against insects. However, it has been pointed out that radiation at a dose lower than 300-400 Gy necessary for insecticidal effects might produce damages in fresh agricultural products. To reduce such radiation damages, radiation sensitivities of various fresh products were determined to clarify whether sugar treatment is effective for reduction of damages. Further, the timing of the treatment and its influence on the metabolism of agricultural product were investigated. When sucrose was added to a cut flower of chrysanthemum via water before and during irradiation, the withering time of its leaves and flowers was earlier than that of the untreated product, whereas continuous administration of sucrose after radiation exposure caused to lengthen the flower's life and delay the leave's yellowing. Thus, it was indicated that continuous sugar supply after irradiation was effective for prevention of radiation damages. (M.N.)

  18. Forest production for tropical America. Agriculture handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, F.H.

    1997-12-01

    This book is concerned primarily with wood production. Without the direct economic returns possible therefrom, the other, less tangible benefits that accrue from forests are in jeopardy in the face of developmental pressures driven by more attractive direct financial incentives. Nevertheless, multiple benefits from forests are inseparable, so the goal should be to make forest productive for all purposes. Forest production, then, as here defined refers to all the values of forests, including those primarily esthetic. The text emphasizes two vital relations. One is that forestry is ecological. Forest managers must be oriented to accept ecological information fundamental to goals and practices. A rift between the two disciplines that exists elsewhere must not intensify in tropical America. Forest production is forestry, not ecology, but intimacy between the two disciplines is mutually vital. The second relation emphasized in the book is that in productive forest management the animal component is as crucial as the plants, The value of animals to forest ecosystems goes far beyond their physical attraction.

  19. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams

  20. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  1. Next Generation Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, John M.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural system models have become important tools to provide predictive and assessment capability to a growing array of decision-makers in the private and public sectors. Despite ongoing research and model improvements, many of the agricultural models today are direct descendants of research investments initially made 30-40 years ago, and many of the major advances in data, information and communication technology (ICT) of the past decade have not been fully exploited. The purpose of this Special Issue of Agricultural Systems is to lay the foundation for the next generation of agricultural systems data, models and knowledge products. The Special Issue is based on a 'NextGen' study led by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  2. Outsourcing Agricultural Production: Evidence from Rice Farmers in Zhejiang Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ji

    Full Text Available China has recorded positive growth rates of grain production for the past eleven consecutive years. This is a remarkable accomplishment given that China's rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to a vast reduction of arable land and agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors. While there are many factors contributing to this happy outcome, one potential contributing factor that has received increasing attention is the emergence of agricultural production outsourcing, a new rural institution that has emerged in recent years. This study aims to contribute to the limited but growing literature on agricultural production outsourcing in China. Specifically, this study analyzes factors affecting farmers' decisions to outsource any or some production tasks using data from rice farmers in Zhejiang province. Results from a logistic model show that farm size and government subsidy encourages farmers to outsource while ownership of agricultural machines and land fragmentation have negative effects on farmers' decisions to outsource production tasks. Results also showed that determinants of outsourcing decisions vary with the production tasks that farmers outsourced.

  3. Outsourcing Agricultural Production: Evidence from Rice Farmers in Zhejiang Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chen; Guo, Hongdong; Jin, Songqing; Yang, Jin

    2017-01-01

    China has recorded positive growth rates of grain production for the past eleven consecutive years. This is a remarkable accomplishment given that China's rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to a vast reduction of arable land and agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors. While there are many factors contributing to this happy outcome, one potential contributing factor that has received increasing attention is the emergence of agricultural production outsourcing, a new rural institution that has emerged in recent years. This study aims to contribute to the limited but growing literature on agricultural production outsourcing in China. Specifically, this study analyzes factors affecting farmers' decisions to outsource any or some production tasks using data from rice farmers in Zhejiang province. Results from a logistic model show that farm size and government subsidy encourages farmers to outsource while ownership of agricultural machines and land fragmentation have negative effects on farmers' decisions to outsource production tasks. Results also showed that determinants of outsourcing decisions vary with the production tasks that farmers outsourced.

  4. Institutions and Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lilyan E. Fulginiti; Richard K. Perrin; Bingxin Yu

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural productivity in 41 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from 1960 to 1999 is examined by estimating a semi-nonparametric Fourier production frontier. Over the four decades the estimated rate of productivity change was 0.83% per year, although the average rate from 1985-99 was a strong 1.90% per year. Former UK colonies exhibited significantly higher productivity gains than others, while Liberia and countries that had been colonies of Portugal or Belgium exhibited net reductions in ...

  5. A Synergetic Linkage between Agricultural Productivity, Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effect of health and nutrition on labour productivity of farmers in South-western Nigeria. Within this geo-political zone of the country, primary data was collected through a field survey of 470 rural farmers. Descriptive statistics, Anthropometric measures of nutrition (BMI and DDS) and the Tobit model ...

  6. Microcredit Effect on Agricultural Productivity: A Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effect of access to credit on the productivity of rural farming households in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected, with the use of well structured questionnaire, from 240 small-scale rural farmers, who were categorized into users and non-users of micro-credit based on their statement, through ...

  7. AN ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Indeed, a 1% increase in current government effectiveness input (policies) will reduce the productivity by 0.51%. As in most Sub-Sahara. Africa countries, inefficiency in public project monitoring cope with corruption problems have always been major factors limiting the country government effective actions effects. It is known.

  8. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansche, J.; Muller, J.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  9. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann; Smith, Pete; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we...... estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements...... allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural...

  10. Life cycle assessment of agricultural biogas production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansche, J.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural activities are large contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discussed the effectiveness of reducing agricultural emissions by using liquid manure to produce biogas. When using this technique, greenhouse gas emissions from manure storage are avoided and renewable energy is generated as heat and electricity in combined heat and power plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of biogas production systems based on the methods of life cycle assessment. The traditional use of agricultural manures was compared with conventional energy production. The Gabi 4.3 software was used to create a model to evaluate the biogas production systems according to their environmental impact. In addition to the global warming potential, other impact categories were also used to evaluate the effects of the systems in eutrophication and acidification. It was concluded that environmental benefits can be obtained in terms of greenhouse gas emissions compared to electricity production from biogas with the typical German marginal electricity mix.

  11. The determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at investigating the determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household income in Ethiopia. Three econometric models namely: Pooled ordinary least square (POLS), fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) model were used to examine the relationship between productivity and income; using ...

  12. The Determinants of Agricultural Productivity and Rural Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    This paper aims at investigating the determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household income in Ethiopia. Three econometric models namely: Pooled ordinary least square (POLS), fixed effects (FE) and random effects. (RE) model were used to examine the relationship between productivity and income; using ...

  13. Humic products in agriculture: Potential benefits and research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humic products have been used in cropland agriculture for several decades, but lack of widespread credibility has restricted their use to small proportions of farmers. To improve the credibility of humic products, we identify four knowledge gaps and propose pathways of future action to close these g...

  14. Analyses of Small-Scale Turkey Production in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to analyse small scale turkey production in Imo State of Nigeria. Owerri agricultural zone of Imo State harbours most of the urban cities with large population thus providing greatest market for turkey in the area. Fifty farmers in turkey production constituted sample size for this study. The data ...

  15. The Cold Chain Logistics for Perishable Agricultural Products in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hou Yanfang; Xie Dong; Wang Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces concepts of the agricultural product cold chain logistics and domestic and international researches. Also, the study discusses issues of Chinese agricultural cold chain logistics in the development process as the following aspects: the dividing of cold chain logistics market, refrigeration hardware facilities, third-party cold chain logistics development, the level of cold chain technologies, cold chain logistics professionals and the legal system and the standard system...

  16. Climate Change, Agricultural Production and Food Security: Evidence from Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Breisinger; Olivier Ecker; Perrihan Al-Riffai; Richard Robertson; Rainer Thiele

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a model-based assessment of local and global climate change impacts for the case of Yemen, focusing on agricultural production, household incomes and food security. Global climate change is mainly transmitted through rising world food prices. Our simulation results suggest that climate change induced price increases for food will raise agricultural GDP while decreasing real household incomes and food security. Rural nonfarm households are hit hardest as they tend to be net...

  17. Radiation disinfestation of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the radiodisinfestation of food and crops. Topics considered at the conference included food irradiation's impact of the US Agency for International Development, FDA regulations, irradiation as a quarantine treatment, quality attributes of irradiated fruits, low-dose irradiation, cesium 137 as a radiation source, radiosterilization, economic feasibility, marketing, consumer acceptance, and the packaging of irradiated products

  18. Product competitiveness analysis for e-commerce platform of special agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fucheng; Ma, Ning; Yang, Dongwei; Xiong, Zhangyuan

    2017-09-01

    On the basis of analyzing the influence factors of the product competitiveness of the e-commerce platform of the special agricultural products and the characteristics of the analytical methods for the competitiveness of the special agricultural products, the price, the sales volume, the postage included service, the store reputation, the popularity, etc. were selected in this paper as the dimensionality for analyzing the competitiveness of the agricultural products, and the principal component factor analysis was taken as the competitiveness analysis method. Specifically, the web crawler was adopted to capture the information of various special agricultural products in the e-commerce platform ---- chi.taobao.com. Then, the original data captured thereby were preprocessed and MYSQL database was adopted to establish the information library for the special agricultural products. Then, the principal component factor analysis method was adopted to establish the analysis model for the competitiveness of the special agricultural products, and SPSS was adopted in the principal component factor analysis process to obtain the competitiveness evaluation factor system (support degree factor, price factor, service factor and evaluation factor) of the special agricultural products. Then, the linear regression method was adopted to establish the competitiveness index equation of the special agricultural products for estimating the competitiveness of the special agricultural products.

  19. INSPIA project: European Index for Sustainable and Productive Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Tarradas, Paula; Jesús González-Sánchez, Emilio; Gómez-Ariza, Manuel; Rass, Gerard; Gardette, Sophie; Whitmore, Gavin; Dyson, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    The concept of sustainable development has evolved from a mere perception for the protection of the environment, to a holistic approach, seeking to preserve not only the environment, but also to achieve sustainability in economics and social wellbeing. Globally, there is a major challenge to face in the agricultural sector: to produce more food, feed and other raw materials to satisfy the increasing demand of a growing population, whilst also contributing to economic prosperity, climate change mitigation / adaptation, social wellbeing and preserving natural capital such as soil, water, biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nowadays, conventional approaches to agriculture are under threat. A more productive and resource efficient agriculture that integrates natural resource protection into its approach will help to meet all these challenges, enabling us to have more of everything - more food, more feed, more non-food crops, more biodiversity and natural habitats - while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, INSPIA is an innovative approach that has worked since 2013 towards demonstration that sustainable productive agriculture is possible thanks to the implementation of a host of best management practices (BMPs) capable of delivering the above achievements. The purpose on INSPIA is to make visible with European decision makers that a sustainable and productive agricultural model exists in a small scale in Europe and that wider dissemination is possible with enabling legislation. INSPIA is demonstrating sustainable agriculture through the implementation of BMPs and the measurement and monitoring of a set of defined indicators (economic, social and environmental ones). INSPIA promotes sustainable practices that protect biodiversity, soils and water and contribute towards maintaining ecosystems services. This holistic sustainable system of productive agriculture is based on the combination of Conservation Agriculture (CA) and Integrated Pest

  20. Determining climate effects on US total agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wu, You; Chambers, Robert G.; Schmoldt, Daniel L.; Gao, Wei; Liu, Chaoshun; Liu, Yan-An; Sun, Chao; Kennedy, Jennifer A.

    2017-03-01

    The sensitivity of agricultural productivity to climate has not been sufficiently quantified. The total factor productivity (TFP) of the US agricultural economy has grown continuously for over half a century, with most of the growth typically attributed to technical change. Many studies have examined the effects of local climate on partial productivity measures such as crop yields and economic returns, but these measures cannot account for national-level impacts. Quantifying the relationships between TFP and climate is critical to understanding whether current US agricultural productivity growth will continue into the future. We analyze correlations between regional climate variations and national TFP changes, identify key climate indices, and build a multivariate regression model predicting the growth of agricultural TFP based on a physical understanding of its historical relationship with climate. We show that temperature and precipitation in distinct agricultural regions and seasons explain ˜70% of variations in TFP growth during 1981-2010. To date, the aggregate effects of these regional climate trends on TFP have been outweighed by improvements in technology. Should these relationships continue, however, the projected climate changes could cause TFP to drop by an average 2.84 to 4.34% per year under medium to high emissions scenarios. As a result, TFP could fall to pre-1980 levels by 2050 even when accounting for present rates of innovation. Our analysis provides an empirical foundation for integrated assessment by linking regional climate effects to national economic outcomes, offering a more objective resource for policy making.

  1. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  2. Multicarboxylic acids as environment-friendly solvents and in situ crosslinkers for chitosan/PVA nanofibers with tunable physicochemical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangon, Autchara; Saesoo, Somsak; Saengkrit, Nattika; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Intasanta, Varol

    2016-03-15

    Monocarboxylic acids are common solvents for chitosan to fabricate nanofibers however the unpleasant odor and the additional step of fiber stabilization using crosslinkers, which might cause toxicity, are always the points to be aware of. The present work demonstrates the potential use of multicarboxylic acids as environment-friendly solvents and in situ crosslinking agents for chitosan electrospinning. The use of these solvents leads to the tunable physicochemical properties, cellular compatibility, and cost effective production. By changing di-, to tri-, and tetracarboxylic acids combining with the simple thermal treatment, the stability and mechanical properties of the nanofibrous mats, especially the elastic modulus and elongation at break, can be altered. The resulting nanofibers exhibit biocompatibility favorable for proliferation and adhesion of the osteoblast cells. The multicarboxylic acids allow us lab-scale reproducibility and possibility to semi-production of nanofibrous chitosan using Nanospider™. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according...... to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling...

  4. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  5. Innovative mechanical technologies for agricultural and forest quality productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of agricultural and forest products are related to the productive process in which innovative mechanical technologies are used. The innovation should be considered at product, process and enterprise level, the last one being considered as changes into enterprise organization, included services diversification. In the field of machinery used for agricultural products, from soil tillage to harvesting and post-harvesting processes the innovation dealing with products, but also with energy use, environmental protection, work safety has been important due to the mechanical technology output. In the forest sector working systems in which operations are carried out in totally mechanized way, with small turn to semi-mechanized operations, are growing. They are innovations that should change the relationship with young generation which could consider the mechanical technologies attractive for a working activity until now evaluated not much desiderable.

  6. PRODUCTION OF BIOFUELS AND ITS IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Krička

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a large potential for the production of energy crops on agricultural land. Global demand for food is expected to double within the coming 50 years, and demand for transportation fuels is expected to increase even more rapidly. There is a great need for renewable energy supplies for biofuel production that do not cause significant environmental harm and do not compete with food supply. In addition, biofuel by-products can be utilized as livestock feed with a substantial revenue source and significantly increases the profitability of the production process. Food-based biofuels can meet but a small portion of energy needs despite recent advances in crop yields and increased biofuel production efficiency. Therefore, biofuels that are non food-based are likely to be of far greater importance over the longer term. Reasonable values on the external effects are in most cases not enough to make agriculture-based biomass energy competitive so that considerable government subsidies are needed. Biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol that can be produced on agriculturally marginal lands with minimum fertilizer, pesticide, and fossil energy inputs, or produced with agricultural residues have potential to provide fuel supplies with greater environmental benefits that either petroleum or current food-based biofuels.

  7. Energy consumption and total factor productivity growth in Iranian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moghaddasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relation between energy consumption and growth of total factor productivity (TFP of agriculture in Iran from 1974 to 2012 using Solow residual method. The results from estimated aggregate Cobb–Douglas production function showed that one percent change in the value of labor, capital and energy will lead to 4.07, 0.09 and 0.49 percent change in agriculture value added, respectively. Also in a long term, based on the Johansen cointegration test, there is a negative relation between TFP growth and energy consumption in Iranian agriculture which might be due to cheap and inefficient energy use in this sector. Gradual liberalization of energy price and use of so called green box support policies is recommended.

  8. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  9. Multi-Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming In Agricultural Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M.I.U. Herath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Modern agriculture is characterized by a series of conflicting optimization criteria that obstruct the decision-making process in the planning of agricultural production. Such criteria are usually net profit total cost total production etc. At the same time the decision making process in the agricultural production planning is often conducted with data that accidentally occur in nature or that are fuzzy not deterministic. Such data are the yields of various crops the prices of products and raw materials demand for the product the available quantities of production factors such as water labor etc. In this paper a fuzzy multi-criteria mathematical programming model is presented. This model is applied in a region of 10 districts in Sri Lanka where paddy is cultivated under irrigated and rain fed water in the two main seasons called Yala and Maha and the optimal production plan is achieved. This study was undertaken to find out the optimal allocation of land for paddy to get a better yield while satisfying the two conflicting objectives profit maximizing and cost minimizing subjected to the utilizing of water constraint and the demand constraint. Only the availability of land constraint is considered as a crisp in nature while objectives and other constraints are treated as fuzzy. It is observed that the MOFLP is an effective method to handle more than a single objective occurs in an uncertain vague environment.

  10. Commercialization of Agricultural Research Products –A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major outcome of the study is that research organizations must implement market plans for agricultural research products, services and technologies to ensure sustainable funding of new researches. Regular interaction with farmers and other stakeholders will also elicit the opinions and concerns of the beneficiaries as ...

  11. Agricultural Productivity and Climate Change in Arid and Semiarid ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in the context of agricultural research. Activities will include assessing crop and production systems for climate vulnerability; assessing the costs and benefits of adaptation to climate change; piloting and scaling up adaptive practices in crops, livestock and land management; and gathering and disseminating climate risk ...

  12. Agricultural extension needs of farmers in Telfairia production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed agricultural extension needs of farmers in Telfairia production and marketing in Enugu State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 160 Telfairia farmers for the study. Structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Data was analysed by use of descriptive statistics and factor ...

  13. Learning from Carchi: agricultural modernisation and the production of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherwood, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Provided its natural endowments, generally educated rural population, infrastructure and market access to two countries, the Province of Carchi, located in the northernmost highlands of Ecuador, is potentially one of the most productive agriculture regions in the Andes. In the 1960s development

  14. Integrated agriculture enhances farm productivity and livelihoods in

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cassava monocropping. • Female and landless farmers have gained access to land for cultivation of short duration crops and benefited from improved practices, cultivation of best varieties and consumption of diverse species, including vegetables, through intercropping. Integrated agriculture enhances farm productivity.

  15. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  16. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  17. Assessment of rural children in agricultural production activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the participation of rural children in agricultural production activities in Ogbomoso zone of Oyo state, Nigeria with a focus on the vocational concept, belief and development of the youth from the environment in tandem with the realities of the modern day in comparison with the occupation of the old ...

  18. Effects of agricultural production on external debt management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of agricultural production on external debt management in Nigeria's for the period (1970-2003). Secondary data were ... The coefficient of multiple determination (R2) is 0.99 thus showing that 99% of the variations in external debt were explained by the independent variables. In relation to ...

  19. Ohio Agricultural Business and Production Systems. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Kershaw, Isaac; Mokma, Arnie

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in agricultural business and production systems. Following an introduction, the Ohio College Tech Prep standards and program, and relevant definitions are described. Next are the technical competency profiles for these…

  20. Mushroom production in the faculty of agriculture teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in the Teaching and Research of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The main objective was to conduct an economic assessment of mushroom production in the farm. The study utilized secondary data generated from the farm record of the farm. Gross margin model was ...

  1. Farmers' Perceptions on the Productivity of Water in Agriculture: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Awareness of the knowledge of farmers on the productivity of water in agriculture (PWA) is the basis for all irrigation activities. This paper assesses the current knowledge level of farmers towards PWA in the Debre Kidane watershed which is located in eastern Tigray. It also identifies obstacles regarding the spread ...

  2. Nanomaterials for products and application in agriculture, feed and food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Gottardo, Stefania; Amenta, Valeria; Arena, Maria; Brandhoff, Puck; Marvin, Hans J.P.; Mech, Agnieszka; Moniz, Filipa Botelho; Pesudo, Laia Quiros; Rauscher, Hubert; Schoonjans, Reinhilde; Undas, Anna K.; Vettori, Maria Vittoria; Weigel, Stefan; Aschberger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nanotechnology applications can be found in agricultural production, animal feed, food processing, food additives and food contact materials (hereinafter referred to as agri/feed/food). A great diversity of nanomaterials is reported to be currently used in various applications, while

  3. Estimating pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2000-01-01

    Emission data for pesticides from agricultural product systems may be based on national and international pesticide usage statistics, but these only provide information on the applied dose. When the field is considered as part of the technosphere, the emissions from the system are those quantitie...

  4. Product flow and price change in an agricultural distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daekyung; Yang, Seong-Gyu; Kim, Kibum; Kim, Beom Jun

    2018-01-01

    We use the structure of a real distribution network of agricultural product in Korea and investigate how the change in the supply may affect the price changes in agents across the distribution network. In particular, we focus on the real network structure of cabbage distribution composed of various types of agents, from farms to consumers, and apply a dynamic model to describe how each participant reacts upon the change of input and output flow of products through the adjustment of price. Our main result implies that the effect of fluctuation of production quantity in the supplying participant can be nontrivial and the consumer price responds to such changes. We believe that our results can be useful to predict what will happen if the agricultural production changes much in the future due to the climate changes.

  5. INDIRECT COSTS ALLOCATION AND DECISION MAKING IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karić

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a research on the changes occurred inside the accounting system of agricultural organisations in the transitional period. Changes of structure and accounting information system being results of privatisation processes were analysed. The introduction of modern methods in the preparation of relevant management information represents one of the preconditions for development of the privatised agricultural organisation during the transition period. Information prepared by the accounting, especially adapted to management requirements, is essential for rational decision making. Modern management system of reporting is fundamental task of management and a precondition for securing competitive production in agricultural industry. For this reason, it is necessary to define areas of responsibility and to enable application of a modern techniques for calculating expenses. The purpose of this paper is to emphasise the specialised use of accounting information by managers and to develop methods of management reporting in agricultural organisations. We propose an emphasis upon the application of modern management accounting techniques rather than financial accounting reporting approach. We support the contention that the need for high-quality management accounting is not debatable and tend to explain how and why accounting information is developed for the individual parts of a business entity, that is for each department or enterprise of an agricultural organisation. The responsibility accounting system should be introduced in agricultural business entities within our conditions, especially in larger organisations, as a measure of securing competitive production. We emphasise the importance of distinguishing between direct and indirect expenses and of using appropriate methods to allocate expenses among departments or enterprises. The research is based on information directly received from the largest agricultural companies in the area of

  6. Assessing Agricultural Vulnerability in India using NDVI Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushalya, R.; Praveen Kumar, V.; Shubhasmita, S.

    2014-11-01

    Impact of climate change on Indian rainfed agriculture was assessed using temporal NDVI data products from AVHRR and MODIS. Agricultural vulnerability was analysed using CV of Max NDVI from NOAA-AVHRR (15-day, 8 km) and MODIS-TERRA (16-day, 250 m) NDVI data products from 1982-2012. AVHRR dataset was found suitable for estimating regional vulnerability at state and agro-eco-sub-region (AESR) level while MODIS dataset was suitable for drawing district-level strategy for adaptation and mitigation. Methodology was developed to analyse NDVI variations with spatial pattern of rainfall using 10 X 10 girded data and spatially interpolating it to estimate Standard Precipitation Index. Study indicated large variations in vegetation dynamics across India owing to bio-climate and natural resource base. IPCC framework of vulnerability and exposure was used to identify vulnerable region extending from arid western India to semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions in central India and southern peninsula. This is a major agricultural region in the country with sizable human and livestock population with millions of marginal and small farm holdings. Exposure to climatic variability at local and regional levels have national implications and study indicated that over 122 districts extending over 110 mha was vulnerable to climate change that spread across 26 typical AESR in 11 states in India. Of the 74 mha under agriculture in the region, MODIS dataset indicated 47 mha as agriculturally vulnerable while coarser resolution of AVHRR dataset indicated a conservative estimate of 29 mha. First ever estimates of agricultural vulnerability for India indicates 20.4 to 33.1 % agricultural land under risk from climate change.

  7. Characteristics of Serbian foreign trade of agricultural and food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and food products are a significant segment of the total foreign trade of Serbia, which is characterized by a relatively high import dependency, modest export and constantly present deficit. In such conditions, agrarian sector serves as a stabilizer, and its importance is reflected in the permanently positive balance, increased participation, particularly in total exports, and balancing the trade balance of the country. The aim of the paper is to analyze the basic characteristics of foreign trade of agricultural and food products of Serbia in the period 2005-2015. The tendencies in export, import, and the level of coverage of import by export of agro-food (or agrarian products are analysed. The participation of these products in the total foreign trade of Serbia is also considered, followed by the comparison of this indicator with the neighbouring countries. In the next part of the paper, the structure of Serbian export and import of agricultural and food products (by product groups is analysed. Special attention is given to the territorial orientation of export and import of agrarian products by the most important trade partners. In order to conduct more comprehensive analysis of comparative advantages, or competitiveness of certain groups of agro-food products of Serbia in the exchange with the world, indicator of Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA is calculated. The analysis of qualitative competitiveness is derived using the indicator - unit value of export and import. The analysis points to the dynamic growth in the value of Serbian export and import of agro-food products, with the constant surplus of trade balance in the observed period. These products are significantly represented in the structure of the total foreign trade of the country, particularly in export (with about 20%. RCA indicators show that Serbia has a comparative advantage in trade of agro-food products to the world in primary products and products of lower

  8. Relationship between Balanced Fertilization and Healthy Agricultural Products (A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Malakouti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on World Health Organization (WHO report, our society’s health ranks 123 among 192 countries. Unfortunately, this ranking position is very low and its main reason is malnutrition due to imbalanced fertilization. Although more than 85% of Iranian people are not hungry, about 90% of them are suffering from cell hunger, because agricultural authorities and hence producers do not pay attention to food security. According to the latest information, about 86.5% of applied fertilizers in our country appertain to urea and triple super phosphate. In fact, this is an alarming issue in respect to the production of healthy agricultural products and it remains a threat to food security. At present, a total subsidy of more than 7,000 billion rials is paid for nitrogen (N and phosphate (P fertilizers. Whereas, it should be considered that, firstly, the efficiency of these fertilizers, due to different reasons such as mismanagement and existing subsidy level, is low and, secondly, the overuse of these fertilizers causes the accumulation of nitrate (NO3 and cadmium (Cd in agricultural products. Furthermore, according to the law of minimum, the overdosed fertilizers do not have any special positive effect on sustainable production and society’s health. Paying for such high-cost subsidy just for N and P-fertilizers has caused farmers to overuse and waste these fertilizers in the country and moreover not having any tendency to apply biologic, organic and micronutrient fertilizers. Whereas, the application of these fertilizers, beside their adaptability with the environment, has a very positive effect on the human health. Therefore, at this time scientific management of production and application of all kinds of fertilizers is inevitable. In this case, by improving the quality of all types of fertilizers, and following the principle of balanced fertilization, besides achieving the desired yield increase, the quality of agricultural products will be

  9. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in response to ethanol policy incentives in recent years is well documented and may worsen this effect. We develop a spatially distributed dynamic environmental performance index (EPI), accounting for both desirable agricultural outputs and undesirable nonpoint source emissions from farm production, to examine the corresponding changes in environmental performance within the UMRB between 2002 and 2007, which is characterized by increasing policy incentives for ethanol production. County-level production data from the USDA agricultural census are aggregated to hydrologic unit code (HUC8) boundaries using a geographic information system (GIS), and a previously developed statistical model, which includes net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) as well as precipitation and land use characteristics as inputs, is used to estimate annual nitrogen loadings delivered to streams from HUC8 watersheds. The EPI allows us to decompose performance of each HUC8 region over time into changes in productive efficiency and emissions efficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the corresponding changes in environmental performance for producers in this region at the watershed scale. The resu

  10. Cost Accounting Methods and Calculation Agricultural Products` Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule B. Spatayeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the condition of the current market the effective manage of expenses and calculation accountancy of cost production in agriculture must be aimed to control for resources usage at any level of technology process and getting the accountancy database needed for gaining the management targets.The improving the technologies and set up aspects of business entity activity, taken place for the last decades, which caused a significant influence on condition and structure expenses but could not provide the increase of economic effectiveness in agriculture.

  11. Authenticity testing of environment-friendly Korean rice (Oryza sativa L.) using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Park, Sung-Kyu; Lee, Kyoung-Jin; An, Min-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hee; Oh, Yong-Taek; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-11-01

    The increasing demand for organic foods creates, in turn, a pressing need for the development of more accurate tools for the authentication of organic food in order to ensure both fair trade and food safety. This study examines the feasibility of δ 13 C and δ 15 N analyses as potential tools for authentication of environment-friendly rice sold in Korea. δ 13 C and δ 15 N examination in different rice grains showed that environment-friendly rice can be successfully distinguished from conventional rice. No multi-residue pesticides were detected in the examined rice samples, including conventional rice. This study demonstrates the complementary feasibility of δ 13 C and δ 15 N analyses for the authentication of environment-friendly rice sold in Korea in cases where pesticide residue analysis alone is insufficient for discrimination of organic and conventional rice. In future, complementary analyses including compound-specific isotope ratio analysis might be employed for improving the reliability of organic authentication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVE COOPERATIVES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Matyja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction, the article presents a brief reflection on collaborative farming in Poland and abroad. There is also a formulated objective of the study, which is to show the essence of agricultural productive cooperatives’ activity and their role in the farmers’ and local communities’ protection. The following section presents used research methods and the subjective, spatial and temporal scope of own research. Subsequent parts of the article relate to the description of the history of APCs in Poland with an explanation of the causes of their foundation and liquidating, presentation the essence and the role of cooperative activi-ties in agriculture with an indication of the advantages of collective farming and characteris-tics of agricultural, economic and social activities of Polish APCs. At the end of the article there is the summary of the undertaken considerations and conclusions.

  13. Fiscal 1997 feasibility survey of an environment friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environment friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam (case of Vietnam); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Malaysia oyobi Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Vietnam ban))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the state of coal utilization by coal consumption field, the state of coal physical flow in Vietnam, etc., surveyed/studied a possibility of introducing the environment friendly type coal utilization system, and assessed the possibility. As to energy resources, the north is abundant in hydroelectric and coal (mainly anthracite) resources, and the south in oil and natural gas resources. Coal production in fiscal 1997 is planned to be 10 million tons. Coal preparation technique presently available is only grain size sieving. Accordingly, it is necessary to study for heightening efficiency of facilities and modernizing facilities in accordance with the introduction of the environment friendly type coal utilization technology. During the study, it is possible to propose improvement on coal processing technology (coal preparation technology). Assessment and study are made especially of the coal selection system, fine coal recovery system and waste water treatment system. For the plan on new coal-fired power plants (300MWtimes4), there is left much necessity of proposing studying models considered of the anthracite combustion technology and environmental improvement and of assessing/studying them. 60 figs., 117 tabs.

  14. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)

  15. Implications of Climate Mitigation for Future Agricultural Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Deryng, Delphine; Folberth, Christian; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Schmid, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is projected to negatively impact biophysical agricultural productivity in much of the world. Actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate future climate changes, are thus of central importance for agricultural production. Climate impacts are, however, not unidirectional; some crops in some regions (primarily higher latitudes) are projected to benefit, particularly if increased atmospheric carbon dioxide is assumed to strongly increase crop productivity at large spatial and temporal scales. Climate mitigation measures that are implemented by reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations lead to reductions both in the strength of climate change and in the benefits of carbon dioxide fertilization. Consequently, analysis of the effects of climate mitigation on agricultural productivity must address not only regions for which mitigation is likely to reduce or even reverse climate damages. There are also regions that are likely to see increased crop yields due to climate change, which may lose these added potentials under mitigation action. Comparing data from the most comprehensive archive of crop yield projections publicly available, we find that climate mitigation leads to overall benefits from avoided damages at the global scale and especially in many regions that are already at risk of food insecurity today. Ignoring controversial carbon dioxide fertilization effects on crop productivity, we find that for the median projection aggressive mitigation could eliminate approximately 81% of the negative impacts of climate change on biophysical agricultural productivity globally by the end of the century. In this case, the benefits of mitigation typically extend well into temperate regions, but vary by crop and underlying climate model projections. Should large benefits to crop yields from carbon dioxide fertilization be realized, the effects of mitigation become much more mixed, though still positive globally and beneficial in many

  16. Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Liang, Xinqiang; Linquist, Bruce A; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Lee, Juhwan; Lundy, Mark E; van Gestel, Natasja; Six, Johan; Venterea, Rodney T; van Kessel, Chris

    2015-01-15

    One of the primary challenges of our time is to feed a growing and more demanding world population with reduced external inputs and minimal environmental impacts, all under more variable and extreme climate conditions in the future. Conservation agriculture represents a set of three crop management principles that has received strong international support to help address this challenge, with recent conservation agriculture efforts focusing on smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, conservation agriculture is highly debated, with respect to both its effects on crop yields and its applicability in different farming contexts. Here we conduct a global meta-analysis using 5,463 paired yield observations from 610 studies to compare no-till, the original and central concept of conservation agriculture, with conventional tillage practices across 48 crops and 63 countries. Overall, our results show that no-till reduces yields, yet this response is variable and under certain conditions no-till can produce equivalent or greater yields than conventional tillage. Importantly, when no-till is combined with the other two conservation agriculture principles of residue retention and crop rotation, its negative impacts are minimized. Moreover, no-till in combination with the other two principles significantly increases rainfed crop productivity in dry climates, suggesting that it may become an important climate-change adaptation strategy for ever-drier regions of the world. However, any expansion of conservation agriculture should be done with caution in these areas, as implementation of the other two principles is often challenging in resource-poor and vulnerable smallholder farming systems, thereby increasing the likelihood of yield losses rather than gains. Although farming systems are multifunctional, and environmental and socio-economic factors need to be considered, our analysis indicates that the potential contribution of no-till to the

  17. Simulation and optimization of agricultural product supply chain system based on Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Researches on agricultural product supply chain have important implications for improving the efficiency of agricultural products circulation, strengthening the construction of agricultural market system, promoting agricultural modernization and solving the three rural issues. Agricultural product supply chain system has begun to be optimized through simulation technique. In this paper, agricultural product supply chain system is reasonably simplified and assumed. A simulation model was developed by using the simulation software Wit-ness to study agricultural product supply chain. Through the analysis of the simulation output data, improvement suggestions were also proposed as follows: improving the organization degree of agricultural products, improving the agricultural products processing, establishing strategic partnership and scientifically developing agricultural products logistics.

  18. Production and Perception of Agricultural Reuse in a Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Cristiano Marques Arruda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing competition among the various sectors of society in the world for the use of water where agriculture stands out as a major consumer. Since it is carried out in a controlled manner, irrigation with effluents from a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP is a very attractive practice, as it allows a greater supply of water for nobler purposes. This work had the general objective of evaluating the perception of a rural community in the municipality of Pesqueira, Pernambuco, Brasil, in terms of consumption and production of products cultivated with the practice of agricultural reuse. The local population showed acceptance for the cultivation and consumption of products through agricultural reuse, above all, with reliable information on the appropriate quality of the effluents used for irrigation. In the estimated data, the same community had a potential of production of corn, beans and cotton in the order of 19.8 tons, 3.4 tons and 7.7 tons respectively, with the use of treated sewage in irrigation.

  19. Agrification: Agriculture for the industry and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The new aspect of agrification is the production of alternative products, which can replace fossil sources. This substitution is necessary in order to replace hazardous materials and to find a solution for the problem of depletion of conventional energy sources and basic materials. Attention is paid to some developments in Germany: agricultural products for the production of energy, and new industrial applications for vegetable filaments. With regard to energy production from agricultrual products one should distinguish between (a) solid energy sources (biomass), f.e. straw, fast-growing wood, elephant's grass, hay and rapeseed, and (b) fluid and gaseous energy sources, f.e. purified and partly refined rapeseed oil, rapeseed oil methyl-ester (RME), ethanol from sugar beet, methanol from straw and hydrogen from straw and/or elephant's grass. 4 figs., 7 refs

  20. Multi-Product Crops for Agricultural and Energy Production : an AGE Analysis for Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Dellink, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    By-products from agriculture and forestry can contribute to production of clean and cheap (bio)electricity. To assess the role of such multi-product crops in the response to climate policies, we present an applied general equilibrium model with special attention to biomass and multi-product crops

  1. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  2. Hydrogen production from agricultural waste by dark fermentation: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xin Mei; Trably, Eric; Latrille, Eric; Carrere, Helene; Steyer, Jean-Philippe [INRA, UR050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, F-11100 Narbonne (France)

    2010-10-15

    The degradation of the natural environment and the energy crisis are two vital issues for sustainable development worldwide. Hydrogen is considered as one of the most promising candidates as a substitute for fossil fuels. In this context, biological processes are considered as the most environmentally friendly alternatives for satisfying future hydrogen demands. In particular, biohydrogen production from agricultural waste is very advantageous since agri-wastes are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. Considering that such wastes are complex substrates and can be degraded biologically by complex microbial ecosystems, the present paper focuses on dark fermentation as a key technology for producing hydrogen from crop residues, livestock waste and food waste. In this review, recent findings on biohydrogen production from agricultural wastes by dark fermentation are reported. Key operational parameters such as pH, partial pressure, temperature and microbial actors are discussed to facilitate further research in this domain. (author)

  3. Buffers for biomass production in temperate European agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    , environmental pressures from intensive agriculture and policy developments. Use of conservation buffers by farmers outside of designated schemes is limited to date, but the increasing demand for bioenergy and the combination of agricultural production with conservation calls for a much wider implementation....... This paper reviews the biophysical knowledge on buffer functioning and associated ecosystem services. It describes how a three-zone buffer design, with arable fields buffered in combination by grassland, short rotation forestry (SRF) or coppice (SRC) and undisturbed vegetation along water courses, can...... be incorporated into farming landscapes as productive conservation elements and reflects on the potential for successful implementation. Land use plays a much greater role in determining catchment hydrology than soil type: shelterbelts or buffer strips have markedly higher infiltration capacity than arable...

  4. Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agricultural by-products (sole and amended forms) produced higher values of soil pH, Ca, Mg and O.M compared to NPK fertilizer. The soil O.M, pH, Ca and Mg contents in NPK fertilizer treatment decreased with the number of cropping. Spent grain + poultry manure increased soil O.M (2.46%), Ca (0.57mmol/kg), ...

  5. Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household.

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    Virtually all models of the household assume that the allocation of resources is Pareto efficient. Within many African households, agricultural production occurs on many plots controlled by different members of the household. Pareto efficiency implies that factors should be allocated efficiently across these plots. The author finds, in contrast, that plots controlled by women are farmed much less intensively than similar plots within the household controlled by men. The estimates imply that a...

  6. Stochastic and Deterministic Models for Agricultural Production Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-22

    have nowhere to send their animals as they grow up. Finishers and slaughterhouses supplied by the farm will have their supply interrupted. The...agriculture, a view that allows workers to assess the potential for other prevention strategies and responses. The view should also allow analysts to...times at each node, together with the capacity constraints and the slaughterhouse killing capacity, based on very rough estimates of swine production

  7. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Project findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document is the terminal report of a United Nations Development Program project to improve food and agricultural production in Thailand by means of nuclear and related technology. The project resulted in improved mutant material to be made available to plant breeders as well as in reports and recommendations on soil-water-plant management practices and livestock management. An additional benefit has been the specialized training that has been provided to many researchers in the country through the project

  8. Pretreaments of Chinese Agricultural residues to increase biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Development of biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biogas is one approach to utilize straw comprehensively. However, high lignin contents of lignocellulosic materials results in low degradation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the appropriate pre-treatment to increase biogas production from Chinese agricultural residues. In this study, Chinese corn stalk, rice plant and wheat straw were evaluated as substrates by applying three different pre-treatments. The inves...

  9. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  10. Increasing rice production in Malaysia: Department of Agriculture approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asna Booty Othman; Chua Lee Kiang; Rathinam Thiagarajan; Aziziah Md Jan

    2002-01-01

    Increasing rice productivity will continue to be an important agenda in the agricultural development program of the country. This represents a challenge to the Department of Agriculture. To address this challenge, it calls for creativity, innovation, ideas and initiatives in the use of technologies that consist of land leveling, in the field water management, Integrated Pest Management (IPM), production and distribution of quality seeds, effective fertilizer usage and value added activities. Rice areas which have been leveled using laser guided technology have shown yield increase from 3.3 t/ha to 5.1 t/ha. In-field water management increases rice yield, reduces water wastage and ensures timeliness of operations and improve soil water bearing capacity. IPM has proven highly beneficial in the control of field rats, reducing the incidence of diseases such as rice blast, lowering the occurrence of insect pest outbreaks and weed infestation. Fish rearing and fattening of ducklings to adulthood in the rice fields have also been undertaken as profitable enterprises in the rice farming system. In its effort to modernise and increase rice productivity, the Department of Agriculture approach in acquisition of technology from research agencies, and its adaptation and adoption are discussed. Any technology promoted must be economically viable, socially acceptable and technologically feasible for effective implementation. (Author)

  11. Protection against radioactive contamination of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Due to contaminating effects from nuclear explosions and nuclear power plants, the systematic investigation of environmental radioactive contamination is absolutely necessary. In order to reduce the artificial radiation dose to which the human body is exposed, isotope content of foods and agricultural products should be known. The authors evaluate the decontamination possibilities of food produced from vegetable and animal products, starting from the contamination of some products. For vegetable product decontamination the use of suitable fertilizers, thorough scrubbing in excess water and, for cereals, milling is proposed. As the most effective preventive measure of radiation contamination of food products of animal origin, appropriate packing is proposed. The storage and preservation problems are emphasized for short half-life radiation contamination. (P.J.)

  12. Probabilistic estimates of drought impacts on agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadgar, Shahrbanou; AghaKouchak, Amir; Farahmand, Alireza; Davis, Steven J.

    2017-08-01

    Increases in the severity and frequency of drought in a warming climate may negatively impact agricultural production and food security. Unlike previous studies that have estimated agricultural impacts of climate condition using single-crop yield distributions, we develop a multivariate probabilistic model that uses projected climatic conditions (e.g., precipitation amount or soil moisture) throughout a growing season to estimate the probability distribution of crop yields. We demonstrate the model by an analysis of the historical period 1980-2012, including the Millennium Drought in Australia (2001-2009). We find that precipitation and soil moisture deficit in dry growing seasons reduced the average annual yield of the five largest crops in Australia (wheat, broad beans, canola, lupine, and barley) by 25-45% relative to the wet growing seasons. Our model can thus produce region- and crop-specific agricultural sensitivities to climate conditions and variability. Probabilistic estimates of yield may help decision-makers in government and business to quantitatively assess the vulnerability of agriculture to climate variations. We develop a multivariate probabilistic model that uses precipitation to estimate the probability distribution of crop yields. The proposed model shows how the probability distribution of crop yield changes in response to droughts. During Australia's Millennium Drought precipitation and soil moisture deficit reduced the average annual yield of the five largest crops.

  13. Online hyperspectral imaging system for evaluating quality of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Lim, Jongguk

    2017-06-01

    The consumption of fresh-cut agricultural produce in Korea has been growing. The browning of fresh-cut vegetables that occurs during storage and foreign substances such as worms and slugs are some of the main causes of consumers' concerns with respect to safety and hygiene. The purpose of this study is to develop an on-line system for evaluating quality of agricultural products using hyperspectral imaging technology. The online evaluation system with single visible-near infrared hyperspectral camera in the range of 400 nm to 1000 nm that can assess quality of both surfaces of agricultural products such as fresh-cut lettuce was designed. Algorithms to detect browning surface were developed for this system. The optimal wavebands for discriminating between browning and sound lettuce as well as between browning lettuce and the conveyor belt were investigated using the correlation analysis and the one-way analysis of variance method. The imaging algorithms to discriminate the browning lettuces were developed using the optimal wavebands. The ratio image (RI) algorithm of the 533 nm and 697 nm images (RI533/697) for abaxial surface lettuce and the ratio image algorithm (RI533/697) and subtraction image (SI) algorithm (SI538-697) for adaxial surface lettuce had the highest classification accuracies. The classification accuracy of browning and sound lettuce was 100.0% and above 96.0%, respectively, for the both surfaces. The overall results show that the online hyperspectral imaging system could potentially be used to assess quality of agricultural products.

  14. Biogas production from energy crops and agriculture residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.

    2010-12-15

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential in term of ml CH4 produced per g of VS-added and (b) the amount of methane produced per m3 of reactor volume. (Author)

  15. Rational allocation of agricultural production in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii Mikhailovich Semyashkin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an original approach to determining the optimal allocation of agricultural production in the region; the approach includes the methodological substantiation of the necessity to differentiate consumers when addressing food security issues in the region. It was proposed to allocate three levels: level 1 – the provision of food to socially vulnerable layers, level 2 – the provision with food at the subsistence level, and level 3 – the provision of the total population of the region with food. A preliminary forecast was made for each municipality; it analyzed possible changes in the number of the socially vulnerable up to 2020; in accordance with medical standards and norms of the subsistence level the volumes of food were calculated, which in turn were compared with the actual production output. The difference between the actual volume and the volume of evidence-based requirements represented the very increase in the volume of production, the achievement of which requires certain investments on the basis of capital-output ratio. After that the regional market was divided into three sub-regional markets depending on distance, number of consumers and suppliers. This allowed us to calculate the amount of transport costs based on the type and lot size of the transported product, taking into account the distance to each sub-market. As a criterion of transportation expediency we took into account the share of transport costs in the price of the product not exceeding 30%. Otherwise, it is required to concentrate the production in order to increase the lot transported or to carry out a deeper processing of the product. The proposed methodology served as the basis for choosing the most effective option of spatial location of agricultural production

  16. The Effects of Agricultural Raw Product Exports on Environment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The relationship between openness, trade and environmental damaging are the most important problems in the early 1990s. Some scientists assume the environmental quality is a normal good and increasing income increases demand for environmentally safe products. Therefore, Firms will be encouraging the using of safer and less polluting procedure. On the other hand other scientists assume international trade grows the environmental degradation through environmentally polluting industries and expand economics scales in developing countries. While environmental standards are low in these countries, the expansion of trade will lead to more pollution. Some experimental studies have confirmed a negative relationship between trade and environment. The effect of import and export of trade is not considered as important components of trade, despite very consideration of the relationship between openness, trade and environmental by researchers while in general part trade may have different effect on environmental. Materials and Methods: The base model is used to study the relationship between economic growth and environmental indexes and trade. Grossman and Krueger (1991 and Shafik and Bandvpady (1992 used the trade intensity variable, obtained from the ratio of exports plus imports divided by GDP as the World Trade openness of an economy measure. Grossman and Krueger (1991, the first person who developed environmental Kuznets curve (EKC used multiple versions of the model. Instrumental variable regression model has been estimated using panel data of period 1998 and 2009 for 73 countries, including 27 development countries and 46 developing countries. Countries with more than 0.9 Human Development Index eligible as developed countries and countries by Human Development Index between 0.7 to 0.9 considered as developing countries., based on the standard international trade classification. For exports of agricultural raw materials, 5

  17. CERTIFICATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR RICE PRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedik Budianta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To make better the life, it is required safety foods for health. The health foods can be satisfied by organic farming. Organic farming is farming system based on biomass recycling or eliminating the use of materials as a synthetic agrochemical inputs. To determine whether the result of rice called as an organic product needs to be certified by the Organic Certification Board (OCB. According to the Indonesian National Standard (INS 6729: 2013, organic farming systems (OFS are not only limited to not use material agrochemical synthetic, but must meet the requirements of OFS in rice production ranging from cultivating, handling, storage, processing, transportation, labeling, marketing, production facilities and other materials that are allowed start on farm to off farm should be separated from conventional agriculture. The farm is just a negate the use of synthetic agrochemicals without regard to the cultivation process and the system of post-harvest organic results are said to be premium food which is not as organic food, because organic food is food produced from OFS by applying processing practices to preserve the ecosystem of sustainable, control of weeds, pests, diseases, selection and crop rotation, water management, land preparation and planting and the use of biological materials. Thus the system of organic agriculture is a holistic management system to improve and develop the agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. The first step that must be done is the conversion of land for food crops from anorganic to organic farming for 2 years did not get the requisite amount of agrochemical applied to the soil for annual crop and 3 years for perennial crops. If agriculture in paddy soil can control the conventional farms into OFS, then the resulting rice is as an organic product.

  18. Cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iye, Edward; Bilsborrow, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy introduced in 2007 mandates a 10% blend (E10) of bioethanol with gasoline. This study investigates the potential for the development of a cellulosic ethanol industry based on the availability of agricultural residues and models the number of commercial processing facilities that could be sited in the six Geo-political zones. The potential for cellulosic ethanol production from agricultural residues in Nigeria is 7556 km 3 per annum exceeding the mandate of 10% renewable fuel required and providing the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium-scale processing facilities based on the use of a single feedstock. Cassava and yam peelings provided in excess of 80% of the process residues available with enough feedstock to supply 10 large-scale facilities with a fairly even distribution across the zones. Sorghum straw, millet straw and maize stalks represented 75% of the potential resource available from field residues with the potential to supply 2 large- and 7 medium-scale processing facilities, all of which would be located in the north of the country. When a multi-feedstock approach is used, this provides the potential for either 29 large- or 58 medium-scale facilities based on outputs of 250 and 125 km 3 per annum respectively. - Highlights: • Nigeria′s Biofuels Policy mandates a 10% blend of bioethanol with gasoline. • Total bioethanol production from agricultural residues was 7556 km 3 per annum. • Process residues offer the greatest potential accounting for 62% of production. • Nigeria has the potential for 12 large- and 11 medium scale commercial. • The use of mixed feedstocks significantly increases the potential for production

  19. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  20. The Relationship between Customer Knowledge Management and Performance of Agricultural Product Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jia-jia

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes an overview of the CKM and the performance of agricultural product innovation from contents of agricultural product innovation and customer knowledge management (CKM), the relation between CKM and agricultural product innovation. On the basis of the overview, it builds the theoretical framework of CKM and agricultural product innovation. It points out that enterprises can satisfy demands of customers through acquisition, share, utilization and innovation of customer knowledge...

  1. Exposures from consumption of agricultural and semi-natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Skuterud, L.; Balonov, M.; Travnikova, I.; Hove, K.; Howard, B.; Prister, B.S.; Ratnikov, A.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of food from different production systems to the internal dose from radiocesium, was investigated in selected study sites in Ukraine and Russia. Food products from semi-natural ecosystems are major contributors to the individual internal dose to rural population in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. At the selected study sites it is estimated in 1995 that foods from private farms and forests contribute on average 35% to 60%, to the individual internal dose, variation relating to soil types and implemented countermeasures. The importance of food products from private farms and particularly forest products increases with time since Cs concentration in some of the natural food products have longer ecological half life than food products from agricultural systems. A significant relationship was observed between consumption of mushrooms and whole body content of radiocesium in rural people. The contribution to the collective dose of food products produced in the semi-natural ecosystems is less than the contribution to the individual internal dose for the local rural population

  2. Ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, P M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, I address three topics relevant to the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. First, I describe the fundamental ecological factors that influence the environmental performance of these systems and address how precision agriculture practices can or cannot interact with these factors. Second, I review the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture relative to agricultural inputs to determine whether managing these processes can significantly affect system environmental performance. Finally, I address scale incongruencies between ecological processes and precision agriculture techniques that could limit the ability of these techniques to manage variability in these processes. The analysis suggests that there are significant ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture techniques to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. The primary constraint is that these techniques do not address many of the key factors that cause poor environmental performance in these systems. Further, the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture are quite small relative to agricultural inputs and, finally, these processes vary on scales that are incongruent with precision management techniques.

  3. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko

    1998-01-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy γ-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy γ-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  4. Managing the Risk in Agriculture Production: The Role of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Lipińska Izabela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article was to define the essence and the role of state in managing the risk in agricultural production. Nowadays risk management is one of the core priorities of reformed CAP. Wherefore it was necessary to highlight the variety of tools and essay the reason why the farmers do not implement them. The main method applied in the work was a descriptive method and a dogmatic analysis of normative acts. Reference books and international analyses and reports were also used. The weath...

  5. 76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... warehouses. An example of a processed agricultural product is apple juice concentrate. In the past, USDA has... FSA to notify the public and provide the opportunity to comment on agricultural products that are... warehouses. This proposal covers specific processed agricultural products such as apple juice concentrate and...

  6. Interdependence of Agricultural Production and Environment and the Road to Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curić Jasmina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of agricultural production in the world is in serious crisis. Interdependence of agricultural production and the environment is multiple and causality works both ways. On one hand, there are environmental changes which hamper food production, and on the other, the agricultural production, as it is, is severely damaging the environment. The very systems of agricultural production jeopardize future production. The goal of this paper is to explore causes of limitations of sustainable agricultural development in the world, where the authors emphasize the following: gas emissions with greenhouse effect, a disturbed cycle of nitrogen circulation and destruction of biodiversity.

  7. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF LABOR PRODUCTIVITY IN AGRICULTURE IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Elena PETRESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an analysis of the level of labor productivity in agriculture for each development region of Romania. Labor productivity in agriculture was analyzed by two parameters, namely: the value of agricultural production and the number of employees in agriculture for the period 2011 – 2012. The level of labor productivity is influenced by the quality of biological and bio-capacity of plants and animals as well, as well as the equipment and quality of work performed. From the factorial analysis it can be noticed a decrease of labor productivity caused by a decrease in the value of agricultural production.

  8. A novel approach of chemical mechanical polishing for a titanium alloy using an environment-friendly slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Shi, Zhifeng; Du, Yuefeng; Yu, Zhijian; Guo, Liangchao; Guo, Dongming

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel approach of CMP is developed using an environment-friendly slurry consisting of silica, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malic acid and deionized water. This is different from the traditional polishing, in which hazardous chemicals are used for Ti alloys. The surface roughness Ra of 0.68 nm is obtained over a measurement area of 70 × 53 μm2, which is lower than those previously reported for a Ti alloy. This is polished by the developed optimal CMP slurry. Polishing mechanism is investigated using electrochemical and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) measurements. H2O2 dominates the corrosion process during CMP using the developed environment-friendly slurry. Corrosion current of H2O2 is consistent with the reactants of titania, alumina and vanadia formed on the surfaces of Ti-6Al-4 V after CMP. Corrosion potential agrees well with the polished surface quality of Ti-6Al-4 V. Chemical reaction equations are proposed according to the electrochemical and XPS measurements. The developed CMP slurry sheds light on the application in environment protection for the Ti, Ti alloys and CMP industries.

  9. Waste wood incineration: long-lasting, environment-friendly and CO2-neutral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The economic aspects of energy production from waste wood are evaluated. Heating systems based on the incineration of wood have been considerably improved recently. Several aspects of the incineration of waste wood are reviewed: the implications with regard to the greenhouse effect, the calorific value of wood, the incineration process, and the cost price calculation of energy production by waste wood incineration. In conclusion is stated that energy production by waste wood incineration is a valuable economic alternative for heat production by oil products, especially in view of the current anti-pollution taxes in Belgium. (A.S.)

  10. Managing the Risk in Agriculture Production: The Role of Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipińska Izabela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to define the essence and the role of state in managing the risk in agricultural production. Nowadays risk management is one of the core priorities of reformed CAP. Wherefore it was necessary to highlight the variety of tools and essay the reason why the farmers do not implement them. The main method applied in the work was a descriptive method and a dogmatic analysis of normative acts. Reference books and international analyses and reports were also used. The weather conditions, as well as climate change have fair impact on agricultural production, its quality and quantity, as well as farmers’ income. They are infrequent but lead to severe damage to a whole region, like the droughts occurrence this year. Such events fall under the catastrophic risk layer, for which market solutions plays a less important role, mostly due to public involvement. Due to the current legislation, Member States have the authorization for granting subsidies for farmers who had loss. They set up provisions for damage recovery and compensation. It seems to be one of the main reasons why the farmers do not try to avoid the risk themselves applying some on-farm strategies.

  11. Fluctuations in the futures market for agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szczepańska-Przekota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Futures contracts are an important element in the market economy. The range of their use is quite wide, they may be an element of price risk management of agricultural production, so called hedging, but also the object of investment of free cash flows and financial speculation. Identifying the process of contract pricing is in this context a key factor for the success of investment activities. The paper attempts to describe fluctuations of ten futures contracts on agricultural products from the US market. Data series come from the years 1975–2016. Series of trading contracts are decomposed in terms of trends and cyclical components. The aim of the study is to assess the possibility of forecasting cyclical components. Harmonic analysis is used for the description and prediction of cyclical components. The effectiveness of predictions has been studied using fractions tests and Pearson correlation coefficient. The results show that the observation of past fluctuations may help to improve investments. Due to the irregular component, it is important to compare the results of predictions obtained from technical models with estimates obtained from the models that take account of fundamental variables.

  12. Indirect energy input of agricultural machinery in bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu J.; Ahokas, Jukka [Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 28 (Koetilantie) 3, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-01-15

    Sustainability of bioenergy products should be evaluated by means of an energy analysis that takes into account all relevant direct and indirect energy inputs. Direct energy input is viewed as the major energy consuming factor, and is quite easy to measure. Indirect energy input, however, has received relatively scant attention, so it is likely to be insufficiently analysed and possibly underestimated. This paper reviews the data available and suggests the type of research that would be needed to get a better understanding of the indirect energy input. The analysis addresses questions about the use of energy to produce and maintain agricultural machinery, the allocation of energy to different bioenergy products, and the real use and lifetime of machinery. (author)

  13. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  14. TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTION AND REALIZATION OF PLANT PRODUCTION AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES OF MYKOLAIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushniruk Viktor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Agriculture is one of the largest and most important sectors of the Ukrainian economy. The food security and independence of the state, the state of the internal and external markets, and, consequently, the standard of living of the population are directly dependent on its functional state. Mykolaiv region has significant opportunities for the development of the agricultural sector. There are favorable natural and climatic conditions, fertile land, labor resources and long-standing cultivating traditions. The region is considered one of the regions of intensive agriculture in Ukraine and has significant land resources. Purpose. The article presents the analysis of the development of production and sale of crop production by the agrarian enterprises of the Mykolaiv region, as well as revealing ways to increase the volume of their production and sales. Results. The crop area of main agricultural crops in all categories of farms was analyzed, and structural changes for 2010-2016 were revealed. The priority branch of the agro-industrial complex, which has an important strategic significance, first of all, is determined by the level of production of which the food security of the state depends, its economy and welfare of the population. The dynamics of agricultural crop yields in agrarian enterprises as the determining factor of influence on the efficiency of activity in the field of plant growing is researched. The dynamics of gross collections of crop production in agricultural enterprises is analyzed and the contribution of the Mykolaiv region to the national production of grain is determined. The volumes and average prices of sales of agricultural products by agrarian enterprises are investigated and it is determined that the modern development of the agrarian sector of the economy requires special attention to the formation and activation of the activities of market infrastructure entities. The production of which crops are an

  15. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-xia; Shao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent. We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy, introduce the third-party logistics companies, establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, and strengthen information sharing, to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural produc...

  16. Agricultural Education: Key to Providing Broader Opportunities for Third World Women in Production Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelle, Mark A.; Holt, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors focus on providing opportunities for women in Third World countries in agriculture. A review of the body of knowledge in agricultural development and of the issues surrounding current world food crises is included. (CH)

  17. Design of sustainable hydroponic systems in relation to environment-friendly disinfection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.

    2001-01-01

    The last few years Dutch horticulture has changed from a classical production-oriented market to a customer-oriented market. It is no longer the grower who decides about amount and quality of the product. Now, the consumer, and for vegetables more specifically the supermarket prescribes. One of the

  18. Two agricultural production data libraries for risk assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III; Shor, R.W.; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two data libraries based on the 1974 US Census of Agriculture are described. The data packages (AGDATC and AGDATG) are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Agricultural production and land-use information by county (AGDATC) or by 1/2 by 1/2 degree longitude-latitude grid cell (AGDATG) provide geographical resolution of the data. The libraries were designed for use in risk assessment models that simulate the transport of radionuclides from sources of airborne release through food chains to man. However, they are also suitable for use in the assessment of other airborne pollutants that can affect man from a food ingestion pathway such as effluents from synfuels or coal-fired power plants. The principal significance of the data libraries is that they provide default location-specific food-chain transport parameters when site-specific information are unavailable. Plant food categories in the data libraries include leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits exposed to direct deposition of airborne pollutants, vegetables and fruits protected from direct deposition, and grains. Livestock feeds are also tabulated in four categories: pasture, grain, hay, and silage. Pasture was estimated by a material balance of cattle and sheep inventories, forage feed requirements, and reported harvested forage. Cattle (Bos spp.), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), hog (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus domesticus), and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) inventories or sales are also tabulated in the data libraries and can be used to provide estimates of meat, eggs, and milk production. Honey production also is given. Population, irrigation, and meteorological information are also listed

  19. Productivity growth and technological progress in the Brazilian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Farid Pereira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting in the 1970's, the Brazilian agricultural sector has experienced an important process of modernization, whose principal effects include advances in technological progress and gains in productivity. The primary objective of this paper is to analyze technological progress and total productivity growth in the Brazilian agricultural sector during the period from 1970 to 1996. The methodology used here is based on the Malmquist productivity index and techniques in mathematical programming called Data Envelopment Analysis. The results show that significant progress was made in this sector of the economy but concentrated in only some regions of the country.O setor agropecuário brasileiro passou por um processo de modernização a partir dos anos 70, conseqüentemente, espera-se que exista uma contrapartida de progresso tecnológico e de ganhos de produtividade para o setor. Diante de tal fato tem-se como objetivo, neste estudo, avaliar o progresso tecnológico e o crescimento da produtividade total dos fatores (PTF do setor agropecuário brasileiro ao longo do período de 1970 a 1996. A metodologia utilizada foi baseada no índice Malmquist de produtividade e nas técnicas de programação matemática denominadas de Análise de Envoltória de Dados (DEA. Os resultados alcançados foram condizentes com estudos prévios e apontam para progresso técnico e ganhos de produtividade para o setor, porém concentrados em algumas regiões.

  20. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10 6 /yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs

  1. Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Ingale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available India is amongst the largest banana (Musa acuminata producing countries and thus banana pseudo stem is commonly available agricultural waste to be used as lignocellulosic substrate. Present study focuses on exploitation of banana pseudo stem as a source for bioethanol production from the sugars released due to different chemical and biological pretreatments. Two fungal strains Aspergillus ellipticus and Aspergillus fumigatus reported to be producing cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse were used under co-culture fermentation on banana pseudo stem to degrade holocellulose and facilitate maximum release of reducing sugars. The hydrolysate obtained after alkali and microbial treatments was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3570 to produce ethanol. Fermentation of cellulosic hydrolysate (4.1 g% gave maximum ethanol (17.1 g/L with yield (84% and productivity (0.024 g%/h after 72 h. Some critical aspects of fungal pretreatment for saccharification of cellulosic substrate using A. ellipticus and A. fumigatus for ethanol production by S. cerevisiae NCIM 3570 have been explored in this study. It was observed that pretreated banana pseudo stem can be economically utilized as a cheaper substrate for ethanol production.

  2. Analysis of Options Contract, Option Pricing in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tamidy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk is an essential component in the production and sale of agricultural products. Due to the nature of agricultural products, the people who act in this area including farmers and businesspersons encounter unpredictable fluctuations of prices. On the other hand, the firms that process agricultural products also face fluctuation of price of agricultural inputs. Given that the Canola is considered as one of the inputs of product processing factories, control of unpredictable fluctuations of the price of this product would increase the possibility of correct decision making for farmers and managers of food processing industries. The best available tool for control and management of the price risk is the use of future markets and options. It is evident that the pricing is the main pillar in every trade. Therefore, offering a fair price for the options will be very important. In fact, options trading in the options market create cost insurance stopped. In this way, which can reduce the risks of deflation created in the future, if the person entitled to the benefits of the price increase occurs in the future. Unlike the futures, market where the seller had to deliver the product on time, in the options market, there is no such compulsion. In addition, this is one of the strengths of this option contract, because if there is not enough product for delivery to the futures market as result of chilling, in due course, the farmers suffer, but in the options market there will be a loss. In this study, the setup options of rape, as a product, as well as inputs has been paid for industry. Materials and Methods: In this section. The selection criteria of the disposal of asset base for valuation of European put options and call option is been introduced. That for obtain this purpose, some characteristics of the goods must considered: 1-Unpredictable fluctuations price of underlying asset 2 -large underlying asset cash market 3- The possibility

  3. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Christensen et al 2007) has, with greater confidence than previous reports, warned the international community that the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions will result in global climate change. One of the most direct and threatening impacts it may have on human societies is the potential consequences on global crop production. Indeed agriculture is considered as the most weather-dependent of all human activities (Hansen 2002) since climate is a primary determinant for agricultural productivity. The potential impact of climate change on crop productivity is an additional strain on the global food system which is already facing the difficult challenge of increasing food production to feed a projected 9 billion people by 2050 with changing consumption patterns and growing scarcity of water and land (Beddington 2010). In some regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia that are already food insecure and where most of the population increase and economic development will take place, climate change could be the additional stress that pushes systems over the edge. A striking example, if needed, is the work from Collomb (1999) which estimates that by 2050 food needs will more than quintuple in Africa and more than double in Asia. Better knowledge of climate change impacts on crop productivity in those vulnerable regions is crucial to inform policies and to support adaptation strategies that may counteract the adverse effects. Although there is a growing literature on the impact of climate change on crop productivity in tropical regions, it is difficult to provide a consistent assessment of future yield changes because of large uncertainties in regional climate change projections, in the response of crops to environmental change (rainfall, temperature, CO2 concentration), in the coupling between climate models and crop productivity functions, and in the adaptation of

  4. [Determination of hymexazol in agricultural products by GC-NPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yasuhiro; Takano, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Maki; Tomizawa, Sanae; Tateishi, Yukinari; Sakai, Naoko; Kamijo, Kyoko; Ibe, Akihiro; Nagayama, Toshihiro

    2008-06-01

    A method for the determination of hymexazol in agricultural produdcts by gas chromatography with a highly sensitive nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC-NPD) was investigated. Hymexazol was extracted with acetonitrile, and the acetonitrile layer was separated by salting-out. The water layer was loaded onto a Chem-Elut column. Hymexazol in the water layer was adsorbed on the column, and eluted with ethyl acetate. The acetonitrile layer and the eluate were mixed and evaporated. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate, and the sample solution was cleaned up on a C18 column. Hymexazol in the eluate was analyzed by GC-NPD with a high-polarity capillary column (DB-FFAP) and highly deactivated inlet liner. Recoveries of hymexazol spiked in agricultural products (tomato, lemon, soybean and other samples) at the level of 0.1 mug/g ranged from 65.0 to 84.7%. The limit of detection was 0.02microg/g.

  5. The dynamic interaction of personal norms and environment-friendly buying behavior: A panel study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Folke

    2006-01-01

    A deeper understanding of the attitude-norm-behavior relationship in the environmental field can be obtained by analyzing the dynamic interaction over time between relevant attitudinal variables and specific behaviors of interest. This article is based on a panel survey with a random sample...... of about 1,500 Danes interviewed up to 3 times in 1998 to 2000, regarding their purchase of organic food products. The panel analysis reveals that the stronger are consumers' personal norms about buying organic food products and the less they perceive organic products as expensive, the greater...... the likelihood that they change their purchase patterns in favor of organic products. Furthermore, one can observe significant cross-lagged paths from past behavior to belief and norm variables....

  6. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  7. Professional applied physical training of future specialists of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Karabanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : develop and experimentally prove the contents, methods and forms of physical training of future specialists of agricultural production. This takes into account advanced course of professional applied physical preparation means kettlebell sport. Material : The study involved 141 students. Duration of study is 5 years. Results : It was found that a significant increase in indicators of flexibility, strength, coordination abilities of students promoted the use of exercises using weights of different weights. Confirmed the legitimacy of the use of such means of physical education for the development of muscle strength of the upper body, back, legs, abdominals. These muscles are the most loaded in the performance of professional activities of mechanical engineers. Conclusions : The program meets the basic criteria for the formation of curriculum for physical education. The program promotes the development of professional applications of physical qualities, motor skills and improve physical performance of students.

  8. The Impact of Country-of-Origin Information on Consumer Perception of Environment-Friendly Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Cicia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The intense process of internationalization of the food market is giving rise to new competitive scenarios. Growing market shares on the part of new export countries, along with other consumer and retail issues, impose different marketing policies for agri-food products. In particular, greater consumer awareness of environmental and health issues is changing the structure of demand for fresh products. In the past, the country of origin and a good quality/price ratio were the main strategic strengths for gaining and maintaining international market shares. Nowadays, market shares are gained by moving towards new product attributes, namely environmental friendliness and food safety. This paper draws attention to new, more successful marketing strategies. The case study is the German cherry tomato market. Our analysis of German consumer preferences on stated choice data produces interesting insights. Product attributes related to the environment are found to be relevant to forming consumer preferences. As these are termed "faith" attributes, we speculate that German consumers refer to product origin country as a proxy of its environmental aspects. Two separate competitive segments emerge, one with a higher level of environmental quality, namely Germany and Italy, and the other comprising Turkey, Spain, France and Holland.

  9. Norway's centres for environment-friendly energy research (CEERs); Forskningssentrene for miljoevennlig energi (FME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    In February 2009 Norway's Minister of Petroleum and Energy announced the establishment of eight new Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (CEERs). The centres form national teams within the areas of offshore wind energy, solar energy, energy efficiency, bio energy, energy planning and design, and carbon capture and storage. These centres are: BIGCCS Centre - International CCS Research Centre; Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy (CEDREN); Bioenergy Innovation Centre (CenBio); Norwegian Centre for Offshore Wind Energy (NORCOW E); Norwegian Research Centre for Offshore Wind Technology (NOWITECH); The Norwegian Research Centre for Solar Cell Technology; SUbsurface CO{sub 2} storage - Critical Elements and Superior Strategy (SUCCESS) The Research Centre on Zero Emission Buildings - ZEB (AG)

  10. Agricultural production systems modelling and software: Current status and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzworth, D.P.; Snow, V.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Donatelli, M.; Hoogenboom, G.; White, J.W.; Thorburn, P.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, the application of agricultural production systems modelling has rapidly expanded while there has been less emphasis on model improvement. Cropping systems modelling has become agricultural modelling, incorporating new capabilities enabling analyses in the domains of

  11. Irradiation as an alternative environment friendly method for microbiological decontamination of herbal raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, P.; Kedzia, B.; Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of herbal raw materials is a serious problem in the production of therapeutical preparations. A good quality of the product, according to the pharmaceutical requirements may be achieved by applying suitable methods of decontamination. The decontamination treatments should be fast and effective against all microorganisms. It should ensure the decontamination of both packaging and the product in order to act effectively against all the microorganisms present and must not reduce the sensory and technological qualities of the commodities. In the paper, the results of comparative investigations on the microbiological decontamination of herbal raw materials by chemical (ethylene oxide, methyl bromide) and physical method (irradiation) are presented. Decontamination of herbal raw materials by irradiation is a method by choice. It is because chemical methods have been recognized recently as not safe to the consumer. Irradiation, in turn, is technically feasible, very effective and friendly enough to environment process

  12. Catalyst in alternate energy resources for producing environment friendly clean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.T.; Atta, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a by-product of the Chemical Process Industries, is a deadly poisonous gas; if released into the atmosphere causes irreparable damage to the environment. A bimetallic catalyst system Ru: Mn doped with different concentrations of 'K' (Potassium) and supported on high surface area alumina support was prepared by co impregnation method, dispersed and reduced at 450 deg. C under hydrogen flow using a closed reactor system at atmospheric pressure for the utilization of poisonous CO gas to produce environmental friendly clean energy. Fischer Tropsch catalyst, when subjected to CO/hydrogenation, gives methane and other hydrocarbon products. The main purpose of this research work was two fold: 1. The powder catalyst when dispersed/reduced on a high surface area oxide support spreads on the surface of the system in a different orientations and shapes. The particle size of the prepared catalysts ranges from 5.0-25.0 nm. The whole system forms a complicated mixture of numerous particles and hence becomes very complicated to study. The characterisation of these randomly oriented particles having different sizes and shapes is a difficult job. This required sensitive UHV spectroscopic techniques like SSIMS, XPS, EEls, XRD and TEM. Their operations needs strong skills. Hence the first aim was to utilize these techniques for the characterization of the prepared catalysts and to establish the usefulness of these techniques in studying such complicated systems. 2. Since Ru is a very good Fischer Tropsch catalyst for the production of aliphatic hydrocarbons product. Our other aim was to find out whether if by surface modification through additives or by surface reconstructing through chemical treatment, we could alter the path of this CO/hydrogenation reaction to produce potentially important unsaturated/aromatic hydrocarbon products. This would serve our dual purpose in which we could use poisonous CO for useful purpose. Hence 'K' potassium as surface modifier is

  13. Quality of agricultural-food products as a factor of the Republic of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzes the competitiveness of agricultural-food products of Serbia in the local and international markets. The subject of this research is analysis of relevant competitiveness factors of agricultural-food products, aiming to assess the products' quality and highlight the main intentions of production and processing.

  14. Research progress on the effect of microwave sterilization on agricultural products quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Yang, Yu-xia; Duan, Zhen-hua

    2018-02-01

    Different sterilization methods have different effects on the quality of agricultural products, microwave sterilization inhibited or eliminated microorganism by the use of microwave thermal effects and non-thermal. In this paper, the effects of microwave sterilization on the quality of fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat, grain, aquatic products and other agricultural products were introduced, and the possible development trends of microwave sterilization in agricultural products processing application were put forward.

  15. The influence of farmland pollution on the quality and safety of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z. L.; Li, L. Y.; Ye, C.; Lin, X. Y.; B, C.; Wei

    2018-02-01

    The quality and safety of agricultural products is not only a major livelihood issues for people’s health, but also the main barriers to international trade of agricultural products nowadays. The soil is the foundation to the production of agricultural products and the guarantee of agricultural development. The farmland soil quality is directly related to the quality and safety of agricultural products. Our country’s soil has been polluted by a series of pollution, Such as the excessive discharge of industrial wastes, the encroachment of household waste, and the unreasonable use of pesticides and fertilizers. Soil degradation is a serious threat to the quality and safety of agricultural products, so eliminating soil degradation is the fundamental way out for quality and safety of agricultural products. By analyzing problems of the quality and safety of agricultural products in our country, and exploring the farmland soil influence on the quality and safety of agricultural products. This article provides a reference for improving the control level of quality and safety of agricultural products and the farmland soil quality.

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of agricultural by-products with manure, for enhanced biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Marie M.; Fotidis, Ioannis; Kovalovszki, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Biogas is extensively promoted as a promising renewable energy. Therefore, the search of appropriate co-substrates has come into focus. In this study, we examined the potential of using agricultural byproducts as alternative co-substrates for increased biogas production. The biochemical methane...

  17. Productivity developments in European agriculture: relations to and opportunities for biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Londo, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses if, how fast and to what maximum yield improvements can be realized in Europe in the coming decades and what the opportunities and relations are to biomass production. The starting point for the analysis is the historic context of developments in European agriculture over the

  18. Recycling of Automotive Lubricating Waste Oil and Its Quality Assessment for Environment-Friendly Use

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed Anwar; Syed Shahid Ali; Zubair Anwar; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak; Abdul Jabbar; Tariq M. Ansari; Syed Sibtain Raza Naqvi

    2012-01-01

    Lubricating oils, which are formulated with a number of chemicals blended base oils provide products that last longer, keep machinery cleaner and allow the machinery to work better under severe operating conditions. However, the used oil-waste generated by the automobiles and other allied industries poses an environmental hazard. The motivation of the present research study was to study the merits and demerits of commonly applicable technique acid/clay for reclamation of waste oil. This proce...

  19. Evaluation of the Average Wage in Agriculture Depending on the Value of Gross Agricultural Production in Different Regions in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vozárová Ivana Kravčáková

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture is currently not among highly attractive, highly productive and profitable sectors, but its importance for the country and economy is unquestionable. It turns out that the level of labour productivity as well as other factors reflects the different wage level. Lower average nominal wages of workers in rural areas are a factor causing overall economy lagging of rural regions. The aim of this paper is to determine the dependence of the average wage level from gross agricultural production in different regions of Slovakia and confirm respectively refute the hypothesis of wage inequalities between regions

  20. Duopoly price competition on markets with agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Prášilová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A situation, in which two firms compete, is in the economic theory described by duopoly models. Market equilibrium on the duopoly market is formed in a reciprocal adjustment process of market prices and materialized market opportunities. The goal of the analysis is to find out whether the agricultural products market is significantly influenced by appearance of duopolies, what form they have and if they can fundamentally influence the price level of food. That food chain stores endeavour to mutually adapt food product prices is generally known; it is set especially by the inelastic demand for the mentioned goods on the side of consumers, i.e., by the need to demand basic food. Duopoly reactions to price competition in food chain stores are particularly strong in the case of commodities of milk and tomatoes, where the reactions and approximation of prices can be clearly seen. Based on statistical research it is obvious that the reactions are most reflected on sales of the food chain stores Billa and Albert. To identify specific reactions of price duopoly at retail chains the ANOVA statistical method was used. The firm’s duopoly behaviour as such on the food market need not be a subject for applying punishment from the antimonopoly bureau, if it does not have the cartel agreement character. An example can be the identical potato prices inquiry in the supermarkets of food chain stores.

  1. Radiation method for hygienization food and agriculture products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    The irradiation of food and agriculture products have been used for several goals. That are: disinsectization, disinfection, sprout inhibition and retardation of mattering. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in INCT (Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology). The pilot plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (10 MeV, 1 kW) and and industrial unit Elektronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). This allows both laboratory and full technological scale testing of the elaborated process to be conducted. The industrial unit is being equipped with e-/X conversion target, for high density products irradiation. On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for permanent treatment of spices, garlic, onions and temporary permissions for mushrooms, and potatoes. Dosimetric methods have been elaborated for the routine use at the plant. In the INCT laboratory methods for the control of e-/X treated food have been established. (author)

  2. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption

  4. Incentives for the Quality and Safety Traceability System of Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Shizhen; Li, Meng

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety traceability system of agricultural products is an important measure to protect the quality and safety of agricultural products. Farmers and food enterprises are main operators of the traceability system. If they are effectively encouraged to practice traceability system, food safety can be guaranteed from the source. This paper studies the incentive problem of agricultural product traceability system from two aspects—vertical contract coordination and government exte...

  5. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF FUNDING DECISIONS FOR NICHE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    HOWARD VAN AUKEN; SHAWN CARRAHER

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the flow of funds from providers of capital to niche agricultural users of capital. Various programs through the US government, state/local economic development and private agencies work to improve the flow of capital to the niche agricultural sector. However, despite the expansion of programs aimed at providing financial resources to the agricultural sector, many sectors remain poorly served. Previous studies have suggested that agencies need to facilitate the flow of cap...

  7. Biocatalysis for the production of industrial products and functional foods from rice and other agricultural produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Casimir C; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Shaw, Jei-Fu

    2008-11-26

    Many industrial products and functional foods can be obtained from cheap and renewable raw agricultural materials. For example, starch can be converted to bioethanol as biofuel to reduce the current demand for petroleum or fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, starch can also be converted to useful functional ingredients, such as high fructose and high maltose syrups, wine, glucose, and trehalose. The conversion process involves fermentation by microorganisms and use of biocatalysts such as hydrolases of the amylase superfamily. Amylases catalyze the process of liquefaction and saccharification of starch. It is possible to perform complete hydrolysis of starch by using the fusion product of both linear and debranching thermostable enzymes. This will result in saving energy otherwise needed for cooling before the next enzyme can act on the substrate, if a sequential process is utilized. Recombinant enzyme technology, protein engineering, and enzyme immobilization are powerful tools available to enhance the activity of enzymes, lower the cost of enzyme through large scale production in a heterologous host, increase their thermostability, improve pH stability, enhance their productivity, and hence making it competitive with the chemical processes involved in starch hydrolysis and conversions. This review emphasizes the potential of using biocatalysis for the production of useful industrial products and functional foods from cheap agricultural produce and transgenic plants. Rice was selected as a typical example to illustrate many applications of biocatalysis in converting low-value agricultural produce to high-value commercial food and industrial products. The greatest advantages of using enzymes for food processing and for industrial production of biobased products are their environmental friendliness and consumer acceptance as being a natural process.

  8. Selective oxidation with nanoporous silica supported sensitizers: An environment friendly process using air and visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Cricq, Philippe; Pigot, Thierry; Blanc, Sylvie [Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physicochimie pour l' Environnement et les Materiaux, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Helioparc-2 Av. du President Angot, F-64053 Pau Cedex 09 (France); Lacombe, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.lacombe@univ-pau.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physicochimie pour l' Environnement et les Materiaux, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Helioparc-2 Av. du President Angot, F-64053 Pau Cedex 09 (France)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photo-sensitizers were covalently grafted on silica matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grafted powdered silica was characterized by diffuse reflectance and emission spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selective solvent-free photo-oxygenation was carried out with air under visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Singlet generation and reactivity at the gas-solid interface was demonstrated. - Abstract: Transparent and porous silica xerogels containing various grafted photosensitizers (PSs) such as anthraquinone derivatives, Neutral Red, Acridine Yellow and a laboratory-made dicyano aromatics (DBTP) were prepared. In most cases, the xerogels were shown to be mainly microporous by porosimetry. The PSs were characterized in the powdered monoliths (form, aggregation, concentration) by electronic spectroscopy which also proved to be a useful tool for monitoring the material evolution after irradiation. These nanoporous xerogels were used as microreactors for gas/solid solvent-free photo-oxygenation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) using visible light and air as the sole reactant. All these PSs containing monoliths were efficient for gas-solid DMS oxidation, leading to sulfoxide and sulfone in varying ratios. As these polar oxidation products remained strongly adsorbed on the silica matrix, the gaseous flow at the outlet of the reactor was totally free of sulfide and odorless. The best results in term of yield and initial rate of degradation of DMS were obtained with DBTP containing xerogels. Moreover, as these materials were reusable without loss of efficiency and sensitizer photobleaching after a washing regeneration step, the concept of recyclable sensitizing materials was approved, opening the way to green process.

  9. Influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products by rainfall during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Han, M. H.; Choi, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, C. W.

    2001-01-01

    For the consideration of the effects on radioactive contamination of agricultural products by rainfall during a nuclear accident, the wet interception coefficients for the plants were derived, and the previous dynamic food chain model was also modified. From the results, radioactive contamination of agricultural products was greatly decreased by rainfall, and it decreased dramatically according to increase of rainfall amount. It means that the predictive contamination in agricultural products using the previous dynamic food chain model, in which dry interception to the plants is only considered, can be overestimated. Influence of rainfall on the contamination of agricultural products was the most sensitive for 131 I, and the least sensitive for 90 Sr

  10. Development of immunoassays for detecting clothianidin residue in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Sheng, Enze; Cong, Lujing; Wang, Minghua

    2013-04-17

    Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on polyclonal antibodies (PcAbs) for clothianidin are described: colorimetric detection format (ELISA) and pattern of chemiluminescent assay (CLEIA). Clothianidin hapten was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) to produce immunogen and coating antigen. Anticlothianidin PcAbs were obtained from immunized New Zealand white rabbits. Under optimal conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) and the limit of detection (LOD, IC₂₀) of clothianidin were 0.046 and 0.0028 mg/L for the ELISA and 0.015 and 0.0014 mg/L for the CLEIA, respectively. There were no obvious cross-reactivities of the antibodies with its analogues except for dinotefuran. Recoveries of 76.4-116.4% for the immunoassays were achieved from spiked samples. The results of immunoassays for the spiked and authentic samples were largely consistent with gas chromatography. Therefore, the proposed immunoassays would be convenient and satisfactory analytical methods for the monitoring of clothianidin in agricultural products.

  11. Writing Sensors on Solid Agricultural Products for In Situ Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenzhi; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin; Liu, Yuan

    2015-11-03

    This study reports on direct analysis of agricultural products. An easy and environmentally friendly method for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors on solid samples is developed, and it enables in situ detection of electroactive molecules without sample extraction. Fabrication of the sensor involves writing two electrode inks on the sample. The inks are made by mixing chitosan with graphite powder (2:1, v/w) and silver powder (1:2, v/w), respectively. The written electrode can become solidified within 5 min at room temperature. The porous structure of the sensor makes the solution accessible to the surface of sample under the electrode, thereby enabling the detection without sample extraction. This sensor was used for in situ detection of methyl parathion and nitrite. The practical performance was evaluated using Fuji apple, Chinese chives, and Chinese cabbage. By writing the electrochemical sensor on solid samples, this method avoids the time-consuming and complicated sample extraction and provides a simple and green analytical strategy for on-site application.

  12. Biofuel Production by Fermentation of Water Plants and Agricultural Lignocellulosic by-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anker Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While at present most energy crops are depriving human feedstock, fermentation of agricultural residues and fast growing water plants possesses a good prospect to become a significant source for bio-fuel; as both substrates are widely available and do not require agricultural areas. Water hyacinth for instance can be cultivated in fresh, brackish or wastewater and owing to its rapid growth and availability. Since owing to its natural abundance it is considered to be an invasive plant in most continents, its utilization and use as a renewable energy source may also contribute for its dilution and control. Agricultural lignocellulosic surplus by-products are also a promising fermentable substrate for bioethanol production, as it decreases both disposal expenses and greenhouse gases emissions. This paper describes a scheme and methodology for transformation of any lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel by simple cost effective operation scheme, integrating an innovative process of mechanochemical activation pre-treatment followed by fermentation of the herbal digest and ethanol production through differential distillation. Under this approach several complex and costly staged of conventional ethanol production scheme may be replaced and by genetic engineering of custom fermenting microorganisms the fermentation process becomes a fully continuous industrial process.

  13. SOCIAL SIDE OF AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES. THE CASE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION CO-OPERATIVES IN THE OPOLE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Matyja

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the social side of agricultural co-operatives and also to analyse what factors can in- or decrease this part of activity of agricultural production co-operatives (APCs. In the introduction to the article a definition of the aim of the paper, is provided, as well as a short explanation what the APCs really are. Next, the article describes the social side of activity of agricultural co-operatives. Then it presents how to measure it using the rate of social activity (RSA proposed by the author. The last part of the article is the analysis, based on the data collected from the 28 APCs that operate in the Opole voivodeship shows the influence of selected factors on social activity in co-operatives. The findings show what and how strongly can increase the social activity in agricultural cooperatives.

  14. Utilization of steam treated agricultural by -product as ruminant feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeem, M.; Rajput, N.; Lili, Z.; Su, Z.; Rui, Y.; Tian, W.

    2014-01-01

    Shortage of animal food is a burning issue of the recent time, whereas the agricultural by -products are readily available to be used as ruminants feed. However, the low protein and digestibility are the hindrances in utilization of these low quality crop residues as a feed. In order to utilize rice straw as animal feed this study was conducted to investigate the influence of steam explosion treatment on its composition and in vitro degradability. The samples, I (untreated rice straw), II (rice straw exposed to 15.5 kgf/cm/ sub2/ steam pressure for 90 sec) and III (rice straw exposed to 15.5 kgf/cm/sup 2/steam pressure for 120 sec) were prepared. The results revealed that the crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents of rice straw were improved after treatment with steam explosion in time dependent manner (P<0.05). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and organic matter (OM) were higher, while dry matter (DM) and ash contents were lower (P<0.05) in II as compared to group I and III; however, after increasing the time at same pressure these parameters decreased. Furthermore, group III showed higher concentration of propionate, acetate, butyrate, and total VFA (P<0.05). While, group I exhibited higher concentration of iso-butyrate and iso-valerate (P<0.05). The concentration of valeric acid and acetate to propionate ratio were not affected by steam explosion treatment. Moreover, group III showed the higher in vitro DM degradability, OM degradability, DNDF and gas production (P<0.05); while, lower DADF and pH (P<0.05) compared with groups I and II. These findings suggest that the steam explosion treatment at 15.5 kgf/cm/sup 2/ pressure for 120 sec, may be used to enhance the nutritive value and digestibility of rice straw. (author)

  15. The Subtropical Grasslands LTAR: balancing agricultural production and conservation goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Boughton, E.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.; Sparks, J. P.; Silveira, M.; Boughton, R. K.; Swain, H.

    2015-12-01

    Subtropical grazing lands of peninsular Florida have been shaped by a long evolutionary history of lightning ignited fire followed by flooding resulting in a vast treeless prairie region in south-central Florida. In these grassland ecosystems fire return intervals are between 1-3 years. Beginning in the 1500's, Andalusian cattle began grazing in this region and the cattle industry began in earnest in the late 1800s/early 1900s. Today, Florida's prairie region is largely occupied by cow/calf ranch operations and also occupies the Northern Everglades watershed where water quality/quantity issues are at the forefront of environmental concerns. Florida ranches are characterized by a gradient of management intensities, ranging from sown pastures (most intensively managed) to semi-native pastures with a mix of introduced and native grasses, and rangeland (least managed ecosystem). Located at Archbold Biological Station, MacArthur Agro-ecology Research Center, and University of Florida Range Cattle Research Center (www.maerc.org; www.rcrec-ona.ifas.ufl.edu), a primary goal of the Subtropical Grasslands US Department of Agriculture Long-term Agro-Ecosystem Research LTAR is to balance intensification of sown pastures while enhancing management of native systems in a way that maximizes other ecosystem services (regulating, supporting, cultural, biodiversity). Here, we describe our proposed experimental design to compare ecosystem delivery from conventional and aspirational management regimes in sown pastures and native systems. Aspirational management goals are to (i) maximize productivity in sown pastures with a neutral effect on other ecosystem services, and (ii) manage native systems in a way that maximizes regulating, supporting, and biodiversity ecosystem services by utilizing patch burn grazing. Ultimately, we will determine if enhanced production in sown pasture under the aspirational management system can offset any reduction in productivity in semi

  16. Total Factor Productivity in Brazil’s and Argentina’s Agriculture: A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mendali, Rebati; Ames, Glenn C.W.; Gunter, Lewell F.

    2013-01-01

    We measure Malmquist index of total factor productivity (TFP) changes in the agricultural sector of Brazil and Argentina during 1971-2002. The TFP change index is further decomposed into efficiency change and technical change. We then compare the cumulative TFP growth and its components in both countries. Results show that agricultural TFP change as well as efficiency and technical change accelerated in Brazilian agriculture, where as Argentinean agriculture experienced a negative trend in TF...

  17. Role of Mass Media in Agricultural Productivity in Adamawa State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the role of mass media in agriculture in Adamawa State. Specifically, it focused on the extent to which mass media have been used to communicate agricultural information dissemination, farmers' media preference, challenges experienced in accessing information through the media and the need to ...

  18. Climate Change: A Threat to Agricultural Production in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times, climate change has generated a global issue of discourse, because of its potential effects on the human interest, including agriculture. It is observed that absence of rapid response strategies to both short and long term climate change, including climate variability will have significant effect on the agricultural ...

  19. Empirical Analysis Of Agricultural Production And Inflation Rate In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture was known to be one of the major contributors to national development, but suffering from neglect has resulted to heart-aching inflation in Nigeria. Inflation in Nigeria of the recent has been attributed to high food prices. Increasing population growth has also rendered the growth in agricultural sector insignificant ...

  20. Agricultural Productivity and Climate Change in Arid and Semiarid ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) to undertake climate change adaptation studies in the context of agricultural research. ... La gestion de l'eau dans les milieux urbains et ruraux, élément fondamental des villes qui savent s'adapter aux changements climatiques.

  1. The global view: issues affecting US production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  2. THE CONSUMPTION OF BASIC PRODUCTION MEANS IN POLISH AGRICULTURE IN RESPECT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Jarecki

    2014-10-01

    The plant protection by pesticides is increasing in Poland and the established trend rate took into account years 2005-2011. In the period 2002-2004 statistics did not present the full range of crop protection measures authorized for sale and consumption. In contrast the consumption of qualified seeds of basic grains and seed potatoes considerably decreased in Polish agriculture. Only for triticale it was noticed that the trend rate of qualified seeds was increasing. So the farmers should be more widely informed about the advantages of the exchange of seed grain for qualified grains. It will facilitate the quicker implementation of variety progress to agricultural production and adverse changes slowdown agricultural production.

  3. Device to irradiate agricultural product on the production site, after harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegu, Jean; Palomo, Georges; Blaive, Daniel.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a device to irradiate agricultural product on the production site, after harvesting. It includes an outer shielding to absorb the radiations and containers in which the products are placed for irradiation. The shielding is rotationally symmetrical around a vertical axis and holds an irradiation chamber containing a radioactive bar fitted along the shielding axis. The cylindrical containers are placed around the chamber with their axes parallel to the axis of the shielding. They are set in rotation by a motor and receive the farm products through their top ends which communicate with a supply system. Their bottom ends are closed by shutters covering a means for evacuating the products. The invention applies in particular to the irradiation of newly dug potatoes to avoid germination [fr

  4. Designing environment friendly casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemant, T. [TN International (France)

    2009-06-15

    Environmental protection has become an integral part of the entire cask life cycle: - Design and Fabrication; - Transportation; - Loading, Unloading and Operation; - Maintenance, End of Life Cycle and Dismantling. Three new environmentally-friendly cask concepts were developed: the MX6, the TN112 and the multipurpose Shell. Eco design approach was used to reduce their environmental impacts and address environmental issues such as waste generation and management, greenhouse gases linked to transportation, and scarcity of raw materials, all while improving operating performance. The result is greater responsiveness to the customer and a more comprehensive approach to potential regulatory changes. The cask design optimizes all of the impacting factors, such as raw materials quantity, radiological protection capacity, and the use of more environmentally-friendly materials and fabrication processes. To illustrate, the new MX6 concept may be compared to the standard FS65 concept. In the area of Design and Fabrication, the MX6 requires fewer raw materials and can lower the cask weight/transported assembly weight ratio. An adjustable basket concept was developed. - The new cask is also more effective in terms of radiation protection as a result of improved materials performance. - In the area of fabrication, all waste is transferred to suitable processing systems that promote recycling. In the area of Transportation, shipments are reduced by 33%, thus reducing diesel fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Also, in the area of Operations, the amount of waste generated per assembly shipped is minimized, as are the number of operations and the time spent on them by the operators. In the area of Maintenance and Dismantling, extensive, time-consuming maintenance operations are minimized, as is the waste generated by them. The TN112 cask reduces exposure by 15%, uses fewer raw materials, and has a faster turnaround time due to optimized tooling. For waste subject to radiolysis, irradiators and discontinued casks, attention focused on limiting the use of complicated materials and rare woods. Keeping the cask simple reduces the number of maintenance, decontamination and dismantling operations to be performed later. This concept can be applied to a variety of contents. (authors)

  5. Agricultural Productivity under Taungya and Non-Taungya Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agricultural Research and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Antimicrobial compounds as side products from the agricultural processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumthong, Pattarawadee

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial compounds have many applications, in medicines, food, agriculture, livestock, textiles, paints, and wood protectants. Microorganisms resistant to most antibiotics are rapidly spreading. Consequently there is an urgent and continuous need for novel antimicrobial compounds. Most

  7. Economic Analyses of Ware Yam Production in Orlu Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Nuclear technology and biotechnology for enhancing agricultural production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Osman

    2005-04-01

    The presentation discussed the following subjects: sustainable development, agriculture in Malaysia, role of biotechnology, role of nuclear technology, improving crops through induced mutations with Malaysian experience in rice and roselle, fusion of nuclear and biotechnology challenges and opportunities

  9. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land: a case study of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217; Tabeau, A.; Hilbert, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input–output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural

  10. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land—A case study of Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, E.; Tabeau, Andrzej; Hilbert, Jorge; Faaij, André

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input–output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural

  11. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing municipality and its impact on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Wijk, van M.S.; Cheung, X.; Hu, Y.; Diepen, van C.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Keulen, van H.; Lu, C.H.; Roeter, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews water use and water resource issues in Beijing Municipality, the main trends in the agricultural production systems in and around the city with respect to land use, input use, production and economic role, and the impacts of agricultural activities on water quality. Rapid

  12. Exploring agricultural production systems and their fundamental components with system dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the United States is undergoing marked changes due to rapid shifts in consumer demands, input costs, and concerns for food safety and environmental impact. Agricultural production systems are comprised of multidimensional components and drivers that interact in complex wa...

  13. Department of Energy programs and objectives: energy conservation in agricultural production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This document describes the current Department of Energy agriculture research program as it relates to the research recommendations submitted by a 1976 workshop on energy conservation in agricultural production. In-depth discussions on fertilizers, irrigation, crop drying, fuel substitution, crop and animal production systems, greenhouses, materials handling, and transport systems are included. (MCW)

  14. Application of RMAN Backup Technology in the Agricultural Products Wholesale Market System

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Ping; Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Based on Oracle Database RMAN backup technology, this paper designs and implements a database backup subsystem for the agricultural products wholesale market system. Through full backup, incremental backups and cumulative incremental backup, it ensures the timeliness,integrity and efficiency of data recovery, when data mistake happens in the agricultural products wholesale market system database or the database collapses.

  15. Why Nicaraguan Peasants Stay in Agricultural Production Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruerd Ruben

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the official support for parcellation of  agricultural production cooperatives created under  the Sandinista land reform in Nicaragua, a substantial number of peasants have decided to continue membership. Although theory suggests that  individual farms are more productive and more  efficient, Nicaraguan cooperatives did not fully  split up. We aim to identify the factors that govern  the choice of Nicaraguan peasants between staying in a cooperative and exiting to start a privately  owned farm. We used sample data from 475 landed households in four agroecological macroregions to compare resources, incomes and productivity of peasants continuing in production  cooperatives, former members of cooperatives  who became independent farmers, and peasants who had always been engaged in independent  farming. Low capital endowments of the new  independent farmers adversely affect their standard of living. Better access to non-farm income encourages peasants to remain in the cooperative  where they are less exposed to risk. Uncertainty associated with land ownership and difficulties  with resolution of cooperative debt play a dominant role in keeping Nicaraguan peasants in cooperatives. Cooperative members still maintain a  high degree of coordination of activities in order  to capture the benefits of rural development programmes.   Resumen:  Porqué los campesinos nicaragüenses permanecen en las cooperativas agrícolas  de producción A pesar del apoyo oficial para la parcelación de  las cooperativas agrícolas de producción creadas  durante la reforma agraria Sandinista en Nicaragua, un número significativo de campesinos decidieron continuar con su membresía. Mientras la  teoría sugiere que fincas individuales son más  productivas y más eficientes, las cooperativas nicaragüenses no fueron completamente seccionadas en fincas individuales. Nuestro objetivo es  identificar los factores que rigen la decisión de

  16. Research on the performance evaluation of agricultural products supply chain integrated operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiake; Wang, Xifu; Liu, Yang

    2017-04-01

    The agricultural product supply chain integrated operation can ensure the quality and efficiency of agricultural products, and achieve the optimal goal of low cost and high service. This paper establishes a performance evaluation index system of agricultural products supply chain integration operation based on the development status of agricultural products and SCOR, BSC and KPI model. And then, we constructing rough set theory and BP neural network comprehensive evaluation model with the aid of Rosetta and MATLAB tools and the case study is about the development of agricultural products integrated supply chain in Jing-Jin-Ji region. And finally, we obtain the corresponding performance results, and give some improvement measures and management recommendations to the managers.

  17. 7 CFR 205.670 - Inspection and testing of agricultural product to be sold or labeled “organic.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... described in the most current edition of the Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International or other... an ongoing compliance investigation. (e) If test results indicate a specific agricultural product...

  18. Agricultural Worker Injury Comparative Risk Assessment Methodology: Assessing Corn and Biofuel Switchgrass Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Charles V; Mosher, Gretchen A; Ryan, Saxon J

    2017-07-31

    Keeping workers safe is a continuing challenge in agricultural production. Risk assessment methodologies have been used widely in other industries to better understand systems and enhance decision making, yet their use in production agriculture has been limited. This article describes the considerations and the approach taken to measure the difference in worker injury risks between two agricultural production systems. A model was developed specifically for the comparison of worker injury risk between corn and biofuel switchgrass production systems. The model is composed of injury and exposure values that were used in a Monte Carlo simulation. The output of this risk assessment shows that approximately 99% of the values from the Monte Carlo simulation rank corn production as a greater worker injury risk than biofuel switchgrass production. Furthermore, the greatest contributing factors for each production system were identified as harvest, and that finding aligns with current literature. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  19. Research on the Development of E-commerce Model of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic commerce of agricultural products has developed rapidly. In the development process of electronic commerce of agricultural products,many classic cases and business models have emerged. Such as tootoo industrial commune model (product drive type, Original life model (marketing driven type, Suichang model (service platform type. The author analyzes and compares each model from 7 aspects, and summarizes their differences and links. Finally, The author puts forward suggestions on the development of electronic commerce of agricultural products in china.

  20. Farming for Ecosystem Services: An Ecological Approach to Production Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Robertson, G; Gross, Katherine L; Hamilton, Stephen K; Landis, Douglas A; Schmidt, Thomas M; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Swinton, Scott M

    2014-05-01

    A balanced assessment of ecosystem services provided by agriculture requires a systems-level socioecological understanding of related management practices at local to landscape scales. The results from 25 years of observation and experimentation at the Kellogg Biological Station long-term ecological research site reveal services that could be provided by intensive row-crop ecosystems. In addition to high yields, farms could be readily managed to contribute clean water, biocontrol and other biodiversity benefits, climate stabilization, and long-term soil fertility, thereby helping meet society's need for agriculture that is economically and environmentally sustainable. Midwest farmers-especially those with large farms-appear willing to adopt practices that deliver these services in exchange for payments scaled to management complexity and farmstead benefit. Surveyed citizens appear willing to pay farmers for the delivery of specific services, such as cleaner lakes. A new farming for services paradigm in US agriculture seems feasible and could be environmentally significant.

  1. Declining agricultural production in rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions: policy tradeoffs and sustainability indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, André Q.; Arabi, Mazdak; Wostoupal, Benjamin C.; Goemans, Christopher G.; Zhang, Yao; Paustian, Keith

    2017-08-01

    In rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions, increasing amounts of historically irrigated cropland lies permanently fallowed due to water court policies as agricultural water rights are voluntarily being sold to growing cities. This study develops an integrative framework for assessing the effects of population growth and land use change on agricultural production and evaluating viability of alternative management strategies, including alternative agricultural transfer methods, regional water ownership restrictions, and urban conservation. A partial equilibrium model of a spatially-diverse regional water rights market is built in application of the framework to an exemplary basin. The model represents agricultural producers as profit-maximizing suppliers and municipalities as cost-minimizing consumers of water rights. Results indicate that selling an agricultural water right today is worth up to two times more than 40 years of continued production. All alternative policies that sustain agricultural cropland and crop production decrease total agricultural profitability by diminishing water rights sales revenue, but in doing so, they also decrease municipal water acquisition costs. Defining good indicators and incorporating adequate spatial and temporal detail are critical to properly analyzing policy impacts. To best improve agricultural profit from production and sale of crops, short-term solutions include alternative agricultural transfer methods while long-term solutions incorporate urban conservation.

  2. Incentive Decision on Safety Investment of Supply Chain of Agricultural Products in “Agricultural Super-Docking”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqin Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the “agriculture super-docking” mode was introduced in China in 2007, remarkable success has been made in reducing the transaction cost and improving the quality safety of agricultural products. However, the quality safety issues of agricultural products still occur frequently because both specialized farmers’ cooperatives and supermarkets have insufficient safety investment. In order to study the necessity, goal, and incentive decision schemes of safety investment in “agriculture super-docking” supply chain, three kinds of models, which include noncooperatives distributed decision-making model, centralized decision-making model, and incentive coordination models led by cooperatives and supermarkets, are, respectively, set up in this paper. Conclusions are drawn as follows: when making the uncooperative decentralized decision, both cooperatives and supermarkets have the moral risks to decrease the safety investment, but appropriate measures can achieve the coordination of the supply chain; when achieving the coordination of supply chain, the two contacts under the guidance of cooperatives and supermarkets are the same, and the schemes of distributing profits are also the same. Moreover, a practical case is given to improve the effectiveness and feasibility of the incentive decision schemes.

  3. Influences of Packaging on Consumers’ Choice of Agricultural Products in Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuebuka Ebube Wilfred

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on packaging and its influence on consumers’ choice of agricultural products in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria. In addition, it also aimed to ascertain the relationship between packaging of agricultural products and their perceived quality. The study population is made up of agro-product consumers in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 165 questionnaires were administered to respondents. Data obtained through questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed using simple percentages while the chi-square was used to test the research hypotheses. The major findings of this study were that packaging has a direct relationship both to consumers’ choice of agricultural products and their perception of the quality of such products. Accordingly, the researchers conclude and recommend that improved packaging design for agricultural products is essential in attracting consumers and positively influencing their choice of purchase.

  4. Precision agriculture and soil and water management in cranberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research on soil and water management of cranberry farms is presented in a special issue in Canadian Journal of Soil Science. The special issue (“Precision Agriculture and Soil Water Management in Cranberry Production”) consists of ten articles that include field, laboratory, and modeling stu...

  5. Sustainability of agricultural production in communal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Achieving production and conservation simultaneously in tropical agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renwick, Anna R.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Potts, Simon G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing population size and demand for food in the developing world is driving the intensification of agriculture, often threatening the biodiversity within the farmland itself and in the surrounding landscape. This paper quantifies bird and tree species richness, tree carbon and farmer's gros...

  7. role of mass media in agricultural productivity in adamawa state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... establishment of a community based television stations targeted on agricultural programmes to farmer as this will go a long way in improving not ... effective use of mass media (Purushothaman, et. al.,. 2010). According to Ajayi ... grown in the areas include millet (Eluesine coracana), groundnut (Arachis ...

  8. Production of Solid Fuel Briquettes from Agricultural and Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibrous agricultural and wood waste materials have been compressed with suitable adhesive into solid fuel briquettes in a compressing machine, which was ... the solid fuel briquettes bound with starch burnt with bluish yellow flame with little black smoke indicating that the stoichiometric (air-fuel) ratio was almost correct.

  9. Comparative Analysis Of Agricultural Productivity Of Rural Women In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From each of the 12 villages, 10 rural women were randomly selected from list of registered rural women farmers provided by Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) using simple random sampling ... Results indicate that most of the women are young adult of less than or thirty years of age with high literacy level.

  10. New Paths to Capitalist Agricultural Production in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    : where capital flows into the countryside, rather than accumulation occurring from above or below within the agrarian economy. The emergence of this form of agrarian capitalism is stimulated by opportunities in new high-value agricultural export markets, but its stabilization depends on country...

  11. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Breeding for resistance to diseases in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    This document reports the results of a 20-day mission to Thailand within the framework of the project ''Improving food and agricultural production with nuclear and related technology''. The expert discussed the status of cotton breeding, production practices and problems with personnel of the Department of Agriculture in Bangkok, and travelled to cotton-producing regions of the central and northern areas of the country to discuss current research, pest problems and social factors affecting cotton production

  12. Value of timber and agricultural products in the United States, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. B. McKeever; J. L. Howard

    1996-01-01

    In the United States, timber and agriculture are two important components of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The purpose of this study was to quantify the volume and value of timber in the U.S. economy in 1991 and compare the value of timber with that of agriculture. Combined, timber and agriculture accounted for 6.2 percent of total GDP in 1991, and 13.2 percent of...

  13. Innovation in Agriculture - a Way for Romanian Farmers to Adjust Production to Market Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Dora Orboi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of the world in the coming years is food security. The main problem of agriculture in the future is not only to produce more, but to do so in a sustainable way. European Innovation Partnership called "Productivity and sustainability of agriculture" aims to provide a working interface between agriculture, bio-economy, science and other disciplines at national, regional and EU level. European Innovation Partnership is a new concept that was introduced in Strategy Europe 2020 of the European Commission. In this document, the Commission underlines the role of research and innovation as key elements in adapting to future challenges of the European Union. This partnership will also serve as a catalyst to increase the effectiveness of actions related to innovation supported through rural development policy, EU research and innovation. It has been identified two main objectives for the European Innovation Partnership: promoting productivity and efficiency of agriculture and durable agriculture sustainability in all Member States. It aims to create a better cooperation between research and agricultural practice, namely farmers. Through National Program for Rural Development 2014 - 2020, can be financed such initiatives, through Measure 16, sub-16.1 - Support for the establishment and operation of operational groups of the EIP for agricultural productivity and sustainability and sub-16.2 - Support for pilot projects and development of new products, practices, processes and technologies. The purpose of these sub-measures is to support the establishment of operational groups between partners coming from research: research institutes, research stations or centers, higher education institutions that have research in agriculture or which can be applied in agriculture and agricultural producers (farmers, companies, cooperatives and producer groups. Development and innovation activities would enable farmers to capitalize on joint the

  14. Assessment of Agricultural Water Productivity for Tea Production in Tea Fields of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kourosh majdsalimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity index is one of the main factors in efficient use of water for agricultural products. In this study, the rate of water productivity (WP in six irrigated tea fields and three rainfed (no irrigation were assessed by farmer’s management for two years (2009-2010. Yield of each tea field in successive harvests, soil moisture monitoring by gravimetric soil and use of water balance equation was conducted during the growing seasons. Volume of water entered to irrigation system and amount of water reached to surface level were also measured. Tea mean yield in irrigated and rainfed field were 2843 and 1095 Kg. ha-1, respectively. Average of gross irrigation and effective rainfall (WP and irrigation water productivity (IWP in the irrigated fields were 4.39 and 4.55 kg (made tea ha-1 mm-1 and average of net WP (actual evaportanspiration and net IWP was 5.18 and 6.61 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively. Average WP in rainfed tea fields was 3.4 kg ha-1 for each mm of effective rainfall. The most effective factors on WP reduction in tea fields were improper harvesting operations (un standard plucking and economic problems. Moreover, improper operation and maintenance and old irrigation systems and unprincipled irrigation scheduling in irrigated tea fields were also effective on WP reduction. Comparing the results of this study with other studies in past, showed that by implementing the proper methods in irrigation management and appropriate agricultural practices can improve water productivity in tea fields.

  15. CHALLENGES OF AGRICULTURAL COMPANIES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY AND FUNDING ACCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Livia TRASCA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture was a priority for the member states of the European Union since its foundation, the Common Agricultural Policy being one of the most ancient politics at the European level. Agriculture is a sector which has a special economic and social importance for Romania. The paper aimed to identify the challenges of the agricultural companies from the perspective of labour productivity and funding access. In this respect, a series of economic indicators as the contribution of agriculture to GDP, the value of agricultural production, the evolution of reference interest rate, the evolution of credits for agriculture, were studied. the conclusion was that in order to improve labour productivity, it is needed a higher qualification of the occupied population in agriculture and the significant improvement of technological endowment of this sector and, from the point of view of funding access, it is necessary the continuous support of the companies which carry out their activity in agriculture, but not only by the diminution of difference interest rate.

  16. The analysis of indiference and the price elasticity of demand between different categories of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Predrag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the analysis of the price elasticity of demand of four different categories of agricultural products in the Republic of Serbia was described. Differentiating the price and demand of these products by sales points, and using the least squares approximation method, the elasticity for all different agricultural categories was expressed in the functional form. According to this, the coefficients of elasticity of the price and demand were computed and between different agricultural categories were analyzed. The results we obtained show that the market of agricultural products in Serbia is mostly inelastic because the coefficients of inelasticity and indifference of demand to change of prices, are dominant. The influence of factors on the elasticity of demand that are not of price character, proved to be very pronounced. The relationship of the two segments of agricultural market (markets and shops was also analysed and it was demonstrated that these two segments have a slight correlation.

  17. DID THE 2004 CAP REFORM AFFECT PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CEREALS? INSIGHTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL INPUT SUPPLIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MARKOPOULOS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003/2004 has strengthened the multifunctional role of agriculture by implementing “decoupling”, “modulation” and “cross-compliance” and created a number of significant changes in agricultural production in all EU member states. Specifically, the reform shifted emphasis away from commodity support towards environmental contracts, diversified production practices and rural development. In the case of cereals, a full decoupling was applied in subsidies and integration through rights in the Single Payment Scheme, except rice, which was one of the few crop cases in which part of the subsidy remained coupled, particular in countries with significant production like Greece. Within this context, the present study aims to analyze the impact that the reformed CAP measures had on agricultural production and more specifically variations in production diversification. The novelty of this study is that instead of focusing on the producers, it targeted the agricultural input stores, so as to get better insights of the CAP reform impacts on a larger scale of the regional economy. Accordingly, primary data were collected through personal interviews (structured questionnaire from 209 owners of agricultural input stores in the region of Anatoliki Makedonia and Thraki and were analyzed through multivariate data analysis. The results identify important antecedents for the regional economy and the viability of agricultural input stores, which include factors of the reformed CAP, environmental issues, financial measures and CAP effects on cereal production and marketing.

  18. Production of bioethanol from agricultural waste | Braide | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum yields of ethanol were obtained at pH 3.60, 3.82, 4.00, 3.64 and 3.65. These findings show/prove that ethanol can be made from the named agricultural waste and the process is recommended as a means of generating wealth from waste. Keywords: bioethanol; fermentation; agro waste; Zea mays; sugar cane ...

  19. FACTORS OF LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN AGRICULTURE OF THE AGRARIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Babenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the conceptual provisions of the essence of labour productivity in agriculture in order to determine the factors and conditions for its growth at the present stage of economic development. Methods. The theoretical and methodological bases of research are the works of classical and modern economic science concerning labour productivity and human capital. With the aim of concretizing the conceptual and categorical apparatus, the dialectical and abstract-logical methods were used; a monographic method was used during covering the views of scientists on the investigated problem; for the analysis of labour productivity trends, the method of comparative analysis and the graphical method were used. Results. The conditions of agricultural production management in an agrarian region are characterized. Factors of labour productivity growth in agriculture are determined. It is established that the main reserves of increasing labour productivity consist of reducing labour costs for the production of agricultural products. In turn, the reduction of labour costs is caused by the use of new equipment and new technologies, progressive forms of labour organization, improvement of the system of material incentives for labour. Practical significance. The realization of proposals and recommendations concerning the formation and development of human capital for agricultural production, optimization of production resources, strengthening of labour motivation will provide an opportunity to increase the labour activity of personnel, the volume of agricultural production. Relevance/originality. Further development of research results allows us to collect an empirical, multifactorial model of labour productivity growth in agricultural production.

  20. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY AND SUSTAINABILITY: EVIDENCE FROM LOW INPUT FARMING IN ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    de Prada, Jorge D.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Shah, Farhed A.

    2003-01-01

    The tradeoff between short-term agricultural productivity and sustainability is examined with a statistical analysis of evidence from low input agriculture in Argentina. Estimation results show that more intensive land use, corporate leasing of land, and larger farm size are likely to increase current revenues, but at the cost of sustainability.

  1. Perceptions of Agriculture Teachers Regarding Education about Biomass Production in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang; Martin, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    With the growth of biorenewable energy, biomass production has become an important segment in the agriculture industry (Iowa Energy Center, 2013). A great workforce will be needed for this burgeoning biomass energy industry (Iowa Workforce Development, n. d.). Instructional topics in agricultural education should take the form of problems and…

  2. Precision agriculture technologies positively contributing to ghg emissions mitigation, farm productivity and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balafoutis, Athanasios; Beck, Bert; Fountas, Spyros; Vangeyte, Jurgen; Wal, Van Der Tamme; Soto, Iria; Gómez-Barbero, Manuel; Barnes, Andrew; Eory, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics

  3. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: Alternative perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, André; Bird, David Neil; Schwaiger, Hannes; Junginger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This

  4. Assessing Change in Agricultural Productivity Caused by Drought and Conflict in Northern Syria using Landsat Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgin, T.; Ozdogan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, agricultural production in Syria has been an important source of revenue and food security for the country. At its peak, agriculture in Syria accounted for 25 percent of the country's GDP. In 2014, Syrian agriculture accounted for less than 5 percent of the GDP. This decline in agricultural productivity is the cause of a 3-year long drought that started in 2007, followed by a still-ongoing conflict that started in mid-2011. Using remote sensing tools, this paper focuses on the impact that the 2007-2010 drought had on agricultural production, as well as the impact that the ongoing conflict had on the agricultural production in northern Syria. Remote sensing is a powerful and great solution to study regions of the world that are hard-to-reach due to conflict and/or other limitations. It is particularly useful when studying a region that inaccessible due to an ongoing conflict, such as in northern Syria. Using multi-temporal Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images from August 2006, 2010 and 2014 and utilizing the neural networks algorithm, we assessed for agricultural output change in northern Syria. We conclude that the ongoing Syrian conflict has had a bigger impact on the agricultural output in northern Syria than the 3-year long drought.

  5. The production and utilization of by-product agricultural fertilizer from flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, N.W.; Hirano, S.

    1992-01-01

    The electron-beam process is one of the most effective methods for removing SO 2 and NO X from industrial flue gases and producing a usable by-product. This paper surveys the potential for production and consumption of alternative, usable, commercial by-products, in conjunction with major reductions in the inventory of emissions of SO 2 and NO X . An examination is made of the important limitations in the annual consumptive use or price of and/or net revenues from commonplace, electric utility, by-product types such as gypsum, sulfuric acid, etc. A principal focus of the work is an analysis and quantification of the major large-scale, growing and profitable markets for utility solid wastes that can be generated in agricultural fertilizer forms, including ammonium sulfate and other compounds that are available through stack-gas cleaning operations at large, coal-fired boilers. Cost study data is arranged to define the impact of commercial by-product yield and revenue on the economics of full scale SO 2 and NO X emission reduction activity. (author)

  6. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Developing Countries – Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.

  7. STENCIL - Strategies and Tools for Environment-friendly Shore Nourishments as Climate Change Impact Low-Regret Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmels, Stefan; Cofalla, Catrina; Deutschmann, Björn; Ganal, Caroline; Gijsman, Rik; Hass, H. Christian; Hollert, Henner; Mielck, Finn; Schlurmann, Thorsten; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Shiravani, Gholamreza; Staudt, Franziska; Strusinska, Agnieszka; Visscher, Jan; Wiltshire, Karen; Wolbring, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Shore nourishments are regarded as an almost routine coastal protection measure and have been carried out worldwide for several decades. Recent studies generally conclude that "soft" coastal protection measures are an effective option for a sustainable coastal management. However, more research on economic sustainability, species-specific habitat demands and availability of sand deposits is required. Nowadays, the recent paradigm shifts to concepts like the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). For the German Wadden Sea these management objectives are an important issue of the "Wattenmeerstrategie 2100" (MELLUR-SH, 2015), a political strategy report that demands an adaption against the global change and the expected sea-level rise up to the year 2100. Hence, also new concepts and tools for the implementation of more sustainable, effective and environment-friendly shore nourishments are needed. The research project STENCIL joins the expertise of coastal engineers, geologists, biologists and toxicologists in order to make a first step towards the long-term goal of establishing an ICZM and EAM for shore nourishments in the German Wadden Sea. The project focuses on providing improved tools, models and methods for the prediction of coastal hydro- and morphodynamics. Furthermore, the impact of dredging and dumping activities on benthic habitats and their natural regeneration potentials will be evaluated. Since these impacts are still widely uninvestigated, monitoring of dredging areas and the surrounding sites using hydroacoustic devices, aerial photos and sediment samples for grain-size and benthos analysis remains of high importance. In order to develop standardized operative observation methods, analysis and decision-supporting tools, an implementation of field measurements, laboratory experiments as well as conceptual and numerical models is planned. These combined approaches will result in valuable data sets for

  8. Economic Effects of Land Infrastructure on Agricultural Production in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Tarun Kanti; Kato, Isao

    2001-01-01

    We analyse how and to what extent land infrastructure affects productivity and profitability of High Yielding Variety (HYV) Boro rice production in Bangladesh. In our study, “land infrastructure” refers to some basic physical characteristics and facilities of farmland such as farm size, land fragmentation, and irrigation & drainage systems. Our empirical study reveals that in small, fragmented farmlands, production cost is higher, productivity is lower and profitability is marginal. While wea...

  9. Increasing Labour Productivity in Agriculture and its Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den A.W.

    2011-01-01

    In order to profit from the economic growth in their society farmers can (1) increase the yields of their crops and animals, (2) switch to the production of high value products for which there is an increasing demand in the market, (3) increase the labour productivity on their farm, (4) find

  10. Evolution Model and Simulation of Profit Model of Agricultural Products Logistics Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Agricultural products logistics financial warehousing business mainly involves agricultural production and processing enterprises, third-party logistics enterprises and financial institutions tripartite, to enable the three parties to achieve win-win situation, the article first gives the replication dynamics and evolutionary stability strategy between the three parties in business participation, and then use NetLogo simulation platform, using the overall modeling and simulation method of Multi-Agent, established the evolutionary game simulation model, and run the model under different revenue parameters, finally, analyzed the simulation results. To achieve the agricultural products logistics financial financing warehouse business to participate in tripartite mutually beneficial win-win situation, thus promoting the smooth flow of agricultural products logistics business.

  11. The effect of climate change and adaptation policy on agricultural production in Eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the production function for agricultural output in Eastern Africa incorporating climate variables disaggregated into growing and non-growing seasons. We find a substantial negative effect of within growing season variance of precipitation. We simulate predicted climate change...

  12. The effect of climate change and adaptation policy on agricultural production in eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    We estimate the production function for agricultural output in Eastern Africa incorporating climate variables disaggregated into growing and non-growing seasons. We find a substantial negative effect of within growing season variance of precipitation. We simulate predicted climate change...

  13. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, A.,; Cozzi, G.

    2007-01-01

    species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations...... occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A...

  15. Interactions of U.S. Agricultural Production with Climatic Stresses and Reactive Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehl, R. J.; Robertson, G. P.; Bruulsema, T. W.; Kanter, D.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rotz, C. A.; Williams, C. O.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production both contributes to and responds to climatic variations across spatial and temporal continuums. The agriculture sector is responsible for over 6% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, primarily as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases emitted by agricultural activities. Agriculture activities specifically account for about 69% of U.S. N2O emissions, largely as a result of production practices including fertilizer management, cropping systems, and manure management. Fertilizers, together with manure and legume fixation, are the three main inputs of N to US agricultural soils. All three sources have been increasing over the past two decades, while the rate at which they are removed in the form of harvested crops has been increasing at a slightly slower rate. The outlook for continued large areas of cultivation in the U.S., specifically for corn production and supported by biofuel production goals, is a major factor in sustaining demand for N fertilizer. However, rising fertilizer prices and environmental pressures on producers are encouraging increased adoption of emerging technologies such as precision agriculture, cultivars with higher N use efficiency, and enhanced-efficiency N sources such as controlled-release forms or forms with urease or nitrification inhibitors. Crop productivity also responds to climatic changes, as crop growth is affected by variables including heat, drought, ozone (O3), and increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2). We summarize sources and fates of N for cropping systems and intensive animal systems and assess how climate change will affect crop response to and recovery of N and subsequent cascading effects on Nr. The complex interactions between agricultural Nr and climate present opportunities for mitigation/adaption relative to N use. N fertilizer and manure management, tillage, technology, and decision support models provide significant opportunities for climate mitigation and adaption in U.S. agriculture

  16. Trade Barriers and Countermeasures for Export of China’s Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    WU, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    At present, export of China’s agricultural products is faced with many trade barriers, especially technological barriers. Trade barriers include (1) technological barriers (such as quarantine and inspection barrier, identity certification/authentication barrier and labeling rules barrier); (2) trade remedy barrier; (3) other non-tariff barriers (NTB). Through positioning and analysis of trade barriers of China’s agricultural products, it is known that technological barriers should not be ...

  17. Applied Research of IOT and RFID Technology in Agricultural Product Traceability System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guogang; Yu, Haiye; Wang, Guowei; Sui, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In recent years, more and more attention has been given to the safety of agricultural products, whose demands for the traceability system are increasingly urgent. This paper, in response to the demands, by using the C# programming language, database technology, IOT technology and RFID technology, realized the traceability system of agricultural products, and explained the implementation of network technology and RFID technology in detail. The traceability system can co...

  18. Impact of technological changes and economic liberalization on agricultural labor employment and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ibrahim; Ewaida, Osama

    1996-01-01

    Egypt has passed dramatic economic changes over the last two decades. Such program has different impacts on agricultural sector performance, including the mechanization, expansion and substitutability for human labor. Therefore the objectives of this study are to assess the impacts of technological changes and economic liberalization on agricultural labor employment and Productivity. The analytical procedure is the estimation of crop production function for rice before and after the econom...

  19. Carbon Footprint of Water Embedded in Agricultural Products Exported from California

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    The carbon footprint of embedded water in California's agricultural products has not been thoroughly studied before. However, related topics have been on the table to solve the sustainable development problems. This research tries to find out the energy consumption of the water embedded in the exported agricultural products from California. It also aims to figure out the nation scale distribution of the carbon footprint that was studied in this research. The results show that the water footp...

  20. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    This work explores the social and ecological dimensions of recent biofuel production increases in the United States (US), focusing on the case of Iowa. Biofuels are proposed to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, improve US energy security, and support rural economies. Little research has examined how increased US Midwestern biofuels production will change social and ecological outcomes at farm and regional levels or interact with broader governance processes at the nexus of agriculture, energy and environment. These broad questions guide my research: (1) How does biofuel production reconfigure agricultural practice and landscapes in Iowa? (2) What are the costs, benefits and risks of increased biofuels production as seen by farmers and rural residents, and how do these factors influence farmer decisions about agriculture and conservation practice? (3) How and with what effects are biofuels initiatives constituted as a form of environmental governance through scientific knowledge and practice and political economic dynamics? To address these questions, this research integrates both qualitative and quantitative methods, drawing on a political ecological approach complemented by agroecological analysis and theoretical insights from geographical analyses of nature-society relations. Quantitative analysis focuses on changing land use patterns in agriculture and conservation practice in Iowa. Qualitative methods include extensive interviews, participant observation, and policy and document analyses. Fieldwork focused on Northeastern Iowa to understand regional changes in agricultural and conservation practice, the renegotiated position of farmers in agriculture and biofuel production, and biofuel industry development. I find that biofuel production presents significant social and ecological challenges for rural places of production. Longstanding, unequal political economic relations in industrialized agriculture limit rural economic benefits

  1. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-21

    XB, Epstein PR, Chivian E (2001) Climate change and extreme weather events: Implications for food production, plant diseases, and pests . Global Change ... climate and global warming [4,5]. Extreme weather patterns associated with ENSO have varying impacts on regional ecosystems, agriculture , and health [5–10...any changes in agricultural production or a vector-borne disease outbreak were associated with extremes resulting from changes in the phase of ENSO

  2. Nitrogen Exchanges: Testing the Hypothesis of a Country without Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-F. Slak

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, finding data on agricultural nitrogen balances is quite easy. Calculations of such balances are carried out by most of the European countries as an indicator of environmental pollution attributable to the agricultural sector. In France, average values of agricultural nitrogen balances show an excess of 1.5 to 2 million tons of nitrogen. This excess is enormous. What would the balance of a country be if agricultural activity were stopped? In the following article, a country (France is used as an example without agriculture is studied in order to assess its nitrogen balance. Using a previously published model describing nitrogen input and output of a given country, nitrogen flows are identified. Inputs include deposition, fixation, and products not intended for agricultural use. Outputs are reduced to zero if agriculture disappears (in France, agriculture is the only sector exporting products containing nitrogen. All flows are calculated considering the hypothesis of disappearance of agriculture. Nitrogen requirements to feed people and pets in France are estimated based on medical and veterinary data (recommended daily amounts for proteins and/or usual average consumption. Indeed, most of the food that nourishes the French population is produced nationally. If agriculture stops, it will be necessary to import food from foreign countries. Results show an unexpectedly high excess (for a country without agriculture having a structure similar to France: number of human beings and pets of 1.5 million tons of nitrogen. An attempt to calculate an agricultural balance with the same data gives a result close to 3 million tons. Differences in French agricultural balances found in the literature can mainly be explained by values taken into account for deposition and fixation (values used here are at least 300,000 tons higher than values used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. In conclusion, nitrogen excess in agriculture

  3. [Research progress on water footprint in agricultural products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Liu, Xiu-wei; Zhang, Xi-ying

    2015-10-01

    Water is one of the important resources in human activities. Scientifically and rationally evaluating the effects of human activities on water resources is important for sustainable water resource management. The innovative concepts of water footprint (WF) distinguished the human water consumption into green water, blue water and grey water which extended the evaluation methods in sustainable utilization of water resources. Concepts of WF based on virtual water (VW) and based on life cycle assessment (LCA) both combined water quality and water quantity are now the focuses in agricultural water management researches. Theory of WF based on VW includes the calculation of green, blue and grey WF as well as the evaluation of the sustainability of water environment. Theory of WF based on LCA reflects the overall impact of consumptive and degradative water use on the environment. The purpose of this article was to elaborate the research progresses in theoretical calculation methods and environmental sustainability assessment of the two water footprint theories and then to analyze the differentiation of these two methodologies in describing the consumptive water use in agriculture and its effects on environment. Finally, some future research aspects on water footprint were provided.

  4. Agricultural production as a source of irradiation of populations in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexakhin, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the agricultural production sphere in case of a radiation accident with radionuclide release is one of the most important sources of additional irradiation for population. As a result, realisation of the measures for mitigating the consequences of the accident in agro-industrial complex assumes the leading role in total system of measures providing radiation safety. The possibility to obtain agricultural production meeting the radiological standards is one of the main indications of effectiveness of liquidation of the accident consequences. First, obtaining of agricultural production meeting the radiological standards provides decreasing of the total radiation dose. The evidence is obtained in the 8-year experience of liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident that the 70% decrease of the internal dose for population became possible through a complex of protection measures in agriculture (during the first year after the accident, the contribution of internal dose into the total one amounted to 45%, and that of external irradiation - 52%; for the 70-year period these values are 39% and 60%, respectively). Second, the possibility to obtain 'pure' agricultural production is one of the most important factors of psychological stability for population. Third, obtaining of consumable (as to radionuclide content) agricultural production in private small holdings is one of the guarantees of stability of demographic sector in the accident-affected zone. From the point of view of organization of agricultural production in liquidation of the consequences of accidents with radioactive releases into environment, some periods can be distinguished: (i) the first (early) period takes 10-12 days after the accident. The main measures in the field of agricultural production are in operative assessment of the radiological situation, organization of radiation survey, express classification of agricultural products ready to consumption. If radionuclide content

  5. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. A case study of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, Birka; Smeets, Edward; Faaij, Andre; Tabeau, Andrzej; Hilbert, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input-output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural intensification, which is needed to make agricultural land become available for bioenergy production, are assessed following a scenario approach. The methodology is applied to a case study of Argentina. The results of this study reveal that large-scale pellet production in 2015 would directly increase GDP by 4%, imports by 10% and employment by 6% over the reference situation in 2001. When accounting for indirect and induced impacts, GDP increases by 18%, imports by 20% and employment by 26% compared to 2001. Agricultural intensification reduces but does not negate these positive impacts of bioenergy production. Accounting for agricultural intensification, the increase in GDP as a result of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land would amount to 16%, 20% in imports and 16% in employment compared to 2001. (author)

  6. Monitoring Agricultural Production in Primary Export Countries within the framework of the GEOGLAM Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.; Vermote, E.

    2012-12-01

    Up to date, reliable, global, information on crop production prospects is indispensible for informing and regulating grain markets and for instituting effective agricultural policies. The recent price surges in the global grain markets were in large part triggered by extreme weather events in primary grain export countries. These events raise important questions about the accuracy of current production forecasts and their role in market fluctuations, and highlight the deficiencies in the state of global agricultural monitoring. Satellite-based earth observations are increasingly utilized as a tool for monitoring agricultural production as they offer cost-effective, daily, global information on crop growth and extent and their utility for crop production forecasting has long been demonstrated. Within this context, the Group on Earth Observations developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative which was adopted by the G20 as part of the action plan on food price volatility and agriculture. The goal of GEOGLAM is to enhance agricultural production estimates through the use of Earth observations. This talk will explore the potential contribution of EO-based methods for improving the accuracy of early production estimates of main export countries within the framework of GEOGLAM.

  7. Factors affecting RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry: empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory investigation of factors influencing the adoption of radio frequency identification (RFID) methods in the agricultural product distribution industry. Through a literature review and field research, and based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) theoretical framework, this paper analyzes factors influencing RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry in reference to three contexts: technological, organizational, and environmental contexts. An empirical analysis of the TOE framework was conducted by applying structural equation modeling based on actual data from a questionnaire survey on the agricultural product distribution industry in China. The results show that employee resistance and uncertainty are not supported by the model. Technological compatibility, perceived effectiveness, organizational size, upper management support, trust between enterprises, technical knowledge, competitive pressure and support from the Chinese government, which are supported by the model, have significantly positive effects on RFID adoption. Meanwhile, organizational size has the strongest positive effect, while competitive pressure levels have the smallest effect. Technological complexities and costs have significantly negative effects on RFID adoption, with cost being the most significantly negative influencing factor. These research findings will afford enterprises in the agricultural products supply chain with a stronger understanding of the factors that influence RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry. In addition, these findings will help enterprises remain aware of how these factors affect RFID adoption and will thus help enterprises make more accurate and rational decisions by promoting RFID application in the agricultural product distribution industry.

  8. Ethanol and agriculture: Effect of increased production on crop and livestock sectors. Agricultural economic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, R.; Peters, M.; Baumes, H.; Disney, W.T.

    1993-05-01

    Expanded ethanol production could increase US farm income by as much as $1 billion (1.4 percent) by 2000. Because corn is the primary feedstock for ethanol, growers in the Corn Belt would benefit most from improved ethanol technology and heightened demand. Coproducts from the conversion process (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and others) compete with soybean meal, soybean growers in the South may see revenues decline. The US balance of trade would improve with increased ethanol production as oil import needs decline

  9. Precision Agriculture Technologies Positively Contributing to GHG Emissions Mitigation, Farm Productivity and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Balafoutis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a short description of the technology and the impacts that have been reported in literature on greenhouse gases reduction and the associated impacts on farm productivity and economics. The technologies presented span all agricultural practices, including variable rate sowing/planting, fertilizing, spraying, weeding and irrigation.

  10. IMPACT OF CREDENCE ATTRIBUTES OF AGRICULTURAL FOOD PRODUCTS ON CUSTOMER ATTITUDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareeha NISAR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to enhance understanding on how a firm can generate value for its customers using a competitive advantage strategy by accumulating credible attributes to its products. There are certain product attributes that customers can only perceive. In the case of agricultural food products, the customers’ consciousness for safe, natural and organic products has enriched the perceived value of the product. To explore the relationship between the credence attributes and attitude of the customers for the agricultural food, a survey questionnaire has been administered to consumers of agricultural food products in the different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. The data analysis has been conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS to investigate the desired relationship in that particular region of the country. It can be concluded that the trust of customer is now very much depending on the presence of credence attribute that customer cannot describe but evaluate during the purchase of food items.

  11. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  12. Upgrading protein products using bioprocessing on agricultural crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup

    to sustainability leads to a demand for plant protein products made from locally grown crops. Novel bioprocessing methods have been developed to generate protein products which are nutritious, readily available and do not generate hazardous waste. The processing focus has therefore been on developing protein...

  13. Sustainability of agricultural production in communal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to financial support was limited due to lack of collateral and high production risk where farmers' production is solely based on natural and unreliable rainfall patterns and therefore unsustainable. Strategies to improve food security should receive priority to support sustainable resource management, increase access ...

  14. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2006-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  15. IMPROVEMENT ACCOUNTING OF SALES AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS ON FARM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashmuratovich Eshmuradov ULUGBEK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the selling process of farm enterprises,particularly, we will investigate the approach of improving the accounting of sales.The study also examines the factors associated with recognition of revenue in the phase of sale of goods and services of farm enterprises. The findings show that there are numerous mistakes in accounting of sales and financial statements. In addition, we conclude that the main contribution of IAS 41 is to provide a strong conceptual framework in agricultural accounting practice. However, this standard is mainly used in EU. In the study we try to find the ways of applying of IAS 41 in accounting system of farms of the region Samarkand.

  16. Weather based risks and insurances for agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as frost, drought, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The principle of return periods or frequencies of natural hazards is adopted in many countries as the basis of eligibility for the compensation of associated losses. For adequate risk management and eligibility, hazard maps for events with a 20-year return period are often used. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar therefore requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event in the farming calendar. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage. Subsequent examination of the frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and soil moisture stress in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages allows for risk profiles to be confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims. The methodology is demonstrated for arable food crops, bio-energy crops and fruit. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. Though average yields have risen continuously due to technological advances, there is no evidence that relative tolerance to adverse weather events has improved. The research is funded by the Belgian Science Policy Organisation (Belspo) under contract nr SD/RI/03A.

  17. Livestock production and population census in Pakistan: Determining their relationship with agricultural GDP using econometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rehman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock is a subsector of Pakistan agriculture which contributes approximately 56% of value addition in agriculture and nearly 11% to the gross domestic product (GDP. Livestock production makes a major contribution to agriculture value added services. In order to highlight the actual performance of livestock production and livestock and poultry products, the study explored the relationship between agricultural GDP and livestock product output, including milk, beef, mutton, poultry meat, eggs, wool, hair, skins, hides and bones, in Pakistan over the 35 year period from 1980 to 2015. Time series data were collected from the National Food Security and Research, the Economic Survey of Pakistan and the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (various publications. Livestock data were analysed using the ordinary least squares (OLS method and the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF test, and the results were interpreted using the Johansen co-integration test. Our study found that the output of milk, fat, eggs, bones and mutton has a positive, significant relationship to the agricultural GDP of Pakistan, while the output of beef, poultry meat, wool, hair, skins and hides has a negative, insignificant relationship to the agricultural GDP of Pakistan. Therefore, the study suggests that the government of Pakistan initiates new funding schemes for the development of the livestock sector.

  18. Implementing international experience in promoting agricultural products to foreign markets: the Russian export strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia S. Revenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all countries in the world actively regulate both import and export of agricultural products, however this process is very conflictгфд because of acute contradictions on the market. They are associated with the changing conditions of production, increase of attention of the world community to the food securitysituation, change of the used resources efficiency level, competition enhancement. Both internal and external components of agricultural producers support are important for Russia. That means the regulation should be aimed at meeting the needs of the domestic market and at increasing competitiveness of Russian products abroad. The development of the Russian export strategy for agricultural products is currently very important. This problem is closely related to the general subject of the agricultural productiondevelopment, but it has an explicit specific character. Inthiscontextexperienceofforeigncountriesisinteresting. Almost all tools of export regulation existing in the world practice are used in the foreign practice of export regulation of agricultural raw materials and food. Stimulation measures prevail in regards to the coverage of commodity items, number of episodes involving the use of agricultural export regulationmeasures, effectiveness of impact to the national agricultural sector. Holistic strategies of agricultural export development are not a widespread phenomenon abroad at the present stage of the world economy development. Their existence is typical for countries with a high level of food self-sufficiency. Special programs where export component is a harmonically built-in element are now more widely spread. Export development programs of the developed countries include a range of measures to maintain the target income level of producers and to maintain procurement and consumer prices. Export policy of the developing countries has a subordinated importance and is considered as one of the levels to develop national

  19. Evaluating adaptation and the production development of Finnish agriculture in climate and global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Sakari Lehtonen

    2015-10-01

    on production, land use and farm income in Finland. The results suggest that falling crop yields, if realized due to low prices and restrictive policies, will result in decreasing crop and livestock production and increasing nutrient surplus. Slowly increasing crop yields could stabilise production and increase farm income. Significantly higher crop prices and yields are required, however, for any marked increase in production in Finland. Cereals production would increase relatively more than livestock production, if there were high prices for agricultural products. This is explained by abundant land resources, a high opportunity cost of labour and policies maintaining current dairy and beef production.

  20. Negative influencing of agricultural production by exhalates from chemical works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, J.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical industry produces a great variety of pollutants especially of gaseous character. This paper includes some results obtained from sample plots in the area of North Bohemian chemical concerns in Lovosice and Moravian chemical concerns in Ostrava-Hrusov. The pollutants caused an increase of the content of chlorides and sulfur and nitrogen compounds in soil. The pollutant affected the yields of agricultural crops. We found the highest yield reduction for broad bean (in the Moravian chemical works 26.81-18.72% and in the North Bohemian chemical works 13%). The yield reduction for potatoes was 16.3%, for maize 9.41% and for cereals in the Moravian chemical works 8.62-16.30% and in the North Bohemian chemical works 6.42-13.50%. A higher content of sulfates and nitrogenous substances was found in analyzing potatoes. A higher content of nitrogenous substances was also found in a sample of lucerne. 11 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Agricultural production and water use scenarios in Cyprus under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Zoumides, Christos; Camera, Corrado; Pashiardis, Stelios; Zomeni, Zomenia

    2014-05-01

    In many countries of the world, food demand exceeds the total agricultural production. In semi-arid countries, agricultural water demand often also exceeds the sustainable supply of water resources. These water-stressed countries are expected to become even drier, as a result of global climate change. This will have a significant impact on the future of the agricultural sector and on food security. The aim of the AGWATER project consortium is to provide recommendations for climate change adaptation for the agricultural sector in Cyprus and the wider Mediterranean region. Gridded climate data sets, with 1-km horizontal resolution were prepared for Cyprus for 1980-2010. Regional Climate Model results were statistically downscaled, with the help of spatial weather generators. A new soil map was prepared using a predictive modelling and mapping technique and a large spatial database with soil and environmental parameters. Stakeholder meetings with agriculture and water stakeholders were held to develop future water prices, based on energy scenarios and to identify climate resilient production systems. Green houses, including also hydroponic systems, grapes, potatoes, cactus pears and carob trees were the more frequently identified production systems. The green-blue-water model, based on the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach, has been set up to compute agricultural water demand and yields for all crop fields in Cyprus under selected future scenarios. A set of agricultural production and water use performance indicators are computed by the model, including green and blue water use, crop yield, crop water productivity, net value of crop production and economic water productivity. This work is part of the AGWATER project - AEIFORIA/GEOGRO/0311(BIE)/06 - co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Research Promotion Foundation.

  2. Participation of Urban Women in Agricultural Production Activities in the Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barau, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of urban women in agricultural production activities in the Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Both primary data and secondary information were used in the study. The primary data were obtained using a structured questionnaire, administered to 72 respondents selected using the snowball sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the primary data generated. These include frequency and percentage, and Pearson product moment correlation, respectively. The results show that most of the urban women (38.9 % were in the active age range and had a family size of 1-5 persons (73.6 %. The majority attained tertiary education (62.5 % and have relatively low income (61.1 %, with monthly earnings of 5,000-99,000 Naira. The majority of the women were involved in agricultural production activities all year round (52.8 % with the highest participation seen in poultry farming (43.1 %. Although most of the women were motivated to participate for several reasons, it was mostly for the increased income (33.3 %. It was also found that the major constraint faced was inadequate capital (43.1 %. Age, marital status, educational attainment, household size and farm size were negatively and not significantly (p<5 % related to the participation of urban women in agricultural production activities. Monthly income was however, positively related to the urban women’s participation in agricultural production activities and was also significant (p<5 %. In general, urban women participate in agricultural production activities on a small scale all year round. Proper orientation and awareness programs, provision of credit and women-targeted agricultural programs would go a long way to improving the participation of urban women in agricultural production activities.

  3. Estimating pesticide emissions for life cycle assessment of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Røpke, Inge

    2004-01-01

    As the first country in Europe Denmark almost 2 years ago established an official center for Life Cycle Assessments and life cycle approaches as an element of the national IPP (Integrated Product Policy). The Danish EPA lends financial support to this important initiative, the aim of which is to: 1....... promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment and other product-oriented environmental tools in companies, 2. support companies and other in using environmental assessment of products and services, 3. ensure that the effort in the LCA area is based on a solid and scientific basis, and 4. maintain the well...... evaluation finished in September 2004. Important learnings for all who are engaged in dissemination of life cycle thinking in industry will be presented....

  4. A survey of radioactive levels of agricultural products in Saitama prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki

    1997-01-01

    Past atmospheric nuclear testing which have been conducted frequently, have caused environmental pollution due to the diffusion of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and from the radioactive fallout. The environmental pollution from nuclear testing into the atmosphere has resulted in the radioactive contamination in agricultural products and has continued for a long time. The radioactive contamination of agricultural products occurs through air, water and soil which were contaminated by radioactive fallout. In this paper, for the purpose of analyzing the extent of the radioactive contamination levels in the agricultural products of Saitama Prefecture, spinach, green soybeans, dried shiitake and welsh onion, were selected among products, as the amount of the harvest is abundant in all of Japan. Radioactivity concentration was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analysis. The radioactivity concentrations of artificial radioactive nuclides, cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and strontium-90 ( 90 Sr), were detected in the range which is considered to be the result of radioactive fallout. Moreover, in order to examine the effect on radioactivity concentrations in agricultural products by culinary processing, the raw agricultural products were boiled, and their radioactivity concentrations were compared with the raw produce. The radioactivity concentrations in the boiled were lower than those in the raw produce. (author)

  5. TO THE QUESTION OF FORMATION OF EARTHQUAKES OF CORPORATE STRUCTURES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSTOVSKA О.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of corporate structures in agricultural production, proves the influence of corporate formations on the efficiency of agrarian production. On the basis of the analysis of official information of agro holdings, an assessment was made of the efficiency of their activities and a conclusion was made about the optimal size of their structural subdivisions. The advantages and disadvantages of integrated structures are highlighted, peculiarities of formation of their land relations are determined. Issues of expansion of land masses of agro holdings related to the conclusion of land lease agreements are considered. The association of separate agro-industrial enterprises of various industrial-economic orientation form an independent legal entity - a legal entity. The economic feasibility of the creation and functioning of corporate associations is objective based on obtaining the greatest effect, the essence of which is that the result of the joint corporate activities of economic structures will always be higher compared to the results of the individual work of each of them. Corporate forms of management in agriculture were founded in Ukraine on the basis of the general theoretical model of an open, competitive, multi-faceted agricultural market economy type, aimed at an integrated world economic system. The methodology of construction involves taking into account the world economic trends and the national specificity of the country's agricultural development; it is aimed at finding rational forms of organization of agricultural production, mechanisms for overcoming crisis phenomena, stabilizing the economy and creating conditions for further qualitative and quantitative growth of the agrarian sector of the economy. For many years, leading American co-operators have been distributing concepts and concepts that are perceived and used throughout the world. This work is coordinated by the Organization for International

  6. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemling, B.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and

  7. Kinetics studies of fungal biogas production from certain agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic degradation of sugar cane and rice husk by cellulolytic fungus was studied respectively at optimum operational condition of concentration, 1:5 w/v of the lignocelluloses: water and temperature of 33oC. The average rates of biogas production determined for sugar cane and rice husk were 57cm3per day and ...

  8. Forest amount affects soybean productivity in Brazilian agricultural frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattis, L.; Brando, P. M.; Marques, E. Q.; Queiroz, N.; Silverio, D. V.; Macedo, M.; Coe, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past three decades, large tracts of tropical forests have been converted to crop and pasturelands across southern Amazonia, largely to meet the increasing worldwide demand for protein. As the world's population continue to grow and consume more protein per capita, forest conversion to grow more crops could be a potential solution to meet such demand. However, widespread deforestation is expected to negatively affect crop productivity via multiple pathways (e.g., thermal regulation, rainfall, local moisture, pest control, among others). To quantify how deforestation affects crop productivity, we modeled the relationship between forest amount and enhanced vegetation index (EVI—a proxy for crop productivity) during the soybean planting season across southern Amazonia. Our hypothesis that forest amount causes increased crop productivity received strong support. We found that the maximum MODIS-based EVI in soybean fields increased as a function of forest amount across three spatial-scales, 0.5 km, 1 km, 2 km, 5 km, 10 km, 15 km and 20 km. However, the strength of this relationship varied across years and with precipitation, but only at the local scale (e.g., 500 meters and 1 km radius). Our results highlight the importance of considering forests to design sustainable landscapes.

  9. The Discussion around the agricultural Products Genetically Modified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez H, Andres

    2003-01-01

    The transgenic products or genetically modified have been product of the vertiginous technological developments related with the sciences of the life and mainly of the genetics. The Introduction of these products to the market has generated big expectations and discussions. It is undoubtedly intention of this paper to provide the reader a conceptual mark that identifies the main arguments exposed by the parts in debate, to identify the most relevant aspects in the international legislation and to describe shortly how the topic is approached in Colombia. They are gathered this way then and the so much arguments of defenders like opponents contain regarding the topic, among those that the improvement, of the productivity and the yields can be included by cultivated meter, the decrease of the malnutrition at world level, environmental risks for possible reductions of the biodiversity and of development of resistant plagues to pesticides or herbicides, among others. At international level the first steps are giving to unify a clear legislation in this respect, although at the moment it is not articulate with other legislations like the World Trade Organization WTO)

  10. Biogas production and digestate utilisation from agricultural residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The HYSOL project aims at hybridisation of concentrated solar power with a gas turbine in order to guarantee a stable and reliable electricity supply, based on renewable energy. The production of fully renewable electricity in a Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) plant includes the use of

  11. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  12. Gender roles in agricultural production in the Seychelles | Uzokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the role of each member of the family in food production, investigated the type of farming activities the farm families are engaged in, gender specific roles, level of participation of the female gender, gender stereotypes and suggested the use of the information for policy advocacy and strengthening of ...

  13. Production and Modification of Sophorolipids from Agricultural Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    As petroleum prices and environmental concerns continue to raise, interest in bio-based materials, that may act as substitutes for or additives to currently used products, is becoming increasingly popular. Biosurfactants, particularly glycolipids, are one class of molecule that is receiving added a...

  14. Ill health and agricultural production: Evidence from Kogi State of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The motivation derives from the fact that rural areas which are strategically important for national food security are more prone to health hazards as a result of the poor ... Result from the production function analysis revealed that the elasticities of farm size (0.419), family size (0.099), number of contacts with extension staff ...

  15. An environment friendly engineeredAzotobactercan replace substantial amount of urea fertilizer and yet sustain same wheat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bageshwar, Umesh K; Srivastava, Madhulika; Pardha-Saradhi, Pedisetty; Paul, Sangeeta; Gothandapani, Sellamuthu; Jaat, Ranjeet S; Shankar, Prabha; Yadav, Rajbir; Biswas, Dipak R; Kumar, Polumetla A; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Mandal, Pranab K; Annapurna, Kannepalli; Das, Hirendra K

    2017-05-26

    In our endeavor to improve upon nitrogen fixation efficiency of a soil diazotroph that would be unaffected by synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers, we have deleted a part of the negative regulatory gene nifL and constitutively expressed the positive regulatory gene nifA in the chromosome of Azotobacter chroococcum CBD15, a strain isolated from the local field soil. No antibiotic resistance gene or other foreign gene was there in the chromosome of the engineered strain. Wheat seeds inoculated with this engineered strain, which we have named Azotobacter chroococcum HKD15, were tested for three years in pots and one year in the field. Yield of wheat was enhanced by ∼60% due to inoculation of seeds by A. chroococcum HKD15 in the absence of any urea application. Ammonium only marginally affected acetylene reduction by the engineered Azotobacter strain. When urea was also applied, the same wheat yield could be sustained by using seeds inoculated with A. chroococcum HKD15 and using ∼85kg less urea (∼40kg less nitrogen) than the usual ∼257 kg urea (∼120 kg nitrogen) per hectare. Wheat plants arising from the seeds inoculated with the engineered Azotobacter strain, exhibited far superior overall performance, had much higher dry weight and nitrogen content and assimilated molecular 15 N much better. A nitrogen balance experiment also revealed much higher total nitrogen content. IAA production by the wild type and the engineered strain was about the same. Inoculation of the wheat seeds with A. chroococcum HKD15 did not adversely affect the microbial population in the field rhizosphere soil.IMPORTANCE Application of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers is a standard agricultural practice to augment crop yield. Plants, however, utilize only a fraction of the applied fertilizers, while the unutilized fertilizers cause grave environmental problems. Wild type soil diazotrophic microrganisms cannot replace synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers, as these reduce atmospheric nitrogen

  16. Specialty Animal Production Curriculum Guide for Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness. Curriculum Development. Bulletin No. 1806.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.

    This curriculum guide was developed to aid vocational agriculture/agribusiness teachers in Louisiana in improving their instruction and to provide students with the opportunity to obtain skills and knowledge in the production of nontraditional specialty animals. The guide covers the techniques of production, management, care, and marketing of…

  17. A Grape Production Guide for Vocational Agriculture Instructors in Washington. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padelford, Stewart L.; Cvancara, Joseph G., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide vocational agriculture instructors with an up-to-date resource dealing with grape production in Washington. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the history of grape production; grape types important to Washington; site selection for a vineyard; establishment and…

  18. Lattice Boltzmann schemes for convection-diffusion phenomena : application to packages of agricultural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Packaging is crucial for the control of quality of fresh agricultural products. How to optimise the packaging design for a particular product and distribution chain, is still not fully understood. Various empirical studies have shown that existing packaging designs can still be improved

  19. Shifts in allochthonous input and autochthonous production in streams along an agricultural land-use gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Hagen; Matthew McTammany; Jackson Webster; Ernest Benfield

    2010-01-01

    Relative contributions of allochthonous inputs and autochthonous production vary depending on terrestrial land use and biome. Terrestrially derived organic matter and in-stream primary production were measured in 12 headwater streams along an agricultural land-use gradient. Streams were examined to see how carbon (C) supply shifts from forested streams receiving...

  20. Agricultural production and nutrient runoff in the Corn Belt: Assessing dynamic environmental performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production in the Corn Belt region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) remains a leading source of nitrogen runoff that contributes to the annual hypoxic 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico. The rise of corn production, land conversion, and fertilizer use in re...

  1. Tariff escalation and EU agricultural imports: An assessment of selected products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether tariff escalation does occur in the EU's agricultural imports for ten selected product groups, for which developing countries are the main source of imports in the Union. Key findings are that tariff escalation does occur, but not for all ten product categories

  2. 49 CFR 1300.5 - Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RAIL COMMON CARRIAGE § 1300.5 Additional publication requirement for agricultural products and....C. 75, and all products thereof) and fertilizer, a rail carrier shall publish, make available, and... identification of the changes, the nature of those changes and their effective dates. (c) A rail carrier must...

  3. Insect community composition and functional roles along a tropical agricultural production gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson; Svensson, Ola; Den Brink, van Paul J.; Gunnarsson, Jonas; Tedengren, Michael

    2018-01-01

    High intensity agricultural production systems are problematic not only for human health and the surrounding environment, but can threaten the provision of ecosystem services on which farm productivity depends. This research investigates the effects of management practices in Costa Rica on on-farm

  4. Sod Production and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Iowa Vocational Agriculture Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Developed for use by vocational agriculture teachers in Iowa, this instructional unit provides information about the growing and marketing of sod for lawns. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The manual includes an…

  5. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions and mitigation options from livestock production in peri-urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, S.; Bai, Z.H.; Chadwick, D.; Hou, Y.; Qin, W.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Jiang, R.F.; Ma, L.

    2018-01-01

    Livestock production in peri-urban areas constitutes an important sub-sector of the agricultural production system in China, and contributes to environmental degradation and local air borne pollution contributing to smog. As a result, local policies are being implemented to safeguard the

  6. Selected examples of dispersal of arthropods associated with agricultural crop and animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberry, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The economic importance of arthropods in agricultural production systems and the possibilities of using dispersal behavior to develop and manipulate control are examined. Examples of long and short distance dispersal of economic insect pests and beneficial species from cool season host reservoirs and overwintering sites are presented. Significant dispersal of these species often occurring during crop and animal production is discussed.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 rice, 45.54 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with product. These findings suggest that a shift towards dietary patterns with greater consumption of animal source foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  8. Nitrous oxide production and consumption potential in an agricultural and a forest soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kewei; Struwe, Sten; Kjøller, Annelise

    2008-01-01

    Both a laboratory incubation experiment using soils from an agricultural field and a forest and field measurements at the same locations were conducted to determine nitrous oxide (N2O) production and consumption (reduction) potentials using the acetylene (C2H2) inhibition technique. Results from...... measurements show that average N2O emission rates were 0.56 and 0.59 kg N ha-1 in the agricultural field and forest, respectively. When C2H2 was provided in the field measurements, N2O emission rates from the agricultural field and forest increased by 38 and 51%, respectively. Nitrous oxide consumption under...

  9. Virtual water and water self-sufficiency in agricultural and livestock products in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R; de Oliveira, Sonaly D; Braga, Célia C; Brito, José Ivaldo B; de Sousa, Francisco de Assis S; de Holanda, Romildo M; Campos, João Hugo B C; de Souza, Enio P; Braga, Armando César R; Rodrigues Almeida, Rafaela S; de Araújo, Lincoln E

    2016-12-15

    Virtual water trade is often considered a solution for restricted water availability in many regions of the world. Brazil is the world leader in the production and export of various agricultural and livestock products. The country is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of these products. The objective of this study is to determine the volume of virtual water contained in agricultural and livestock products imported/exported by Brazil from 1997 to 2012, and to define the water self-sufficiency index of agricultural and livestock products in Brazil. The indexes of water scarcity (WSI), water dependency (WDI) and water self-sufficiency (WSSI) were calculated for each Brazilian state. These indexes and the virtual water balance were calculated following the methodology developed by Chapagain and Hoekstra (2008) and Hoekstra and Hung (2005). The total water exports and imports embedded in agricultural and livestock products were 5.28 × 10 10 and 1.22 × 10 10  Gm 3  yr -1 , respectively, which results in positive virtual water balance of 4.05 × 10 10  Gm 3  yr -1 . Brazil is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of agricultural and livestock products among the Mercosur countries. Brazil has a positive virtual water balance of 1.85 × 10 10  Gm 3  yr -1 . The indexes used in this study reveal that Brazil is self-sufficient in food production, except for a few products such as wheat and rice. Horticultural products (tomato, onion, potato, cassava and garlic) make up a unique product group with negative virtual water balance in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tropical agricultural production, conservation and carbon sequesteration conflicts: oil palm expansion in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Minerva; Bhagwat, Shonil A.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural expansion remains one of the leading causes of deforestation, biodiversity losses and environmental degradation across the world, especially in the tropics (Angelsen et al., 1999 and Norris, 2008). From 1961 to 1993, the world population increased by 80% (Goklany, 1998). Due to the rapidly expanding human populations large increases in the supply of agricultural products are required, which may lead to the transformation of many landscapes (including biodiversity-rich tropical ra...

  11. Changes in 137Cs transfer to agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, N.; Timochtchenko, A.; Milutin, A.

    1999-01-01

    The food production and food harvesting systems common in the areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in Republic of Belarus can be grouped into three major categories: collective farm produce, private farming produce and natural foods collected from natural ecosystems. The collective farm system provided the smallest contribution (8-12 %) to the intake of 137 Cs. Natural food was the major contributor to the intake at one study site (73 %), and private produce was the major contributor (60 %) at the other study site. Assessment of the situation just after the accident (one year) shows that collective farming was still a minor contributor to 137 CS intake (10 %) whilst private fanning would have been the major contributor wherever private milk production and consumption continued. The extent to which inhabitants consume natural foods from forests has a considerable effect on their 137 CS intake. The comparative importance of food products from natural ecosystems increases with time due to the long effective ecological half lives of 137 Cs in unimproved pastures and forests. Estimation of the contribution to the fluxes of 137 Cs from the different production and harvesting systems showed that the contribution from private farming and food harvesting from natural ecosystems may also be significant, contributing 14-30 % to the total fluxes of 137 Cs from an area even if the quantity of food produced in these systems is small. However, the major contributor to the flux exported from an area was the collective farming system, accounting for about 70-86 % of the total. Refs. 12 (author)

  12. Developing methods for strategic evaluation in agricultural research and production

    OpenAIRE

    Freier, Axel E.; Protil, Roberto Max

    2009-01-01

    We analyze instruments to evaluate investment strategies as new options for co-operatives within the wheat production chain. Using a value-based management the extension of our concept, a “cooperative balanced scorecard” is discussed as we propose the further differentiation of the scorecard’s financial perspective. This is a market development-driven approach as cooperatives may be regarded as commodity-price-intermediators for their members. Proposing this approach we use a simple model of ...

  13. Life Cycle Based Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Agricultural Productions in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to estimate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of agricultural products or processes. Furthermore, including in the analysis an economic evaluation, from the perspective of an integrated life cycle approach, appears nowadays as a fundamental improvement. In particular, Life Cycle Costing (LCC, is a method that could integrate financial data and cost information with metrics of life cycle approaches. In this study, LCA in conjunction with LCC methods were used, with the aim to evaluate the main cost drivers—environmental and economic—of five widely diffused and market-valued agricultural productions (organic tomato and pear, integrated wheat, apple and chicory and to combine the results in order to understand the long-term externalities impacts of agricultural productions. Data obtained in local assessment show a wide margin of improvement of resources management at farms level in the short-term, but also allow for the investigation of future effects of environmental impacts not expressed in product price on the market. Reaching a real sustainable model for agriculture could be a value added approach firstly for farmers, but also for all the people who live in rural areas or use agricultural products.

  14. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  15. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The historical impact of climate extremes on global agricultural production and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, T. J.; Pal, I.; Block, P. J.; Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    How does climate variability at interannual time scales impact the volume and prices of key agricultural products on the global market? Do concurrent climate shocks in major breadbaskets of the world have serious impacts on global stocks and food prices? To what extent may irrigated agriculture or food storage buffer such impacts? Is there evidence of such impacts and/or buffering in the publicly available historical data? This talk explores these questions through empirical data analysis. During the past two years, we have seen drought in China, Europe, and Russia and floods in the United States and Australia. In this study, we examine the relationship between climate and crop yields, focusing on three main grain staples: wheat, rice, and maize. To do this, we use global production, trade, and stock data from the Food and Agricultural Organization and the United States Department of Agriculture for agriculture information and gridded observations of temperature and precipitation from 1960 through 2008. We focus on the impact of climate shocks (extreme temperatures, drought, and floods) on the agricultural production for the top exporting countries and quantify how these shocks propagate through the country's exports, imports, and grain stocks in order to understand the effect climate variability and extremes have on global food security. The ability to forecast these climate shocks at seasonal to longer lead times would significantly improve our ability to cope with perturbations in the global food supply, and we evaluate the ability of current models to produce skillful seasonal forecasts over the major grain producing regions.

  17. Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, William J; Gutmann, Myron P; Merchant, Emily R; Hartman, Melannie D; Adler, Paul R; McNeal, Frederick M; Lutz, Susan M

    2015-08-25

    The Great Plains region of the United States is an agricultural production center for the global market and, as such, an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article uses historical agricultural census data and ecosystem models to estimate the magnitude of annual GHG fluxes from all agricultural sources (e.g., cropping, livestock raising, irrigation, fertilizer production, tractor use) in the Great Plains from 1870 to 2000. Here, we show that carbon (C) released during the plow-out of native grasslands was the largest source of GHG emissions before 1930, whereas livestock production, direct energy use, and soil nitrous oxide emissions are currently the largest sources. Climatic factors mediate these emissions, with cool and wet weather promoting C sequestration and hot and dry weather increasing GHG release. This analysis demonstrates the long-term ecosystem consequences of both historical and current agricultural activities, but also indicates that adoption of available alternative management practices could substantially mitigate agricultural GHG fluxes, ranging from a 34% reduction with a 25% adoption rate to as much as complete elimination with possible net sequestration of C when a greater proportion of farmers adopt new agricultural practices.

  18. Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, William J.; Gutmann, Myron P.; Merchant, Emily R.; Hartman, Melannie D.; Adler, Paul R.; McNeal, Frederick M.; Lutz, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Plains region of the United States is an agricultural production center for the global market and, as such, an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article uses historical agricultural census data and ecosystem models to estimate the magnitude of annual GHG fluxes from all agricultural sources (e.g., cropping, livestock raising, irrigation, fertilizer production, tractor use) in the Great Plains from 1870 to 2000. Here, we show that carbon (C) released during the plow-out of native grasslands was the largest source of GHG emissions before 1930, whereas livestock production, direct energy use, and soil nitrous oxide emissions are currently the largest sources. Climatic factors mediate these emissions, with cool and wet weather promoting C sequestration and hot and dry weather increasing GHG release. This analysis demonstrates the long-term ecosystem consequences of both historical and current agricultural activities, but also indicates that adoption of available alternative management practices could substantially mitigate agricultural GHG fluxes, ranging from a 34% reduction with a 25% adoption rate to as much as complete elimination with possible net sequestration of C when a greater proportion of farmers adopt new agricultural practices. PMID:26240366

  19. Agricultural conversion without external water and nutrient inputs reduces terrestrial vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Running, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by global population and standard of living increases, humanity co-opts a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. In this study, we explored the impact of agriculture on a resource fundamental to life on Earth: terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). We demonstrate that agricultural conversion has reduced terrestrial NPP by ~7.0%. Increases in NPP due to agricultural conversion were observed only in areas receiving external inputs (i.e., irrigation and/or fertilization). NPP reductions were found for ~88% of agricultural lands, with the largest reductions observed in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (~71% and ~66% reductions, respectively). Without policies that explicitly consider the impact of agricultural conversion on primary production, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output will likely continue to drive net declines in global terrestrial productivity, with potential detrimental consequences for net ecosystem carbon storage and subsequent climate warming.

  20. Spatial Mapping of Agricultural Water Productivity Using the SWAT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokal, Rajesh Tulshiram; Gorantiwar, S. D.; Kothari, Mahesh; Bhakar, S. R.; Nandwana, B. P.

    2015-03-01

    The Sina river basin is facing both episodic and chronic water shortages due to intensive irrigation development. The main objective of this study was to characterize the hydrologic processes of the Sina river basin and assess crop water productivity using the distributed hydrologic model, SWAT. In the simulation year (1998-1999), the inflow to reservoir from upstream side was the major contributor to the reservoir accounting for 92 % of the total required water release for irrigation purpose (119.5 Mm3), while precipitation accounted for 4.1 Mm3. Annual release of water for irrigation was 119.5 Mm3 out of which 54 % water was diverted for irrigation purpose, 26 % was wasted as conveyance loss, average discharge at the command outlet was estimated as 4 % and annual average ground-water recharge coefficient was in the range of 13-17 %. Various scenarios involving water allocation rule were tested with the goal of increasing economic water productivity values in the Sina Irrigation Scheme. Out of those, only most benefited allocation rule is analyzed in this paper. Crop yield varied from 1.98 to 25.9 t/ha, with the majority of the area between 2.14 and 2.78 t/ha. Yield and WP declined significantly in loamy soils of the irrigation command. Crop productivity in the basin was found in the lower range when compared with potential and global values. The findings suggested that there was a potential to improve further. Spatial variations in yield and WP were found to be very high for the crops grown during rabi season, while those were low for the crops grown during kharif season. The crop yields and WP during kharif season were more in the lower reach of the irrigation commands, where loamy soil is more concentrated. Sorghum in both seasons was most profitable. Sorghum fetched net income fivefold that of sunflower, two and half fold of pearl millet and one and half fold of mung beans as far as crop during kharif season were concerned and it fetched fourfold that of

  1. Livestock in a changing climate: production system transitions as an adaptation strategy for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weindl, Isabelle; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander; Müller, Christoph; Schmitz, Christoph; Rolinski, Susanne; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Livestock farming is the world’s largest land use sector and utilizes around 60% of the global biomass harvest. Over the coming decades, climate change will affect the natural resource base of livestock production, especially the productivity of rangeland and feed crops. Based on a comprehensive impact modeling chain, we assess implications of different climate projections for agricultural production costs and land use change and explore the effectiveness of livestock system transitions as an adaptation strategy. Simulated climate impacts on crop yields and rangeland productivity generate adaptation costs amounting to 3% of total agricultural production costs in 2045 (i.e. 145 billion US$). Shifts in livestock production towards mixed crop-livestock systems represent a resource- and cost-efficient adaptation option, reducing agricultural adaptation costs to 0.3% of total production costs and simultaneously abating deforestation by about 76 million ha globally. The relatively positive climate impacts on grass yields compared with crop yields favor grazing systems inter alia in South Asia and North America. Incomplete transitions in production systems already have a strong adaptive and cost reducing effect: a 50% shift to mixed systems lowers agricultural adaptation costs to 0.8%. General responses of production costs to system transitions are robust across different global climate and crop models as well as regarding assumptions on CO 2 fertilization, but simulated values show a large variation. In the face of these uncertainties, public policy support for transforming livestock production systems provides an important lever to improve agricultural resource management and lower adaptation costs, possibly even contributing to emission reduction. (letter)

  2. Influence of the Institutional Structure of Surface Water Rights on Agricultural Production in the Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, K.; Burchfield, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    California's Central Valley region is one of the most productive agricultural systems on the planet. The high levels of agricultural production in this region require large amounts of fresh water for irrigation. However, the long-term availability of water required to sustain such levels of agricultural production has been questioned following the latest drought in California. In this study, we use Bayesian multilevel spatiotemporal modeling techniques to examine the influence of the institutional structure of surface water rights in the Central Valley on agricultural production during the recent drought. The R-INLA package is employed to account for spatial processes that have the potential to influence the effects of water right structures on crop productivity as well as on extent of cultivation. Model results suggest that seniority in surface water access significantly improves crop productivity on cultivated lands, but does not directly affect the ability to maintain cultivated extent. In addition, results suggest that areas with more junior surface water rights tend to reduce extent of cultivation, but maintain crop productivity, as cumulative drought stress increases.

  3. Applications of natural zeolites on agriculture and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Nazife; Emekci, Mevlut; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2017-08-01

    Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with remarkable physical and chemical properties, which include losing and receiving water in a reverse way, adsorbing molecules that act as molecular sieves, and replacing their constituent cations without structural change. The commercial production of natural zeolites has accelerated during the last 50 years. The Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association recorded more than 200 zeolites, which currently include more than 40 naturally occurring zeolites. Recent findings have supported their role in stored-pest management as inert dust applications, pesticide and fertilizer carriers, soil amendments, animal feed additives, mycotoxin binders and food packaging materials. There are many advantages of inert dust application, including low cost, non-neurotoxic action, low mammalian toxicity and safety for human consumption. The latest consumer trends and government protocols have shifted toward organic origin materials to replace synthetic chemical products. In the present review, we summarize most of the main uses of zeolites in food and agruculture, along with the with specific paradigms that illustrate their important role. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Bacterial Indicator of Agricultural Management for Soil under No-Till Crop Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Silvina M.; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E.; Galantini, Juan A.; Bedano, José C.; Wall, Luis G.; Erijman, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism, the distribution of a few taxa was shaped as well by environmental conditions related to agricultural management practices. A statistically supported approach was used to define candidates for management-indicator organisms, subsequently validated using quantitative PCR. We suggest that the ratio between the normalized abundance of a selected group of bacteria within the GP1 group of the phylum Acidobacteria and the genus Rubellimicrobium of the Alphaproteobacteria may serve as a potential management-indicator to discriminate between sustainable vs. non

  5. A Competitive Analysis on the Agricultural Products of China and Thailand in the U.S. Market

    OpenAIRE

    YAO, Aiping; WAN, Liping

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects China and Thailand as a reference object. Based on the U.S. market, it analyzes the export competitiveness of the agricultural products of China and Thailand by market share and growth rate, measures the agricultural products of China and Thailand export competition degree by export product similarity index and estimates the agricultural products of China and Thailand export competitiveness strength by shift share method. The results show that: At present, in the U.S. marke...

  6. 'Underutilised' agricultural land: its definitions, potential use for future biomass production and its environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Saori; Bargiel, Damian

    2017-04-01

    A growing bioeconomy and increased demand for biomass products on food, health, fibre, industrial products and energy require land resources for feedstock production. It has resulted in significant environmental and socio-economic challenges on a global scale. As a result, consideration of such effects of land use change (LUC) from biomass production (particularly for biofuel feedstock) has emerged as an important area of policy and research, and several potential solutions have been proposed to minimise such adverse LUC effects. One of these solutions is the use of lands that are not in production or not suitable for food crop production, such as 'marginal', 'degraded', 'abandoned' and 'surplus' agricultural lands for future biomass production. The terms referring to these lands are usually associated with the potential production of 'marginal crops', which can grow in marginal conditions (e.g. poor soil fertility, low rainfall, drought) without much water and agrochemical inputs. In our research, we referred to these lands as 'underutilised' agricultural land and attempted to define them for our case study areas located in Australia and Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Our goal is to identify lands that can be used for future biomass production and to evaluate their environmental implications, particularly impacts related to biodiversity, water and soil at a landscape scale. The identification of these lands incorporates remote sensing and spatially explicit approaches. Our findings confirmed that there was no universal or single definition of the term 'underutilised' agricultural land as the definitions significantly vary by country and region depending not only on the biophysical environment but also political, institutional and socio-economic conditions. Moreover, our results highlighted that the environmental implications of production of biomass on 'underutilised' agricultural land for biomass production are highly controversial. Thus land use change

  7. Agricultural conversion reduces biospheric vegetation productivity in the absence of external inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. K.; Cleveland, C. C.; Reed, S.; Running, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing global population, energy demand, and standard of living has driven humanity to co-opt a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. Here, we explored the impact of global-scale agricultural production on a basic resource fundamental to life on Earth: global terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). First, we compared current rates of agricultural NPP - derived from crop-specific agricultural statistics - with rates of natural NPP - derived from satellite measurements. Next, we disaggregated our results by climate zone, conversion type, crop type, management intensity, and region to identify where agricultural conversion has driven significant degradation of biospheric NPP. At the global-scale, our data indicate that agricultural conversion has resulted in a ~7% reduction in biospheric NPP (ΔNPP), although the impact varied widely at the pixel level. Positive ΔNPP values, signifying an increase in NPP due to agricultural conversion, occurred only in areas receiving significant external water and nutrient inputs (i.e., intensively managed areas). Conversely, negative ΔNPP values, signifying a reduction in NPP due to agricultural conversion, occurred over ~90% of agricultural lands globally, with the largest reductions in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (71% and 66% reductions in NPP, respectively). Without new global-scale policies that explicitly consider changes in NPP due to land cover conversion, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output - likely dependent on some level of expansion into natural ecosystems - could continue to drive net declines in biospheric NPP, with potential detrimental consequences for global carbon storage. A spatially explicit estimate of the effect of agricultural land cover conversion on natural primary production for 20 staple crops. ΔNPP was estimated independently for a) irrigated, b) high input, c) low

  8. Environmental impacts and production performances of organic agriculture in China: A monetary valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanqiao; Qiao, Yuhui; Wu, Wenliang; Smith, Pete; Scott, Steffanie

    2017-03-01

    Organic agriculture has developed rapidly in China since the 1990s, driven by the increasing domestic and international demand for organic products. Quantification of the environmental benefits and production performances of organic agriculture on a national scale helps to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimum impacts on the environment. Data of organic production for 2013 were obtained from a national survey organized by the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China. Farming performance and environmental impact indicators were screened and indicator values were defined based on an intensive literature review and were validated by national statistics. The economic (monetary) values of farming inputs, crop production and individual environmental benefits were then quantified and integrated to compare the overall performances of organic vs. conventional agriculture. In 2013, organically managed farmland accounted for approximately 0.97% of national arable land, covering 1.158 million ha. If organic crop yields were assumed to be 10%-15% lower than conventional yields, the environmental benefits of organic agriculture (i.e., a decrease in nitrate leaching, an increase in farmland biodiversity, an increase in carbon sequestration and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions) were valued at 1921 million RMB (320.2 million USD), or 1659 RMB (276.5 USD) per ha. By reducing the farming inputs, the costs saved was 3110 million RMB (518.3 million USD), or 2686 RMB (447.7 USD) per ha. The economic loss associated with the decrease in crop yields from organic agriculture was valued at 6115 million RMB (1019.2 million USD), or 5280 RMB (880 USD) per ha. Although they were likely underestimated because of the complex relationships among farming operations, ecosystems and humans, the production costs saved and environmental benefits of organic agriculture that were quantified in our study compensated substantially for the

  9. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, Richard M

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it

  10. Agricultural and Food Production in Hungary: On the Road to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szűcs Csaba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last 25 years Hungarian agriculture has lost its position. Rapid growth in the world’s population requires an increase in food production since one seventh of the population is still starving. The development of agricultural production and the food industry is the basis for the development of rural areas. Hungary produces two per cent of the EU agricultural output, which is far behind its potential. Agriculture, food industry and food trade can only develop together. We need to find the most favourable forms of coexistence with multinational chains sustainably. Food industry is a critical point in the product line, it lags behind the performance of European countries, and resources are insufficient. Long-term co-operation between farmers and processors is inadequate; the common organizations of the markets are minimal. Today, sustainability is increasingly emphasized, environmental and nature protection has been appreciated. The agriculture and forestry sectors are not only suitable for production of food and other raw materials, but they can also replenish resources and have a beneficial effect on biodiversity as well. Today’s problems can only be solved by taking sustainability into consideration. Agri-food industry that complies with the requirements can play a major role in rural employment and value creation.

  11. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN THE STATE OF PARANA – BRAZIL (1970, 1996 AND 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucir Reinaldo Alves

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper analyzes the spatial displacement of the productivity of Gross Value of Agricultural Production of the main activities and cultures of Parana’s State in 1970, 1996 and 2007. To this, we used a database of pre-existing on the Gross Value of Agricultural Production - the VBPA contained in the Agricultural Censuses (IBGE, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the SEAB (Secretary of Agriculture and Supply of Paraná. The results showed that the VBPA of Paraná State has a spatial displacement during the period, where it was concentrated in 1970 in the northern portion of the state, influenced mainly by coffee plantations. In 2007, the most visible concentration hovered over the West and Southwest regions, and motion to expand the activities poultry and swine in those regions as well as crop production technicality as soybeans and corn. The findings of this study confirm the dynamism of the regions, as well as the impact of modernization on the field, and also highlights the role that agricultural activities have on the economy of the state of Parana.

  12. COCOA PRODUCTION - AGRICULTURAL CREDIT GUARANTEE SCHEME FUND NEXUS IN NIGERIA: A COINTEGRATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyakhilomen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the relationship between cocoa production in Nigeria and agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund using time series data on cocoa production in Nigeria, value of loans guaranteed and number of loans guaranteed spanning over the period of 1981 to 2011. The Johansen cointegration test was employed in this study and the result indicated that there was no cointegrating relationship between cocoa production in Nigeria and Agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund over the period under study. This could be attributed to the guaranteeing of few number as well as limited value of credit to the farmers by agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund and the high incidence of loan diversion by the cocoa farmers who had access to the loans guaranteed by agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund. It is recommended that the number as well as the value of credit guaranteed to cocoa farmers should be significantly increased so as to enable the farmers expand their production and thereby, reposition the cocoa to assume a critical role as a major non-oil foreign exchange earner in the Agricultural transformation plan of Nigeria.

  13. The Effect of No Agricultural Productivity Growth on Future Land Use and Climate through Biogeophysical Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Jones, C.

    2012-12-01

    Future land use and the consequent land cover change will have a significant impact on future climate through biogeophysical (albedo, surface roughness and latent heat transfer, etc.) as well as biogeochemical (greenhouse gas emissions etc.) mechanisms. One of the major determinants of the extent of land use induced land cover change is the agricultural productivity growth within the socio-economic models used for developing the RCP scenarios. There are considerable uncertainties in the size of agricultural productivity under climate change, as yields are projected to vary spatially in signal and strength. Previous climate modeling work has considered the impacts to the carbon cycle of different levels of agricultural productivity growth, but has failed to consider the biogeophysical effects of the land use induced land cover change on climate. Here we examine the climate impacts of the assumption of agricultural productivity growth and business as usual land use. The effects are considered through the biogeophysical land use induced land cover change, using the Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM2. The model simulations use the set biogeochemical climate forcing of the RCP 4.5 scenario, but the biogeophysical land use change specification is altered over a 100 year simulation. Simulations are run with combinations of no land use change; standard RCP 4.5 land use change; business as usual land use change; and zero agricultural productivity growth. The key effect of no agricultural productivity growth is that more cropland is required to feed the same population, necessitating cropland expansion. The expansion of cropland and consequent deforestation increases the albedo and gives an extensive cooling effect in the northern hemisphere (up to 2°C). Differences in global mean temperature between the zero agricultural productivity growth with business as usual land use change specified run and the standard RCP 4.5 run are -0.2°C by 2040 and -0.7°C by 2100. There is

  14. Validation of an HPLC Analytical Method for Determination of Biogenic Amines in Agricultural Products and Monitoring of Biogenic Amines in Korean Fermented Agricultural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyeock; Park, Jung Hyuck; Choi, Ari; Hwang, Han-Joon; Mah, Jae-Hyung

    2015-09-01

    An HPLC analytical method was validated for the quantitative determination of biogenic amines in agricultural products. Four agricultural foods, including apple juice, Juk, corn oil and peanut butter, were selected as food matrices based on their water and fat contents (i.e., non-fatty liquid, non-fatty solid, fatty liquid and fatty solid, respectively). The precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were determined to test the validity of an HPLC procedure for the determination of biogenic amines, including tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine, in each matrix. The LODs and LOQs for the biogenic amines were within the range of 0.01~0.10 mg/kg and 0.02~0.31 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of intraday for biogenic amine concentrations ranged from 1.86 to 5.95%, whereas the RSD of interday ranged from 2.08 to 5.96%. Of the matrices spiked with biogenic amines, corn oil with tyramine and Juk with putrescine exhibited the least accuracy of 84.85% and recovery rate of 89.63%, respectively, at the lowest concentration (10 mg/kg). Therefore, the validation results fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations. Subsequently, the method was applied to the analysis of biogenic amines in fermented agricultural products for a total dietary survey in Korea. Although the results revealed that Korean traditional soy sauce and Doenjang contained relatively high levels of histamine, the amounts are of no concern if these fermented agricultural products serve as condiments.

  15. Study on the Agricultural Biotechnology Innovation Based on the Product Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    WU, Gang; DU, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Based on product differentiation, this paper researches the innovation of agricultural biotechnology. In the duopoly structure, the company's investment in innovation is affected by the product differentiation, and the greater the difference, the greater the willingness to increase investment and improve quality; at the same time, low innovative cost companies will choose a higher level of investment in innovation and quality. If there is no difference between the products, the companies with...

  16. Requirement analysis for the one-stop logistics management of fresh agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Gao, Hongmei; Liu, Yuchuan

    2017-08-01

    Issues and concerns for food safety, agro-processing, and the environmental and ecological impact of food production have been attracted many research interests. Traceability and logistics management of fresh agricultural products is faced with the technological challenges including food product label and identification, activity/process characterization, information systems for the supply chain, i.e., from farm to table. Application of one-stop logistics service focuses on the whole supply chain process integration for fresh agricultural products is studied. A collaborative research project for the supply and logistics of fresh agricultural products in Tianjin was performed. Requirement analysis for the one-stop logistics management information system is studied. The model-driven business transformation, an approach uses formal models to explicitly define the structure and behavior of a business, is applied for the review and analysis process. Specific requirements for the logistic management solutions are proposed. Development of this research is crucial for the solution of one-stop logistics management information system integration platform for fresh agricultural products.

  17. Valuing tradeoffs between agricultural production and ecosystem services in the Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Deng, X.; Wu, F.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem services are faced with multiple stress from complex driving factors, such as climate change and human interventions. The Heihe River Basin (HRB), as the second largest inland river basin in China, is a typical semi-arid and arid region with fragile and sensitive ecological environment. For the past decades, agricultural production activities in the basin has affected ecosystem services in different degrees, leading to complex relations among "water-land-climate-ecology-human", in which hydrological process and water resource management is the key. In this context, managing trade-offs among water uses in the river basin to sustain multiple ecosystem services is crucial for healthy ecosystem and sustainable socioeconomic development. In this study, we analyze the trade-offs between different water uses in agricultural production and key ecosystem services in the HRB by applying production frontier analysis, with the aim to explore the potential for managing them. This method traces out joint production frontiers showing the combinations of ecosystem services and agricultural production that can be generated in a given area, and it deals with the economic problem of the allocation of scarce water resources under presumed objective, which aims to highlight synergies and reduce trade-offs between alternative water uses. Thus, management schemes that targets to both sustain agricultural production and increase the provision of key ecosystem services have to consider not only the technological or biological nature of interrelationships, but also the economic interdependencies among them.

  18. Ethanol production from agricultural wastes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratualain

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm) and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64%) followed by rice straw (40%) and wheat straw (34%). Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L) produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L) and wheat straw (44 g/L) using medium composition of (%) 0.25 (NH4)2SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae.

  19. Ethanol production from agricultural wastes using Sacchromyces cervisae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was production of ethanol from three lignocellulosic biomasses like sugarcane bagasse, rice straw and wheat straw by Sacchromyces cervisae. All the three substrates were ground to powder form (2 mm and pretreated with 3%H2O2 + 2% NaOH followed by steaming at 130 °C for 60 min. These substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme. The whole fermentation process was carried out in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask under anaerobic conditions in submerged fermentation at 30 °C for three days of incubation period. FTIR analysis of the substrates indicated significant changes in the alteration of the structure occurred after pretreatment which leads to efficient saccharification. After pretreatment the substrates were hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase enzyme and maximum hydrolysis was observed in sugarcane bagasse (64% followed by rice straw (40% and wheat straw (34%. Among all these tested substrates, sugarcane bagasse (77 g/L produced more ethanol as compared to rice straw (62 g/L and wheat straw (44 g/L using medium composition of (% 0.25 (NH42SO4, 0.1 KH2PO4, 0.05 MgSO4, 0.25 Yeast extract by S. cervisae.

  20. Agriculturally important microbial biofilms: Present status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmourougane, Kulandaivelu; Prasanna, Radha; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Microbial biofilms are a fascinating subject, due to their significant roles in the environment, industry, and health. Advances in biochemical and molecular techniques have helped in enhancing our understanding of biofilm structure and development. In the past, research on biofilms primarily focussed on health and industrial sectors; however, lately, biofilms in agriculture are gaining attention due to their immense potential in crop production, protection, and improvement. Biofilms play an important role in colonization of surfaces - soil, roots, or shoots of plants and enable proliferation in the desired niche, besides enhancing soil fertility. Although reports are available on microbial biofilms in general; scanty information is published on biofilm formation by agriculturally important microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, bacterial-fungal) and their interactions in the ecosystem. Better understanding of agriculturally important bacterial-fungal communities and their interactions can have several implications on climate change, soil quality, plant nutrition, plant protection, bioremediation, etc. Understanding the factors and genes involved in biofilm formation will help to develop more effective strategies for sustainable and environment-friendly agriculture. The present review brings together fundamental aspects of biofilms, in relation to their formation, regulatory mechanisms, genes involved, and their application in different fields, with special emphasis on agriculturally important microbial biofilms. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Agriculture in the climate change negotiations; ensuring that food production is not threatened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldowney, J; Mounsey, J; Kinsella, L

    2013-06-01

    With the human population predicted to reach nine billion by 2050, demand for food is predicted to more than double over this time period, a trend which will lead to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. Furthermore, expansion in food production is predicted to occur primarily in the developing world, where adaptation to climate change may be more difficult and opportunities to mitigate emissions limited. In the establishment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 'ensuring that food production is not threatened' is explicitly mentioned in the objective of the Convention. However, the focus of negotiations under the Convention has largely been on reducing GHG emissions from energy, and industrial activities and realizing the potential of forestry as a carbon sink. There has been little attention by the UNFCCC to address the challenges and opportunities for the agriculture sector. Since 2006, concerted efforts have been made to raise the prominence of agriculture within the negotiations. The most recent The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report and 'The Emissions Gap Report' by the UNEP highlighted the significant mitigation potential of agriculture, which can help contribute towards keeping global temperature rises below the 2°C limit agreed in Cancun. Agriculture has to be a part of the solution to address climate change, but this will also require a focus on how agriculture systems can adapt to climate change in order to continue to increase food output. However, to effectively realize this potential, systematic and dedicated discussion and decisions within the UNFCCC are needed. UNFCCC discussions on a specific agriculture agenda item started in 2012, but are currently inconclusive. However, Parties are generally in agreement on the importance of agriculture in contributing to food security and employment as well as the need to improve understanding of agriculture and how it can contribute to

  2. Production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture; Produktionsfoerutsaettningar foer biobraenslen inom svenskt jordbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture and how these conditions can vary due to different factors. The conclusion is that the potential for producing bioenergy in Swedish agriculture will vary significantly depending on which energy crops are cultivated, which type of agricultural land is utilised and the geographical location of the production. Furthermore, different crop residues and other by-products from agriculture, utilised for energy purposes, will affect the bioenergy potential. To which extent this physical/biological potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. The report starts with a description of current crop production in Sweden, expressed in energy terms, the energy needed for this production and the regional variation in crop yields. The local variations in cultivation conditions are also analysed, as well as variations over the area of a single farm. Another aspect discussed is the production conditions of energy crops on previous farm land not currently utilised. The report includes an analysis of the potential supply of crop residues and other by-products for energy purposes, such as straw, tops and leaves of sugar beets, manure etc, as well as the regional variation of these residues and by-products. A similar analysis is made of the regional production conditions and potential biomass yields of traditional crops and new energy crops. These analyses also include energy balance calculations showing the energy input needed for different production systems in relation to the harvested biomass yield, and the potential for increased biomass yields in the future. Based on the findings of these various analyses, calculations are made showing some examples of how much bioenergy Swedish agriculture can deliver, depending on how much agricultural land is utilised for

  3. Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

    2014-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, following this, a demand for convenience has led to the need for an evaluation tool to be constructed with the data processing system. Also, in order to create a systematic and effective tool for the risk assessment of chemical residues in foods and agricultural products, various evaluation models are being developed, both domestically and abroad. Overseas, systems such as Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model: Food Commodity Intake Database and Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System are being used; these use the US Environmental Protection Agency as a focus, while the EU has developed Pesticide Residue Intake Model for assessments of pesticide exposure through food intake. Following this, the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) created the Agricultural Products Risk Assessment System (APRAS) which supports the use and storage of monitoring information and risk assessments. APRAS efficiently manages the monitoring data produced by NAAS and creates an extraction feature included in the database system. Also, the database system in APRAS consists of a monitoring database system held by the NAAS and food consumption database system. Food consumption data is based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This system is aimed at exposure and risk assessments for chemical residues in agricultural products with regards to different exposure scenarios.

  4. Linking agricultural food production and rural tourism in the Kazbegi district – A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hüller

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As in many transition countries, also in Georgia rural urban migration as well as migration from the agricultural sector takes place. This also applies to the Kazbegi district, a mountainous region in the Greater Caucasus of Georgia. The main activity in the district is subsistence farming, while only a few agricultural producers are commercially active. As the region offers beautiful nature, during the last decade tourism has been on the rise, while a dwindling interest in the agricultural sector can be observed. However, the growth in tourism also provides opportunities for small-scale agricultural producers to increase their income by marketing their surplus production to the local tourism sector and thereby improving their livelihoods. In turn, an increase in local agri-food products offered might have a positive effect on the tourism sector. Thus, establishing linkages of agricultural food production and rural tourism might contribute to the economic development of the district and even counteract migration to the capital and from the agricultural sector. Through a qualitative study, we aim at identifying local agri-food products suitable for being marketed to the tourism sector and efficient marketing options. In order to do so, we analyze local agri-food chains. Exploratory interviews, focus group discussions and expert interviews provide data for a qualitative content analysis. First results show that food products which require little technological equipment for processing and do not underlie strict food safety standards, like for example honey, seem to be adequate to tap marketing potentials with regard to rural tourism.

  5. Linking the Agricultural Production and Climate Change in Central Asia: 1991-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarskii, V.; Shemyakina, O.; Sokolik, I. N.

    2016-12-01

    We present results of the impact of climate change on the agricultural output in Central Asia (CA) since 1991. While profit-maximizing farmers in the market based economies would be expected to change their cropping patterns fairly fast in response to climate change, we do not expect that to happen in the CA region that was for a long time driven by Soviet production plans with a limited room for personal choice. We explore the relationship between the agricultural productivity (measured by the actual output) and the variations in average monthly temperatures during growing seasons and precipitation. The climate data for Central Asia are generated using the Weather Research (WRF) Model for 1985-2012. We make use of data on air temperature on 2m height, C, and total precipitation. The data on the agricultural production comes from the State Statistical Agencies of the three Central Asian countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Data on agricultural production for Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are not available from online government sources. We model the agricultural production as a function of annual realization of weather in a specific region. This economic approach includes converting daily temperature into degree days, which represents heating units. The two key weather variables are a measure of heat (degree days) and total precipitation in the growing season, April 1st to October 30th. Preliminary regression results estimated for Kazakhstan, indicate that degree days during growing season is negatively and total precipitation is positively associated with the agricultural output. Both coefficients are not statistically significant. Further analysis will include data from other countries and also by the region.

  6. Analyses of radionuclides in soil, water, and agriculture products near the Urgeirica uranium mine in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Oliveira, J.M.; Malta, M.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of soils, irrigation waters, agriculture products (lettuce), green pasture, and cheese were performed in samples collected in the area of the old Urgeirica uranium mine and milling facilities, Centre-North of Portugal, in order to assess the transfer of uranium series radionuclides in the environment and to man. Soils close to milling tailings display an enhancement of radioactivity. In the drainage basin of the stream Ribeira da Pantanha, receiving drainage from the tailings piles and discharges from the acid mine water treatment plant, there was enhancement of uranium series radionuclide concentrations in water and suspended matter. Agriculture products from kitchen gardens irrigated with water from the Ribeira da Pantanha show an increase of radioactivity, mainly due to uranium isotopes. Agriculture products from other kitchen gardens in this area, irrigated with groundwater, as well pasture and cheese produced locally from sheep milk did not show enhanced radionuclide concentrations. In the Urgeirica area, some soils display radionuclide concentrations higher than soils in reference areas and, in agriculture products grown there, 226 Ra was the radionuclide more concentrated by vegetables. Through ingestion of these products 226 Ra may be the main contributor to the increment of radiation dose received by local population. (author)

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  8. Correlation of water with carbon/energy footprints for effective agricultural and livestock products classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Eros; Marinello, Francesco; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    World population is increasing and human diet is becoming of considerable concern for human welfare. Natural resources are overexploited and governments need policies for a good management of the environment. Sustainable agriculture can provide some solutions, as it minimizes inputs, wastes or pollution. The aim of the present study is to provide a combined analysis of different footprints approaches in order to allow comparison of different agricultural and livestock products in terms of efficiency of resource exploitation. Time is the real important variable that influences the footprint. Water use efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions and energy indexes are included in this study. The study takes advantage of indexes collected from a wide bibliography focused on different fresh agricultural products: the target is the definition of a time table of footprints for agricultural products. Starting from a top-down prospective, an analysis of the environmental footprint for different products is an approach to understand which products can be more sustainable for human diet. This study distinguishes different clusters in different sub-cluster of vegetable products and animal products. The classification is based on a comparison of water consumption in relation to yield, greenhouse gas emissions equivalent and energy for a given product quantity. Additionally time is considered, which affects sustainability, in terms of inputs caught for a period. The footprint is spread out in time, thus changing its relevance with respect to the exploitation of a resource. Ultimately, this works wants to propose a new original basis for sustainability metrics, allowing an effective quantitative comparison of food products for a more conscious human diet.

  9. DIRECTIONS FOR THE RECOVERY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ON RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kustovska O.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of agricultural production in the Polesie Ukraine traditionally was complicated through the low natural land fertility, their high acidity, perevolotsky valley. During the centrally planned economic system that the natural contrast of the Polesie land had been somewhat neglected by the state through differentiation of purchase prices for agricultural products, which gave the possibility of redistribution of the rent in favor of the farms with poorer land. With transition to market relations the role of the state, and hence the possibility of its influence on this situation has changed dramatically. Economic conditions have become more profitable for the farmers that are occupying the best lands. However, the situation in the regions has not yet been investigated systematically taking into account the modern complex socio-economic processes and phenomena caused by increased environmental stress on land resources. One of the most pernicious environmental effects of the Chernobyl accident was radioactive contamination of agricultural land, defined in the final stage of transfer of radionuclides in the human body and further irradiation. The main danger of the accumulation by plants of radionuclides lies in the fact that they are a major link in the migratory chain of transmission of radionuclides to the more radiosensitive species and, above all, human. Economic feature of agricultural production in the study area is insufficient pricesambien, transformation of land use, violations of industrial-economic relations, the structure of agricultural production, changes in the natural-cost structure commodity products, the reform of the organizational structure of agricultural production. In the farms located in contaminated areas, the necessary conversion of dairy cattle for meat. In conditions of high pollution, the production of milk requires a serious sanitary objections in that time, as meat production is more environmentally

  10. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. THE STATUS AND PROSPECTS OF THE ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Maslak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern agricultural market is characterized by an increasing demand for higher quality agricultural products and food. Thus certified organic production was launched in Ukraine, which prohibited the use of chemically synthesized components, genetically modified organisms, etc., and labelling requirements for such products were established. However, experiencing both external and internal demand, the market for organic products in Ukraine is developing slowly. The subject of study focuses on the theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of forming the organizational-economic basis of organic agricultural products market development in Ukraine. Methodology. Methodological support for the study is based on dialectical and systemic approaches to the study of economic phenomena and processes of formation of the organizational-economic bases of organic agricultural products market development. General scientific and special methods are used, in particular: methods of analogies and comparisons, systematization, statistical and economic, calculation-constructive, program-oriented. The aim of the research is to identify the state of organic agricultural products market in Ukraine and prospects of its further development. The defined goal led to the following tasks: a study of the current state of organic production in Ukraine is carried out; set of problems that hinder its further development are defined; the possible scenarios of this market are identified; prospective tasks, solution of which will contribute to the further development of the market of organic agricultural products in Ukraine, are outlined. According to the results of the conducted research, the following conclusions are made: the tendencies of organic market development in Ukraine are investigated; it is found that the lack of a proper legislative and regulatory framework, a lack of modern market infrastructure, and effective mechanisms of its functioning are holding back

  12. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Methods for increasing ruminant production from available feed resources in Indonesia - Nutrition-reproduction interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entwistle, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    Within the project ''Application of Isotopes and radiation to increasing agricultural production'' a mission was spent in Indonesia. This travel report provides details on the progress of studies on the effects of urea-molasses block food supplements on growth and milk production in cattle, sheep and goats and on reproduction in goats. Also discussed is the use of iodine-125 radioimmunoassay procedures to monitor progesterone levels. 4 tabs

  13. Voice-Based Marketing for Agricultural Products : A Case Study in Rural Northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittoh, Francis; Aart, Chris Van; Boer, Victor De

    2013-01-01

    We present a study conducted in rural Northern Ghana about issues around the marketing of agricultural products and the need of mobile-based ICT solutions. The need for the spread of information and web access to communities in developing countries has given rise to the design and development of

  14. Heat and mass transfer during cooling and storage of agricultural products as influenced by natural convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    Three different models of bulk-stored agricultural products with air flow through the bulk, predicting the temperature profiles or the velocity of natural convection, are developed. The temperature distribution in a cylindrical container with insulated walls and open top and bottom, filled

  15. Increasing the Value of Agricultural Products in the Face of Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Paper examined the increasing value of agricultural products in the face of global economic recession in Anambra State. The paper revealed that Anambra State is endowed with human and natural resources and if properly harnessed, can go a long way in arresting the food insecurity in the State and alleviate the ...

  16. PRODUCTION, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANT IN KOSTKOWICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Węglarzy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the economic and ecological effect of Kostkowice Agricultural biogas plant based on a four year study carried out on the prototype installation. Agricultural biogas plant is part of the nature of the research conducted for twenty years at the National Research Institute of Animal PIB Experimental Station. Prof. Mieczyslaw Czaja relates to various aspects of environmental protection. It describes the economic justification for the production of energy from waste biomass (manure, slurry, wastes from feeding table, by the characteristics of substrates and products. It was found that agricultural biogas plant in rural areas are an important link in energy security, mainly due to the very high availability. Ecological effect is presented as effect of the installation solutions for the reduction of pollution of water, soil and air. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through the recycling of environmentally harmful by-products of animal production of electricity and thermal energy, which is a substitute for environmentally harmful fossil fuels. The advantage of substances digestate is odorless, which is important both in an effort to improve the work culture in agriculture and improving living conditions in rural communities and it is an indisputable argument for the use of biomass for energy purposes.

  17. Sustainable dairy manure-based biogas? : A perspective from the combined biogas and agricultural production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Dairy manure-based biogas, an emerging source of renewable energy, is a result of a recycling process which often leads to the thought that manure production is the beginning of this biogas supply chain by energy producers. However, dairy manure is only a byproduct of an agricultural system whose

  18. MAPPING AND SCOUTING CORN PEST INFESTATIONS IN A PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENT USING REMOTE SENSING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imagery was acquired three times during the 2006 agricultural growing season (late July to mid-September) over 35 corn fields in east central Illinois. The imagery was processed with an emphasis on rapid image product development (turnabround time of less than 24 ho...

  19. Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusen, A.H.W.; Bouwman, A.F.; Heuberger, P.S.C.; Drecht, van G.; Hoek, van der K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Here we present an uncertainty analysis of NH3 emissions from agricultural production systems based on a global NH3 emission inventory with a 5×5 min resolution. Of all results the mean is given with a range (10% and 90% percentile). The uncertainty range for the global NH3 emission from

  20. Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poffenbarger, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

  1. Agriculture in Africa: strategies to improve and sustain smallholder production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Bashir; Pizarro, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural development lies at the heart of poverty reduction and increased food security of most developing nations. Sub-Saharan Africa (hereafter referred to as Africa) is, however, the only region in the world where per capita agricultural productivity has remained stagnant over the past 40 years. In Asia and Latin America, the use of tailored techniques and technologies has transformed agricultural practice and its productivity, leading to what has been called the "green revolution." The dissemination of uniquely African green revolution technologies has not occurred on the continent. This chapter will argue that the same results in increased productivity and food security can be achieved in Africa if the appropriate investments are made in key interventions: soil fertility improvement, improved seeds, water management, market access, extension services, access to credit, and improvements in weather forecasting. Where these have happened, even partially, the outcome has been remarkable. However, bringing them to scale in ways that sustainably increase agricultural productivity and alleviate poverty requires increased investments and innovative institutional arrangements. Fortunately, several research and development projects on the continent, including the Millennium Villages Project, are providing valuable insights. Finally, this chapter outlines the key remaining challenges.

  2. Development of Ethical Bio-Technology Assessment Tools for Agriculture and Food Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, V.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and improve tools for the ethical assessment of new technologies in agriculture and food production in general and modern biotechnologies in particular. The project thus responds to the plurality of consumer concerns that increasingly inform the European

  3. The source of productivity growth in Dutch agriculture: a perspective from finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhengfei, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    In corporate finance, the impact of capital structure on firm performance has been widely studied. This article extends the capital structure study to the situation in agriculture, explicitly addressing the difference between family farms and corporate firms. We use the Malmquist productivity growth

  4. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and Fiber: Emergy Evaluation of Agriculture in the Montado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecos...

  5. Production and characterization of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) from agricultural waste corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn stover, as an agricultural waste, has little economic value. The value-added product cellulose was prepared from corn stover by a relatively simple two-stage process - alkali treatment and bleaching resulting in a >93% purity. The particle size of the corn stover cellulose was reduced by mechan...

  6. Description of the production process - agricultural phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the state-of-art of the production process of sugar cane bio ethanol in Brazil also denominated of first generation, involving the improvements in the agricultural phase and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies. The different aspects related do the use of sugar cane bagasse and straw cape.

  7. Development and prospect of unmanned aerial vehicles for agricultural production management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles have been developed and applied to support agricultural production management. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can focus on small crop fields in lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management with high precisi...

  8. Are agricultural and natural sources of bio-products important for modern regenerative medicine? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Nowacki

    2017-05-01

    Evolving trends in agriculture are likely to play a key role in the future development of a number of systemic and local medical procedures within tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This is in addition to the use of bio-products derived from the natural environment which are found to deliver positive results in the treatment of prospective patients.

  9. Definition of zones with different levels of productivity within an agricultural field using fuzzy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for the definition of zones with different levels of productivity is based on fuzzy indicator model. Fuzzy indicator model for identification of zones with different levels of productivit...

  10. Sheep Production Unit for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. AGDEX 430/10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Richard J.; Stewart, Bob R.

    This instructor's guide for a sheep production unit contains six lessons that are designed to be taught in the Agricultural Science I core curriculum. Introductory materials include lists of performance objectives and competencies for the complete unit, suggestions for motivational technique/interest approach and evaluation, lists of references…

  11. Urbanization and the Change of Fertilizer Use Intensity for Agricultural Production in Henan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available China’s urbanization has resulted in significant changes in agricultural land use. However, understanding of the linkages between urbanization and fertilizer use intensity is limited. Using county-level panel data for Henan Province, 1995–2008 and panel econometric models, we investigate the impact of urbanization and other socioeconomic factors on fertilizer use intensity, with a focus on the two key processes related to urbanization—shrinking agricultural land area and increasing urban wages. Our results show that declining agricultural land per capita is associated with greater fertilizer use intensity. Urban wages is positively correlated with fertilizer use intensity. We also find that GDP per capita and per capita expenditure of government for agriculture both positively contribute to the increase of fertilizer use intensity, which is consistent with expectations. Our results imply that other than land conversion, urbanization contains some positive influences on land use sustainability. However, on the other hand, urbanization contributes to agriculture-based environmental pollution by increasing the level of fertilizer use in agricultural production.

  12. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in China's agriculture: from farm production to food consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qian; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing

    2016-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture could be mitigated from both supple side and demand side. Assessing carbon footprint (CF) of agricultural production and food consumption could provide insights into the contribution of agriculture to climate change and help to identify possible GHG mitigation options. In the present study, CF of China's agricultural production was firstly assessed from site scale to national scale, and from crop production to livestock production. Data for the crop and livestock production were collected from field survey and national statistical archive, and both life cycle assessment and input-output method were employed in the estimations. In general, CF of crop production was lower than that of livestock production on average. Rice production ranked the highest CF in crop production, and the highest CFs of livestock production were observed in mutton and beef production. Methane emissions from rice paddy, emissions from fertilizer application and water irrigation exerted the largest contribution of more than 50% for CF of crop production; however, emissions from forage feeding, enteric fermentation and manure treatment made the most proportion of more than 90 % for CF of livestock production. In China, carbon efficiency was shown in a decreasing trend in recent years. According to the present study, overuse of nitrogen fertilizer caused no yield effect but significant emissions in some sites and regions of China, and aggregated farms lowered the CFs of crop production and livestock production by 3% to 25% and 6% to 60% respectively compared to household farms. Given these, improving farming management efficiency and farm intensive development is the key strategy to mitigate climate change from supply side. However, changes in food consumption may reduce GHG emissions in the production chain through a switch to the consumption of food with higher GHG emissions in the production process to food with lower GHG emissions. Thus, CFs

  13. Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammerbauer, J.; Moncada, J.

    1999-01-01

    There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for pesticide residues. These were collected at three separate sites (La Lima, Zamorano and Choluteca), each characterized by differing agricultural production systems. The main pesticide residues found in soil samples were dieldrin and p,p'-DDT, while river water samples were found to have detectable levels of heptachlor, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, with lagoon and well water also being shown to contain heptachlor. These pesticides detected were in more than 20% of the samples assessed. In river water samples more pesticide residues at higher concentrations were found to be associated with areas of more intensive agricultural production. The fewest pesticides with lowest concentrations were found in the small subwatershed associated with traditional agricultural production. Although the pesticides found in the soils at the three sites were generally similar they tended to be higher in the southern part of the Cholutecan watershed, followed by the central zone, with the lowest concentrations being found in the more traditional production zone. In lagoon and well water samples more pesticides, but mostly in lower concentrations were detected at the traditional production site than at the others. Ten pesticide compounds were detected in fish tissue, mainly organochlorines, some of which were also found in lagoon sediments. In terms of food products, almost no pesticides were detected in vegetables, but the kidney adipose tissue taken from slaughtered cows was shown to have a tendency to contain some organochlorines. Spring water in the traditional agricultural production zone contained three organochlorine compounds

  14. The problem of sustainability within the complexity of agricultural production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotes Torres, Alejandro; Cotes Torres, Jose Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The problem of sustainability is a topic that since the end of the XX century has been worrying more the different sectors of society; becoming one of the topics of greatest interest for managers, consumers, academics and investigators that conform the different agricultural food chains of the world. This paper presents from the general systems theory point of view some elements of critical reflection, approaching the problem of sustainability from the complexity of agricultural production systems, beginning with the original philosophical conception of agricultural and ending by outlining some considerations that should be kept in mind for the development of scientific and technological advances concordant with the agricultural food chain needs of the XX century; which permit an orientation of not only work by profession is who lead the processes of animal and vegetable production, but also creates a sense of pertinence in all of the participants in the chain, highlighting the importance of studying by means of systemic thought, agronomy and animal science, as disciplines that approach to complexities of agriculture which is the angular stone of civilization, such as we know it at the moment

  15. Current State of Production and Finance Development of Scientific and Technological Progress in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danil M. Matveev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor efficiency in the use of land, labor, finance and other resources available is characteristic of Russia’s agriculture at the present stage. In most subindustries, the country has not yet achieved the production volume of the early 90s. In the last decade there was a positive trend marked to update logistics and intensify innovative advance in the agriculture, the processes being actively supported by the state, but this did not result in appreciable improvements of the agriculture competitiveness in the global food market. During the study it is revealed that the industry credit debt has gone up three-fold over the past 7 years that made up 1.43trillion rubles versus 112 billion rubles of revenue in 2012. The authors propose a technique to attract private investments in the agriculture of Russia and economic-organizing mechanism to realize it. Hereto, a considerable part is played by state regulation, particularly to provide investment-back guarantees in the event that a project-implementing agricultural organization goes bankrupt. To hold up, the authors consider a number of investment projects implemented by one of the Russian Federation entities which demonstrate their effectiveness both for the investors and the state. Employing the data obtained from the study will allow to largely increase the rates of technical and technological re-equipment of the industry, improve its investment attractiveness and competitiveness based on innovations and this will provide the country's food safety and gross domestic product growth.

  16. Land Management Decisions and Agricultural Productivity in the Hillsides of Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Hans G.P.; Pender, John L.; Damon, Amy L.; Schipper, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing land degradation and concomitant low agricultural productivity are important determinants of rural poverty in the hillside areas of Honduras. Using data at the levels of the farm household, parcel and plot, we develop an econometric modeling framework to analyze land management decisions and their impact on crop productivity. Our econometric model allows for endogenous household decisions regarding livelihood strategy choice, use of labor and external inputs, and participation in o...

  17. Potential impacts of genetic use restriction technologies (GURTs) on agrobiodiversity and agricultural production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, B.; Eaton, D.; Louwaars, N.; Meer, van der, I.M.; Beekwilder, J.; Tongeren, van, F.

    2001-01-01

    Development and application of GURT as an appropriation mechanism may potentially have considerable impact on agriculture, the environment and the food security of rural areas in developing countries. Positive impacts may include increased investments in breeding as a result of increased intellectual property protection. Increased investments may contribute to higher yields and more advanced varieties, and thus to increased food production, a more sustainable production, and better consumer p...

  18. Potential and impacts of renewable energy production from agricultural biomass in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tingting; McConkey, Brian; Huffman, Ted; Smith, Stephen; MacGregor, Bob; Yemshanov, Denys; Kulshreshtha, Suren

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study quantifies the bioenergy production potential in the Canadian agricultural sector. • Two presented scenarios included the mix of market and non-market policy targets and the market-only drivers. • The scenario that used mix of market and policy drivers had the largest impact on the production of bioenergy. • The production of biomass-based ethanol and electricity could cause moderate land use changes up to 0.32 Mha. • Overall, agricultural sector has a considerable potential to generate renewable energy from biomass. - Abstract: Agriculture has the potential to supply considerable amounts of biomass for renewable energy production from dedicated energy crops as well as from crop residues of existing production. Bioenergy production can contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by using ethanol and biodiesel to displace petroleum-based fuels and through direct burning of biomass to offset coal use for generating electricity. We used the Canadian Economic and Emissions Model for Agriculture to estimate the potential for renewable energy production from biomass, the impacts on agricultural production, land use change and greenhouse gas emissions. We explored two scenarios: the first considers a combination of market incentives and policy mandates (crude oil price of $120 bbl −1 ; carbon offset price of $50 Mg −1 CO 2 equivalent and policy targets of a substitution of 20% of gasoline by biomass-based ethanol; 8% of petroleum diesel by biodiesel and 20% of coal-based electricity by direct biomass combustion), and a second scenario considers only carbon offset market incentives priced at $50 Mg −1 CO 2 equivalent. The results show that under the combination of market incentives and policy mandates scenario, the production of biomass-based ethanol and electricity increases considerably and could potentially cause substantial changes in land use practices. Overall, agriculture has considerable potential to

  19. Plant science and agricultural productivity: why are we hitting the yield ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bossoreille de Ribou, Stève; Douam, Florian; Hamant, Olivier; Frohlich, Michael W; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2013-09-01

    Trends in conventional plant breeding and in biotechnology research are analyzed with a focus on production and productivity of individual organisms. Our growing understanding of the productive/adaptive potential of (crop) plants is a prerequisite to increasing this potential and also its expression under environmental constraints. This review concentrates on growth rate, ribosome activity, and photosynthetic rate to link these key cellular processes to plant productivity. Examples of how they may be integrated in heterosis, organ growth control, and responses to abiotic stresses are presented. The yield components in rice are presented as a model. The ultimate goal of research programs, that concentrate on yield and productivity and integrating the panoply of systems biology tools, is to achieve "low input, high output" agriculture, i.e. shifting from a conventional "productivist" agriculture to an efficient sustainable agriculture. This is of critical, strategic importance, because the extent to which we, both locally and globally, secure and manage the long-term productive potential of plant resources will determine the future of humanity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Requirement Analysis for the Collaborative Supply and Logistics Management of Fresh Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues and concerns for food safety, agro-processing, and the environmental and ecological impact of food production have been attracted many research interests. Traceability and logistics management of fresh agricultural products is faced with the technological challenges including food product label and identification, activity/process characterization, information systems for the supply chain, i.e., from farm to table. Application of information technologies for food processing and logistics industry in the fields of smart packaging and materials, automation and control technology, standards and their application scenarios, and production management principles were wildly studied. A collaborative research project for the supply and logistics of fresh agricultural products in Tianjin was performed. System analysis for the logistics management information system is studied. The model-driven business transformation, an approach uses formal models to explicitly define the structure and behavior of a business, is applied for the review and analysis process. Requirements for the logistic management solutions are proposed. Development of this research is crucial for the solution integration of supply and logistic management information system for fresh agricultural products.

  1. Nonwoven production from agricultural okra wastes and investigation of their thermal conductivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, M. N.; Kocak, E. D.; Merdan, N.; Mistik, I.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays bio-based composite materials have been used in rising amounts and demanded widely in industrial uses, as they provide cost reduction and weight loss in the end use products. Agricultural cellulose based wastes can be a good alternative to synthetic fibers and can be used in natural fiber reinforced composite production, as there is a huge (more than 40 million tons) potential for natural cellulose production from agricultural wastes. Okra is one of the most grown vegetables around the world with stems left on the fields after harvest. When the similarity of mechanical properties of okra fibers with traditional bast fibers (flax, kenaf, hemp) are considered, from an economical and an environmental point of view this research emphasizes the potential of agricultural biomass for natural fiber production. In this study, okra stem wastes used for natural cellulosic fiber production and treated with 10% NaOH at 60°C for 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. By alkali treatment, decrease in fiber diameter and weight, and increase in tensile strength and elongation % have been observed. Nonwoven production has been done from both the fibers with and without surface treatments. Thermal conductivity properties of both nonwovens have been investigated.

  2. Analysis the Impact of Technology Spillovers on Total Factor Productivity of Agricultural Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Baniasadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growth of agricultural production and natural resources are from primary objectives of any political system, because this section has a vital role in providing food security. According to the production theories, production growth will come from two sources; more use of production factors within the framework of existing technologies and second, with using more advanced and more efficient production methods and effective use of production factors. In fact, the second one is tied to the concept of productivity. New and efficient technologies are the most important factor for productivity growth. Technology was enhanced through internal and external sources. External sources include spillover technology from developed countries into another country. Empirical evidence on the impact of spillover technology on productivity growth of indigenous producer is vague. One perspective proposes that FDI, technology transferred from developed countries has positive effects on developing countries and another perspective is against it. This paper explores the role of technological spillover on total factor productivity (TFP growth in agricultural sectors of Iran uses time series data during 1971-2011. Materials and Methods: In this study, Kendrick model was used to calculate total factor productivity. After calculating productivity, affective factors on it, were examined through ARDL model. The aim of this study is examination of technology spillover on the productivity of agricultural sectors. The degree of technology diffusion grows with increase in technology distance between the hosts and the foreign countries. The greater the technology distance, the more difficult it becomes for developing countries to boost independent innovation. To calculate the index of technology spillover, commercial partners should be considered that are more advanced in science and technology than Iran. For this purpose, commercial partners in this study are

  3. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. METHODOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS FOR FORMING THE MARKETING STRATEGY OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ECOLOGIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Bagorka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the investigation of the nature, objectives, and strategic categories of ecologization marketing strategy, development of algorithm of this strategy and determination of environmental, economic, and ecological instruments of implementation of this strategy in the agricultural sector. Methodology. The basis of the formation of a marketing strategy for the ecologization of agrarian production is the systematic approach, which is based on the existence of implementation mechanisms that ensure system consistency, its purposefulness; interdependence; and complexity of its elements, which determines the integrity of the system; all tasks that execute individual elements of the system are interconnected; system elements and their associated actions have a certain subordination that builds a hierarchy; the system changes under the influence of specific factors, which determines its dynamism; the ability of the system to adapt to the variability of the external environment, while not losing its own individuality. Methods for strategic analysis of macro- and micro-environment factors were used to form the marketing strategy of ecologization. This process involves an analytical evaluation of the parameters of the external and internal environment with the help of general scientific and applied methods of strategic analysis. Results. The article explored the ecologization strategy, presented its objectives in the field of agriculture, the basic categories of strategic directions and implementation of ecologization marketing strategies. An algorithm of environmental marketing strategies in agricultural production is developed, environmental, economic and environmental and economic tools to implement them are determined. Practical implications. It is determined that marketing strategy of ecologization of agrarian production is a strategy of innovative development that can solve problems of economic growth, an increase of

  5. Implications of climate change for agricultural productivity in the early twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornall, Jemma; Betts, Richard; Burke, Eleanor; Clark, Robin; Camp, Joanne; Willett, Kate; Wiltshire, Andrew

    2010-09-27

    This paper reviews recent literature concerning a wide range of processes through which climate change could potentially impact global-scale agricultural productivity, and presents projections of changes in relevant meteorological, hydrological and plant physiological quantities from a climate model ensemble to illustrate key areas of uncertainty. Few global-scale assessments have been carried out, and these are limited in their ability to capture the uncertainty in climate projections, and omit potentially important aspects such as extreme events and changes in pests and diseases. There is a lack of clarity on how climate change impacts on drought are best quantified from an agricultural perspective, with different metrics giving very different impressions of future risk. The dependence of some regional agriculture on remote rainfall, snowmelt and glaciers adds to the complexity. Indirect impacts via sea-level rise, storms and diseases have not been quantified. Perhaps most seriously, there is high uncertainty in the extent to which the direct effects of CO(2) rise on plant physiology will interact with climate change in affecting productivity. At present, the aggregate impacts of climate change on global-scale agricultural productivity cannot be reliably quantified.

  6. Installation for Treatment of Agricultural Products Using High-Voltage Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu V.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the study on the determination and optimization of construction and technology parameters of an electro hydraulic installation developed for research in view of its use in primary processing of agricultural products. Unlike other processing technologies, the proposed technology using electro hydraulic effect requires the application of an installation, which is simple in terms of construction, has low cost, is reliable, easy to use and can be widely applied in various branches of agriculture including primary processing of agricultural products and for sterilizing liquids. The problem of using electro hydraulic effect consists in the correct dimensioning of the installation parameters to obtain high voltage pulses, in comparison with the dimensions of the chamber with electrodes, wherein the liquid processing is carried out. For dimensioning and development of the proposed installation, the necessary parameters were determined by calculation and were confirmed by conducting operational tests. The performed calculation and tests on the operation of the installation under laboratory conditions gave the possibility of dimensioning and optimization of the construction and technological parameters of electro-hydraulic installation, i.e. voltage level, the distance between the electrodes, the volume of the treated liquid, the treatment pulse number and the energy pulsed discharge. The values of the design parameters have allowed to develop and commission the installation, which will allow further tests on use of the electro-hydraulic effect in the processing the agricultural products in the Republic of Moldova.

  7. The commercial use of gamma facilities in North and South America for agricultural product processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterweck, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The treatment of agriculture and food products with ionizing radiation has been proven to be safe, effective, economical, and according to consumer surveys, the end product is better. However, commercial implementation of food irradiation has been slow because of the following: the lack of profit incentives; the failure of the political system to deal with antinuclear groups; the failure of public health authorities to actively support this technology. Food irradiation cannot be considered successfully implemented until the commercial industry is making a profit by the use of this technology. Use of this technology will: (1) reduce food borne infections (FBI); (2) decrease the hazards of the use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry production; (3) reduce the need for agriculture quarantine procedures; and (4) increase shelf-life of perishable foods. However, only (1) and (3) are being considered as economic alternatives by the present day's food industry. Previously, agriculture has focused on technology that would increase production and reduce costs. Today this is rapidly changing to implementing technology that markets a product the consumer wants and is perceived as being safer and environmentally responsible. (author)

  8. Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valin, H; Havlík, P; Mosnier, A; Obersteiner, M; Herrero, M; Schmid, E

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the effects of crop yield and livestock feed efficiency scenarios on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land use change in developing countries. We analyze mitigation associated with different productivity pathways using the global partial equilibrium model GLOBIOM. Our results confirm that yield increase could mitigate some agriculture-related emissions growth over the next decades. Closing yield gaps by 50% for crops and 25% for livestock by 2050 would decrease agriculture and land use change emissions by 8% overall, and by 12% per calorie produced. However, the outcome is sensitive to the technological path and which factor benefits from productivity gains: sustainable land intensification would increase GHG savings by one-third when compared with a fertilizer intensive pathway. Reaching higher yield through total factor productivity gains would be more efficient on the food supply side but halve emissions savings due to a strong rebound effect on the demand side. Improvement in the crop or livestock sector would have different implications: crop yield increase would bring the largest food provision benefits, whereas livestock productivity gains would allow the greatest reductions in GHG emission. Combining productivity increases in the two sectors appears to be the most efficient way to exploit mitigation and food security co-benefits. (letter)

  9. DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA: 1961-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Abraham Ajao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in agricultural productivity in Sub-Sahara Africa countries in the context of diverse institutional arrangements using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. From a time series which consists of information on agricultural production and means of production were obtained from FAO AGROSTAT and rainfall data from Steve O’Connell data base. The information was for a 43-year period (1961-2003; DEA method was used to measure Malmquist index of total factor productivity. A decomposition of TFP measures revealed that the observed increase in the TFP in the sub–Sahara Africa agriculture is due to technological change rather than efficiency change which is the main constrained of achieving higher level of TFP during the reference period. The study further examined the effect of land quality, malaria, education and selected governance indicators such as, control of corruption and government effectiveness on productivity growth. All the variables included in the model are significant with the exception of government effectiveness

  10. Food productivity trend analysis of Raichur district for the management of agricultural drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathandran, Sruthi; Aslam, M A Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Drought is an extreme climatic situation where there is a water shortage arising due to sub-normal rainfall, erratic distribution of precipitation, increased water supply demand, etc. India faced several years of drought in last six decades. As Indian agriculture is largely dependent on the monsoon, a slight change affects production as well as crop yield drastically. Statistical analysis is important for mapping the drought prone areas. Raichur district of the northern interior state of Karnataka is a drought-prone region where the economy is mainly based on agriculture. So, the uneven distribution of rainfall as well as the delay in the arrival of the southwest monsoon adversely affects the growth stage of crops which result in a decline in crop production. The effect of drought on the agriculture for the past decade has been analyzed using crop productivity data. When the production rate of Raichur district was studied for the years 1998 to 2009, it was seen that major crops like rice and jowar faced a decline in its production during the years 2002 and 2003, whereas bajra, maize, etc. mostly decreased in the year 2004.

  11. Determination of Ecological Worldview of the Agriculture Faculty Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Demirtaş

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New Ecological Paradigm Scale (NEP is commonly used to determine people’s environmental opinion and their behaviors about it. Environment-friendly and sustainable agricultural production techniques are one of the most important issue in agricultural engineering. In this study, agricultural engineer candidates’ environmental behaviors were determined by using of NEP scale. Data was collected from 350 undergraduate students in 2015-2016 school year. Environmental behavior mean was found as 3,38 that indicates slightly better than average environmental behavior. Four sub dimensions were determined with Explanatory Factor Analysis and variance was found 68%. According to First and Second-Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis, data showed results that confirm models. Second-Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis explanatory rate was found 78%. Despite all technological development, mankind still under the influence of natural laws and there is a serious environmental degradation by human activities. Agricultural engineer candidates showed a behavior that is balanced between environmental awareness and meeting humans’ nutrition needs.

  12. Application of agricultural fibers in pollution removal from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahvi, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Discharging different kinds of wastewater and polluted waters such as domestic, industrial and agricultural wastewaters into environment, especially to surface water, can cause heavy pollution of this body sources. With regard to increasing effluent discharge standards to the environment, high considerations should be made when selecting proper treatment processes. Any of chemical, biological and physical treatment processes have its own advantages and disadvantages. It should be kept in mind that economical aspects are important, too. In addition, employing environment friendly methods for treatment is emphasized much more these days. Application of some waste products that could help in this regard, in addition to reuse of these waste materials, can be an advantage, Agricultural fibers are agricultural wastes and are generated in high amounts. The majority of such materials is generated in developing countries and, since they are very cheap, they can be employed as bio sorbents in water and wastewater applications. Polluted surface waters, different wastewaters and partially treated wastewater may be contaminated by heavy metals or some organic matters and these waters should be treated to reduce pollution. The results of investigations show high efficiency of agricultural fibers in heavy metal and phenol removal. In this paper, some studies conducted by the author of this article and other investigators are reviewed

  13. Typologies and Spatialization of Agricultural Production Systems in Rondônia, Brazil: Linking Land Use, Socioeconomics and Territorial Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current Amazon landscape consists of heterogeneous mosaics formed by interactions between the original forest and productive activities. Recognizing and quantifying the characteristics of these landscapes is essential for understanding agricultural production chains, assessing the impact of policies, and in planning future actions. Our main objective was to construct the regionalization of agricultural production for Rondônia State (Brazilian Amazon at the municipal level. We adopted a decision tree approach, using land use maps derived from remote sensing data (PRODES and TerraClass combined with socioeconomic data. The decision trees allowed us to allocate municipalities to one of five agricultural production systems: (i coexistence of livestock production and intensive agriculture; (ii semi-intensive beef and milk production; (iii semi-intensive beef production; (iv intensive beef and milk production, and; (v intensive beef production. These production systems are, respectively, linked to mechanized agriculture (i, traditional cattle farming with low management, with (ii or without (iii a significant presence of dairy farming, and to more intensive livestock farming with (iv or without (v a significant presence of dairy farming. The municipalities and associated production systems were then characterized using a wide variety of quantitative metrics grouped into four dimensions: (i agricultural production; (ii economics; (iii territorial configuration, and; (iv social characteristics. We found that production systems linked to mechanized agriculture predominate in the south of the state, while intensive farming is mainly found in the center of the state. Semi-intensive livestock farming is mainly located close to the southwest frontier and in the north of the state, where human occupation of the territory is not fully consolidated. This distributional pattern reflects the origins of the agricultural production system of Rond

  14. Towards a new generation of agricultural system data, models and knowledge products: Information and communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Sander J C; Porter, Cheryl H; Moore, Andrew D; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N; Foster, Ian; Jones, James W; Antle, John M

    2017-07-01

    Agricultural modeling has long suffered from fragmentation in model implementation. Many models are developed, there is much redundancy, models are often poorly coupled, model component re-use is rare, and it is frequently difficult to apply models to generate real solutions for the agricultural sector. To improve this situation, we argue that an open, self-sustained, and committed community is required to co-develop agricultural models and associated data and tools as a common resource. Such a community can benefit from recent developments in information and communications technology (ICT). We examine how such developments can be leveraged to design and implement the next generation of data, models, and decision support tools for agricultural production systems. Our objective is to assess relevant technologies for their maturity, expected development, and potential to benefit the agricultural modeling community. The technologies considered encompass methods for collaborative development and for involving stakeholders and users in development in a transdisciplinary manner. Our qualitative evaluation suggests that as an overall research challenge, the interoperability of data sources, modular granular open models, reference data sets for applications and specific user requirements analysis methodologies need to be addressed to allow agricultural modeling to enter in the big data era. This will enable much higher analytical capacities and the integrated use of new data sources. Overall agricultural systems modeling needs to rapidly adopt and absorb state-of-the-art data and ICT technologies with a focus on the needs of beneficiaries and on facilitating those who develop applications of their models. This adoption requires the widespread uptake of a set of best practices as standard operating procedures.

  15. Strategies for resource management to improve agricultural productivity in Bariarpur Tal area of Bihar (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Upadhyaya, A.; Bhatnagar, P.R.; Gautam, U.S.; Singh, S.K.; Singh, S.R.

    2002-06-01

    Water logged Tal area is termed as the stretch of land having bowl shaped depressions inundated in monsoon season due to spill/overflow from rivers or runoff from upstream end. A team of Agricultural Scientists studied and suggested a suitable plan to the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India for improving the agricultural productivity of 40,000 hectares land lying between Ghoraghat and Bariarpur and Prasando to Khand Bihari in Munger district of Bihar, which lies in eastern India. These lands remain inundated with water from July till January. Tal lands in Bariarpur suffer due to stagnation of water during monsoon period and delay in drainage thereafter. This is a late winter mono-cropped area with very low productivity. Though the fertility status of soil is good, the quantity and quality of produce is poor. The canal network is also not efficient and other parts face drought. It is expected that the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India will take up the action plan as per the recommendations of expert scientists' team to mitigate the sufferings and misery of the farmers and rural population of the area. The team of scientists had investigated in detail the genesis of the problem and suggested the appropriate management strategies to improve the agricultural production in this area upon the instruction of the Hon'ble Union Agricultural Minister Mr. Nitish Kumar. A reputed Journalist and dedicated Social Worker Mr. Dinesh brought the unbelievable misery of the rural population to the attention of the Agricultural Minister. The sufferings of the farmers of Bariarpur tal area thus cannot be mitigated without the implementation of recommendations suggested in the scientific report. It seems that a financial crunch is coming in the way for such implementation. Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Water Resources, State Government, NGOs and Social Organizations should come forward to help the rural population otherwise the ray of hope for a better living

  16. Safeguarding production agriculture and natural ecosystems against biological terrorism. A U.S. Department of Agriculture emergency response framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, R

    1999-01-01

    Foreign pest introductions and outbreaks represent threats to agricultural productivity and ecosystems, and, thus, to the health and national security of the United States. It is advisable to identify relevant techniques and bring all appropriate strategies to bear on the problem of controlling accidentally and intentionally introduced pest outbreaks. Recent political shifts indicate that the U.S. may be at increased risk for biological terrorism. The existing emergency-response strategies of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) will evolve to expand activities in coordination with other emergency management agencies. APHIS will evolve its information superstructure to include extensive application of simulation models for forecasting, meteorological databases and analysis, systems analysis, geographic information systems, satellite image analysis, remote sensing, and the training of specialized cadres within the emergency-response framework capable of managing the necessary information processing and analysis. Finally, the threat of key pests ranked according to perceived risk will be assessed with mathematical models and "what-if" scenarios analyzed to determine impact and mitigation practices. An infrastructure will be maintained that periodically surveys ports and inland regions for the presence of exotic pest threats and will identify trend abnormalities. This survey and monitoring effort will include cooperation from industry groups, federal and state organizations, and academic institutions.

  17. The influence of facility agriculture production on phthalate esters distribution in black soils of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Pengjie; Wang, Lei; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Hui; Du, Na

    2015-02-15

    The current study investigates the existence of 15 phthalate esters (PAEs) in surface soils (27 samples) collected from 9 different facility agriculture sites in the black soil region of northeast China, during the process of agricultural production (comprising only three seasons spring, summer and autumn). Concentrations of the 15 PAEs detected significantly varied from spring to autumn and their values ranged from 1.37 to 4.90 mg/kg-dw, with a median value of 2.83 mg/kg-dw. The highest concentration of the 15 PAEs (4.90 mg/kg-dw) was determined in summer when mulching film was used in the greenhouses. Probably an increase in environmental temperature was a major reason for PAE transfer from the mulching film into the soil and coupled with the increased usage of chemical fertilizers in greenhouses. Results showed that of the 15 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were in abundance with the mean value of 1.12 ± 0.22, 0.46 ± 0.05, 0.36 ± 0.04, and 0.17 ± 0.01 mg/kg-dw, respectively; and their average contributions in spring, summer, and autumn ranged between 64.08 and 90.51% among the 15 PAEs. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated the concentration of these four main PAEs significantly differed among the facility agricultures investigated, during the process of agricultural production. In comparison with foreign and domestic results of previous researches, it is proved that the black soils of facility agriculture in northeast China show higher pollution situation comparing with non-facility agriculture soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning processes and productive modernization of learning in agriculture from northwestern Mexico: Cases of commercial agriculture of the coast of Hermosillo, Sonora and organic agriculture of the southern zone of Baja California Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Abel O. Villa Rodríguez; Álvaro Bracamonte Sierra

    2013-01-01

    The process of open markets has created import changes in the Mexican agriculture sector, very much noted in the so called crop pattern, the institutional frame that guides the agro–productive commercial relationships and trade organization. The agriculture in the Northwest region, particularly La Costa de Hermosillo in the State of Sonora and southern Baja in Baja Peninsula, shows a big transformation. This corresponds to Global Production Networks (gpn), a vertical integration with intensiv...

  19. Potential of biocellulose nanofibers production from agricultural renewable resources: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahman, Yaser; Jayasuriya, Kithsiri E; Kalis, Magdalina

    2010-11-01

    In the present preliminary study, we report results for the biocellulose nanofibres production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Production was examined by utilizing different feedstocks of single sugars and sugar mixtures with compositions similar to the acid hydrolyzates of different agriculture residues. Profiles for cell proliferation, sugar consumption, and the subsequent pH changes were thoroughly analyzed. Highest biocellulose production of 5.65 g/L was achieved in fructose medium with total sugar consumption of 95.57%. Moreover, the highest production using sugar mixtures was 5.2 g/L, which was achieved in feedstock with composition identical to the acid hydrolyzate of wheat straws. This represented the highest biocellulose yield of 17.72 g/g sugars compared with 14.77 g/g fructose. The lowest production of 1.1 and 1.75 g/L were obtained in xylose and glucose media, respectively, while sucrose and arabinose media achieved relatively higher production of 4.7 and 4.1 g/L, respectively. Deviation in pH of the fermentation broths from the optimum value of 4-5 generally had marked effect on biocellulose production with single sugars in feedstock. However, the final pH values recorded in the different sugar mixtures were approximately 3.3-3.4, which had lower effect on production hindrance. Analyzing profiles for sugars' concentrations and cell growth showed that large amount of the metabolized sugars were mainly utilized for bacterial cell growth and maintenance, rather than biocellulose production. This was clearly observed with single sugars of low production, while sugar consumption was rather utilized for biocellulose production with sugar mixtures. Results reported in this study demonstrate that agriculture residues might be used as potential feedstocks for the biocellulose nanofibres production. Not only this represents a renewable source of feedstock, but also might lead to major improvements in production if proper supplements and control were utilized in

  20. EVALUATION OF NUTRITIVE VALUE AND IN VITRO METHANE PRODUCTION OF FEEDSTUFFS FROM AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD INDUSTRY BY-PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the nutrient degradability, in vitro methane (CH4 production ofseveral agricultural and food industry by-products in relation to their chemical composition. Twenty-onesamples of 7 feedstuffs from agricultural and food industry by-products consisted of corn straw, potatostraw, rice straw, cocoa pod, sago waste, rice bran, soybean curd residue were evaluated by an in vitro gasproduction and nutrient degradability. The feedstuffs varied greatly in their crude protein (CP, neutraldetergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC contents. Crude protein ranged from 1.5 to 21.8%,NDF from 31.6 to 71.1% and NFC from 1.5 to 50.8%. Among the seven feedstuffs, soybean curd residuehad the highest CP content, on the other hand it had the lowest NDF content. Dry matter (DM and organicmatter (OM degradability were highest (P<0.01 in soybean curd residue among the feedstuffs. The CH4production was significantly higher (P<0.01 in rice straw, cocoa pod and corn straw as compared to sagowaste. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.60; P<0.01 between NDF concentration and CH4production. However, the total gas productions was negatively correlated (r = -0.75; P<0.01 with NDFcontent. The CH4 production of feedstuff is influenced by NDF content.

  1. Scientometric analysis of Colombian research on bio-inoculants for agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Corina Zambrano-Moreno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The excessive use of synthetic chemical inputs in agricultural production has led to the disruption of biogeochemical cycles. One of the alternatives that arose within the systems of sustainable agriculture was the partial or total replacement of chemicals by biological substances. The analysis of relevant scientific literature has become a tool for assessing the quality of knowledge generation and its impact on the environment. A scientometric analysis was conducted of Colombian research on bio-inoculants from 2009 through 2014 in journals added to the Web of SciencesTM in order to identify the characteristics of the main target crops, the microorganisms used, and the beneficial effects on agriculture. In this work, 34 articles were identified: 24 (71 % were research on bio-fertilizer development and 10 (29 % on bio-pesticides. Articles mainly focused on the study of Gram-negative bacilli affecting the area (77 %, while others focused on issues and topics surrounding vegetables (30 %.The analysis of co-occurrence of keywords identified: i several genera of microorganisms (e.g. Azotobacter sp., Bradyrhizobium sp. and sustainable agriculture as issues that have a leading role in this scientific field, ii plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR as an emerging issue, iii biological nitrogen fixation (BNF as a subject which has risen in a complementary manner and iv endophytic bacteria and biodiversity as issues in growth. This study showed that research in Colombia could be targeted on issues such as endophytic bacteria, diversity and productivity.

  2. Nutritional Sustainability: Aligning Priorities in Nutrition and Public Health with Agricultural Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John W; Dimick, Dennis; Marshall, Elizabeth; Nelson, Gerald Charles; Mein, Jonathan R; Gustafson, David I

    2017-09-01

    Nutrition science-based dietary advice urges changes that may have a great impact on agricultural systems. For example, the 2016 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends greatly increased fruit and vegetable consumption, but the present domestic production is insufficient to accommodate large-scale adoption of these guidelines. Increasing production to the extent needed to meet the DGA will necessitate changes in an already stressed agriculture and food system and will require nutrition and agriculture professionals to come together in open and collegial discourse. All involved need to understand the stress placed on the food system by increasing populations, changing diets, and changing environments, and recognize the major diet-based public health challenges. Furthermore, there is a need to understand the intricate interplay of the myriad parts of the food system and the vast amount of work necessary to make even small changes. New systems approaches are needed, especially at the research level, where nutrition, public health, agriculture, and the food industry work together to solve interconnected problems. Future well-being depends on a sustainable food system that continues to deliver optimal health with minimal impact on the environment. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Optimal use of agrometeorological information for sustainable agricultural production in semi-arid regions of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surender, S.; Diwan, S.; Rao, V.U.M.

    2006-05-01

    The concept of sustainable agriculture encompasses ecological, economic and social problems in which weather and climate can be of great importance. Despite considerable technological advancement and improved irrigation facilities, Indian farmers are still dependent on seasonal rains, which are highly variable both in time and space. Inclement weather events like droughts, floods, cold and heat waves, hails, squalls, tropical storms severely affect the agricultural production. Their harmful effects may be partially reduced if the occurrence of these events is predicted in advance and farmers are suitably advised to take preventive/corrective measures. With the objective to help the farmers maximize profits by decreasing weather related losses, increasing the timeliness of farm operations and to reduce environmental pollution through the optimal use of agricultural chemicals, the location specific/regional Agrometeorological Advisory Service was initiated in the year 1991. The forecasting skills of most of the weather parameters at Hisar have improved considerably over the years. Now, it is time to integrate and make use of vast agrometeorological information available online in preparing weather based advisories for in-season agricultural operations both for single locations and on a meso or regional scale as desired. This can be further strengthened through input from new technologies such as neural network, remote sensing, GIS, ground measurements and modeling applications along with traditional wisdom available with the farming communities should be integrated to further strengthen the location specific weather forecasting system for the development of sustainable and more efficient crop production systems. (author)

  4. Technical assessment of synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from agriculture residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guohui; Feng, Fei; Xiao, Jun; Shen, Laihong

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents thermodynamic evaluations of the agriculture residual-to-SNG process by thermochemical conversion, which mainly consists of the interconnected fluidized beds, hot gas cleaning, fluidized bed methanation reactor and Selexol absorption unit. The process was modeled using Aspen Plus software. The process performances, i.e., CH4 content in SNG, higher heating value and yield of SNG, exergy efficiencies with and without heat recovery, unit power consumption, were evaluated firstly. The results indicate that when the other parameters remain unchanged, the steam-to-biomass ratio at carbon boundary point is the optimal value for the process. Improving the preheating temperatures of air and gasifying agent is beneficial for the SNG yield and exergy efficiencies. Due to the effects of CO2 removal efficiency, there are two optimization objectives for the SNG production process: (I) to maximize CH4 content in SNG, or (II) to maximize SNG yield. Further, the comparison among different feedstocks indicates that the decreasing order of SNG yield is: corn stalk > wheat straw > rice straw. The evaluation on the potential of agriculture-based SNG shows that the potential annual production of agriculture residual-based SNG could be between 555×108 ˜ 611×108 m3 with utilization of 100% of the available unexplored resources. The agriculture residual-based SNG could play a significant role on solving the big shortfall of China's natural gas supply in future.

  5. Rethinking the history of modern agriculture: British pig production, c.1910-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a study of pig production in Britain, c.1910-65, to rethink the history of modern agriculture and its implications for human-animal relationships. Drawing on literature written by and for pig producers and experts, it challenges existing portrayals of a unidirectional, post-Second World War shift from traditional small-scale mixed farming to large, specialized, intensive systems. Rather, 'factory-style' pig production was already established in Britain by the 1930s, and its fortunes waxed and waned over time in relation to different kinds of outdoor production, which was still prominent in the mid-1960s. In revealing that the progressive proponents of both indoor and outdoor methods regarded them as modern and efficient, but defined and pursued these values in quite different ways, the article argues for a more historically situated understanding of agricultural modernity. Analysis reveals that regardless of their preferred production system, leading experts and producers were keen to develop what they considered to be natural methods that reflected the pig's natural needs and desires. They perceived pigs as active, sentient individuals, and believed that working in harmony with their natures was essential, even if this was, ultimately, for commercial ends. Such views contradict received accounts of modern farming as a utilitarian enterprise, concerned only with dominating and manipulating nature. They are used to argue that a romantic, moral view of the pig did not simply pre-date or emerge in opposition to modern agriculture, but, rather, was integral to it.

  6. Modeling Agricultural Crop Production in China using AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Kogan, F.; Guo, W.; Zhiyuan, P.; Xianfeng, J.

    Weather related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers On a wider scale it has always influenced decision of Governments traders and other policy makers for the purpose of balanced food supplies trade and distribution of aid to the nations in need Therefore national policy and decision makers are giving increasing importance to early assessment of crop losses in response to weather fluctuations This presentation emphasizes utility of AVHRR-based Vegetation health index VHI for early warning of drought-related losses of agricultural production in China The VHI is a three-channel index characterizing greenness vigor and temperature of land surface which can be used as proxy for estimation of how healthy and potentially productive could be vegetation China is the largest in the world producer of grain including wheat and rice and cotton In the major agricultural areas China s crop production is very dependent on weather The VHI being a proxy indicator of weather impact on vegetation showed some correlation with productivity of agricultural crops during the critical period of their development The periods of the strongest correlation were investigated and used to build regression models where crop yield deviation from technological trend was accepted as a dependent and VHI as independent variables The models were developed for several major crops including wheat corn and soybeans

  7. Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jin-He; Tian, Qing; Liu, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Lei

    2018-05-01

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Water and Land Limitations to Future Agricultural Production in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A. M.; Wimmer, F.; Schaldach, R.

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Middle East use a large fraction of their scarce water resources to produce cash crops, such as fruit and vegetables, for international markets. At the same time, these countries import large amounts of staple crops, such as cereals, required to meet the nutritional demand of their populations. This makes food security in the Middle East heavily dependent on world market prices for staple crops. Under these preconditions, increasing food demand due to population growth, urban expansion on fertile farmlands, and detrimental effects of a changing climate on the production of agricultural commodities present major challenges to countries in the Middle East that try to improve food security by increasing their self-sufficiency rate of staple crops.We applied the spatio-temporal land-use change model LandSHIFT.JR to simulate how an expansion of urban areas may affect the production of agricultural commodities in Jordan. We furthermore evaluated how climate change and changes in socio-economic conditions may influence crop production. The focus of our analysis was on potential future irrigated and rainfed production (crop yield and area demand) of fruit, vegetables, and cereals. Our simulation results show that the expansion of urban areas and the resulting displacement of agricultural areas does result in a slight decrease in crop yields. This leads to almost no additional irrigation water requirements due to the relocation of agricultural areas, i.e. there is the same amount of "crop per drop". However, taking into account projected changes in socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a large volume of water would be required for cereal production in order to safeguard current self-sufficiency rates for staple crops. Irrigation water requirements are expected to double until 2025 and to triple until 2050. Irrigated crop yields are projected to decrease by about 25%, whereas there is no decrease in rainfed crop yields to be expected.

  10. Biogas in organic agriculture-effects on productivity, energy self-sufficiency and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Olesen, Jørgen E; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    was obtained for all biogas scenarios, showing that biomass production for biogas on 10% of the farm area results in an energy surplus, provided that the heat from the electricity production is utilized. The energy surplus implies a displacement of fossil fuels and thereby reduced CO2 emission from the farm...... of anaerobic digestion and biogas production were analyzed on a 1000 ha model farm with combined dairy and cash crop production, representing organic agriculture in Denmark. The effects on crop rotation, nitrogen flows and losses, yield, energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were evaluated for four...... scenarios of biogas production on the farm. Animal manure was digested for biogas production in all scenarios and was supplemented with: (1) 100 ha grass–clover for biogas, (2) 100 ha maize for biogas, (3) 200 ha grass–clover for biogas and reduced number of livestock, and (4) 200 ha grass–clover for biogas...

  11. Nitrophenylboronic acids as highly chemoselective probes to detect hydrogen peroxide in foods and agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun-Ping; Lin, Chieh-Ti; Chang, Ching-Ming; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Lo, Lee-Chiang

    2011-11-09

    Hydrogen peroxide is commonly used in the food processing industry as a chlorine-free bleaching and sterilizing agent, but excessive amounts of residual hydrogen peroxide have led to cases of food poisoning. Here we describe the development of a novel nonenzymatic colorimetric method for the determination of residual hydrogen peroxide in foods and agricultural products. Nitrophenylboronic acids chemoselectively react with hydrogen peroxide under alkaline conditions to produce yellow nitrophenolates. Of the three nitrophenylboronic acid isomers tested, the p-isomer displayed the highest sensitivity for hydrogen peroxide and the fastest reaction kinetics. The reaction product, p-nitrophenolate, has an absorption maximum at 405 nm and a good linear correlation between the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the A(405) values was obtained. We successfully applied this convenient and rapid method for hydrogen peroxide determination to samples of dried bean curds and disposable chopsticks, thereby demonstrating its potential in foods and agricultural industries.

  12. Assessment of some trace elements certain egyptian agriculture products using Icp-Aes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Various types of egyptian agriculture products have been analyzed to determine the concentration levels of several essential and toxic trace elements. The elements that have been analyzed include, iron, copper, manganese, cobalt, nickel, lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and aluminum. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, (Icp-Aes) was used for such assessment in simultaneous way. The results proved that almost all investigated elements exist in all samples with different concentrations and not exceeding the acceptable human daily permissible dose. Meanwhile, these egyptian agriculture products, including antiqroms, vegetables and other foodstuff, are proved to be of a good indicator for pollution monitoring, not only, for the soil contamination, but also, from safety assessments point of view and the potential impacts of metals on human health

  13. On The Impact of Climate Change to Agricultural Productivity in East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswanto, Heri; Salamah, Mutiah; Mumpuni Retnaningsih, Sri; Dwi Prastyo, Dedy

    2018-03-01

    Many researches showed that climate change has significant impact on agricultural sector, which threats the food security especially in developing countries. It has been observed also that the climate change increases the intensity of extreme events. This research investigated the impact climate to the agricultural productivity in East Java, as one of the main rice producers in Indonesia. Standard regression as well as panel regression models have been performed in order to find the best model which is able to describe the climate change impact. The analysis found that the fixed effect model of panel regression outperforms the others showing that climate change had negatively impacted the rice productivity in East Java. The effect in Malang and Pasuruan were almost the same, while the impact in Sumenep was the least one compared to other districts.

  14. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  15. Conservation agriculture practices in rainfed uplands of India improve maize-based system productivity and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Pradhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift towards more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over three years (2011-2014 of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation i.e. minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e. conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  16. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011–2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize–cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  17. Assessment of Benefits of Conservation Agriculture on Soil Functions in Arable Production Systems in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bhim Bahadur Ghaley; Teodor Rusu; Taru Sandén; Heide Spiegel; Cristina Menta; Giovanna Visioli; Lilian O’Sullivan; Isabelle Trinsoutrot Gattin; Antonio Delgado; Mark A. Liebig; Dirk Vrebos; Tamas Szegi; Erika Michéli; Horia Cacovean; Christian Bugge Henriksen

    2018-01-01

    Conventional farming (CONV) is the norm in European farming, causing adverse effects on some of the five major soil functions, viz. primary productivity, carbon sequestration and regulation, nutrient cycling and provision, water regulation and purification, and habitat for functional and intrinsic biodiversity. Conservation agriculture (CA) is an alternative to enhance soil functions. However, there is no analysis of CA benefits on the five soil functions as most studies addressed individual ...

  18. Agricultural Production Monitoring in the Sahel Using Remote Sensing: Present Possibilities and Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    WOFOST (van Diepen et al., 1989) is a powerful and flexible numerical simulation model of crop growth which integrates physical and agronomic information...growth models is discussed and some research needs are identified. It is argued that the quantitative assessment of agricultural production in the Sahel...should be based on the integration of remotely-sensed data with semi-deterministic agrometeorological models . This approach will allow a

  19. The Impact of Mechanization on Agricultural Production in Selected Villages of Nueva Ecija

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Dermot

    1985-01-01

    This article is part of the seminar-workshop on the “Consequences of Small Farm Mechanization on Production, Employment and Incomes in the Philippines” sponsored jointly by the Ministry of Agriculture, the National Economic and Development Authority, the Philippine Institute for Development Studies and the International Rice Research Institute held on December 1-2, 1983 at Tagaytay City. It investigates the differences in yield, inputs and cropping intensity for alternative mechanization clas...

  20. Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beusen, A. H. W.; Bouwman, A. F.; Heuberger, P. S. C.; Van Drecht, G.; Van Der Hoek, K. W.

    Here we present an uncertainty analysis of NH 3 emissions from agricultural production systems based on a global NH 3 emission inventory with a 5×5 min resolution. Of all results the mean is given with a range (10% and 90% percentile). The uncertainty range for the global NH 3 emission from agricultural systems is 27-38 (with a mean of 32) Tg NH 3-N yr -1, N fertilizer use contributing 10-12 (11) Tg yr -1 and livestock production 16-27 (21) Tg yr -1. Most of the emissions from livestock production come from animal houses and storage systems (31-55%); smaller contributions come from the spreading of animal manure (23-38%) and grazing animals (17-37%). This uncertainty analysis allows for identifying and improving those input parameters with a major influence on the results. The most important determinants of the uncertainty related to the global agricultural NH 3 emission comprise four parameters (N excretion rates, NH 3 emission rates for manure in animal houses and storage, the fraction of the time that ruminants graze and the fraction of non-agricultural use of manure) specific to mixed and landless systems, and total animal stocks. Nitrogen excretion rates and NH 3 emission rates from animal houses and storage systems are shown consistently to be the most important parameters in most parts of the world. Input parameters for pastoral systems are less relevant. However, there are clear differences between world regions and individual countries, reflecting the differences in livestock production systems.